summaryrefslogtreecommitdiff
path: root/Documentation
diff options
context:
space:
mode:
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt615
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt366
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-config.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt36
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/doc-diff109
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-apply.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-imap-send.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-range-diff.txt252
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt144
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-index.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-worktree.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/giteveryday.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitignore.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt115
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt202
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt109
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt208
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/rerere.txt182
58 files changed, 2452 insertions, 434 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index c7096f1..3ef54e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -12,3 +12,4 @@ cmds-*.txt
mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
SubmittingPatches.txt
+tmp-doc-diff/
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index d079d7c..95f6a32 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -76,6 +76,7 @@ TECH_DOCS += technical/long-running-process-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
+TECH_DOCS += technical/partial-clone
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-capabilities
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-common
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-v2
@@ -343,7 +344,7 @@ $(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
mv $@+ $@
manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
- sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
+ $(QUIET_GEN)sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
%.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl
$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a06ccf6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,615 @@
+Git 2.19 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.18
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git diff" compares the index and the working tree. For paths
+ added with intent-to-add bit, the command shows the full contents
+ of them as added, but the paths themselves were not marked as new
+ files. They are now shown as new by default.
+
+ "git apply" learned the "--intent-to-add" option so that an
+ otherwise working-tree-only application of a patch will add new
+ paths to the index marked with the "intent-to-add" bit.
+
+ * "git grep" learned the "--column" option that gives not just the
+ line number but the column number of the hit.
+
+ * The "-l" option in "git branch -l" is an unfortunate short-hand for
+ "--create-reflog", but many users, both old and new, somehow expect
+ it to be something else, perhaps "--list". This step warns when "-l"
+ is used as a short-hand for "--create-reflog" and warns about the
+ future repurposing of the it when it is used.
+
+ * The userdiff pattern for .php has been updated.
+
+ * The content-transfer-encoding of the message "git send-email" sends
+ out by default was 8bit, which can cause trouble when there is an
+ overlong line to bust RFC 5322/2822 limit. A new option 'auto' to
+ automatically switch to quoted-printable when there is such a line
+ in the payload has been introduced and is made the default.
+
+ * "git checkout" and "git worktree add" learned to honor
+ checkout.defaultRemote when auto-vivifying a local branch out of a
+ remote tracking branch in a repository with multiple remotes that
+ have tracking branches that share the same names.
+ (merge 8d7b558bae ab/checkout-default-remote later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep" learned the "--only-matching" option.
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" mode now handles octopus merges as
+ well.
+
+ * Add a server-side knob to skip commits in exponential/fibbonacci
+ stride in an attempt to cover wider swath of history with a smaller
+ number of iterations, potentially accepting a larger packfile
+ transfer, instead of going back one commit a time during common
+ ancestor discovery during the "git fetch" transaction.
+ (merge 42cc7485a2 jt/fetch-negotiator-skipping later to maint).
+
+ * A new configuration variable core.usereplacerefs has been added,
+ primarily to help server installations that want to ignore the
+ replace mechanism altogether.
+
+ * Teach "git tag -s" etc. a few configuration variables (gpg.format
+ that can be set to "openpgp" or "x509", and gpg.<format>.program
+ that is used to specify what program to use to deal with the format)
+ to allow x.509 certs with CMS via "gpgsm" to be used instead of
+ openpgp via "gnupg".
+
+ * Many more strings are prepared for l10n.
+
+ * "git p4 submit" learns to ask its own pre-submit hook if it should
+ continue with submitting.
+
+ * The test performed at the receiving end of "git push" to prevent
+ bad objects from entering repository can be customized via
+ receive.fsck.* configuration variables; we now have gained a
+ counterpart to do the same on the "git fetch" side, with
+ fetch.fsck.* configuration variables.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase=interactive" learned "i" as a short-hand for
+ "interactive".
+
+ * "git instaweb" has been adjusted to run better with newer Apache on
+ RedHat based distros.
+
+ * "git range-diff" is a reimplementation of "git tbdiff" that lets us
+ compare individual patches in two iterations of a topic.
+
+ * The sideband code learned to optionally paint selected keywords at
+ the beginning of incoming lines on the receiving end.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to take the default sort order from the
+ 'branch.sort' configuration variable, just like "git tag --list"
+ pays attention to 'tag.sort'.
+
+ * "git worktree" command learned "--quiet" option to make it less
+ verbose.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The bulk of "git submodule foreach" has been rewritten in C.
+
+ * The in-core "commit" object had an all-purpose "void *util" field,
+ which was tricky to use especially in library-ish part of the
+ code. All of the existing uses of the field has been migrated to a
+ more dedicated "commit-slab" mechanism and the field is eliminated.
+
+ * A less often used command "git show-index" has been modernized.
+ (merge fb3010c31f jk/show-index later to maint).
+
+ * The conversion to pass "the_repository" and then "a_repository"
+ throughout the object access API continues.
+
+ * Continuing with the idea to programatically enumerate various
+ pieces of data required for command line completion, teach the
+ codebase to report the list of configuration variables
+ subcommands care about to help complete them.
+
+ * Separate "rebase -p" codepath out of "rebase -i" implementation to
+ slim down the latter and make it easier to manage.
+
+ * Make refspec parsing codepath more robust.
+
+ * Some flaky tests have been fixed.
+
+ * Continuing with the idea to programmatically enumerate various
+ pieces of data required for command line completion, the codebase
+ has been taught to enumerate options prefixed with "--no-" to
+ negate them.
+
+ * Build and test procedure for netrc credential helper (in contrib/)
+ has been updated.
+
+ * Remove unused function definitions and declarations from ewah
+ bitmap subsystem.
+
+ * Code preparation to make "git p4" closer to be usable with Python 3.
+
+ * Tighten the API to make it harder to misuse in-tree .gitmodules
+ file, even though it shares the same syntax with configuration
+ files, to read random configuration items from it.
+
+ * "git fast-import" has been updated to avoid attempting to create
+ delta against a zero-byte-long string, which is pointless.
+
+ * The codebase has been updated to compile cleanly with -pedantic
+ option.
+ (merge 2b647a05d7 bb/pedantic later to maint).
+
+ * The character display width table has been updated to match the
+ latest Unicode standard.
+ (merge 570951eea2 bb/unicode-11-width later to maint).
+
+ * test-lint now looks for broken use of "VAR=VAL shell_func" in test
+ scripts.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[40] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Recent "security fix" to pay attention to contents of ".gitmodules"
+ while accepting "git push" was a bit overly strict than necessary,
+ which has been adjusted.
+
+ * "git fsck" learns to make sure the optional commit-graph file is in
+ a sane state.
+
+ * "git diff --color-moved" feature has further been tweaked.
+
+ * Code restructuring and a small fix to transport protocol v2 during
+ fetching.
+
+ * Parsing of -L[<N>][,[<M>]] parameters "git blame" and "git log"
+ take has been tweaked.
+
+ * lookup_commit_reference() and friends have been updated to find
+ in-core object for a specific in-core repository instance.
+
+ * Various glitches in the heuristics of merge-recursive strategy have
+ been documented in new tests.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned a new option "--negotiation-tip" to limit the
+ set of commits it tells the other end as "have", to reduce wasted
+ bandwidth and cycles, which would be helpful when the receiving
+ repository has a lot of refs that have little to do with the
+ history at the remote it is fetching from.
+
+ * For a large tree, the index needs to hold many cache entries
+ allocated on heap. These cache entries are now allocated out of a
+ dedicated memory pool to amortize malloc(3) overhead.
+
+ * Tests to cover various conflicting cases have been added for
+ merge-recursive.
+
+ * Tests to cover conflict cases that involve submodules have been
+ added for merge-recursive.
+
+ * Look for broken "&&" chains that are hidden in subshell, many of
+ which have been found and corrected.
+
+ * The singleton commit-graph in-core instance is made per in-core
+ repository instance.
+
+ * "make DEVELOPER=1 DEVOPTS=pedantic" allows developers to compile
+ with -pedantic option, which may catch more problematic program
+ constructs and potential bugs.
+
+ * Preparatory code to later add json output for telemetry data has
+ been added.
+
+ * Update the way we use Coccinelle to find out-of-style code that
+ need to be modernised.
+
+ * It is too easy to misuse system API functions such as strcat();
+ these selected functions are now forbidden in this codebase and
+ will cause a compilation failure.
+
+ * Add a script (in contrib/) to help users of VSCode work better with
+ our codebase.
+
+ * The Travis CI scripts were taught to ship back the test data from
+ failed tests.
+ (merge aea8879a6a sg/travis-retrieve-trash-upon-failure later to maint).
+
+ * The parse-options machinery learned to refrain from enclosing
+ placeholder string inside a "<bra" and "ket>" pair automatically
+ without PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP. Existing help text for option
+ arguments that are not formatted correctly have been identified and
+ fixed.
+ (merge 5f0df44cd7 rs/parse-opt-lithelp later to maint).
+
+ * Noiseword "extern" has been removed from function decls in the
+ header files.
+
+ * A few atoms like %(objecttype) and %(objectsize) in the format
+ specifier of "for-each-ref --format=<format>" can be filled without
+ getting the full contents of the object, but just with the object
+ header. These cases have been optimized by calling
+ oid_object_info() API (instead of reading and inspecting the data).
+
+ * The end result of documentation update has been made to be
+ inspected more easily to help developers.
+
+ * The API to iterate over all objects learned to optionally list
+ objects in the order they appear in packfiles, which helps locality
+ of access if the caller accesses these objects while as objects are
+ enumerated.
+
+ * Improve built-in facility to catch broken &&-chain in the tests.
+
+ * The more library-ish parts of the codebase learned to work on the
+ in-core index-state instance that is passed in by their callers,
+ instead of always working on the singleton "the_index" instance.
+
+ * A test prerequisite defined by various test scripts with slightly
+ different semantics has been consolidated into a single copy and
+ made into a lazily defined one.
+ (merge 6ec633059a wc/make-funnynames-shared-lazy-prereq later to maint).
+
+ * After a partial clone, repeated fetches from promisor remote would
+ have accumulated many packfiles marked with .promisor bit without
+ getting them coalesced into fewer packfiles, hurting performance.
+ "git repack" now learned to repack them.
+
+ * Partially revert the support for multiple hash functions to regain
+ hash comparison performance; we'd think of a way to do this better
+ in the next cycle.
+
+ * "git help --config" (which is used in command line completion)
+ missed the configuration variables not described in the main
+ config.txt file but are described in another file that is included
+ by it, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The test linter code has learned that the end of here-doc mark
+ "EOF" can be quoted in a double-quote pair, not just in a
+ single-quote pair.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.18
+-----------------
+
+ * "git remote update" can take both a single remote nickname and a
+ nickname for remote groups, and the completion script (in contrib/)
+ has been taught about it.
+ (merge 9cd4382ad5 ls/complete-remote-update-names later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --shallow-since=<cutoff>" that specifies the cut-off
+ point that is newer than the existing history used to end up
+ grabbing the entire history. Such a request now errors out.
+ (merge e34de73c56 nd/reject-empty-shallow-request later to maint).
+
+ * Fix for 2.17-era regression around `core.safecrlf`.
+ (merge 6cb09125be as/safecrlf-quiet-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The recent addition of "partial clone" experimental feature kicked
+ in when it shouldn't, namely, when there is no partial-clone filter
+ defined even if extensions.partialclone is set.
+ (merge cac1137dc4 jh/partial-clone later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-pack --signed" (hence "git push --signed" over the http
+ transport) did not read user ident from the config mechanism to
+ determine whom to sign the push certificate as, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge d067d98887 ms/send-pack-honor-config later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch-pack --all" used to unnecessarily fail upon seeing an
+ annotated tag that points at an object other than a commit.
+ (merge c12c9df527 jk/fetch-all-peeled-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When user edits the patch in "git add -p" and the user's editor is
+ set to strip trailing whitespaces indiscriminately, an empty line
+ that is unchanged in the patch would become completely empty
+ (instead of a line with a sole SP on it). The code introduced in
+ Git 2.17 timeframe failed to parse such a patch, but now it learned
+ to notice the situation and cope with it.
+ (merge f4d35a6b49 pw/add-p-recount later to maint).
+
+ * The code to try seeing if a fetch is necessary in a submodule
+ during a fetch with --recurse-submodules got confused when the path
+ to the submodule was changed in the range of commits in the
+ superproject, sometimes showing "(null)". This has been corrected.
+
+ * Bugfix for "rebase -i" corner case regression.
+ (merge a9279c6785 pw/rebase-i-keep-reword-after-conflict later to maint).
+
+ * Recently added "--base" option to "git format-patch" command did
+ not correctly generate prereq patch ids.
+ (merge 15b76c1fb3 xy/format-patch-prereq-patch-id-fix later to maint).
+
+ * POSIX portability fix in Makefile to fix a glitch introduced a few
+ releases ago.
+ (merge 6600054e9b dj/runtime-prefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git filter-branch" when used with the "--state-branch" option
+ still attempted to rewrite the commits whose filtered result is
+ known from the previous attempt (which is recorded on the state
+ branch); the command has been corrected not to waste cycles doing
+ so.
+ (merge 709cfe848a mb/filter-branch-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Clarify that setting core.ignoreCase to deviate from reality would
+ not turn a case-incapable filesystem into a case-capable one.
+ (merge 48294b512a ms/core-icase-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "fsck.skipList" did not prevent a blob object listed there from
+ being inspected for is contents (e.g. we recently started to
+ inspect the contents of ".gitmodules" for certain malicious
+ patterns), which has been corrected.
+ (merge fb16287719 rj/submodule-fsck-skip later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout --recurse-submodules another-branch" did not report
+ in which submodule it failed to update the working tree, which
+ resulted in an unhelpful error message.
+ (merge ba95d4e4bd sb/submodule-move-head-error-msg later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" behaved slightly differently depending on which one of
+ the three backends gets used; this has been documented and an
+ effort to make them more uniform has begun.
+ (merge b00bf1c9a8 en/rebase-consistency later to maint).
+
+ * The "--ignore-case" option of "git for-each-ref" (and its friends)
+ did not work correctly, which has been fixed.
+ (merge e674eb2528 jk/for-each-ref-icase later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" failed to correctly validate the set of objects it
+ received when making a shallow history deeper, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge cf1e7c0770 jt/connectivity-check-after-unshallow later to maint).
+
+ * Partial clone support of "git clone" has been updated to correctly
+ validate the objects it receives from the other side. The server
+ side has been corrected to send objects that are directly
+ requested, even if they may match the filtering criteria (e.g. when
+ doing a "lazy blob" partial clone).
+ (merge a7e67c11b8 jt/partial-clone-fsck-connectivity later to maint).
+
+ * Handling of an empty range by "git cherry-pick" was inconsistent
+ depending on how the range ended up to be empty, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge c5e358d073 jk/empty-pick-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset --merge" (hence "git merge ---abort") and "git reset --hard"
+ had trouble working correctly in a sparsely checked out working
+ tree after a conflict, which has been corrected.
+ (merge b33fdfc34c mk/merge-in-sparse-checkout later to maint).
+
+ * Correct a broken use of "VAR=VAL shell_func" in a test.
+ (merge 650161a277 jc/t3404-one-shot-export-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse ':/substring'" did not consider the history leading
+ only to HEAD when looking for a commit with the given substring,
+ when the HEAD is detached. This has been fixed.
+ (merge 6b3351e799 wc/find-commit-with-pattern-on-detached-head later to maint).
+
+ * Build doc update for Windows.
+ (merge ede8d89bb1 nd/command-list later to maint).
+
+ * core.commentchar is now honored when preparing the list of commits
+ to replay in "rebase -i".
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" on a corrupt HEAD caused a segfault. In
+ general we substitute an empty tree object when running the in-core
+ equivalent of the diff-index command, and the codepath has been
+ corrected to do so as well to fix this issue.
+ (merge 3506dc9445 jk/has-uncommitted-changes-fix later to maint).
+
+ * httpd tests saw occasional breakage due to the way its access log
+ gets inspected by the tests, which has been updated to make them
+ less flaky.
+ (merge e8b3b2e275 sg/httpd-test-unflake later to maint).
+
+ * Tests to cover more D/F conflict cases have been added for
+ merge-recursive.
+
+ * "git gc --auto" opens file descriptors for the packfiles before
+ spawning "git repack/prune", which would upset Windows that does
+ not want a process to work on a file that is open by another
+ process. The issue has been worked around.
+ (merge 12e73a3ce4 kg/gc-auto-windows-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * The recursive merge strategy did not properly ensure there was no
+ change between HEAD and the index before performing its operation,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge 55f39cf755 en/dirty-merge-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" started exporting GIT_DIR environment variable and
+ exposing it to hook scripts when part of it got rewritten in C.
+ Instead of matching the old scripted Porcelains' behaviour,
+ compensate by also exporting GIT_WORK_TREE environment as well to
+ lessen the damage. This can harm existing hooks that want to
+ operate on different repository, but the current behaviour is
+ already broken for them anyway.
+ (merge ab5e67d751 bc/sequencer-export-work-tree-as-well later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-email" when using in a batched mode that limits the
+ number of messages sent in a single SMTP session lost the contents
+ of the variable used to choose between tls/ssl, unable to send the
+ second and later batches, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 636f3d7ac5 jm/send-email-tls-auth-on-batch later to maint).
+
+ * The lazy clone support had a few places where missing but promised
+ objects were not correctly tolerated, which have been fixed.
+
+ * One of the "diff --color-moved" mode "dimmed_zebra" that was named
+ in an unusual way has been deprecated and replaced by
+ "dimmed-zebra".
+ (merge e3f2f5f9cd es/diff-color-moved-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The wire-protocol v2 relies on the client to send "ref prefixes" to
+ limit the bandwidth spent on the initial ref advertisement. "git
+ clone" when learned to speak v2 forgot to do so, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 402c47d939 bw/clone-ref-prefixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --histogram" had a bad memory usage pattern, which has
+ been rearranged to reduce the peak usage.
