path: root/Documentation
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
80 files changed, 1893 insertions, 252 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 6232143..fa9e5c0 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -78,6 +78,7 @@ TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-capabilities
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-common
+TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-v2
TECH_DOCS += technical/racy-git
TECH_DOCS += technical/send-pack-pipeline
TECH_DOCS += technical/shallow
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fccc2f3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,312 @@
+Git 2.18 Release Notes
+Updates since v2.17
+UI, Workflows & Features
+ * Rename detection logic in "diff" family that is used in "merge" has
+ learned to guess when all of x/a, x/b and x/c have moved to z/a,
+ z/b and z/c, it is likely that x/d added in the meantime would also
+ want to move to z/d by taking the hint that the entire directory
+ 'x' moved to 'z'. A bug causing dirty files involved in a rename
+ to be overwritten during merge has also been fixed as part of this
+ work.
+ * "git filter-branch" learned to use a different exit code to allow
+ the callers to tell the case where there was no new commits to
+ rewrite from other error cases.
+ * When built with more recent cURL, GIT_SSL_VERSION can now specify
+ "tlsv1.3" as its value.
+ * "git gui" learned that "~/.ssh/" and
+ "~/.ssh/" are also possible SSH key files.
+ (merge 2e2f0288ef bb/git-gui-ssh-key-files later to maint).
+ * "git gui" performs commit upon CTRL/CMD+ENTER but the
+ CTRL/CMD+KP_ENTER (i.e. enter key on the numpad) did not have the
+ same key binding. It now does.
+ (merge 28a1d94a06 bp/git-gui-bind-kp-enter later to maint).
+ * "git gui" has been taught to work with old versions of tk (like
+ 8.5.7) that do not support "ttk::style theme use" as a way to query
+ the current theme.
+ (merge 4891961105 cb/git-gui-ttk-style later to maint).
+ * "git rebase" has learned to honor "--signoff" option when using
+ backends other than "am" (but not "--preserve-merges").
+ * "git branch --list" during an interrupted "rebase -i" now lets
+ users distinguish the case where a detached HEAD is being rebased
+ and a normal branch is being rebased.
+ * "git mergetools" learned talking to guiffy.
+ * The scripts in contrib/emacs/ have outlived their usefulness and
+ have been replaced with a stub that errors out and tells the user
+ there are replacements.
+ * The new "checkout-encoding" attribute can ask Git to convert the
+ contents to the specified encoding when checking out to the working
+ tree (and the other way around when checking in).
+ * The "git config" command uses separate options e.g. "--int",
+ "--bool", etc. to specify what type the caller wants the value to
+ be interpreted as. A new "--type=<typename>" option has been
+ introduced, which would make it cleaner to define new types.
+ * "git config --get" learned the "--default" option, to help the
+ calling script. Building on top of the above changes, the
+ "git config" learns "--type=color" type. Taken together, you can
+ do things like "git config --get foo.color --default blue" and get
+ the ANSI color sequence for the color given to foo.color variable,
+ or "blue" if the variable does not exist.
+ * "git ls-remote" learned an option to allow sorting its output based
+ on the refnames being shown.
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught that "git
+ stash save" has been deprecated ("git stash push" is the preferred
+ spelling in the new world) and does not offer it as a possible
+ completion candidate when "git stash push" can be.
+ * "git gc --prune=nonsense" spent long time repacking and then
+ silently failed when underlying "git prune --expire=nonsense"
+ failed to parse its command line. This has been corrected.
+ * Error messages from "git push" can be painted for more visibility.
+ * "git http-fetch" (deprecated) had an optional and experimental
+ "feature" to fetch only commits and/or trees, which nobody used.
+ This has been removed.
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+ * A "git fetch" from a repository with insane number of refs into a
+ repository that is already up-to-date still wasted too many cycles
+ making many lstat(2) calls to see if these objects at the tips
+ exist as loose objects locally. These lstat(2) calls are optimized
+ away by enumerating all loose objects beforehand.
+ It is unknown if the new strategy negatively affects existing use
+ cases, fetching into a repository with many loose objects from a
+ repository with small number of refs.
+ * Git can be built to use either v1 or v2 of the PCRE library, and so
+ far, the build-time configuration USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease instructed
+ the build procedure to use v1, but now it means v2. USE_LIBPCRE1
+ and USE_LIBPCRE2 can be used to explicitly choose which version to
+ use, as before.
+ * The build procedure learned to optionally use symbolic links
+ (instead of hardlinks and copies) to install "git-foo" for built-in
+ commands, whose binaries are all identical.
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+ * The way "git worktree prune" worked internally has been simplified,
+ by assuming how "git worktree move" moves an existing worktree to a
+ different place.
+ * Code clean-up for the "repository" abstraction.
+ (merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
+ * Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ optimized to use the same fan-out table.
+ * The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
+ completion continues to get extended and polished.
+ * Copies of old scripted Porcelain commands in contrib/examples/ have
+ been removed.
+ * Some tests that rely on the exact hardcoded values of object names
+ have been updated in preparation for hash function migration.
+ * Perf-test update.
+ * Test helper update.
+ * The effort continues to refactor the internal global data structure
+ to make it possible to open multiple repositories, work with and
+ then close them,
+ * Small test-helper programs have been consolidated into a single
+ binary.
+ * API clean-up around ref-filter code.
+ * Shell completion (in contrib) that gives list of paths have been
+ optimized somewhat.
+ * The index file is updated to record the fsmonitor section after a
+ full scan was made, to avoid wasting the effort that has already
+ spent.
+ * Performance measuring framework in t/perf learned to help bisecting
+ performance regressions.
+ * Some multi-word source filenames are being renamed to separate
+ words with dashes instead of underscores.
+ * An reusable "memory pool" implementation has been extracted from
+ fast-import.c, which in turn has become the first user of the
+ mem-pool API.
+ * A build-time option has been added to allow Git to be told to refer
+ to its associated files relative to the main binary, in the same
+ way that has been possible on Windows for quite some time, for
+ Linux, BSDs and Darwin.
+ * Precompute and store information necessary for ancestry traversal
+ in a separate file to optimize graph walking.
+ * The effort to pass the repository in-core structure throughout the
+ API continues. This round deals with the code that implements the
+ refs/replace/ mechanism.
+ * The build procedure "make DEVELOPER=YesPlease" learned to enable a
+ bit more warning options depending on the compiler used to help
+ developers more. There also is "make DEVOPTS=tokens" knob
+ available now, for those who want to help fixing warnings we
+ usually ignore, for example.
+ * A new version of the transport protocol is being worked on.
+ * The code to interface to GPG has been restructured somewhat to make
+ it cleaner to integrate with other types of signature systems later.
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+Fixes since v2.17
+ * "git shortlog cruft" aborted with a BUG message when run outside a
+ Git repository. The command has been taught to complain about
+ extra and unwanted arguments on its command line instead in such a
+ case.
+ (merge 4aa0161e83 ma/shortlog-revparse later to maint).
+ * "git stash push -u -- <pathspec>" gave an unnecessary and confusing
+ error message when there was no tracked files that match the
+ <pathspec>, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 353278687e tg/stash-untracked-with-pathspec-fix later to maint).
+ * "git tag --contains no-such-commit" gave a full list of options
+ after giving an error message.
+ (merge 3bb0923f06 ps/contains-id-error-message later to maint).
+ * "diff-highlight" filter (in contrib/) learned to undertand "git log
+ --graph" output better.
+ (merge 4551fbba14 jk/diff-highlight-graph-fix later to maint).
+ * when refs that do not point at committish are given, "git
+ filter-branch" gave a misleading error messages. This has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge f78ab355e7 yk/filter-branch-non-committish-refs later to maint).
+ * "git submodule status" misbehaved on a submodule that has been
+ removed from the working tree.
+ (merge 74b6bda32f rs/status-with-removed-submodule later to maint).
+ * When credential helper exits very quickly without reading its
+ input, it used to cause Git to die with SIGPIPE, which has been
+ fixed.
+ (merge a0d51e8d0e eb/cred-helper-ignore-sigpipe later to maint).
+ * "git rebase --keep-empty" still removed an empty commit if the
+ other side contained an empty commit (due to the "does an
+ equivalent patch exist already?" check), which has been corrected.
+ (merge 3d946165e1 pw/rebase-keep-empty-fixes later to maint).
+ * Some codepaths, including the refs API, get and keep relative
+ paths, that go out of sync when the process does chdir(2). The
+ chdir-notify API is introduced to let these codepaths adjust these
+ cached paths to the new current directory.
+ (merge fb9c2d2703 jk/relative-directory-fix later to maint).
+ * "cd sub/dir && git commit ../path" ought to record the changes to
+ the file "sub/path", but this regressed long time ago.
+ (merge 86238e07ef bw/commit-partial-from-subdirectory-fix later to maint).
+ * Recent introduction of "--log-destination" option to "git daemon"
+ did not work well when the daemon was run under "--inetd" mode.
+ (merge e67d906d73 lw/daemon-log-destination later to maint).
+ * Small fix to the autoconf build procedure.
+ (merge 249482daf0 es/fread-reads-dir-autoconf-fix later to maint).
+ * Fix an unexploitable (because the oversized contents are not under
+ attacker's control) buffer overflow.
+ (merge d8579accfa bp/fsmonitor-bufsize-fix later to maint).
+ * Recent simplification of build procedure forgot a bit of tweak to
+ the build procedure of contrib/mw-to-git/
+ (merge d8698987f3 ab/simplify-perl-makefile later to maint).
+ * Moving a submodule that itself has submodule in it with "git mv"
+ forgot to make necessary adjustment to the nested sub-submodules;
+ now the codepath learned to recurse into the submodules.
+ * "git config --unset a.b", when "a.b" is the last variable in an
+ otherwise empty section "a", left an empty section "a" behind, and
+ worse yet, a subsequent "git config a.c value" did not reuse that
+ empty shell and instead created a new one. These have been
+ (partially) corrected.
+ (merge c71d8bb38a js/empty-config-section-fix later to maint).
+ * "git worktree remove" learned that "-f" is a shorthand for
+ "--force" option, just like for "git worktree add".
+ (merge d228eea514 sb/worktree-remove-opt-force later to maint).
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to clear cached list of
+ command line options upon dot-sourcing it again in a more efficient
+ way.
+ (merge 94408dc71c sg/completion-clear-cached later to maint).
+ * "git svn" had a minor thinko/typo which has been fixed.
+ (merge 51db271587 ab/git-svn-get-record-typofix later to maint).
+ * During a "rebase -i" session, the code could give older timestamp
+ to commits created by later "pick" than an earlier "reword", which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 12f7babd6b js/ident-date-fix later to maint).
+ * "git submodule status" did not check the symbolic revision name it
+ computed for the submodule HEAD is not the NULL, and threw it at
+ printf routines, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0b5e2ea7cf nd/submodule-status-fix later to maint).
+ * When fed input that already has In-Reply-To: and/or References:
+ headers and told to add the same information, "git send-email"
+ added these headers separately, instead of appending to an existing
+ one, which is a violation of the RFC. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 256be1d3f0 sa/send-email-dedup-some-headers later to maint).
+ * "git fast-export" had a regression in v2.15.0 era where it skipped
+ some merge commits in certain cases, which has been corrected.
+ (merge be011bbe00 ma/fast-export-skip-merge-fix later to maint).
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 248f66ed8e nd/trace-with-env later to maint).
+ (merge 14ced5562c ys/bisect-object-id-missing-conversion-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5988eb631a ab/doc-hash-brokenness later to maint).
+ (merge a4d4e32a70 pk/test-avoid-pipe-hiding-exit-status later to maint).
+ (merge 05e293c1ac jk/flockfile-stdio later to maint).
+ (merge e9184b0789 jk/t5561-missing-curl later to maint).
+ (merge b1801b85a3 nd/worktree-move later to maint).
+ (merge bbd374dd20 ak/bisect-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 4855f06fb3 mn/send-email-credential-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 8523b1e355 en/doc-typoes later to maint).
