path: root/pack-objects.h
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2020-02-24pack-objects: convert oe_set_delta_ext() to use object_idJeff King
We already store an object_id internally, and now our sole caller also has one. Let's stop passing around the internal hash array, which adds a bit of type safety. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-12-01Merge branch 'jk/optim-in-pack-idx-conversion'Junio C Hamano
Code clean-up. * jk/optim-in-pack-idx-conversion: pack-objects: avoid pointless oe_map_new_pack() calls
2019-11-12pack-objects: avoid pointless oe_map_new_pack() callsJeff King
This patch fixes an extreme slowdown in pack-objects when you have more than 1023 packs. See below for numbers. Since 43fa44fa3b (pack-objects: move in_pack out of struct object_entry, 2018-04-14), we use a complicated system to save some per-object memory. Each object_entry structs gets a 10-bit field to store the index of the pack it's in. We map those indices into pointers using packing_data->in_pack_by_idx, which we initialize at the start of the program. If we have 2^10 or more packs, then we instead create an array of pack pointers, one per object. This is packing_data->in_pack. So far so good. But there's one other tricky case: if a new pack arrives after we've initialized in_pack_by_idx, it won't have an index yet. We solve that by calling oe_map_new_pack(), which just switches on the fly to the less-optimal in_pack mechanism, allocating the array and back-filling it for already-seen objects. But that logic kicks in even when we've switched to it already (whether because we really did see a new pack, or because we had too many packs in the first place). The result doesn't produce a wrong outcome, but it's very slow. What happens is this: - imagine you have a repo with 500k objects and 2000 packs that you want to repack. - before looking at any objects, we call prepare_in_pack_by_idx(). It starts allocating an index for each pack. On the 1024th pack, it sees there are too many, so it bails, leaving in_pack_by_idx as NULL. - while actually adding objects to the packing list, we call oe_set_in_pack(), which checks whether the pack already has an index. If it's one of the packs after the first 1023, then it doesn't have one, and we'll call oe_map_new_pack(). But there's no useful work for that function to do. We're already using in_pack, so it just uselessly walks over the complete list of objects, trying to backfill in_pack. And we end up doing this for almost 1000 packs (each of which may be triggered by more than one object). And each time it triggers, we may iterate over up to 500k objects. So in the absolute worst case, this is quadratic in the number of objects. The solution is simple: we don't need to bother checking whether the pack has an index if we've already converted to using in_pack, since by definition we're not going to use it. So we can just push the "does the pack have a valid index" check down into that half of the conditional, where we know we're going to use it. The current test in p5303 sadly doesn't notice this problem, since it maxes out at 1000 packs. If we add a new test to it at 2000 packs, it does show the improvement: Test HEAD^ HEAD ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 5303.12: repack (2000) 26.72(39.68+0.67) 15.70(28.70+0.66) -41.2% However, these many-pack test cases are rather expensive to run, so adding larger and larger numbers isn't appealing. Instead, we can show it off more easily by using GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY, which forces us into the absolute worst case: no pack has an index, so we'll trigger oe_map_new_pack() pointlessly for every single object, making it truly quadratic. Here are the numbers (on git.git) with the included change to p5303: Test HEAD^ HEAD ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 5303.3: rev-list (1) 2.05(1.98+0.06) 2.06(1.99+0.06) +0.5% 5303.4: repack (1) 33.45(33.46+0.19) 2.75(2.73+0.22) -91.8% 5303.6: rev-list (50) 2.07(2.01+0.06) 2.06(2.01+0.05) -0.5% 5303.7: repack (50) 34.21(35.18+0.16) 3.49(4.50+0.12) -89.8% 5303.9: rev-list (1000) 2.87(2.78+0.08) 2.88(2.80+0.07) +0.3% 5303.10: repack (1000) 41.26(51.30+0.47) 10.75(20.75+0.44) -73.9% Again, those improvements aren't realistic for the 1-pack case (because in the real world, the full-array solution doesn't kick in), but it's more useful to be testing the more-complicated code path. While we're looking at this issue, we'll tweak one more thing: in oe_map_new_pack(), we call REALLOC_ARRAY(pack->in_pack). But we'd never expect to get here unless we're back-filling it for the first time, in which case it would be NULL. So let's switch that to ALLOC_ARRAY() for clarity, and add a BUG() to document the expectation. Unfortunately this code isn't well-covered in the test suite because it's inherently racy (it only kicks in if somebody else adds a new pack while we're in the middle of repacking). Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Reviewed-by: Derrick Stolee <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-09-06pack-objects: drop packlist index_pos optimizationJeff King