+ (merge 79cb2ebb92 sb/histogram-less-memory later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to use size_t/ssize_t when they are the right type.
+ (merge 7726d360b5 jk/size-t later to maint).
+
+ * The wire-protocol v2 relies on the client to send "ref prefixes" to
+ limit the bandwidth spent on the initial ref advertisement. "git
+ fetch $remote branch:branch" that asks tags that point into the
+ history leading to the "branch" automatically followed sent to
+ narrow prefix and broke the tag following, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 2b554353a5 jt/tag-following-with-proto-v2-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When the sparse checkout feature is in use, "git cherry-pick" and
+ other mergy operations lost the skip_worktree bit when a path that
+ is excluded from checkout requires content level merge, which is
+ resolved as the same as the HEAD version, without materializing the
+ merge result in the working tree, which made the path appear as
+ deleted. This has been corrected by preserving the skip_worktree
+ bit (and not materializing the file in the working tree).
+ (merge 2b75fb601c en/merge-recursive-skip-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The "author-script" file "git rebase -i" creates got broken when
+ we started to move the command away from shell script, which is
+ getting fixed now.
+ (merge 5522bbac20 es/rebase-i-author-script-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The automatic tree-matching in "git merge -s subtree" was broken 5
+ years ago and nobody has noticed since then, which is now fixed.
+ (merge 2ec4150713 jk/merge-subtree-heuristics later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch $there refs/heads/s" ought to fetch the tip of the
+ branch 's', but when "refs/heads/refs/heads/s", i.e. a branch whose
+ name is "refs/heads/s" exists at the same time, fetched that one
+ instead by mistake. This has been corrected to honor the usual
+ disambiguation rules for abbreviated refnames.
+ (merge 60650a48c0 jt/refspec-dwim-precedence-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Futureproofing a helper function that can easily be misused.
+ (merge 65bb21e77e es/want-color-fd-defensive later to maint).
+
+ * The http-backend (used for smart-http transport) used to slurp the
+ whole input until EOF, without paying attention to CONTENT_LENGTH
+ that is supplied in the environment and instead expecting the Web
+ server to close the input stream. This has been fixed.
+ (merge eebfe40962 mk/http-backend-content-length later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge --abort" etc. did not clean things up properly when
+ there were conflicted entries in the index in certain order that
+ are involved in D/F conflicts. This has been corrected.
+ (merge ad3762042a en/abort-df-conflict-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --indent-heuristic" had a bad corner case performance.
+ (merge 301ef85401 sb/indent-heuristic-optim later to maint).
+
+ * The "--exec" option to "git rebase --rebase-merges" placed the exec
+ commands at wrong places, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git verify-tag" and "git verify-commit" have been taught to use
+ the exit status of underlying "gpg --verify" to signal bad or
+ untrusted signature they found.
+ (merge 4e5dc9ca17 jc/gpg-status later to maint).
+
+ * "git mergetool" stopped and gave an extra prompt to continue after
+ the last path has been handled, which did not make much sense.
+ (merge d651a54b8a ng/mergetool-lose-final-prompt later to maint).
+
+ * Among the three codepaths we use O_APPEND to open a file for
+ appending, one used for writing GIT_TRACE output requires O_APPEND
+ implementation that behaves sensibly when multiple processes are
+ writing to the same file. POSIX emulation used in the Windows port
+ has been updated to improve in this area.
+ (merge d641097589 js/mingw-o-append later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull --rebase -v" in a repository with a submodule barfed as
+ an intermediate process did not understand what "-v(erbose)" flag
+ meant, which has been fixed.
+ (merge e84c3cf3dc sb/pull-rebase-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * Recent update to "git config" broke updating variable in a
+ subsection, which has been corrected.
+ (merge bff7df7a87 sb/config-write-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When "git rebase -i" is told to squash two or more commits into
+ one, it labeled the log message for each commit with its number.
+ It correctly called the first one "1st commit", but the next one
+ was "commit #1", which was off-by-one. This has been corrected.
+ (merge dd2e36ebac pw/rebase-i-squash-number-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i", when a 'merge <branch>' insn in its todo list
+ fails, segfaulted, which has been (minimally) corrected.
+ (merge bc9238bb09 pw/rebase-i-merge-segv-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick --quit" failed to remove CHERRY_PICK_HEAD even
+ though we won't be in a cherry-pick session after it returns, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 3e7dd99208 nd/cherry-pick-quit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * In a recent update in 2.18 era, "git pack-objects" started
+ producing a larger than necessary packfiles by missing
+ opportunities to use large deltas. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The meaning of the possible values the "core.checkStat"
+ configuration variable can take were not adequately documented,
+ which has been fixed.
+ (merge 9bf5d4c4e2 nd/config-core-checkstat-doc later to maint).
+
+ * Recent "git rebase -i" update started to write bogusly formatted
+ author-script, with a matching broken reading code. These are
+ fixed.
+
+ * Recent addition of "directory rename" heuristics to the
+ merge-recursive backend makes the command susceptible to false
+ positives and false negatives. In the context of "git am -3",
+ which does not know about surrounding unmodified paths and thus
+ cannot inform the merge machinery about the full trees involved,
+ this risk is particularly severe. As such, the heuristic is
+ disabled for "git am -3" to keep the machinery "more stupid but
+ predictable".
+
+ * "git merge-base" in 2.19-rc1 has performance regression when the
+ (experimental) commit-graph feature is in use, which has been
+ mitigated.
+
+ * Code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge aee9be2ebe sg/update-ref-stdin-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 037714252f jc/clean-after-sanity-tests later to maint).
+ (merge 5b26c3c941 en/merge-recursive-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 0dcbc0392e bw/config-refer-to-gitsubmodules-doc later to maint).
+ (merge bb4d000e87 bw/protocol-v2 later to maint).
+ (merge 928f0ab4ba vs/typofixes later to maint).
+ (merge d7f590be84 en/rebase-i-microfixes later to maint).
+ (merge 81d395cc85 js/rebase-recreate-merge later to maint).
+ (merge 51d1863168 tz/exclude-doc-smallfixes later to maint).
+ (merge a9aa3c0927 ds/commit-graph later to maint).
+ (merge 5cf8e06474 js/enhanced-version-info later to maint).
+ (merge 6aaded5509 tb/config-default later to maint).
+ (merge 022d2ac1f3 sb/blame-color later to maint).
+ (merge 5a06a20e0c bp/test-drop-caches-for-windows later to maint).
+ (merge dd61cc1c2e jk/ui-color-always-to-auto later to maint).
+ (merge 1e83b9bfdd sb/trailers-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge ab29f1b329 sg/fast-import-dump-refs-on-checkpoint-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6a8ad880f0 jn/subtree-test-fixes later to maint).
+ (merge ffbd51cc60 nd/pack-objects-threading-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e9dac7be60 es/mw-to-git-chain-fix later to maint).
+ (merge fe583c6c7a rs/remote-mv-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge 69885ab015 en/t3031-title-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 8578037bed nd/config-blame-sort later to maint).
+ (merge 8ad169c4ba hn/config-in-code-comment later to maint).
+ (merge b7446fcfdf ar/t4150-am-scissors-test-fix later to maint).
+ (merge a8132410ee js/typofixes later to maint).
+ (merge 388d0ff6e5 en/update-index-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e05aa688dd jc/update-index-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 10c600172c sg/t5310-empty-input-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5641eb9465 jh/partial-clone-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 2711b1ad5e ab/submodule-relative-url-tests later to maint).
+ (merge ce528de023 ab/unconditional-free-and-null later to maint).
+ (merge bbc072f5d8 rs/opt-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 69d846f053 jk/use-compat-util-in-test-tool later to maint).
+ (merge 1820703045 js/larger-timestamps later to maint).
+ (merge c8b35b95e1 sg/t4051-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 30612cb670 sg/t0020-conversion-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 15da753709 sg/t7501-thinkofix later to maint).
+ (merge 79b04f9b60 sg/t3903-missing-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 2745817028 sg/t3420-autostash-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 7afb0d6777 sg/test-rebase-editor-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6c6ce21baa es/freebsd-iconv-portability later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 2488544..b44fd51 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -298,7 +298,7 @@ smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
-the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
+the right to pass it on as an open-source patch. The rules are
pretty simple: if you can certify the below D-C-O:
[[dco]]
@@ -403,7 +403,7 @@ don't demand). +git log -p {litdd} _$area_you_are_modifying_+ would
help you find out who they are.
. You get comments and suggestions for improvements. You may
- even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
+ even get them in an "on top of your change" patch form.
. Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
spend their time to improve your patch. Go back to step (2).
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index ab641bf..6ecd70d 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -344,6 +344,16 @@ advice.*::
Advice shown when you used linkgit:git-checkout[1] to
move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to create
a local branch after the fact.
+ checkoutAmbiguousRemoteBranchName::
+ Advice shown when the argument to
+ linkgit:git-checkout[1] ambiguously resolves to a
+ remote tracking branch on more than one remote in
+ situations where an unambiguous argument would have
+ otherwise caused a remote-tracking branch to be
+ checked out. See the `checkout.defaultRemote`
+ configuration variable for how to set a given remote
+ to used by default in some situations where this
+ advice would be printed.
amWorkDir::
Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
@@ -354,7 +364,7 @@ advice.*::
Advice on what to do when you've accidentally added one
git repo inside of another.
ignoredHook::
- Advice shown if an hook is ignored because the hook is not
+ Advice shown if a hook is ignored because the hook is not
set as executable.
waitingForEditor::
Print a message to the terminal whenever Git is waiting for
@@ -390,16 +400,19 @@ core.hideDotFiles::
default mode is 'dotGitOnly'.
core.ignoreCase::
- If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
+ Internal variable which enables various workarounds to enable
Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
- like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
- "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
+ like APFS, HFS+, FAT, NTFS, etc. For example, if a directory listing
+ finds "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
"Makefile".
+
The default is false, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
will probe and set core.ignoreCase true if appropriate when the repository
is created.
++
+Git relies on the proper configuration of this variable for your operating
+and file system. Modifying this value may result in unexpected behavior.
core.precomposeUnicode::
This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of Git.
@@ -449,10 +462,20 @@ core.untrackedCache::
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default.
core.checkStat::
- Determines which stat fields to match between the index
- and work tree. The user can set this to 'default' or
- 'minimal'. Default (or explicitly 'default'), is to check
- all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
+ When missing or is set to `default`, many fields in the stat
+ structure are checked to detect if a file has been modified
+ since Git looked at it. When this configuration variable is
+ set to `minimal`, sub-second part of mtime and ctime, the
+ uid and gid of the owner of the file, the inode number (and
+ the device number, if Git was compiled to use it), are
+ excluded from the check among these fields, leaving only the
+ whole-second part of mtime (and ctime, if `core.trustCtime`
+ is set) and the filesize to be checked.
++
+There are implementations of Git that do not leave usable values in
+some fields (e.g. JGit); by excluding these fields from the
+comparison, the `minimal` mode may help interoperability when the
+same repository is used by these other systems at the same time.
core.quotePath::
Commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files', 'diff'), will
@@ -905,8 +928,19 @@ This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and it can be overridden by
the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable. See linkgit:git-notes[1].
core.commitGraph::
- Enable git commit graph feature. Allows reading from the
- commit-graph file.
+ If true, then git will read the commit-graph file (if it exists)
+ to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to false. See
+ linkgit:git-commit-graph[1] for more information.
+
+core.useReplaceRefs::
+ If set to `false`, behave as if the `--no-replace-objects`
+ option was given on the command line. See linkgit:git[1] and
+ linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
+
+core.multiPackIndex::
+ Use the multi-pack-index file to track multiple packfiles using a
+ single index. See link:technical/multi-pack-index.html[the
+ multi-pack-index design document].
core.sparseCheckout::
Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
@@ -974,23 +1008,28 @@ apply.whitespace::
Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
as the `--whitespace` option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
-blame.showRoot::
- Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
- This option defaults to false.
-
blame.blankBoundary::
Show blank commit object name for boundary commits in
linkgit:git-blame[1]. This option defaults to false.
-blame.showEmail::
- Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
- This option defaults to false.
+blame.coloring::
+ This determines the coloring scheme to be applied to blame
+ output. It can be 'repeatedLines', 'highlightRecent',
+ or 'none' which is the default.
blame.date::
Specifies the format used to output dates in linkgit:git-blame[1].
If unset the iso format is used. For supported values,
see the discussion of the `--date` option at linkgit:git-log[1].
+blame.showEmail::
+ Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.showRoot::
+ Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
branch.autoSetupMerge::
Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
@@ -1018,6 +1057,12 @@ branch.autoSetupRebase::
branch to track another branch.
This option defaults to never.
+branch.sort::
+ This variable controls the sort ordering of branches when displayed by
+ linkgit:git-branch[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
+ value of this variable will be used as the default.
+ See linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1] field names for valid values.
+
branch.<name>.remote::
When on branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push'
which remote to fetch from/push to. The remote to push to
@@ -1098,6 +1143,30 @@ browser.<tool>.path::
browse HTML help (see `-w` option in linkgit:git-help[1]) or a
working repository in gitweb (see linkgit:git-instaweb[1]).
+checkout.defaultRemote::
+ When you run 'git checkout <something>' and only have one
+ remote, it may implicitly fall back on checking out and
+ tracking e.g. 'origin/<something>'. This stops working as soon
+ as you have more than one remote with a '<something>'
+ reference. This setting allows for setting the name of a
+ preferred remote that should always win when it comes to
+ disambiguation. The typical use-case is to set this to
+ `origin`.
++
+Currently this is used by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when 'git checkout
+<something>' will checkout the '<something>' branch on another remote,
+and by linkgit:git-worktree[1] when 'git worktree add' refers to a
+remote branch. This setting might be used for other checkout-like
+commands or functionality in the future.
+
+checkout.optimizeNewBranch
+ Optimizes the performance of "git checkout -b <new_branch>" when
+ using sparse-checkout. When set to true, git will not update the
+ repo based on the current sparse-checkout settings. This means it
+ will not update the skip-worktree bit in the index nor add/remove
+ files in the working directory to reflect the current sparse checkout
+ settings nor will it show the local changes.
+
clean.requireForce::
A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f,
-i or -n. Defaults to true.
@@ -1112,6 +1181,28 @@ color.advice::
color.advice.hint::
Use customized color for hints.
+color.blame.highlightRecent::
+ This can be used to color the metadata of a blame line depending
+ on age of the line.
++
+This setting should be set to a comma-separated list of color and date settings,
+starting and ending with a color, the dates should be set from oldest to newest.
+The metadata will be colored given the colors if the the line was introduced
+before the given timestamp, overwriting older timestamped colors.
++
+Instead of an absolute timestamp relative timestamps work as well, e.g.
+2.weeks.ago is valid to address anything older than 2 weeks.
++
+It defaults to 'blue,12 month ago,white,1 month ago,red', which colors
+everything older than one year blue, recent changes between one month and
+one year old are kept white, and lines introduced within the last month are
+colored red.
+
+color.blame.repeatedLines::
+ Use the customized color for the part of git-blame output that
+ is repeated meta information per line (such as commit id,
+ author name, date and timezone). Defaults to cyan.
+
color.branch::
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
linkgit:git-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1139,13 +1230,6 @@ This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or the
'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands. Can be overridden on the
command line with the `--color[=<when>]` option.
-diff.colorMoved::
- If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
- in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
- see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
- true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
- moved lines are not colored.
-
color.diff.<slot>::
Use customized color for diff colorization. `<slot>` specifies
which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
@@ -1156,13 +1240,16 @@ color.diff.<slot>::
(highlighting whitespace errors), `oldMoved` (deleted lines),
`newMoved` (added lines), `oldMovedDimmed`, `oldMovedAlternative`,
`oldMovedAlternativeDimmed`, `newMovedDimmed`, `newMovedAlternative`
- and `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
- setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details).
+ `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
+ setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details),
+ `contextDimmed`, `oldDimmed`, `newDimmed`, `contextBold`,
+ `oldBold`, and `newBold` (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1] for details).
color.decorate.<slot>::
Use customized color for 'git log --decorate' output. `<slot>` is one
of `branch`, `remoteBranch`, `tag`, `stash` or `HEAD` for local
- branches, remote-tracking branches, tags, stash and HEAD, respectively.
+ branches, remote-tracking branches, tags, stash and HEAD, respectively
+ and `grafted` for grafted commits.
color.grep::
When set to `always`, always highlight matches. When `false` (or
@@ -1181,8 +1268,10 @@ color.grep.<slot>::
filename prefix (when not using `-h`)
`function`;;
function name lines (when using `-p`)
-`linenumber`;;
+`lineNumber`;;
line number prefix (when using `-n`)
+`column`;;
+ column number prefix (when using `--column`)
`match`;;
matching text (same as setting `matchContext` and `matchSelected`)
`matchContext`;;
@@ -1223,6 +1312,18 @@ color.push::
color.push.error::
Use customized color for push errors.
+color.remote::
+ If set, keywords at the start of the line are highlighted. The
+ keywords are "error", "warning", "hint" and "success", and are
+ matched case-insensitively. May be set to `always`, `false` (or
+ `never`) or `auto` (or `true`). If unset, then the value of
+ `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+
+color.remote.<slot>::
+ Use customized color for each remote keyword. `<slot>` may be
+ `hint`, `warning`, `success` or `error` which match the
+ corresponding keyword.
+
color.showBranch::
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
linkgit:git-show-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1251,33 +1352,6 @@ color.status.<slot>::
status short-format), or
`unmerged` (files which have unmerged changes).
-color.blame.repeatedLines::
- Use the customized color for the part of git-blame output that
- is repeated meta information per line (such as commit id,
- author name, date and timezone). Defaults to cyan.
-
-color.blame.highlightRecent::
- This can be used to color the metadata of a blame line depending
- on age of the line.
