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gitattributes(5)
================
 
NAME
----
gitattributes - defining attributes per path
 
SYNOPSIS
--------
$GIT_DIR/info/attributes, .gitattributes
 
 
DESCRIPTION
-----------
 
A `gitattributes` file is a simple text file that gives
`attributes` to pathnames.
 
Each line in `gitattributes` file is of form:
 
	glob	attr1 attr2 ...
 
That is, a glob pattern followed by an attributes list,
separated by whitespaces.  When the glob pattern matches the
path in question, the attributes listed on the line are given to
the path.
 
Each attribute can be in one of these states for a given path:
 
Set::
 
	The path has the attribute with special value "true";
	this is specified by listing only the name of the
	attribute in the attribute list.
 
Unset::
 
	The path has the attribute with special value "false";
	this is specified by listing the name of the attribute
	prefixed with a dash `-` in the attribute list.
 
Set to a value::
 
	The path has the attribute with specified string value;
	this is specified by listing the name of the attribute
	followed by an equal sign `=` and its value in the
	attribute list.
 
Unspecified::
 
	No glob pattern matches the path, and nothing says if
	the path has or does not have the attribute, the
	attribute for the path is said to be Unspecified.
 
When more than one glob pattern matches the path, a later line
overrides an earlier line.  This overriding is done per
attribute.
 
When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, git
consults `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file (which has the highest
precedence), `.gitattributes` file in the same directory as the
path in question, and its parent directories (the further the
directory that contains `.gitattributes` is from the path in
question, the lower its precedence).
 
If you wish to affect only a single repository (i.e., to assign
attributes to files that are particular to one user's workflow), then
attributes should be placed in the `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file.
Attributes which should be version-controlled and distributed to other
repositories (i.e., attributes of interest to all users) should go into
`.gitattributes` files.
 
Sometimes you would need to override an setting of an attribute
for a path to `unspecified` state.  This can be done by listing
the name of the attribute prefixed with an exclamation point `!`.
 
 
EFFECTS
-------
 
Certain operations by git can be influenced by assigning
particular attributes to a path.  Currently, the following
operations are attributes-aware.
 
Checking-out and checking-in
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
These attributes affect how the contents stored in the
repository are copied to the working tree files when commands
such as 'git-checkout' and 'git-merge' run.  They also affect how
git stores the contents you prepare in the working tree in the
repository upon 'git-add' and 'git-commit'.
 
`crlf`
^^^^^^
 
This attribute controls the line-ending convention.
 
Set::
 
	Setting the `crlf` attribute on a path is meant to mark
	the path as a "text" file.  'core.autocrlf' conversion
	takes place without guessing the content type by
	inspection.
 
Unset::
 
	Unsetting the `crlf` attribute on a path tells git not to
	attempt any end-of-line conversion upon checkin or checkout.
 
Unspecified::
 
	Unspecified `crlf` attribute tells git to apply the
	`core.autocrlf` conversion when the file content looks
	like text.
 
Set to string value "input"::
 
	This is similar to setting the attribute to `true`, but
	also forces git to act as if `core.autocrlf` is set to
	`input` for the path.
 
Any other value set to `crlf` attribute is ignored and git acts
as if the attribute is left unspecified.
 
 
The `core.autocrlf` conversion
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
If the configuration variable `core.autocrlf` is false, no
conversion is done.
 
When `core.autocrlf` is true, it means that the platform wants
CRLF line endings for files in the working tree, and you want to
convert them back to the normal LF line endings when checking
in to the repository.
 
When `core.autocrlf` is set to "input", line endings are
converted to LF upon checkin, but there is no conversion done
upon checkout.
 
If `core.safecrlf` is set to "true" or "warn", git verifies if
the conversion is reversible for the current setting of
`core.autocrlf`.  For "true", git rejects irreversible
conversions; for "warn", git only prints a warning but accepts
an irreversible conversion.  The safety triggers to prevent such
a conversion done to the files in the work tree, but there are a
few exceptions.  Even though...
 
