path: root/Documentation
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authorJunio C Hamano <>2006-11-08 00:33:59 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <>2006-11-08 00:33:59 (GMT)
commit24ad8e0ce23d08d28a5d664ab6164b10125146ce (patch)
treeedcba1269b22d79a04558b83f47617f3ecc2acd0 /Documentation
parent231f240b63bd6cb1313e8952448b3d5b9d2fdf26 (diff)
parent7bd9641df5b7cca91b21bfdc587962c59700786c (diff)
Merge branch 'jc/pickaxe'
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
3 files changed, 175 insertions, 3 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pickaxe.txt b/Documentation/git-pickaxe.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c08fdec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-pickaxe.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,162 @@
+git-pickaxe - Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file
+'git-pickaxe' [-c] [-l] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-p] [-L n,m] [-S <revs-file>]
+ [-M] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>] [<rev>] [--] <file>
+Annotates each line in the given file with information from the revision which
+last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating from the given revision.
+Also it can limit the range of lines annotated.
+This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
+replaced; you need to use a tool such as gitlink:git-diff[1] or the "pickaxe"
+interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
+Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
+development history for when a code snippet occured in a change. This makes it
+possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
+between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
+a text string in the diff. A small example:
+$ git log --pretty=oneline -S'blame_usage'
+5040f17eba15504bad66b14a645bddd9b015ebb7 blame -S <ancestry-file>
+ea4c7f9bf69e781dd0cd88d2bccb2bf5cc15c9a7 git-blame: Make the output
+-c, --compatibility::
+ Use the same output mode as gitlink:git-annotate[1] (Default: off).
+-L n,m::
+ Annotate only the specified line range (lines count from 1).
+-l, --long::
+ Show long rev (Default: off).
+-t, --time::
+ Show raw timestamp (Default: off).
+-S, --rev-file <revs-file>::
+ Use revs from revs-file instead of calling gitlink:git-rev-list[1].
+-f, --show-name::
+ Show filename in the original commit. By default
+ filename is shown if there is any line that came from a
+ file with different name, due to rename detection.
+-n, --show-number::
+ Show line number in the original commit (Default: off).
+-p, --porcelain::
+ Show in a format designed for machine consumption.
+ Detect moving lines in the file as well. When a commit
+ moves a block of lines in a file (e.g. the original file
+ has A and then B, and the commit changes it to B and
+ then A), traditional 'blame' algorithm typically blames
+ the lines that were moved up (i.e. B) to the parent and
+ assigns blame to the lines that were moved down (i.e. A)
+ to the child commit. With this option, both groups of
+ lines are blamed on the parent.
+ In addition to `-M`, detect lines copied from other
+ files that were modified in the same commit. This is
+ useful when you reorganize your program and move code
+ around across files. When this option is given twice,
+ the command looks for copies from all other files in the
+ parent for the commit that creates the file in addition.
+-h, --help::
+ Show help message.
+In this format, each line is output after a header; the
+header at the minumum has the first line which has:
+- 40-byte SHA-1 of the commit the line is attributed to;
+- the line number of the line in the original file;
+- the line number of the line in the final file;
+- on a line that starts a group of line from a different
+ commit than the previous one, the number of lines in this
+ group. On subsequent lines this field is absent.
+This header line is followed by the following information
+at least once for each commit:
+- author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
+ ("author-time"), and timezone ("author-tz"); similarly
+ for committer.
+- filename in the commit the line is attributed to.
+- the first line of the commit log message ("summary").
+The contents of the actual line is output after the above
+header, prefixed by a TAB. This is to allow adding more
+header elements later.
+Unlike `git-blame` and `git-annotate` in older git, the extent
+of annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
+ranges. When you are interested in finding the origin for
+ll. 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use `-L` option like this:
+ git pickaxe -L 40,60 foo
+When you are not interested in changes older than the version
+v2.6.18, or changes older than 3 weeks, you can use revision
+range specifiers similar to `git-rev-list`:
+ git pickaxe v2.6.18.. -- foo
+ git pickaxe --since=3.weeks -- foo
+When revision range specifiers are used to limit the annotation,
+lines that have not changed since the range boundary (either the
+commit v2.6.18 or the most recent commit that is more than 3
+weeks old in the above example) are blamed for that range
+boundary commit.
+A particularly useful way is to see if an added file have lines
+created by copy-and-paste from existing files. Sometimes this
+indicates that the developer was being sloppy and did not
+refactor the code properly. You can first find the commit that
+introduced the file with:
+ git log --diff-filter=A --pretty=short -- foo
+and then annotate the change between the commit and its
+parents, using `commit{caret}!` notation:
+ git pickaxe -C -C -f $commit^! -- foo
+Written by Junio C Hamano <>
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index ed938aa..4eaf5a0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -239,14 +239,21 @@ of `r1` and `r2` and is defined as
It it the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
`r1` or `r2` but not from both.
-Here are a few examples:
+Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit
+and its parent commits exists. `r1{caret}@` notation means all
+parents of `r1`. `r1{caret}!` includes commit `r1` but excludes
+its all parents.
+Here are a handful examples:
- ^A G B D
+ ^A G B D
^A F B C F
G...I C D F G I
- ^B G I C D F G I
+ ^B G I C D F G I
+ F^@ A B C
+ F^! H D F H
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 4ce4f8d..4facf23 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -254,6 +254,9 @@ gitlink:git-annotate[1]::
Blame file lines on commits.
+ Find out where each line in a file came from.
Make sure ref name is well formed.