-+
-This setting should be set to a comma-separated list of color and date settings,
-starting and ending with a color, the dates should be set from oldest to newest.
-The metadata will be colored given the colors if the the line was introduced
-before the given timestamp, overwriting older timestamped colors.
-+
-Instead of an absolute timestamp relative timestamps work as well, e.g.
-2.weeks.ago is valid to address anything older than 2 weeks.
-+
-It defaults to 'blue,12 month ago,white,1 month ago,red', which colors
-everything older than one year blue, recent changes between one month and
-one year old are kept white, and lines introduced within the last month are
-colored red.
-
-blame.coloring::
- This determines the coloring scheme to be applied to blame
- output. It can be 'repeatedLines', 'highlightRecent',
- or 'none' which is the default.
-
color.transport::
A boolean to enable/disable color when pushes are rejected. May be
set to `always`, `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which
@@ -1457,10 +1531,19 @@ fetch.recurseSubmodules::
fetch.fsckObjects::
If it is set to true, git-fetch-pack will check all fetched
- objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
- broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
- Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
- is used instead.
+ objects. See `transfer.fsckObjects` for what's
+ checked. Defaults to false. If not set, the value of
+ `transfer.fsckObjects` is used instead.
+
+fetch.fsck.<msg-id>::
+ Acts like `fsck.<msg-id>`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1] instead of linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See
+ the `fsck.<msg-id>` documentation for details.
+
+fetch.fsck.skipList::
+ Acts like `fsck.skipList`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1] instead of linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See
+ the `fsck.skipList` documentation for details.
fetch.unpackLimit::
If the number of objects fetched over the Git native
@@ -1491,6 +1574,18 @@ fetch.output::
`full` and `compact`. Default value is `full`. See section
OUTPUT in linkgit:git-fetch[1] for detail.
+fetch.negotiationAlgorithm::
+ Control how information about the commits in the local repository is
+ sent when negotiating the contents of the packfile to be sent by the
+ server. Set to "skipping" to use an algorithm that skips commits in an
+ effort to converge faster, but may result in a larger-than-necessary
+ packfile; The default is "default" which instructs Git to use the default algorithm
+ that never skips commits (unless the server has acknowledged it or one
+ of its descendants).
+ Unknown values will cause 'git fetch' to error out.
++
+See also the `--negotiation-tip` option for linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
format.attach::
Enable multipart/mixed attachments as the default for
'format-patch'. The value can also be a double quoted string
@@ -1590,15 +1685,42 @@ filter.<driver>.smudge::
linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
fsck.<msg-id>::
- Allows overriding the message type (error, warn or ignore) of a
- specific message ID such as `missingEmail`.
-+
-For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning with the message ID,
-e.g. "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line - missing email" means
-that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
-+
-This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
-which cannot be repaired without disruptive changes.
+ During fsck git may find issues with legacy data which
+ wouldn't be generated by current versions of git, and which
+ wouldn't be sent over the wire if `transfer.fsckObjects` was
+ set. This feature is intended to support working with legacy
+ repositories containing such data.
++
+Setting `fsck.<msg-id>` will be picked up by linkgit:git-fsck[1], but
+to accept pushes of such data set `receive.fsck.<msg-id>` instead, or
+to clone or fetch it set `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>`.
++
+The rest of the documentation discusses `fsck.*` for brevity, but the
+same applies for the corresponding `receive.fsck.*` and
+`fetch.<msg-id>.*`. variables.
++
+Unlike variables like `color.ui` and `core.editor` the
+`receive.fsck.<msg-id>` and `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>` variables will not
+fall back on the `fsck.<msg-id>` configuration if they aren't set. To
+uniformly configure the same fsck settings in different circumstances
+all three of them they must all set to the same values.
++
+When `fsck.<msg-id>` is set, errors can be switched to warnings and
+vice versa by configuring the `fsck.<msg-id>` setting where the
+`<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value is one of `error`,
+`warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning
+with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line
+- missing email" means that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will
+hide that issue.
++
+In general, it is better to enumerate existing objects with problems
+with `fsck.skipList`, instead of listing the kind of breakages these
+problematic objects share to be ignored, as doing the latter will
+allow new instances of the same breakages go unnoticed.
++
+Setting an unknown `fsck.<msg-id>` value will cause fsck to die, but
+doing the same for `receive.fsck.<msg-id>` and `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>`
+will only cause git to warn.
fsck.skipList::
The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
@@ -1607,6 +1729,15 @@ fsck.skipList::
should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
++
+Like `fsck.<msg-id>` this variable has corresponding
+`receive.fsck.skipList` and `fetch.fsck.skipList` variants.
++
+Unlike variables like `color.ui` and `core.editor` the
+`receive.fsck.skipList` and `fetch.fsck.skipList` variables will not
+fall back on the `fsck.skipList` configuration if they aren't set. To
+uniformly configure the same fsck settings in different circumstances
+all three of them they must all set to the same values.
gc.aggressiveDepth::
The depth parameter used in the delta compression
@@ -1647,6 +1778,13 @@ this configuration variable is ignored, all packs except the base pack
will be repacked. After this the number of packs should go below
gc.autoPackLimit and gc.bigPackThreshold should be respected again.
+gc.writeCommitGraph::
+ If true, then gc will rewrite the commit-graph file when
+ linkgit:git-gc[1] is run. When using linkgit:git-gc[1]
+ '--auto' the commit-graph will be updated if housekeeping is
+ required. Default is false. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
+ for details.
+
gc.logExpiry::
If the file gc.log exists, then `git gc --auto` won't run
unless that file is more than 'gc.logExpiry' old. Default is
@@ -1797,6 +1935,9 @@ gitweb.snapshot::
grep.lineNumber::
If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
+grep.column::
+ If set to true, enable the `--column` option by default.
+
grep.patternType::
Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
@@ -1827,6 +1968,16 @@ gpg.program::
signed, and the program is expected to send the result to its
standard output.
+gpg.format::
+ Specifies which key format to use when signing with `--gpg-sign`.
+ Default is "openpgp" and another possible value is "x509".
+
+gpg.<format>.program::
+ Use this to customize the program used for the signing format you
+ chose. (see `gpg.program` and `gpg.format`) `gpg.program` can still
+ be used as a legacy synonym for `gpg.openpgp.program`. The default
+ value for `gpg.x509.program` is "gpgsm".
+
gui.commitMsgWidth::
Defines how wide the commit message window is in the
linkgit:git-gui[1]. "75" is the default.
@@ -2880,32 +3031,21 @@ receive.certNonceSlop::
receive.fsckObjects::
If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
- objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
- broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
- Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
- is used instead.
+ objects. See `transfer.fsckObjects` for what's checked.
+ Defaults to false. If not set, the value of
+ `transfer.fsckObjects` is used instead.
receive.fsck.<msg-id>::
- When `receive.fsckObjects` is set to true, errors can be switched
- to warnings and vice versa by configuring the `receive.fsck.<msg-id>`
- setting where the `<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value
- is one of `error`, `warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes
- the error/warning with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid
- author/committer line - missing email" means that setting
- `receive.fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
-+
-This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
-which would not pass pushing when `receive.fsckObjects = true`, allowing
-the host to accept repositories with certain known issues but still catch
-other issues.
+ Acts like `fsck.<msg-id>`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] instead of
+ linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See the `fsck.<msg-id>` documentation for
+ details.
receive.fsck.skipList::
- The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
- line) that are known to be broken in a non-fatal way and should
- be ignored. This feature is useful when an established project
- should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
- can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
- Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
+ Acts like `fsck.skipList`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] instead of
+ linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See the `fsck.skipList` documentation for
+ details.
receive.keepAlive::
After receiving the pack from the client, `receive-pack` may
@@ -3327,12 +3467,13 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
submodule.<name>.active::
Boolean value indicating if the submodule is of interest to git
commands. This config option takes precedence over the
- submodule.active config option.
+ submodule.active config option. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for
+ details.
submodule.active::
A repeated field which contains a pathspec used to match against a
submodule's path to determine if the submodule is of interest to git
- commands.
+ commands. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for details.
submodule.recurse::
Specifies if commands recurse into submodules by default. This
@@ -3379,6 +3520,40 @@ transfer.fsckObjects::
When `fetch.fsckObjects` or `receive.fsckObjects` are
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
Defaults to false.
++
+When set, the fetch or receive will abort in the case of a malformed
+object or a link to a nonexistent object. In addition, various other
+issues are checked for, including legacy issues (see `fsck.<msg-id>`),
+and potential security issues like the existence of a `.GIT` directory
+or a malicious `.gitmodules` file (see the release notes for v2.2.1
+and v2.17.1 for details). Other sanity and security checks may be
+added in future releases.
++
+On the receiving side, failing fsckObjects will make those objects
+unreachable, see "QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENT" in
+linkgit:git-receive-pack[1]. On the fetch side, malformed objects will
+instead be left unreferenced in the repository.
++
+Due to the non-quarantine nature of the `fetch.fsckObjects`
+implementation it can not be relied upon to leave the object store
+clean like `receive.fsckObjects` can.
++
+As objects are unpacked they're written to the object store, so there
+can be cases where malicious objects get introduced even though the
+"fetch" failed, only to have a subsequent "fetch" succeed because only
+new incoming objects are checked, not those that have already been
+written to the object store. That difference in behavior should not be
+relied upon. In the future, such objects may be quarantined for
+"fetch" as well.
++
+For now, the paranoid need to find some way to emulate the quarantine
+environment if they'd like the same protection as "push". E.g. in the
+case of an internal mirror do the mirroring in two steps, one to fetch
+the untrusted objects, and then do a second "push" (which will use the
+quarantine) to another internal repo, and have internal clients
+consume this pushed-to repository, or embargo internal fetches and
+only allow them once a full "fsck" has run (and no new fetches have
+happened in the meantime).
transfer.hideRefs::
String(s) `receive-pack` and `upload-pack` use to decide which
@@ -3479,6 +3654,13 @@ Note that this configuration variable is ignored if it is seen in the
repository-level config (this is a safety measure against fetching from
untrusted repositories).
+uploadpack.allowRefInWant::
+ If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support the `ref-in-want`
+ feature of the protocol version 2 `fetch` command. This feature
+ is intended for the benefit of load-balanced servers which may
+ not have the same view of what OIDs their refs point to due to
+ replication delay.
+
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 77caa66..85bca83 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -208,3 +208,15 @@ diff.wsErrorHighlight::
whitespace errors are colored with `color.diff.whitespace`.
The command line option `--ws-error-highlight=<kind>`
overrides this setting.
+
+diff.colorMoved::
+ If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
+ in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
+ see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
+ true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
+ moved lines are not colored.
+
+diff.colorMovedWS::
+ When moved lines are colored using e.g. the `diff.colorMoved` setting,
+ this option controls the `<mode>` how spaces are treated
+ for details of valid modes see '--color-moved-ws' in linkgit:git-diff[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 4106490..0378cd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -276,16 +276,46 @@ plain::
that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
if a block of code was moved without permutation.
-zebra::
+blocks::
Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
- painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
+ painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color.
+ Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.
+zebra::
+ Blocks of moved text are detected as in 'blocks' mode. The blocks
+ are painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
'color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative'. The change between
the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
-dimmed_zebra::
+dimmed-zebra::
Similar to 'zebra', but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
+ `dimmed_zebra` is a deprecated synonym.
+--
+
+--color-moved-ws=<modes>::
+ This configures how white spaces are ignored when performing the
+ move detection for `--color-moved`.
+ifdef::git-diff[]
+ It can be set by the `diff.colorMovedWS` configuration setting.
+endif::git-diff[]
+ These modes can be given as a comma separated list:
++
+--
+ignore-space-at-eol::
+ Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
+ignore-space-change::
+ Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
+ at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
+ more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
+ignore-all-space::
+ Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
+ even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
+allow-indentation-change::
+ Initially ignore any white spaces in the move detection, then
+ group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
+ whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
+ other modes.
--
--word-diff[=<mode>]::
diff --git a/Documentation/doc-diff b/Documentation/doc-diff
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..f483fe4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/doc-diff
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+OPTIONS_SPEC="\
+doc-diff [options] <from> <to> [-- <diff-options>]
+--
+j=n parallel argument to pass to make
+f force rebuild; do not rely on cached results
+"
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK=1
+. "$(git --exec-path)/git-sh-setup"
+
+parallel=
+force=
+while test $# -gt 0
+do
+ case "$1" in
+ -j)
+ parallel=$2; shift ;;
+ -f)
+ force=t ;;
+ --)
+ shift; break ;;
+ *)
+ usage ;;
+ esac
+ shift
+done
+
+if test -z "$parallel"
+then
+ parallel=$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN 2>/dev/null)
+ if test $? != 0 || test -z "$parallel"
+ then
+ parallel=1
+ fi
+fi
+
+test $# -gt 1 || usage
+from=$1; shift
+to=$1; shift
+
+from_oid=$(git rev-parse --verify "$from") || exit 1
+to_oid=$(git rev-parse --verify "$to") || exit 1
+
+cd_to_toplevel
+tmp=Documentation/tmp-doc-diff
+
+if test -n "$force"
+then
+ rm -rf "$tmp"
+fi
+
+# We'll do both builds in a single worktree, which lets "make" reuse
+# results that don't differ between the two trees.
+if ! test -d "$tmp/worktree"
+then
+ git worktree add --detach "$tmp/worktree" "$from" &&
+ dots=$(echo "$tmp/worktree" | sed 's#[^/]*#..#g') &&
+ ln -s "$dots/config.mak" "$tmp/worktree/config.mak"
+fi
+
+# generate_render_makefile <srcdir> <dstdir>
+generate_render_makefile () {
+ find "$1" -type f |
+ while read src
+ do
+ dst=$2/${src#$1/}
+ printf 'all:: %s\n' "$dst"
+ printf '%s: %s\n' "$dst" "$src"
+ printf '\t@echo >&2 " RENDER $(notdir $@)" && \\\n'
+ printf '\tmkdir -p $(dir $@) && \\\n'
+ printf '\tMANWIDTH=80 man -l $< >$@+ && \\\n'
+ printf '\tmv $@+ $@\n'
+ done
+}
+
+# render_tree <dirname> <committish>
+render_tree () {
+ # Skip install-man entirely if we already have an installed directory.
+ # We can't rely on make here, since "install-man" unconditionally
+ # copies the files (spending effort, but also updating timestamps that
+ # we then can't rely on during the render step). We use "mv" to make
+ # sure we don't get confused by a previous run that failed partway
+ # through.
+ if ! test -d "$tmp/installed/$1"
+ then
+ git -C "$tmp/worktree" checkout "$2" &&
+ make -j$parallel -C "$tmp/worktree" \
+ GIT_VERSION=omitted \
+ SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH=0 \
+ DESTDIR="$PWD/$tmp/installed/$1+" \
+ install-man &&
+ mv "$tmp/installed/$1+" "$tmp/installed/$1"
+ fi &&
+
+ # As with "installed" above, we skip the render if it's already been
+ # done. So using make here is primarily just about running in
+ # parallel.
+ if ! test -d "$tmp/rendered/$1"
+ then
+ generate_render_makefile "$tmp/installed/$1" "$tmp/rendered/$1+" |
+ make -j$parallel -f - &&
+ mv "$tmp/rendered/$1+" "$tmp/rendered/$1"
+ fi
+}
+
+render_tree $from_oid "$from" &&
+render_tree $to_oid "$to" &&
+git -C $tmp/rendered diff --no-index "$@" $from_oid $to_oid
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 97d3217..8bc36af 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -42,6 +42,25 @@ the current repository has the same history as the source repository.
.git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such
refs.
+--negotiation-tip=<commit|glob>::
+ By default, Git will report, to the server, commits reachable
+ from all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to
+ reduce the size of the to-be-received packfile. If specified,
+ Git will only report commits reachable from the given tips.
+ This is useful to speed up fetches when the user knows which
+ local ref is likely to have commits in common with the
+ upstream ref being fetched.
++
+This option may be specified more than once; if so, Git will report
+commits reachable from any of the given commits.
++
+The argument to this option may be a glob on ref names, a ref, or the (possibly
+abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is equivalent to specifying
+this option multiple times, one for each matching ref name.
++
+See also the `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm` configuration variable
+documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
Show what would be done, without making any changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 6722849..b9aa390 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-apply - Apply a patch to files and/or to the index
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--3way]
+'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index | --intent-to-add] [--3way]
[--apply] [--no-add] [--build-fake-ancestor=<file>] [-R | --reverse]
[--allow-binary-replacement | --binary] [--reject] [-z]
[-p<n>] [-C<n>] [--inaccurate-eof] [--recount] [--cached]
@@ -74,6 +74,14 @@ OPTIONS
cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
without using the working tree. This implies `--index`.
+--intent-to-add::
+ When applying the patch only to the working tree, mark new
+ files to be added to the index later (see `--intent-to-add`
+ option in linkgit:git-add[1]). This option is ignored unless
+ running in a Git repository and `--index` is not specified.
+ Note that `--index` could be implied by other options such
+ as `--cached` or `--3way`.
+
-3::
--3way::
When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on 3-way merge if
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index 78479b0..0f9ef2f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -1103,7 +1103,7 @@ _____________
Combining test suites, git bisect and other systems together
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-We have seen that test suites an git bisect are very powerful when
+We have seen that test suites and git bisect are very powerful when
used together. It can be even more powerful if you can combine them
with other systems.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 02eccbb..bf5316f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
[--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
[--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
-'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
+'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
@@ -91,7 +91,6 @@ OPTIONS
-D::
Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
--l::
--create-reflog::
Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
@@ -155,14 +154,11 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
--all::
List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
+-l::
--list::
List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
the pattern(s).
-+
-This should not be confused with `git branch -l <branchname>`,
-which creates a branch named `<branchname>` with a reflog.
-See `--create-reflog` above for details.
