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-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines67
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt436
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt486
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt27
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt456
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt345
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt331
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blame-options.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt465
-rw-r--r--Documentation/date-formats.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-config.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/everyday.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt44
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-archive.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-blame.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-attr.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry.txt144
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clean.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-column.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt90
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-count-objects.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-describe.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-index.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-difftool.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-import.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-backend.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-index-pack.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt92
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-lost-found.txt74
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-file.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mv.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-name-rev.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pull.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt105
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reflog.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repo-config.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-request-pull.txt55
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt195
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-revert.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rm.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shell.txt82
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-ref.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt170
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt82
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-ref.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-web--browse.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt134
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt41
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitignore.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt133
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmodules.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt44
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitweb.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt132
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/new-command.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt242
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/line-range-format.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-options.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt322
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt235
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/bitmap-format.txt164
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt506
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt207
181 files changed, 7373 insertions, 1623 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 7e4d571..ed432a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -126,6 +126,17 @@ For C programs:
"char * string". This makes it easier to understand code
like "char *string, c;".
+ - Use whitespace around operators and keywords, but not inside
+ parentheses and not around functions. So:
+
+ while (condition)
+ func(bar + 1);
+
+ and not:
+
+ while( condition )
+ func (bar+1);
+
- We avoid using braces unnecessarily. I.e.
if (bla) {
@@ -145,6 +156,14 @@ For C programs:
they were describing changes. Often splitting a function
into two makes the intention of the code much clearer.
+ - Multi-line comments include their delimiters on separate lines from
+ the text. E.g.
+
+ /*
+ * A very long
+ * multi-line comment.
+ */
+
- Double negation is often harder to understand than no negation
at all.
@@ -237,14 +256,26 @@ For Python scripts:
Writing Documentation:
- Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in AsciiDoc
- and processed into HTML output and manpages.
+ Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in the
+ AsciiDoc format in *.txt files (e.g. Documentation/git.txt), and
+ processed into HTML and manpages (e.g. git.html and git.1 in the
+ same directory).
+
+ The documentation liberally mixes US and UK English (en_US/UK)
+ norms for spelling and grammar, which is somewhat unfortunate.
+ In an ideal world, it would have been better if it consistently
+ used only one and not the other, and we would have picked en_US
+ (if you wish to correct the English of some of the existing
+ documentation, please see the documentation-related advice in the
+ Documentation/SubmittingPatches file).
Every user-visible change should be reflected in the documentation.
The same general rule as for code applies -- imitate the existing
- conventions. A few commented examples follow to provide reference
- when writing or modifying command usage strings and synopsis sections
- in the manual pages:
+ conventions.
+
+ A few commented examples follow to provide reference when writing or
+ modifying command usage strings and synopsis sections in the manual
+ pages:
Placeholders are spelled in lowercase and enclosed in angle brackets:
<file>
@@ -294,3 +325,29 @@ Writing Documentation:
Use 'git' (all lowercase) when talking about commands i.e. something
the user would type into a shell and use 'Git' (uppercase first letter)
when talking about the version control system and its properties.
+
+ A few commented examples follow to provide reference when writing or
+ modifying paragraphs or option/command explanations that contain options
+ or commands:
+
+ Literal examples (e.g. use of command-line options, command names, and
+ configuration variables) are typeset in monospace, and if you can use
+ `backticks around word phrases`, do so.
+ `--pretty=oneline`
+ `git rev-list`
+ `remote.pushdefault`
+
+ Word phrases enclosed in `backtick characters` are rendered literally
+ and will not be further expanded. The use of `backticks` to achieve the
+ previous rule means that literal examples should not use AsciiDoc
+ escapes.
+ Correct:
+ `--pretty=oneline`
+ Incorrect:
+ `\--pretty=oneline`
+
+ If some place in the documentation needs to typeset a command usage
+ example with inline substitutions, it is fine to use +monospaced and
+ inline substituted text+ instead of `monospaced literal text`, and with
+ the former, the part that should not get substituted must be
+ quoted/escaped.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 62dbd9a..fc6b2cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,9 @@
MAN1_TXT =
MAN5_TXT =
MAN7_TXT =
+TECH_DOCS =
+ARTICLES =
+SP_ARTICLES =
MAN1_TXT += $(filter-out \
$(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
@@ -31,18 +34,18 @@ MAN7_TXT += gittutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
-MAN_XML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
-MAN_HTML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
+MAN_XML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
+MAN_HTML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
OBSOLETE_HTML = git-remote-helpers.html
-DOC_HTML=$(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
+DOC_HTML = $(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
-ARTICLES = howto-index
+ARTICLES += howto-index
ARTICLES += everyday
ARTICLES += git-tools
ARTICLES += git-bisect-lk2009
# with their own formatting rules.
-SP_ARTICLES = user-manual
+SP_ARTICLES += user-manual
SP_ARTICLES += howto/new-command
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-branch-rebase
SP_ARTICLES += howto/using-merge-subtree
@@ -53,13 +56,15 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/setup-git-server-over-http
SP_ARTICLES += howto/separating-topic-branches
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-a-faulty-merge
SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object
+SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebuild-from-update-hook
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebase-from-internal-branch
SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
-TECH_DOCS = technical/index-format
+TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
+TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
@@ -74,35 +79,36 @@ SP_ARTICLES += technical/api-index
DOC_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
-DOC_MAN1=$(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
-DOC_MAN5=$(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
-DOC_MAN7=$(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
-
-prefix?=$(HOME)
-bindir?=$(prefix)/bin
-htmldir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
-pdfdir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
-mandir?=$(prefix)/share/man
-man1dir=$(mandir)/man1
-man5dir=$(mandir)/man5
-man7dir=$(mandir)/man7
-# DESTDIR=
+DOC_MAN1 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
+DOC_MAN5 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
+DOC_MAN7 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
+
+prefix ?= $(HOME)
+bindir ?= $(prefix)/bin
+htmldir ?= $(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+infodir ?= $(prefix)/share/info
+pdfdir ?= $(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+mandir ?= $(prefix)/share/man
+man1dir = $(mandir)/man1
+man5dir = $(mandir)/man5
+man7dir = $(mandir)/man7
+# DESTDIR =
ASCIIDOC = asciidoc
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA =
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
XMLTO = xmlto
XMLTO_EXTRA =
-INSTALL?=install
+INSTALL ?= install
RM ?= rm -f
MAN_REPO = ../../git-manpages
HTML_REPO = ../../git-htmldocs
-infodir?=$(prefix)/share/info
-MAKEINFO=makeinfo
-INSTALL_INFO=install-info
-DOCBOOK2X_TEXI=docbook2x-texi
-DBLATEX=dblatex
+MAKEINFO = makeinfo
+INSTALL_INFO = install-info
+DOCBOOK2X_TEXI = docbook2x-texi
+DBLATEX = dblatex
+ASCIIDOC_DBLATEX_DIR = /etc/asciidoc/dblatex
ifndef PERL_PATH
PERL_PATH = /usr/bin/perl
endif
@@ -322,7 +328,7 @@ manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b docbook -d book -o $@+ $< && \
+ $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b docbook -d article -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
@@ -354,7 +360,7 @@ user-manual.texi: user-manual.xml
user-manual.pdf: user-manual.xml
$(QUIET_DBLATEX)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(DBLATEX) -o $@+ -p /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.xsl -s /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.sty $< && \
+ $(DBLATEX) -o $@+ -p $(ASCIIDOC_DBLATEX_DIR)/asciidoc-dblatex.xsl -s $(ASCIIDOC_DBLATEX_DIR)/asciidoc-dblatex.sty $< && \
mv $@+ $@
gitman.texi: $(MAN_XML) cat-texi.perl
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
index 806a965..be68524 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.10
not exclude them and tried to apply funny patches only to fail.
* "git blame" started missing quite a few changes from the origin
- since we stopped using the diff minimalization by default in v1.7.2
+ since we stopped using the diff minimization by default in v1.7.2
era.
* When PATH contains an unreadable directory, alias expansion code
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
index a0d24d1..f0cfd02 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.11.1
* "git diff --no-index" did not work with pagers correctly.
* "git diff COPYING HEAD:COPYING" gave a nonsense error message that
- claimed that the treeish HEAD did not have COPYING in it.
+ claimed that the tree-ish HEAD did not have COPYING in it.
* When "git log" gets "--simplify-merges/by-decoration" together with
"--first-parent", the combination of these options makes the
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt
index cf3f455..7796df3 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.5.3
--------------------
* The single-key mode of "git add -p" was easily fooled into thinking
- that it was told to add everthing ('a') when up-arrow was pressed by
+ that it was told to add everything ('a') when up-arrow was pressed by
mistake.
* Setting a git command that uses custom configuration via "-c var=val"
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt
index e74f4ef..b9c66aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt
@@ -12,11 +12,11 @@ Fixes since v1.7.8.1
* The configuration file parser used for sizes (e.g. bigFileThreshold)
did not correctly interpret 'g' suffix.
- * The replacement implemention for snprintf used on platforms with
+ * The replacement implementation for snprintf used on platforms with
native snprintf that is broken did not use va_copy correctly.
* LF-to-CRLF streaming filter replaced all LF with CRLF, which might
- be techinically correct but not friendly to people who are trying
+ be technically correct but not friendly to people who are trying
to recover from earlier mistakes of using CRLF in the repository
data in the first place. It now refrains from doing so for LF that
follows a CR.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt
index b4d90bb..2493113 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ Updates since v1.7.7
* Updates to bash completion scripts.
* The build procedure has been taught to take advantage of computed
- dependency automatically when the complier supports it.
+ dependency automatically when the compiler supports it.
* The date parser now accepts timezone designators that lack minutes
part and also has a colon between "hh:mm".
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ Updates since v1.7.7
* Variants of "git cherry-pick" and "git revert" that take multiple
commits learned to "--continue" and "--abort".
- * "git daemon" gives more human readble error messages to clients
+ * "git daemon" gives more human readable error messages to clients
using ERR packets when appropriate.
* Errors at the network layer is logged by "git daemon".
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
index 1354ad0..769a6fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ Fixes since v1.8.2
common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
* "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
- acccumulate the prefix paths.
+ accumulate the prefix paths.
* "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
index dab4831..708df1a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
@@ -58,4 +58,4 @@ Fixes since v1.8.2.1
conflicts have been applied.
* "git bundle" did not like a bundle created using a commit without
- any message as its one of the prerequistes.
+ any message as its one of the prerequisites.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc3ea18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+Git v1.8.3.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3
+------------------
+
+ * When $HOME is misconfigured to point at an unreadable directory, we
+ used to complain and die. The check has been loosened.
+
+ * Handling of negative exclude pattern for directories "!dir" was
+ broken in the update to v1.8.3.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..26ae142
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+Git v1.8.3.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3.1
+--------------------
+
+ * Cloning with "git clone --depth N" while fetch.fsckobjects (or
+ transfer.fsckobjects) is set to true did not tell the cut-off
+ points of the shallow history to the process that validates the
+ objects and the history received, causing the validation to fail.
+
+ * "git checkout foo" DWIMs the intended "upstream" and turns it into
+ "git checkout -t -b foo remotes/origin/foo". This codepath has been
+ updated to correctly take existing remote definitions into account.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a shallow repository from a repository that does
+ not know about the shallow boundary commits (e.g. a different fork
+ from the repository the current shallow repository was cloned from)
+ did not work correctly.
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) had one codepath with loose error
+ checks to lose data at the remote side.
+
+ * "git log --ancestry-path A...B" did not work as expected, as it did
+ not pay attention to the fact that the merge base between A and B
+ was the bottom of the range being specified.
+
+ * "git diff -c -p" was not showing a deleted line from a hunk when
+ another hunk immediately begins where the earlier one ends.
+
+ * "git merge @{-1}~22" was rewritten to "git merge frotz@{1}~22"
+ incorrectly when your previous branch was "frotz" (it should be
+ rewritten to "git merge frotz~22" instead).
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -m ''" should not start an
+ editor.
+
+ * "git push --[no-]verify" was not documented.
+
+ * An entry for "file://" scheme in the enumeration of URL types Git
+ can take in the HTML documentation was made into a clickable link
+ by mistake.
+
+ * zsh prompt script that borrowed from bash prompt script did not
+ work due to slight differences in array variable notation between
+ these two shells.
+
+ * The bash prompt code (in contrib/) displayed the name of the branch
+ being rebased when "rebase -i/-m/-p" modes are in use, but not the
+ plain vanilla "rebase".
+
+ * "git push $there HEAD:branch" did not resolve HEAD early enough, so
+ it was easy to flip it around while push is still going on and push
+ out a branch that the user did not originally intended when the
+ command was started.
+
+ * "difftool --dir-diff" did not copy back changes made by the
+ end-user in the diff tool backend to the working tree in some
+ cases.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9ba4f4d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git v1.8.3.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3.2
+--------------------
+
+ * "git apply" parsed patches that add new files, generated by programs
+ other than Git, incorrectly. This is an old breakage in v1.7.11.
+
+ * Older cURL wanted piece of memory we call it with to be stable, but
+ we updated the auth material after handing it to a call.
+
+ * "git pull" into nothing trashed "local changes" that were in the
+ index.
+
+ * Many "git submodule" operations did not work on a submodule at a
+ path whose name is not in ASCII.
+
+ * "cherry-pick" had a small leak in its error codepath.
+
+ * Logic used by git-send-email to suppress cc mishandled names like
+ "A U. Thor" <author@example.xz>, where the human readable part
+ needs to be quoted (the user input may not have the double quotes
+ around the name, and comparison was done between quoted and
+ unquoted strings). It also mishandled names that need RFC2047
+ quoting.
+
+ * "gitweb" forgot to clear a global variable $search_regexp upon each
+ request, mistakenly carrying over the previous search to a new one
+ when used as a persistent CGI.
+
+ * The wildmatch engine did not honor WM_CASEFOLD option correctly.
+
+ * "git log -c --follow $path" segfaulted upon hitting the commit that
+ renamed the $path being followed.
+
+ * When a reflog notation is used for implicit "current branch",
+ e.g. "git log @{u}", we did not say which branch and worse said
+ "branch ''" in the error messages.
+
+ * Mac OS X does not like to write(2) more than INT_MAX number of
+ bytes; work it around by chopping write(2) into smaller pieces.
+
+ * Newer MacOS X encourages the programs to compile and link with
+ their CommonCrypto, not with OpenSSL.
+
+Also contains various minor documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..56f106e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Git v1.8.3.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+This update is mostly to propagate documentation fixes and test
+updates from the master front back to the maintenance track.
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3.3
+--------------------
+
+ * The bisect log listed incorrect commits when bisection ends with
+ only skipped ones.
+
+ * The test coverage framework was left broken for some time.
+
+ * The test suite for HTTP transport did not run with Apache 2.4.
+
+ * "git diff" used to fail when core.safecrlf is set and the working
+ tree contents had mixed CRLF/LF line endings. Committing such a
+ content must be prohibited, but "git diff" should help the user to
+ locate and fix such problems without failing.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ead568e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,436 @@
+Git v1.8.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes only the current branch to the branch with the same
+name, and only when the current branch is set to integrate with that
+remote branch. Use the user preference configuration variable
+"push.default" to change this. If you are an old-timer who is used
+to the "matching" semantics, you can set the variable to "matching"
+to keep the traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future
+early, you can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.2
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interface
+
+ * remote-hg and remote-bzr helpers (in contrib/ since v1.8.2) have
+ been updated; especially, the latter has been done in an
+ accelerated schedule (read: we may not have merged to this release
+ if we were following the usual "cook sufficiently in next before
+ unleashing it to the world" workflow) in order to help Emacs folks,
+ whose primary SCM seems to be stagnating.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A handful of updates applied to gitk, including an addition of
+ "revert" action, showing dates in tags in a nicer way, making
+ colors configurable, and support for -G'pickaxe' search.
+
+ * The prompt string generator (in contrib/completion/) learned to
+ show how many changes there are in total and how many have been
+ replayed during a "git rebase" session.
+
+ * "git branch --vv" learned to paint the name of the branch it
+ integrates with in a different color (color.branch.upstream,
+ which defaults to blue).
+
+ * In a sparsely populated working tree, "git checkout <pathspec>" no
+ longer unmarks paths that match the given pathspec that were
+ originally ignored with "--sparse" (use --ignore-skip-worktree-bits
+ option to resurrect these paths out of the index if you really want
+ to).
+
+ * "git log --format" specifier learned %C(auto) token that tells Git
+ to use color when interpolating %d (decoration), %h (short commit
+ object name), etc. for terminal output.
+
+ * "git bisect" leaves the final outcome as a comment in its bisect
+ log file.
+
+ * "git clone --reference" can now refer to a gitfile "textual symlink"
+ that points at the real location of the repository.
+
+ * "git count-objects" learned "--human-readable" aka "-H" option to
+ show various large numbers in Ki/Mi/GiB scaled as necessary.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick $blob" and "git cherry-pick $tree" are nonsense,
+ and a more readable error message e.g. "can't cherry-pick a tree"
+ is given (we used to say "expected exactly one commit").
+
+ * The "--annotate" option to "git send-email" can be turned on (or
+ off) by default with sendemail.annotate configuration variable (you
+ can use --no-annotate from the command line to override it).
+
+ * The "--cover-letter" option to "git format-patch" can be turned on
+ (or off) by default with format.coverLetter configuration
+ variable. By setting it to 'auto', you can turn it on only for a
+ series with two or more patches.
+
+ * The bash completion support (in contrib/) learned that cherry-pick
+ takes a few more options than it already knew about.
+
+ * "git help" learned "-g" option to show the list of guides just like
+ list of commands are given with "-a".
+
+ * A triangular "pull from one place, push to another place" workflow
+ is supported better by new remote.pushdefault (overrides the
+ "origin" thing) and branch.*.pushremote (overrides the
+ branch.*.remote) configuration variables.
+
+ * "git status" learned to report that you are in the middle of a
+ revert session, just like it does for a cherry-pick and a bisect
+ session.
+
+ * The handling by "git branch --set-upstream-to" against various forms
+ of erroneous inputs was suboptimal and has been improved.
+
+ * When the interactive access to git-shell is not enabled, it issues
+ a message meant to help the system administrator to enable it. An
+ explicit way has been added to issue custom messages to refuse an
+ access over the network to help the end users who connect to the
+ service expecting an interactive shell.
+
+ * In addition to the case where the user edits the log message with
+ the "e)dit" option of "am -i", replace the "Applying: this patch"
+ message with the final log message contents after applymsg hook
+ munges it.
+
+ * "git status" suggests users to look into using --untracked=no option
+ when it takes too long.
+
+ * "git status" shows a bit more information during a rebase/bisect
+ session.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned to fetch a commit at the tip of an unadvertised
+ ref by specifying a raw object name from the command line when the
+ server side supports this feature.
+
+ * Output from "git log --graph" works better with submodule log
+ output now.
+
+ * "git count-objects -v" learned to report leftover temporary
+ packfiles and other garbage in the object store.
+
+ * A new read-only credential helper (in contrib/) to interact with
+ the .netrc/.authinfo files has been added.
+
+ * "git send-email" can be used with the credential helper system.
+
+ * There was no Porcelain way to say "I no longer am interested in
+ this submodule", once you express your interest in a submodule with
+ "submodule init". "submodule deinit" is the way to do so.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" learned to pass "-v/-q" options to underlying
+ "git rebase".
