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-rw-r--r--Documentation/cvs-migration.txt349
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diff --git a/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
index a436180..47846bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
@@ -1,121 +1,21 @@
git for CVS users
=================
-So you're a CVS user. That's OK, it's a treatable condition. The job of
-this document is to put you on the road to recovery, by helping you
-convert an existing cvs repository to git, and by showing you how to use a
-git repository in a cvs-like fashion.
+Git differs from CVS in that every working tree contains a repository with
+a full copy of the project history, and no repository is inherently more
+important than any other. However, you can emulate the CVS model by
+designating a single shared repository which people can synchronize with;
+this document explains how to do that.
Some basic familiarity with git is required. This
link:tutorial.html[tutorial introduction to git] should be sufficient.
-First, note some ways that git differs from CVS:
+Developing against a shared repository
+--------------------------------------
- * Commits are atomic and project-wide, not per-file as in CVS.
-
- * Offline work is supported: you can make multiple commits locally,
- then submit them when you're ready.
-
- * Branching is fast and easy.
-
- * Every working tree contains a repository with a full copy of the
- project history, and no repository is inherently more important than
- any other. However, you can emulate the CVS model by designating a
- single shared repository which people can synchronize with; see below
- for details.
-
- * Since every working tree contains a repository, a commit in your
- private repository will not publish your changes; it will only create
- a revision. You have to "push" your changes to a public repository to
- make them visible to others.
-
-Importing a CVS archive
------------------------
-
-First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
-link:http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
-sure it is in your path. The magic command line is then
-
--------------------------------------------
-$ git cvsimport -v -d <cvsroot> -C <destination> <module>
--------------------------------------------
-
-This puts a git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
-<destination>, which will be created if necessary. The -v option makes
-the conversion script very chatty.
-
-The import checks out from CVS every revision of every file. Reportedly
-cvsimport can average some twenty revisions per second, so for a
-medium-sized project this should not take more than a couple of minutes.
-Larger projects or remote repositories may take longer.
-
-The main trunk is stored in the git branch named `origin`, and additional
-CVS branches are stored in git branches with the same names. The most
-recent version of the main trunk is also left checked out on the `master`
-branch, so you can start adding your own changes right away.
-
-The import is incremental, so if you call it again next month it will
-fetch any CVS updates that have been made in the meantime. For this to
-work, you must not modify the imported branches; instead, create new
-branches for your own changes, and merge in the imported branches as
-necessary.
-
-Development Models
-------------------
-
-CVS users are accustomed to giving a group of developers commit access to
-a common repository. In the next section we'll explain how to do this
-with git. However, the distributed nature of git allows other development
-models, and you may want to first consider whether one of them might be a
-better fit for your project.
-
-For example, you can choose a single person to maintain the project's
-primary public repository. Other developers then clone this repository
-and each work in their own clone. When they have a series of changes that
-they're happy with, they ask the maintainer to pull from the branch
-containing the changes. The maintainer reviews their changes and pulls
-them into the primary repository, which other developers pull from as
-necessary to stay coordinated. The Linux kernel and other projects use
-variants of this model.
-
-With a small group, developers may just pull changes from each other's
-repositories without the need for a central maintainer.
-
-Creating a Shared Repository
-----------------------------
-
-Start with an ordinary git working directory containing the project, and
-remove the checked-out files, keeping just the bare .git directory:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ mv project/.git /pub/repo.git
-$ rm -r project/
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Next, give every team member read/write access to this repository. One
-easy way to do this is to give all the team members ssh access to the
-machine where the repository is hosted. If you don't want to give them a
-full shell on the machine, there is a restricted shell which only allows
-users to do git pushes and pulls; see gitlink:git-shell[1].
-
-Put all the committers in the same group, and make the repository
-writable by that group:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ chgrp -R $group repo.git
-$ find repo.git -mindepth 1 -type d |xargs chmod ug+rwx,g+s
-$ GIT_DIR=repo.git git repo-config core.sharedrepository true
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Make sure committers have a umask of at most 027, so that the directories
-they create are writable and searchable by other group members.
-
-Performing Development on a Shared Repository
----------------------------------------------
-
-Suppose a repository is now set up in /pub/repo.git on the host
+Suppose a shared repository is set up in /pub/repo.git on the host
foo.com. Then as an individual committer you can clone the shared
-repository:
+repository over ssh with:
------------------------------------------------
$ git clone foo.com:/pub/repo.git/ my-project
@@ -129,7 +29,8 @@ $ git pull origin
------------------------------------------------
which merges in any work that others might have done since the clone
-operation.