-v::
-vv::
@@ -267,10 +263,11 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
- for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
+ for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to the value configured for the
+ `branch.sort` variable if exists, or to sorting based on the
full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
- finally remote-tracking branches.
+ finally remote-tracking branches. See linkgit:git-config[1].
--points-at <object>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index f90f09b..7401333 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -104,6 +104,16 @@ OPTIONS
buffering; this is much more efficient when invoking
`--batch-check` on a large number of objects.
+--unordered::
+ When `--batch-all-objects` is in use, visit objects in an
+ order which may be more efficient for accessing the object
+ contents than hash order. The exact details of the order are
+ unspecified, but if you do not require a specific order, this
+ should generally result in faster output, especially with
+ `--batch`. Note that `cat-file` will still show each object
+ only once, even if it is stored multiple times in the
+ repository.
+
--allow-unknown-type::
Allow -s or -t to query broken/corrupt objects of unknown type.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index ca5fc9c..9db0292 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -38,6 +38,15 @@ equivalent to
$ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>
------------
+
+If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
+the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
+one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
+unique across all remotes. Set it to
+e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
+branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
+'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
+linkgit:git-config[1].
++
You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
"check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with
rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking information,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
index 4c97b55..dececb7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>]
'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
@@ -37,12 +38,16 @@ Write a commit graph file based on the commits found in packfiles.
+
With the `--stdin-packs` option, generate the new commit graph by
walking objects only in the specified pack-indexes. (Cannot be combined
-with --stdin-commits.)
+with `--stdin-commits` or `--reachable`.)
+
With the `--stdin-commits` option, generate the new commit graph by
walking commits starting at the commits specified in stdin as a list
of OIDs in hex, one OID per line. (Cannot be combined with
---stdin-packs.)
+`--stdin-packs` or `--reachable`.)
++
+With the `--reachable` option, generate the new commit graph by walking
+commits starting at all refs. (Cannot be combined with `--stdin-commits`
+or `--stdin-packs`.)
+
With the `--append` option, include all commits that are present in the
existing commit-graph file.
@@ -52,6 +57,11 @@ existing commit-graph file.
Read a graph file given by the commit-graph file and output basic
details about the graph file. Used for debugging purposes.
+'verify'::
+
+Read the commit-graph file and verify its contents against the object
+database. Used to check for corrupted data.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 18ddc78..8e24043 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -453,6 +453,27 @@ http.sslverify false
include::config.txt[]
+BUGS
+----
+When using the deprecated `[section.subsection]` syntax, changing a value
+will result in adding a multi-line key instead of a change, if the subsection
+is given with at least one uppercase character. For example when the config
+looks like
+
+--------
+ [section.subsection]
+ key = value1
+--------
+
+and running `git config section.Subsection.key value2` will result in
+
+--------
+ [section.subsection]
+ key = value1
+ key = value2
+--------
+
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 085d177..901faef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ OPTIONS
`xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
`%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
---color[=<when>]:
+--color[=<when>]::
Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
`<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
`<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index b9f060e..ab9a93f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -110,6 +110,9 @@ Any corrupt objects you will have to find in backups or other archives
(i.e., you can just remove them and do an 'rsync' with some other site in
the hopes that somebody else has the object you have corrupted).
+If core.commitGraph is true, the commit-graph file will also be inspected
+using 'git commit-graph verify'. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1].
+
Extracted Diagnostics
---------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 24b2dd4..f5bc98c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -136,6 +136,10 @@ The optional configuration variable `gc.packRefs` determines if
it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a boolean value.
This defaults to true.
+The optional configuration variable `gc.commitGraph` determines if
+'git gc' should run 'git commit-graph write'. This can be set to a
+boolean value. This defaults to false.
+
The optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveWindow` controls how
much time is spent optimizing the delta compression of the objects in
the repository when the --aggressive option is specified. The larger
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 312409a..a3049af 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-v | --invert-match] [-h|-H] [--full-name]
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-P | --perl-regexp]
- [-F | --fixed-strings] [-n | --line-number]
+ [-F | --fixed-strings] [-n | --line-number] [--column]
[-l | --files-with-matches] [-L | --files-without-match]
[(-O | --open-files-in-pager) [<pager>]]
[-z | --null]
- [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
+ [ -o | --only-matching ] [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
[--max-depth <depth>]
[--color[=<when>] | --no-color]
[--break] [--heading] [-p | --show-function]
@@ -44,6 +44,9 @@ CONFIGURATION
grep.lineNumber::
If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
+grep.column::
+ If set to true, enable the `--column` option by default.
+
grep.patternType::
Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
@@ -169,6 +172,10 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
--line-number::
Prefix the line number to matching lines.
+--column::
+ Prefix the 1-indexed byte-offset of the first match from the start of the
+ matching line.
+
-l::
--files-with-matches::
--name-only::
@@ -194,6 +201,11 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
Output \0 instead of the character that normally follows a
file name.
+-o::
+--only-matching::
+ Print only the matched (non-empty) parts of a matching line, with each such
+ part on a separate output line.
+
-c::
--count::
Instead of showing every matched line, show the number of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index a40fc38..83d25d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -45,6 +45,11 @@ OPTIONS
When used with `--verbose` print description for all recognized
commands.
+-c::
+--config::
+ List all available configuration variables. This is a short
+ summary of the list in linkgit:git-config[1].
+
-g::
--guides::
Prints a list of useful guides on the standard output. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index 032613c..7b15744 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -68,8 +68,8 @@ imap.tunnel::
to the server. Required when imap.host is not set.
imap.host::
- A URL identifying the server. Use a `imap://` prefix for non-secure
- connections and a `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
+ A URL identifying the server. Use an `imap://` prefix for non-secure
+ connections and an `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required otherwise.
imap.user::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index ee13124..a5e8b36 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -89,7 +89,8 @@ OPTIONS
Specify where all new trailers will be added. A setting
provided with '--where' overrides all configuration variables
and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
- '--where' or '--no-where'.
+ '--where' or '--no-where'. Possible values are `after`, `before`,
+ `end` or `start`.
--if-exists <action>::
--no-if-exists::
@@ -97,7 +98,8 @@ OPTIONS
least one trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
provided with '--if-exists' overrides all configuration variables
and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
- '--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'.
+ '--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'. Possible actions are `addIfDifferent`,
+ `addIfDifferentNeighbor`, `add`, `replace` and `doNothing`.
--if-missing <action>::
--no-if-missing::
@@ -105,7 +107,8 @@ OPTIONS
trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
provided with '--if-missing' overrides all configuration variables
and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
- '--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'.
+ '--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'. Possible actions are `doNothing`
+ or `add`.
--only-trailers::
Output only the trailers, not any other parts of the input.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 6a5c00e..eb36837 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
- [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
+ [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [-F <file>] [<commit>...]
'git merge' --abort
'git merge' --continue
@@ -75,6 +75,14 @@ The 'git fmt-merge-msg' command can be
used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
invocations. The automated message can include the branch description.
+-F <file>::
+--file=<file>::
+ Read the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
+ case one is created).
++
+If `--log` is specified, a shortlog of the commits being merged
+will be appended to the specified message.
+
--[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
@@ -122,9 +130,9 @@ merge' may need to update.
To avoid recording unrelated changes in the merge commit,
'git pull' and 'git merge' will also abort if there are any changes
-registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit. (One
-exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that
-would result from the merge already.)
+registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit. (Special
+narrow exceptions to this rule may exist depending on which merge
+strategy is in use, but generally, the index must match HEAD.)
If all named commits are already ancestors of `HEAD`, 'git merge'
will exit early with the message "Already up to date."
diff --git a/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt b/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1f97e79
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-multi-pack-index(1)
+=======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-multi-pack-index - Write and verify multi-pack-indexes
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git multi-pack-index' [--object-dir=<dir>] <verb>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Write or verify a multi-pack-index (MIDX) file.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--object-dir=<dir>::
+ Use given directory for the location of Git objects. We check
+ `<dir>/packs/multi-pack-index` for the current MIDX file, and
+ `<dir>/packs` for the pack-files to index.
+
+write::
+ When given as the verb, write a new MIDX file to
+ `<dir>/packs/multi-pack-index`.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Write a MIDX file for the packfiles in the current .git folder.
++
+-----------------------------------------------
+$ git multi-pack-index write
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a MIDX file for the packfiles in an alternate object store.
++
+-----------------------------------------------
+$ git multi-pack-index --object-dir <alt> write
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+See link:technical/multi-pack-index.html[The Multi-Pack-Index Design
+Document] and link:technical/pack-format.html[The Multi-Pack-Index
+Format] for more information on the multi-pack-index feature.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index e8dec1b..df2b64d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@ OPTIONS
.git/NOTES_MERGE_REF symref is updated to the resulting commit.
--abort::
- Abort/reset a in-progress 'git notes merge', i.e. a notes merge
+ Abort/reset an in-progress 'git notes merge', i.e. a notes merge
with conflicts. This simply removes all files related to the
notes merge.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index f0de3b8..41780a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -374,6 +374,14 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
been submitted. Implies --disable-rebase. Can also be set with
git-p4.disableP4Sync. Sync with origin/master still goes ahead if possible.
+Hook for submit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The `p4-pre-submit` hook is executed if it exists and is executable.
+The hook takes no parameters and nothing from standard input. Exiting with
+non-zero status from this script prevents `git-p4 submit` from launching.
+
+One usage scenario is to run unit tests in the hook.
+
Rebase options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f693930
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,252 @@
+git-range-diff(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-range-diff - Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch)
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git range-diff' [--color=[<when>]] [--no-color] [<diff-options>]
+ [--no-dual-color] [--creation-factor=<factor>]
+ ( <range1> <range2> | <rev1>...<rev2> | <base> <rev1> <rev2> )
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This command shows the differences between two versions of a patch
+series, or more generally, two commit ranges (ignoring merge commits).
+
+To that end, it first finds pairs of commits from both commit ranges
+that correspond with each other. Two commits are said to correspond when
+the diff between their patches (i.e. the author information, the commit
+message and the commit diff) is reasonably small compared to the
+patches' size. See ``Algorithm`` below for details.
+
+Finally, the list of matching commits is shown in the order of the
+second commit range, with unmatched commits being inserted just after
+all of their ancestors have been shown.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--no-dual-color::
+ When the commit diffs differ, `git range-diff` recreates the
+ original diffs' coloring, and adds outer -/+ diff markers with
+ the *background* being red/green to make it easier to see e.g.
+ when there was a change in what exact lines were added.
++
+Additionally, the commit diff lines that are only present in the first commit
+range are shown "dimmed" (this can be overridden using the `color.diff.<slot>`
+config setting where `<slot>` is one of `contextDimmed`, `oldDimmed` and
+`newDimmed`), and the commit diff lines that are only present in the second
+commit range are shown in bold (which can be overridden using the config
+settings `color.diff.<slot>` with `<slot>` being one of `contextBold`,
+`oldBold` or `newBold`).
++
+This is known to `range-diff` as "dual coloring". Use `--no-dual-color`
+to revert to color all lines according to the outer diff markers
+(and completely ignore the inner diff when it comes to color).
+
+--creation-factor=<percent>::
+ Set the creation/deletion cost fudge factor to `<percent>`.
+ Defaults to 60. Try a larger value if `git range-diff` erroneously
+ considers a large change a total rewrite (deletion of one commit
+ and addition of another), and a smaller one in the reverse case.
+ See the ``Algorithm`` section below for an explanation why this is
+ needed.
+
+<range1> <range2>::
+ Compare the commits specified by the two ranges, where
+ `<range1>` is considered an older version of `<range2>`.
+
+<rev1>...<rev2>::
+ Equivalent to passing `<rev2>..<rev1>` and `<rev1>..<rev2>`.
+
+<base> <rev1> <rev2>::
+ Equivalent to passing `<base>..<rev1>` and `<base>..<rev2>`.
+ Note that `<base>` does not need to be the exact branch point
+ of the branches. Example: after rebasing a branch `my-topic`,
+ `git range-diff my-topic@{u} my-topic@{1} my-topic` would
+ show the differences introduced by the rebase.
+
+`git range-diff` also accepts the regular diff options (see
+linkgit:git-diff[1]), most notably the `--color=[<when>]` and
+`--no-color` options. These options are used when generating the "diff
+between patches", i.e. to compare the author, commit message and diff of
+corresponding old/new commits. There is currently no means to tweak the
+diff options passed to `git log` when generating those patches.
+
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+This command uses the `diff.color.*` and `pager.range-diff` settings
+(the latter is on by default).
+See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+When a rebase required merge conflicts to be resolved, compare the changes
+introduced by the rebase directly afterwards using:
+
+------------
+$ git range-diff @{u} @{1} @
+------------
+
+
+A typical output of `git range-diff` would look like this:
+
+------------
+-: ------- > 1: 0ddba11 Prepare for the inevitable!
+1: c0debee = 2: cab005e Add a helpful message at the start
+2: f00dbal ! 3: decafe1 Describe a bug
+ @@ -1,3 +1,3 @@
+ Author: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+
+ -TODO: Describe a bug
+ +Describe a bug
+ @@ -324,5 +324,6
+ This is expected.
+
+ -+What is unexpected is that it will also crash.
+ ++Unexpectedly, it also crashes. This is a bug, and the jury is
+ ++still out there how to fix it best. See ticket #314 for details.
+
+ Contact
+3: bedead < -: ------- TO-UNDO
+------------
+
+In this example, there are 3 old and 3 new commits, where the developer
+removed the 3rd, added a new one before the first two, and modified the
+commit message of the 2nd commit as well its diff.
+
+When the output goes to a terminal, it is color-coded by default, just
+like regular `git diff`'s output. In addition, the first line (adding a
+commit) is green, the last line (deleting a commit) is red, the second
+line (with a perfect match) is yellow like the commit header of `git
+show`'s output, and the third line colors the old commit red, the new
+one green and the rest like `git show`'s commit header.
+
+A naive color-coded diff of diffs is actually a bit hard to read,
+though, as it colors the entire lines red or green. The line that added
+"What is unexpected" in the old commit, for example, is completely red,
+even if the intent of the old commit was to add something.
+
+To help with that, `range` uses the `--dual-color` mode by default. In
+this mode, the diff of diffs will retain the original diff colors, and
+prefix the lines with -/+ markers that have their *background* red or
+green, to make it more obvious that they describe how the diff itself
+changed.
+
+
+Algorithm
+---------
+
+The general idea is this: we generate a cost matrix between the commits
+in both commit ranges, then solve the least-cost assignment.
+
+The cost matrix is populated thusly: for each pair of commits, both
+diffs are generated and the "diff of diffs" is generated, with 3 context
+lines, then the number of lines in that diff is used as cost.
+
+To avoid false positives (e.g. when a patch has been removed, and an
+unrelated patch has been added between two iterations of the same patch
+series), the cost matrix is extended to allow for that, by adding
+fixed-cost entries for wholesale deletes/adds.
+
+Example: Let commits `1--2` be the first iteration of a patch series and
+`A--C` the second iteration. Let's assume that `A` is a cherry-pick of
+`2,` and `C` is a cherry-pick of `1` but with a small modification (say,
+a fixed typo). Visualize the commits as a bipartite graph:
+
+------------
+ 1 A
+
+ 2 B
+
+ C
+------------
+
+We are looking for a "best" explanation of the new series in terms of
+the old one. We can represent an "explanation" as an edge in the graph:
+
+
+------------
+ 1 A
+ /
+ 2 --------' B
+
+ C
+------------
+
+This explanation comes for "free" because there was no change. Similarly
+`C` could be explained using `1`, but that comes at some cost c>0
+because of the modification:
+
+------------
+ 1 ----. A
+ | /
+ 2 ----+---' B
+ |
+ `----- C
+ c>0
+------------
+
+In mathematical terms, what we are looking for is some sort of a minimum
+cost bipartite matching; `1` is matched to `C` at some cost, etc. The
+underlying graph is in fact a complete bipartite graph; the cost we
+associate with every edge is the size of the diff between the two
+commits' patches. To explain also new commits, we introduce dummy nodes
+on both sides:
+
+------------
+ 1 ----. A
+ | /
+ 2 ----+---' B
+ |
+ o `----- C
+ c>0
+ o o
+
+ o o
+------------
+
+The cost of an edge `o--C` is the size of `C`'s diff, modified by a
+fudge factor that should be smaller than 100%. The cost of an edge
+`o--o` is free. The fudge factor is necessary because even if `1` and
+`C` have nothing in common, they may still share a few empty lines and
+such, possibly making the assignment `1--C`, `o--o` slightly cheaper
+than `1--o`, `o--C` even if `1` and `C` have nothing in common. With the
+fudge factor we require a much larger common part to consider patches as
+corresponding.
+
+The overall time needed to compute this algorithm is the time needed to
+compute n+m commit diffs and then n*m diffs of patches, plus the time
+needed to compute the least-cost assigment between n and m diffs. Git
+uses an implementation of the Jonker-Volgenant algorithm to solve the
+assignment problem, which has cubic runtime complexity. The matching
+found in this case will look like this:
+
+------------
+ 1 ----. A
+ | /
+ 2 ----+---' B
+ .--+-----'
+ o -' `----- C
+ c>0
+ o ---------- o
+
+ o ---------- o
+------------
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-log[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 0e20a66..1fbc6eb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -243,11 +243,15 @@ leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
--keep-empty::
Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
parents in the result.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--allow-empty-message::
By default, rebasing commits with an empty message will fail.
This option overrides that behavior, allowing commits with empty
messages to be rebased.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--skip::
Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
@@ -271,6 +275,8 @@ branch on top of the <upstream> branch. Because of this, when a merge
conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch. In
other words, the sides are swapped.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-s <strategy>::
--strategy=<strategy>::
@@ -280,8 +286,10 @@ other words, the sides are swapped.