+
+ * The new "--follow-tags" option tells "git push" to push relevant
+ annotated tags when pushing branches out.
+
+ * "git merge" and "git pull" can optionally be told to inspect and
+ reject when merging a commit that does not carry a trusted GPG
+ signature.
+
+ * "git mergetool" now feeds files to the "p4merge" backend in the
+ order that matches the p4 convention, where "theirs" is usually
+ shown on the left side, which is the opposite from what other backends
+ expect.
+
+ * "show/log" now honors gpg.program configuration just like other
+ parts of the code that use GnuPG.
+
+ * "git log" that shows the difference between the parent and the
+ child has been optimized somewhat.
+
+ * "git difftool" allows the user to write into the temporary files
+ being shown; if the user makes changes to the working tree at the
+ same time, it now refrains from overwriting the copy in the working
+ tree and leaves the temporary file so that changes can be merged
+ manually.
+
+ * There was no good way to ask "I have a random string that came from
+ outside world. I want to turn it into a 40-hex object name while
+ making sure such an object exists". A new peeling suffix ^{object}
+ can be used for that purpose, together with "rev-parse --verify".
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * Updates for building under msvc.
+
+ * A handful of issues in the code that traverses the working tree to find
+ untracked and/or ignored files have been fixed, and the general
+ codepath involved in "status -u" and "clean" have been cleaned up
+ and optimized.
+
+ * The stack footprint of some codepaths that access an object from a
+ pack has been shrunk.
+
+ * The logic to coalesce the same lines removed from the parents in
+ the output from "diff -c/--cc" has been updated, but with O(n^2)
+ complexity, so this might turn out to be undesirable.
+
+ * The code to enforce permission bits on files in $GIT_DIR/ for
+ shared repositories has been simplified.
+
+ * A few codepaths know how much data they need to put in the
+ hashtables they use when they start, but still began with small tables
+ and repeatedly grew and rehashed them.
+
+ * The API to walk reflog entries from the latest to older, which was
+ necessary for operations such as "git checkout -", was cumbersome
+ to use correctly and also inefficient.
+
+ * Codepaths that inspect log-message-to-be and decide when to add a
+ new Signed-off-by line in various commands have been consolidated.
+
+ * The pkt-line API, implementation and its callers have been cleaned
+ up to make them more robust.
+
+ * The Cygwin port has a faster-but-lying lstat(2) emulation whose
+ incorrectness does not matter in practice except for a few
+ codepaths, and setting permission bits on directories is a codepath
+ that needs to use a more correct one.
+
+ * "git checkout" had repeated pathspec matches on the same paths,
+ which have been consolidated. Also a bug in "git checkout dir/"
+ that is started from an unmerged index has been fixed.
+
+ * A few bugfixes to "git rerere" working on corner case merge
+ conflicts have been applied.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.2 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * Recent versions of File::Temp (used by "git svn") started blowing
+ up when its tempfile sub is called as a class method; updated the
+ callsite to call it as a plain vanilla function to fix it.
+ (merge eafc2dd hb/git-pm-tempfile later to maint).
+
+ * Various subcommands of "git remote" simply ignored extraneous
+ command line arguments instead of diagnosing them as errors.
+
+ * When receive-pack detects an error in the pack header it received in
+ order to decide which of unpack-objects or index-pack to run, it
+ returned without closing the error stream, which led to a hung
+ sideband thread.
+
+ * Zsh completion forgot that the '%' character used to signal untracked
+ files needs to be escaped with another '%'.
+
+ * A commit object whose author or committer ident are malformed
+ crashed some code that trusted that a name, an email and a
+ timestamp can always be found in it.
+
+ * When "upload-pack" fails while generating a pack in response to
+ "git fetch" (or "git clone"), the receiving side had
+ a programming error that triggered the die handler
+ recursively.
+
+ * "rev-list --stdin" and friends kept bogus pointers into the input
+ buffer around as human readable object names. This was not a huge
+ problem but was exposed by a new change that uses these names in
+ error output.
+
+ * Smart-capable HTTP servers were not restricted via the
+ GIT_NAMESPACE mechanism when talking with commit-walking clients,
+ like they are when talking with smart HTTP clients.
+ (merge 6130f86 jk/http-dumb-namespaces later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-tree" did not omit a merge result that is identical to
+ the "our" side in certain cases.
+ (merge aacecc3 jk/merge-tree-added-identically later to maint).
+
+ * Perl scripts like "git-svn" closed (instead of redirecting to /dev/null)
+ the standard error stream, which is not a very smart thing to do.
+ A later open may return file descriptor #2 for an unrelated purpose, and
+ error reporting code may write into it.
+
+ * "git show-branch" was not prepared to show a very long run of
+ ancestor operators e.g. foobar^2~2^2^2^2...^2~4 correctly.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-algorithm algo" is also understood as "git diff
+ --diff-algorithm=algo".
+
+ * The new core.commentchar configuration was not applied in a few
+ places.
+
+ * "git bundle" erroneously bailed out when parsing a valid bundle
+ containing a prerequisite commit without a commit message.
+
+ * "git log -S/-G" started paying attention to textconv filter, but
+ there was no way to disable this. Make it honor the --no-textconv
+ option.
+
+ * When used with the "-d temporary-directory" option, "git filter-branch"
+ failed to come back to the original working tree to perform the
+ final clean-up procedure.
+
+ * "git merge $(git rev-parse v1.8.2)" behaved quite differently from
+ "git merge v1.8.2", as if v1.8.2 were written as v1.8.2^0 and did
+ not pay much attention to the annotated tag payload. Make the code
+ notice the type of the tag object, in addition to the dwim_ref()
+ based classification the current code uses (i.e. the name appears
+ in refs/tags/) to decide when to special-case tag merging.
+
+ * Fix a 1.8.1.x regression that stopped matching "dir" (without a
+ trailing slash) to a directory "dir".
+
+ * "git apply --whitespace=fix" was not prepared to see a line getting
+ longer after fixing whitespaces (e.g. tab-in-indent aka Python).
+
+ * The prompt string generator (in contrib/completion/) did not notice
+ when we are in a middle of a "git revert" session.
+
+ * "submodule summary --summary-limit" option did not support the
+ "--option=value" form.
+
+ * "index-pack --fix-thin" used an uninitialized value to compute
+ the delta depths of objects it appends to the resulting pack.
+
+ * "index-pack --verify-stat" used a few counters outside the protection
+ of a mutex, possibly showing incorrect numbers.
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems could get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and would loop forever.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside the refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to ls-remote and fetch with recent versions of Git.
+
+ * Recent optimizations broke shallow clones.
+
+ * "git cmd -- ':(top'" was not diagnosed as an invalid syntax, and
+ instead the parser kept reading beyond the end of the string.
+
+ * "git tag -f <tag>" always said "Updated tag '<tag>'" even when
+ creating a new tag (i.e. neither overwriting nor updating).
+
+ * "git p4" did not behave well when the path to the root of the P4
+ client was not its real path.
+ (merge bbd8486 pw/p4-symlinked-root later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" reported a failure when asked to create an archive out
+ of an empty tree. It is more intuitive to give an empty
+ archive back in such a case.
+
+ * When "format-patch" quoted a non-ascii string in header files,
+ it incorrectly applied rfc2047 and chopped a single character in
+ the middle of the string.
+
+ * An aliased command spawned from a bare repository that does not say
+ it is bare with "core.bare = yes" was treated as non-bare by mistake.
+
+ * In "git reflog expire", the REACHABLE bit was not cleared from the
+ correct objects.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" option of "git describe", when used with
+ "--all" to allow refs that are not annotated tags to be a
+ base of description, did not restrict the output from the command
+ to those refs that match the given pattern.
+
+ * Clarify in the documentation "what" gets pushed to "where" when the
+ command line to "git push" does not say these explicitly.
+
+ * The "--color=<when>" argument to the commands in the diff family
+ was described poorly.
+
+ * The arguments given to the pre-rebase hook were not documented.
+
+ * The v4 index format was not documented.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" argument "git describe" takes uses glob
+ pattern but it wasn't obvious from the documentation.
+
+ * Some sources failed to compile on systems that lack NI_MAXHOST in
+ their system header (e.g. z/OS).
+
+ * Add an example use of "--env-filter" in "filter-branch"
+ documentation.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+ * In the v1.8.0 era, we changed symbols that do not have to be global
+ to file scope static, but a few functions in graph.c were used by
+ CGit sideways, bypassing the entry points of the API the
+ in-tree users use.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * "git index-pack" had a buffer-overflow while preparing an
+ informational message when the translated version of it was too
+ long.
+
+ * 'git commit -m "$msg"' used to add an extra newline even when
+ $msg already ended with one.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect to SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * "git branch" did not bother to check nonsense command line
+ parameters. It now issues errors in many cases.
+
+ * Verification of signed tags was not done correctly when not in C
+ or en/US locale.
+
+ * Some platforms and users spell UTF-8 differently; retry with the
+ most official "UTF-8" when the system does not understand the
+ user-supplied encoding name that is a common alternative
+ spelling of UTF-8.
+
+ * When export-subst is used, "zip" output recorded an incorrect
+ size of the file.
+
+ * "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
+ filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
+ sort the messages in the order the writing MUA meant to, by sorting
+ numeric segments in numeric order and non-numeric segments in
+ alphabetical order.
+
+ * "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
+ accumulate the prefix paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3aa25a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+Git v1.8.4.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4
+------------------
+
+ * Some old versions of bash do not grok some constructs like
+ 'printf -v varname' which the prompt and completion code started
+ to use recently. The completion and prompt scripts have been
+ adjusted to work better with these old versions of bash.
+
+ * In FreeBSD's and NetBSD's "sh", a return in a dot script in a
+ function returns from the function, not only in the dot script,
+ breaking "git rebase" on these platforms (regression introduced
+ in 1.8.4-rc1).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" and other scripted commands were feeding a
+ random, data dependant error message to 'echo' and expecting it
+ to come out literally.
+
+ * Setting the "submodule.<name>.path" variable to the empty
+ "true" caused the configuration parser to segfault.
+
+ * Output from "git log --full-diff -- <pathspec>" looked strange
+ because comparison was done with the previous ancestor that
+ touched the specified <pathspec>, causing the patches for paths
+ outside the pathspec to show more than the single commit has
+ changed.
+
+ * The auto-tag-following code in "git fetch" tries to reuse the
+ same transport twice when the serving end does not cooperate and
+ does not give tags that point to commits that are asked for as
+ part of the primary transfer. Unfortunately, Git-aware transport
+ helper interface is not designed to be used more than once, hence
+ this did not work over smart-http transfer. Fixed.
+
+ * Send a large request to read(2)/write(2) as a smaller but still
+ reasonably large chunks, which would improve the latency when the
+ operation needs to be killed and incidentally works around broken
+ 64-bit systems that cannot take a 2GB write or read in one go.
+
+ * A ".mailmap" file that ends with an incomplete line, when read
+ from a blob, was not handled properly.
+
+ * The recent "short-cut clone connectivity check" topic broke a
+ shallow repository when a fetch operation tries to auto-follow
+ tags.
+
+ * When send-email comes up with an error message to die with upon
+ failure to start an SSL session, it tried to read the error
+ string from a wrong place.
+
+ * A call to xread() was used without a loop to cope with short
+ read in the codepath to stream large blobs to a pack.
+
+ * On platforms with fgetc() and friends defined as macros, the
+ configuration parser did not compile.
+
+ * New versions of MediaWiki introduced a new API for returning
+ more than 500 results in response to a query, which would cause
+ the MediaWiki remote helper to go into an infinite loop.
+
+ * Subversion's serf access method (the only one available in
+ Subversion 1.8) for http and https URLs in skelta mode tells its
+ caller to open multiple files at a time, which made "git svn
+ fetch" complain that "Temp file with moniker 'svn_delta' already
+ in use" instead of fetching.
+
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9adccb1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,77 @@
+Git v1.8.4.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.1
+--------------------
+
+ * "git clone" gave some progress messages to the standard output, not
+ to the standard error, and did not allow suppressing them with the
+ "--no-progress" option.
+
+ * "format-patch --from=<whom>" forgot to omit unnecessary in-body
+ from line, i.e. when <whom> is the same as the real author.
+
+ * "git shortlog" used to choke and die when there is a malformed
+ commit (e.g. missing authors); it now simply ignore such a commit
+ and keeps going.
+
+ * "git merge-recursive" did not parse its "--diff-algorithm=" command
+ line option correctly.
+
+ * "git branch --track" had a minor regression in v1.8.3.2 and later
+ that made it impossible to base your local work on anything but a
+ local branch of the upstream repository you are tracking from.
+
+ * "git ls-files -k" needs to crawl only the part of the working tree
+ that may overlap the paths in the index to find killed files, but
+ shared code with the logic to find all the untracked files, which
+ made it unnecessarily inefficient.
+
+ * When there is no sufficient overlap between old and new history
+ during a "git fetch" into a shallow repository, objects that the
+ sending side knows the receiving end has were unnecessarily sent.
+
+ * When running "fetch -q", a long silence while the sender side
+ computes the set of objects to send can be mistaken by proxies as
+ dropped connection. The server side has been taught to send a
+ small empty messages to keep the connection alive.
+
+ * When the webserver responds with "405 Method Not Allowed", "git
+ http-backend" should tell the client what methods are allowed with
+ the "Allow" header.
+
+ * "git cvsserver" computed the permission mode bits incorrectly for
+ executable files.
+
+ * The implementation of "add -i" has a crippling code to work around
+ ActiveState Perl limitation but it by mistake also triggered on Git
+ for Windows where MSYS perl is used.
+
+ * We made sure that we notice the user-supplied GIT_DIR is actually a
+ gitfile, but did not do the same when the default ".git" is a
+ gitfile.
+
+ * When an object is not found after checking the packfiles and then
+ loose object directory, read_sha1_file() re-checks the packfiles to
+ prevent racing with a concurrent repacker; teach the same logic to
+ has_sha1_file().
+
+ * "git commit --author=$name", when $name is not in the canonical
+ "A. U. Thor <au.thor@example.xz>" format, looks for a matching name
+ from existing history, but did not consult mailmap to grab the
+ preferred author name.
+
+ * The commit object names in the insn sheet that was prepared at the
+ beginning of "rebase -i" session can become ambiguous as the
+ rebasing progresses and the repository gains more commits. Make
+ sure the internal record is kept with full 40-hex object names.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" internally used the merge machinery
+ and as a side effect, left merge summary message in the log, but
+ when rebasing, there should not be a need for merge summary.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" forgot that the comment character can be
+ configurable while reading its insn sheet.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..03f3d17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+Git v1.8.4.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.2
+--------------------
+
+ * The interaction between use of Perl in our test suite and NO_PERL
+ has been clarified a bit.
+
+ * A fast-import stream expresses a pathname with funny characters by
+ quoting them in C style; remote-hg remote helper (in contrib/)
+ forgot to unquote such a path.
+
+ * One long-standing flaw in the pack transfer protocol used by "git
+ clone" was that there was no way to tell the other end which branch
+ "HEAD" points at, and the receiving end needed to guess. A new
+ capability has been defined in the pack protocol to convey this
+ information so that cloning from a repository with more than one
+ branches pointing at the same commit where the HEAD is at now
+ reliably sets the initial branch in the resulting repository.
+
+ * We did not handle cases where http transport gets redirected during
+ the authorization request (e.g. from http:// to https://).
+
+ * "git rev-list --objects ^v1.0^ v1.0" gave v1.0 tag itself in the
+ output, but "git rev-list --objects v1.0^..v1.0" did not.
+
+ * The fall-back parsing of commit objects with broken author or
+ committer lines were less robust than ideal in picking up the
+ timestamps.
+
+ * Bash prompting code to deal with an SVN remote as an upstream
+ were coded in a way not supported by older Bash versions (3.x).
+
+ * "git checkout topic", when there is not yet a local "topic" branch
+ but there is a unique remote-tracking branch for a remote "topic"
+ branch, pretended as if "git checkout -t -b topic remote/$r/topic"
+ (for that unique remote $r) was run. This hack however was not
+ implemented for "git checkout topic --".
+
+ * Coloring around octopus merges in "log --graph" output was screwy.
+
+ * We did not generate HTML version of documentation to "git subtree"
+ in contrib/.
+
+ * The synopsis section of "git unpack-objects" documentation has been
+ clarified a bit.
+
+ * An ancient How-To on serving Git repositories on an HTTP server
+ lacked a warning that it has been mostly superseded with more
+ modern way.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7bc4c5dc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+Git v1.8.4.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.3
+--------------------
+
+ * The fix in v1.8.4.3 to the pack transfer protocol to propagate
+ the target of symbolic refs broke "git clone/git fetch" from a
+ repository with too many symbolic refs. As a hotfix/workaround,
+ we transfer only the information on HEAD.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..215bd1a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,13 @@
+Git v1.8.4.5 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.4
+--------------------
+
+ * Recent update to remote-hg that attempted to make it work better
+ with non ASCII pathnames fed Unicode strings to the underlying Hg
+ API, which was wrong.
+
+ * "git submodule init" copied "submodule.$name.update" settings from
+ .gitmodules to .git/config without making sure if the suggested
+ value was sensible.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..02f681b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,486 @@
+Git v1.8.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.3
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * Cygwin port has been updated for more recent Cygwin 1.7.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" now honors --strategy and -X options.
+
+ * Git-gui has been updated to its 0.18.0 version.
+
+ * MediaWiki remote helper (in contrib/) has been updated to use the
+ credential helper interface from Git.pm.
+
+ * Update build for Cygwin 1.[57]. Torsten Bögershausen reports that
+ this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 ($gmane/225824) so let's try moving it
+ ahead.
+
+ * The credential helper to talk to keychain on OS X (in contrib/) has
+ been updated to kick in not just when talking http/https but also
+ imap(s) and smtp.
+
+ * Remote transport helper has been updated to report errors and
+ maintain ref hierarchy used to keep track of its own state better.
+
+ * With "export" remote-helper protocol, (1) a push that tries to
+ update a remote ref whose name is different from the pushing side
+ does not work yet, and (2) the helper may not know how to do
+ --dry-run; these problematic cases are disabled for now.
+
+ * git-remote-hg/bzr (in contrib/) updates.
+
+ * git-remote-mw (in contrib/) hints users to check the certificate,
+ when https:// connection failed.
+
+ * git-remote-mw (in contrib/) adds a command to allow previewing the
+ contents locally before pushing it out, when working with a
+ MediaWiki remote.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Sample "post-receive-email" hook script got an enhanced replacement
+ "multimail" (in contrib/).
+
+ * Also in contrib/ is a new "contacts" script that runs "git blame"
+ to find out the people who may be interested in a set of changes.
+
+ * "git clean" command learned an interactive mode.
+
+ * The "--head" option to "git show-ref" was only to add "HEAD" to the
+ list of candidate refs to be filtered by the usual rules
+ (e.g. "--heads" that only show refs under refs/heads). The meaning
+ of the option has been changed to always show "HEAD" regardless of
+ what filtering will be applied to any other ref.
+
+ This is a backward incompatible change and might cause breakages to
+ people's existing scripts.
+
+ * "git show -s" was less discoverable than it should have been. It
+ now has a natural synonym "git show --no-patch".
+
+ * "git check-mailmap" is a new command that lets you map usernames
+ and e-mail addresses through the mailmap mechanism, just like many
+ built-in commands do.