Once upon a time, the code to add an object to our packing list in pack-objects all lived in a single function. It computed the position within the hash table once, then used it to check if the object was already present, and if not, to add it. Later, in 2834bc27c1 (pack-objects: refactor the packing list, 2013-10-24), this was split into two functions: packlist_find() and packlist_alloc(). We ended up with an "index_pos" variable that gets passed through several functions to make it from one to the other. The resulting code is rather confusing to follow. The "index_pos" variable is sometimes undefined, if we don't yet have a hash table. This works out in practice because in that case packlist_alloc() won't use it at all, since it will have to create/grow the hash table. But it's hard to verify that, and it does cause gcc 9.2.1's -Wmaybe-uninitialized to complain when compiled with "-flto -O3" (rightfully, since we do pass the uninitialized value as a function parameter, even if nobody ends up using it). All of this is to save computing the hash index again when we're inserting into the hash table, which I found doesn't make a measurable difference in the program runtime (which is not surprising, since we're doing all kinds of other heavyweight things for each object). Let's just drop this index_pos variable entirely, simplifying the code (and pleasing the compiler). We might be better still refactoring this custom hash table to use one of our existing implementations (an oidmap, or a kh_oid_map). I stopped short of that here, but this would be the likely first step towards that anyway. Reported-by: Stephan Beyer <> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-09-06pack-objects: use object_id in packlist_alloc()Jeff King
The only caller of packlist_alloc() already has a "struct object_id", and we immediately copy the hash they pass us into our own object_id. Let's avoid the unnecessary round-trip to a raw sha1 pointer. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-06-20pack-objects: convert packlist_find() to use object_idJeff King
We take a raw hash pointer, but most of our callers have a "struct object_id" already. Let's switch to taking the full struct, which will let us continue removing uses of raw sha1 buffers. There are two callers that do need special attention: - in rebuild_existing_bitmaps(), we need to switch to nth_packed_object_oid(). This incurs an extra hash copy over pointing straight to the mmap'd sha1, but it shouldn't be measurable compared to the rest of the operation. - in can_reuse_delta() we already spent the effort to copy the sha1 into a "struct object_id", but now we just have to do so a little earlier in the function (we can't easily convert that function's callers because they may be pointing at mmap'd REF_DELTA blocks). Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-02-14pack-objects: drop unused parameter from oe_map_new_pack()Jeff King
Since 43fa44fa3b (pack-objects: move in_pack out of struct object_entry, 2018-04-14), we store the source pack for each object as a small index rather than as a pointer. When we see a new pack that has no allocated index, we fall back to generating an array of pointers by calling oe_map_new_pack(). Perhaps counter-intuitively, that function does not need to actually see our new index-less pack. It only allocates and populates the array with the existing packs, after which oe_set_in_pack() actually adds the new pack to the array. Let's drop the unused "struct packed_git" argument to oe_map_new_pack() to avoid confusion. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-02-05Merge branch 'ph/pack-objects-mutex-fix'Junio C Hamano
"git pack-objects" incorrectly used uninitialized mutex, which has been corrected. * ph/pack-objects-mutex-fix: pack-objects: merge read_lock and lock in packing_data struct pack-objects: move read mutex to packing_data struct
2019-01-28pack-objects: merge read_lock and lock in packing_data structPatrick Hogg
Rename the packing_data lock to obd_lock and upgrade it to a recursive mutex to make it suitable for current read_lock usages. Additionally remove the superfluous #ifndef NO_PTHREADS guard around mutex initialization in prepare_packing_data as the mutex functions themselves are already protected. Signed-off-by: Patrick Hogg <> Helped-by: Junio C Hamano <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-01-28pack-objects: move read mutex to packing_data structPatrick Hogg
ac77d0c37 ("pack-objects: shrink size field in struct object_entry", 2018-04-14) added an extra usage of read_lock/read_unlock in the newly introduced oe_get_size_slow for thread safety in parallel calls to try_delta(). Unfortunately oe_get_size_slow is also used in serial code, some of which is called before the first invocation of ll_find_deltas. As such the read mutex is not guaranteed to be initialized. Resolve this by moving the read mutex to packing_data and initializing it in prepare_packing_data which is initialized in cmd_pack_objects. Signed-off-by: Patrick Hogg <> Reviewed-by: Duy Nguyen <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2019-01-04Merge branch 'nd/the-index'Junio C Hamano
More codepaths become aware of working with in-core repository instance other than the default "the_repository". * nd/the-index: (22 commits) rebase-interactive.c: remove the_repository references rerere.c: remove the_repository references pack-*.c: remove the_repository references pack-check.c: remove the_repository references notes-cache.c: remove the_repository references line-log.c: remove the_repository reference diff-lib.c: remove the_repository references delta-islands.c: remove the_repository references cache-tree.c: remove the_repository references bundle.c: remove the_repository references branch.c: remove the_repository reference bisect.c: remove the_repository reference blame.c: remove implicit dependency the_repository sequencer.c: remove implicit dependency on the_repository sequencer.c: remove implicit dependency on the_index transport.c: remove implicit dependency on the_index notes-merge.c: remove implicit dependency the_repository notes-merge.c: remove implicit dependency on the_index list-objects.c: reduce the_repository references list-objects-filter.c: remove implicit dependency on the_index ...
2018-11-21Merge branch 'cc/delta-islands'Junio C Hamano
A few issues in the implementation of "delta-islands" feature has been corrected. * cc/delta-islands: pack-objects: fix off-by-one in delta-island tree-depth computation pack-objects: zero-initialize tree_depth/layer arrays pack-objects: fix tree_depth and layer invariants
2018-11-21pack-objects: zero-initialize tree_depth/layer arraysJeff King
Commit 108f530385 (pack-objects: move tree_depth into 'struct packing_data', 2018-08-16) started maintaining a tree_depth array that matches the "objects" array. We extend the array when: 1. The objects array is extended, in which case we use realloc to extend the tree_depth array. 2. A caller asks to store a tree_depth for object N, and this is the first such request; we create the array from scratch and store the value for N. In the latter case, though, we use regular xmalloc(), and the depth values for any objects besides N is undefined. This happens to not trigger a bug with the current code, but the reasons are quite subtle: - we never ask about the depth for any object with index i < N. This is because we store the depth immediately for all trees and blobs. So any such "i" must be a non-tree, and therefore we will never need to care about its depth (in fact, we really only care about the depth of trees). - there are no objects at this point with index i > N, because we always fill in the depth for a tree immediately after its object entry is created (we may still allocate uninitialized depth entries, but they'll be initialized by packlist_alloc() when it initializes the entry in the "objects" array). So it works, but only by chance. To be defensive, let's zero the array, which matches the "unset" values which would be handed out by oe_tree_depth() already. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-11-21pack-objects: fix tree_depth and layer invariantsJeff King
Commit 108f530385 (pack-objects: move tree_depth into 'struct packing_data', 2018-08-16) dynamically manages a tree_depth array in packing_data that maintains one of these invariants: 1. tree_depth is NULL (i.e., the requested options don't require us to track tree depths) 2. tree_depth is non-NULL and has as many entries as the "objects" array We maintain (2) by: a. When the objects array grows, grow tree_depth to the same size (unless it's NULL, in which case we can leave it). b. When a caller asks to set a depth via oe_set_tree_depth(), if tree_depth is NULL we allocate it. But in (b), we use the number of stored objects, _not_ the allocated size of the objects array. So we can run into a situation like this: 1. packlist_alloc() needs to store the Nth object, so it grows the objects array to M, where M > N. 2. oe_set_tree_depth() wants to store a depth, so it allocates an array of length N. Now we've violated our invariant. 3. packlist_alloc() needs to store the N+1th object. But it _doesn't_ grow the objects array, since N <= M still holds. We try to assign to tree_depth[N+1], which is out of bounds. That doesn't happen in our test scripts, because the repositories they use are so small, but it's easy to trigger by running: echo HEAD | git pack-objects --revs --delta-islands --stdout >/dev/null in any reasonably-sized repo (like git.git). We can fix it by always growing the array to match pack->nr_alloc, not pack->nr_objects. Likewise for the "layer" array from fe0ac2fb7f (pack-objects: move 'layer' into 'struct packing_data', 2018-08-16), which has the same bug. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-11-18Merge branch 'nd/pthreads'Junio C Hamano
The codebase has been cleaned up to reduce "#ifndef NO_PTHREADS". * nd/pthreads: Clean up pthread_create() error handling read-cache.c: initialize copy_len to shut up gcc 8 read-cache.c: reduce branching based on HAVE_THREADS read-cache.c: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS pack-objects: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS preload-index.c: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS grep: clean up num_threads handling grep: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS attr.c: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS name-hash.c: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS index-pack: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADS send-pack.c: move async's #ifdef NO_PTHREADS back to run-command.c run-command.h: include thread-utils.h instead of pthread.h thread-utils: macros to unconditionally compile pthreads API
2018-11-12pack-*.c: remove the_repository referencesNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-11-05pack-objects: remove #ifdef NO_PTHREADSNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-10-30Merge branch 'js/pack-objects-mutex-init-fix'Junio C Hamano
A mutex used in "git pack-objects" were not correctly initialized and this caused "git repack" to dump core on Windows. * js/pack-objects-mutex-init-fix: pack-objects (mingw): initialize `packing_data` mutex in the correct spot pack-objects (mingw): demonstrate a segmentation fault with large deltas pack-objects: fix typo 'detla' -> 'delta'
2018-10-19pack-objects: fix typo 'detla' -> 'delta'Johannes Schindelin
Signed-off-by: Johannes Schindelin <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-09-17Merge branch 'cc/delta-islands'Junio C Hamano
Lift code from GitHub to restrict delta computation so that an object that exists in one fork is not made into a delta against another object that does not appear in the same forked repository. * cc/delta-islands: pack-objects: move 'layer' into 'struct packing_data' pack-objects: move tree_depth into 'struct packing_data' t5320: tests for delta islands repack: add delta-islands support pack-objects: add delta-islands support pack-objects: refactor code into compute_layer_order() Add delta-islands.{c,h}
2018-09-17Merge branch 'jk/pack-delta-reuse-with-bitmap'Junio C Hamano
When creating a thin pack, which allows objects to be made into a delta against another object that is not in the resulting pack but is known to be present on the receiving end, the code learned to take advantage of the reachability bitmap; this allows the server to send a delta against a base beyond the "boundary" commit. * jk/pack-delta-reuse-with-bitmap: pack-objects: reuse on-disk deltas for thin "have" objects pack-bitmap: save "have" bitmap from walk t/perf: add perf tests for fetches from a bitmapped server t/perf: add infrastructure for measuring sizes t/perf: factor out percent calculations t/perf: factor boilerplate out of test_perf
2018-08-22Merge branch 'nd/pack-deltify-regression-fix'Junio C Hamano
In a recent update in 2.18 era, "git pack-objects" started producing a larger than necessary packfiles by missing opportunities to use large deltas. * nd/pack-deltify-regression-fix: pack-objects: fix performance issues on packing large deltas
2018-08-21pack-objects: reuse on-disk deltas for thin "have" objectsJeff King
When we serve a fetch, we pass the "wants" and "haves" from the fetch negotiation to pack-objects. That tells us not only which objects we need to send, but we also use the boundary commits as "preferred bases": their trees and blobs are candidates for delta bases, both for reusing on-disk deltas and for finding new ones. However, this misses some opportunities. Modulo some special cases like shallow or partial clones, we know that every object reachable from the "haves" could be a preferred base. We don't use all of them for two reasons: 1. It's expensive to traverse the whole history and enumerate all of the objects the other side has. 2. The delta search is expensive, so we want to keep the number of candidate bases sane. The boundary commits are the most likely to work. When we have reachability bitmaps, though, reason 1 no longer applies. We can efficiently compute the set of reachable objects on the other side (and in fact already did so as part of the bitmap set-difference to get the list of interesting objects). And using this set conveniently covers the shallow and partial cases, since we have to disable the use of bitmaps for those anyway. The second reason argues against using these bases in the search for new deltas. But there's one case where we can use this information for free: when we have an existing on-disk delta that we're considering reusing, we can do so if we know the other side has the base object. This in fact saves time during the delta search, because it's one less delta we have to compute. And that's exactly what this patch does: when we're considering whether to reuse an on-disk delta, if bitmaps tell us the other side has the object (and we're making a thin-pack), then we reuse it. Here are the results on p5311 using linux.git, which simulates a client fetching after `N` days since their last fetch: Test origin HEAD -------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5311.3: server (1 days) 0.27(0.27+0.04) 0.12(0.09+0.03) -55.6% 5311.4: size (1 days) 0.9M 237.0K -73.7% 5311.5: client (1 days) 0.04(0.05+0.00) 0.10(0.10+0.00) +150.0% 5311.7: server (2 days) 0.34(0.42+0.04) 0.13(0.10+0.03) -61.8% 5311.8: size (2 days) 1.5M 347.7K -76.5% 5311.9: client (2 days) 0.07(0.08+0.00) 0.16(0.15+0.01) +128.6% 5311.11: server (4 days) 0.56(0.77+0.08) 0.13(0.10+0.02) -76.8% 5311.12: size (4 days) 2.8M 566.6K -79.8% 5311.13: client (4 days) 0.13(0.15+0.00) 0.34(0.31+0.02) +161.5% 5311.15: server (8 days) 0.97(1.39+0.11) 0.30(0.25+0.05) -69.1% 5311.16: size (8 days) 4.3M 1.0M -76.0% 5311.17: client (8 days) 0.20(0.22+0.01) 0.53(0.52+0.01) +165.0% 5311.19: server (16 days) 1.52(2.51+0.12) 0.30(0.26+0.03) -80.3% 5311.20: size (16 days) 8.0M 2.0M -74.5% 5311.21: client (16 days) 0.40(0.47+0.03) 1.01(0.98+0.04) +152.5% 5311.23: server (32 days) 2.40(4.44+0.20) 0.31(0.26+0.04) -87.1% 5311.24: size (32 days) 14.1M 4.1M -70.9% 5311.25: client (32 days) 0.70(0.90+0.03) 1.81(1.75+0.06) +158.6% 5311.27: server (64 days) 11.76(26.57+0.29) 0.55(0.50+0.08) -95.3% 5311.28: size (64 days) 89.4M 47.4M -47.0% 5311.29: client (64 days) 5.71(9.31+0.27) 15.20(15.20+0.32) +166.2% 5311.31: server (128 days) 16.15(36.87+0.40) 0.91(0.82+0.14) -94.4% 5311.32: size (128 days) 134.8M 100.4M -25.5% 5311.33: client (128 days) 9.42(16.86+0.49) 25.34(25.80+0.46) +169.0% In all cases we save CPU time on the server (sometimes significant) and the resulting pack is smaller. We do spend more CPU time on the client side, because it has to reconstruct more deltas. But that's the right tradeoff to make, since clients tend to outnumber servers. It just means the thin pack mechanism is doing its job. From the user's perspective, the end-to-end time of the operation will generally be faster. E.g., in the 128-day case, we saved 15s on the server at a cost of 16s on the client. Since the resulting pack is 34MB smaller, this is a net win if the network speed is less than 270Mbit/s. And that's actually the worst case. The 64-day case saves just over 11s at a cost of just under 11s. So it's a slight win at any network speed, and the 40MB saved is pure bonus. That trend continues for the smaller fetches. The implementation itself is mostly straightforward, with the new logic going into check_object(). But there are two tricky bits. The first is that check_object() needs access to the relevant information (the thin flag and bitmap result). We can do this by pushing these into program-lifetime globals. The second is that the rest of the code assumes that any reused delta will point to another "struct object_entry" as its base. But of course the case we are interested in here is the one where don't have such an entry! I looked at a number of options that didn't quite work: - we could use a flag to signal a reused delta, but it's not a single bit. We have to actually store the oid of the base, which is normally done by pointing to the existing object_entry. And we'd have to modify all the code which looks at deltas. - we could add the reused bases to the end of the existing object_entry array. While this does create some extra work as later stages consider the extra entries, it's actually not too bad (we're not sending them, so they don't cost much in the delta search, and at most we'd have 2*N of them). But there's a more subtle problem. Adding to the existing array means we might need to grow it with realloc, which could move the earlier entries around. While many of the references to other entries are done by integer index, some (including ones on the stack) use pointers, which would become invalidated. This isn't insurmountable, but it would require quite a bit of refactoring (and it's hard to know that you've got it all, since it may work _most_ of the time and then fail subtly based on memory allocation patterns). - we could allocate a new one-off entry for the base. In fact, this is what an earlier version of this patch did. However, since the refactoring brought in by ad635e82d6 (Merge branch 'nd/pack-objects-pack-struct', 2018-05-23), the delta_idx code requires that both entries be in the main packing list. So taking all of those options into account, what I ended up with is a separate list of "external bases" that are not part of the main packing list. Each delta entry that points to an external base has a single-bit flag to do so; we have a little breathing room in the bitfield section of object_entry. This lets us limit the change primarily to the oe_delta() and oe_set_delta_ext() functions. And as a bonus, most of the rest of the code does not consider these dummy entries at all, saving both runtime CPU and code complexity. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-08-16pack-objects: move 'layer' into 'struct packing_data'Christian Couder
This reduces the size of 'struct object_entry' from 88 bytes to 80 and therefore makes packing objects more efficient. For example on a Linux repo with 12M objects, `git pack-objects --all` needs extra 96MB memory even if the layer feature is not used. Helped-by: Jeff King <> Helped-by: Duy Nguyen <> Signed-off-by: Christian Couder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-08-16pack-objects: move tree_depth into 'struct packing_data'Christian Couder
This reduces the size of 'struct object_entry' and therefore makes packing objects more efficient. This also renames cmp_tree_depth() into tree_depth_compare(), as it is more modern to have the name of the compare functions end with "compare". Helped-by: Jeff King <> Helped-by: Duy Nguyen <> Signed-off-by: Christian Couder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-08-16Add delta-islands.{c,h}Jeff King
Hosting providers that allow users to "fork" existing repos want those forks to share as much disk space as possible. Alternates are an existing solution to keep all the objects from all the forks into a unique central repo, but this can have some drawbacks. Especially when packing the central repo, deltas will be created between objects from different forks. This can make cloning or fetching a fork much slower and much more CPU intensive as Git might have to compute new deltas for many objects to avoid sending objects from a different fork. Because the inefficiency primarily arises when an object is deltified against another object that does not exist in the same fork, we partition objects into sets that appear in the same fork, and define "delta islands". When finding delta base, we do not allow an object outside the same island to be considered as its base. So "delta islands" is a way to store objects from different forks in the same repo and packfile without having deltas between objects from different forks. This patch implements the delta islands mechanism in "delta-islands.{c,h}", but does not yet make use of it. A few new fields are added in 'struct object_entry' in "pack-objects.h" though. The documentation will follow in a patch that actually uses delta islands in "builtin/pack-objects.c". Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Christian Couder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-08-15Add missing includes and forward declarationsElijah Newren
I looped over the toplevel header files, creating a temporary two-line C program for each consisting of #include "git-compat-util.h" #include $HEADER This patch is the result of manually fixing errors in compiling those tiny programs. Signed-off-by: Elijah Newren <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-07-23pack-objects: fix performance issues on packing large deltasNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Let's start with some background about oe_delta_size() and oe_set_delta_size(). If you already know, skip the next paragraph. These two are added in 0aca34e826 (pack-objects: shrink delta_size field in struct object_entry - 2018-04-14) to help reduce 'struct object_entry' size. The delta size field in this struct is reduced to only contain max 1MB. So if any new delta is produced and larger than 1MB, it's dropped because we can't really save such a large size anywhere. Fallback is provided in case existing packfiles already have large deltas, then we can retrieve it from the pack. While this should help small machines repacking large repos without large deltas (i.e. less memory pressure), dropping large deltas during the delta selection process could end up with worse pack files. And if existing packfiles already have >1MB delta and pack-objects is instructed to not reuse deltas, all of them will be dropped on the floor, and the resulting pack would be definitely bigger. There is also a regression in terms of CPU/IO if we have large on-disk deltas because fallback code needs to parse the pack every time the delta size is needed and just access to the mmap'd pack data is enough for extra page faults when memory is under pressure. Both of these issues were reported on the mailing list. Here's some numbers for comparison. Version Pack (MB) MaxRSS(kB) Time (s) ------- --------- ---------- -------- 2.17.0 5498 43513628 2494.85 2.18.0 10531 40449596 4168.94 This patch provides a better fallback that is - cheaper in terms of cpu and io because we won't have to read existing pack files as much - better in terms of pack size because the pack heuristics is back to 2.17.0 time, we do not drop large deltas at all If we encounter any delta (on-disk or created during try_delta phase) that is larger than the 1MB limit, we stop using delta_size_ field for this because it can't contain such size anyway. A new array of delta size is dynamically allocated and can hold all the deltas that 2.17.0 can. This array only contains delta sizes that delta_size_ can't contain. With this, we do not have to drop deltas in try_delta() anymore. Of course the downside is we use slightly more memory, even compared to 2.17.0. But since this is considered an uncommon case, a bit more memory consumption should not be a problem. Delta size limit is also raised from 1MB to 16MB to better cover common case and avoid that extra memory consumption (99.999% deltas in this reported repo are under 12MB; Jeff noted binary artifacts topped out at about 3MB in some other private repos). Other fields are shuffled around to keep this struct packed tight. We don't use more memory in common case even with this limit update. A note about thread synchronization. Since this code can be run in parallel during delta searching phase, we need a mutex. The realloc part in packlist_alloc() is not protected because it only happens during the object counting phase, which is always single-threaded. Access to e->delta_size_ (and by extension pack->delta_size[e - pack->objects]) is unprotected as before, the thread scheduler in pack-objects must make sure "e" is never updated by two different threads. The area under the new lock is as small as possible, avoiding locking at all in common case, since lock contention with high thread count could be expensive (most blobs are small enough that delta compute time is short and we end up taking the lock very often). The previous attempt to always hold a lock in oe_delta_size() and oe_set_delta_size() increases execution time by 33% when repacking linux.git with with 40 threads. Reported-by: Elijah Newren <> Helped-by: Elijah Newren <> Helped-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-05-23Merge branch 'nd/pack-objects-pack-struct'Junio C Hamano
"git pack-objects" needs to allocate tons of "struct object_entry" while doing its work, and shrinking its size helps the performance quite a bit. * nd/pack-objects-pack-struct: ci: exercise the whole test suite with uncommon code in pack-objects pack-objects: reorder members to shrink struct object_entry pack-objects: shrink delta_size field in struct object_entry pack-objects: shrink size field in struct object_entry pack-objects: clarify the use of object_entry::size pack-objects: don't check size when the object is bad pack-objects: shrink z_delta_size field in struct object_entry pack-objects: refer to delta objects by index instead of pointer pack-objects: move in_pack out of struct object_entry pack-objects: move in_pack_pos out of struct object_entry pack-objects: use bitfield for object_entry::depth pack-objects: use bitfield for object_entry::dfs_state pack-objects: turn type and in_pack_type to bitfields pack-objects: a bit of document about struct object_entry read-cache.c: make $GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX boolean
2018-04-16gc --auto: exclude base pack if not enough mem to "repack -ad"Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
pack-objects could be a big memory hog especially on large repos, everybody knows that. The suggestion to stick a .keep file on the giant base pack to avoid this problem is also known for a long time. Recent patches add an option to do just this, but it has to be either configured or activated manually. This patch lets `git gc --auto` activate this mode automatically when it thinks `repack -ad` will use a lot of memory and start affecting the system due to swapping or flushing OS cache. gc --auto decides to do this based on an estimation of pack-objects memory usage, which is quite accurate at least for the heap part, and whether that fits in half of system memory (the assumption here is for desktop environment where there are many other applications running). This mechanism only kicks in if gc.bigBasePackThreshold is not configured. If it is, it is assumed that the user already knows what they want. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: reorder members to shrink struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Previous patches leave lots of holes and padding in this struct. This patch reorders the members and shrinks the struct down to 80 bytes (from 136 bytes on 64-bit systems, before any field shrinking is done) with 16 bits to spare (and a couple more in in_pack_header_size when we really run out of bits). This is the last in a series of memory reduction patches (see "pack-objects: a bit of document about struct object_entry" for the first one). Overall they've reduced repack memory size on linux-2.6.git from 3.747G to 3.424G, or by around 320M, a decrease of 8.5%. The runtime of repack has stayed the same throughout this series. Ævar's testing on a big monorepo he has access to (bigger than linux-2.6.git) has shown a 7.9% reduction, so the overall expected improvement should be somewhere around 8%. See on-list ( for more detailed numbers and a test script used to produce the numbers cited above. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: shrink delta_size field in struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Allowing a delta size of 64 bits is crazy. Shrink this field down to 20 bits with one overflow bit. If we find an existing delta larger than 1MB, we do not cache delta_size at all and will get the value from oe_size(), potentially from disk if it's larger than 4GB. Note, since DELTA_SIZE() is used in try_delta() code, it must be thread-safe. Luckily oe_size() does guarantee this so we it is thread-safe. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: shrink size field in struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
It's very very rare that an uncompressed object is larger than 4GB (partly because Git does not handle those large files very well to begin with). Let's optimize it for the common case where object size is smaller than this limit. Shrink size field down to 31 bits and one overflow bit. If the size is too large, we read it back from disk. As noted in the previous patch, we need to return the delta size instead of canonical size when the to-be-reused object entry type is a delta instead of a canonical one. Add two compare helpers that can take advantage of the overflow bit (e.g. if the file is 4GB+, chances are it's already larger than core.bigFileThreshold and there's no point in comparing the actual value). Another note about oe_get_size_slow(). This function MUST be thread safe because SIZE() macro is used inside try_delta() which may run in parallel. Outside parallel code, no-contention locking should be dirt cheap (or insignificant compared to i/o access anyway). To exercise this code, it's best to run the test suite with something like make test GIT_TEST_OE_SIZE=4 which forces this code on all objects larger than 3 bytes. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: clarify the use of object_entry::sizeNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
While this field most of the time contains the canonical object size, there is one case it does not: when we have found that the base object of the delta in question is also to be packed, we will very happily reuse the delta by copying it over instead of regenerating the new delta. "size" in this case will record the delta size, not canonical object size. Later on in write_reuse_object(), we reconstruct the delta header and "size" is used for this purpose. When this happens, the "type" field contains a delta type instead of a canonical type. Highlight this in the code since it could be tricky to see. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: shrink z_delta_size field in struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
We only cache deltas when it's smaller than a certain limit. This limit defaults to 1000 but save its compressed length in a 64-bit field. Shrink that field down to 20 bits, so you can only cache 1MB deltas. Larger deltas must be recomputed at when the pack is written down. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: refer to delta objects by index instead of pointerNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
These delta pointers always point to elements in the objects[] array in packing_data struct. We can only hold maximum 4G of those objects because the array size in nr_objects is uint32_t. We could use uint32_t indexes to address these elements instead of pointers. On 64-bit architecture (8 bytes per pointer) this would save 4 bytes per pointer. Convert these delta pointers to indexes. Since we need to handle NULL pointers as well, the index is shifted by one [1]. [1] This means we can only index 2^32-2 objects even though nr_objects could contain 2^32-1 objects. It should not be a problem in practice because when we grow objects[], nr_alloc would probably blow up long before nr_objects hits the wall. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: move in_pack out of struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Instead of using 8 bytes (on 64 bit arch) to store a pointer to a pack. Use an index instead since the number of packs should be relatively small. This limits the number of packs we can handle to 1k. Since we can't be sure people can never run into the situation where they have more than 1k pack files. Provide a fall back route for it. If we find out they have too many packs, the new in_pack_by_idx[] array (which has at most 1k elements) will not be used. Instead we allocate in_pack[] array that holds nr_objects elements. This is similar to how the optional in_pack_pos field is handled. The new simple test is just to make sure the too-many-packs code path is at least executed. The true test is running make test GIT_TEST_FULL_IN_PACK_ARRAY=1 to take advantage of other special case tests. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: move in_pack_pos out of struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
This field is only need for pack-bitmap, which is an optional feature. Move it to a separate array that is only allocated when pack-bitmap is used (like objects[], it is not freed, since we need it until the end of the process) Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: use bitfield for object_entry::depthNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Because of struct packing from now on we can only handle max depth 4095 (or even lower when new booleans are added in this struct). This should be ok since long delta chain will cause significant slow down anyway. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: use bitfield for object_entry::dfs_stateNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: turn type and in_pack_type to bitfieldsNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
An extra field type_valid is added to carry the equivalent of OBJ_BAD in the original "type" field. in_pack_type always contains a valid type so we only need 3 bits for it. A note about accepting OBJ_NONE as "valid" type. The function read_object_list_from_stdin() can pass this value [1] and it eventually calls create_object_entry() where current code skip setting "type" field if the incoming type is zero. This does not have any bad side effects because "type" field should be memset()'d anyway. But since we also need to set type_valid now, skipping oe_set_type() leaves type_valid zero/false, which will make oe_type() return OBJ_BAD, not OBJ_NONE anymore. Apparently we do care about OBJ_NONE in prepare_pack(). This switch from OBJ_NONE to OBJ_BAD may trigger fatal: unable to get type of object ... Accepting OBJ_NONE [2] does sound wrong, but this is how it is has been for a very long time and I haven't time to dig in further. [1] See 5c49c11686 (pack-objects: better check_object() performances - 2007-04-16) [2] 21666f1aae (convert object type handling from a string to a number - 2007-02-26) Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-04-16pack-objects: a bit of document about struct object_entryNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
The role of this comment block becomes more important after we shuffle fields around to shrink this struct. It will be much harder to see what field is related to what. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2017-01-28pack-objects: enforce --depth limit in reused deltasJeff King
Since 898b14c (pack-objects: rework check_delta_limit usage, 2007-04-16), we check the delta depth limit only when figuring out whether we should make a new delta. We don't consider it at all when reusing deltas, which means that packing once with --depth=250, and then again with --depth=50, the second pack may still contain chains larger than 50. This is generally considered a feature, as the results of earlier high-depth repacks are carried forward, used for serving fetches, etc. However, since we started using cross-pack deltas in c9af708b1 (pack-objects: use mru list when iterating over packs, 2016-08-11), we are no longer bounded by the length of an existing delta chain in a single pack. Here's one particular pathological case: a sequence of N packs, each with 2 objects, the base of which is stored as a delta in a previous pack. If we chain all the deltas together, we have a cycle of length N. We break the cycle, but the tip delta is still at depth N-1. This is less unlikely than it might sound. See the included test for a reconstruction based on real-world actions. I ran into such a case in the wild, where a client was rapidly sending packs, and we had accumulated 10,000 before doing a server-side repack. The pack that "git repack" tried to generate had a very deep chain, which caused pack-objects to run out of stack space in the recursive write_one(). This patch bounds the length of delta chains in the output pack based on --depth, regardless of whether they are caused by cross-pack deltas or existed in the input packs. This fixes the problem, but does have two possible downsides: 1. High-depth aggressive repacks followed by "normal" repacks will throw away the high-depth chains. In the long run this is probably OK; investigation showed that high-depth repacks aren't actually beneficial, and we dropped the aggressive depth default to match the normal case in 07e7dbf0d (gc: default aggressive depth to 50, 2016-08-11). 2. If you really do want to store high-depth deltas on disk, they may be discarded and new delta computed when serving a fetch, unless you set pack.depth to match your high-depth size. The implementation uses the existing search for delta cycles. That lets us compute the depth of any node based on the depth of its base, because we know the base is DFS_DONE by the time we look at it (modulo any cycles in the graph, but we know there cannot be any because we break them as we see them). There is some subtlety worth mentioning, though. We record the depth of each object as we compute it. It might seem like we could save the per-object storage space by just keeping track of the depth of our traversal (i.e., have break_delta_chains() report how deep it went). But we may visit an object through multiple delta paths, and on subsequent paths we want to know its depth immediately, without having to walk back down to its final base (doing so would make our graph walk quadratic rather than linear). Likewise, one could try to record the depth not from the base, but from our starting point (i.e., start recursion_depth at 0, and pass "recursion_depth + 1" to each invocation of break_delta_chains()). And then when recursion_depth gets too big, we know that we must cut the delta chain. But that technique is wrong if we do not visit the nodes in topological order. In a chain A->B->C, it if we visit "C", then "B", then "A", we will never recurse deeper than 1 link (because we see at each node that we have already visited it). Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2016-08-11pack-objects: break delta cycles before delta-search phaseJeff King
We do not allow cycles in the delta graph of a pack (i.e., A is a delta of B which is a delta of A) for the obvious reason that you cannot actually access any of the objects in such a case. There's a last-ditch attempt to notice cycles during the write phase, during which we issue a warning to the user and write one of the objects out in full. However, this is "last-ditch" for two reasons: 1. By this time, it's too late to find another delta for the object, so the resulting pack is larger than it otherwise could be. 2. The warning is there because this is something that _shouldn't_ ever happen. If it does, then either: a. a pack we are reusing deltas from had its own cycle b. we are reusing deltas from multiple packs, and we found a cycle among them (i.e., A is a delta of B in one pack, but B is a delta of A in another, and we choose to use both deltas). c. there is a bug in the delta-search code So this code serves as a final check that none of these things has happened, warns the user, and prevents us from writing a bogus pack. Right now, (2b) should never happen because of the static ordering of packs in want_object_in_pack(). If two objects have a delta relationship, then they must be in the same pack, and therefore we will find them from that same pack. However, a future patch would like to change that static ordering, which will make (2b) a common occurrence. In preparation, we should be able to handle those kinds of cycles better. This patch does by introducing a cycle-breaking step during the get_object_details() phase, when we are deciding which deltas can be reused. That gives us the chance to feed the objects into the delta search as if the cycle did not exist. We'll leave the detection and warning in the write_object() phase in place, as it still serves as a check for case (2c). This does mean we will stop warning for (2a). That case is caused by bogus input packs, and we ideally would warn the user about it. However, since those cycles show up after picking reusable deltas, they look the same as (2b) to us; our new code will break the cycles early and the last-ditch check will never see them. We could do analysis on any cycles that we find to distinguish the two cases (i.e., it is a bogus pack if and only if every delta in the cycle is in the same pack), but we don't need to. If there is a cycle inside a pack, we'll run into problems not only reusing the delta, but accessing the object data at all. So when we try to dig up the actual size of the object, we'll hit that same cycle and kick in our usual complain-and-try-another-source code. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2013-12-30pack-objects: implement bitmap writingVicent Marti