+
Because 'git rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
-the 'ours' strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>,
+the 'ours' strategy simply empties all patches from the <branch>,
which makes little sense.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-X <strategy-option>::
--strategy-option=<strategy-option>::
@@ -289,6 +297,8 @@ which makes little sense.
This implies `--merge` and, if no strategy has been
specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-S[<keyid>]::
--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
@@ -324,17 +334,21 @@ which makes little sense.
and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
context exist they all must match. By default no context is
ever ignored.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--f::
+--no-ff::
--force-rebase::
- Force a rebase even if the current branch is up to date and
- the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
+-f::
+ Individually replay all rebased commits instead of fast-forwarding
+ over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the entire history of
+ the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
+
-You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
-reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
-fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
-the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
+recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
+successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+details).
--fork-point::
--no-fork-point::
@@ -355,19 +369,22 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
--whitespace=<option>::
These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
(see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
- Incompatible with the --interactive option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--committer-date-is-author-date::
--ignore-date::
These flags are passed to 'git am' to easily change the dates
of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
- Incompatible with the --interactive option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--signoff::
Add a Signed-off-by: trailer to all the rebased commits. Note
that if `--interactive` is given then only commits marked to be
- picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added. Incompatible
- with the `--preserve-merges` option.
+ picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-i::
--interactive::
@@ -378,6 +395,8 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
The commit list format can be changed by setting the configuration option
rebase.instructionFormat. A customized instruction format will automatically
have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-r::
--rebase-merges[=(rebase-cousins|no-rebase-cousins)]::
@@ -404,7 +423,7 @@ It is currently only possible to recreate the merge commits using the
`recursive` merge strategy; Different merge strategies can be used only via
explicit `exec git merge -s <strategy> [...]` commands.
+
-See also REBASING MERGES below.
+See also REBASING MERGES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-p::
--preserve-merges::
@@ -415,6 +434,8 @@ See also REBASING MERGES below.
This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but combining it
with the `--interactive` option explicitly is generally not a good
idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-x <cmd>::
--exec <cmd>::
@@ -437,6 +458,8 @@ squash/fixup series.
+
This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but it can be run
without an explicit `--interactive`.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--root::
Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
@@ -447,6 +470,8 @@ without an explicit `--interactive`.
When used together with both --onto and --preserve-merges,
'all' root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
instead.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--autosquash::
--no-autosquash::
@@ -461,11 +486,11 @@ without an explicit `--interactive`.
too. The recommended way to create fixup/squash commits is by using
the `--fixup`/`--squash` options of linkgit:git-commit[1].
+
-This option is only valid when the `--interactive` option is used.
-+
If the `--autosquash` option is enabled by default using the
configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
used to override and disable this setting.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--autostash::
--no-autostash::
@@ -475,17 +500,73 @@ used to override and disable this setting.
with care: the final stash application after a successful
rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
---no-ff::
- With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
- fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
- entire history of the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
-+
-Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.
-+
-You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
-recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
-successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS
+--------------------
+
+git-rebase has many flags that are incompatible with each other,
+predominantly due to the fact that it has three different underlying
+implementations:
+
+ * one based on linkgit:git-am[1] (the default)
+ * one based on git-merge-recursive (merge backend)
+ * one based on linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1] (interactive backend)
+
+Flags only understood by the am backend:
+
+ * --committer-date-is-author-date
+ * --ignore-date
+ * --whitespace
+ * --ignore-whitespace
+ * -C
+
+Flags understood by both merge and interactive backends:
+
+ * --merge
+ * --strategy
+ * --strategy-option
+ * --allow-empty-message
+
+Flags only understood by the interactive backend:
+
+ * --[no-]autosquash
+ * --rebase-merges
+ * --preserve-merges
+ * --interactive
+ * --exec
+ * --keep-empty
+ * --autosquash
+ * --edit-todo
+ * --root when used in combination with --onto
+
+Other incompatible flag pairs:
+
+ * --preserve-merges and --interactive
+ * --preserve-merges and --signoff
+ * --preserve-merges and --rebase-merges
+ * --rebase-merges and --strategy
+ * --rebase-merges and --strategy-option
+
+BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES
+-----------------------
+
+ * empty commits:
+
+ am-based rebase will drop any "empty" commits, whether the
+ commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
+ start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
+ upstream in other commits).
+
+ merge-based rebase does the same.
+
+ interactive-based rebase will by default drop commits that
+ started empty and halt if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
+ The `--keep-empty` option exists for interactive rebases to allow
+ it to keep commits that started empty.
+
+ * directory rename detection:
+
+ merge-based and interactive-based rebases work fine with
+ directory rename detection. am-based rebases sometimes do not.
include::merge-strategies.txt[]
@@ -804,7 +885,7 @@ The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
case" recovery too!
REBASING MERGES
------------------
+---------------
The interactive rebase command was originally designed to handle
individual patch series. As such, it makes sense to exclude merge
@@ -879,8 +960,8 @@ rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how to edit the todo list
(this typically happens when a `reset` command was inserted into the todo
list manually and contains a typo).
-The `merge` command will merge the specified revision into whatever is
-HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
+The `merge` command will merge the specified revision(s) into whatever
+is HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
the specified merge commit will be used. When the `-C` is changed to
a lower-case `-c`, the message will be opened in an editor after a
successful merge so that the user can edit the message.
@@ -889,7 +970,8 @@ If a `merge` command fails for any reason other than merge conflicts (i.e.
when the merge operation did not even start), it is rescheduled immediately.
At this time, the `merge` command will *always* use the `recursive`
-merge strategy, with no way to choose a different one. To work around
+merge strategy for regular merges, and `octopus` for octopus merges,
+strategy, with no way to choose a different one. To work around
this, an `exec` command can be used to call `git merge` explicitly,
using the fact that the labels are worktree-local refs (the ref
`refs/rewritten/onto` would correspond to the label `onto`, for example).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index d90e790..d056250 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -40,6 +40,11 @@ OPTIONS
Note that users fetching over dumb protocols will have to fetch the
whole new pack in order to get any contained object, no matter how many
other objects in that pack they already have locally.
++
+Promisor packfiles are repacked separately: if there are packfiles that
+have an associated ".promisor" file, these packfiles will be repacked
+into another separate pack, and an empty ".promisor" file corresponding
+to the new separate pack will be written.
-A::
Same as `-a`, unless `-d` is used. Then any unreachable
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 4f3efde..465a4ec 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -137,15 +137,17 @@ Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
'sendemail.composeencoding'; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
---transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64)::
+--transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64|auto)::
Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the message over SMTP.
7bit will fail upon encountering a non-ASCII message. quoted-printable
can be useful when the repository contains files that contain carriage
returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved from a MUA) much
harder to inspect manually. base64 is even more fool proof, but also
- even more opaque. Default is the value of the `sendemail.transferEncoding`
- configuration value; if that is unspecified, git will use 8bit and not
- add a Content-Transfer-Encoding header.
+ even more opaque. auto will use 8bit when possible, and quoted-printable
+ otherwise.
++
+Default is the value of the `sendemail.transferEncoding` configuration
+value; if that is unspecified, default to `auto`.
--xmailer::
--no-xmailer::
@@ -398,8 +400,11 @@ have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
+
--
* Invoke the sendemail-validate hook if present (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
- * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
- is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
+ * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than
+ 998 characters unless a suitable transfer encoding
+ ('auto', 'base64', or 'quoted-printable') is used;
+ this is due to SMTP limits as described by
+ http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5322.txt.
--
+
Default is the value of `sendemail.validate`; if this is not set,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index a8a9509..424e4ba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,27 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Read the idx file for a Git packfile created with
-'git pack-objects' command from the standard input, and
-dump its contents.
+Read the `.idx` file for a Git packfile (created with
+linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] or linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) from the
+standard input, and dump its contents. The output consists of one object
+per line, with each line containing two or three space-separated
+columns:
-The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
-'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
-offset and SHA-1 of each object.
+ - the first column is the offset in bytes of the object within the
+ corresponding packfile
+
+ - the second column is the object id of the object
+
+ - if the index version is 2 or higher, the third column contains the
+ CRC32 of the object data
+
+The objects are output in the order in which they are found in the index
+file, which should be (in a correctly constructed file) sorted by object
+id.
+
+Note that you can get more information on a packfile by calling
+linkgit:git-verify-pack[1]. However, as this command considers only the
+index file itself, it's both faster and more flexible.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index c4467ff..d9f422d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ It is optional: it defaults to 'traditional'.
The possible options are:
+
- 'traditional' - Shows ignored files and directories, unless
- --untracked-files=all is specifed, in which case
+ --untracked-files=all is specified, in which case
individual files in ignored directories are
displayed.
- 'no' - Show no ignored files.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index ef9d9d2..ba3c4df 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -183,12 +183,17 @@ information too.
foreach [--recursive] <command>::
Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule.
- The command has access to the variables $name, $path, $sha1 and
- $toplevel:
+ The command has access to the variables $name, $sm_path, $displaypath,
+ $sha1 and $toplevel:
$name is the name of the relevant submodule section in `.gitmodules`,
- $path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the
- superproject, $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the superproject,
- and $toplevel is the absolute path to the top-level of the superproject.
+ $sm_path is the path of the submodule as recorded in the immediate
+ superproject, $displaypath contains the relative path from the
+ current working directory to the submodules root directory,
+ $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the immediate
+ superproject, and $toplevel is the absolute path to the top-level
+ of the immediate superproject.
+ Note that to avoid conflicts with '$PATH' on Windows, the '$path'
+ variable is now a deprecated synonym of '$sm_path' variable.
Any submodules defined in the superproject but not checked out are
ignored by this command. Unless given `--quiet`, foreach prints the name
of each submodule before evaluating the command.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 7ea24fc..b990295 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -452,7 +452,7 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
'commit-diff'::
Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
- command-line. This command does not rely on being inside an `git svn
+ command-line. This command does not rely on being inside a `git svn
init`-ed repository. This command takes three arguments, (a) the
original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the
URL of the target Subversion repository. The final argument
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 87c4288..92f9c12 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@ options for details.
variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
linkgit:git-config[1].
---color[=<when>]:
+--color[=<when>]::
Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
`<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
`<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 4e8e762..1c4d146 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -245,10 +245,10 @@ USING --CACHEINFO OR --INFO-ONLY
current working directory. This is useful for minimum-checkout
merging.
-To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
+To pretend you have a file at path with mode and sha1, say:
----------------
-$ git update-index --cacheinfo <mode>,<sha1>,<path>
+$ git update-index --add --cacheinfo <mode>,<sha1>,<path>
----------------
`--info-only` is used to register files without placing them in the object
@@ -268,23 +268,20 @@ USING --INDEX-INFO
multiple entry definitions from the standard input, and designed
specifically for scripts. It can take inputs of three formats:
- . mode SP sha1 TAB path
-+
-The first format is what "git-apply --index-info"
-reports, and used to reconstruct a partial tree
-that is used for phony merge base tree when falling
-back on 3-way merge.
-
. mode SP type SP sha1 TAB path
+
-The second format is to stuff 'git ls-tree' output
-into the index file.
+This format is to stuff `git ls-tree` output into the index.
. mode SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
+
This format is to put higher order stages into the
index file and matches 'git ls-files --stage' output.
+ . mode SP sha1 TAB path
++
+This format is no longer produced by any Git command, but is
+and will continue to be supported by `update-index --index-info`.
+
To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
then feeding necessary input lines in the third format.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index afc6576..29a5b7e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -60,6 +60,15 @@ with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
$ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
------------
+
+If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
+the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
+one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
+unique across all remotes. Set it to
+e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
+branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
+'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
+linkgit:git-config[1].
++
If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a branch
(call it `<branch>`) named after `$(basename <path>)`. If `<branch>`
@@ -164,6 +173,10 @@ This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
configuration. See below for details.
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ With 'add', suppress feedback messages.
+
-v::
--verbose::
With `prune`, report all removals.
diff --git a/Documentation/giteveryday.txt b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
index 10c8ff9..9f2528f 100644
--- a/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@ commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
This section can also be used by those who respond to `git
request-pull` or pull-request on GitHub (www.github.com) to
-integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
+integrate the work of others into their history. A sub-area
lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and
as an integrator.
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index e3c283a..9590443 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -485,6 +485,13 @@ The exit status determines whether git will use the data from the
hook to limit its search. On error, it will fall back to verifying
all files and folders.
+p4-pre-submit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-p4 submit`. It takes no parameters and nothing
+from standard input. Exiting with non-zero status from this script prevent
+`git-p4 submit` from launching. Run `git-p4 submit --help` for details.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index ff5d7f9..d107daa 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore
SYNOPSIS
--------
-$HOME/.config/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
+$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
index 3b9faab..504c5f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@ In the above config only the submodule 'bar' and 'baz' are active,
Note that (c) is a historical artefact and will be ignored if the
(a) and (b) specify that the submodule is not active. In other words,
-if we have an `submodule.<name>.active` set to `false` or if the
+if we have a `submodule.<name>.active` set to `false` or if the
submodule's path is excluded in the pathspec in `submodule.active`, the
url doesn't matter whether it is present or not. This is illustrated in
the example that follows.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 6c2d23d..0d2aa48 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -334,7 +334,7 @@ The optional colon that terminates the "magic signature" can be
omitted if the pattern begins with a character that does not belong to
"magic signature" symbol set and is not a colon.
+
-In the long form, the leading colon `:` is followed by a open
+In the long form, the leading colon `:` is followed by an open
parenthesis `(`, a comma-separated list of zero or more "magic words",
and a close parentheses `)`, and the remainder is the pattern to match
against the path.
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index c579793..f1fb08d 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ name.
it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
+
The remote ref that matches <src>
-is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local
+is fetched, and if <dst> is not an empty string, the local
ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>.
If the optional plus `+` is used, the local ref
is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 7d1bd44..72daa20 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -184,7 +184,8 @@ existing tag object.
A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names
a commit whose commit message matches the specified regular expression.
This name returns the youngest matching commit which is
- reachable from any ref. The regular expression can match any part of the
+ reachable from any ref, including HEAD.
+ The regular expression can match any part of the
commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use
e.g. ':/^foo'. The special sequence ':/!' is reserved for modifiers to what
is matched. ':/!-foo' performs a negative match, while ':/!!foo' matches a
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 4f44ca2..5abb8e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ The notable options are:
this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
+
If this is set, files and directories that explicitly match an ignore
-pattern are reported. Implicity ignored directories (directories that
+pattern are reported. Implicitly ignored directories (directories that
do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
index e7cbb7c..45f0df6 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
@@ -146,7 +146,7 @@ To get the values of all attributes associated with a file:
* Iterate over the `attr_check.items[]` array to examine
the attribute names and values. The name of the attribute
- described by a `attr_check.items[]` object can be retrieved via
+ described by an `attr_check.items[]` object can be retrieved via
`git_attr_name(check->items[i].attr)`. (Please note that no items
will be returned for unset attributes, so `ATTR_UNSET()` will return
false for all returned `attr_check.items[]` objects.)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
index ad6af81..cc0474b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ metadata, including:
the graph file.
These positional references are stored as unsigned 32-bit integers
-corresponding to the array position withing the list of commit OIDs. We
-use the most-significant bit for special purposes, so we can store at most
-(1 << 31) - 1 (around 2 billion) commits.
+corresponding to the array position within the list of commit OIDs. Due
+to some special constants we use to track parents, we can store at most
+(1 << 30) + (1 << 29) + (1 << 28) - 1 (around 1.8 billion) commits.
== Commit graph files have the following format:
@@ -70,10 +70,10 @@ CHUNK DATA:
OID Lookup (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'L'}) (N * H bytes)
The OIDs for all commits in the graph, sorted in ascending order.
- Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'G', 'E', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
+ Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'D', 'A', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
* The first H bytes are for the OID of the root tree.
* The next 8 bytes are for the positions of the first two parents
- of the ith commit. Stores value 0xffffffff if no parent in that
+ of the ith commit. Stores value 0x7000000 if no parent in that
position. If there are more than two parents, the second value
has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store an array
position into the Large Edge List chunk.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
index 0550c6d..c664acb 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
@@ -77,6 +77,29 @@ in the commit graph. We can treat these commits as having "infinite"
generation number and walk until reaching commits with known generation
number.
+We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_INFINITY = 0xFFFFFFFF to mark commits not
+in the commit-graph file. If a commit-graph file was written by a version
+of Git that did not compute generation numbers, then those commits will
+have generation number represented by the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_ZERO = 0.
+
+Since the commit-graph file is closed under reachability, we can guarantee
+the following weaker condition on all commits:
+
+ If A and B are commits with generation numbers N amd M, respectively,
+ and N < M, then A cannot reach B.
+
+Note how the strict inequality differs from the inequality when we have
+fully-computed generation numbers. Using strict inequality may result in
+walking a few extra commits, but the simplicity in dealing with commits
+with generation number *_INFINITY or *_ZERO is valuable.
+
+We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_MAX = 0x3FFFFFFF to for commits whose
+generation numbers are computed to be at least this value. We limit at
+this value since it is the largest value that can be stored in the
+commit-graph file using the 30 bits available to generation numbers. This
+presents another case where a commit can have generation number equal to
+that of a parent.
+
Design Details
--------------
@@ -95,40 +118,14 @@ Future Work
- The commit graph feature currently does not honor commit grafts. This can
be remedied by duplicating or refactoring the current graft logic.
-- The 'commit-graph' subcommand does not have a "verify" mode that is
- necessary for integration with fsck.
-
-- The file format includes room for precomputed generation numbers. These
- are not currently computed, so all generation numbers will be marked as
- 0 (or "uncomputed"). A later patch will include this calculation.
-
- After computing and storing generation numbers, we must make graph
walks aware of generation numbers to gain the performance benefits they
enable. This will mostly be accomplished by swapping a commit-date-ordered
priority queue with one ordered by generation number. The following
operations are important candidates:
- - paint_down_to_common()
- 'log --topo-order'
-
-- Currently, parse_commit_gently() requires filling in the root tree
- object for a commit. This passes through lookup_tree() and consequently
- lookup_object(). Also, it calls lookup_commit() when loading the parents.