+ (merge 43b44ccfe7 js/t5404-path-fix later to maint).
+ (merge decf711fc1 ps/test-chmtime-get later to maint).
+ (merge 22d11a6e8e es/worktree-docs later to maint).
+ (merge 92a5dbbc22 tg/use-git-contacts later to maint).
+ (merge adc887221f tq/t1510 later to maint).
+ (merge bed21a8ad6 sg/doc-gc-quote-mismatch-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 73364e4f10 tz/doc-git-urls-reference later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index a1d0fec..945f8ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -260,8 +260,8 @@ that starts with `-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----`. That is
not a text/plain, it's something else.
Send your patch with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
-people who are involved in the area you are touching (the output from
-`git blame $path` and `git shortlog --no-merges $path` would help to
+people who are involved in the area you are touching (the `git
+contacts` command in `contrib/contacts/` can help to
identify them), to solicit comments and reviews.
:1: footnote:[The current maintainer:]
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 4e0cff8..84e2891 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -530,6 +530,12 @@ core.autocrlf::
This variable can be set to 'input',
in which case no output conversion is performed.
+ A comma and/or whitespace separated list of encodings that Git
+ performs UTF-8 round trip checks on if they are used in an
+ `working-tree-encoding` attribute (see linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
+ The default value is `SHIFT-JIS`.
If false, symbolic links are checked out as small plain files that
contain the link text. linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
@@ -898,6 +904,10 @@ core.notesRef::
This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and it can be overridden by
the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable. See linkgit:git-notes[1].
+ Enable git commit graph feature. Allows reading from the
+ commit-graph file.
Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
@@ -1058,6 +1068,10 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
"git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
branch-specific manner.
+When `merges`, pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
+so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
+linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
by running 'git pull'.
@@ -1088,6 +1102,16 @@ clean.requireForce::
A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f,
-i or -n. Defaults to true.
+ A boolean to enable/disable color in hints (e.g. when a push
+ failed, see `advice.*` for a list). May be set to `always`,
+ `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which case colors
+ are used only when the error output goes to a terminal. If
+ unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+ Use customized color for hints.
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
linkgit:git-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1190,6 +1214,15 @@ color.pager::
A boolean to enable/disable colored output when the pager is in
use (default is true).
+ A boolean to enable/disable color in push errors. May be set to
+ `always`, `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which
+ case colors are used only when the error output goes to a terminal.
+ If unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+ Use customized color for push errors.
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
linkgit:git-show-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1218,6 +1251,15 @@ color.status.<slot>::
status short-format), or
`unmerged` (files which have unmerged changes).
+ A boolean to enable/disable color when pushes are rejected. May be
+ set to `always`, `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which
+ case colors are used only when the error output goes to a terminal.
+ If unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+ Use customized color when a push was rejected.
This variable determines the default value for variables such
as `color.diff` and `color.grep` that control the use of color
@@ -1558,6 +1600,18 @@ gc.autoDetach::
Make `git gc --auto` return immediately and run in background
if the system supports it. Default is true.
+ If non-zero, all packs larger than this limit are kept when
+ `git gc` is run. This is very similar to `--keep-base-pack`
+ except that all packs that meet the threshold are kept, not
+ just the base pack. Defaults to zero. Common unit suffixes of
+ 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
+Note that if the number of kept packs is more than gc.autoPackLimit,
+this configuration variable is ignored, all packs except the base pack
+will be repacked. After this the number of packs should go below
+gc.autoPackLimit and gc.bigPackThreshold should be respected again.
If the file gc.log exists, then `git gc --auto` won't run
unless that file is more than 'gc.logExpiry' old. Default is
@@ -1957,6 +2011,7 @@ http.sslVersion::
- tlsv1.0
- tlsv1.1
- tlsv1.2
+ - tlsv1.3
Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_VERSION` environment variable.
@@ -2421,6 +2476,7 @@ pack.window::
The maximum delta depth used by linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] when no
maximum depth is given on the command line. Defaults to 50.
+ Maximum value is 4095.
The maximum size of memory that is consumed by each thread
@@ -2457,7 +2513,8 @@ pack.deltaCacheLimit::
The maximum size of a delta, that is cached in
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1]. This cache is used to speed up the
writing object phase by not having to recompute the final delta
- result once the best match for all objects is found. Defaults to 1000.
+ result once the best match for all objects is found.
+ Defaults to 1000. Maximum value is 65535.
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when searching for best
@@ -2616,6 +2673,10 @@ pull.rebase::
pull" is run. See "branch.<name>.rebase" for setting this on a
per-branch basis.
+When `merges`, pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
+so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
+linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
by running 'git pull'.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index e3a44f0..f466600 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -568,7 +568,7 @@ the normal order.
Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
-fnmantch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
+fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "`foo*bar`"
matches "`fooasdfbar`" and "`foo/bar/baz/asdf`" but not "`foobarx`".
@@ -592,7 +592,7 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Treat all files as text.
- Ignore carrige-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
+ Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 8631e36..97d3217 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -188,6 +188,14 @@ endif::git-pull[]
is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
+-o <option>::
+ Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
+ protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
+ character.
+ When multiple `--server-option=<option>` are given, they are all
+ sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.
Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index d50fa33..45652fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -193,7 +193,7 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
for command-line options).
The optional configuration variable `core.excludesFile` indicates a path to a
@@ -226,7 +226,7 @@ Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
-Interactive mode
When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 4ebc3d3..6722849 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -113,8 +113,10 @@ explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see
- Remove <n> leading slashes from traditional diff paths. The
- default is 1.
+ Remove <n> leading path components (separated by slashes) from
+ traditional diff paths. E.g., with `-p2`, a patch against
+ `a/dir/file` will be applied directly to `file`. The default is
+ 1.
Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
@@ -240,7 +242,7 @@ When `git apply` is used as a "better GNU patch", the user can pass
the `--unsafe-paths` option to override this safety check. This option
has no effect when `--index` or `--cached` is in use.
@@ -251,7 +253,7 @@ apply.whitespace::
When no `--whitespace` flag is given from the command
line, this configuration item is used as the default.
If the patch contains any changes to submodules then 'git apply'
treats these changes as follows.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 4a1417b..4b45d83 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -165,8 +165,8 @@ To get a reminder of the currently used terms, use
git bisect terms
-You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect term
---term-old` or `git bisect term --term-good`.
+You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect terms
+--term-old` or `git bisect terms --term-good`.
If you would like to use your own terms instead of "bad"/"good" or
"new"/"old", you can choose any names you like (except existing bisect
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index b3084c9..02eccbb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -287,7 +287,7 @@ CONFIGURATION
`--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
See linkgit:git-config[1].
Start development from a known tag::
@@ -318,7 +318,7 @@ See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 3a8120c..7d6c9dc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -92,8 +92,8 @@ It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file
to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored
when unpacking at the destination.
Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on machine A
to another repository R2 on machine B.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 42ca7b5..a55536f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -260,7 +260,7 @@ or `--mirror` is given)
The (possibly remote) repository to clone from. See the
- <<URLS,URLS>> section below for more information on specifying
+ <<URLS,GIT URLS>> section below for more information on specifying
@@ -273,7 +273,7 @@ or `--mirror` is given)
:git-clone: 1
* Clone from upstream:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4c97b55
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,94 @@
+git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit graph files
+'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
+Manage the serialized commit graph file.
+ Use given directory for the location of packfiles and commit graph
+ file. This parameter exists to specify the location of an alternate
+ that only has the objects directory, not a full .git directory. The
+ commit graph file is expected to be at <dir>/info/commit-graph and
+ the packfiles are expected to be in <dir>/pack.
+Write a commit graph file based on the commits found in packfiles.
+With the `--stdin-packs` option, generate the new commit graph by
+walking objects only in the specified pack-indexes. (Cannot be combined
+with --stdin-commits.)
+With the `--stdin-commits` option, generate the new commit graph by
+walking commits starting at the commits specified in stdin as a list
+of OIDs in hex, one OID per line. (Cannot be combined with
+With the `--append` option, include all commits that are present in the
+existing commit-graph file.
+Read a graph file given by the commit-graph file and output basic
+details about the graph file. Used for debugging purposes.
+* Write a commit graph file for the packed commits in your local .git folder.
+$ git commit-graph write
+* Write a graph file, extending the current graph file using commits
+* in <pack-index>.
+$ echo <pack-index> | git commit-graph write --stdin-packs
+* Write a graph file containing all reachable commits.
+$ git show-ref -s | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits
+* Write a graph file containing all commits in the current
+* commit-graph file along with those reachable from HEAD.
+$ git rev-parse HEAD | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits --append
+* Read basic information from the commit-graph file.
+$ git commit-graph read
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index e09ed5d..18ddc78 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -9,13 +9,13 @@ git-config - Get and set repository or global options
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --add name value
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] --add name value
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --rename-section old_name new_name
@@ -38,12 +38,10 @@ existing values that match the regexp are updated or unset. If
you want to handle the lines that do *not* match the regex, just
prepend a single exclamation mark in front (see also <<EXAMPLES>>).
-The type specifier can be either `--int` or `--bool`, to make
-'git config' ensure that the variable(s) are of the given type and
-convert the value to the canonical form (simple decimal number for int,
-a "true" or "false" string for bool), or `--path`, which does some
-path expansion (see `--path` below). If no type specifier is passed, no
-checks or transformations are performed on the value.
+The `--type=<type>` option instructs 'git config' to ensure that incoming and
+outgoing values are canonicalize-able under the given <type>. If no
+`--type=<type>` is given, no canonicalization will be performed. Callers may
+unset an existing `--type` specifier with `--no-type`.
When reading, the values are read from the system, global and
repository local configuration files by default, and options
@@ -160,30 +158,43 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
List all variables set in config file, along with their values.
- 'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false"
+--type <type>::
+ 'git config' will ensure that any input or output is valid under the given
+ type constraint(s), and will canonicalize outgoing values in `<type>`'s
+ canonical form.
+Valid `<type>`'s include:
+- 'bool': canonicalize values as either "true" or "false".
+- 'int': canonicalize values as simple decimal numbers. An optional suffix of
+ 'k', 'm', or 'g' will cause the value to be multiplied by 1024, 1048576, or
+ 1073741824 upon input.
+- 'bool-or-int': canonicalize according to either 'bool' or 'int', as described
+ above.
+- 'path': canonicalize by adding a leading `~` to the value of `$HOME` and
+ `~user` to the home directory for the specified user. This specifier has no
+ effect when setting the value (but you can use `git config section.variable
+ ~/` from the command line to let your shell do the expansion.)
+- 'expiry-date': canonicalize by converting from a fixed or relative date-string
+ to a timestamp. This specifier has no effect when setting the value.
+- 'color': When getting a value, canonicalize by converting to an ANSI color
+ escape sequence. When setting a value, a sanity-check is performed to ensure
+ that the given value is canonicalize-able as an ANSI color, but it is written
+ as-is.
- 'git config' will ensure that the output is a simple
- decimal number. An optional value suffix of 'k', 'm', or 'g'
- in the config file will cause the value to be multiplied
- by 1024, 1048576, or 1073741824 prior to output.
- 'git config' will ensure that the output matches the format of
- either --bool or --int, as described above.
- `git config` will expand a leading `~` to the value of
- `$HOME`, and `~user` to the home directory for the
- specified user. This option has no effect when setting the
- value (but you can use `git config section.variable ~/`
- from the command line to let your shell do the expansion).
- `git config` will ensure that the output is converted from
- a fixed or relative date-string to a timestamp. This option
- has no effect when setting the value.
+ Historical options for selecting a type specifier. Prefer instead `--type`,
+ (see: above).
+ Un-sets the previously set type specifier (if one was previously set). This
+ option requests that 'git config' not canonicalize the retrieved variable.
+ `--no-type` has no effect without `--type=<type>` or `--<type>`.
@@ -221,6 +232,8 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
output it as the ANSI color escape sequence to the standard
output. The optional `default` parameter is used instead, if
there is no color configured for `name`.