+
+ * "git name-rev" learned to name an annotated tag object back to its
+ tagname; "git name-rev $(git rev-parse v1.0.0)" gives "tags/v1.0.0",
+ for example.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=<format>" is added, primarily to allow
+ on-disk footprint of objects in packfiles (often they are a lot
+ smaller than their true size, when expressed as deltas) to be
+ reported.
+
+ * "git rebase [-i]" used to leave just "rebase" as its reflog messages
+ for some operations. They have been reworded to be more informative.
+
+ * In addition to the choice from "rebase, merge, or checkout-detach",
+ "submodule update" can allow a custom command to be used in to
+ update the working tree of submodules via the "submodule.*.update"
+ configuration variable.
+
+ * "git submodule update" can optionally clone the submodule
+ repositories shallowly.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned "--from[=whom]" option, which sets the
+ "From: " header to the specified person (or the person who runs the
+ command, if "=whom" part is missing) and move the original author
+ information to an in-body From: header as necessary.
+
+ * The configuration variable "merge.ff" was cleary a tri-state to
+ choose one from "favor fast-forward when possible", "always create
+ a merge even when the history could fast-forward" and "do not
+ create any merge, only update when the history fast-forwards", but
+ the command line parser did not implement the usual convention of
+ "last one wins, and command line overrides the configuration"
+ correctly.
+
+ * "gitweb" learned to optionally place extra links that point at the
+ levels higher than the Gitweb pages themselves in the breadcrumbs,
+ so that it can be used as part of a larger installation.
+
+ * "git log --format=" now honors i18n.logoutputencoding configuration
+ variable.
+
+ * The "push.default=simple" mode of "git push" has been updated to
+ behave like "current" without requiring a remote tracking
+ information, when you push to a remote that is different from where
+ you fetch from (i.e. a triangular workflow).
+
+ * Having multiple "fixup!" on a line in the rebase instruction sheet
+ did not work very well with "git rebase -i --autosquash".
+
+ * "git log" learned the "--author-date-order" option, with which the
+ output is topologically sorted and commits in parallel histories
+ are shown intermixed together based on the author timestamp.
+
+ * Various subcommands of "git submodule" refused to run from anywhere
+ other than the top of the working tree of the superproject, but
+ they have been taught to let you run from a subdirectory.
+
+ * "git diff" learned a mode that ignores hunks whose change consists
+ only of additions and removals of blank lines, which is the same as
+ "diff -B" (ignore blank lines) of GNU diff.
+
+ * "git rm" gives a single message followed by list of paths to report
+ multiple paths that cannot be removed.
+
+ * "git rebase" can be told with ":/look for this string" syntax commits
+ to replay the changes onto and where the work to be replayed begins.
+
+ * Many tutorials teach users to set "color.ui" to "auto" as the first
+ thing after you set "user.name/email" to introduce yourselves to
+ Git. Now the variable defaults to "auto".
+
+ * On Cygwin, "cygstart" is now recognised as a possible way to start
+ a web browser (used in "help -w" and "instaweb" among others).
+
+ * "git status" learned status.branch and status.short configuration
+ variables to use --branch and --short options by default (override
+ with --no-branch and --no-short options from the command line).
+
+ * "git cmd <name>", when <name> happens to be a 40-hex string,
+ directly uses the 40-hex string as an object name, even if a ref
+ "refs/<some hierarchy>/<name>" exists. This disambiguation order
+ is unlikely to change, but we should warn about the ambiguity just
+ like we warn when more than one refs/ hierarchies share the same
+ name.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned "--[no-]autostash" option to save local
+ changes instead of refusing to run (to which people's normal
+ response was to stash them and re-run). This introduced a corner
+ case breakage to "git am --abort" but it has been fixed.
+
+ * "check-ignore" (new feature since 1.8.2) has been updated to work
+ more like "check-attr" over bidi-pipes.
+
+ * "git describe" learned "--first-parent" option to limit its closest
+ tagged commit search to the first-parent chain.
+
+ * "git merge foo" that might have meant "git merge origin/foo" is
+ diagnosed with a more informative error message.
+
+ * "git log -L<line>,<range>:<filename>" has been added. This may
+ still have leaks and rough edges, though.
+
+ * We used the approxidate() parser for "--expire=<timestamp>" options
+ of various commands, but it is better to treat --expire=all and
+ --expire=now a bit more specially than using the current timestamp.
+ "git gc" and "git reflog" have been updated with a new parsing
+ function for expiry dates.
+
+ * Updates to completion (both bash and zsh) helpers.
+
+ * The behaviour of the "--chain-reply-to" option of "git send-email"
+ have changed at 1.7.0, and we added a warning/advice message to
+ help users adjust to the new behaviour back then, but we kept it
+ around for too long. The message has finally been removed.
+
+ * "git fetch origin master" unlike "git fetch origin" or "git fetch"
+ did not update "refs/remotes/origin/master"; this was an early
+ design decision to keep the update of remote tracking branches
+ predictable, but in practice it turns out that people find it more
+ convenient to opportunistically update them whenever we have a
+ chance, and we have been updating them when we run "git push" which
+ already breaks the original "predictability" anyway.
+
+ * The configuration variable core.checkstat was advertised in the
+ documentation but the code expected core.statinfo instead.
+ For now, we accept both core.checkstat and core.statinfo, but the
+ latter will be removed in the longer term.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * On Cygwin, we used to use our own lstat(2) emulation that is
+ allegedly faster than the platform one in codepaths where some of
+ the information it returns did not matter, but it started to bite
+ us in a few codepaths where the trick it uses to cheat does show
+ breakages. This emulation has been removed and we use the native
+ lstat(2) emulation supplied by Cygwin now.
+
+ * The function attributes extensions are used to catch mistakes in
+ use of our own variadic functions that use NULL sentinel at the end
+ (i.e. like execl(3)) and format strings (i.e. like printf(3)).
+
+ * The code to allow configuration data to be read from in-tree blob
+ objects is in. This may help working in a bare repository and
+ submodule updates.
+
+ * Fetching between repositories with many refs employed O(n^2)
+ algorithm to match up the common objects, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The original way to specify remote repository using .git/branches/
+ used to have a nifty feature. The code to support the feature was
+ still in a function but the caller was changed not to call it 5
+ years ago, breaking that feature and leaving the supporting code
+ unreachable. The dead code has been removed.
+
+ * "git pack-refs" that races with new ref creation or deletion have
+ been susceptible to lossage of refs under right conditions, which
+ has been tightened up.
+
+ * We read loose and packed references in two steps, but after
+ deciding to read a loose ref but before actually opening it to read
+ it, another process racing with us can unlink it, which would cause
+ us to barf. The codepath has been updated to retry when such a
+ race is detected, instead of outright failing.
+
+ * Uses of the platform fnmatch(3) function (many places in the code,
+ matching pathspec, .gitignore and .gitattributes to name a few)
+ have been replaced with wildmatch, allowing "foo/**/bar" that would
+ match foo/bar, foo/a/bar, foo/a/b/bar, etc.
+
+ * Memory ownership and lifetime rules for what for-each-ref feeds to
+ its callbacks have been clarified (in short, "you do not own it, so
+ make a copy if you want to keep it").
+
+ * The revision traversal logic to improve culling of irrelevant
+ parents while traversing a mergy history has been updated.
+
+ * Some leaks in unpack-trees (used in merge, cherry-pick and other
+ codepaths) have been plugged.
+
+ * The codepath to read from marks files in fast-import/export did not
+ have to accept anything but 40-hex representation of the object
+ name. Further, fast-export did not need full in-core object
+ representation to have parsed wen reading from them. These
+ codepaths have been optimized by taking advantage of these access
+ patterns.
+
+ * Object lookup logic, when the object hashtable starts to become
+ crowded, has been optimized.
+
+ * When TEST_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY setting is used, it was handled somewhat
+ inconsistently between the test framework and t/Makefile, and logic
+ to summarize the results looked at a wrong place.
+
+ * "git clone" uses a lighter-weight implementation when making sure
+ that the history behind refs are complete.
+
+ * Many warnings from sparse source checker in compat/ area has been
+ squelched.
+
+ * The code to reading and updating packed-refs file has been updated,
+ correcting corner case bugs.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.3 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * Newer Net::SMTP::SSL module does not want the user programs to use
+ the default behaviour to let server certificate go without
+ verification, so by default enable the verification with a
+ mechanism to turn it off if needed.
+ (merge 35035bb rr/send-email-ssl-verify later to maint).
+
+ * When "git" is spawned in such a way that any of the low 3 file
+ descriptors is closed, our first open() may yield file descriptor 2,
+ and writing error message to it would screw things up in a big way.
+ (merge a11c396 tr/protect-low-3-fds later to maint).
+
+ * The mailmap mechanism unnecessarily downcased the e-mail addresses
+ in the output, and also ignored the human name when it is a single
+ character name.
+ (merge bd23794 jc/mailmap-case-insensitivity later to maint).
+
+ * In two places we did not check return value (expected to be a file
+ descriptor) correctly.
+ (merge a77f106 tr/fd-gotcha-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Logic to auto-detect character encodings in the commit log message
+ did not reject overlong and invalid UTF-8 characters.
+ (merge 81050ac bc/commit-invalid-utf8 later to maint).
+
+ * Pass port number as a separate argument when "send-email" initializes
+ Net::SMTP, instead of as a part of the hostname, i.e. host:port.
+ This allows GSSAPI codepath to match with the hostname given.
+ (merge 1a741bf bc/send-email-use-port-as-separate-param later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff" refused to even show difference when core.safecrlf is
+ set to true (i.e. error out) and there are offending lines in the
+ working tree files.
+ (merge 5430bb2 jc/maint-diff-core-safecrlf later to maint).
+
+ * A test that should have failed but didn't revealed a bug that needs
+ to be corrected.
+ (merge 94d75d1 jc/t1512-fix later to maint).
+
+ * An overlong path to a .git directory may have overflown the
+ temporary path buffer used to create a name for lockfiles.
+ (merge 2fbd4f9 mh/maint-lockfile-overflow later to maint).
+
+ * Invocations of "git checkout" used internally by "git rebase" were
+ counted as "checkout", and affected later "git checkout -" to the
+ the user to an unexpected place.
+ (merge 3bed291 rr/rebase-checkout-reflog later to maint).
+
+ * The configuration variable column.ui was poorly documented.
+ (merge 5e62cc1 rr/column-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "git name-rev --refs=tags/v*" were forbidden, which was a bit
+ inconvenient (you had to give a pattern to match refs fully, like
+ --refs=refs/tags/v*).
+ (merge 98c5c4a nk/name-rev-abbreviated-refs later to maint).
+
+ * "git apply" parsed patches that add new files, generated by
+ programs other than Git, incorrectly. This is an old breakage in
+ v1.7.11 and will need to be merged down to the maintenance tracks.
+
+ * Older cURL wanted piece of memory we call it with to be stable, but
+ we updated the auth material after handing it to a call.
+
+ * "git pull" into nothing trashed "local changes" that were in the
+ index, and this avoids it.
+
+ * Many "git submodule" operations do not work on a submodule at a
+ path whose name is not in ASCII.
+
+ * "cherry-pick" had a small leak in an error codepath.
+
+ * Logic used by git-send-email to suppress cc mishandled names like
+ "A U. Thor" <author@example.xz>, where the human readable part
+ needs to be quoted (the user input may not have the double quotes
+ around the name, and comparison was done between quoted and
+ unquoted strings). It also mishandled names that need RFC2047
+ quoting.
+
+ * Call to discard_cache/discard_index (used when we use different
+ contents of the index in-core, in many operations like commit,
+ apply, and merge) used to leak memory that held the array of index
+ entries, which has been plugged.
+ (merge a0fc4db rs/discard-index-discard-array later to maint).
+
+ * "gitweb" forgot to clear a global variable $search_regexp upon each
+ request, mistakenly carrying over the previous search to a new one
+ when used as a persistent CGI.
+
+ * The wildmatch engine did not honor WM_CASEFOLD option correctly.
+
+ * "git log -c --follow $path" segfaulted upon hitting the commit that
+ renamed the $path being followed.
+
+ * When a reflog notation is used for implicit "current branch", we
+ did not say which branch and worse said "branch ''".
+
+ * "difftool --dir-diff" did not copy back changes made by the
+ end-user in the diff tool backend to the working tree in some
+ cases.
+
+ * "git push $there HEAD:branch" did not resolve HEAD early enough, so
+ it was easy to flip it around while push is still going on and push
+ out a branch that the user did not originally intended when the
+ command was started.
+
+ * The bash prompt code (in contrib/) displayed the name of the branch
+ being rebased when "rebase -i/-m/-p" modes are in use, but not the
+ plain vanilla "rebase".
+
+ * Handling of negative exclude pattern for directories "!dir" was
+ broken in the update to v1.8.3.
+
+ * zsh prompt script that borrowed from bash prompt script did not
+ work due to slight differences in array variable notation between
+ these two shells.
+
+ * An entry for "file://" scheme in the enumeration of URL types Git
+ can take in the HTML documentation was made into a clickable link
+ by mistake.
+
+ * "git push --[no-]verify" was not documented.
+
+ * Stop installing the git-remote-testpy script that is only used for
+ testing.
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -m ''" should not start an
+ editor.
+
+ * "git merge @{-1}~22" was rewritten to "git merge frotz@{1}~22"
+ incorrectly when your previous branch was "frotz" (it should be
+ rewritten to "git merge frotz~22" instead).
+
+ * "git diff -c -p" was not showing a deleted line from a hunk when
+ another hunk immediately begins where the earlier one ends.
+
+ * "git log --ancestry-path A...B" did not work as expected, as it did
+ not pay attention to the fact that the merge base between A and B
+ was the bottom of the range being specified.
+
+ * Mac OS X does not like to write(2) more than INT_MAX number of
+ bytes; work it around by chopping write(2) into smaller pieces.
+
+ * Newer MacOS X encourages the programs to compile and link with
+ their CommonCrypto, not with OpenSSL.
+
+ * "git clone foo/bar:baz" cannot be a request to clone from a remote
+ over git-over-ssh specified in the scp style. This case is now
+ detected and clones from a local repository at "foo/bar:baz".
+
+ * When $HOME is misconfigured to point at an unreadable directory, we
+ used to complain and die. Loosen the check.
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) had one codepath with loose error
+ checks to lose data at the remote side.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a shallow repository from a repository that does
+ not know about the shallow boundary commits (e.g. a different fork
+ from the repository the current shallow repository was cloned from)
+ did not work correctly.
+
+ * "git checkout foo" DWIMs the intended "upstream" and turns it into
+ "git checkout -t -b foo remotes/origin/foo". This codepath has been
+ updated to correctly take existing remote definitions into account.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7236aaf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+Git v1.8.5.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5
+------------------
+
+ * "git submodule init" copied "submodule.$name.update" settings from
+ .gitmodules to .git/config without making sure if the suggested
+ value was sensible.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3ac4984
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Git v1.8.5.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.1
+--------------------
+
+ * "git diff -- ':(icase)makefile'" was unnecessarily rejected at the
+ command line parser.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=ok" did not check the existence of
+ the named object.
+
+ * "git am --abort" sometimes complained about not being able to write
+ a tree with an 0{40} object in it.
+
+ * Two processes creating loose objects at the same time could have
+ failed unnecessarily when the name of their new objects started
+ with the same byte value, due to a race condition.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3de2dd0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,27 @@
+Git v1.8.5.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.2
+--------------------
+
+ * The "--[no-]informative-errors" options to "git daemon" were parsed
+ a bit too loosely, allowing any other string after these option
+ names.
+
+ * A "gc" process running as a different user should be able to stop a
+ new "gc" process from starting.
+
+ * An earlier "clean-up" introduced an unnecessary memory leak to the
+ credential subsystem.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * "git rev-parse <revs> -- <paths>" did not implement the usual
+ disambiguation rules the commands in the "git log" family used in
+ the same way.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch=", an admittedly useless command, did not
+ behave very well.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d18c403
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+Git v1.8.5.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.3
+--------------------
+
+ * "git fetch --depth=0" was a no-op, and was silently ignored.
+ Diagnose it as an error.
+
+ * Remote repository URL expressed in scp-style host:path notation are
+ parsed more carefully (e.g. "foo/bar:baz" is local, "[::1]:/~user" asks
+ to connect to user's home directory on host at address ::1.
+
+ * SSL-related options were not passed correctly to underlying socket
+ layer in "git send-email".
+
+ * "git commit -v" appends the patch to the log message before
+ editing, and then removes the patch when the editor returned
+ control. However, the patch was not stripped correctly when the
+ first modified path was a submodule.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * When we figure out how many file descriptors to allocate for
+ keeping packfiles open, a system with non-working getrlimit() could
+ cause us to die(), but because we make this call only to get a
+ rough estimate of how many is available and we do not even attempt
+ to use up all file descriptors available ourselves, it is nicer to
+ fall back to a reasonable low value rather than dying.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" did not handle a tag pointed by another tag
+ nicely.
+
+ * "git add -A" (no other arguments) in a totally empty working tree
+ used to emit an error.
+
+ * There is no reason to have a hardcoded upper limit of the number of
+ parents for an octopus merge, created via the graft mechanism, but
+ there was.
+
+ * The implementation of 'git stash $cmd "stash@{...}"' did not quote
+ the stash argument properly and left it split at IFS whitespace.
+
+ * The documentation to "git pull" hinted there is an "-m" option
+ because it incorrectly shared the documentation with "git merge".
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9191ce9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+Git v1.8.5.5 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.4
+--------------------
+
+ * The pathspec matching code, while comparing two trees (e.g. "git
+ diff A B -- path1 path2") was too aggressive and failed to match
+ some paths when multiple pathspecs were involved.
+
+ * "git repack --max-pack-size=8g" stopped being parsed correctly when
+ the command was reimplemented in C.
+
+ * A recent update to "git send-email" broke platforms where
+ /etc/ssl/certs/ directory exists but cannot be used as SSL_ca_path
+ (e.g. Fedora rawhide).
+
+ * A handful of bugs around interpreting $branch@{upstream} notation
+ and its lookalike, when $branch part has interesting characters,
+ e.g. "@", and ":", have been fixed.
+
+ * "git clone" would fail to clone from a repository that has a ref
+ directly under "refs/", e.g. "refs/stash", because different
+ validation paths do different things on such a refname. Loosen the
+ client side's validation to allow such a ref.
+
+ * "git log --left-right A...B" lost the "leftness" of commits
+ reachable from A when A is a tag as a side effect of a recent
+ bugfix. This is a regression in 1.8.4.x series.
+
+ * "git merge-base --octopus" used to leave cleaning up suboptimal
+ result to the caller, but now it does the clean-up itself.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..602df0c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,456 @@
+Git v1.8.5 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics, which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.4
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * "git-svn" has been taught to use the serf library, which is the
+ only option SVN 1.8.0 offers us when talking the HTTP protocol.
+
+ * "git-svn" talking over an https:// connection using the serf library
+ dumped core due to a bug in the serf library that SVN uses. Work
+ around it on our side, even though the SVN side is being fixed.
+
+ * On MacOS X, we detected if the filesystem needs the "pre-composed
+ unicode strings" workaround, but did not automatically enable it.
+ Now we do.