- These method calls check the ODB for object existence, even if the
- consumer does not need the content. For example, we do not need the
- tree contents when computing merge bases. Now that commit parsing is
- removed from the computation time, these lookup operations are the
- slowest operations keeping graph walks from being fast. Consider
- loading these objects without verifying their existence in the ODB and
- only loading them fully when consumers need them. Consider a method
- such as "ensure_tree_loaded(commit)" that fully loads a tree before
- using commit->tree.
-
-- The current design uses the 'commit-graph' subcommand to generate the graph.
- When this feature stabilizes enough to recommend to most users, we should
- add automatic graph writes to common operations that create many commits.
- For example, one could compute a graph on 'clone', 'fetch', or 'repack'
- commands.
+ - 'tag --merged'
- A server could provide a commit graph file as part of the network protocol
to avoid extra calculations by clients. This feature is only of benefit if
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt b/Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1c0086e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,115 @@
+Directory rename detection
+==========================
+
+Rename detection logic in diffcore-rename that checks for renames of
+individual files is aggregated and analyzed in merge-recursive for cases
+where combinations of renames indicate that a full directory has been
+renamed.
+
+Scope of abilities
+------------------
+
+It is perhaps easiest to start with an example:
+
+ * When all of x/a, x/b and x/c have moved to z/a, z/b and z/c, it is
+ likely that x/d added in the meantime would also want to move to z/d by
+ taking the hint that the entire directory 'x' moved to 'z'.
+
+More interesting possibilities exist, though, such as:
+
+ * one side of history renames x -> z, and the other renames some file to
+ x/e, causing the need for the merge to do a transitive rename.
+
+ * one side of history renames x -> z, but also renames all files within
+ x. For example, x/a -> z/alpha, x/b -> z/bravo, etc.
+
+ * both 'x' and 'y' being merged into a single directory 'z', with a
+ directory rename being detected for both x->z and y->z.
+
+ * not all files in a directory being renamed to the same location;
+ i.e. perhaps most the files in 'x' are now found under 'z', but a few
+ are found under 'w'.
+
+ * a directory being renamed, which also contained a subdirectory that was
+ renamed to some entirely different location. (And perhaps the inner
+ directory itself contained inner directories that were renamed to yet
+ other locations).
+
+ * combinations of the above; see t/t6043-merge-rename-directories.sh for
+ various interesting cases.
+
+Limitations -- applicability of directory renames
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+In order to prevent edge and corner cases resulting in either conflicts
+that cannot be represented in the index or which might be too complex for
+users to try to understand and resolve, a couple basic rules limit when
+directory rename detection applies:
+
+ 1) If a given directory still exists on both sides of a merge, we do
+ not consider it to have been renamed.
+
+ 2) If a subset of to-be-renamed files have a file or directory in the
+ way (or would be in the way of each other), "turn off" the directory
+ rename for those specific sub-paths and report the conflict to the
+ user.
+
+ 3) If the other side of history did a directory rename to a path that
+ your side of history renamed away, then ignore that particular
+ rename from the other side of history for any implicit directory
+ renames (but warn the user).
+
+Limitations -- detailed rules and testcases
+-------------------------------------------
+
+t/t6043-merge-rename-directories.sh contains extensive tests and commentary
+which generate and explore the rules listed above. It also lists a few
+additional rules:
+
+ a) If renames split a directory into two or more others, the directory
+ with the most renames, "wins".
+
+ b) Avoid directory-rename-detection for a path, if that path is the
+ source of a rename on either side of a merge.
+
+ c) Only apply implicit directory renames to directories if the other side
+ of history is the one doing the renaming.
+
+Limitations -- support in different commands
+--------------------------------------------
+
+Directory rename detection is supported by 'merge' and 'cherry-pick'.
+Other git commands which users might be surprised to see limited or no
+directory rename detection support in:
+
+ * diff
+
+ Folks have requested in the past that `git diff` detect directory
+ renames and somehow simplify its output. It is not clear whether this
+ would be desirable or how the output should be simplified, so this was
+ simply not implemented. Further, to implement this, directory rename
+ detection logic would need to move from merge-recursive to
+ diffcore-rename.
+
+ * am
+
+ git-am tries to avoid a full three way merge, instead calling
+ git-apply. That prevents us from detecting renames at all, which may
+ defeat the directory rename detection. There is a fallback, though; if
+ the initial git-apply fails and the user has specified the -3 option,
+ git-am will fall back to a three way merge. However, git-am lacks the
+ necessary information to do a "real" three way merge. Instead, it has
+ to use build_fake_ancestor() to get a merge base that is missing files
+ whose rename may have been important to detect for directory rename
+ detection to function.
+
+ * rebase
+
+ Since am-based rebases work by first generating a bunch of patches
+ (which no longer record what the original commits were and thus don't
+ have the necessary info from which we can find a real merge-base), and
+ then calling git-am, this implies that am-based rebases will not always
+ successfully detect directory renames either (see the 'am' section
+ above). merged-based rebases (rebase -m) and cherry-pick-based rebases
+ (rebase -i) are not affected by this shortcoming, and fully support
+ directory rename detection.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
index 4ab6cd1..bc2ace2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -59,14 +59,11 @@ that are believed to be cryptographically secure.
Goals
-----
-Where NewHash is a strong 256-bit hash function to replace SHA-1 (see
-"Selection of a New Hash", below):
-
-1. The transition to NewHash can be done one local repository at a time.
+1. The transition to SHA-256 can be done one local repository at a time.
a. Requiring no action by any other party.
- b. A NewHash repository can communicate with SHA-1 Git servers
+ b. A SHA-256 repository can communicate with SHA-1 Git servers
(push/fetch).
- c. Users can use SHA-1 and NewHash identifiers for objects
+ c. Users can use SHA-1 and SHA-256 identifiers for objects
interchangeably (see "Object names on the command line", below).
d. New signed objects make use of a stronger hash function than
SHA-1 for their security guarantees.
@@ -79,7 +76,7 @@ Where NewHash is a strong 256-bit hash function to replace SHA-1 (see
Non-Goals
---------
-1. Add NewHash support to Git protocol. This is valuable and the
+1. Add SHA-256 support to Git protocol. This is valuable and the
logical next step but it is out of scope for this initial design.
2. Transparently improving the security of existing SHA-1 signed
objects.
@@ -87,26 +84,26 @@ Non-Goals
repository.
4. Taking the opportunity to fix other bugs in Git's formats and
protocols.
-5. Shallow clones and fetches into a NewHash repository. (This will
- change when we add NewHash support to Git protocol.)
-6. Skip fetching some submodules of a project into a NewHash
- repository. (This also depends on NewHash support in Git
+5. Shallow clones and fetches into a SHA-256 repository. (This will
+ change when we add SHA-256 support to Git protocol.)
+6. Skip fetching some submodules of a project into a SHA-256
+ repository. (This also depends on SHA-256 support in Git
protocol.)
Overview
--------
We introduce a new repository format extension. Repositories with this
-extension enabled use NewHash instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
+extension enabled use SHA-256 instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
This affects both object names and object content --- both the names
of objects and all references to other objects within an object are
switched to the new hash function.
-NewHash repositories cannot be read by older versions of Git.
+SHA-256 repositories cannot be read by older versions of Git.
-Alongside the packfile, a NewHash repository stores a bidirectional
-mapping between NewHash and SHA-1 object names. The mapping is generated
+Alongside the packfile, a SHA-256 repository stores a bidirectional
+mapping between SHA-256 and SHA-1 object names. The mapping is generated
locally and can be verified using "git fsck". Object lookups use this
-mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and NewHash names
+mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and SHA-256 names
interchangeably.
"git cat-file" and "git hash-object" gain options to display an object
@@ -116,7 +113,7 @@ object database so that they can be named using the appropriate name
(using the bidirectional hash mapping).
Fetches from a SHA-1 based server convert the fetched objects into
-NewHash form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
+SHA-256 form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
(see below for details). Pushes to a SHA-1 based server convert the
objects being pushed into sha1 form so the server does not have to be
aware of the hash function the client is using.
@@ -125,19 +122,19 @@ Detailed Design
---------------
Repository format extension
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-A NewHash repository uses repository format version `1` (see
+A SHA-256 repository uses repository format version `1` (see
Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt) with extensions
`objectFormat` and `compatObjectFormat`:
[core]
repositoryFormatVersion = 1
[extensions]
- objectFormat = newhash
+ objectFormat = sha256
compatObjectFormat = sha1
The combination of setting `core.repositoryFormatVersion=1` and
populating `extensions.*` ensures that all versions of Git later than
-`v0.99.9l` will die instead of trying to operate on the NewHash
+`v0.99.9l` will die instead of trying to operate on the SHA-256
repository, instead producing an error message.
# Between v0.99.9l and v2.7.0
@@ -155,36 +152,36 @@ repository extensions.
Object names
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Objects can be named by their 40 hexadecimal digit sha1-name or 64
-hexadecimal digit newhash-name, plus names derived from those (see
+hexadecimal digit sha256-name, plus names derived from those (see
gitrevisions(7)).
The sha1-name of an object is the SHA-1 of the concatenation of its
type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha1-content. This is the
traditional <sha1> used in Git to name objects.
-The newhash-name of an object is the NewHash of the concatenation of its
-type, length, a nul byte, and the object's newhash-content.
+The sha256-name of an object is the SHA-256 of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha256-content.
Object format
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The content as a byte sequence of a tag, commit, or tree object named
-by sha1 and newhash differ because an object named by newhash-name refers to
-other objects by their newhash-names and an object named by sha1-name
+by sha1 and sha256 differ because an object named by sha256-name refers to
+other objects by their sha256-names and an object named by sha1-name
refers to other objects by their sha1-names.
-The newhash-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
-that objects referenced by the object are named using their newhash-names
+The sha256-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
+that objects referenced by the object are named using their sha256-names
instead of sha1-names. Because a blob object does not refer to any
-other object, its sha1-content and newhash-content are the same.
+other object, its sha1-content and sha256-content are the same.
-The format allows round-trip conversion between newhash-content and
+The format allows round-trip conversion between sha256-content and
sha1-content.
Object storage
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Loose objects use zlib compression and packed objects use the packed
format described in Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt, just like
-today. The content that is compressed and stored uses newhash-content
+today. The content that is compressed and stored uses sha256-content
instead of sha1-content.
Pack index
@@ -255,10 +252,10 @@ network byte order):
up to and not including the table of CRC32 values.
- Zero or more NUL bytes.
- The trailer consists of the following:
- - A copy of the 20-byte NewHash checksum at the end of the
+ - A copy of the 20-byte SHA-256 checksum at the end of the
corresponding packfile.
- - 20-byte NewHash checksum of all of the above.
+ - 20-byte SHA-256 checksum of all of the above.
Loose object index
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -266,7 +263,7 @@ A new file $GIT_OBJECT_DIR/loose-object-idx contains information about
all loose objects. Its format is
# loose-object-idx
- (newhash-name SP sha1-name LF)*
+ (sha256-name SP sha1-name LF)*
where the object names are in hexadecimal format. The file is not
sorted.
@@ -292,8 +289,8 @@ To remove entries (e.g. in "git pack-refs" or "git-prune"):
Translation table
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The index files support a bidirectional mapping between sha1-names
-and newhash-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
-lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a newhash-name:
+and sha256-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
+lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a sha256-name:
1. Look for the object in idx files. If a match is present in the
idx's sorted list of truncated sha1-names, then:
@@ -301,8 +298,8 @@ lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a newhash-name:
name order mapping.
b. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha1-name table to
verify we found the right object. If it is, then
- c. Read the corresponding entry in the full newhash-name table.
- That is the object's newhash-name.
+ c. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha256-name table.
+ That is the object's sha256-name.
2. Check for a loose object. Read lines from loose-object-idx until
we find a match.
@@ -318,25 +315,25 @@ for all objects in the object store.
Reading an object's sha1-content
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all newhash-names
-its newhash-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
+The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all sha256-names
+its sha256-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
Fetch
~~~~~
Fetching from a SHA-1 based server requires translating between SHA-1
-and NewHash based representations on the fly.
+and SHA-256 based representations on the fly.
SHA-1s named in the ref advertisement that are present on the client
-can be translated to NewHash and looked up as local objects using the
+can be translated to SHA-256 and looked up as local objects using the
translation table.
Negotiation proceeds as today. Any "have"s generated locally are
converted to SHA-1 before being sent to the server, and SHA-1s
-mentioned by the server are converted to NewHash when looking them up
+mentioned by the server are converted to SHA-256 when looking them up
locally.
After negotiation, the server sends a packfile containing the
-requested objects. We convert the packfile to NewHash format using
+requested objects. We convert the packfile to SHA-256 format using
the following steps:
1. index-pack: inflate each object in the packfile and compute its
@@ -351,12 +348,12 @@ the following steps:
(This list only contains objects reachable from the "wants". If the
pack from the server contained additional extraneous objects, then
they will be discarded.)
-3. convert to newhash: open a new (newhash) packfile. Read the topologically
+3. convert to sha256: open a new (sha256) packfile. Read the topologically
sorted list just generated. For each object, inflate its
- sha1-content, convert to newhash-content, and write it to the newhash
- pack. Record the new sha1<->newhash mapping entry for use in the idx.
+ sha1-content, convert to sha256-content, and write it to the sha256
+ pack. Record the new sha1<->sha256 mapping entry for use in the idx.
4. sort: reorder entries in the new pack to match the order of objects
- in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a newhash idx
+ in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a sha256 idx
file
5. clean up: remove the SHA-1 based pack file, index, and
topologically sorted list obtained from the server in steps 1
@@ -388,16 +385,16 @@ send-pack.
Signed Commits
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the commit object format to allow
+We add a new field "gpgsig-sha256" to the commit object format to allow
signing commits without relying on SHA-1. It is similar to the
-existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the newhash-content of the
-commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-newhash" fields removed.
+existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the sha256-content of the
+commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-sha256" fields removed.
This means commits can be signed
1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed commit objects
-2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using both gpgsig-newhash and gpgsig
+2. using both SHA-1 and SHA-256, by using both gpgsig-sha256 and gpgsig
fields.
-3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+3. using only SHA-256, by only using the gpgsig-sha256 field.
Old versions of "git verify-commit" can verify the gpgsig signature in
cases (1) and (2) without modifications and view case (3) as an
@@ -405,24 +402,24 @@ ordinary unsigned commit.
Signed Tags
~~~~~~~~~~~
-We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the tag object format to allow
+We add a new field "gpgsig-sha256" to the tag object format to allow
signing tags without relying on SHA-1. Its signed payload is the
-newhash-content of the tag with its gpgsig-newhash field and "-----BEGIN PGP
+sha256-content of the tag with its gpgsig-sha256 field and "-----BEGIN PGP
SIGNATURE-----" delimited in-body signature removed.
This means tags can be signed
1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed tag objects
-2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using gpgsig-newhash and an in-body
+2. using both SHA-1 and SHA-256, by using gpgsig-sha256 and an in-body
signature.
-3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+3. using only SHA-256, by only using the gpgsig-sha256 field.
Mergetag embedding
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The mergetag field in the sha1-content of a commit contains the
sha1-content of a tag that was merged by that commit.
-The mergetag field in the newhash-content of the same commit contains the
-newhash-content of the same tag.
+The mergetag field in the sha256-content of the same commit contains the
+sha256-content of the same tag.
Submodules
~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -497,7 +494,7 @@ Caveats
-------
Invalid objects
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The conversion from sha1-content to newhash-content retains any
+The conversion from sha1-content to sha256-content retains any
brokenness in the original object (e.g., tree entry modes encoded with
leading 0, tree objects whose paths are not sorted correctly, and
commit objects without an author or committer). This is a deliberate
@@ -516,7 +513,7 @@ allow lifting this restriction.
Alternates
~~~~~~~~~~
-For the same reason, a newhash repository cannot borrow objects from a
+For the same reason, a sha256 repository cannot borrow objects from a
sha1 repository using objects/info/alternates or
$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_REPOSITORIES.
@@ -524,20 +521,20 @@ git notes
~~~~~~~~~
The "git notes" tool annotates objects using their sha1-name as key.
This design does not describe a way to migrate notes trees to use
-newhash-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
+sha256-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
example using a file at the root of the notes tree to describe which
hash it uses).
Server-side cost
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Until Git protocol gains NewHash support, using NewHash based storage
+Until Git protocol gains SHA-256 support, using SHA-256 based storage
on public-facing Git servers is strongly discouraged. Once Git
-protocol gains NewHash support, NewHash based servers are likely not
+protocol gains SHA-256 support, SHA-256 based servers are likely not
to support SHA-1 compatibility, to avoid what may be a very expensive
hash reencode during clone and to encourage peers to modernize.
The design described here allows fetches by SHA-1 clients of a
-personal NewHash repository because it's not much more difficult than
+personal SHA-256 repository because it's not much more difficult than
allowing pushes from that repository. This support needs to be guarded
by a configuration option --- servers like git.kernel.org that serve a
large number of clients would not be expected to bear that cost.
@@ -547,7 +544,7 @@ Meaning of signatures
The signed payload for signed commits and tags does not explicitly
name the hash used to identify objects. If some day Git adopts a new
hash function with the same length as the current SHA-1 (40
-hexadecimal digit) or NewHash (64 hexadecimal digit) objects then the
+hexadecimal digit) or SHA-256 (64 hexadecimal digit) objects then the
intent behind the PGP signed payload in an object signature is
unclear:
@@ -562,7 +559,7 @@ Does this mean Git v2.12.0 is the commit with sha1-name
e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7 or the commit with
new-40-digit-hash-name e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7?