+`--type=color [--default=<default>]` is preferred over `--get-color`.
@@ -233,6 +246,10 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
using `--file`, `--global`, etc) and `on` when searching all
config files.
+--default <value>::
+ When using `--get`, and the requested variable is not found, behave as if
+ <value> were the value assigned to the that variable.
`pager.config` is only respected when listing configuration, i.e., when
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index ba90066..37b96c5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
-Database Backend
'git-cvsserver' uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to
@@ -321,7 +321,7 @@ git-cvsserver, as described above.
When these environment variables are set, the corresponding
command-line arguments may not be used.
-Eclipse CVS Client Notes
To get a checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:
@@ -346,7 +346,7 @@ offer. In that case CVS_SERVER is ignored, and you will have to replace
the cvs utility on the server with 'git-cvsserver' or manipulate your `.bashrc`
so that calling 'cvs' effectively calls 'git-cvsserver'.
-Clients known to work
- CVS 1.12.9 on Debian
@@ -354,7 +354,7 @@ Clients known to work
- Eclipse 3.0, 3.1.2 on MacOSX (see Eclipse CVS Client Notes)
- TortoiseCVS
-Operations supported
All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@ For best consistency with 'cvs', it is probably best to override the
defaults by setting `gitcvs.usecrlfattr` to true,
and `gitcvs.allBinary` to "guess".
'git-cvsserver' depends on DBD::SQLite.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index b380677..f4bd815 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -37,14 +37,14 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
-Operating Modes
You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely
(using the `--cached` flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
that don't match the stat state as being "tentatively changed". Both
of these operations are very useful indeed.
-Cached Mode
If `--cached` is specified, it allows you to ask:
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ So doing a `git diff-index --cached` is basically very useful when you are
asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
what's the difference to a previous tree".
-Non-cached Mode
The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
the more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
index 7870e17..2319b2b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
-Limiting Output
If you're only interested in differences in a subset of files, for
example some architecture-specific files, you might do:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index ed57c68..4409859 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ smaller output, and it is usually easy to quickly confirm that there is
no private data in the stream.
Since 'git fast-import' cannot tag trees, you will not be
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 3d3d219..cdf696f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -139,7 +139,7 @@ Performance and Compression Tuning
See linkgit:git-config[1]
The design of fast-import allows it to import large projects in a minimum
amount of memory usage and processing time. Assuming the frontend
@@ -155,7 +155,7 @@ faster if the source data is stored on a different drive than the
destination Git repository (due to less IO contention).
-Development Cost
A typical frontend for fast-import tends to weigh in at approximately 200
lines of Perl/Python/Ruby code. Most developers have been able to
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ an ideal situation, given that most conversion tools are throw-away
(use once, and never look back).
-Parallel Operation
Like 'git push' or 'git fetch', imports handled by fast-import are safe to
run alongside parallel `git repack -a -d` or `git gc` invocations,
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ this only be used on an otherwise quiet repository. Using --force
is not necessary for an initial import into an empty repository.
-Technical Discussion
fast-import tracks a set of branches in memory. Any branch can be created
or modified at any point during the import process by sending a
@@ -204,7 +204,7 @@ directory also allows fast-import to run very quickly, as it does not
need to perform any costly file update operations when switching
between branches.
-Input Format
With the exception of raw file data (which Git does not interpret)
the fast-import input format is text (ASCII) based. This text based
@@ -1131,7 +1131,7 @@ If the `--done` command-line option or `feature done` command is
in use, the `done` command is mandatory and marks the end of the
-Responses To Commands
New objects written by fast-import are not available immediately.
Most fast-import commands have no visible effect until the next
@@ -1160,7 +1160,7 @@ To avoid deadlock, such frontends must completely consume any
pending output from `progress`, `ls`, `get-mark`, and `cat-blob` before
performing writes to fast-import that might block.
-Crash Reports
If fast-import is supplied invalid input it will terminate with a
non-zero exit status and create a crash report in the top level of
@@ -1247,7 +1247,7 @@ An example crash:
-Tips and Tricks
The following tips and tricks have been collected from various
users of fast-import, and are offered here as suggestions.
@@ -1349,7 +1349,7 @@ Your users will feel better knowing how much of the data stream
has been processed.
-Packfile Optimization
When packing a blob fast-import always attempts to deltify against the last
blob written. Unless specifically arranged for by the frontend,
@@ -1380,7 +1380,7 @@ to force recomputation of all deltas can significantly reduce the
final packfile size (30-50% smaller can be quite typical).
-Memory Utilization
There are a number of factors which affect how much memory fast-import
requires to perform an import. Like critical sections of core
@@ -1458,7 +1458,7 @@ and lazy loading of subtrees, allows fast-import to efficiently import
projects with 2,000+ branches and 45,114+ files in a very limited
memory footprint (less than 2.7 MiB per active branch).
Sending *SIGUSR1* to the 'git fast-import' process ends the current
packfile early, simulating a `checkpoint` command. The impatient
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index f7ebe36..c975884 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
- Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow'repository to
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
include all reachable commits after <date>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 3a52e4d..e6f08ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -222,7 +222,15 @@ this purpose, they are instead rewritten to point at the nearest ancestor that
was not excluded.
+On success, the exit status is `0`. If the filter can't find any commits to
+rewrite, the exit status is `2`. On any other error, the exit status may be
+any other non-zero value.
Suppose you want to remove a file (containing confidential information
@@ -280,7 +288,7 @@ git filter-branch --parent-filter \
or even simpler:
-echo "$commit-id $graft-id" >> .git/info/grafts
+git replace --graft $commit-id $graft-id
git filter-branch $graft-id..HEAD
@@ -398,7 +406,7 @@ git filter-branch --index-filter \
-Checklist for Shrinking a Repository
git-filter-branch can be used to get rid of a subset of files,
@@ -437,7 +445,7 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 44892c4..423b6e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -57,8 +57,8 @@ merge.summary::
Synonym to `merge.log`; this is deprecated and will be removed in
the future.
$ git fetch origin master
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index dffa14a..085d177 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ refname::
stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
-`strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
+`strip` can be used as a synonym to `lstrip`.
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 6cbe462..b41e132 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@ There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
-history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
+history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 571b5a7..24b2dd4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -9,14 +9,15 @@ git-gc - Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository
-'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune] [--force]
+'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune] [--force] [--keep-largest-pack]
Runs a number of housekeeping tasks within the current repository,
such as compressing file revisions (to reduce disk space and increase
-performance) and removing unreachable objects which may have been
-created from prior invocations of 'git add'.
+performance), removing unreachable objects which may have been
+created from prior invocations of 'git add', packing refs, pruning
+reflog, rerere metadata or stale working trees.
Users are encouraged to run this task on a regular basis within
each repository to maintain good disk space utilization and good
@@ -45,20 +46,31 @@ OPTIONS
With this option, 'git gc' checks whether any housekeeping is
required; if not, it exits without performing any work.
Some git commands run `git gc --auto` after performing
- operations that could create many loose objects.
+ operations that could create many loose objects. Housekeeping
+ is required if there are too many loose objects or too many
+ packs in the repository.
-Housekeeping is required if there are too many loose objects or
-too many packs in the repository. If the number of loose objects
-exceeds the value of the `` configuration variable, then
-all loose objects are combined into a single pack using
-`git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of `` to 0
-disables automatic packing of loose objects.
+If the number of loose objects exceeds the value of the ``
+configuration variable, then all loose objects are combined into a
+single pack using `git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of ``
+to 0 disables automatic packing of loose objects.
If the number of packs exceeds the value of `gc.autoPackLimit`,
-then existing packs (except those marked with a `.keep` file)
+then existing packs (except those marked with a `.keep` file
+or over `gc.bigPackThreshold` limit)
are consolidated into a single pack by using the `-A` option of
-'git repack'. Setting `gc.autoPackLimit` to 0 disables
-automatic consolidation of packs.
+'git repack'.
+If the amount of memory is estimated not enough for `git repack` to
+run smoothly and `gc.bigPackThreshold` is not set, the largest
+pack will also be excluded (this is the equivalent of running `git gc`
+with `--keep-base-pack`).
+Setting `gc.autoPackLimit` to 0 disables automatic consolidation of
+If houskeeping is required due to many loose objects or packs, all
+other housekeeping tasks (e.g. rerere, working trees, reflog...) will
+be performed as well.
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
@@ -78,7 +90,12 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
Force `git gc` to run even if there may be another `git gc`
instance running on this repository.
+ All packs except the largest pack and those marked with a
+ `.keep` files are consolidated into a single pack. When this
+ option is used, `gc.bigPackThreshold` is ignored.
The optional configuration variable `gc.reflogExpire` can be
@@ -123,7 +140,7 @@ The optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveWindow` controls how
much time is spent optimizing the delta compression of the objects in
the repository when the --aggressive option is specified. The larger
the value, the more time is spent optimizing the delta compression. See
-the documentation for the --window' option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
+the documentation for the --window option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
more details. This defaults to 250.
Similarly, the optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveDepth`
@@ -133,8 +150,12 @@ The optional configuration variable `gc.pruneExpire` controls how old
the unreferenced loose objects have to be before they are pruned. The
default is "2 weeks ago".
+Optional configuration variable `gc.worktreePruneExpire` controls how
+old a stale working tree should be before `git worktree prune` deletes
+it. Default is "3 months ago".
'git gc' tries very hard not to delete objects that are referenced
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 18b4947..312409a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -293,7 +293,7 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the 'pathspec' entry
in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
`git grep 'time_t' -- '*.[ch]'`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index 21a33d2..666b042 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
Downloads a remote Git repository via HTTP.
-*NOTE*: use of this command without -a is deprecated. The -a
-behaviour will become the default in a future release.
+This command always gets all objects. Historically, there were three options
+`-a`, `-c` and `-t` for choosing which objects to download. They are now
+silently ignored.
@@ -24,12 +25,8 @@ commit-id::
Either the hash or the filename under [URL]/refs/ to
- Get the commit objects.
- Get trees associated with the commit objects.
- Get all the objects.
+-a, -c, -t::
+ These options are ignored for historical reasons.
Report what is downloaded.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
index 2aceb6f..ea03a4e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ OPTIONS
The remote refs to update.
-Specifying the Refs
A '<ref>' specification can be either a single pattern, or a pair
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index 5d1e4c8..032613c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -136,8 +136,8 @@ Using direct mode with SSL:
To submit patches using GMail's IMAP interface, first, edit your ~/.gitconfig
to specify your account settings:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 138edb4..d5b7560 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -93,8 +93,8 @@ OPTIONS
Die, if the pack is larger than <size>.
Once the index has been created, the list of object names is sorted
and the SHA-1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 5437f8b..90761f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
-'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
+'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
@@ -90,13 +90,13 @@ include::line-range-format.txt[]
ways to spell <revision range>, see the 'Specifying Ranges'
section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-[\--] <path>...::
+[--] <path>...::
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be. See 'History
Simplification' below for details and other simplification
-Paths may need to be prefixed with ``\-- '' to separate them from
+Paths may need to be prefixed with `--` to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ EXAMPLES
`git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk`::
Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
- The ``--'' is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ The `--` is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
`git log --name-status release..test`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index f3474b2..5298f1b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -184,7 +184,7 @@ followed by the ("attr/<eolattr>").
Files to show. If no files are given all files which match the other
specified criteria are shown.
'git ls-files' just outputs the filenames unless `--stage` is specified in
which case it outputs:
@@ -209,7 +209,7 @@ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.
-Exclude Patterns
'git ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 5f2628c..b9fd377 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git ls-remote' [--heads] [--tags] [--refs] [--upload-pack=<exec>]
- [-q | --quiet] [--exit-code] [--get-url]
+ [-q | --quiet] [--exit-code] [--get-url] [--sort=<key>]
[--symref] [<repository> [<refs>...]]
@@ -60,6 +60,24 @@ OPTIONS
upload-pack only shows the symref HEAD, so it will be the only
one shown by ls-remote.
+ Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending order
+ of the value. Supports "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag names
+ are treated as versions). The "version:refname" sort order can also
+ be affected by the "versionsort.suffix" configuration variable.
+ See linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1] for more sort options, but be aware
+ keys like `committerdate` that require access to the objects
+ themselves will not work for refs whose objects have not yet been
+ fetched from the remote, and will give a `missing object` error.
+-o <option>::
+ Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
+ protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
+ character.
+ When multiple `--server-option=<option>` are given, they are all
+ sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.
The "remote" repository to query. This parameter can be
either a URL or the name of a remote (see the GIT URLS and
@@ -90,6 +108,10 @@ EXAMPLES
c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
index c3616e7..27fe2b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
Reads standard input in non-recursive `ls-tree` output format, and creates
-a tree object. The order of the tree entries is normalised by mktree so
+a tree object. The order of the tree entries is normalized by mktree so
pre-sorting the input is not required. The object name of the tree object
built is written to the standard output.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index e8e68f5..5cb0eb0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -61,8 +61,8 @@ OPTIONS
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
Given a commit, find out where it is relative to the local refs. Say somebody
wrote you about that fantastic commit 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index d8c8f11..b0abe2c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -29,8 +29,8 @@ Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
the updated p4 remote branch.
* Clone a repository:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 81bc490..6bfac6b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git pack-objects' [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
[--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
[--local] [--incremental] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
- [--revs [--unpacked | --all]]
+ [--revs [--unpacked | --all]] [--keep-pack=<pack-name>]
[--stdout [--filter=<filter-spec>] | base-name]
[--shallow] [--keep-true-parents] < object-list
@@ -96,7 +96,9 @@ base-name::
it too deep affects the performance on the unpacker
side, because delta data needs to be applied that many
times to get to the necessary object.
- The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50.
+The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50. The maximum
+depth is 4095.
This option provides an additional limit on top of `--window`;
@@ -126,6 +128,13 @@ base-name::
has a .keep file to be ignored, even if it would have
otherwise been packed.
+ This flag causes an object already in the given pack to be
+ ignored, even if it would have otherwise been
+ packed. `<pack-name>` is the the pack file name without
+ leading directory (e.g. `pack-123.pack`). The option could be
+ specified multiple times to keep multiple packs.
This flag causes an object already in a pack to be ignored
even if it would have otherwise been packed.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index a37c0af..03552dd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ OPTIONS
reachable from any of our references, keep objects
reachable from listed <head>s.
To prune objects not used by your repository or another that
borrows from your repository via its
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ borrows from your repository via its
$ git prune $(cd ../another && git rev-parse --all)
In most cases, users will not need to call 'git prune' directly, but
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index ce05b7a..4e0ad6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -101,13 +101,17 @@ Options related to merging
When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
+When set to `merges`, rebase using `git rebase --rebase-merges` so that
+the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
+linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
When set to preserve, rebase with the `--preserve-merges` option passed
to `git rebase` so that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index f2bbda6..55277a9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -301,7 +301,7 @@ origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
- \--thin.
+ `--thin`.
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@ reason::
refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
failure is described.
-Note about fast-forwards
When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
@@ -511,7 +511,7 @@ overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
a case where you do mean to lose history.
`git push`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index f2a07d5..5c70bc2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -132,7 +132,7 @@ OPTIONS
The id of the tree object(s) to be read/merged.
If `-m` is specified, 'git read-tree' can perform 3 kinds of
merge, a single tree merge if only 1 tree is given, a
@@ -382,7 +382,7 @@ middle of doing, and when your working tree is ready (i.e. you
have finished your work-in-progress), attempt the merge again.
-Sparse checkout
"Sparse checkout" allows populating the working directory sparsely.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 3277ca1..bd5ecff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -364,9 +364,10 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
Incompatible with the --interactive option.
- This flag is passed to 'git am' to sign off all the rebased
- commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]). Incompatible with the
- --interactive option.
+ Add a Signed-off-by: trailer to all the rebased commits. Note
+ that if `--interactive` is given then only commits marked to be
+ picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added. Incompatible
+ with the `--preserve-merges` option.
@@ -378,6 +379,33 @@ The commit list format can be changed by setting the configuration option
rebase.instructionFormat. A customized instruction format will automatically
have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
+ By default, a rebase will simply drop merge commits from the todo
+ list, and put the rebased commits into a single, linear branch.
+ With `--rebase-merges`, the rebase will instead try to preserve
+ the branching structure within the commits that are to be rebased,
+ by recreating the merge commits. Any resolved merge conflicts or
+ manual amendments in these merge commits will have to be
+ resolved/re-applied manually.
+By default, or when `no-rebase-cousins` was specified, commits which do not
+have `<upstream>` as direct ancestor will keep their original branch point,
+i.e. commits that would be excluded by gitlink:git-log[1]'s
+`--ancestry-path` option will keep their original ancestry by default. If
+the `rebase-cousins` mode is turned on, such commits are instead rebased
+onto `<upstream>` (or `<onto>`, if specified).
+The `--rebase-merges` mode is similar in spirit to `--preserve-merges`, but
+in contrast to that option works well in interactive rebases: commits can be
+reordered, inserted and dropped at will.
+It is currently only possible to recreate the merge commits using the
+`recursive` merge strategy; Different merge strategies can be used only via
+explicit `exec git merge -s <strategy> [...]` commands.
+See also REBASING MERGES below.
Recreate merge commits instead of flattening the history by replaying
@@ -775,12 +803,146 @@ The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
case" recovery too!
+The interactive rebase command was originally designed to handle
+individual patch series. As such, it makes sense to exclude merge
+commits from the todo list, as the developer may have merged the
+then-current `master` while working on the branch, only to rebase
+all the commits onto `master` eventually (skipping the merge
+However, there are legitimate reasons why a developer may want to
+recreate merge commits: to keep the branch structure (or "commit
+topology") when working on multiple, inter-related branches.
+In the following example, the developer works on a topic branch that
+refactors the way buttons are defined, and on another topic branch
+that uses that refactoring to implement a "Report a bug" button. The
+output of `git log --graph --format=%s -5` may look like this:
+* Merge branch 'report-a-bug'
+| * Add the feedback button
+* | Merge branch 'refactor-button'
+|\ \
+| |/
+| * Use the Button class for all buttons
+| * Extract a generic Button class from the DownloadButton one
+The developer might want to rebase those commits to a newer `master`
+while keeping the branch topology, for example when the first topic
+branch is expected to be integrated into `master` much earlier than the
+second one, say, to resolve merge conflicts with changes to the
+DownloadButton class that made it into `master`.
+This rebase can be performed using the `--rebase-merges` option.
+It will generate a todo list looking like this:
+label onto
+# Branch: refactor-button
+reset onto
+pick 123456 Extract a generic Button class from the DownloadButton one
+pick 654321 Use the Button class for all buttons
+label refactor-button
+# Branch: report-a-bug
+reset refactor-button # Use the Button class for all buttons
+pick abcdef Add the feedback button
+label report-a-bug
+reset onto
+merge -C a1b2c3 refactor-button # Merge 'refactor-button'
+merge -C 6f5e4d report-a-bug # Merge 'report-a-bug'
+In contrast to a regular interactive rebase, there are `label`, `reset`
+and `merge` commands in addition to `pick` ones.
+The `label` command associates a label with the current HEAD when that
+command is executed. These labels are created as worktree-local refs
+(`refs/rewritten/<label>`) that will be deleted when the rebase
+finishes. That way, rebase operations in multiple worktrees linked to
+the same repository do not interfere with one another. If the `label`
+command fails, it is rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how
+to proceed.
+The `reset` command resets the HEAD, index and worktree to the specified
+revision. It is isimilar to an `exec git reset --hard <label>`, but
+refuses to overwrite untracked files. If the `reset` command fails, it is
+rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how to edit the todo list
+(this typically happens when a `reset` command was inserted into the todo
+list manually and contains a typo).
+The `merge` command will merge the specified revision into whatever is
+HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
+the specified merge commit will be used. When the `-C` is changed to
+a lower-case `-c`, the message will be opened in an editor after a
+successful merge so that the user can edit the message.
+If a `merge` command fails for any reason other than merge conflicts (i.e.
+when the merge operation did not even start), it is rescheduled immediately.
+At this time, the `merge` command will *always* use the `recursive`
+merge strategy, with no way to choose a different one. To work around
+this, an `exec` command can be used to call `git merge` explicitly,
+using the fact that the labels are worktree-local refs (the ref
+`refs/rewritten/onto` would correspond to the label `onto`, for example).
+Note: the first command (`label onto`) labels the revision onto which
+the commits are rebased; The name `onto` is just a convention, as a nod
+to the `--onto` option.
+It is also possible to introduce completely new merge commits from scratch
+by adding a command of the form `merge <merge-head>`. This form will
+generate a tentative commit message and always open an editor to let the
+user edit it. This can be useful e.g. when a topic branch turns out to
+address more than a single concern and wants to be split into two or
+even more topic branches. Consider this todo list:
+pick 192837 Switch from GNU Makefiles to CMake
+pick 5a6c7e Document the switch to CMake
+pick 918273 Fix detection of OpenSSL in CMake
+pick afbecd http: add support for TLS v1.3
+pick fdbaec Fix detection of cURL in CMake on Windows
+The one commit in this list that is not related to CMake may very well
+have been motivated by working on fixing all those bugs introduced by
+switching to CMake, but it addresses a different concern. To split this
+branch into two topic branches, the todo list could be edited like this:
+label onto
+pick afbecd http: add support for TLS v1.3
+label tlsv1.3
+reset onto
+pick 192837 Switch from GNU Makefiles to CMake
+pick 918273 Fix detection of OpenSSL in CMake
+pick fdbaec Fix detection of cURL in CMake on Windows
+pick 5a6c7e Document the switch to CMake
+label cmake
+reset onto
+merge tlsv1.3
+merge cmake
The todo list presented by `--preserve-merges --interactive` does not
represent the topology of the revision graph. Editing commits and
rewording their commit messages should work fine, but attempts to
-reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results.
+reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results. Use
+`--rebase-merges` in such scenarios instead.
For example, an attempt to rearrange
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 86a4b32..dedf97e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ OPTIONS
The repository to sync into.
-pre-receive Hook
Before any ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/pre-receive file exists
and is executable, it will be invoked once with no parameters. The
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ bail out if the update is not to be supported.
See the notes on the quarantine environment below.
-update Hook
Before each ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/update file exists
and is executable, it is invoked once per ref, with three parameters:
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ ensure the ref will actually be updated, it is only a prerequisite.
As such it is not a good idea to send notices (e.g. email) from
this hook. Consider using the post-receive hook instead.
-post-receive Hook
After all refs were updated (or attempted to be updated), if any
ref update was successful, and if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-receive
@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ after it was updated by 'git-receive-pack', but before the hook was able
to evaluate it. It is recommended that hooks rely on sha1-new
rather than the current value of refname.
-post-update Hook
After all other processing, if at least one ref was updated, and
if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update file exists and is executable, then
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ if the repository is packed and is served via a dumb transport.
exec git update-server-info
-Quarantine Environment
When `receive-pack` takes in objects, they are placed into a temporary
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index b25d0b5..3fc5d94 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -55,14 +55,14 @@ some tunnel.
the vhost field in the git:// service request (to rest of the argument).
Default is not to send vhost in such request (if sent).
If set, prints debugging information about various reads/writes.
Set to long name (git-upload-pack, etc...) of service helper needs
@@ -73,8 +73,8 @@ GIT_EXT_SERVICE_NOPREFIX::
to invoke.
This remote helper is transparently used by Git when
you use commands such as "git fetch <URL>", "git clone <URL>",
, "git push <URL>" or "git remote add <nick> <URL>", where <URL>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 4feddc0..595948d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@ The remote configuration is achieved using the `remote.origin.url` and
`remote.origin.fetch` configuration variables. (See
* Add a new remote, fetch, and check out a branch from it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index ae750e9..d90e790 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-repack - Pack unpacked objects in a repository
-'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>] [--threads=<n>]
+'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>] [--threads=<n>] [--keep-pack=<pack-name>]
@@ -90,7 +90,9 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
space. `--depth` limits the maximum delta depth; making it too deep
affects the performance on the unpacker side, because delta data needs
to be applied that many times to get to the necessary object.