- 'git-add' itself does not touch the files in the work tree, the
  next checkout would, so the safety triggers;
 
- 'git-apply' to update a text file with a patch does touch the files
  in the work tree, but the operation is about text files and CRLF
  conversion is about fixing the line ending inconsistencies, so the
  safety does not trigger;
 
- 'git-diff' itself does not touch the files in the work tree, it is
  often run to inspect the changes you intend to next 'git-add'.  To
  catch potential problems early, safety triggers.
 
 
`ident`
^^^^^^^
 
When the attribute `ident` is set to a path, git replaces
`$Id$` in the blob object with `$Id:`, followed by
40-character hexadecimal blob object name, followed by a dollar
sign `$` upon checkout.  Any byte sequence that begins with
`$Id:` and ends with `$` in the worktree file is replaced
with `$Id$` upon check-in.
 
 
`filter`
^^^^^^^^
 
A `filter` attribute can be set to a string value that names a
filter driver specified in the configuration.
 
A filter driver consists of a `clean` command and a `smudge`
command, either of which can be left unspecified.  Upon
checkout, when the `smudge` command is specified, the command is
fed the blob object from its standard input, and its standard
output is used to update the worktree file.  Similarly, the
`clean` command is used to convert the contents of worktree file
upon checkin.
 
A missing filter driver definition in the config is not an error
but makes the filter a no-op passthru.
 
The content filtering is done to massage the content into a
shape that is more convenient for the platform, filesystem, and
the user to use.  The key phrase here is "more convenient" and not
"turning something unusable into usable".  In other words, the
intent is that if someone unsets the filter driver definition,
or does not have the appropriate filter program, the project
should still be usable.
 
 
Interaction between checkin/checkout attributes
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
In the check-in codepath, the worktree file is first converted
with `filter` driver (if specified and corresponding driver
defined), then the result is processed with `ident` (if
specified), and then finally with `crlf` (again, if specified
and applicable).
 
In the check-out codepath, the blob content is first converted
with `crlf`, and then `ident` and fed to `filter`.
 
 
Generating diff text
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
The attribute `diff` affects if 'git-diff' generates textual
patch for the path or just says `Binary files differ`.  It also
can affect what line is shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@`
line.
 
Set::
 
	A path to which the `diff` attribute is set is treated
	as text, even when they contain byte values that
	normally never appear in text files, such as NUL.
 
Unset::
 
	A path to which the `diff` attribute is unset will
	generate `Binary files differ`.
 
Unspecified::
 
	A path to which the `diff` attribute is unspecified
	first gets its contents inspected, and if it looks like
	text, it is treated as text.  Otherwise it would
	generate `Binary files differ`.
 
String::
 
	Diff is shown using the specified custom diff driver.
	The driver program is given its input using the same
	calling convention as used for GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
	program.  This name is also used for custom hunk header
	selection.
 
 
Defining a custom diff driver
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
The definition of a diff driver is done in `gitconfig`, not
`gitattributes` file, so strictly speaking this manual page is a
wrong place to talk about it.  However...
 
To define a custom diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
`$GIT_DIR/config` file (or `$HOME/.gitconfig` file) like this:
 
----------------------------------------------------------------
[diff "jcdiff"]
	command = j-c-diff
----------------------------------------------------------------
 
When git needs to show you a diff for the path with `diff`
attribute set to `jcdiff`, it calls the command you specified
with the above configuration, i.e. `j-c-diff`, with 7
parameters, just like `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` program is called.
See linkgit:git[1] for details.
 
 
Defining a custom hunk-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
Each group of changes (called "hunk") in the textual diff output
is prefixed with a line of the form:
 
	@@ -k,l +n,m @@ TEXT
 
The text is called 'hunk header', and by default a line that
begins with an alphabet, an underscore or a dollar sign is used,
which matches what GNU 'diff -p' output uses.  This default
selection however is not suited for some contents, and you can
use customized pattern to make a selection.
 