-Fortunately NewHash and SHA-1 have different lengths. If Git starts
+Fortunately SHA-256 and SHA-1 have different lengths. If Git starts
using another hash with the same length to name objects, then it will
need to change the format of signed payloads using that hash to
address this issue.
@@ -574,24 +571,24 @@ supports four different modes of operation:
1. ("dark launch") Treat object names input by the user as SHA-1 and
convert any object names written to output to SHA-1, but store
- objects using NewHash. This allows users to test the code with no
+ objects using SHA-256. This allows users to test the code with no
visible behavior change except for performance. This allows
allows running even tests that assume the SHA-1 hash function, to
sanity-check the behavior of the new mode.
- 2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
+ 2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and SHA-256 object names in
input. Any object names written to output use SHA-1. This allows
users to continue to make use of SHA-1 to communicate with peers
(e.g. by email) that have not migrated yet and prepares for mode 3.
- 3. ("late transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
- input. Any object names written to output use NewHash. In this
+ 3. ("late transition") Allow both SHA-1 and SHA-256 object names in
+ input. Any object names written to output use SHA-256. In this
mode, users are using a more secure object naming method by
default. The disruption is minimal as long as most of their peers
are in mode 2 or mode 3.
4. ("post-transition") Treat object names input by the user as
- NewHash and write output using NewHash. This is safer than mode 3
+ SHA-256 and write output using SHA-256. This is safer than mode 3
because there is less risk that input is incorrectly interpreted
using the wrong hash function.
@@ -601,27 +598,31 @@ The user can also explicitly specify which format to use for a
particular revision specifier and for output, overriding the mode. For
example:
-git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{newhash}
+git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{sha256}
-Selection of a New Hash
------------------------
+Choice of Hash
+--------------
In early 2005, around the time that Git was written, Xiaoyun Wang,
Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu announced an attack finding SHA-1
collisions in 2^69 operations. In August they published details.
Luckily, no practical demonstrations of a collision in full SHA-1 were
published until 10 years later, in 2017.
-The hash function NewHash to replace SHA-1 should be stronger than
-SHA-1 was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice
-for at least 10 years.
+Git v2.13.0 and later subsequently moved to a hardened SHA-1
+implementation by default that mitigates the SHAttered attack, but
+SHA-1 is still believed to be weak.
+
+The hash to replace this hardened SHA-1 should be stronger than SHA-1
+was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice for at
+least 10 years.
Some other relevant properties:
1. A 256-bit hash (long enough to match common security practice; not
excessively long to hurt performance and disk usage).
-2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g. in
- OpenSSL).
+2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g., in
+ OpenSSL and Apple CommonCrypto).
3. The hash function's properties should match Git's needs (e.g. Git
requires collision and 2nd preimage resistance and does not require
@@ -630,14 +631,13 @@ Some other relevant properties:
4. As a tiebreaker, the hash should be fast to compute (fortunately
many contenders are faster than SHA-1).
-Some hashes under consideration are SHA-256, SHA-512/256, SHA-256x16,
-K12, and BLAKE2bp-256.
+We choose SHA-256.
Transition plan
---------------
Some initial steps can be implemented independently of one another:
- adding a hash function API (vtable)
-- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-newhash field
+- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-sha256 field
- excluding gpgsig-* from the fields copied by "git commit --amend"
- annotating tests that depend on SHA-1 values with a SHA1 test
prerequisite
@@ -664,7 +664,7 @@ Next comes introduction of compatObjectFormat:
- adding appropriate index entries when adding a new object to the
object store
- --output-format option
-- ^{sha1} and ^{newhash} revision notation
+- ^{sha1} and ^{sha256} revision notation
- configuration to specify default input and output format (see
"Object names on the command line" above)
@@ -672,7 +672,7 @@ The next step is supporting fetches and pushes to SHA-1 repositories:
- allow pushes to a repository using the compat format
- generate a topologically sorted list of the SHA-1 names of fetched
objects
-- convert the fetched packfile to newhash format and generate an idx
+- convert the fetched packfile to sha256 format and generate an idx
file
- re-sort to match the order of objects in the fetched packfile
@@ -680,30 +680,30 @@ The infrastructure supporting fetch also allows converting an existing
repository. In converted repositories and new clones, end users can
gain support for the new hash function without any visible change in
behavior (see "dark launch" in the "Object names on the command line"
-section). In particular this allows users to verify NewHash signatures
+section). In particular this allows users to verify SHA-256 signatures
on objects in the repository, and it should ensure the transition code
is stable in production in preparation for using it more widely.
Over time projects would encourage their users to adopt the "early
transition" and then "late transition" modes to take advantage of the
-new, more futureproof NewHash object names.
+new, more futureproof SHA-256 object names.
When objectFormat and compatObjectFormat are both set, commands
-generating signatures would generate both SHA-1 and NewHash signatures
+generating signatures would generate both SHA-1 and SHA-256 signatures
by default to support both new and old users.
-In projects using NewHash heavily, users could be encouraged to adopt
+In projects using SHA-256 heavily, users could be encouraged to adopt
the "post-transition" mode to avoid accidentally making implicit use
of SHA-1 object names.
Once a critical mass of users have upgraded to a version of Git that
-can verify NewHash signatures and have converted their existing
+can verify SHA-256 signatures and have converted their existing
repositories to support verifying them, we can add support for a
-setting to generate only NewHash signatures. This is expected to be at
+setting to generate only SHA-256 signatures. This is expected to be at
least a year later.
That is also a good moment to advertise the ability to convert
-repositories to use NewHash only, stripping out all SHA-1 related
+repositories to use SHA-256 only, stripping out all SHA-1 related
metadata. This improves performance by eliminating translation
overhead and security by avoiding the possibility of accidentally
relying on the safety of SHA-1.
@@ -742,16 +742,16 @@ using the old hash function.
Signed objects with multiple hashes
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Instead of introducing the gpgsig-newhash field in commit and tag objects
-for newhash-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
-added "hash newhash <newhash-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
+Instead of introducing the gpgsig-sha256 field in commit and tag objects
+for sha256-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
+added "hash sha256 <sha256-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
sha1-content based signatures.
In other words, a single signature was used to attest to the object
content using both hash functions. This had some advantages:
* Using one signature instead of two speeds up the signing process.
* Having one signed payload with both hashes allows the signer to
- attest to the sha1-name and newhash-name referring to the same object.
+ attest to the sha1-name and sha256-name referring to the same object.
* All users consume the same signature. Broken signatures are likely
to be detected quickly using current versions of git.
@@ -760,11 +760,11 @@ However, it also came with disadvantages:
objects it references, even after the transition is complete and
translation table is no longer needed for anything else. To support
this, the design added fields such as "hash sha1 tree <sha1-name>"
- and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the newhash-content of a signed
+ and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the sha256-content of a signed
commit, complicating the conversion process.
* Allowing signed objects without a sha1 (for after the transition is
complete) complicated the design further, requiring a "nohash sha1"
- field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the newhash-content
+ field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the sha256-content
and signed payload.
Lazily populated translation table
@@ -772,7 +772,7 @@ Lazily populated translation table
Some of the work of building the translation table could be deferred to
push time, but that would significantly complicate and slow down pushes.
Calculating the sha1-name at object creation time at the same time it is
-being streamed to disk and having its newhash-name calculated should be
+being streamed to disk and having its sha256-name calculated should be
an acceptable cost.
Document History
@@ -814,6 +814,12 @@ Incorporated suggestions from jonathantanmy and sbeller:
* avoid loose object overhead by packing more aggressively in
"git gc --auto"
+Later history:
+
+ See the history of this file in git.git for the history of subsequent
+ edits. This document history is no longer being maintained as it
+ would now be superfluous to the commit log
+
[1] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
[2] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
[3] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
index 64f49d0..9c5b6f0 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
@@ -338,11 +338,11 @@ server advertises capability `allow-tip-sha1-in-want` or
request_end
request_end = "0000" / "done"
- want_list = PKT-LINE(want NUL cap_list LF)
+ want_list = PKT-LINE(want SP cap_list LF)
*(want_pkt)
want_pkt = PKT-LINE(want LF)
want = "want" SP id
- cap_list = *(SP capability) SP
+ cap_list = capability *(SP capability)
have_list = *PKT-LINE("have" SP id LF)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt b/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d7e5763
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+Multi-Pack-Index (MIDX) Design Notes
+====================================
+
+The Git object directory contains a 'pack' directory containing
+packfiles (with suffix ".pack") and pack-indexes (with suffix
+".idx"). The pack-indexes provide a way to lookup objects and
+navigate to their offset within the pack, but these must come
+in pairs with the packfiles. This pairing depends on the file
+names, as the pack-index differs only in suffix with its pack-
+file. While the pack-indexes provide fast lookup per packfile,
+this performance degrades as the number of packfiles increases,
+because abbreviations need to inspect every packfile and we are
+more likely to have a miss on our most-recently-used packfile.
+For some large repositories, repacking into a single packfile
+is not feasible due to storage space or excessive repack times.
+
+The multi-pack-index (MIDX for short) stores a list of objects
+and their offsets into multiple packfiles. It contains:
+
+- A list of packfile names.
+- A sorted list of object IDs.
+- A list of metadata for the ith object ID including:
+ - A value j referring to the jth packfile.
+ - An offset within the jth packfile for the object.
+- If large offsets are required, we use another list of large
+ offsets similar to version 2 pack-indexes.
+
+Thus, we can provide O(log N) lookup time for any number
+of packfiles.
+
+Design Details
+--------------
+
+- The MIDX is stored in a file named 'multi-pack-index' in the
+ .git/objects/pack directory. This could be stored in the pack
+ directory of an alternate. It refers only to packfiles in that
+ same directory.
+
+- The pack.multiIndex config setting must be on to consume MIDX files.
+
+- The file format includes parameters for the object ID hash
+ function, so a future change of hash algorithm does not require
+ a change in format.
+
+- The MIDX keeps only one record per object ID. If an object appears
+ in multiple packfiles, then the MIDX selects the copy in the most-
+ recently modified packfile.
+
+- If there exist packfiles in the pack directory not registered in
+ the MIDX, then those packfiles are loaded into the `packed_git`
+ list and `packed_git_mru` cache.
+
+- The pack-indexes (.idx files) remain in the pack directory so we
+ can delete the MIDX file, set core.midx to false, or downgrade
+ without any loss of information.
+
+- The MIDX file format uses a chunk-based approach (similar to the
+ commit-graph file) that allows optional data to be added.
+
+Future Work
+-----------
+
+- Add a 'verify' subcommand to the 'git midx' builtin to verify the
+ contents of the multi-pack-index file match the offsets listed in
+ the corresponding pack-indexes.
+
+- The multi-pack-index allows many packfiles, especially in a context
+ where repacking is expensive (such as a very large repo), or
+ unexpected maintenance time is unacceptable (such as a high-demand
+ build machine). However, the multi-pack-index needs to be rewritten
+ in full every time. We can extend the format to be incremental, so
+ writes are fast. By storing a small "tip" multi-pack-index that
+ points to large "base" MIDX files, we can keep writes fast while
+ still reducing the number of binary searches required for object
+ lookups.
+
+- The reachability bitmap is currently paired directly with a single
+ packfile, using the pack-order as the object order to hopefully
+ compress the bitmaps well using run-length encoding. This could be
+ extended to pair a reachability bitmap with a multi-pack-index. If
+ the multi-pack-index is extended to store a "stable object order"
+ (a function Order(hash) = integer that is constant for a given hash,
+ even as the multi-pack-index is updated) then a reachability bitmap
+ could point to a multi-pack-index and be updated independently.
+
+- Packfiles can be marked as "special" using empty files that share
+ the initial name but replace ".pack" with ".keep" or ".promisor".
+ We can add an optional chunk of data to the multi-pack-index that
+ records flags of information about the packfiles. This allows new
+ states, such as 'repacked' or 'redeltified', that can help with
+ pack maintenance in a multi-pack environment. It may also be
+ helpful to organize packfiles by object type (commit, tree, blob,
+ etc.) and use this metadata to help that maintenance.
+
+- The partial clone feature records special "promisor" packs that
+ may point to objects that are not stored locally, but available
+ on request to a server. The multi-pack-index does not currently
+ track these promisor packs.
+
+Related Links
+-------------
+[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=6
+ Chromium work item for: Multi-Pack Index (MIDX)
+
+[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20180107181459.222909-1-dstolee@microsoft.com/
+ An earlier RFC for the multi-pack-index feature
+
+[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/alpine.DEB.2.20.1803091557510.23109@alexmv-linux/
+ Git Merge 2018 Contributor's summit notes (includes discussion of MIDX)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
index 70a99fd..cab5bdd 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
@@ -252,3 +252,80 @@ Pack file entry: <+
corresponding packfile.
20-byte SHA-1-checksum of all of the above.
+
+== multi-pack-index (MIDX) files have the following format:
+
+The multi-pack-index files refer to multiple pack-files and loose objects.
+
+In order to allow extensions that add extra data to the MIDX, we organize
+the body into "chunks" and provide a lookup table at the beginning of the
+body. The header includes certain length values, such as the number of packs,
+the number of base MIDX files, hash lengths and types.
+
+All 4-byte numbers are in network order.
+
+HEADER:
+
+ 4-byte signature:
+ The signature is: {'M', 'I', 'D', 'X'}
+
+ 1-byte version number:
+ Git only writes or recognizes version 1.
+
+ 1-byte Object Id Version
+ Git only writes or recognizes version 1 (SHA1).
+
+ 1-byte number of "chunks"
+
+ 1-byte number of base multi-pack-index files:
+ This value is currently always zero.
+
+ 4-byte number of pack files
+
+CHUNK LOOKUP:
+
+ (C + 1) * 12 bytes providing the chunk offsets:
+ First 4 bytes describe chunk id. Value 0 is a terminating label.
+ Other 8 bytes provide offset in current file for chunk to start.
+ (Chunks are provided in file-order, so you can infer the length
+ using the next chunk position if necessary.)
+
+ The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
+ these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
+ otherwise specified.
+
+CHUNK DATA:
+
+ Packfile Names (ID: {'P', 'N', 'A', 'M'})
+ Stores the packfile names as concatenated, null-terminated strings.
+ Packfiles must be listed in lexicographic order for fast lookups by
+ name. This is the only chunk not guaranteed to be a multiple of four
+ bytes in length, so should be the last chunk for alignment reasons.
+
+ OID Fanout (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'F'})
+ The ith entry, F[i], stores the number of OIDs with first
+ byte at most i. Thus F[255] stores the total
+ number of objects.
+
+ OID Lookup (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'L'})
+ The OIDs for all objects in the MIDX are stored in lexicographic
+ order in this chunk.
+
+ Object Offsets (ID: {'O', 'O', 'F', 'F'})
+ Stores two 4-byte values for every object.
+ 1: The pack-int-id for the pack storing this object.
+ 2: The offset within the pack.
+ If all offsets are less than 2^31, then the large offset chunk
+ will not exist and offsets are stored as in IDX v1.
+ If there is at least one offset value larger than 2^32-1, then
+ the large offset chunk must exist. If the large offset chunk
+ exists and the 31st bit is on, then removing that bit reveals
+ the row in the large offsets containing the 8-byte offset of
+ this object.
+
+ [Optional] Object Large Offsets (ID: {'L', 'O', 'F', 'F'})
+ 8-byte offsets into large packfiles.
+
+TRAILER:
+
+ 20-byte SHA1-checksum of the above contents.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 7fee6b7..6ac774d 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -50,7 +50,8 @@ Each Extra Parameter takes the form of `<key>=<value>` or `<key>`.
Servers that receive any such Extra Parameters MUST ignore all
unrecognized keys. Currently, the only Extra Parameter recognized is
-"version=1".
+"version" with a value of '1' or '2'. See protocol-v2.txt for more
+information on protocol version 2.
Git Transport
-------------
@@ -284,7 +285,9 @@ information is sent back to the client in the next step.
The client can optionally request that pack-objects omit various
objects from the packfile using one of several filtering techniques.
These are intended for use with partial clone and partial fetch
-operations. See `rev-list` for possible "filter-spec" values.
+operations. An object that does not meet a filter-spec value is
+omitted unless explicitly requested in a 'want' line. See `rev-list`
+for possible filter-spec values.
Once all the 'want's and 'shallow's (and optional 'deepen') are
transferred, clients MUST send a flush-pkt, to tell the server side
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
index 0bed247..1ef66bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
@@ -69,24 +69,24 @@ Design Details
- A new pack-protocol capability "filter" is added to the fetch-pack and
upload-pack negotiation.
-
- This uses the existing capability discovery mechanism.
- See "filter" in Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt.
++
+This uses the existing capability discovery mechanism.
+See "filter" in Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt.
- Clients pass a "filter-spec" to clone and fetch which is passed to the
server to request filtering during packfile construction.
-
- There are various filters available to accommodate different situations.
- See "--filter=<filter-spec>" in Documentation/rev-list-options.txt.
++
+There are various filters available to accommodate different situations.
+See "--filter=<filter-spec>" in Documentation/rev-list-options.txt.
- On the server pack-objects applies the requested filter-spec as it
creates "filtered" packfiles for the client.
-
- These filtered packfiles are *incomplete* in the traditional sense because
- they may contain objects that reference objects not contained in the
- packfile and that the client doesn't already have. For example, the
- filtered packfile may contain trees or tags that reference missing blobs
- or commits that reference missing trees.
++
+These filtered packfiles are *incomplete* in the traditional sense because
+they may contain objects that reference objects not contained in the
+packfile and that the client doesn't already have. For example, the
+filtered packfile may contain trees or tags that reference missing blobs
+or commits that reference missing trees.
- On the client these incomplete packfiles are marked as "promisor packfiles"
and treated differently by various commands.
@@ -104,47 +104,47 @@ Handling Missing Objects
to repository corruption. To differentiate these cases, the local
repository specially indicates such filtered packfiles obtained from the
promisor remote as "promisor packfiles".