+
+ * remote-hg remote helper misbehaved when interacting with a local Hg
+ repository relative to the home directory, e.g. "clone hg::~/there".
+
+ * imap-send ported to OS X uses Apple's security framework instead of
+ OpenSSL's.
+
+ * "git fast-import" treats an empty path given to "ls" as the root of
+ the tree.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * xdg-open can be used as a browser backend for "git web-browse"
+ (hence to show "git help -w" output), when available.
+
+ * "git grep" and "git show" pay attention to the "--textconv" option
+ when these commands are told to operate on blob objects (e.g. "git
+ grep -e pattern --textconv HEAD:Makefile").
+
+ * "git replace" helper no longer allows an object to be replaced with
+ another object of a different type to avoid confusion (you can
+ still manually craft such a replacement using "git update-ref", as an
+ escape hatch).
+
+ * "git status" no longer prints the dirty status information of
+ submodules for which submodule.$name.ignore is set to "all".
+
+ * "git rebase -i" honours core.abbrev when preparing the insn sheet
+ for editing.
+
+ * "git status" during a cherry-pick shows which original commit is
+ being picked.
+
+ * Instead of typing four capital letters "HEAD", you can say "@" now,
+ e.g. "git log @".
+
+ * "git check-ignore" follows the same rule as "git add" and "git
+ status" in that the ignore/exclude mechanism does not take effect
+ on paths that are already tracked. With the "--no-index" option, it
+ can be used to diagnose which paths that should have been ignored
+ have been mistakenly added to the index.
+
+ * Some irrelevant "advice" messages that are shared with "git status"
+ output have been removed from the commit log template.
+
+ * "update-refs" learned a "--stdin" option to read multiple update
+ requests and perform them in an all-or-none fashion.
+
+ * Just like "make -C <directory>", "git -C <directory> ..." tells Git
+ to go there before doing anything else.
+
+ * Just like "git checkout -" knows to check out, and "git merge -"
+ knows to merge, the branch you were previously on, "git cherry-pick"
+ now understands "git cherry-pick -" to pick from the previous
+ branch.
+
+ * "git status" now omits the prefix to make its output a comment in a
+ commit log editor, which is not necessary for human consumption.
+ Scripts that parse the output of "git status" are advised to use
+ "git status --porcelain" instead, as its format is stable and easier
+ to parse.
+
+ * The ref syntax "foo^{tag}" (with the literal string "{tag}") peels a
+ tag ref to itself, i.e. it's a no-op., and fails if
+ "foo" is not a tag. "git rev-parse --verify v1.0^{tag}" is
+ a more convenient way than "test $(git cat-file -t v1.0) = tag" to
+ check if v1.0 is a tag.
+
+ * "git branch -v -v" (and "git status") did not distinguish among a
+ branch that is not based on any other branch, a branch that is in
+ sync with its upstream branch, and a branch that is configured with an
+ upstream branch that no longer exists.
+
+ * Earlier we started rejecting any attempt to add the 0{40} object name to
+ the index and to tree objects, but it sometimes is necessary to
+ allow this to be able to use tools like filter-branch to correct such
+ broken tree objects. "filter-branch" can again be used to do this.
+
+ * "git config" did not provide a way to set or access numbers larger
+ than a native "int" on the platform; it now provides 64-bit signed
+ integers on all platforms.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" always chose to do the bog-standard flattening
+ rebase. You can tell it to run "rebase --preserve-merges" with
+ "git pull --rebase=preserve" or by
+ setting "pull.rebase" configuration to "preserve".
+
+ * "git push --no-thin" actually disables the "thin pack transfer"
+ optimization.
+
+ * Magic pathspecs like ":(icase)makefile" (matches both Makefile
+ and makefile) and ":(glob)foo/**/bar" (matches "bar" in "foo"
+ and any subdirectory of "foo") can be used in more places.
+
+ * The "http.*" variables can now be specified for individual URLs.
+ For example,
+
+ [http]
+ sslVerify = true
+ [http "https://weak.example.com/"]
+ sslVerify = false
+
+ would flip http.sslVerify off only when talking to that specific
+ site.
+
+ * "git mv A B" when moving a submodule has been taught to
+ relocate the submodule's working tree and to adjust the paths in the
+ .gitmodules file.
+
+ * "git blame" can now take more than one -L option to discover the
+ origin of multiple blocks of lines.
+
+ * The http transport clients can optionally ask to save cookies
+ with the http.savecookies configuration variable.
+
+ * "git push" learned a more fine grained control over a blunt
+ "--force" when requesting a non-fast-forward update with the
+ "--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expected object name>" option.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-filter=<classes of changes>" can now take
+ lowercase letters (e.g. "--diff-filter=d") to mean "show
+ everything but these classes". "git diff-files -q" is now a
+ deprecated synonym for "git diff-files --diff-filter=d".
+
+ * "git fetch" (hence "git pull" as well) learned to check
+ "fetch.prune" and "remote.*.prune" configuration variables and
+ to behave as if the "--prune" command line option was given.
+
+ * "git check-ignore -z" applied the NUL termination to both its input
+ (with --stdin) and its output, but "git check-attr -z" ignored the
+ option on the output side. Make both honor -z on the input and
+ output side the same way.
+
+ * "git whatchanged" may still be used by old timers, but mention of
+ it in documents meant for new users will only waste readers' time
+ wondering what the difference is between it and "git log". Make it
+ less prominent in the general part of the documentation and explain
+ that it is merely a "git log" with different default behaviour in
+ its own document.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" when asking for merely the object name does not
+ have to parse the object pointed at by the refs; the codepath has
+ been optimized.
+
+ * The HTTP transport will try to use TCP keepalive when able.
+
+ * "git repack" is now written in C.
+
+ * Build procedure for MSVC has been updated.
+
+ * If a build-time fallback is set to "cat" instead of "less", we
+ should apply the same "no subprocess or pipe" optimization as we
+ apply to user-supplied GIT_PAGER=cat.
+
+ * Many commands use a --dashed-option as an operation mode selector
+ (e.g. "git tag --delete") that excludes other operation modes
+ (e.g. "git tag --delete --verify" is nonsense) and that cannot be
+ negated (e.g. "git tag --no-delete" is nonsense). The parse-options
+ API learned a new OPT_CMDMODE macro to make it easier to implement
+ such a set of options.
+
+ * OPT_BOOLEAN() in the parse-options API was misdesigned to be "counting
+ up" but many subcommands expect it to behave as "on/off". Update
+ them to use OPT_BOOL() which is a proper boolean.
+
+ * "git gc" exits early without doing any work when it detects
+ that another instance of itself is already running.
+
+ * Under memory pressure and/or file descriptor pressure, we used to
+ close pack windows that are not used and also closed filehandles to
+ open but unused packfiles. These are now controlled separately
+ to better cope with the load.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.4 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes for
+details).
+
+ * An ancient How-To on serving Git repositories on an HTTP server
+ lacked a warning that it has been mostly superseded with a more
+ modern way.
+ (merge 6d52bc3 sc/doc-howto-dumb-http later to maint).
+
+ * The interaction between the use of Perl in our test suite and NO_PERL
+ has been clarified a bit.
+ (merge f8fc0ee jn/test-prereq-perl-doc later to maint).
+
+ * The synopsis section of the "git unpack-objects" documentation has been
+ clarified a bit.
+ (merge 61e2e22 vd/doc-unpack-objects later to maint).
+
+ * We did not generate the HTML version of the documentation to "git subtree"
+ in contrib/.
+ (merge 95c62fb jk/subtree-install-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A fast-import stream expresses a pathname with funny characters by
+ quoting them in C style; the remote-hg remote helper forgot to unquote
+ such a path.
+ (merge 1136265 ap/remote-hg-unquote-cquote later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset -p HEAD" has a codepath to special-case it to behave
+ differently from resetting to contents of other commits, but a
+ recent change broke it.
+
+ * Coloring around octopus merges in "log --graph" output was screwy.
+ (merge 339c17b hn/log-graph-color-octopus later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout topic", when there is not yet a local "topic" branch
+ but there is a unique remote-tracking branch for a remote "topic"
+ branch, pretended as if "git checkout -t -b topic remote/$r/topic"
+ (for that unique remote $r) was run. This hack however was not
+ implemented for "git checkout topic --".
+ (merge bca3969 mm/checkout-auto-track-fix later to maint).
+
+ * One long-standing flaw in the pack transfer protocol used by "git
+ clone" was that there was no way to tell the other end which branch
+ "HEAD" points at, and the receiving end needed to guess. A new
+ capability has been defined in the pack protocol to convey this
+ information so that cloning from a repository with more than one
+ branch pointing at the same commit where the HEAD is at now
+ reliably sets the initial branch in the resulting repository.
+ (merge 360a326 jc/upload-pack-send-symref later to maint).
+
+ * We did not handle cases where the http transport gets redirected during
+ the authorization request (e.g. from http:// to https://).
+ (merge 70900ed jk/http-auth-redirects later to maint).
+
+ * Bash prompting code to deal with an SVN remote as an upstream
+ was coded in a way unsupported by older Bash versions (3.x).
+ (merge 52ec889 sg/prompt-svn-remote-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The fall-back parsing of commit objects with broken author or
+ committer lines was less robust than ideal in picking up the
+ timestamps.
+ (merge 03818a4 jk/split-broken-ident later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-list --objects ^v1.0^ v1.0" gave the v1.0 tag itself in the
+ output, but "git rev-list --objects v1.0^..v1.0" did not.
+ (merge 895c5ba jc/revision-range-unpeel later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone" wrote some progress messages to standard output, not
+ to standard error, and did not suppress them with the
+ --no-progress option.
+ (merge 643f918 jk/clone-progress-to-stderr later to maint).
+
+ * "format-patch --from=<whom>" forgot to omit an unnecessary in-body
+ from line, i.e. when <whom> is the same as the real author.
+ (merge 662cc30 jk/format-patch-from later to maint).
+
+ * "git shortlog" used to choke and die when there is a malformed
+ commit (e.g. missing authors); it now simply ignores such a commit
+ and keeps going.
+ (merge cd4f09e jk/shortlog-tolerate-broken-commit later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-recursive" did not parse its "--diff-algorithm=" command
+ line option correctly.
+ (merge 6562928 jk/diff-algo later to maint).
+
+ * When running "fetch -q", a long silence while the sender side
+ computes the set of objects to send can be mistaken by proxies as
+ dropped connection. The server side has been taught to send a
+ small empty messages to keep the connection alive.
+ (merge 115dedd jk/upload-pack-keepalive later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" had a portability regression in v1.8.4 that triggered a
+ bug in some BSD shell implementations.
+ (merge 99855dd mm/rebase-continue-freebsd-WB later to maint).
+
+ * "git branch --track" had a minor regression in v1.8.3.2 and later
+ that made it impossible to base your local work on anything but a
+ local branch of the upstream repository you are tracking.
+ (merge b0f49ff jh/checkout-auto-tracking later to maint).
+
+ * When the web server responds with "405 Method Not Allowed", "git
+ http-backend" should tell the client what methods are allowed with
+ the "Allow" header.
+ (merge 9247be0 bc/http-backend-allow-405 later to maint).
+
+ * When there is no sufficient overlap between old and new history
+ during a "git fetch" into a shallow repository, objects that the
+ sending side knows the receiving end has were unnecessarily sent.
+ (merge f21d2a7 nd/fetch-into-shallow later to maint).
+
+ * "git cvsserver" computed the permission mode bits incorrectly for
+ executable files.
+ (merge 1b48d56 jc/cvsserver-perm-bit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When send-email obtains an error message to die with upon
+ failure to start an SSL session, it tried to read the error string
+ from a wrong place.
+ (merge 6cb0c88 bc/send-email-ssl-die-message-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The implementation of "add -i" has some crippling code to work around an
+ ActiveState Perl limitation but it by mistake also triggered on Git
+ for Windows where MSYS perl is used.
+ (merge df17e77 js/add-i-mingw later to maint).
+
+ * We made sure that we notice when the user-supplied GIT_DIR is actually a
+ gitfile, but did not do the same when the default ".git" is a
+ gitfile.
+ (merge 487a2b7 nd/git-dir-pointing-at-gitfile later to maint).
+
+ * When an object is not found after checking the packfiles and the
+ loose object directory, read_sha1_file() re-checks the packfiles to
+ prevent racing with a concurrent repacker; teach the same logic to
+ has_sha1_file().
+ (merge 45e8a74 jk/has-sha1-file-retry-packed later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit --author=$name", when $name is not in the canonical
+ "A. U. Thor <au.thor@example.xz>" format, looks for a matching name
+ from existing history, but did not consult mailmap to grab the
+ preferred author name.
+ (merge ea16794 ap/commit-author-mailmap later to maint).
+
+ * "git ls-files -k" needs to crawl only the part of the working tree
+ that may overlap the paths in the index to find killed files, but
+ shared code with the logic to find all the untracked files, which
+ made it unnecessarily inefficient.
+ (merge 680be04 jc/ls-files-killed-optim later to maint).
+
+ * The shortened commit object names in the insn sheet that is prepared at the
+ beginning of a "rebase -i" session can become ambiguous as the
+ rebasing progresses and the repository gains more commits. Make
+ sure the internal record is kept with full 40-hex object names.
+ (merge 75c6976 es/rebase-i-no-abbrev later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" internally used the merge machinery
+ and as a side effect left the merge summary message in the log, but
+ when rebasing there is no need for the merge summary.
+ (merge a9f739c rt/rebase-p-no-merge-summary later to maint).
+
+ * A call to xread() was used without a loop around it to cope with short
+ reads in the codepath to stream new contents to a pack.
+ (merge e92527c js/xread-in-full later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" forgot that the comment character is
+ configurable while reading its insn sheet.
+ (merge 7bca7af es/rebase-i-respect-core-commentchar later to maint).
+
+ * The mailmap support code read past the allocated buffer when the
+ mailmap file ended with an incomplete line.
+ (merge f972a16 jk/mailmap-incomplete-line later to maint).
+
+ * We used to send a large request to read(2)/write(2) as a single
+ system call, which was bad from the latency point of view when
+ the operation needs to be killed, and also triggered an error on
+ broken 64-bit systems that refuse to read or write more than 2GB
+ in one go.
+ (merge a487916 sp/clip-read-write-to-8mb later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" that auto-followed tags incorrectly reused the
+ connection with Git-aware transport helper (like the sample "ext::"
+ helper shipped with Git).
+ (merge 0f73f8b jc/transport-do-not-use-connect-twice-in-fetch later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --full-diff -- <pathspec>" showed a huge diff for paths
+ outside the given <pathspec> for each commit, instead of showing
+ the change relative to the parent of the commit. "git reflog -p"
+ had a similar problem.
+ (merge 838f9a1 tr/log-full-diff-keep-true-parents later to maint).
+
+ * Setting a submodule.*.path configuration variable to true (without
+ giving "= value") caused Git to segfault.
+ (merge 4b05440 jl/some-submodule-config-are-not-boolean later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" (there could be others, as the root cause is pretty
+ generic) fed a random, data dependent string to 'echo' and
+ expected it to come out literally, corrupting its error message.
+ (merge 89b0230 mm/no-shell-escape-in-die-message later to maint).
+
+ * Some people still use rather old versions of bash, which cannot
+ grok some constructs like 'printf -v varname' which the prompt and
+ completion code started to use recently.
+ (merge a44aa69 bc/completion-for-bash-3.0 later to maint).
+
+ * Code to read configuration from a blob object did not compile on
+ platforms with fgetc() etc. implemented as macros.
+ (merge 49d6cfa hv/config-from-blob later to maint-1.8.3).
+
+ * The recent "short-cut clone connectivity check" topic broke a
+ shallow repository when a fetch operation tries to auto-follow tags.
+ (merge 6da8bdc nd/fetch-pack-shallow-fix later to maint-1.8.3).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..752d791
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,345 @@
+Git v1.9.0 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+"git submodule foreach $cmd $args" used to treat "$cmd $args" the same
+way "ssh" did, concatenating them into a single string and letting the
+shell unquote. Careless users who forget to sufficiently quote $args
+get their argument split at $IFS whitespaces by the shell, and got
+unexpected results due to this. Starting from this release, the
+command line is passed directly to the shell, if it has an argument.
+
+Read-only support for experimental loose-object format, in which users
+could optionally choose to write their loose objects for a short
+while between v1.4.3 and v1.5.3 era, has been dropped.
+
+The meanings of the "--tags" option to "git fetch" has changed; the
+command fetches tags _in addition to_ what is fetched by the same
+command line without the option.
+
+The way "git push $there $what" interprets the $what part given on the
+command line, when it does not have a colon that explicitly tells us
+what ref at the $there repository is to be updated, has been enhanced.
+
+A handful of ancient commands that have long been deprecated are
+finally gone (repo-config, tar-tree, lost-found, and peek-remote).
+
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0.0)
+--------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics, which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.5
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * The HTTP transport, when talking GSS-Negotiate, uses "100
+ Continue" response to avoid having to rewind and resend a large
+ payload, which may not be always doable.
+
+ * Various bugfixes to remote-bzr and remote-hg (in contrib/).
+
+ * The build procedure is aware of MirBSD now.
+
+ * Various "git p4", "git svn" and "gitk" updates.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Fetching from a shallowly-cloned repository used to be forbidden,
+ primarily because the codepaths involved were not carefully vetted
+ and we did not bother supporting such usage. This release attempts
+ to allow object transfer out of a shallowly-cloned repository in a
+ more controlled way (i.e. the receiver becomes a shallow repository
+ with a truncated history).
+
+ * Just like we give a reasonable default for "less" via the LESS
+ environment variable, we now specify a reasonable default for "lv"
+ via the "LV" environment variable when spawning the pager.
+
+ * Two-level configuration variable names in "branch.*" and "remote.*"
+ hierarchies, whose variables are predominantly three-level, were
+ not completed by hitting a <TAB> in bash and zsh completions.
+
+ * Fetching a 'frotz' branch with "git fetch", while a 'frotz/nitfol'
+ remote-tracking branch from an earlier fetch was still there, would
+ error out, primarily because the command was not told that it is
+ allowed to lose any information on our side. "git fetch --prune"
+ now can be used to remove 'frotz/nitfol' to make room for fetching and
+ storing the 'frotz' remote-tracking branch.
+
+ * "diff.orderfile=<file>" configuration variable can be used to
+ pretend as if the "-O<file>" option were given from the command
+ line of "git diff", etc.
+
+ * The negative pathspec syntax allows "git log -- . ':!dir'" to tell
+ us "I am interested in everything but 'dir' directory".
+
+ * "git difftool" shows how many different paths there are in total,
+ and how many of them have been shown so far, to indicate progress.
+
+ * "git push origin master" used to push our 'master' branch to update
+ the 'master' branch at the 'origin' repository. This has been
+ enhanced to use the same ref mapping "git push origin" would use to
+ determine what ref at the 'origin' to be updated with our 'master'.
+ For example, with this configuration
+
+ [remote "origin"]
+ push = refs/heads/*:refs/review/*
+
+ that would cause "git push origin" to push out our local branches
+ to corresponding refs under refs/review/ hierarchy at 'origin',
+ "git push origin master" would update 'refs/review/master' over
+ there. Alternatively, if push.default is set to 'upstream' and our
+ 'master' is set to integrate with 'topic' from the 'origin' branch,
+ running "git push origin" while on our 'master' would update their
+ 'topic' branch, and running "git push origin master" while on any
+ of our branches does the same.