First in .gitattributes, you would assign the `diff` attribute
for paths.
 
------------------------
*.tex	diff=tex
------------------------
 
Then, you would define "diff.tex.xfuncname" configuration to
specify a regular expression that matches a line that you would
want to appear as the hunk header, like this:
 
------------------------
[diff "tex"]
	xfuncname = "^(\\\\(sub)*section\\{.*)$"
------------------------
 
Note.  A single level of backslashes are eaten by the
configuration file parser, so you would need to double the
backslashes; the pattern above picks a line that begins with a
backslash, and zero or more occurrences of `sub` followed by
`section` followed by open brace, to the end of line.
 
There are a few built-in patterns to make this easier, and `tex`
is one of them, so you do not have to write the above in your
configuration file (you still need to enable this with the
attribute mechanism, via `.gitattributes`).  The following built in
patterns are available:
 
- `bibtex` suitable for files with BibTeX coded references.
 
- `html` suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.
 
- `java` suitable for source code in the Java language.
 
- `pascal` suitable for source code in the Pascal/Delphi language.
 
- `php` suitable for source code in the PHP language.
 
- `python` suitable for source code in the Python language.
 
- `ruby` suitable for source code in the Ruby language.
 
- `tex` suitable for source code for LaTeX documents.
 
 
Performing a three-way merge
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
The attribute `merge` affects how three versions of a file is
merged when a file-level merge is necessary during `git merge`,
and other programs such as `git revert` and `git cherry-pick`.
 
Set::
 
	Built-in 3-way merge driver is used to merge the
	contents in a way similar to 'merge' command of `RCS`
	suite.  This is suitable for ordinary text files.
 
Unset::
 
	Take the version from the current branch as the
	tentative merge result, and declare that the merge has
	conflicts.  This is suitable for binary files that does
	not have a well-defined merge semantics.
 
Unspecified::
 
	By default, this uses the same built-in 3-way merge
	driver as is the case the `merge` attribute is set.
	However, `merge.default` configuration variable can name
	different merge driver to be used for paths to which the
	`merge` attribute is unspecified.
 
String::
 
	3-way merge is performed using the specified custom
	merge driver.  The built-in 3-way merge driver can be
	explicitly specified by asking for "text" driver; the
	built-in "take the current branch" driver can be
	requested with "binary".
 
 
Built-in merge drivers
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
There are a few built-in low-level merge drivers defined that
can be asked for via the `merge` attribute.
 
text::
 
	Usual 3-way file level merge for text files.  Conflicted
	regions are marked with conflict markers `<<<<<<<`,
	`=======` and `>>>>>>>`.  The version from your branch
	appears before the `=======` marker, and the version
	from the merged branch appears after the `=======`
	marker.
 
binary::
 
	Keep the version from your branch in the work tree, but
	leave the path in the conflicted state for the user to
	sort out.
 
union::
 
	Run 3-way file level merge for text files, but take
	lines from both versions, instead of leaving conflict
	markers.  This tends to leave the added lines in the
	resulting file in random order and the user should
	verify the result. Do not use this if you do not
	understand the implications.
 
 
Defining a custom merge driver
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
The definition of a merge driver is done in the `.git/config`
file, not in the `gitattributes` file, so strictly speaking this
manual page is a wrong place to talk about it.  However...
 
To define a custom merge driver `filfre`, add a section to your
`$GIT_DIR/config` file (or `$HOME/.gitconfig` file) like this:
 
----------------------------------------------------------------
[merge "filfre"]
	name = feel-free merge driver
	driver = filfre %O %A %B
	recursive = binary
----------------------------------------------------------------
 
The `merge.*.name` variable gives the driver a human-readable
name.
 
The `merge.*.driver` variable's value is used to construct a
command to run to merge ancestor's version (`%O`), current
version (`%A`) and the other branches' version (`%B`).  These
three tokens are replaced with the names of temporary files that
hold the contents of these versions when the command line is
built.
 