-
- These promisor packfiles consist of a "<name>.promisor" file with
- arbitrary contents (like the "<name>.keep" files), in addition to
- their "<name>.pack" and "<name>.idx" files.
++
+These promisor packfiles consist of a "<name>.promisor" file with
+arbitrary contents (like the "<name>.keep" files), in addition to
+their "<name>.pack" and "<name>.idx" files.
- The local repository considers a "promisor object" to be an object that
it knows (to the best of its ability) that the promisor remote has promised
that it has, either because the local repository has that object in one of
its promisor packfiles, or because another promisor object refers to it.
-
- When Git encounters a missing object, Git can see if it a promisor object
- and handle it appropriately. If not, Git can report a corruption.
-
- This means that there is no need for the client to explicitly maintain an
- expensive-to-modify list of missing objects.[a]
++
+When Git encounters a missing object, Git can see if it a promisor object
+and handle it appropriately. If not, Git can report a corruption.
++
+This means that there is no need for the client to explicitly maintain an
+expensive-to-modify list of missing objects.[a]
- Since almost all Git code currently expects any referenced object to be
present locally and because we do not want to force every command to do
a dry-run first, a fallback mechanism is added to allow Git to attempt
to dynamically fetch missing objects from the promisor remote.
-
- When the normal object lookup fails to find an object, Git invokes
- fetch-object to try to get the object from the server and then retry
- the object lookup. This allows objects to be "faulted in" without
- complicated prediction algorithms.
-
- For efficiency reasons, no check as to whether the missing object is
- actually a promisor object is performed.
-
- Dynamic object fetching tends to be slow as objects are fetched one at
- a time.
++
+When the normal object lookup fails to find an object, Git invokes
+fetch-object to try to get the object from the server and then retry
+the object lookup. This allows objects to be "faulted in" without
+complicated prediction algorithms.
++
+For efficiency reasons, no check as to whether the missing object is
+actually a promisor object is performed.
++
+Dynamic object fetching tends to be slow as objects are fetched one at
+a time.
- `checkout` (and any other command using `unpack-trees`) has been taught
to bulk pre-fetch all required missing blobs in a single batch.
- `rev-list` has been taught to print missing objects.
-
- This can be used by other commands to bulk prefetch objects.
- For example, a "git log -p A..B" may internally want to first do
- something like "git rev-list --objects --quiet --missing=print A..B"
- and prefetch those objects in bulk.
++
+This can be used by other commands to bulk prefetch objects.
+For example, a "git log -p A..B" may internally want to first do
+something like "git rev-list --objects --quiet --missing=print A..B"
+and prefetch those objects in bulk.
- `fsck` has been updated to be fully aware of promisor objects.
@@ -154,11 +154,11 @@ Handling Missing Objects
- The global variable "fetch_if_missing" is used to control whether an
object lookup will attempt to dynamically fetch a missing object or
report an error.
-
- We are not happy with this global variable and would like to remove it,
- but that requires significant refactoring of the object code to pass an
- additional flag. We hope that concurrent efforts to add an ODB API can
- encompass this.
++
+We are not happy with this global variable and would like to remove it,
+but that requires significant refactoring of the object code to pass an
+additional flag. We hope that concurrent efforts to add an ODB API can
+encompass this.
Fetching Missing Objects
@@ -168,10 +168,10 @@ Fetching Missing Objects
transport_fetch_refs(), setting a new transport option
TRANS_OPT_NO_DEPENDENTS to indicate that only the objects themselves are
desired, not any object that they refer to.
-
- Because some transports invoke fetch_pack() in the same process, fetch_pack()
- has been updated to not use any object flags when the corresponding argument
- (no_dependents) is set.
++
+Because some transports invoke fetch_pack() in the same process, fetch_pack()
+has been updated to not use any object flags when the corresponding argument
+(no_dependents) is set.
- The local repository sends a request with the hashes of all requested
objects as "want" lines, and does not perform any packfile negotiation.
@@ -187,13 +187,13 @@ Current Limitations
- The remote used for a partial clone (or the first partial fetch
following a regular clone) is marked as the "promisor remote".
-
- We are currently limited to a single promisor remote and only that
- remote may be used for subsequent partial fetches.
-
- We accept this limitation because we believe initial users of this
- feature will be using it on repositories with a strong single central
- server.
++
+We are currently limited to a single promisor remote and only that
+remote may be used for subsequent partial fetches.
++
+We accept this limitation because we believe initial users of this
+feature will be using it on repositories with a strong single central
+server.
- Dynamic object fetching will only ask the promisor remote for missing
objects. We assume that the promisor remote has a complete view of the
@@ -221,13 +221,13 @@ Future Work
- Allow more than one promisor remote and define a strategy for fetching
missing objects from specific promisor remotes or of iterating over the
set of promisor remotes until a missing object is found.
-
- A user might want to have multiple geographically-close cache servers
- for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do filtered `git-fetch`
- commands from the central server, for example.
-
- Or the user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
- promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
++
+A user might want to have multiple geographically-close cache servers
+for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do filtered `git-fetch`
+commands from the central server, for example.
++
+Or the user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
+promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
- Allow repack to work on promisor packfiles (while keeping them distinct
from non-promisor packfiles).
@@ -238,25 +238,25 @@ Future Work
- Investigate use of a long-running process to dynamically fetch a series
of objects, such as proposed in [5,6] to reduce process startup and
overhead costs.
-
- It would be nice if pack protocol V2 could allow that long-running
- process to make a series of requests over a single long-running
- connection.
++
+It would be nice if pack protocol V2 could allow that long-running
+process to make a series of requests over a single long-running
+connection.
- Investigate pack protocol V2 to avoid the info/refs broadcast on
each connection with the server to dynamically fetch missing objects.
- Investigate the need to handle loose promisor objects.
-
- Objects in promisor packfiles are allowed to reference missing objects
- that can be dynamically fetched from the server. An assumption was
- made that loose objects are only created locally and therefore should
- not reference a missing object. We may need to revisit that assumption
- if, for example, we dynamically fetch a missing tree and store it as a
- loose object rather than a single object packfile.
-
- This does not necessarily mean we need to mark loose objects as promisor;
- it may be sufficient to relax the object lookup or is-promisor functions.
++
+Objects in promisor packfiles are allowed to reference missing objects
+that can be dynamically fetched from the server. An assumption was
+made that loose objects are only created locally and therefore should
+not reference a missing object. We may need to revisit that assumption
+if, for example, we dynamically fetch a missing tree and store it as a
+loose object rather than a single object packfile.
++
+This does not necessarily mean we need to mark loose objects as promisor;
+it may be sufficient to relax the object lookup or is-promisor functions.
Non-Tasks
@@ -265,13 +265,13 @@ Non-Tasks
- Every time the subject of "demand loading blobs" comes up it seems
that someone suggests that the server be allowed to "guess" and send
additional objects that may be related to the requested objects.
-
- No work has gone into actually doing that; we're just documenting that
- it is a common suggestion. We're not sure how it would work and have
- no plans to work on it.
-
- It is valid for the server to send more objects than requested (even
- for a dynamic object fetch), but we are not building on that.
++
+No work has gone into actually doing that; we're just documenting that
+it is a common suggestion. We're not sure how it would work and have
+no plans to work on it.
++
+It is valid for the server to send more objects than requested (even
+for a dynamic object fetch), but we are not building on that.
Footnotes
@@ -282,43 +282,43 @@ Footnotes
This would essentially be a sorted linear list of OIDs that the were
omitted by the server during a clone or subsequent fetches.
- This file would need to be loaded into memory on every object lookup.
- It would need to be read, updated, and re-written (like the .git/index)
- on every explicit "git fetch" command *and* on any dynamic object fetch.
+This file would need to be loaded into memory on every object lookup.
+It would need to be read, updated, and re-written (like the .git/index)
+on every explicit "git fetch" command *and* on any dynamic object fetch.
- The cost to read, update, and write this file could add significant
- overhead to every command if there are many missing objects. For example,
- if there are 100M missing blobs, this file would be at least 2GiB on disk.
+The cost to read, update, and write this file could add significant
+overhead to every command if there are many missing objects. For example,
+if there are 100M missing blobs, this file would be at least 2GiB on disk.
- With the "promisor" concept, we *infer* a missing object based upon the
- type of packfile that references it.
+With the "promisor" concept, we *infer* a missing object based upon the
+type of packfile that references it.
Related Links
-------------
-[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=2
- Chromium work item for: Partial Clone
+[0] https://crbug.com/git/2
+ Bug#2: Partial Clone
-[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
- Subject: [RFC] Add support for downloading blobs on demand
+[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+ Subject: [RFC] Add support for downloading blobs on demand +
Date: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:52:53 -0500
-[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/
- Subject: [PATCH 00/18] Partial clone (from clone to lazy fetch in 18 patches)
+[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
+ Subject: [PATCH 00/18] Partial clone (from clone to lazy fetch in 18 patches) +
Date: Fri, 29 Sep 2017 13:11:36 -0700
-[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/
- Subject: Proposal for missing blob support in Git repos
+[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
+ Subject: Proposal for missing blob support in Git repos +
Date: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 15:13:46 -0700
-[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/
- Subject: [PATCH 00/10] RFC Partial Clone and Fetch
+[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/ +
+ Subject: [PATCH 00/10] RFC Partial Clone and Fetch +
Date: Wed, 8 Mar 2017 18:50:29 +0000
-[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
- Subject: [PATCH v7 00/10] refactor the filter process code into a reusable module
+[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+ Subject: [PATCH v7 00/10] refactor the filter process code into a reusable module +
Date: Fri, 5 May 2017 11:27:52 -0400
-[6] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
- Subject: [RFC/PATCH v2 0/1] Add support for downloading blobs on demand
+[6] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+ Subject: [RFC/PATCH v2 0/1] Add support for downloading blobs on demand +
Date: Fri, 14 Jul 2017 09:26:50 -0400
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
index 49bda76..09e4e02 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -64,9 +64,8 @@ When using the http:// or https:// transport a client makes a "smart"
info/refs request as described in `http-protocol.txt` and requests that
v2 be used by supplying "version=2" in the `Git-Protocol` header.
- C: Git-Protocol: version=2
- C:
C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+ C: Git-Protocol: version=2
A v2 server would reply:
@@ -299,12 +298,21 @@ included in the client's request:
for use with partial clone and partial fetch operations. See
`rev-list` for possible "filter-spec" values.
+If the 'ref-in-want' feature is advertised, the following argument can
+be included in the client's request as well as the potential addition of
+the 'wanted-refs' section in the server's response as explained below.
+
+ want-ref <ref>
+ Indicates to the server that the client wants to retrieve a
+ particular ref, where <ref> is the full name of a ref on the
+ server.
+
The response of `fetch` is broken into a number of sections separated by
delimiter packets (0001), with each section beginning with its section
header.
output = *section
- section = (acknowledgments | shallow-info | packfile)
+ section = (acknowledgments | shallow-info | wanted-refs | packfile)
(flush-pkt | delim-pkt)
acknowledgments = PKT-LINE("acknowledgments" LF)
@@ -319,6 +327,10 @@ header.
shallow = "shallow" SP obj-id
unshallow = "unshallow" SP obj-id
+ wanted-refs = PKT-LINE("wanted-refs" LF)
+ *PKT-LINE(wanted-ref LF)
+ wanted-ref = obj-id SP refname
+
packfile = PKT-LINE("packfile" LF)
*PKT-LINE(%x01-03 *%x00-ff)
@@ -379,6 +391,19 @@ header.
* This section is only included if a packfile section is also
included in the response.
+ wanted-refs section
+ * This section is only included if the client has requested a
+ ref using a 'want-ref' line and if a packfile section is also
+ included in the response.
+
+ * Always begins with the section header "wanted-refs".
+
+ * The server will send a ref listing ("<oid> <refname>") for
+ each reference requested using 'want-ref' lines.
+
+ * The server MUST NOT send any refs which were not requested
+ using 'want-ref' lines.
+
packfile section
* This section is only included if the client has sent 'want'
lines in its request and either requested that no more
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt b/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e65ba9b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,182 @@
+Rerere
+======
+
+This document describes the rerere logic.
+
+Conflict normalization
+----------------------
+
+To ensure recorded conflict resolutions can be looked up in the rerere
+database, even when branches are merged in a different order,
+different branches are merged that result in the same conflict, or
+when different conflict style settings are used, rerere normalizes the
+conflicts before writing them to the rerere database.
+
+Different conflict styles and branch names are normalized by stripping
+the labels from the conflict markers, and removing the common ancestor
+version from the `diff3` conflict style. Branches that are merged
+in different order are normalized by sorting the conflict hunks. More
+on each of those steps in the following sections.
+
+Once these two normalization operations are applied, a conflict ID is
+calculated based on the normalized conflict, which is later used by
+rerere to look up the conflict in the rerere database.
+
+Removing the common ancestor version
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Say we have three branches AB, AC and AC2. The common ancestor of
+these branches has a file with a line containing the string "A" (for
+brevity this is called "line A" in the rest of the document). In
+branch AB this line is changed to "B", in AC, this line is changed to
+"C", and branch AC2 is forked off of AC, after the line was changed to
+"C".
+
+Forking a branch ABAC off of branch AB and then merging AC into it, we
+get a conflict like the following:
+
+ <<<<<<< HEAD
+ B
+ =======
+ C
+ >>>>>>> AC
+
+Doing the analogous with AC2 (forking a branch ABAC2 off of branch AB
+and then merging branch AC2 into it), using the diff3 conflict style,
+we get a conflict like the following:
+
+ <<<<<<< HEAD
+ B
+ ||||||| merged common ancestors
+ A
+ =======
+ C
+ >>>>>>> AC2
+
+By resolving this conflict, to leave line D, the user declares:
+
+ After examining what branches AB and AC did, I believe that making
+ line A into line D is the best thing to do that is compatible with
+ what AB and AC wanted to do.
+
+As branch AC2 refers to the same commit as AC, the above implies that
+this is also compatible what AB and AC2 wanted to do.
+
+By extension, this means that rerere should recognize that the above
+conflicts are the same. To do this, the labels on the conflict
+markers are stripped, and the common ancestor version is removed. The above
+examples would both result in the following normalized conflict:
+
+ <<<<<<<
+ B
+ =======
+ C
+ >>>>>>>
+
+Sorting hunks
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As before, lets imagine that a common ancestor had a file with line A
+its early part, and line X in its late part. And then four branches
+are forked that do these things:
+
+ - AB: changes A to B
+ - AC: changes A to C
+ - XY: changes X to Y
+ - XZ: changes X to Z
+
+Now, forking a branch ABAC off of branch AB and then merging AC into
+it, and forking a branch ACAB off of branch AC and then merging AB
+into it, would yield the conflict in a different order. The former
+would say "A became B or C, what now?" while the latter would say "A
+became C or B, what now?"
+
+As a reminder, the act of merging AC into ABAC and resolving the
+conflict to leave line D means that the user declares:
+
+ After examining what branches AB and AC did, I believe that
+ making line A into line D is the best thing to do that is
+ compatible with what AB and AC wanted to do.
+
+So the conflict we would see when merging AB into ACAB should be
+resolved the same way---it is the resolution that is in line with that
+declaration.
+
+Imagine that similarly previously a branch XYXZ was forked from XY,
+and XZ was merged into it, and resolved "X became Y or Z" into "X
+became W".
+
+Now, if a branch ABXY was forked from AB and then merged XY, then ABXY
+would have line B in its early part and line Y in its later part.
+Such a merge would be quite clean. We can construct 4 combinations
+using these four branches ((AB, AC) x (XY, XZ)).
+
+Merging ABXY and ACXZ would make "an early A became B or C, a late X
+became Y or Z" conflict, while merging ACXY and ABXZ would make "an
+early A became C or B, a late X became Y or Z". We can see there are
+4 combinations of ("B or C", "C or B") x ("X or Y", "Y or X").
+
+By sorting, the conflict is given its canonical name, namely, "an
+early part became B or C, a late part becames X or Y", and whenever
+any of these four patterns appear, and we can get to the same conflict
+and resolution that we saw earlier.
+
+Without the sorting, we'd have to somehow find a previous resolution
+from combinatorial explosion.
+
+Conflict ID calculation
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Once the conflict normalization is done, the conflict ID is calculated
+as the sha1 hash of the conflict hunks appended to each other,
+separated by <NUL> characters. The conflict markers are stripped out
+before the sha1 is calculated. So in the example above, where we
+merge branch AC which changes line A to line C, into branch AB, which
+changes line A to line C, the conflict ID would be
+SHA1('B<NUL>C<NUL>').
+
+If there are multiple conflicts in one file, the sha1 is calculated
+the same way with all hunks appended to each other, in the order in
+which they appear in the file, separated by a <NUL> character.
+
+Nested conflicts
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Nested conflicts are handled very similarly to "simple" conflicts.
+Similar to simple conflicts, the conflict is first normalized by
+stripping the labels from conflict markers, stripping the common ancestor
+version, and the sorting the conflict hunks, both for the outer and the
+inner conflict. This is done recursively, so any number of nested
+conflicts can be handled.
+
+The only difference is in how the conflict ID is calculated. For the
+inner conflict, the conflict markers themselves are not stripped out
+before calculating the sha1.
+
+Say we have the following conflict for example:
+
+ <<<<<<< HEAD
+ 1
+ =======
+ <<<<<<< HEAD
+ 3
+ =======
+ 2
+ >>>>>>> branch-2
+ >>>>>>> branch-3~
+
+After stripping out the labels of the conflict markers, and sorting
+the hunks, the conflict would look as follows:
+
+ <<<<<<<
+ 1
+ =======
+ <<<<<<<
+ 2
+ =======
+ 3
+ >>>>>>>
+ >>>>>>>
+
+and finally the conflict ID would be calculated as:
+`sha1('1<NUL><<<<<<<\n3\n=======\n2\n>>>>>>><NUL>')`