- The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50.
+The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50. The maximum
+depth is 4095.
This option is passed through to `git pack-objects`.
@@ -133,6 +135,13 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
with `-b` or `repack.writeBitmaps`, as it ensures that the
bitmapped packfile has the necessary objects.
+ Exclude the given pack from repacking. This is the equivalent
+ of having `.keep` file on the pack. `<pack-name>` is the the
+ pack file name without leading directory (e.g. `pack-123.pack`).
+ The option could be specified multiple times to keep multiple
+ packs.
When loosening unreachable objects, do not bother loosening any
objects older than `<when>`. This can be used to optimize out
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index e5c57ae..246dc99 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git replace' [-f] <object> <replacement>
'git replace' [-f] --edit <object>
'git replace' [-f] --graft <commit> [<parent>...]
+'git replace' [-f] --convert-graft-file
'git replace' -d <object>...
'git replace' [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
@@ -87,9 +88,13 @@ OPTIONS
content as <commit> except that its parents will be
[<parent>...] instead of <commit>'s parents. A replacement ref
is then created to replace <commit> with the newly created
- commit. See contrib/ for an
- example script based on this option that can convert grafts to
- replace refs.
+ commit. Use `--convert-graft-file` to convert a
+ `$GIT_DIR/info/grafts` file and use replace refs instead.
+ Creates graft commits for all entries in `$GIT_DIR/info/grafts`
+ and deletes that file upon success. The purpose is to help users
+ with transitioning off of the now-deprecated graft file.
-l <pattern>::
--list <pattern>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
index c32cb0b..4d4392d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
@@ -46,8 +46,8 @@ ref that is different from the ref you have locally, you can use the
its remote name.
Imagine that you built your work on your `master` branch on top of
the `v1.0` release, and want it to be integrated to the project.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 71ef97b..464c15b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -255,7 +255,7 @@ must be used for each option.
Some email servers (e.g. limit the number emails to be
- sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a faliure when
+ sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a failure when
sending many messages. With this option, send-email will disconnect after
sending $<num> messages and wait for a few seconds (see --relogin-delay)
and reconnect, to work around such a limit. You may want to
@@ -458,8 +458,8 @@ sendemail.confirm::
one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See `--confirm`
in the previous section for the meaning of these values.
Use gmail as the smtp server
To use 'git send-email' to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server,
@@ -473,16 +473,7 @@ edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail account, you will
need to generate an app-specific password for use with 'git send-email'. Visit
- to setup an
-app-specific password. Once setup, you can store it with the credentials
- $ git credential fill
- protocol=smtp
- password=app-password
+ to create it.
Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
following commands:
@@ -491,6 +482,11 @@ following commands:
$ edit outgoing/0000-*
$ git send-email outgoing/*
+The first time you run it, you will be prompted for your credentials. Enter the
+app-specific or your regular password as appropriate. If you have credential
+helper configured (see linkgit:git-credential[1]), the password will be saved in
+the credential store so you won't have to type it the next time.
Note: the following perl modules are required
Net::SMTP::SSL, MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index f51c649..44fd146 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
The remote refs to update.
-Specifying the Refs
There are three ways to specify which refs to update on the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index 54cf256..11361f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -62,8 +62,8 @@ permissions.
If a `no-interactive-login` command exists, then it is run and the
interactive shell is aborted.
To disable interactive logins, displaying a greeting instead:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index ee6c547..bc80905 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output
+'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [<options>]
-'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
@@ -69,11 +69,11 @@ them.
ways to spell <revision range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-[\--] <path>...::
+[--] <path>...::
Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be.
-Paths may need to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from
+Paths may need to be prefixed with `--` to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index 7818e0f..262db04 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -173,8 +173,8 @@ The "fixes" branch adds one commit "Introduce "reset type" flag to
The current branch is "master".
If you keep your primary branches immediately under
`refs/heads`, and topic branches in subdirectories of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index c0aa871..d28e615 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -120,8 +120,8 @@ $ git show-ref --heads --hash
To show all references called "master", whether tags or heads or anything
else, and regardless of how deep in the reference naming hierarchy they are,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show.txt b/Documentation/git-show.txt
index e73ef54..0e1695d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show.txt
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ EXAMPLES
Concatenates the contents of said Makefiles in the head
of the branch `master`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 6c230c0..c16e27e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -113,7 +113,7 @@ The possible options are:
- 'matching' - Shows ignored files and directories matching an
ignore pattern.
-When 'matching' mode is specified, paths that explicity match an
+When 'matching' mode is specified, paths that explicitly match an
ignored pattern are shown. If a directory matches an ignore pattern,
then it is shown, but not paths contained in the ignored directory. If
a directory does not match an ignore pattern, but all contents are
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 71c5618..630999f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -213,8 +213,8 @@ sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
submodule URLs change upstream and you need to update your local
repositories accordingly.
-"git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while
-"git submodule sync \-- A" synchronizes submodule "A" only.
+`git submodule sync` synchronizes all submodules while
+`git submodule sync -- A` synchronizes submodule "A" only.
If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
registered submodules, and sync any nested submodules within.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 11aefad..e961595 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -635,7 +635,8 @@ config key: svn.findcopiesharder
- Syntax is compatible with the file used by 'git cvsimport':
+ Syntax is compatible with the file used by 'git cvsimport' but
+ an empty email address can be supplied with '<>':
loginname = Joe User <>
@@ -654,8 +655,14 @@ config key: svn.authorsfile
If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that
does not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed
with the committer name as the first argument. The program is
- expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>",
- which will be treated as if included in the authors file.
+ expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>" or
+ "Name <>", which will be treated as if included in the authors
+ file.
+Due to historical reasons a relative 'filename' is first searched
+relative to the current directory for 'init' and 'clone' and relative
+to the root of the working tree for 'fetch'. If 'filename' is
+not found, it is searched like any other command in '$PATH'.
config key: svn.authorsProg
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 3897a59..4e8e762 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ will remove the intended effect of the option.
cleaner names.
The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'
-Using --refresh
`--refresh` does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
up to date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
@@ -239,7 +239,7 @@ the stat entry is out of date.
For example, you'd want to do this after doing a 'git read-tree', to link
up the stat index details with the proper files.
-Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
`--cacheinfo` is used to register a file that is not in the
current working directory. This is useful for minimum-checkout
@@ -261,7 +261,7 @@ useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
object database.
-Using --index-info
`--index-info` is a more powerful mechanism that lets you feed
@@ -317,7 +317,7 @@ $ git ls-files -s
-Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
Many operations in Git depend on your filesystem to have an
@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@ the index (use `git update-index --really-refresh` if you want
to mark them as "assume unchanged").
To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
@@ -387,7 +387,7 @@ M foo.c
<9> now it checks with lstat(2) and finds it has been changed.
-Skip-worktree bit
Skip-worktree bit can be defined in one (long) sentence: When reading
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ Although this bit looks similar to assume-unchanged bit, its goal is
different from assume-unchanged bit's. Skip-worktree also takes
precedence over assume-unchanged bit when both are set.
-Split index
This mode is designed for repositories with very large indexes, and
@@ -432,7 +432,7 @@ To avoid deleting a shared index file that is still used, its
modification time is updated to the current time everytime a new split
index based on the shared index file is either created or read from.
-Untracked cache
This cache is meant to speed up commands that involve determining
@@ -490,7 +490,7 @@ As with the bug described above the solution is to one-off do a "git
status" run with `core.untrackedCache=false` to flush out the leftover
bad data.
-File System Monitor
This feature is intended to speed up git operations for repos that have
@@ -518,7 +518,7 @@ file system monitor is added to or removed from the index the next time
a command reads the index. When `--[no-]fsmonitor` are used, the file
system monitor is immediately added to or removed from the index.
The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable. If
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index 969bfab..bc8fdfd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -120,7 +120,7 @@ modifications are performed. Note that while each individual
<ref> is updated or deleted atomically, a concurrent reader may
still see a subset of the modifications.
-Logging Updates
If config parameter "core.logAllRefUpdates" is true and the ref is one under
"refs/heads/", "refs/remotes/", "refs/notes/", or the symbolic ref HEAD; or
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index 44ff954..6072f93 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -23,14 +23,14 @@ OPTIONS
as well. (However, the configuration variables listing functionality
is deprecated in favor of `git config -l`.)
Eric W. Biederman <> 1121223278 -0600
The author of a piece of code.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index 2d6b09a..a4ec25b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ variable exists then 'git web{litdd}browse' will treat the specified tool
as a custom command and will use a shell eval to run the command with
the URLs passed as arguments.
-Note about konqueror
When 'konqueror' is specified by a command-line option or a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index e7eb24a..afc6576 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
'git worktree move' <worktree> <new-path>
'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
-'git worktree remove' [--force] <worktree>
+'git worktree remove' [-f] <worktree>
'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
@@ -27,11 +27,12 @@ out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
"linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
-bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
+bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees. When you are done
+with a linked working tree, remove it with `git worktree remove`.
-When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
-The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
-"DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
+If a working tree is deleted without using `git worktree remove`, then
+its associated administrative files, which reside in the repository
+(see "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
`gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
`git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
clean up any stale administrative files.
@@ -60,8 +61,13 @@ $ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
-then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
-as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
+then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a branch
+(call it `<branch>`) named after `$(basename <path>)`. If `<branch>`
+doesn't exist, a new branch based on HEAD is automatically created as
+if `-b <branch>` was given. If `<branch>` does exist, it will be
+checked out in the new worktree, if it's not checked out anywhere
+else, otherwise the command will refuse to create the worktree (unless
+`--force` is used).
@@ -106,7 +112,7 @@ OPTIONS
By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when
`<commit-ish>` is a branch name and is already checked out by
another working tree and `remove` refuses to remove an unclean
- working tree. This option overrides that safeguard.
+ working tree. This option overrides these safeguards.
-b <new-branch>::
-B <new-branch>::
@@ -232,7 +238,7 @@ The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
details on a single line with columns. For example:
-S git worktree list
+$ git worktree list
/path/to/bare-source (bare)
/path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
/path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
@@ -247,7 +253,7 @@ if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
-S git worktree list --porcelain
+$ git worktree list --porcelain
worktree /path/to/bare-source
@@ -278,8 +284,7 @@ $ pushd ../temp
# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
$ popd
-$ rm -rf ../temp
-$ git worktree prune
+$ git worktree remove ../temp
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 4767860..c662f41 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
- [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
+ [-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
<command> [<args>]
@@ -103,6 +103,7 @@ ...`) sets `` to the empty string which `git config
configuration options (see the "Configuration Mechanism" section
Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 1094fe2..b72936a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -279,6 +279,94 @@ few exceptions. Even though...
catch potential problems early, safety triggers.
+Git recognizes files encoded in ASCII or one of its supersets (e.g.
+UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, ...) as text files. Files encoded in certain other
+encodings (e.g. UTF-16) are interpreted as binary and consequently
+built-in Git text processing tools (e.g. 'git diff') as well as most Git
+web front ends do not visualize the contents of these files by default.
+In these cases you can tell Git the encoding of a file in the working
+directory with the `working-tree-encoding` attribute. If a file with this
+attribute is added to Git, then Git reencodes the content from the
+specified encoding to UTF-8. Finally, Git stores the UTF-8 encoded
+content in its internal data structure (called "the index"). On checkout
+the content is reencoded back to the specified encoding.
+Please note that using the `working-tree-encoding` attribute may have a
+number of pitfalls:
+- Alternative Git implementations (e.g. JGit or libgit2) and older Git
+ versions (as of March 2018) do not support the `working-tree-encoding`
+ attribute. If you decide to use the `working-tree-encoding` attribute
+ in your repository, then it is strongly recommended to ensure that all
+ clients working with the repository support it.