+operation. If there are uncommitted changes in your working tree, commit
+them first before running git pull.
[NOTE]
================================
@@ -137,8 +38,8 @@ The first `git clone` places the following in the
`my-project/.git/remotes/origin` file, and that's why the previous step
and the next step both work.
------------
-URL: foo.com:/pub/project.git/ my-project
-Pull: master:origin
+URL: foo.com:/pub/project.git/
+Pull: refs/heads/master:refs/remotes/origin/master
------------
================================
@@ -161,21 +62,76 @@ in the local repository. So the last `push` can be done with either of:
------------
$ git push origin
-$ git push repo.shared.xz:/pub/scm/project.git/
+$ git push foo.com:/pub/project.git/
------------
as long as the shared repository does not have any branches
other than `master`.
-[NOTE]
-============
-Because of this behavior, if the shared repository and the developer's
-repository both have branches named `origin`, then a push like the above
-attempts to update the `origin` branch in the shared repository from the
-developer's `origin` branch. The results may be unexpected, so it's
-usually best to remove any branch named `origin` from the shared
-repository.
-============
+Setting Up a Shared Repository
+------------------------------
+
+We assume you have already created a git repository for your project,
+possibly created from scratch or from a tarball (see the
+link:tutorial.html[tutorial]), or imported from an already existing CVS
+repository (see the next section).
+
+If your project's working directory is /home/alice/myproject, you can
+create a shared repository at /pub/repo.git with:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git clone -bare /home/alice/myproject /pub/repo.git
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Next, give every team member read/write access to this repository. One
+easy way to do this is to give all the team members ssh access to the
+machine where the repository is hosted. If you don't want to give them a
+full shell on the machine, there is a restricted shell which only allows
+users to do git pushes and pulls; see gitlink:git-shell[1].
+
+Put all the committers in the same group, and make the repository
+writable by that group:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ cd /pub
+$ chgrp -R $group repo.git
+$ find repo.git -mindepth 1 -type d |xargs chmod ug+rwx,g+s
+$ GIT_DIR=repo.git git repo-config core.sharedrepository true
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Make sure committers have a umask of at most 027, so that the directories
+they create are writable and searchable by other group members.
+
+Importing a CVS archive
+-----------------------
+
+First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
+link:http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
+sure it is in your path. The magic command line is then
+
+-------------------------------------------
+$ git cvsimport -v -d <cvsroot> -C <destination> <module>
+-------------------------------------------
+
+This puts a git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
+<destination>, which will be created if necessary. The -v option makes
+the conversion script very chatty.
+
+The import checks out from CVS every revision of every file. Reportedly
+cvsimport can average some twenty revisions per second, so for a
+medium-sized project this should not take more than a couple of minutes.
+Larger projects or remote repositories may take longer.
+
+The main trunk is stored in the git branch named `origin`, and additional
+CVS branches are stored in git branches with the same names. The most
+recent version of the main trunk is also left checked out on the `master`
+branch, so you can start adding your own changes right away.
+
+The import is incremental, so if you call it again next month it will
+fetch any CVS updates that have been made in the meantime. For this to
+work, you must not modify the imported branches; instead, create new
+branches for your own changes, and merge in the imported branches as
+necessary.
Advanced Shared Repository Management
-------------------------------------
@@ -188,127 +144,30 @@ You can enforce finer grained permissions using update hooks. See
link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[Controlling access to branches using
update hooks].
-CVS annotate
-------------
+Providing CVS Access to a git Repository
+----------------------------------------
+
+It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a git repository, so
+that developers can still use CVS; see gitlink:git-cvsserver[1] for
+details.
+
+Alternative Development Models
+------------------------------
+
+CVS users are accustomed to giving a group of developers commit access to
+a common repository. As we've seen, this is also possible with git.
+However, the distributed nature of git allows other development models,
+and you may want to first consider whether one of them might be a better
+fit for your project.
+
+For example, you can choose a single person to maintain the project's
+primary public repository. Other developers then clone this repository
+and each work in their own clone. When they have a series of changes that
+they're happy with, they ask the maintainer to pull from the branch
+containing the changes. The maintainer reviews their changes and pulls
+them into the primary repository, which other developers pull from as
+necessary to stay coordinated. The Linux kernel and other projects use
+variants of this model.
-So, something has gone wrong, and you don't know whom to blame, and
-you're an ex-CVS user and used to do "cvs annotate" to see who caused
-the breakage. You're looking for the "git annotate", and it's just
-claiming not to find such a script. You're annoyed.