+
+ * "gitweb" learned to treat ref hierarchies other than refs/heads as
+ if they are additional branch namespaces (e.g. refs/changes/ in
+ Gerrit).
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." learned a few formatting directives;
+ e.g. "%(color:red)%(HEAD)%(color:reset) %(refname:short) %(subject)".
+
+ * The command string given to "git submodule foreach" is passed
+ directly to the shell, without being eval'ed. This is a backward
+ incompatible change that may break existing users.
+
+ * "git log" and friends learned the "--exclude=<glob>" option, to
+ allow people to say "list history of all branches except those that
+ match this pattern" with "git log --exclude='*/*' --branches".
+
+ * "git rev-parse --parseopt" learned a new "--stuck-long" option to
+ help scripts parse options with an optional parameter.
+
+ * The "--tags" option to "git fetch" no longer tells the command to
+ fetch _only_ the tags. It instead fetches tags _in addition to_
+ what are fetched by the same command line without the option.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * When parsing a 40-hex string into the object name, the string is
+ checked to see if it can be interpreted as a ref so that a warning
+ can be given for ambiguity. The code kicked in even when the
+ core.warnambiguousrefs is set to false to squelch this warning, in
+ which case the cycles spent to look at the ref namespace were an
+ expensive no-op, as the result was discarded without being used.
+
+ * The naming convention of the packfiles has been updated; it used to
+ be based on the enumeration of names of the objects that are
+ contained in the pack, but now it also depends on how the packed
+ result is represented---packing the same set of objects using
+ different settings (or delta order) would produce a pack with
+ different name.
+
+ * "git diff --no-index" mode used to unnecessarily attempt to read
+ the index when there is one.
+
+ * The deprecated parse-options macro OPT_BOOLEAN has been removed;
+ use OPT_BOOL or OPT_COUNTUP in new code.
+
+ * A few duplicate implementations of prefix/suffix string comparison
+ functions have been unified to starts_with() and ends_with().
+
+ * The new PERLLIB_EXTRA makefile variable can be used to specify
+ additional directories Perl modules (e.g. the ones necessary to run
+ git-svn) are installed on the platform when building.
+
+ * "git merge-base" learned the "--fork-point" mode, that implements
+ the same logic used in "git pull --rebase" to find a suitable fork
+ point out of the reflog entries for the remote-tracking branch the
+ work has been based on. "git rebase" has the same logic that can be
+ triggered with the "--fork-point" option.
+
+ * A third-party "receive-pack" (the responder to "git push") can
+ advertise the "no-thin" capability to tell "git push" not to use
+ the thin-pack optimization. Our receive-pack has always been
+ capable of accepting and fattening a thin-pack, and will continue
+ not to ask "git push" to use a non-thin pack.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.5 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes
+for details).
+
+ * The pathspec matching code, while comparing two trees (e.g. "git
+ diff A B -- path1 path2") was too aggressive and failed to match
+ some paths when multiple pathspecs were involved.
+
+ * "git repack --max-pack-size=8g" stopped being parsed correctly when
+ the command was reimplemented in C.
+
+ * An earlier update in v1.8.4.x to "git rev-list --objects" with
+ negative ref had a performance regression.
+ (merge 200abe7 jk/mark-edges-uninteresting later to maint).
+
+ * A recent update to "git send-email" broke platforms where
+ /etc/ssl/certs/ directory exists but cannot be used as SSL_ca_path
+ (e.g. Fedora rawhide).
+
+ * A handful of bugs around interpreting $branch@{upstream} notation
+ and its lookalike, when $branch part has interesting characters,
+ e.g. "@", and ":", have been fixed.
+
+ * "git clone" would fail to clone from a repository that has a ref
+ directly under "refs/", e.g. "refs/stash", because different
+ validation paths do different things on such a refname. Loosen the
+ client side's validation to allow such a ref.
+
+ * "git log --left-right A...B" lost the "leftness" of commits
+ reachable from A when A is a tag as a side effect of a recent
+ bugfix. This is a regression in 1.8.4.x series.
+
+ * documentations to "git pull" hinted there is an "-m" option because
+ it incorrectly shared the documentation with "git merge".
+
+ * "git diff A B submod" and "git diff A B submod/" ought to have done
+ the same for a submodule "submod", but didn't.
+
+ * "git clone $origin foo\bar\baz" on Windows failed to create the
+ leading directories (i.e. a moral-equivalent of "mkdir -p").
+
+ * "submodule.*.update=checkout", when propagated from .gitmodules to
+ .git/config, turned into a "submodule.*.update=none", which did not
+ make much sense.
+ (merge efa8fd7 fp/submodule-checkout-mode later to maint).
+
+ * The implementation of 'git stash $cmd "stash@{...}"' did not quote
+ the stash argument properly and left it split at IFS whitespace.
+
+ * The "--[no-]informative-errors" options to "git daemon" were parsed
+ a bit too loosely, allowing any other string after these option
+ names.
+
+ * There is no reason to have a hardcoded upper limit for the number of
+ parents of an octopus merge, created via the graft mechanism, but
+ there was.
+
+ * The basic test used to leave unnecessary trash directories in the
+ t/ directory.
+ (merge 738a8be jk/test-framework-updates later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-base --octopus" used to leave cleaning up suboptimal
+ result to the caller, but now it does the clean-up itself.
+
+ * A "gc" process running as a different user should be able to stop a
+ new "gc" process from starting, but it didn't.
+
+ * An earlier "clean-up" introduced an unnecessary memory leak.
+
+ * "git add -A" (no other arguments) in a totally empty working tree
+ used to emit an error.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" did not handle a tag pointed by another tag
+ nicely.
+
+ * When we figure out how many file descriptors to allocate for
+ keeping packfiles open, a system with non-working getrlimit() could
+ cause us to die(), but because we make this call only to get a
+ rough estimate of how many are available and we do not even attempt
+ to use up all available file descriptors ourselves, it is nicer to
+ fall back to a reasonable low value rather than dying.
+
+ * read_sha1_file(), that is the workhorse to read the contents given
+ an object name, honoured object replacements, but there was no
+ corresponding mechanism to sha1_object_info() that was used to
+ obtain the metainfo (e.g. type & size) about the object. This led
+ callers to weird inconsistencies.
+ (merge 663a856 cc/replace-object-info later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch=", an admittedly useless command, did not
+ behave very well.
+
+ * "git rev-parse <revs> -- <paths>" did not implement the usual
+ disambiguation rules the commands in the "git log" family used in
+ the same way.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * A workaround to an old bug in glibc prior to glibc 2.17 has been
+ retired; this would remove a side effect of the workaround that
+ corrupts system error messages in non-C locales.
+
+ * SSL-related options were not passed correctly to underlying socket
+ layer in "git send-email".
+
+ * "git commit -v" appends the patch to the log message before
+ editing, and then removes the patch when the editor returned
+ control. However, the patch was not stripped correctly when the
+ first modified path was a submodule.
+
+ * "git fetch --depth=0" was a no-op, and was silently ignored.
+ Diagnose it as an error.
+
+ * Remote repository URLs expressed in scp-style host:path notation are
+ parsed more carefully (e.g. "foo/bar:baz" is local, "[::1]:/~user" asks
+ to connect to user's home directory on host at address ::1.
+
+ * "git diff -- ':(icase)makefile'" was unnecessarily rejected at the
+ command line parser.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=ok" did not check the existence of
+ the named object.
+
+ * "git am --abort" sometimes complained about not being able to write
+ a tree with an 0{40} object in it.
+
+ * Two processes creating loose objects at the same time could have
+ failed unnecessarily when the name of their new objects started
+ with the same byte value, due to a race condition.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5b06020
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+Git v1.9.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.9.0
+------------------
+
+ * "git clean -d pathspec" did not use the given pathspec correctly
+ and ended up cleaning too much.
+
+ * "git difftool" misbehaved when the repository is bound to the
+ working tree with the ".git file" mechanism, where a textual file
+ ".git" tells us where it is.
+
+ * "git push" did not pay attention to branch.*.pushremote if it is
+ defined earlier than remote.pushdefault; the order of these two
+ variables in the configuration file should not matter, but it did
+ by mistake.
+
+ * Codepaths that parse timestamps in commit objects have been
+ tightened.
+
+ * "git diff --external-diff" incorrectly fed the submodule directory
+ in the working tree to the external diff driver when it knew it is
+ the same as one of the versions being compared.
+
+ * "git reset" needs to refresh the index when working in a working
+ tree (it can also be used to match the index to the HEAD in an
+ otherwise bare repository), but it failed to set up the working
+ tree properly, causing GIT_WORK_TREE to be ignored.
+
+ * "git check-attr" when working on a repository with a working tree
+ did not work well when the working tree was specified via the
+ --work-tree (and obviously with --git-dir) option.
+
+ * "merge-recursive" was broken in 1.7.7 era and stopped working in
+ an empty (temporary) working tree, when there are renames
+ involved. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rev-parse" was loose in rejecting command line arguments
+ that do not make sense, e.g. "--default" without the required
+ value for that option.
+
+ * include.path variable (or any variable that expects a path that
+ can use ~username expansion) in the configuration file is not a
+ boolean, but the code failed to check it.
+
+ * "git diff --quiet -- pathspec1 pathspec2" sometimes did not return
+ correct status value.
+
+ * Attempting to deepen a shallow repository by fetching over smart
+ HTTP transport failed in the protocol exchange, when no-done
+ extension was used. The fetching side waited for the list of
+ shallow boundary commits after the sending end stopped talking to
+ it.
+
+ * Allow "git cmd path/", when the 'path' is where a submodule is
+ bound to the top-level working tree, to match 'path', despite the
+ extra and unnecessary trailing slash (such a slash is often
+ given by command line completion).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c755e34
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+Git v1.9.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.9.1
+------------------
+
+ * "git mv" that moves a submodule forgot to adjust the array that
+ uses to keep track of which submodules were to be moved to update
+ its configuration.
+
+ * Length limit for the pathname used when removing a path in a deep
+ subdirectory has been removed to avoid buffer overflows.
+
+ * The test helper lib-terminal always run an actual test_expect_*
+ when included, which screwed up with the use of skil-all that may
+ have to be done later.
+
+ * "git index-pack" used a wrong variable to name the keep-file in an
+ error message when the file cannot be written or closed.
+
+ * "rebase -i" produced a broken insn sheet when the title of a commit
+ happened to contain '\n' (or ended with '\c') due to a careless use
+ of 'echo'.
+
+ * There were a few instances of 'git-foo' remaining in the
+ documentation that should have been spelled 'git foo'.
+
+ * Serving objects from a shallow repository needs to write a
+ new file to hold the temporary shallow boundaries but it was not
+ cleaned when we exit due to die() or a signal.
+
+ * When "git stash pop" stops after failing to apply the stash
+ (e.g. due to conflicting changes), the stash is not dropped. State
+ that explicitly in the output to let the users know.
+
+ * The labels in "git status" output that describe the nature of
+ conflicts (e.g. "both deleted") were limited to 20 bytes, which was
+ too short for some l10n (e.g. fr).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1058f7d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,331 @@
+Git v2.0 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default is now the "simple" semantics,
+which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+You can use the configuration variable "push.default" to change
+this. If you are an old-timer who wants to keep using the
+"matching" semantics, you can set the variable to "matching", for
+example. Read the documentation for other possibilities.
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A" are run inside a subdirectory
+without specifying which paths to add on the command line, they
+operate on the entire tree for consistency with "git commit -a" and
+other commands (these commands used to operate only on the current
+subdirectory). Say "git add -u ." or "git add -A ." if you want to
+limit the operation to the current directory.
+
+"git add <path>" is the same as "git add -A <path>" now, so that
+"git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory and
+record the removal. In older versions of Git, "git add <path>" used
+to ignore removals. You can say "git add --ignore-removal <path>" to
+add only added or modified paths in <path>, if you really want to.
+
+The "-q" option to "git diff-files", which does *NOT* mean "quiet",
+has been removed (it told Git to ignore deletion, which you can do
+with "git diff-files --diff-filter=d").
+
+"git request-pull" lost a few "heuristics" that often led to mistakes.
+
+
+Updates since v1.9 series
+-------------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git gc --aggressive" learned "--depth" option and
+ "gc.aggressiveDepth" configuration variable to allow use of a less
+ insane depth than the built-in default value of 250.
+
+ * "git log" learned the "--show-linear-break" option to show where a
+ single strand-of-pearls is broken in its output.
+
+ * The "rev-parse --parseopt" mechanism used by scripted Porcelains to
+ parse command line options and to give help text learned to take
+ the argv-help (the placeholder string for an option parameter,
+ e.g. "key-id" in "--gpg-sign=<key-id>").
+
+ * The pattern to find where the function begins in C/C++ used in
+ "diff" and "grep -p" have been updated to help C++ source better.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned to interpret a lone "-" as "@{-1}", the
+ branch that we were previously on.
+
+ * "git commit --cleanup=<mode>" learned a new mode, scissors.
+
+ * "git tag --list" output can be sorted using "version sort" with
+ "--sort=version:refname".
+
+ * Discard the accumulated "heuristics" to guess from which branch the
+ result wants to be pulled from and make sure what the end user
+ specified is not second-guessed by "git request-pull", to avoid
+ mistakes. When you pushed out your 'master' branch to your public
+ repository as 'for-linus', use the new "master:for-linus" syntax to
+ denote the branch to be pulled.
+
+ * "git grep" learned to behave in a way similar to native grep when
+ "-h" (no header) and "-c" (count) options are given.
+
+ * transport-helper, fast-import and fast-export have been updated to
+ allow the ref mapping and ref deletion in a way similar to the
+ natively supported transports.
+
+ * The "simple" mode is the default for "git push".
+
+ * "git add -u" and "git add -A", when run without any pathspec, is a
+ tree-wide operation even when run inside a subdirectory of a
+ working tree.
+
+ * "git add <path> is the same as "git add -A <path>" now.
+
+ * "core.statinfo" configuration variable, which is a
+ never-advertised synonym to "core.checkstat", has been removed.
+
+ * The "-q" option to "git diff-files", which does *NOT* mean
+ "quiet", has been removed (it told Git to ignore deletion, which
+ you can do with "git diff-files --diff-filter=d").
+
+ * Server operators can loosen the "tips of refs only" restriction for
+ the remote archive service with the uploadarchive.allowUnreachable
+ configuration option.
+
+ * The progress indicators from various time-consuming commands have
+ been marked for i18n/l10n.
+
+ * "git notes -C <blob>" diagnoses an attempt to use an object that
+ is not a blob as an error.
+
+ * "git config" learned to read from the standard input when "-" is
+ given as the value to its "--file" parameter (attempting an
+ operation to update the configuration in the standard input of
+ course is rejected).
+
+ * Trailing whitespaces in .gitignore files, unless they are quoted
+ for fnmatch(3), e.g. "path\ ", are warned and ignored. Strictly
+ speaking, this is a backward incompatible change, but very unlikely
+ to bite any sane user and adjusting should be obvious and easy.
+
+ * Many commands that create commits, e.g. "pull", "rebase",
+ learned to take the --gpg-sign option on the command line.
+
+ * "git commit" can be told to always GPG sign the resulting commit
+ by setting "commit.gpgsign" configuration variable to true (the
+ command line option --no-gpg-sign should override it).
+
+ * "git pull" can be told to only accept fast-forward by setting the
+ new "pull.ff" configuration.
+
+ * "git reset" learned "-N" option, which does not reset the index
+ fully for paths the index knows about but the tree-ish the command
+ resets to does not (these paths are kept as intend-to-add entries).
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * The compilation options to port to AIX has been updated.
+
+ * We started using wildmatch() in place of fnmatch(3) a few releases
+ ago; complete the process and stop using fnmatch(3).
+
+ * Uses of curl's "multi" interface and "easy" interface do not mix
+ well when we attempt to reuse outgoing connections. Teach the RPC
+ over http code, used in the smart HTTP transport, not to use the
+ "easy" interface.
+
+ * The bitmap-index feature from JGit has been ported, which should
+ significantly improve performance when serving objects form a
+ repository that uses it.
+
+ * The way "git log --cc" shows a combined diff against multiple
+ parents have been optimized.
+
+ * The prefixcmp() and suffixcmp() functions are gone. Use
+ starts_with() and ends_with(), and also consider if skip_prefix()
+ suits your needs better when using the former.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups. Many
+of them came from flurry of activities as GSoC candidate microproject
+exercises.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.9 series
+-----------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.9 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git diff --no-index -Mq a b" fell into an infinite loop.
+ (merge ad1c3fb jc/fix-diff-no-index-diff-opt-parse later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --prune", when the right-hand-side of multiple fetch
+ refspecs overlap (e.g. storing "refs/heads/*" to
+ "refs/remotes/origin/*", while storing "refs/frotz/*" to
+ "refs/remotes/origin/fr/*"), aggressively thought that lack of
+ "refs/heads/fr/otz" on the origin site meant we should remove
+ "refs/remotes/origin/fr/otz" from us, without checking their
+ "refs/frotz/otz" first.
+
+ Note that such a configuration is inherently unsafe (think what
+ should happen when "refs/heads/fr/otz" does appear on the origin
+ site), but that is not a reason not to be extra careful.
+ (merge e6f6371 cn/fetch-prune-overlapping-destination later to maint).
+
+ * "git status --porcelain --branch" showed its output with labels
+ "ahead/behind/gone" translated to the user's locale.
+ (merge 7a76c28 mm/status-porcelain-format-i18n-fix later to maint).
+
+
+ * "git repack" died when asked to (re)pack with the reachability
+ bitmap when a bitmap cannot be built; instead, just (re)pack
+ without producing a bitmap in such a case, with a warning.
+ (merge 373c67d jk/pack-bitmap later to maint).
+
+
+ * The progress output while repacking and transferring objects showed
+ an apparent large silence while writing the objects out of existing
+ packfiles, when the reachability bitmap was in use.
+ (merge 78d2214 jk/pack-bitmap-progress later to maint).
+
+
+ * A stray environment variable $prefix could have leaked into and
+ affected the behaviour of the "subtree" script (in contrib/).
+
+
+ * When it is not necessary to edit a commit log message (e.g. "git
+ commit -m" is given a message without specifying "-e"), we used to
+ disable the spawning of the editor by overriding GIT_EDITOR, but
+ this means all the uses of the editor, other than to edit the
+ commit log message, are also affected.
+ (merge b549be0 bp/commit-p-editor later to maint).
+
+
+ * "git mv" that moves a submodule forgot to adjust the array that
+ uses to keep track of which submodules were to be moved to update
+ its configuration.
+ (merge fb8a4e8 jk/mv-submodules-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Length limit for the pathname used when removing a path in a deep
+ subdirectory has been removed to avoid buffer overflows.
+ (merge 2f29e0c mh/remove-subtree-long-pathname-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The test helper lib-terminal always run an actual test_expect_*
+ when included, which screwed up with the use of skil-all that may
+ have to be done later.
+ (merge 7e27173 jk/lib-terminal-lazy later to maint).
+
+ * "git index-pack" used a wrong variable to name the keep-file in an
+ error message when the file cannot be written or closed.
+ (merge de983a0 nd/index-pack-error-message later to maint).
+
+ * "rebase -i" produced a broken insn sheet when the title of a commit
+ happened to contain '\n' (or ended with '\c') due to a careless use
+ of 'echo'.