+ For example, Microsoft Visual Studio resources files (`*.rc`) or
+ PowerShell script files (`*.ps1`) are sometimes encoded in UTF-16.
+ If you declare `*.ps1` as files as UTF-16 and you add `foo.ps1` with
+ a `working-tree-encoding` enabled Git client, then `foo.ps1` will be
+ stored as UTF-8 internally. A client without `working-tree-encoding`
+ support will checkout `foo.ps1` as UTF-8 encoded file. This will
+ typically cause trouble for the users of this file.
+ If a Git client, that does not support the `working-tree-encoding`
+ attribute, adds a new file `bar.ps1`, then `bar.ps1` will be
+ stored "as-is" internally (in this example probably as UTF-16).
+ A client with `working-tree-encoding` support will interpret the
+ internal contents as UTF-8 and try to convert it to UTF-16 on checkout.
+ That operation will fail and cause an error.
+- Reencoding content to non-UTF encodings can cause errors as the
+ conversion might not be UTF-8 round trip safe. If you suspect your
+ encoding to not be round trip safe, then add it to
+ `core.checkRoundtripEncoding` to make Git check the round trip
+ encoding (see linkgit:git-config[1]). SHIFT-JIS (Japanese character
+ set) is known to have round trip issues with UTF-8 and is checked by
+ default.
+- Reencoding content requires resources that might slow down certain
+ Git operations (e.g 'git checkout' or 'git add').
+Use the `working-tree-encoding` attribute only if you cannot store a file
+in UTF-8 encoding and if you want Git to be able to process the content
+as text.
+As an example, use the following attributes if your '*.ps1' files are
+UTF-16 encoded with byte order mark (BOM) and you want Git to perform
+automatic line ending conversion based on your platform.
+*.ps1 text working-tree-encoding=UTF-16
+Use the following attributes if your '*.ps1' files are UTF-16 little
+endian encoded without BOM and you want Git to use Windows line endings
+in the working directory. Please note, it is highly recommended to
+explicitly define the line endings with `eol` if the `working-tree-encoding`
+attribute is used to avoid ambiguity.
+*.ps1 text working-tree-encoding=UTF-16LE eol=CRLF
+You can get a list of all available encodings on your platform with the
+following command:
+iconv --list
+If you do not know the encoding of a file, then you can use the `file`
+command to guess the encoding:
+file foo.ps1
@@ -1141,8 +1229,8 @@ to:
If you have these three `gitattributes` file:
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index ca96c28..244cd01 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ gitk - The Git repository browser
-'gitk' [<options>] [<revision range>] [\--] [<path>...]
+'gitk' [<options>] [<revision range>] [--] [<path>...]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 4b8c93e..9d1459a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -102,6 +102,14 @@ Capabilities for Pushing
Supported commands: 'connect'.
+ Experimental; for internal use only.
+ Can attempt to connect to a remote server for communication
+ using git's wire-protocol version 2. See the documentation
+ for the stateless-connect command for more information.
+Supported commands: 'stateless-connect'.
Can discover remote refs and push local commits and the
history leading up to them to new or existing remote refs.
@@ -136,6 +144,14 @@ Capabilities for Fetching
Supported commands: 'connect'.
+ Experimental; for internal use only.
+ Can attempt to connect to a remote server for communication
+ using git's wire-protocol version 2. See the documentation
+ for the stateless-connect command for more information.
+Supported commands: 'stateless-connect'.
Can discover remote refs and transfer objects reachable from
them to the local object store.
@@ -375,6 +391,22 @@ Supported if the helper has the "export" capability.
Supported if the helper has the "connect" capability.
+'stateless-connect' <service>::
+ Experimental; for internal use only.
+ Connects to the given remote service for communication using
+ git's wire-protocol version 2. Valid replies to this command
+ are empty line (connection established), 'fallback' (no smart
+ transport support, fall back to dumb transports) and just
+ exiting with error message printed (can't connect, don't bother
+ trying to fall back). After line feed terminating the positive
+ (empty) response, the output of the service starts. Messages
+ (both request and response) must consist of zero or more
+ PKT-LINEs, terminating in a flush packet. The client must not
+ expect the server to store any state in between request-response
+ pairs. After the connection ends, the remote helper exits.
+Supported if the helper has the "stateless-connect" capability.
If a fatal error occurs, the program writes the error message to
stderr and exits. The caller should expect that a suitable error
message has been printed if the child closes the connection without
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index c60bcad..e85148f 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -275,11 +275,6 @@ worktrees/<id>/locked::
or manually by `git worktree prune`. The file may contain a string
explaining why the repository is locked.
- If this file exists, it is a hard link to the linked .git
- file. It is used to detect if the linked repository is
- manually removed.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 6b8888d..6c2d23d 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -463,7 +463,7 @@ exclude;;
Pushing a <<def_branch,branch>> means to get the branch's
<<def_head_ref,head ref>> from a remote <<def_repository,repository>>,
- find out if it is a direct ancestor to the branch's local
+ find out if it is an ancestor to the branch's local
head ref, and in that case, putting all
objects, which are <<def_reachable,reachable>> from the local
head ref, and which are missing from the remote
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
index 9c4cd09..8994e25 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ valid pack like:
# now add our object data
cat object >>tmp.pack
# and then append the pack trailer
- /path/to/git.git/test-sha1 -b <tmp.pack >trailer
+ /path/to/git.git/t/helper/test-tool sha1 -b <tmp.pack >trailer
cat trailer >>tmp.pack
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
index 9a778b0..fa39ac9 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
@@ -47,21 +47,23 @@ will first feed the user-wide one to the callback, and then the
repo-specific one; by overwriting, the higher-priority repo-specific
value is left at the end).
-The `git_config_with_options` function lets the caller examine config
+The `config_with_options` function lets the caller examine config
while adjusting some of the default behavior of `git_config`. It should
almost never be used by "regular" Git code that is looking up
configuration variables. It is intended for advanced callers like
`git-config`, which are intentionally tweaking the normal config-lookup
process. It takes two extra parameters:
-If this parameter is non-NULL, it specifies the name of a file to
-parse for configuration, rather than looking in the usual files. Regular
-`git_config` defaults to `NULL`.
+If this parameter is non-NULL, it specifies the source to parse for
+configuration, rather than looking in the usual files. See `struct
+git_config_source` in `config.h` for details. Regular `git_config` defaults
+to `NULL`.
-Specify whether include directives should be followed in parsed files.
-Regular `git_config` defaults to `1`.
+Specify options to adjust the behavior of parsing config files. See `struct
+config_options` in `config.h` for details. As an example: regular `git_config`
+sets `opts.respect_includes` to `1` by default.
Reading Specific Files
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 7fae00f..4f44ca2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ The notable options are:
not be returned even if all of its contents are ignored. In
this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
-If this is set, files and directories that explicity match an ignore
+If this is set, files and directories that explicitly match an ignore
pattern are reported. Implicity ignored directories (directories that
do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
index a1162e5..5b29622 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
object access API
-Talk about <sha1_file.c> and <object.h> family, things like
+Talk about <sha1-file.c> and <object.h> family, things like
* read_sha1_file()
* read_object_with_reference()
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
index ee907c4..fb06089 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ Data Structures
-`void submodule_free()`::
+`void submodule_free(struct repository *r)`::
Use these to free the internally cached values.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ad6af81
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,97 @@
+Git commit graph format
+The Git commit graph stores a list of commit OIDs and some associated
+metadata, including:
+- The generation number of the commit. Commits with no parents have
+ generation number 1; commits with parents have generation number
+ one more than the maximum generation number of its parents. We
+ reserve zero as special, and can be used to mark a generation
+ number invalid or as "not computed".
+- The root tree OID.
+- The commit date.
+- The parents of the commit, stored using positional references within
+ the graph file.
+These positional references are stored as unsigned 32-bit integers
+corresponding to the array position withing the list of commit OIDs. We
+use the most-significant bit for special purposes, so we can store at most
+(1 << 31) - 1 (around 2 billion) commits.
+== Commit graph files have the following format:
+In order to allow extensions that add extra data to the graph, we organize
+the body into "chunks" and provide a binary lookup table at the beginning
+of the body. The header includes certain values, such as number of chunks
+and hash type.
+All 4-byte numbers are in network order.
+ 4-byte signature:
+ The signature is: {'C', 'G', 'P', 'H'}
+ 1-byte version number:
+ Currently, the only valid version is 1.
+ 1-byte Hash Version (1 = SHA-1)
+ We infer the hash length (H) from this value.
+ 1-byte number (C) of "chunks"
+ 1-byte (reserved for later use)
+ Current clients should ignore this value.
+ (C + 1) * 12 bytes listing the table of contents for the chunks:
+ First 4 bytes describe the chunk id. Value 0 is a terminating label.
+ Other 8 bytes provide the byte-offset in current file for chunk to
+ start. (Chunks are ordered contiguously in the file, so you can infer
+ the length using the next chunk position if necessary.) Each chunk
+ ID appears at most once.
+ The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
+ these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
+ otherwise specified.
+ OID Fanout (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'F'}) (256 * 4 bytes)
+ The ith entry, F[i], stores the number of OIDs with first
+ byte at most i. Thus F[255] stores the total
+ number of commits (N).
+ OID Lookup (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'L'}) (N * H bytes)
+ The OIDs for all commits in the graph, sorted in ascending order.
+ Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'G', 'E', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
+ * The first H bytes are for the OID of the root tree.
+ * The next 8 bytes are for the positions of the first two parents
+ of the ith commit. Stores value 0xffffffff if no parent in that
+ position. If there are more than two parents, the second value
+ has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store an array
+ position into the Large Edge List chunk.
+ * The next 8 bytes store the generation number of the commit and
+ the commit time in seconds since EPOCH. The generation number
+ uses the higher 30 bits of the first 4 bytes, while the commit
+ time uses the 32 bits of the second 4 bytes, along with the lowest
+ 2 bits of the lowest byte, storing the 33rd and 34th bit of the
+ commit time.
+ Large Edge List (ID: {'E', 'D', 'G', 'E'}) [Optional]
+ This list of 4-byte values store the second through nth parents for
+ all octopus merges. The second parent value in the commit data stores
+ an array position within this list along with the most-significant bit
+ on. Starting at that array position, iterate through this list of commit
+ positions for the parents until reaching a value with the most-significant
+ bit on. The other bits correspond to the position of the last parent.
+ H-byte HASH-checksum of all of the above.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0550c6d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,163 @@
+Git Commit Graph Design Notes
+Git walks the commit graph for many reasons, including:
+1. Listing and filtering commit history.
+2. Computing merge bases.
+These operations can become slow as the commit count grows. The merge
+base calculation shows up in many user-facing commands, such as 'merge-base'
+or 'status' and can take minutes to compute depending on history shape.
+There are two main costs here:
+1. Decompressing and parsing commits.
+2. Walking the entire graph to satisfy topological order constraints.
+The commit graph file is a supplemental data structure that accelerates
+commit graph walks. If a user downgrades or disables the 'core.commitGraph'
+config setting, then the existing ODB is sufficient. The file is stored
+as "commit-graph" either in the .git/objects/info directory or in the info
+directory of an alternate.
+The commit graph file stores the commit graph structure along with some
+extra metadata to speed up graph walks. By listing commit OIDs in lexi-
+cographic order, we can identify an integer position for each commit and
+refer to the parents of a commit using those integer positions. We use
+binary search to find initial commits and then use the integer positions
+for fast lookups during the walk.
+A consumer may load the following info for a commit from the graph:
+1. The commit OID.
+2. The list of parents, along with their integer position.
+3. The commit date.
+4. The root tree OID.
+5. The generation number (see definition below).
+Values 1-4 satisfy the requirements of parse_commit_gently().
+Define the "generation number" of a commit recursively as follows:
+ * A commit with no parents (a root commit) has generation number one.
+ * A commit with at least one parent has generation number one more than
+ the largest generation number among its parents.
+Equivalently, the generation number of a commit A is one more than the
+length of a longest path from A to a root commit. The recursive definition
+is easier to use for computation and observing the following property:
+ If A and B are commits with generation numbers N and M, respectively,
+ and N <= M, then A cannot reach B. That is, we know without searching
+ that B is not an ancestor of A because it is further from a root commit
+ than A.
+ Conversely, when checking if A is an ancestor of B, then we only need
+ to walk commits until all commits on the walk boundary have generation
+ number at most N. If we walk commits using a priority queue seeded by
+ generation numbers, then we always expand the boundary commit with highest
+ generation number and can easily detect the stopping condition.
+This property can be used to significantly reduce the time it takes to
+walk commits and determine topological relationships. Without generation
+numbers, the general heuristic is the following:
+ If A and B are commits with commit time X and Y, respectively, and
+ X < Y, then A _probably_ cannot reach B.
+This heuristic is currently used whenever the computation is allowed to
+violate topological relationships due to clock skew (such as "git log"
+with default order), but is not used when the topological order is
+required (such as merge base calculations, "git log --graph").
+In practice, we expect some commits to be created recently and not stored
+in the commit graph. We can treat these commits as having "infinite"
+generation number and walk until reaching commits with known generation
+Design Details
+- The commit graph file is stored in a file named 'commit-graph' in the
+ .git/objects/info directory. This could be stored in the info directory
+ of an alternate.
+- The core.commitGraph config setting must be on to consume graph files.
+- The file format includes parameters for the object ID hash function,
+ so a future change of hash algorithm does not require a change in format.
+Future Work
+- The commit graph feature currently does not honor commit grafts. This can
+ be remedied by duplicating or refactoring the current graft logic.
+- The 'commit-graph' subcommand does not have a "verify" mode that is
+ necessary for integration with fsck.
+- The file format includes room for precomputed generation numbers. These
+ are not currently computed, so all generation numbers will be marked as
+ 0 (or "uncomputed"). A later patch will include this calculation.
+- After computing and storing generation numbers, we must make graph
+ walks aware of generation numbers to gain the performance benefits they
+ enable. This will mostly be accomplished by swapping a commit-date-ordered
+ priority queue with one ordered by generation number. The following
+ operations are important candidates:
+ - paint_down_to_common()
+ - 'log --topo-order'
+- Currently, parse_commit_gently() requires filling in the root tree
+ object for a commit. This passes through lookup_tree() and consequently
+ lookup_object(). Also, it calls lookup_commit() when loading the parents.
+ These method calls check the ODB for object existence, even if the
+ consumer does not need the content. For example, we do not need the
+ tree contents when computing merge bases. Now that commit parsing is
+ removed from the computation time, these lookup operations are the
+ slowest operations keeping graph walks from being fast. Consider
+ loading these objects without verifying their existence in the ODB and
+ only loading them fully when consumers need them. Consider a method
+ such as "ensure_tree_loaded(commit)" that fully loads a tree before
+ using commit->tree.
+- The current design uses the 'commit-graph' subcommand to generate the graph.
+ When this feature stabilizes enough to recommend to most users, we should
+ add automatic graph writes to common operations that create many commits.
+ For example, one could compute a graph on 'clone', 'fetch', or 'repack'
+ commands.
+- A server could provide a commit graph file as part of the network protocol
+ to avoid extra calculations by clients. This feature is only of benefit if
+ the user is willing to trust the file, because verifying the file is correct
+ is as hard as computing it from scratch.
+Related Links
+ Chromium work item for: Serialized Commit Graph
+ An abandoned patch that introduced generation numbers.
+ Discussion about generation numbers on commits and how they interact
+ with fsck.
+ More discussion about generation numbers and not storing them inside
+ commit objects. A valuable quote:
+ "I think we should be moving more in the direction of keeping
+ repo-local caches for optimizations. Reachability bitmaps have been
+ a big performance win. I think we should be doing the same with our
+ properties of commits. Not just generation numbers, but making it
+ cheap to access the graph structure without zlib-inflating whole
+ commit objects (i.e., packv4 or something like the "metapacks" I
+ proposed a few years ago)."
+ A patch to remove the ahead-behind calculation from 'status'.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
index 417ba49..4ab6cd1 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -28,11 +28,30 @@ advantages:
address stored content.
Over time some flaws in SHA-1 have been discovered by security
-researchers. demonstrated a practical SHA-1 hash
-collision. As a result, SHA-1 cannot be considered cryptographically
-secure any more. This impacts the communication of hash values because
-we cannot trust that a given hash value represents the known good
-version of content that the speaker intended.
+researchers. On 23 February 2017 the SHAttered attack
+( demonstrated a practical SHA-1 hash collision.
+Git v2.13.0 and later subsequently moved to a hardened SHA-1
+implementation by default, which isn't vulnerable to the SHAttered
+Thus Git has in effect already migrated to a new hash that isn't SHA-1
+and doesn't share its vulnerabilities, its new hash function just
+happens to produce exactly the same output for all known inputs,
+except two PDFs published by the SHAttered researchers, and the new
+implementation (written by those researchers) claims to detect future
+cryptanalytic collision attacks.
+Regardless, it's considered prudent to move past any variant of SHA-1
+to a new hash. There's no guarantee that future attacks on SHA-1 won't
+be published in the future, and those attacks may not have viable
+If SHA-1 and its variants were to be truly broken, Git's hash function
+could not be considered cryptographically secure any more. This would
+impact the communication of hash values because we could not trust
+that a given hash value represented the known good version of content
+that the speaker intended.
SHA-1 still possesses the other properties such as fast object lookup
and safe error checking, but other hash functions are equally suitable
@@ -116,10 +135,15 @@ Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt) with extensions
objectFormat = newhash
compatObjectFormat = sha1
-Specifying a repository format extension ensures that versions of Git
-not aware of NewHash do not try to operate on these repositories,
-instead producing an error message:
+The combination of setting `core.repositoryFormatVersion=1` and
+populating `extensions.*` ensures that all versions of Git later than
+`v0.99.9l` will die instead of trying to operate on the NewHash
+repository, instead producing an error message.
+ # Between v0.99.9l and v2.7.0
+ $ git status
+ fatal: Expected git repo version <= 0, found 1
+ # After v2.7.0
$ git status
fatal: unknown repository extensions found:
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
index 8e5bf60..70a99fd 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
@@ -36,6 +36,98 @@ Git pack format
- The trailer records 20-byte SHA-1 checksum of all of the above.
+=== Object types
+Valid object types are:
+- OBJ_TREE (2)
+- OBJ_BLOB (3)
+- OBJ_TAG (4)
+Type 5 is reserved for future expansion. Type 0 is invalid.
+=== Deltified representation
+Conceptually there are only four object types: commit, tree, tag and
+blob. However to save space, an object could be stored as a "delta" of
+another "base" object. These representations are assigned new types
+ofs-delta and ref-delta, which is only valid in a pack file.
+Both ofs-delta and ref-delta store the "delta" to be applied to
+another object (called 'base object') to reconstruct the object. The
+difference between them is, ref-delta directly encodes 20-byte base
+object name. If the base object is in the same pack, ofs-delta encodes
+the offset of the base object in the pack instead.
+The base object could also be deltified if it's in the same pack.
+Ref-delta can also refer to an object outside the pack (i.e. the
+so-called "thin pack"). When stored on disk however, the pack should
+be self contained to avoid cyclic dependency.
+The delta data is a sequence of instructions to reconstruct an object
+from the base object. If the base object is deltified, it must be
+converted to canonical form first. Each instruction appends more and
+more data to the target object until it's complete. There are two
+supported instructions so far: one for copy a byte range from the
+source object and one for inserting new data embedded in the
+instruction itself.
+Each instruction has variable length. Instruction type is determined
+by the seventh bit of the first octet. The following diagrams follow
+the convention in RFC 1951 (Deflate compressed data format).
+==== Instruction to copy from base object
+ +----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+
+ | 1xxxxxxx | offset1 | offset2 | offset3 | offset4 | size1 | size2 | size3 |
+ +----------+---------+---------+---------+---------+-------+-------+-------+
+This is the instruction format to copy a byte range from the source
+object. It encodes the offset to copy from and the number of bytes to
+copy. Offset and size are in little-endian order.
+All offset and size bytes are optional. This is to reduce the
+instruction size when encoding small offsets or sizes. The first seven
+bits in the first octet determines which of the next seven octets is
+present. If bit zero is set, offset1 is present. If bit one is set
+offset2 is present and so on.
+Note that a more compact instruction does not change offset and size
+encoding. For example, if only offset2 is omitted like below, offset3
+still contains bits 16-23. It does not become offset2 and contains
+bits 8-15 even if it's right next to offset1.
+ +----------+---------+---------+
+ | 10000101 | offset1 | offset3 |
+ +----------+---------+---------+
+In its most compact form, this instruction only takes up one byte
+(0x80) with both offset and size omitted, which will have default
+values zero. There is another exception: size zero is automatically
+converted to 0x10000.
+==== Instruction to add new data
+ +----------+============+
+ | 0xxxxxxx | data |
+ +----------+============+
+This is the instruction to construct target object without the base
+object. The following data is appended to the target object. The first
+seven bits of the first octet determines the size of data in
+bytes. The size must be non-zero.
+==== Reserved instruction
+ +----------+============
+ | 00000000 |
+ +----------+============
+This is the instruction reserved for future expansion.
== Original (version 1) pack-*.idx files have the following format:
- The header consists of 256 4-byte network byte order
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d7b6f38
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,405 @@
+ Git Wire Protocol, Version 2
+This document presents a specification for a version 2 of Git's wire
+protocol. Protocol v2 will improve upon v1 in the following ways:
+ * Instead of multiple service names, multiple commands will be
+ supported by a single service
+ * Easily extendable as capabilities are moved into their own section
+ of the protocol, no longer being hidden behind a NUL byte and
+ limited by the size of a pkt-line
+ * Separate out other information hidden behind NUL bytes (e.g. agent
+ string as a capability and symrefs can be requested using 'ls-refs')
+ * Reference advertisement will be omitted unless explicitly requested
+ * ls-refs command to explicitly request some refs
+ * Designed with http and stateless-rpc in mind. With clear flush
+ semantics the http remote helper can simply act as a proxy
+In protocol v2 communication is command oriented. When first contacting a
+server a list of capabilities will advertised. Some of these capabilities
+will be commands which a client can request be executed. Once a command
+has completed, a client can reuse the connection and request that other
+commands be executed.
+ Packet-Line Framing
+All communication is done using packet-line framing, just as in v1. See
+`Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt` and
+`Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt` for more information.
+In protocol v2 these special packets will have the following semantics:
+ * '0000' Flush Packet (flush-pkt) - indicates the end of a message
+ * '0001' Delimiter Packet (delim-pkt) - separates sections of a message
+ Initial Client Request
+In general a client can request to speak protocol v2 by sending
+`version=2` through the respective side-channel for the transport being
+used which inevitably sets `GIT_PROTOCOL`. More information can be
+found in `pack-protocol.txt` and `http-protocol.txt`. In all cases the
+response from the server is the capability advertisement.
+ Git Transport
+When using the git:// transport, you can request to use protocol v2 by
+sending "version=2" as an extra parameter:
+ 003egit-upload-pack /project.git\\0\0version=2\0
+ SSH and File Transport
+When using either the ssh:// or file:// transport, the GIT_PROTOCOL
+environment variable must be set explicitly to include "version=2".
+ HTTP Transport
+When using the http:// or https:// transport a client makes a "smart"
+info/refs request as described in `http-protocol.txt` and requests that
+v2 be used by supplying "version=2" in the `Git-Protocol` header.
+ C: Git-Protocol: version=2
+ C:
+ C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+A v2 server would reply:
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: <Some headers>
+ S: ...
+ S:
+ S: 000eversion 2\n
+ S: <capability-advertisement>
+Subsequent requests are then made directly to the service
+`$GIT_URL/git-upload-pack`. (This works the same for git-receive-pack).
+ Capability Advertisement
+A server which decides to communicate (based on a request from a client)
+using protocol version 2, notifies the client by sending a version string
+in its initial response followed by an advertisement of its capabilities.