-
-Yes, that's right. Core git doesn't do "annotate", although it's
-technically possible, and there are at least two specialized scripts out
-there that can be used to get equivalent information (see the git
-mailing list archives for details).
-
-git has a couple of alternatives, though, that you may find sufficient
-or even superior depending on your use. One is called "git-whatchanged"
-(for obvious reasons) and the other one is called "pickaxe" ("a tool for
-the software archaeologist").
-
-The "git-whatchanged" script is a truly trivial script that can give you
-a good overview of what has changed in a file or a directory (or an
-arbitrary list of files or directories). The "pickaxe" support is an
-additional layer that can be used to further specify exactly what you're
-looking for, if you already know the specific area that changed.
-
-Let's step back a bit and think about the reason why you would
-want to do "cvs annotate a-file.c" to begin with.
-
-You would use "cvs annotate" on a file when you have trouble
-with a function (or even a single "if" statement in a function)
-that happens to be defined in the file, which does not do what
-you want it to do. And you would want to find out why it was
-written that way, because you are about to modify it to suit
-your needs, and at the same time you do not want to break its
-current callers. For that, you are trying to find out why the
-original author did things that way in the original context.
-
-Many times, it may be enough to see the commit log messages of
-commits that touch the file in question, possibly along with the
-patches themselves, like this:
-
- $ git-whatchanged -p a-file.c
-
-This will show log messages and patches for each commit that
-touches a-file.
-
-This, however, may not be very useful when this file has many
-modifications that are not related to the piece of code you are
-interested in. You would see many log messages and patches that
-do not have anything to do with the piece of code you are
-interested in. As an example, assuming that you have this piece
-of code that you are interested in in the HEAD version:
-
- if (frotz) {
- nitfol();
- }
-
-you would use git-rev-list and git-diff-tree like this:
-
- $ git-rev-list HEAD |
- git-diff-tree --stdin -v -p -S'if (frotz) {
- nitfol();
- }'
-
-We have already talked about the "\--stdin" form of git-diff-tree
-command that reads the list of commits and compares each commit
-with its parents (otherwise you should go back and read the tutorial).
-The git-whatchanged command internally runs
-the equivalent of the above command, and can be used like this:
-
- $ git-whatchanged -p -S'if (frotz) {
- nitfol();
- }'
-
-When the -S option is used, git-diff-tree command outputs
-differences between two commits only if one tree has the
-specified string in a file and the corresponding file in the
-other tree does not. The above example looks for a commit that
-has the "if" statement in it in a file, but its parent commit
-does not have it in the same shape in the corresponding file (or
-the other way around, where the parent has it and the commit
-does not), and the differences between them are shown, along
-with the commit message (thanks to the -v flag). It does not
-show anything for commits that do not touch this "if" statement.
-
-Also, in the original context, the same statement might have
-appeared at first in a different file and later the file was
-renamed to "a-file.c". CVS annotate would not help you to go
-back across such a rename, but git would still help you in such
-a situation. For that, you can give the -C flag to
-git-diff-tree, like this:
-
- $ git-whatchanged -p -C -S'if (frotz) {
- nitfol();
- }'
-
-When the -C flag is used, file renames and copies are followed.
-So if the "if" statement in question happens to be in "a-file.c"
-in the current HEAD commit, even if the file was originally
-called "o-file.c" and then renamed in an earlier commit, or if
-the file was created by copying an existing "o-file.c" in an
-earlier commit, you will not lose track. If the "if" statement
-did not change across such a rename or copy, then the commit that
-does rename or copy would not show in the output, and if the
-"if" statement was modified while the file was still called
-"o-file.c", it would find the commit that changed the statement
-when it was in "o-file.c".
-
-NOTE: The current version of "git-diff-tree -C" is not eager
- enough to find copies, and it will miss the fact that a-file.c
- was created by copying o-file.c unless o-file.c was somehow
- changed in the same commit.
-
-You can use the --pickaxe-all flag in addition to the -S flag.
-This causes the differences from all the files contained in
-those two commits, not just the differences between the files
-that contain this changed "if" statement:
-
- $ git-whatchanged -p -C -S'if (frotz) {
- nitfol();
- }' --pickaxe-all
-
-NOTE: This option is called "--pickaxe-all" because -S
- option is internally called "pickaxe", a tool for software
- archaeologists.
+With a small group, developers may just pull changes from each other's
+repositories without the need for a central maintainer.