+ (merge cb1aefd us/printf-not-echo later to maint).
+
+ * There were a few instances of 'git-foo' remaining in the
+ documentation that should have been spelled 'git foo'.
+ (merge 3c3e6f5 rr/doc-merge-strategies later to maint).
+
+ * Serving objects from a shallow repository needs to write a
+ new file to hold the temporary shallow boundaries but it was not
+ cleaned when we exit due to die() or a signal.
+ (merge 7839632 jk/shallow-update-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When "git stash pop" stops after failing to apply the stash
+ (e.g. due to conflicting changes), the stash is not dropped. State
+ that explicitly in the output to let the users know.
+ (merge 2d4c993 jc/stash-pop-not-popped later to maint).
+
+ * The labels in "git status" output that describe the nature of
+ conflicts (e.g. "both deleted") were limited to 20 bytes, which was
+ too short for some l10n (e.g. fr).
+ (merge c7cb333 jn/wt-status later to maint).
+
+ * "git clean -d pathspec" did not use the given pathspec correctly
+ and ended up cleaning too much.
+ (merge 1f2e108 jk/clean-d-pathspec later to maint).
+
+ * "git difftool" misbehaved when the repository is bound to the
+ working tree with the ".git file" mechanism, where a textual file
+ ".git" tells us where it is.
+ (merge fcfec8b da/difftool-git-files later to maint).
+
+ * "git push" did not pay attention to branch.*.pushremote if it is
+ defined earlier than remote.pushdefault; the order of these two
+ variables in the configuration file should not matter, but it did
+ by mistake.
+ (merge 98b406f jk/remote-pushremote-config-reading later to maint).
+
+ * Codepaths that parse timestamps in commit objects have been
+ tightened.
+ (merge 3f419d4 jk/commit-dates-parsing-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --external-diff" incorrectly fed the submodule directory
+ in the working tree to the external diff driver when it knew it is
+ the same as one of the versions being compared.
+ (merge aba4727 tr/diff-submodule-no-reuse-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset" needs to refresh the index when working in a working
+ tree (it can also be used to match the index to the HEAD in an
+ otherwise bare repository), but it failed to set up the working
+ tree properly, causing GIT_WORK_TREE to be ignored.
+ (merge b7756d4 nd/reset-setup-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git check-attr" when working on a repository with a working tree
+ did not work well when the working tree was specified via the
+ --work-tree (and obviously with --git-dir) option.
+ (merge cdbf623 jc/check-attr-honor-working-tree later to maint).
+
+ * "merge-recursive" was broken in 1.7.7 era and stopped working in
+ an empty (temporary) working tree, when there are renames
+ involved. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 6e2068a bk/refresh-missing-ok-in-merge-recursive later to maint.)
+
+ * "git rev-parse" was loose in rejecting command line arguments
+ that do not make sense, e.g. "--default" without the required
+ value for that option.
+ (merge a43219f ds/rev-parse-required-args later to maint.)
+
+ * include.path variable (or any variable that expects a path that
+ can use ~username expansion) in the configuration file is not a
+ boolean, but the code failed to check it.
+ (merge 67beb60 jk/config-path-include-fix later to maint.)
+
+ * Commands that take pathspecs on the command line misbehaved when
+ the pathspec is given as an absolute pathname (which is a
+ practice not particularly encouraged) that points at a symbolic
+ link in the working tree.
+ (merge later 655ee9e mw/symlinks to maint.)
+
+ * "git diff --quiet -- pathspec1 pathspec2" sometimes did not return
+ correct status value.
+ (merge f34b205 nd/diff-quiet-stat-dirty later to maint.)
+
+ * Attempting to deepen a shallow repository by fetching over smart
+ HTTP transport failed in the protocol exchange, when no-done
+ extension was used. The fetching side waited for the list of
+ shallow boundary commits after the sending end stopped talking to
+ it.
+ (merge 0232852 nd/http-fetch-shallow-fix later to maint.)
+
+ * Allow "git cmd path/", when the 'path' is where a submodule is
+ bound to the top-level working tree, to match 'path', despite the
+ extra and unnecessary trailing slash (such a slash is often
+ given by command line completion).
+ (merge 2e70c01 nd/submodule-pathspec-ending-with-slash later to maint.)
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index d0a4733..e6d46ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -65,7 +65,20 @@ feature does not trigger when it shouldn't. Also make sure that the
test suite passes after your commit. Do not forget to update the
documentation to describe the updated behaviour.
-Oh, another thing. I am picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
+Speaking of the documentation, it is currently a liberal mixture of US
+and UK English norms for spelling and grammar, which is somewhat
+unfortunate. A huge patch that touches the files all over the place
+only to correct the inconsistency is not welcome, though. Potential
+clashes with other changes that can result from such a patch are not
+worth it. We prefer to gradually reconcile the inconsistencies in
+favor of US English, with small and easily digestible patches, as a
+side effect of doing some other real work in the vicinity (e.g.
+rewriting a paragraph for clarity, while turning en_UK spelling to
+en_US). Obvious typographical fixes are much more welcomed ("teh ->
+"the"), preferably submitted as independent patches separate from
+other documentation changes.
+
+Oh, another thing. We are picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
@@ -126,8 +139,15 @@ People on the Git mailing list need to be able to read and
comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
-your code. For this reason, all patches should be submitted
-"inline". If your log message (including your name on the
+your code. For this reason, each patch should be submitted
+"inline" in a separate message.
+
+Multiple related patches should be grouped into their own e-mail
+thread to help readers find all parts of the series. To that end,
+send them as replies to either an additional "cover letter" message
+(see below), the first patch, or the respective preceding patch.
+
+If your log message (including your name on the
Signed-off-by line) is not writable in ASCII, make sure that
you send off a message in the correct encoding.
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index b0d31df..0cebc4f 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -10,27 +10,14 @@
Include additional statistics at the end of blame output.
-L <start>,<end>::
- Annotate only the given line range. <start> and <end> can take
- one of these forms:
-
- - number
-+
-If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an
-absolute line number (lines count from 1).
-+
-
-- /regex/
-+
-This form will use the first line matching the given
-POSIX regex. If <end> is a regex, it will search
-starting at the line given by <start>.
-+
-
-- +offset or -offset
+-L :<regex>::
+ Annotate only the given line range. May be specified multiple times.
+ Overlapping ranges are allowed.
+
-This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number
-of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
+<start> and <end> are optional. ``-L <start>'' or ``-L <start>,'' spans from
+<start> to end of file. ``-L ,<end>'' spans from start of file to <end>.
+
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
-l::
Show long rev (Default: off).
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index e97facc..84c7e3f 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -131,8 +131,13 @@ Variables
Note that this list is non-comprehensive and not necessarily complete.
For command-specific variables, you will find a more detailed description
-in the appropriate manual page. You will find a description of non-core
-porcelain configuration variables in the respective porcelain documentation.
+in the appropriate manual page.
+
+Other git-related tools may and do use their own variables. When
+inventing new variables for use in your own tool, make sure their
+names do not conflict with those that are used by Git itself and
+other popular tools, and describe them in your documentation.
+
advice.*::
These variables control various optional help messages designed to
@@ -142,19 +147,13 @@ advice.*::
--
pushUpdateRejected::
Set this variable to 'false' if you want to disable
- 'pushNonFFCurrent', 'pushNonFFDefault',
+ 'pushNonFFCurrent',
'pushNonFFMatching', 'pushAlreadyExists',
'pushFetchFirst', and 'pushNeedsForce'
simultaneously.
pushNonFFCurrent::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-push[1] fails due to a
non-fast-forward update to the current branch.
- pushNonFFDefault::
- Advice to set 'push.default' to 'upstream' or 'current'
- when you ran linkgit:git-push[1] and pushed 'matching
- refs' by default (i.e. you did not provide an explicit
- refspec, and no 'push.default' configuration was set)
- and it resulted in a non-fast-forward error.
pushNonFFMatching::
Advice shown when you ran linkgit:git-push[1] and pushed
'matching refs' explicitly (i.e. you used ':', or
@@ -170,8 +169,8 @@ advice.*::
pushNeedsForce::
Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
- object that is not a committish, or make the remote
- ref point at an object that is not a committish.
+ object that is not a commit-ish, or make the remote
+ ref point at an object that is not a commit-ish.
statusHints::
Show directions on how to proceed from the current
state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1], in
@@ -199,6 +198,9 @@ advice.*::
amWorkDir::
Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
+ rmHints::
+ In case of failure in the output of linkgit:git-rm[1],
+ show directions on how to proceed from the current state.
--
core.fileMode::
@@ -210,17 +212,6 @@ The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
will probe and set core.fileMode false if appropriate when the
repository is created.
-core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
- This option is only used by Cygwin implementation of Git. If false,
- the Cygwin stat() and lstat() functions are used. This may be useful
- if your repository consists of a few separate directories joined in
- one hierarchy using Cygwin mount. If true, Git uses native Win32 API
- whenever it is possible and falls back to Cygwin functions only to
- handle symbol links. The native mode is more than twice faster than
- normal Cygwin l/stat() functions. True by default, unless core.filemode
- is true, in which case ignoreCygwinFSTricks is ignored as Cygwin's
- POSIX emulation is required to support core.filemode.
-
core.ignorecase::
If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
@@ -561,22 +552,24 @@ sequence.editor::
When not configured the default commit message editor is used instead.
core.pager::
- The command that Git will use to paginate output. Can
- be overridden with the `GIT_PAGER` environment
- variable. Note that Git sets the `LESS` environment
- variable to `FRSX` if it is unset when it runs the
- pager. One can change these settings by setting the
- `LESS` variable to some other value. Alternately,
- these settings can be overridden on a project or
- global basis by setting the `core.pager` option.
- Setting `core.pager` has no effect on the `LESS`
- environment variable behaviour above, so if you want
- to override Git's default settings this way, you need
- to be explicit. For example, to disable the S option
- in a backward compatible manner, set `core.pager`
- to `less -+S`. This will be passed to the shell by
- Git, which will translate the final command to
- `LESS=FRSX less -+S`.
+ Text viewer for use by Git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
+ is meant to be interpreted by the shell. The order of preference
+ is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
+ configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then the default chosen at
+ compile time (usually 'less').
++
+When the `LESS` environment variable is unset, Git sets it to `FRSX`
+(if `LESS` environment variable is set, Git does not change it at
+all). If you want to selectively override Git's default setting
+for `LESS`, you can set `core.pager` to e.g. `less -+S`. This will
+be passed to the shell by Git, which will translate the final
+command to `LESS=FRSX less -+S`. The environment tells the command
+to set the `S` option to chop long lines but the command line
+resets it to the default to fold long lines.
++
+Likewise, when the `LV` environment variable is unset, Git sets it
+to `-c`. You can override this setting by exporting `LV` with
+another value or setting `core.pager` to `lv +c`.
core.whitespace::
A comma separated list of common whitespace problems to
@@ -727,9 +720,24 @@ branch.autosetuprebase::
This option defaults to never.
branch.<name>.remote::
- When in branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push' which
- remote to fetch from/push to. It defaults to `origin` if no remote is
- configured. `origin` is also used if you are not on any branch.
+ When on branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push'
+ which remote to fetch from/push to. The remote to push to
+ may be overridden with `remote.pushdefault` (for all branches).
+ The remote to push to, for the current branch, may be further
+ overridden by `branch.<name>.pushremote`. If no remote is
+ configured, or if you are not on any branch, it defaults to
+ `origin` for fetching and `remote.pushdefault` for pushing.
+ Additionally, `.` (a period) is the current local repository
+ (a dot-repository), see `branch.<name>.merge`'s final note below.
+
+branch.<name>.pushremote::
+ When on branch <name>, it overrides `branch.<name>.remote` for
+ pushing. It also overrides `remote.pushdefault` for pushing
+ from branch <name>. When you pull from one place (e.g. your
+ upstream) and push to another place (e.g. your own publishing
+ repository), you would want to set `remote.pushdefault` to
+ specify the remote to push to for all branches, and use this
+ option to override it for a specific branch.
branch.<name>.merge::
Defines, together with branch.<name>.remote, the upstream branch
@@ -746,8 +754,8 @@ branch.<name>.merge::
Specify multiple values to get an octopus merge.
If you wish to setup 'git pull' so that it merges into <name> from
another branch in the local repository, you can point
- branch.<name>.merge to the desired branch, and use the special setting
- `.` (a period) for branch.<name>.remote.
+ branch.<name>.merge to the desired branch, and use the relative path
+ setting `.` (a period) for branch.<name>.remote.
branch.<name>.mergeoptions::
Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and
@@ -761,6 +769,10 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
"git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
branch-specific manner.
+
+ When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
+ so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
+ by running 'git pull'.
++
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
for details).
@@ -782,8 +794,8 @@ browser.<tool>.path::
working repository in gitweb (see linkgit:git-instaweb[1]).
clean.requireForce::
- A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f
- or -n. Defaults to true.
+ A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f,
+ -i or -n. Defaults to true.
color.branch::
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
@@ -794,7 +806,8 @@ color.branch::
color.branch.<slot>::
Use customized color for branch coloration. `<slot>` is one of
`current` (the current branch), `local` (a local branch),
- `remote` (a remote-tracking branch in refs/remotes/), `plain` (other
+ `remote` (a remote-tracking branch in refs/remotes/),
+ `upstream` (upstream tracking branch), `plain` (other
refs).
+
The value for these configuration variables is a list of colors (at most
@@ -862,16 +875,17 @@ The values of these variables may be specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
color.interactive::
When set to `always`, always use colors for interactive prompts
- and displays (such as those used by "git-add --interactive").
- When false (or `never`), never. When set to `true` or `auto`, use
- colors only when the output is to the terminal. Defaults to false.
+ and displays (such as those used by "git-add --interactive" and
+ "git-clean --interactive"). When false (or `never`), never.
+ When set to `true` or `auto`, use colors only when the output is
+ to the terminal. Defaults to false.
color.interactive.<slot>::
- Use customized color for 'git add --interactive'
- output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, `help` or `error`, for
- four distinct types of normal output from interactive
- commands. The values of these variables may be specified as
- in color.branch.<slot>.
+ Use customized color for 'git add --interactive' and 'git clean
+ --interactive' output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, `help`
+ or `error`, for four distinct types of normal output from
+ interactive commands. The values of these variables may be
+ specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
color.pager::
A boolean to enable/disable colored output when the pager is in
@@ -905,17 +919,21 @@ color.ui::
as `color.diff` and `color.grep` that control the use of color
per command family. Its scope will expand as more commands learn
configuration to set a default for the `--color` option. Set it
- to `always` if you want all output not intended for machine
- consumption to use color, to `true` or `auto` if you want such
- output to use color when written to the terminal, or to `false` or
- `never` if you prefer Git commands not to use color unless enabled
- explicitly with some other configuration or the `--color` option.
+ to `false` or `never` if you prefer Git commands not to use
+ color unless enabled explicitly with some other configuration
+ or the `--color` option. Set it to `always` if you want all
+ output not intended for machine consumption to use color, to
+ `true` or `auto` (this is the default since Git 1.8.4) if you
+ want such output to use color when written to the terminal.
column.ui::
Specify whether supported commands should output in columns.
This variable consists of a list of tokens separated by spaces
or commas:
+
+These options control when the feature should be enabled
+(defaults to 'never'):
++
--
`always`;;
always show in columns
@@ -923,24 +941,39 @@ column.ui::
never show in columns
`auto`;;
show in columns if the output is to the terminal
+--
++
+These options control layout (defaults to 'column'). Setting any
+of these implies 'always' if none of 'always', 'never', or 'auto' are
+specified.
++
+--
`column`;;
- fill columns before rows (default)
+ fill columns before rows
`row`;;
fill rows before columns
`plain`;;
show in one column
+--
++
+Finally, these options can be combined with a layout option (defaults
+to 'nodense'):
++
+--
`dense`;;
make unequal size columns to utilize more space
`nodense`;;
make equal size columns
--
-+
-This option defaults to 'never'.
column.branch::
Specify whether to output branch listing in `git branch` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
+column.clean::
+ Specify the layout when list items in `git clean -i`, which always
+ shows files and directories in columns. See `column.ui` for details.
+
column.status::
Specify whether to output untracked files in `git status` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
@@ -958,6 +991,14 @@ commit.cleanup::
have to remove the help lines that begin with `#` in the commit log
template yourself, if you do this).
+commit.gpgsign::
+
+ A boolean to specify whether all commits should be GPG signed.
+ Use of this option when doing operations such as rebase can
+ result in a large number of commits being signed. It may be
+ convenient to use an agent to avoid typing your GPG passphrase
+ several times.
+
commit.status::
A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
@@ -1035,6 +1076,10 @@ fetch.unpackLimit::
especially on slow filesystems. If not set, the value of
`transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
+fetch.prune::
+ If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the `--prune`
+ option was given on the command line. See also `remote.<name>.prune`.
+
format.attach::
Enable multipart/mixed attachments as the default for
'format-patch'. The value can also be a double quoted string
@@ -1096,6 +1141,11 @@ format.signoff::
the rights to submit this work under the same open source license.
Please see the 'SubmittingPatches' document for further discussion.
+format.coverLetter::
+ A boolean that controls whether to generate a cover-letter when
+ format-patch is invoked, but in addition can be set to "auto", to
+ generate a cover-letter only when there's more than one patch.
+
filter.<driver>.clean::
The command which is used to convert the content of a worktree
file to a blob upon checkin. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for
@@ -1106,6 +1156,11 @@ filter.<driver>.smudge::
object to a worktree file upon checkout. See
linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
+gc.aggressiveDepth::
+ The depth parameter used in the delta compression
+ algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'. This defaults
+ to 250.
+
gc.aggressiveWindow::
The window size parameter used in the delta compression
algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'. This defaults
@@ -1124,6 +1179,10 @@ gc.autopacklimit::
--auto` consolidates them into one larger pack. The
default value is 50. Setting this to 0 disables it.
+gc.autodetach::
+ Make `git gc --auto` return immediately andrun in background
+ if the system supports it. Default is true.
+
gc.packrefs::
Running `git pack-refs` in a repository renders it
unclonable by Git versions prior to 1.5.1.2 over dumb
@@ -1414,7 +1473,11 @@ http.cookiefile::
of the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format (see linkgit:curl[1]).
NOTE that the file specified with http.cookiefile is only used as
- input. No cookies will be stored in the file.
+ input unless http.saveCookies is set.
+
+http.savecookies::
+ If set, store cookies received during requests to the file specified by
+ http.cookiefile. Has no effect if http.cookiefile is unset.
http.sslVerify::
Whether to verify the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
@@ -1447,6 +1510,14 @@ http.sslCAPath::
with when fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_SSL_CAPATH' environment variable.
+http.sslTry::
+ Attempt to use AUTH SSL/TLS and encrypted data transfers
+ when connecting via regular FTP protocol. This might be needed
+ if the FTP server requires it for security reasons or you wish
+ to connect securely whenever remote FTP server supports it.
+ Default is false since it might trigger certificate verification
+ errors on misconfigured servers.
+
http.maxRequests::
How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
@@ -1486,6 +1557,51 @@ http.useragent::
of common USER_AGENT strings (but not including those like git/1.7.1).
Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT' environment variable.
+http.<url>.*::
+ Any of the http.* options above can be applied selectively to some urls.