+Each capability is a key with an optional value. Clients must ignore all
+unknown keys. Semantics of unknown values are left to the definition of
+each key. Some capabilities will describe commands which can be requested
+to be executed by the client.
+ capability-advertisement = protocol-version
+ capability-list
+ flush-pkt
+ protocol-version = PKT-LINE("version 2" LF)
+ capability-list = *capability
+ capability = PKT-LINE(key[=value] LF)
+ key = 1*(ALPHA | DIGIT | "-_")
+ value = 1*(ALPHA | DIGIT | " -_.,?\/{}[]()<>!@#$%^&*+=:;")
+ Command Request
+After receiving the capability advertisement, a client can then issue a
+request to select the command it wants with any particular capabilities
+or arguments. There is then an optional section where the client can
+provide any command specific parameters or queries. Only a single
+command can be requested at a time.
+ request = empty-request | command-request
+ empty-request = flush-pkt
+ command-request = command
+ capability-list
+ [command-args]
+ flush-pkt
+ command = PKT-LINE("command=" key LF)
+ command-args = delim-pkt
+ *command-specific-arg
+ command-specific-args are packet line framed arguments defined by
+ each individual command.
+The server will then check to ensure that the client's request is
+comprised of a valid command as well as valid capabilities which were
+advertised. If the request is valid the server will then execute the
+command. A server MUST wait till it has received the client's entire
+request before issuing a response. The format of the response is
+determined by the command being executed, but in all cases a flush-pkt
+indicates the end of the response.
+When a command has finished, and the client has received the entire
+response from the server, a client can either request that another
+command be executed or can terminate the connection. A client may
+optionally send an empty request consisting of just a flush-pkt to
+indicate that no more requests will be made.
+ Capabilities
+There are two different types of capabilities: normal capabilities,
+which can be used to to convey information or alter the behavior of a
+request, and commands, which are the core actions that a client wants to
+perform (fetch, push, etc).
+Protocol version 2 is stateless by default. This means that all commands
+must only last a single round and be stateless from the perspective of the
+server side, unless the client has requested a capability indicating that
+state should be maintained by the server. Clients MUST NOT require state
+management on the server side in order to function correctly. This
+permits simple round-robin load-balancing on the server side, without
+needing to worry about state management.
+ agent
+The server can advertise the `agent` capability with a value `X` (in the
+form `agent=X`) to notify the client that the server is running version
+`X`. The client may optionally send its own agent string by including
+the `agent` capability with a value `Y` (in the form `agent=Y`) in its
+request to the server (but it MUST NOT do so if the server did not
+advertise the agent capability). The `X` and `Y` strings may contain any
+printable ASCII characters except space (i.e., the byte range 32 < x <
+127), and are typically of the form "package/version" (e.g.,
+"git/"). The agent strings are purely informative for statistics
+and debugging purposes, and MUST NOT be used to programmatically assume
+the presence or absence of particular features.
+ ls-refs
+`ls-refs` is the command used to request a reference advertisement in v2.
+Unlike the current reference advertisement, ls-refs takes in arguments
+which can be used to limit the refs sent from the server.
+Additional features not supported in the base command will be advertised
+as the value of the command in the capability advertisement in the form
+of a space separated list of features: "<command>=<feature 1> <feature 2>"
+ls-refs takes in the following arguments:
+ symrefs
+ In addition to the object pointed by it, show the underlying ref
+ pointed by it when showing a symbolic ref.
+ peel
+ Show peeled tags.
+ ref-prefix <prefix>
+ When specified, only references having a prefix matching one of
+ the provided prefixes are displayed.
+The output of ls-refs is as follows:
+ output = *ref
+ flush-pkt
+ ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP refname *(SP ref-attribute) LF)
+ ref-attribute = (symref | peeled)
+ symref = "symref-target:" symref-target
+ peeled = "peeled:" obj-id
+ fetch
+`fetch` is the command used to fetch a packfile in v2. It can be looked
+at as a modified version of the v1 fetch where the ref-advertisement is
+stripped out (since the `ls-refs` command fills that role) and the
+message format is tweaked to eliminate redundancies and permit easy
+addition of future extensions.
+Additional features not supported in the base command will be advertised
+as the value of the command in the capability advertisement in the form
+of a space separated list of features: "<command>=<feature 1> <feature 2>"
+A `fetch` request can take the following arguments:
+ want <oid>
+ Indicates to the server an object which the client wants to
+ retrieve. Wants can be anything and are not limited to
+ advertised objects.
+ have <oid>
+ Indicates to the server an object which the client has locally.
+ This allows the server to make a packfile which only contains
+ the objects that the client needs. Multiple 'have' lines can be
+ supplied.
+ done
+ Indicates to the server that negotiation should terminate (or
+ not even begin if performing a clone) and that the server should
+ use the information supplied in the request to construct the
+ packfile.
+ thin-pack
+ Request that a thin pack be sent, which is a pack with deltas
+ which reference base objects not contained within the pack (but
+ are known to exist at the receiving end). This can reduce the
+ network traffic significantly, but it requires the receiving end
+ to know how to "thicken" these packs by adding the missing bases
+ to the pack.
+ no-progress
+ Request that progress information that would normally be sent on
+ side-band channel 2, during the packfile transfer, should not be
+ sent. However, the side-band channel 3 is still used for error
+ responses.
+ include-tag
+ Request that annotated tags should be sent if the objects they
+ point to are being sent.
+ ofs-delta
+ Indicate that the client understands PACKv2 with delta referring
+ to its base by position in pack rather than by an oid. That is,
+ they can read OBJ_OFS_DELTA (ake type 6) in a packfile.
+If the 'shallow' feature is advertised the following arguments can be
+included in the clients request as well as the potential addition of the
+'shallow-info' section in the server's response as explained below.
+ shallow <oid>
+ A client must notify the server of all commits for which it only
+ has shallow copies (meaning that it doesn't have the parents of
+ a commit) by supplying a 'shallow <oid>' line for each such
+ object so that the server is aware of the limitations of the
+ client's history. This is so that the server is aware that the
+ client may not have all objects reachable from such commits.
+ deepen <depth>
+ Requests that the fetch/clone should be shallow having a commit
+ depth of <depth> relative to the remote side.
+ deepen-relative
+ Requests that the semantics of the "deepen" command be changed
+ to indicate that the depth requested is relative to the client's
+ current shallow boundary, instead of relative to the requested
+ commits.
+ deepen-since <timestamp>
+ Requests that the shallow clone/fetch should be cut at a
+ specific time, instead of depth. Internally it's equivalent to
+ doing "git rev-list --max-age=<timestamp>". Cannot be used with
+ "deepen".
+ deepen-not <rev>
+ Requests that the shallow clone/fetch should be cut at a
+ specific revision specified by '<rev>', instead of a depth.
+ Internally it's equivalent of doing "git rev-list --not <rev>".
+ Cannot be used with "deepen", but can be used with
+ "deepen-since".
+The response of `fetch` is broken into a number of sections separated by
+delimiter packets (0001), with each section beginning with its section
+ output = *section
+ section = (acknowledgments | shallow-info | packfile)
+ (flush-pkt | delim-pkt)
+ acknowledgments = PKT-LINE("acknowledgments" LF)
+ (nak | *ack)
+ (ready)
+ ready = PKT-LINE("ready" LF)
+ nak = PKT-LINE("NAK" LF)
+ ack = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id LF)
+ shallow-info = PKT-LINE("shallow-info" LF)
+ *PKT-LINE((shallow | unshallow) LF)
+ shallow = "shallow" SP obj-id
+ unshallow = "unshallow" SP obj-id
+ packfile = PKT-LINE("packfile" LF)
+ *PKT-LINE(%x01-03 *%x00-ff)
+ acknowledgments section
+ * If the client determines that it is finished with negotiations
+ by sending a "done" line, the acknowledgments sections MUST be
+ omitted from the server's response.
+ * Always begins with the section header "acknowledgments"
+ * The server will respond with "NAK" if none of the object ids sent
+ as have lines were common.
+ * The server will respond with "ACK obj-id" for all of the
+ object ids sent as have lines which are common.
+ * A response cannot have both "ACK" lines as well as a "NAK"
+ line.
+ * The server will respond with a "ready" line indicating that
+ the server has found an acceptable common base and is ready to
+ make and send a packfile (which will be found in the packfile
+ section of the same response)
+ * If the server has found a suitable cut point and has decided
+ to send a "ready" line, then the server can decide to (as an
+ optimization) omit any "ACK" lines it would have sent during
+ its response. This is because the server will have already
+ determined the objects it plans to send to the client and no
+ further negotiation is needed.
+ shallow-info section
+ * If the client has requested a shallow fetch/clone, a shallow
+ client requests a fetch or the server is shallow then the
+ server's response may include a shallow-info section. The
+ shallow-info section will be included if (due to one of the
+ above conditions) the server needs to inform the client of any
+ shallow boundaries or adjustments to the clients already
+ existing shallow boundaries.
+ * Always begins with the section header "shallow-info"
+ * If a positive depth is requested, the server will compute the
+ set of commits which are no deeper than the desired depth.
+ * The server sends a "shallow obj-id" line for each commit whose
+ parents will not be sent in the following packfile.
+ * The server sends an "unshallow obj-id" line for each commit
+ which the client has indicated is shallow, but is no longer
+ shallow as a result of the fetch (due to its parents being
+ sent in the following packfile).
+ * The server MUST NOT send any "unshallow" lines for anything
+ which the client has not indicated was shallow as a part of
+ its request.
+ * This section is only included if a packfile section is also
+ included in the response.
+ packfile section
+ * This section is only included if the client has sent 'want'
+ lines in its request and either requested that no more
+ negotiation be done by sending 'done' or if the server has
+ decided it has found a sufficient cut point to produce a
+ packfile.
+ * Always begins with the section header "packfile"
+ * The transmission of the packfile begins immediately after the
+ section header
+ * The data transfer of the packfile is always multiplexed, using
+ the same semantics of the 'side-band-64k' capability from
+ protocol version 1. This means that each packet, during the
+ packfile data stream, is made up of a leading 4-byte pkt-line
+ length (typical of the pkt-line format), followed by a 1-byte
+ stream code, followed by the actual data.
+ The stream code can be one of:
+ 1 - pack data
+ 2 - progress messages
+ 3 - fatal error message just before stream aborts
+ server-option
+If advertised, indicates that any number of server specific options can be
+included in a request. This is done by sending each option as a
+"server-option=<option>" capability line in the capability-list section of
+a request.
+The provided options must not contain a NUL or LF character.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/shallow.txt b/Documentation/technical/shallow.txt
index 5183b15..01dedfe 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/shallow.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/shallow.txt
@@ -8,20 +8,22 @@ repo, and therefore grafts are introduced pretending that
these commits have no parents.
-The basic idea is to write the SHA-1s of shallow commits into
-$GIT_DIR/shallow, and handle its contents like the contents
-of $GIT_DIR/info/grafts (with the difference that shallow
-cannot contain parent information).
-This information is stored in a new file instead of grafts, or
-even the config, since the user should not touch that file
-at all (even throughout development of the shallow clone, it
-was never manually edited!).
+$GIT_DIR/shallow lists commit object names and tells Git to
+pretend as if they are root commits (e.g. "git log" traversal
+stops after showing them; "git fsck" does not complain saying
+the commits listed on their "parent" lines do not exist).
Each line contains exactly one SHA-1. When read, a commit_graft
will be constructed, which has nr_parent < 0 to make it easier
to discern from user provided grafts.
+Note that the shallow feature could not be changed easily to
+use replace refs: a commit containing a `mergetag` is not allowed
+to be replaced, not even by a root commit. Such a commit can be
+made shallow, though. Also, having a `shallow` file explicitly
+listing all the commits made shallow makes it a *lot* easier to
+do shallow-specific things such as to deepen the history.
Since fsck-objects relies on the library to read the objects,
it honours shallow commits automatically.