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Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
===================================
 
GIT suite has over 100 commands, and the manual page for each of
them discusses what the command does and how it is used in
detail, but until you know what command should be used in order
to achieve what you want to do, you cannot tell which manual
page to look at, and if you know that already you do not need
the manual.
 
Does that mean you need to know all of them before you can use
git?  Not at all.  Depending on the role you play, the set of
commands you need to know is slightly different, but in any case
what you need to learn is far smaller than the full set of
commands to carry out your day-to-day work.  This document is to
serve as a cheat-sheet and a set of pointers for people playing
various roles.
 
<<Basic Repository>> commands are needed by people who has a
repository --- that is everybody, because every working tree of
git is a repository.
 
In addition, <<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are
essential for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who
works alone.
 
If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
<<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
 
People who play <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
commands in addition to the above.
 
<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
administrators who are responsible to care and feed git
repositories to support developers.
 
 
Basic Repository[[Basic Repository]]
------------------------------------
 
Everybody uses these commands to feed and care git repositories.
 
  * gitlink:git-init-db[1] or gitlink:git-clone[1] to create a
    new repository.
 
  * gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1] to validate the repository.
 
  * gitlink:git-prune[1] to garbage collect crufts in the
    repository.
 
  * gitlink:git-repack[1] to pack loose objects for efficiency.
 
Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
----------------------------------------------------------------------
 
A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
other poeple, and works alone in a single repository, using the
following commands.
 
  * gitlink:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
 
  * gitlink:git-log[1] to see what happened.
 
  * gitlink:git-whatchanged[1] to find out where things have
    come from.
 
  * gitlink:git-checkout[1] and gitlink:git-branch[1] to switch
    branches.
 
  * gitlink:git-add[1] and gitlink:git-update-index[1] to manage
    the index file.
 
  * gitlink:git-diff[1] and gitlink:git-status[1] to see what
    you are in the middle of doing.
 
  * gitlink:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
 
  * gitlink:git-reset[1] and gitlink:git-checkout[1] (with
    pathname parameters) to undo changes.
 
  * gitlink:git-pull[1] with "." as the remote to merge between
    local branches.
 
  * gitlink:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
 
  * gitlink:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
 
Examples
~~~~~~~~
 
* Extract a tarball and create a working tree and a new repository to keep track of it.
------------
$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
$ cd frotz
$ git-init-db
$ git add . <1>
$ git commit -m 'import of frotz source tree.'
$ git tag v2.43 <2>
 
<1> add everything under the current directory.
<2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
------------
 
* Create a topic branch and develop
------------
$ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
$ edit/compile/test
$ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
$ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
$ edit/compile/test
$ git diff <4>
$ git commit -a -s <5>
$ edit/compile/test
$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
$ edit/compile/test
$ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
$ git checkout master <9>
$ git pull . alsa-audio <10>
$ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
 
<1> create a new topic branch.
<2> revert your botched changes in "curses/ux_audio_oss.c".
<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
modification will be caught if you do "commit -a" later.
<4> to see what changes you are committing.
<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
<6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
<7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
<8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
you originally wrote.
<9> switch to the master branch.
<10> merge a topic branch into your master branch
<11> or --since='aug 1', --max-count=10
<12> view only the changes that touch what's in curses/
directory, since v2.43 tag.
------------
 
 
Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
 
  * gitlink:git-pull[1] from "origin" to keep up-to-date with
    the upstream.
 
  * gitlink:git-push[1] to shared repository if you adopt CVS
    style shared repository workflow.
 
  * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
    you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
 
 
Examples
~~~~~~~~
 
* Clone the upstream and work on it.  Feed changes to upstream.
------------
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
$ cd my2.6
$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
$ git format-patch master <2>
$ git pull <3>
$ git whatchanged -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
$ git prune <7>
 
<1> repeat as needed.
<2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
<3> "pull" fetches from "origin" by default and merges.
<4> look at the changes since last time we checked, only in the
area we are interested in.
<5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and and merge.
<6> revert the pull.
<7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
------------
 
* Branch off of a specific tag.
------------
$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
$ git checkout master
$ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
  git am -3 -k <2>
 
<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
tag.
<2> forward port all changes in private2.6.14 branch to master branch
without a formal "merging".
------------
 
 
Integrator[[Integrator]]
------------------------
 
A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
 
  * gitlink:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
    contributors.
 
  * gitlink:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
 
  * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
    alternative to contributors.
 
  * gitlink:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
 
  * gitlink:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
 
 
Examples
~~~~~~~~
 
* My typical GIT day.
------------
$ git status <1>
$ git show-branch <2>
$ mailx <3>
& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
& q
$ git checkout master
$ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
$ compile/test
$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard master <6>
$ git pull . topic/one topic/two && git pull . hold/linus <7>
$ git fetch ko master:refs/tags/ko-master &&
  git show-branch master ko-master <8>
$ git push ko <9>
$ git checkout maint
$ git cherry-pick master~4 <10>
$ compile/test
$ git tag -s -m 'GIT 0.99.9x' v0.99.9x <11>
$ git push ko v0.99.9x <12>
 
<1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
<2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
they are.
<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
that are not quite ready.
<4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
sign-offs. 
<6> restart "pu" every time from the master.
<7> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
<8> make sure I did not accidentally rewound master beyond what I
already pushed out.
<9> push out the bleeding edge.
<10> backport a critical fix.
<11> create a signed tag.
<12> push the tag out.
------------
 
 
Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
------------------------------------------------------
 
A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
and maintain access to the repository by developers.
 
  * gitlink:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
    repository.
 
  * gitlink:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
    for shared central repository users.
 
  * link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a
    good example of managing a shared central repository.