+ For a config key to match a URL, each element of the config key is
+ compared to that of the URL, in the following order:
++
+--
+. Scheme (e.g., `https` in `https://example.com/`). This field
+ must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+
+. Host/domain name (e.g., `example.com` in `https://example.com/`).
+ This field must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+
+. Port number (e.g., `8080` in `http://example.com:8080/`).
+ This field must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+ Omitted port numbers are automatically converted to the correct
+ default for the scheme before matching.
+
+. Path (e.g., `repo.git` in `https://example.com/repo.git`). The
+ path field of the config key must match the path field of the URL
+ either exactly or as a prefix of slash-delimited path elements. This means
+ a config key with path `foo/` matches URL path `foo/bar`. A prefix can only
+ match on a slash (`/`) boundary. Longer matches take precedence (so a config
+ key with path `foo/bar` is a better match to URL path `foo/bar` than a config
+ key with just path `foo/`).
+
+. User name (e.g., `user` in `https://user@example.com/repo.git`). If
+ the config key has a user name it must match the user name in the
+ URL exactly. If the config key does not have a user name, that
+ config key will match a URL with any user name (including none),
+ but at a lower precedence than a config key with a user name.
+--
++
+The list above is ordered by decreasing precedence; a URL that matches
+a config key's path is preferred to one that matches its user name. For example,
+if the URL is `https://user@example.com/foo/bar` a config key match of
+`https://example.com/foo` will be preferred over a config key match of
+`https://user@example.com`.
++
+All URLs are normalized before attempting any matching (the password part,
+if embedded in the URL, is always ignored for matching purposes) so that
+equivalent urls that are simply spelled differently will match properly.
+Environment variable settings always override any matches. The urls that are
+matched against are those given directly to Git commands. This means any URLs
+visited as a result of a redirection do not participate in matching.
+
i18n.commitEncoding::
Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; Git itself
does not care per se, but this information is necessary e.g. when
@@ -1501,6 +1617,10 @@ imap::
The configuration variables in the 'imap' section are described
in linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
+index.version::
+ Specify the version with which new index files should be
+ initialized. This does not affect existing repositories.
+
init.templatedir::
Specify the directory from which templates will be copied.
(See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section of linkgit:git-init[1].)
@@ -1533,7 +1653,7 @@ interactive.singlekey::
linkgit:git-add[1], linkgit:git-checkout[1], linkgit:git-commit[1],
linkgit:git-reset[1], and linkgit:git-stash[1]. Note that this
setting is silently ignored if portable keystroke input
- is not available.
+ is not available; requires the Perl module Term::ReadKey.
log.abbrevCommit::
If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
@@ -1762,6 +1882,31 @@ pack.packSizeLimit::
Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are
supported.
+pack.useBitmaps::
+ When true, git will use pack bitmaps (if available) when packing
+ to stdout (e.g., during the server side of a fetch). Defaults to
+ true. You should not generally need to turn this off unless
+ you are debugging pack bitmaps.
+
+pack.writebitmaps::
+ When true, git will write a bitmap index when packing all
+ objects to disk (e.g., when `git repack -a` is run). This
+ index can speed up the "counting objects" phase of subsequent
+ packs created for clones and fetches, at the cost of some disk
+ space and extra time spent on the initial repack. Defaults to
+ false.
+
+pack.writeBitmapHashCache::
+ When true, git will include a "hash cache" section in the bitmap
+ index (if one is written). This cache can be used to feed git's
+ delta heuristics, potentially leading to better deltas between
+ bitmapped and non-bitmapped objects (e.g., when serving a fetch
+ between an older, bitmapped pack and objects that have been
+ pushed since the last gc). The downside is that it consumes 4
+ bytes per object of disk space, and that JGit's bitmap
+ implementation does not understand it, causing it to complain if
+ Git and JGit are used on the same repository. Defaults to false.
+
pager.<cmd>::
If the value is boolean, turns on or off pagination of the
output of a particular Git subcommand when writing to a tty.
@@ -1781,12 +1926,26 @@ pretty.<name>::
Note that an alias with the same name as a built-in format
will be silently ignored.
+pull.ff::
+ By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
+ a commit that is a descendant of the current commit. Instead, the
+ tip of the current branch is fast-forwarded. When set to `false`,
+ this variable tells Git to create an extra merge commit in such
+ a case (equivalent to giving the `--no-ff` option from the command
+ line). When set to `only`, only such fast-forward merges are
+ allowed (equivalent to giving the `--ff-only` option from the
+ command line).
+
pull.rebase::
When true, rebase branches on top of the fetched branch, instead
of merging the default branch from the default remote when "git
pull" is run. See "branch.<name>.rebase" for setting this on a
per-branch basis.
+
+ When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
+ so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
+ by running 'git pull'.
++
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
for details).
@@ -1799,39 +1958,59 @@ pull.twohead::
The default merge strategy to use when pulling a single branch.
push.default::
- Defines the action `git push` should take if no refspec is given
- on the command line, no refspec is configured in the remote, and
- no refspec is implied by any of the options given on the command
- line. Possible values are:
+ Defines the action `git push` should take if no refspec is
+ explicitly given. Different values are well-suited for
+ specific workflows; for instance, in a purely central workflow
+ (i.e. the fetch source is equal to the push destination),
+ `upstream` is probably what you want. Possible values are:
+
--
-* `nothing` - do not push anything.
-* `matching` - push all branches having the same name in both ends.
- This is for those who prepare all the branches into a publishable
- shape and then push them out with a single command. It is not
- appropriate for pushing into a repository shared by multiple users,
- since locally stalled branches will attempt a non-fast forward push
- if other users updated the branch.
- +
- This is currently the default, but Git 2.0 will change the default
- to `simple`.
-* `upstream` - push the current branch to its upstream branch
- (`tracking` is a deprecated synonym for this).
- With this, `git push` will update the same remote ref as the one which
- is merged by `git pull`, making `push` and `pull` symmetrical.
- See "branch.<name>.merge" for how to configure the upstream branch.
-* `simple` - like `upstream`, but refuses to push if the upstream
- branch's name is different from the local one. This is the safest
- option and is well-suited for beginners. It will become the default
- in Git 2.0.
-* `current` - push the current branch to a branch of the same name.
---
+
+* `nothing` - do not push anything (error out) unless a refspec is
+ explicitly given. This is primarily meant for people who want to
+ avoid mistakes by always being explicit.
+
+* `current` - push the current branch to update a branch with the same
+ name on the receiving end. Works in both central and non-central
+ workflows.
+
+* `upstream` - push the current branch back to the branch whose
+ changes are usually integrated into the current branch (which is
+ called `@{upstream}`). This mode only makes sense if you are
+ pushing to the same repository you would normally pull from
+ (i.e. central workflow).
+
+* `simple` - in centralized workflow, work like `upstream` with an
+ added safety to refuse to push if the upstream branch's name is
+ different from the local one.
++
+When pushing to a remote that is different from the remote you normally
+pull from, work as `current`. This is the safest option and is suited
+for beginners.
++
+This mode has become the default in Git 2.0.
+
+* `matching` - push all branches having the same name on both ends.
+ This makes the repository you are pushing to remember the set of
+ branches that will be pushed out (e.g. if you always push 'maint'
+ and 'master' there and no other branches, the repository you push
+ to will have these two branches, and your local 'maint' and
+ 'master' will be pushed there).
+
-The `simple`, `current` and `upstream` modes are for those who want to
-push out a single branch after finishing work, even when the other
-branches are not yet ready to be pushed out. If you are working with
-other people to push into the same shared repository, you would want
-to use one of these.
+To use this mode effectively, you have to make sure _all_ the
+branches you would push out are ready to be pushed out before
+running 'git push', as the whole point of this mode is to allow you
+to push all of the branches in one go. If you usually finish work
+on only one branch and push out the result, while other branches are
+unfinished, this mode is not for you. Also this mode is not
+suitable for pushing into a shared central repository, as other
+people may add new branches there, or update the tip of existing
+branches outside your control.
++
+This used to be the default, but not since Git 2.0 (`simple` is the
+new default).
+
+--
rebase.stat::
Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
@@ -1840,6 +2019,14 @@ rebase.stat::
rebase.autosquash::
If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+rebase.autostash::
+ When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash
+ before the operation begins, and apply it after the operation
+ ends. This means that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.
+ However, use with care: the final stash application after a
+ successful rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+ Defaults to false.
+
receive.autogc::
By default, git-receive-pack will run "git-gc --auto" after
receiving data from git-push and updating refs. You can stop
@@ -1898,6 +2085,15 @@ receive.updateserverinfo::
If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
after receiving data from git-push and updating refs.
+receive.shallowupdate::
+ If set to true, .git/shallow can be updated when new refs
+ require new shallow roots. Otherwise those refs are rejected.
+
+remote.pushdefault::
+ The remote to push to by default. Overrides
+ `branch.<name>.remote` for all branches, and is overridden by
+ `branch.<name>.pushremote` for specific branches.
+
remote.<name>.url::
The URL of a remote repository. See linkgit:git-fetch[1] or
linkgit:git-push[1].
@@ -1952,6 +2148,12 @@ remote.<name>.vcs::
Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause Git to interact with
the remote with the git-remote-<vcs> helper.
+remote.<name>.prune::
+ When set to true, fetching from this remote by default will also
+ remove any remote-tracking references that no longer exist on the
+ remote (as if the `--prune` option was given on the command line).
+ Overrides `fetch.prune` settings, if any.
+
remotes.<group>::
The list of remotes which are fetched by "git remote update
<group>". See linkgit:git-remote[1].
@@ -1964,6 +2166,13 @@ repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
"false" and repack. Access from old Git versions over the
native protocol are unaffected by this option.
+repack.packKeptObjects::
+ If set to true, makes `git repack` act as if
+ `--pack-kept-objects` was passed. See linkgit:git-repack[1] for
+ details. Defaults to `false` normally, but `true` if a bitmap
+ index is being written (either via `--write-bitmap-index` or
+ `pack.writeBitmaps`).
+
rerere.autoupdate::
When set to true, `git-rerere` updates the index with the
resulting contents after it cleanly resolves conflicts using
@@ -1990,6 +2199,10 @@ sendemail.smtpencryption::
sendemail.smtpssl::
Deprecated alias for 'sendemail.smtpencryption = ssl'.
+sendemail.smtpsslcertpath::
+ Path to ca-certificates (either a directory or a single file).
+ Set it to an empty string to disable certificate verification.
+
sendemail.<identity>.*::
Identity-specific versions of the 'sendemail.*' parameters
found below, taking precedence over those when the this
@@ -1998,6 +2211,7 @@ sendemail.<identity>.*::
sendemail.aliasesfile::
sendemail.aliasfiletype::
+sendemail.annotate::
sendemail.bcc::
sendemail.cc::
sendemail.cccmd::
@@ -2033,6 +2247,21 @@ status.relativePaths::
relative to the repository root (this was the default for Git
prior to v1.5.4).
+status.short::
+ Set to true to enable --short by default in linkgit:git-status[1].
+ The option --no-short takes precedence over this variable.
+
+status.branch::
+ Set to true to enable --branch by default in linkgit:git-status[1].
+ The option --no-branch takes precedence over this variable.
+
+status.displayCommentPrefix::
+ If set to true, linkgit:git-status[1] will insert a comment
+ prefix before each output line (starting with
+ `core.commentChar`, i.e. `#` by default). This was the
+ behavior of linkgit:git-status[1] in Git 1.8.4 and previous.
+ Defaults to false.
+
status.showUntrackedFiles::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-commit[1] show
files which are not currently tracked by Git. Directories which
@@ -2057,7 +2286,14 @@ status.submodulesummary::
If this is set to a non zero number or true (identical to -1 or an
unlimited number), the submodule summary will be enabled and a
summary of commits for modified submodules will be shown (see
- --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]).
+ --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]). Please note
+ that the summary output command will be suppressed for all
+ submodules when `diff.ignoreSubmodules` is set to 'all' or only
+ for those submodules where `submodule.<name>.ignore=all`. To
+ also view the summary for ignored submodules you can either use
+ the --ignore-submodules=dirty command line option or the 'git
+ submodule summary' command, which shows a similar output but does
+ not honor these settings.
submodule.<name>.path::
submodule.<name>.url::
@@ -2092,7 +2328,8 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
submodules that have untracked files in their work tree as changed.
This setting overrides any setting made in .gitmodules for this submodule,
both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
- "--ignore-submodules" option.
+ "--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
+ affected by this setting.
tar.umask::
This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
@@ -2116,6 +2353,13 @@ transfer.unpackLimit::
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
The default value is 100.
+uploadarchive.allowUnreachable::
+ If true, allow clients to use `git archive --remote` to request
+ any tree, whether reachable from the ref tips or not. See the
+ discussion in the `SECURITY` section of
+ linkgit:git-upload-archive[1] for more details. Defaults to
+ `false`.
+
uploadpack.hiderefs::
String(s) `upload-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
@@ -2123,7 +2367,24 @@ uploadpack.hiderefs::
are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
variable is excluded, and is hidden from `git ls-remote`,
`git fetch`, etc. An attempt to fetch a hidden ref by `git
- fetch` will fail.
+ fetch` will fail. See also `uploadpack.allowtipsha1inwant`.
+
+uploadpack.allowtipsha1inwant::
+ When `uploadpack.hiderefs` is in effect, allow `upload-pack`
+ to accept a fetch request that asks for an object at the tip
+ of a hidden ref (by default, such a request is rejected).
+ see also `uploadpack.hiderefs`.
+
+uploadpack.keepalive::
+ When `upload-pack` has started `pack-objects`, there may be a
+ quiet period while `pack-objects` prepares the pack. Normally
+ it would output progress information, but if `--quiet` was used
+ for the fetch, `pack-objects` will output nothing at all until
+ the pack data begins. Some clients and networks may consider
+ the server to be hung and give up. Setting this option instructs
+ `upload-pack` to send an empty keepalive packet every
+ `uploadpack.keepalive` seconds. Setting this option to 0
+ disables keepalive packets entirely. The default is 5 seconds.
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
@@ -2160,11 +2421,11 @@ user.name::
environment variables. See linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
user.signingkey::
- If linkgit:git-tag[1] is not selecting the key you want it to
- automatically when creating a signed tag, you can override the
- default selection with this variable. This option is passed
- unchanged to gpg's --local-user parameter, so you may specify a key
- using any method that gpg supports.
+ If linkgit:git-tag[1] or linkgit:git-commit[1] is not selecting the
+ key you want it to automatically when creating a signed tag or
+ commit, you can override the default selection with this variable.
+ This option is passed unchanged to gpg's --local-user parameter,
+ so you may specify a key using any method that gpg supports.
web.browser::
Specify a web browser that may be used by some commands.
diff --git a/Documentation/date-formats.txt b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
index c000f08..ccd1fc8 100644
--- a/Documentation/date-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@ endif::git-commit[]
support the following date formats:
Git internal format::
- It is `<unix timestamp> <timezone offset>`, where `<unix
+ It is `<unix timestamp> <time zone offset>`, where `<unix
timestamp>` is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.
- `<timezone offset>` is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
+ `<time zone offset>` is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
For example CET (which is 2 hours ahead UTC) is `+0200`.
RFC 2822::
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index ac77050..f07b451 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -73,7 +73,11 @@ diff.ignoreSubmodules::
Sets the default value of --ignore-submodules. Note that this
affects only 'git diff' Porcelain, and not lower level 'diff'
commands such as 'git diff-files'. 'git checkout' also honors
- this setting when reporting uncommitted changes.
+ this setting when reporting uncommitted changes. Setting it to
+ 'all' disables the submodule summary normally shown by 'git commit'
+ and 'git status' when 'status.submodulesummary' is set unless it is
+ overridden by using the --ignore-submodules command line option.
+ The 'git submodule' commands are not affected by this setting.
diff.mnemonicprefix::
If set, 'git diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
@@ -94,6 +98,11 @@ diff.mnemonicprefix::
diff.noprefix::
If set, 'git diff' does not show any source or destination prefix.
+diff.orderfile::
+ File indicating how to order files within a diff, using
+ one shell glob pattern per line.
+ Can be overridden by the '-O' option to linkgit:git-diff[1].
+
diff.renameLimit::
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index b8a9b86..9b37b2a 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,11 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
{git-diff? This is the default.}
endif::git-format-patch[]
+-s::
+--no-patch::
+ Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like `git show` that
+ show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of `--patch`.
+
-U<n>::
--unified=<n>::
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
@@ -333,7 +338,7 @@ endif::git-log[]
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., `-M5` becomes
0.5, and is thus the same as `-M50%`. Similarly, `-M05` is
the same as `-M5%`. To limit detection to exact renames, use
- `-M100%`.
+ `-M100%`. The default similarity index is 50%.
-C[<n>]::
--find-copies[=<n>]::
@@ -383,14 +388,36 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
-S<string>::
- Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
- <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
- appearing in diff output; see the 'pickaxe' entry in
- linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more details.
+ Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
+ the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
+ Intended for the scripter's use.
++
+It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
+struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
+came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
+block in the preimage back into `-S`, and keep going until you get the
+very first version of the block.
-G<regex>::
- Look for differences whose added or removed line matches
- the given <regex>.
+ Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
+ lines that match <regex>.
++
+To illustrate the difference between `-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex` and
+`-G<regex>`, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
+file:
++
+----
++ return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+...
+- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+----
++
+While `git log -G"regexec\(regexp"` will show this commit, `git log
+-S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
+occurrences of that string did not change).
++
+See the 'pickaxe' entry in linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more
+information.
--pickaxe-all::
When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
@@ -398,13 +425,16 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
in <string>.
--pickaxe-regex::
- Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX
- regex to match.
+ Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
+ expression to match.
endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
Output the patch in the order specified in the
<orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+ This overrides the `diff.orderfile` configuration variable
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). To cancel `diff.orderfile`,
+ use `-O/dev/null`.
ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-R::
@@ -439,6 +469,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
+--ignore-blank-lines::
+ Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
+
--inter-hunk-context=<lines>::
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
index e1fba85..2a18c1f 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -304,7 +304,7 @@ and maintain access to the repository by developers.
* linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
for shared central repository users.
-link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a good
+link:howto/update-hook-example.html[update hook howto] has a good
example of managing a shared central repository.
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 9cb6496..92c68c3 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,18 @@
branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
--unshallow::
- Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all
- the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.
+ If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
+ repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations
+ imposed by shallow repositories.
++
+If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that
+the current repository has the same history as the source repository.
+
+--update-shallow::
+ By default when fetching from a shallow repository,
+ `git fetch` refuses refs that require updating
+ .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such
+ refs.
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
@@ -41,17 +51,20 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
-p::
--prune::
- After fetching, remove any remote-tracking branches which
- no longer exist on the remote.
+ After fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
+ longer exist on the remote. Tags are not subject to pruning
+ if they are fetched only because of the default tag
+ auto-following or due to a --tags option. However, if tags
+ are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command
+ line or in the remote configuration, for example if the remote
+ was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are also
+ subject to pruning.
endif::git-pull[]
-ifdef::git-pull[]
---no-tags::
-endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
-n::
---no-tags::
endif::git-pull[]
+--no-tags::
By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded
from the remote repository are fetched and stored locally.