The merge driver is expected to leave the result of the merge in
the file named with `%A` by overwriting it, and exit with zero
status if it managed to merge them cleanly, or non-zero if there
were conflicts.
 
The `merge.*.recursive` variable specifies what other merge
driver to use when the merge driver is called for an internal
merge between common ancestors, when there are more than one.
When left unspecified, the driver itself is used for both
internal merge and the final merge.
 
 
Checking whitespace errors
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
`whitespace`
^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
The `core.whitespace` configuration variable allows you to define what
'diff' and 'apply' should consider whitespace errors for all paths in
the project (See linkgit:git-config[1]).  This attribute gives you finer
control per path.
 
Set::
 
	Notice all types of potential whitespace errors known to git.
 
Unset::
 
	Do not notice anything as error.
 
Unspecified::
 
	Use the value of `core.whitespace` configuration variable to
	decide what to notice as error.
 
String::
 
	Specify a comma separate list of common whitespace problems to
	notice in the same format as `core.whitespace` configuration
	variable.
 
 
Creating an archive
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
`export-ignore`
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
Files and directories with the attribute `export-ignore` won't be added to
archive files.
 
`export-subst`
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
 
If the attribute `export-subst` is set for a file then git will expand
several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.  The
expansion depends on the availability of a commit ID, i.e., if
linkgit:git-archive[1] has been given a tree instead of a commit or a
tag then no replacement will be done.  The placeholders are the same
as those for the option `--pretty=format:` of linkgit:git-log[1],
except that they need to be wrapped like this: `$Format:PLACEHOLDERS$`
in the file.  E.g. the string `$Format:%H$` will be replaced by the
commit hash.
 
 
USING ATTRIBUTE MACROS
----------------------
 
You do not want any end-of-line conversions applied to, nor textual diffs
produced for, any binary file you track.  You would need to specify e.g.
 
------------
*.jpg -crlf -diff
------------
 
but that may become cumbersome, when you have many attributes.  Using
attribute macros, you can specify groups of attributes set or unset at
the same time.  The system knows a built-in attribute macro, `binary`:
 
------------
*.jpg binary
------------
 
which is equivalent to the above.  Note that the attribute macros can only
be "Set" (see the above example that sets "binary" macro as if it were an
ordinary attribute --- setting it in turn unsets "crlf" and "diff").
 
 
DEFINING ATTRIBUTE MACROS
-------------------------
 
Custom attribute macros can be defined only in the `.gitattributes` file
at the toplevel (i.e. not in any subdirectory).  The built-in attribute
macro "binary" is equivalent to:
 
------------
[attr]binary -diff -crlf
------------
 
 
EXAMPLE
-------
 
If you have these three `gitattributes` file:
 
----------------------------------------------------------------
(in $GIT_DIR/info/attributes)
 
a*	foo !bar -baz
 
(in .gitattributes)
abc	foo bar baz
 
(in t/.gitattributes)
ab*	merge=filfre
abc	-foo -bar
*.c	frotz
----------------------------------------------------------------
 
the attributes given to path `t/abc` are computed as follows:
 
1. By examining `t/.gitattributes` (which is in the same
   directory as the path in question), git finds that the first
   line matches.  `merge` attribute is set.  It also finds that
   the second line matches, and attributes `foo` and `bar`
   are unset.
 
2. Then it examines `.gitattributes` (which is in the parent
   directory), and finds that the first line matches, but
   `t/.gitattributes` file already decided how `merge`, `foo`
   and `bar` attributes should be given to this path, so it
   leaves `foo` and `bar` unset.  Attribute `baz` is set.
 
3. Finally it examines `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes`.  This file
   is used to override the in-tree settings.  The first line is
   a match, and `foo` is set, `bar` is reverted to unspecified
   state, and `baz` is unset.
 
As the result, the attributes assignment to `t/abc` becomes:
 
----------------------------------------------------------------
foo	set to true
bar	unspecified
baz	set to false
merge	set to string value "filfre"
frotz	unspecified
----------------------------------------------------------------
 
 
 
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite