path: root/gettext.h
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2019-05-05*.[ch]: remove extern from function declarations using spatchDenton Liu
There has been a push to remove extern from function declarations. Remove some instances of "extern" for function declarations which are caught by Coccinelle. Note that Coccinelle has some difficulty with processing functions with `__attribute__` or varargs so some `extern` declarations are left behind to be dealt with in a future patch. This was the Coccinelle patch used: @@ type T; identifier f; @@ - extern T f(...); and it was run with: $ git ls-files \*.{c,h} | grep -v ^compat/ | xargs spatch --sp-file contrib/coccinelle/noextern.cocci --in-place Files under `compat/` are intentionally excluded as some are directly copied from external sources and we should avoid churning them as much as possible. Signed-off-by: Denton Liu <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2018-11-09i18n: make GETTEXT_POISON a runtime optionÆvar Arnfjörð Bjarmason
Change the GETTEXT_POISON compile-time + runtime GIT_GETTEXT_POISON test parameter to only be a GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON=<non-empty?> runtime parameter, to be consistent with other parameters documented in "Running tests with special setups" in t/README. When I added GETTEXT_POISON in bb946bba76 ("i18n: add GETTEXT_POISON to simulate unfriendly translator", 2011-02-22) I was concerned with ensuring that the _() function would get constant folded if NO_GETTEXT was defined, and likewise that GETTEXT_POISON would be compiled out unless it was defined. But as the benchmark in my [1] shows doing a one-off runtime getenv("GIT_TEST_[...]") is trivial, and since GETTEXT_POISON was originally added the GIT_TEST_* env variables have become the common idiom for turning on special test setups. So change GETTEXT_POISON to work the same way. Now the GETTEXT_POISON=YesPlease compile-time option is gone, and running the tests with GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON=[YesPlease|] can be toggled on/off without recompiling. This allows for conditionally amending tests to test with/without poison, similar to what 859fdc0c3c ("commit-graph: define GIT_TEST_COMMIT_GRAPH", 2018-08-29) did for GIT_TEST_COMMIT_GRAPH. Do some of that, now we e.g. always run the test. I did enough there to remove the GETTEXT_POISON prerequisite, but its inverse C_LOCALE_OUTPUT is still around, and surely some tests using it can be converted to e.g. always set GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON=. Notes on the implementation: * We still compile a dedicated GETTEXT_POISON build in Travis CI. Perhaps this should be revisited and integrated into the "linux-gcc" build, see ae59a4e44f ("travis: run tests with GIT_TEST_SPLIT_INDEX", 2018-01-07) for prior art in that area. Then again maybe not, see [2]. * We now skip a test in under GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON=YesPlease that wasn't skipped before. This test relies on C locale output, but due to an edge case in how the previous implementation of GETTEXT_POISON worked (reading it from GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS) wasn't enabling poison correctly. Now it does, and needs to be skipped. * The getenv() function is not reentrant, so out of paranoia about code of the form: printf(_("%s"), getenv("some-env")); call use_gettext_poison() in our early setup in git_setup_gettext() so we populate the "poison_requested" variable in a codepath that's won't suffer from that race condition. * We error out in the Makefile if you're still saying GETTEXT_POISON=YesPlease to prompt users to change their invocation. * We should not print out poisoned messages during the test initialization itself to keep it more readable, so the test library hides the variable if set in $GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON_ORIG during setup. See [3]. See also [4] for more on the motivation behind this patch, and the history of the GETTEXT_POISON facility. 1. 2. 3. 4. Signed-off-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2016-07-01gettext: add is_utf8_locale()Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
This function returns true if git is running under an UTF-8 locale. pcre in the next patch will need this. is_encoding_utf8() is used instead of strcmp() to catch both "utf-8" and "utf8" suffixes. When built with no gettext support, we peek in several env variables to detect UTF-8. pcre library might support utf-8 even if libc is built without locale support.. The peeking code is a copy from compat/regex/regcomp.c Helped-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <> Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2015-03-06Merge branch 'ye/http-accept-language'Junio C Hamano
Compilation fix for a recent topic in 'master'. * ye/http-accept-language: gettext.c: move get_preferred_languages() from http.c
2015-02-26gettext.c: move get_preferred_languages() from http.cJeff King
Calling setlocale(LC_MESSAGES, ...) directly from http.c, without including <locale.h>, was causing compilation warnings. Move the helper function to gettext.c that already includes the header and where locale-related issues are handled. Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2015-01-12gettext.h: add parentheses around N_ expansion if supportedKyle J. McKay
The gettext N_ macro is used to mark strings for translation without actually translating them. At runtime the string is expected to be passed to the gettext API for translation. If two N_ macro invocations appear next to each other with only whitespace (or nothing at all) between them, the two separate strings will be marked for translation, but the preprocessor will then silently combine the strings into one and at runtime the string passed to gettext will not match the strings that were translated so no translation will actually occur. Avoid this by adding parentheses around the expansion of the N_ macro so that instead of ending up with two adjacent strings that are then combined by the preprocessor, two adjacent strings surrounded by parentheses result instead which causes a compile error so the mistake can be quickly found and corrected. However, since these string literals are typically assigned to static variables and not all compilers support parenthesized string literal assignments, allow this to be controlled by the Makefile with the default only enabled when the compiler is known to support the syntax. For now only __GNUC__ enables this by default which covers both gcc and clang which should result in early detection of any adjacent N_ macros. Although the necessary tests make the affected files a bit less elegant, the benefit of avoiding propagation of a translation- marking error to all the translation teams thus creating extra work for them when the error is eventually detected and fixed would seem to outweigh the minor inelegance the additional configuration tests introduce. Helped-by: Junio C Hamano <> Signed-off-by: Kyle J. McKay <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2012-09-18Merge branch 'nd/fetch-status-alignment'Junio C Hamano
The status report from "git fetch", when messages like 'up-to-date' are translated, did not align the branch names well. * nd/fetch-status-alignment: fetch: align per-ref summary report in UTF-8 locales
2012-09-14fetch: align per-ref summary report in UTF-8 localesNguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy
fetch does printf("%-*s", width, "foo") where "foo" can be a utf-8 string, but width is in bytes, not columns. For ASCII it's fine as one byte takes one column. For utf-8, this may result in misaligned ref summary table. Introduce gettext_width() function that returns the string length in columns (currently only supports utf-8 locales). Make the code use TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(x) where the length is compensated properly in non-English locales. Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2012-08-21gettext: do not translate empty stringThomas Rast
The gettext .po files have a header, but it looks like the translation specification for an empty string. This results in _("") actually returning that header. Check the input to _() and do not call gettext() on an empty string; in some places, we run _(opts->help) where opts->help may be empty. Signed-off-by: Thomas Rast <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2011-12-06i18n: add infrastructure for translating Git with gettextÆvar Arnfjörð Bjarmason
Change the skeleton implementation of i18n in Git to one that can show localized strings to users for our C, Shell and Perl programs using either GNU libintl or the Solaris gettext implementation. This new internationalization support is enabled by default. If gettext isn't available, or if Git is compiled with NO_GETTEXT=YesPlease, Git falls back on its current behavior of showing interface messages in English. When using the autoconf script we'll auto-detect if the gettext libraries are installed and act appropriately. This change is somewhat large because as well as adding a C, Shell and Perl i18n interface we're adding a lot of tests for them, and for those tests to work we need a skeleton PO file to actually test translations. A minimal Icelandic translation is included for this purpose. Icelandic includes multi-byte characters which makes it easy to test various edge cases, and it's a language I happen to understand. The rest of the commit message goes into detail about various sub-parts of this commit. = Installation Gettext .mo files will be installed and looked for in the standard $(prefix)/share/locale path. GIT_TEXTDOMAINDIR can also be set to override that, but that's only intended to be used to test Git itself. = Perl Perl code that's to be localized should use the new Git::I18n module. It imports a __ function into the caller's package by default. Instead of using the high level Locale::TextDomain interface I've opted to use the low-level (equivalent to the C interface) Locale::Messages module, which Locale::TextDomain itself uses. Locale::TextDomain does a lot of redundant work we don't need, and some of it would potentially introduce bugs. It tries to set the $TEXTDOMAIN based on package of the caller, and has its own hardcoded paths where it'll search for messages. I found it easier just to completely avoid it rather than try to circumvent its behavior. In any case, this is an issue wholly internal Git::I18N. Its guts can be changed later if that's deemed necessary. See <> for a further elaboration on this topic. = Shell Shell code that's to be localized should use the git-sh-i18n library. It's basically just a wrapper for the system's If isn't available we'll fall back on gettext(1) if it's available. The latter is available without the former on Solaris, which has its own non-GNU gettext implementation. We also need to emulate eval_gettext() there. If neither are present we'll use a dumb printf(1) fall-through wrapper. = About libcharset.h and langinfo.h We use libcharset to query the character set of the current locale if it's available. I.e. we'll use it instead of nl_langinfo if HAVE_LIBCHARSET_H is set. The GNU gettext manual recommends using langinfo.h's nl_langinfo(CODESET) to acquire the current character set, but on systems that have libcharset.h's locale_charset() using the latter is either saner, or the only option on those systems. GNU and Solaris have a nl_langinfo(CODESET), FreeBSD can use either, but MinGW and some others need to use libcharset.h's locale_charset() instead. =Credits This patch is based on work by Jeff Epler <> who did the initial Makefile / C work, and a lot of comments from the Git mailing list, including Jonathan Nieder, Jakub Narebski, Johannes Sixt, Erik Faye-Lund, Peter Krefting, Junio C Hamano, Thomas Rast and others. [jc: squashed a small Makefile fix from Ramsay] Signed-off-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <> Signed-off-by: Ramsay Jones <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2011-04-11i18n: avoid parenthesized string as array initializerRamsay Jones
The syntax static const char ignore_error[] = ("something"); is invalid C. A parenthesized string is not allowed as an array initializer. Some compilers, for example GCC and MSVC, allow this syntax as an extension, but it is not a portable construct. tcc does not parse it, for example. Remove the parenthesis from the definition of the N_() macro to fix this. Signed-off-by: Ramsay Jones <> Acked-by: Jonathan Nieder <> Acked-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2011-03-10i18n: add stub Q_() wrapper for ngettextJonathan Nieder
The Q_ function translates a string representing some pharse with an alternative plural form and uses the 'count' argument to choose which form to return. Use of Q_ solves the "%d noun(s)" problem in a way that is portable to languages outside the Germanic and Romance families. In English, the semantics of Q_(sing, plur, count) are roughly equivalent to count == 1 ? _(sing) : _(plur) while in other languages there can be more variants (count == 0; more random-looking rules based on the historical pronunciation of the number). Behind the scenes, the singular form is used to look up a family of translations and the plural form is ignored unless no translation is available. Define such a Q_ in gettext.h with the English semantics so C code can start using it to mark phrases with a count for translation. The name "Q_" is taken from subversion and stands for "quantity". Many projects just use ngettext directly without a wrapper analogous to _; we should not do so because git's gettext.h is meant not to conflict with system headers that might include libintl.h. Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2011-03-08i18n: do not poison translations unless GIT_GETTEXT_POISON envvar is setJonathan Nieder
Tweak the GETTEXT_POISON facility so it is activated at run time instead of compile time. If the GIT_GETTEXT_POISON environment variable is set, _(msg) will result in gibberish as before; but if the GIT_GETTEXT_POISON variable is not set, it will return the message for human-readable output. So the behavior of mistranslated and untranslated git can be compared without rebuilding git in between. For simplicity we always set the GIT_GETTEXT_POISON variable in tests. This does not affect builds without the GETTEXT_POISON compile-time option set, so non-i18n git will not be slowed down. Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2011-03-08i18n: add GETTEXT_POISON to simulate unfriendly translatorÆvar Arnfjörð Bjarmason
Add a new GETTEXT_POISON compile-time parameter to make _(msg) always return gibberish. So now you can run make GETTEXT_POISON=YesPlease to get a copy of git that functions correctly (one hopes) but produces output that is in nobody's native language at all. This is a debugging aid for people who are working on the i18n part of the system, to make sure that they are not marking plumbing messages that should never be translated with _(). As new strings get marked for translation, naturally a number of tests will be broken in this mode. Tests that depend on output from Porcelain will need to be marked with the new C_LOCALE_OUTPUT test prerequisite. Newly failing tests that do not depend on output from Porcelain would be bugs due to messages that should not have been marked for translation. Note that the string we're using ("# GETTEXT POISON #") intentionally starts the pound sign. Some of Git's tests such as rely on interactive editing with a fake editor, and will needlessly break if the message doesn't start with something the interactive editor considers a comment. A future patch will fix fix the underlying cause of that issue by adding "#" characters to the commit advice automatically. Signed-off-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <> Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
2011-03-08i18n: add no-op _() and N_() wrappersÆvar Arnfjörð Bjarmason
The _ function is for translating strings into the user's chosen language. The N_ macro just marks translatable strings for the xgettext(1) tool without translating them; it is intended for use in contexts where a function call cannot be used. So, for example: fprintf(stderr, _("Expansion of alias '%s' failed; " "'%s' is not a git command\n"), cmd, argv[0]); and const char *unpack_plumbing_errors[NB_UNPACK_TREES_ERROR_TYPES] = { /* ERROR_WOULD_OVERWRITE */ N_("Entry '%s' would be overwritten by merge. Cannot merge."), [...] Define such _ and N_ in a new gettext.h and include it in cache.h, so they can be used everywhere. Each just returns its argument for now. _ is a function rather than a macro like N_ to avoid the temptation to use _("foo") as a string literal (which would be a compile-time error once _(s) expands to an expression for the translation of s). Signed-off-by: Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <> Signed-off-by: Jonathan Nieder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>