This commit extends more the functionality of `pack-objects` by allowing it to write out a `.bitmap` index next to any written packs, together with the `.idx` index that currently gets written. If bitmap writing is enabled for a given repository (either by calling `pack-objects` with the `--write-bitmap-index` flag or by having `pack.writebitmaps` set to `true` in the config) and pack-objects is writing a packfile that would normally be indexed (i.e. not piping to stdout), we will attempt to write the corresponding bitmap index for the packfile. Bitmap index writing happens after the packfile and its index has been successfully written to disk (`finish_tmp_packfile`). The process is performed in several steps: 1. `bitmap_writer_set_checksum`: this call stores the partial checksum for the packfile being written; the checksum will be written in the resulting bitmap index to verify its integrity 2. `bitmap_writer_build_type_index`: this call uses the array of `struct object_entry` that has just been sorted when writing out the actual packfile index to disk to generate 4 type-index bitmaps (one for each object type). These bitmaps have their nth bit set if the given object is of the bitmap's type. E.g. the nth bit of the Commits bitmap will be 1 if the nth object in the packfile index is a commit. This is a very cheap operation because the bitmap writing code has access to the metadata stored in the `struct object_entry` array, and hence the real type for each object in the packfile. 3. `bitmap_writer_reuse_bitmaps`: if there exists an existing bitmap index for one of the packfiles we're trying to repack, this call will efficiently rebuild the existing bitmaps so they can be reused on the new index. All the existing bitmaps will be stored in a `reuse` hash table, and the commit selection phase will prioritize these when selecting, as they can be written directly to the new index without having to perform a revision walk to fill the bitmap. This can greatly speed up the repack of a repository that already has bitmaps. 4. `bitmap_writer_select_commits`: if bitmap writing is enabled for a given `pack-objects` run, the sequence of commits generated during the Counting Objects phase will be stored in an array. We then use that array to build up the list of selected commits. Writing a bitmap in the index for each object in the repository would be cost-prohibitive, so we use a simple heuristic to pick the commits that will be indexed with bitmaps. The current heuristics are a simplified version of JGit's original implementation. We select a higher density of commits depending on their age: the 100 most recent commits are always selected, after that we pick 1 commit of each 100, and the gap increases as the commits grow older. On top of that, we make sure that every single branch that has not been merged (all the tips that would be required from a clone) gets their own bitmap, and when selecting commits between a gap, we tend to prioritize the commit with the most parents. Do note that there is no right/wrong way to perform commit selection; different selection algorithms will result in different commits being selected, but there's no such thing as "missing a commit". The bitmap walker algorithm implemented in `prepare_bitmap_walk` is able to adapt to missing bitmaps by performing manual walks that complete the bitmap: the ideal selection algorithm, however, would select the commits that are more likely to be used as roots for a walk in the future (e.g. the tips of each branch, and so on) to ensure a bitmap for them is always available. 5. `bitmap_writer_build`: this is the computationally expensive part of bitmap generation. Based on the list of commits that were selected in the previous step, we perform several incremental walks to generate the bitmap for each commit. The walks begin from the oldest commit, and are built up incrementally for each branch. E.g. consider this dag where A, B, C, D, E, F are the selected commits, and a, b, c, e are a chunk of simplified history that will not receive bitmaps. A---a---B--b--C--c--D \ E--e--F We start by building the bitmap for A, using A as the root for a revision walk and marking all the objects that are reachable until the walk is over. Once this bitmap is stored, we reuse the bitmap walker to perform the walk for B, assuming that once we reach A again, the walk will be terminated because A has already been SEEN on the previous walk. This process is repeated for C, and D, but when we try to generate the bitmaps for E, we can reuse neither the current walk nor the bitmap we have generated so far. What we do now is resetting both the walk and clearing the bitmap, and performing the walk from scratch using E as the origin. This new walk, however, does not need to be completed. Once we hit B, we can lookup the bitmap we have already stored for that commit and OR it with the existing bitmap we've composed so far, allowing us to limit the walk early. After all the bitmaps have been generated, another iteration through the list of commits is performed to find the best XOR offsets for compression before writing them to disk. Because of the incremental nature of these bitmaps, XORing one of them with its predecesor results in a minimal "bitmap delta" most of the time. We can write this delta to the on-disk bitmap index, and then re-compose the original bitmaps by XORing them again when loaded. This is a phase very similar to pack-object's `find_delta` (using bitmaps instead of objects, of course), except the heuristics have been greatly simplified: we only check the 10 bitmaps before any given one to find best compressing one. This gives good results in practice, because there is locality in the ordering of the objects (and therefore bitmaps) in the packfile. 6. `bitmap_writer_finish`: the last step in the process is serializing to disk all the bitmap data that has been generated in the two previous steps. The bitmap is written to a tmp file and then moved atomically to its final destination, using the same process as `pack-write.c:write_idx_file`. Signed-off-by: Vicent Marti <> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2013-10-24pack-objects: factor out name_hashVicent Marti
As the pack-objects system grows beyond the single pack-objects.c file, more parts (like the soon-to-exist bitmap code) will need to compute hashes for matching deltas. Factor out name_hash to make it available to other files. Signed-off-by: Vicent Marti <> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2013-10-24pack-objects: refactor the packing listVicent Marti
The hash table that stores the packing list for a given `pack-objects` run was tightly coupled to the pack-objects code. In this commit, we refactor the hash table and the underlying storage array into a `packing_data` struct. The functionality for accessing and adding entries to the packing list is hence accessible from other parts of Git besides the `pack-objects` builtin. This refactoring is a requirement for further patches in this series that will require accessing the commit packing list from outside of `pack-objects`. The hash table implementation has been minimally altered: we now use table sizes which are always a power of two, to ensure a uniform index distribution in the array. Signed-off-by: Vicent Marti <> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>