This option disables this automatic tag following. The default
@@ -61,11 +74,12 @@ endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
-t::
--tags::
- This is a short-hand for giving "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"
- refspec from the command line, to ask all tags to be fetched
- and stored locally. Because this acts as an explicit
- refspec, the default refspecs (configured with the
- remote.$name.fetch variable) are overridden and not used.
+ Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags
+ `refs/tags/*` into local tags with the same name), in addition
+ to whatever else would otherwise be fetched. Using this
+ option alone does not subject tags to pruning, even if --prune
+ is used (though tags may be pruned anyway if they are also the
+ destination of an explicit refspec; see '--prune').
--recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index b0944e5..895922e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
- [--edit | -e] [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
- [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--]
- [<pathspec>...]
+ [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
+ [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -53,8 +53,14 @@ OPTIONS
Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
be given to add all matching files. Also a
leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
- and `dir/file2`) can be given to add all files in the
- directory, recursively.
+ and `dir/file2`) can be given to update the index to
+ match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
+ specifying `dir` will record not just a file `dir/file1`
+ modified in the working tree, a file `dir/file2` added to
+ the working tree, but also a file `dir/file3` removed from
+ the working tree. Note that older versions of Git used
+ to ignore removed files; use `--no-all` option if you want
+ to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -104,22 +110,34 @@ apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
<pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
match the working tree, but adds no new files.
+
-If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
-"."; in other words, update all tracked files in the current directory
-and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
-of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
+If no <pathspec> is given when `-u` option is used, all
+tracked files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
+of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
+subdirectories).
-A::
--all::
+--no-ignore-removal::
Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
match the working tree.
+
-If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
-"."; in other words, update all files in the current directory
-and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
-of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
+If no <pathspec> is given when `-A` option is used, all
+files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
+of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
+subdirectories).
+
+--no-all::
+--ignore-removal::
+ Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the
+ index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore
+ files that have been removed from the working tree. This
+ option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.
++
+This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
+versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym
+for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
-N::
--intent-to-add::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 19d57a8..9adce37 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -9,12 +9,12 @@ git-am - Apply a series of patches from a mailbox
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--keep-cr | --no-keep-cr] [--utf8 | --no-utf8]
+'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--[no-]keep-cr] [--[no-]utf8]
[--3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
[--ignore-date] [--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace]
[--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
- [--scissors | --no-scissors]
+ [--[no-]scissors] [-S[<keyid>]] [--patch-format=<format>]
[(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
@@ -43,8 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
--keep-non-patch::
Pass `-b` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
---keep-cr::
---no-keep-cr::
+--[no-]keep-cr::
With `--keep-cr`, call 'git mailsplit' (see linkgit:git-mailsplit[1])
with the same option, to prevent it from stripping CR at the end of
lines. `am.keepcr` configuration variable can be used to specify the
@@ -98,6 +97,12 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
program that applies
the patch.
+--patch-format::
+ By default the command will try to detect the patch format
+ automatically. This option allows the user to bypass the automatic
+ detection and specify the patch format that the patch(es) should be
+ interpreted as. Valid formats are mbox, stgit, stgit-series and hg.
+
-i::
--interactive::
Run interactively.
@@ -120,6 +125,10 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
restarting an aborted patch.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
--continue::
-r::
--resolved::
@@ -133,7 +142,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--resolvemsg=<msg>::
When a patch failure occurs, <msg> will be printed
to the screen before exiting. This overrides the
- standard message informing you to use `--resolved`
+ standard message informing you to use `--continue`
or `--skip` to handle the failure. This is solely
for internal use between 'git rebase' and 'git am'.
@@ -177,7 +186,7 @@ aborts in the middle. You can recover from this in one of two ways:
. hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
the index file to bring it into a state that the patch should
- have produced. Then run the command with the '--resolved' option.
+ have produced. Then run the command with the '--continue' option.
The command refuses to process new mailboxes until the current
operation is finished, so if you decide to start over from scratch,
@@ -190,6 +199,11 @@ commits, like running 'git am' on the wrong branch or an error in the
commits that is more easily fixed by changing the mailbox (e.g.
errors in the "From:" lines).
+HOOKS
+-----
+This command can run `applypatch-msg`, `pre-applypatch`,
+and `post-applypatch` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
+information.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index 250e522..cfa1e4e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git archive' [--format=<fmt>] [--list] [--prefix=<prefix>/] [<extra>]
- [-o | --output=<file>] [--worktree-attributes]
+ [-o <file> | --output=<file>] [--worktree-attributes]
[--remote=<repo> [--exec=<git-upload-archive>]] <tree-ish>
[<path>...]
@@ -65,7 +65,10 @@ OPTIONS
--remote=<repo>::
Instead of making a tar archive from the local repository,
- retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
+ retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository. Note that the
+ remote repository may place restrictions on which sha1
+ expressions may be allowed in `<tree-ish>`. See
+ linkgit:git-upload-archive[1] for details.
--exec=<git-upload-archive>::
Used with --remote to specify the path to the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index 0eed3e3..afeb86c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -1320,7 +1320,7 @@ So git bisect is unconditional goodness - and feel free to quote that
;-)
_____________
-Acknowledgements
+Acknowledgments
----------------
Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 9a05c2b..9f23a86 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@ git-blame - Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
- [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>] [--abbrev=<n>]
- [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
+'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental]
+ [-L <range>] [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
+ [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -18,7 +18,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
Annotates each line in the given file with information from the revision which
last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating from the given revision.
-The command can also limit the range of lines annotated.
+When specified one or more times, `-L` restricts annotation to the requested
+lines.
The origin of lines is automatically followed across whole-file
renames (currently there is no option to turn the rename-following
@@ -34,7 +35,8 @@ Apart from supporting file annotation, Git also supports searching the
development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This makes it
possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
-a text string in the diff. A small example:
+a text string in the diff. A small example of the pickaxe interface
+that searches for `blame_usage`:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ git log --pretty=oneline -S'blame_usage'
@@ -102,7 +104,7 @@ This header line is followed by the following information
at least once for each commit:
- the author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
- ("author-time"), and timezone ("author-tz"); similarly
+ ("author-time"), and time zone ("author-tz"); similarly
for committer.
- the filename in the commit that the line is attributed to.
- the first line of the commit log message ("summary").
@@ -130,7 +132,10 @@ SPECIFYING RANGES
Unlike 'git blame' and 'git annotate' in older versions of git, the extent
of the annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
-ranges. When you are interested in finding the origin for
+ranges. The `-L` option, which limits annotation to a range of lines, may be
+specified multiple times.
+
+When you are interested in finding the origin for
lines 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use the `-L` option like so
(they mean the same thing -- both ask for 21 lines starting at
line 40):
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index b7cb625..311b336 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -48,7 +48,8 @@ working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
new branch.
When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
-branch so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
+branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
+configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
`branch.autosetupmerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
@@ -156,7 +157,8 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
-t::
--track::
- When creating a new branch, set up configuration to mark the
+ When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
+ `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 30d585a..f6a16f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -54,16 +54,20 @@ OPTIONS
--textconv::
Show the content as transformed by a textconv filter. In this case,
- <object> has be of the form <treeish>:<path>, or :<path> in order
+ <object> has be of the form <tree-ish>:<path>, or :<path> in order
to apply the filter to the content recorded in the index at <path>.
--batch::
- Print the SHA-1, type, size, and contents of each object provided on
- stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
+--batch=<format>::
+ Print object information and contents for each object provided
+ on stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
+ See the section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
--batch-check::
- Print the SHA-1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
- be combined with any other options or arguments.
+--batch-check=<format>::
+ Print object information for each object provided on stdin. May
+ not be combined with any other options or arguments. See the
+ section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
OUTPUT
------
@@ -78,28 +82,87 @@ If '-p' is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
If <type> is specified, the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object>
will be returned.
-If '--batch' is specified, output of the following form is printed for each
-object specified on stdin:
+BATCH OUTPUT
+------------
+
+If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
+from stdin, one per line, and print information about them. By default,
+the whole line is considered as an object, as if it were fed to
+linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
+
+You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
+`<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
+object, with placeholders of the form `%(atom)` expanded, followed by a
+newline. The available atoms are:
+
+`objectname`::
+ The 40-hex object name of the object.
+
+`objecttype`::
+ The type of of the object (the same as `cat-file -t` reports).
+
+`objectsize`::
+ The size, in bytes, of the object (the same as `cat-file -s`
+ reports).
+
+`objectsize:disk`::
+ The size, in bytes, that the object takes up on disk. See the
+ note about on-disk sizes in the `CAVEATS` section below.
+
+`deltabase`::
+ If the object is stored as a delta on-disk, this expands to the
+ 40-hex sha1 of the delta base object. Otherwise, expands to the
+ null sha1 (40 zeroes). See `CAVEATS` below.
+
+`rest`::
+ If this atom is used in the output string, input lines are split
+ at the first whitespace boundary. All characters before that
+ whitespace are considered to be the object name; characters
+ after that first run of whitespace (i.e., the "rest" of the
+ line) are output in place of the `%(rest)` atom.
+
+If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
+%(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
+
+If `--batch` is specified, the object information is followed by the
+object contents (consisting of `%(objectsize)` bytes), followed by a
+newline.
+
+For example, `--batch` without a custom format would produce:
------------
<sha1> SP <type> SP <size> LF
<contents> LF
------------
-If '--batch-check' is specified, output of the following form is printed for
-each object specified on stdin:
+Whereas `--batch-check='%(objectname) %(objecttype)'` would produce:
------------
-<sha1> SP <type> SP <size> LF
+<sha1> SP <type> LF
------------
-For both '--batch' and '--batch-check', output of the following form is printed
-for each object specified on stdin that does not exist in the repository:
+If a name is specified on stdin that cannot be resolved to an object in
+the repository, then `cat-file` will ignore any custom format and print:
------------
<object> SP missing LF
------------
+
+CAVEATS
+-------
+
+Note that the sizes of objects on disk are reported accurately, but care
+should be taken in drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are
+responsible for disk usage. The size of a packed non-delta object may be
+much larger than the size of objects which delta against it, but the
+choice of which object is the base and which is the delta is arbitrary
+and is subject to change during a repack.
+
+Note also that multiple copies of an object may be present in the object
+database; in this case, it is undefined which copy's size or delta base
+will be reported.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 5abdbaa..00e2aa2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -31,8 +31,9 @@ OPTIONS
Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
-z::
- Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with a
- NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parseable.
+ If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
+ with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
\--::
Interpret all preceding arguments as attributes and all following
@@ -48,6 +49,10 @@ OUTPUT
The output is of the form:
<path> COLON SP <attribute> COLON SP <info> LF
+unless `-z` is in effect, in which case NUL is used as delimiter:
+<path> NUL <attribute> NUL <info> NUL
+
+
<path> is the path of a file being queried, <attribute> is an attribute
being queried and <info> can be either:
@@ -56,6 +61,11 @@ being queried and <info> can be either:
'set';; when the attribute is defined as true.
<value>;; when a value has been assigned to the attribute.
+Buffering happens as documented under the `GIT_FLUSH` option in
+linkgit:git[1]. The caller is responsible for avoiding deadlocks
+caused by overfilling an input buffer or reading from an empty output
+buffer.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
index 854e4d0..ee2e091 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -39,6 +39,19 @@ OPTIONS
below). If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+-n, --non-matching::
+ Show given paths which don't match any pattern. This only
+ makes sense when `--verbose` is enabled, otherwise it would
+ not be possible to distinguish between paths which match a
+ pattern and those which don't.
+
+--no-index::
+ Don't look in the index when undertaking the checks. This can
+ be used to debug why a path became tracked by e.g. `git add .`
+ and was not ignored by the rules as expected by the user or when
+ developing patterns including negation to match a path previously
+ added with `git add -f`.
+
OUTPUT
------
@@ -65,6 +78,20 @@ are also used instead of colons and hard tabs:
<source> <NULL> <linenum> <NULL> <pattern> <NULL> <pathname> <NULL>
+If `-n` or `--non-matching` are specified, non-matching pathnames will
+also be output, in which case all fields in each output record except
+for <pathname> will be empty. This can be useful when running
+non-interactively, so that files can be incrementally streamed to
+STDIN of a long-running check-ignore process, and for each of these
+files, STDOUT will indicate whether that file matched a pattern or
+not. (Without this option, it would be impossible to tell whether the
+absence of output for a given file meant that it didn't match any
+pattern, or that the output hadn't been generated yet.)
+
+Buffering happens as documented under the `GIT_FLUSH` option in
+linkgit:git[1]. The caller is responsible for avoiding deadlocks
+caused by overfilling an input buffer or reading from an empty output
+buffer.
EXIT STATUS
-----------
@@ -82,7 +109,7 @@ SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitignore[5]
linkgit:gitconfig[5]
-linkgit:git-ls-files[5]
+linkgit:git-ls-files[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..39028ee
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+git-check-mailmap(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-mailmap - Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git check-mailmap' [options] <contact>...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+For each ``Name $$<user@host>$$'' or ``$$<user@host>$$'' from the command-line
+or standard input (when using `--stdin`), look up the person's canonical name
+and email address (see "Mapping Authors" below). If found, print them;
+otherwise print the input as-is.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--stdin::
+ Read contacts, one per line, from the standard input after exhausting
+ contacts provided on the command-line.
+
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+For each contact, a single line is output, terminated by a newline. If the
+name is provided or known to the 'mailmap', ``Name $$<user@host>$$'' is
+printed; otherwise only ``$$<user@host>$$'' is printed.
+
+
+MAPPING AUTHORS
+---------------
+
+include::mailmap.txt[]
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index ec1739a..fc02959 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -54,6 +54,8 @@ Git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They cannot contain a sequence `@{`.
+. They cannot be the single character `@`.
+
. They cannot contain a `\`.
These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
@@ -83,8 +85,7 @@ typed the branch name.
OPTIONS
-------
---allow-onelevel::
---no-allow-onelevel::
+--[no-]allow-onelevel::
Controls whether one-level refnames are accepted (i.e.,
refnames that do not contain multiple `/`-separated
components). The default is `--no-allow-onelevel`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 8edcdca..33ad2ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
-'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] [<commit>]
+'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
+'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
'git checkout' [-p|--patch] [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
@@ -62,7 +63,7 @@ that is to say, the branch is not reset/created unless "git checkout" is
successful.
'git checkout' --detach [<branch>]::
-'git checkout' <commit>::
+'git checkout' [--detach] <commit>::
Prepare to work on top of <commit>, by detaching HEAD at it
(see "DETACHED HEAD" section), and updating the index and the
@@ -71,10 +72,11 @@ successful.
tree will be the state recorded in the commit plus the local
modifications.
+
-Passing `--detach` forces this behavior in the case of a <branch> (without
-the option, giving a branch name to the command would check out the branch,
-instead of detaching HEAD at it), or the current commit,
-if no <branch> is specified.
+When the <commit> argument is a branch name, the `--detach` option can
+be used to detach HEAD at the tip of the branch (`git checkout
+<branch>` would check out that branch without detaching HEAD).
++
+Omitting <branch> detaches HEAD at the tip of the current branch.
'git checkout' [-p|--patch] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
@@ -131,9 +133,9 @@ entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
"--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
+
If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
-derived from the remote-tracking branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
-is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
-next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
+derived from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part of
+the refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping
+the initial part up to the "*".
This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
@@ -180,6 +182,12 @@ branch by running "git rm -rf ." from the top level of the working tree.
Afterwards you will be ready to prepare your new files, repopulating the
working tree, by copying them from elsewhere, extracting a tarball, etc.
+--ignore-skip-worktree-bits::
+ In sparse checkout mode, `git checkout -- <paths>` would
+ update only entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns
+ in $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores
+ the sparse patterns and adds back any files in <paths>.
+
-m::
--merge::
When switching branches,
@@ -224,8 +232,8 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
any branch (see below for details).
+
-As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
-checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
+As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch/commit
+checks out branches (instead of detaching). You may also specify
`-` which is synonymous with `"@{-1}"`.
+
As a further special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index c205d23..f1e6b2f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,8 @@ git-cherry-pick - Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff] <commit>...
+'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff]
+ [-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
'git cherry-pick' --continue
'git cherry-pick' --quit
'git cherry-pick' --abort
@@ -100,6 +101,10 @@ effect to your index in a row.
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
--ff::
If the current HEAD is the same as the parent of the
cherry-pick'ed commit, then a fast forward to this commit will
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
index f6c19c7..0ea921a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-cherry(1)
NAME
----
-git-cherry - Find commits not merged upstream
+git-cherry - Find commits yet to be applied to upstream
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,47 +12,26 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-The changeset (or "diff") of each commit between the fork-point and <head>
-is compared against each commit between the fork-point and <upstream>.
-The commits are compared with their 'patch id', obtained from
-the 'git patch-id' program.
+Determine whether there are commits in `<head>..<upstream>` that are
+equivalent to those in the range `<limit>..<head>`.
-Every commit that doesn't exist in the <upstream> branch
-has its id (sha1) reported, prefixed by a symbol. The ones that have
-equivalent change already
-in the <upstream> branch are prefixed with a minus (-) sign, and those
-that only exist in the <head> branch are prefixed with a plus (+) symbol:
-
- __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
- /
- fork-point
- \__+__+__-__+__+__-__+__> <head>
-
-
-If a <limit> has been given then the commits along the <head> branch up
-to and including <limit> are not reported:
-
- __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
- /
- fork-point
- \__*__*__<limit>__-__+__> <head>
-
-
-Because 'git cherry' compares the changeset rather than the commit id
-(sha1), you can use 'git cherry' to find out if a commit you made locally
-has been applied <upstream> under a different commit id. For example,
-this will happen if you're feeding patches <upstream> via email rather
-than pushing or pulling commits directly.
+The equivalence test is based on the diff, after removing whitespace
+and line numbers. git-cherry therefore detects when commits have been
+"copied" by means of linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1], linkgit:git-am[1] or
+linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+Outputs the SHA1 of every commit in `<limit>..<head>`, prefixed with
+`-` for commits that have an equivalent in <upstream>, and `+` for
+commits that do not.
OPTIONS
-------
-v::
- Verbose.
+ Show the commit subjects next to the SHA1s.
<upstream>::
- Upstream branch to compare against.
- Defaults to the first tracked remote branch, if available.
+ Upstream branch to search for equivalent commits.
+ Defaults to the upstream branch of HEAD.
<head>::
Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
@@ -60,6 +39,103 @@ OPTIONS
<limit>::
Do not report commits up to (and including) limit.
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+Patch workflows
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+git-cherry is frequently used in patch-based workflows (see
+linkgit:gitworkflows[7]) to determine if a series of patches has been
+applied by the upstream maintainer. In such a workflow you might
+create and send a topic branch like this:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -b topic origin/master
+# work and create some commits
+$ git format-patch origin/master
+$ git send-email ... 00*
+------------
+
+Later, you can see whether your changes have been applied by saying
+(still on `topic`):
+
+------------
+$ git fetch # update your notion of origin/master
+$ git cherry -v
+------------
+
+Concrete example
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In a situation where topic consisted of three commits, and the
+maintainer applied two of them, the situation might look like:
+
+------------
+$ git log --graph --oneline --decorate --boundary origin/master...topic
+* 7654321 (origin/master) upstream tip commit
+[... snip some other commits ...]
+* cccc111 cherry-pick of C
+* aaaa111 cherry-pick of A
+[... snip a lot more that has happened ...]
+| * cccc000 (topic) commit C
+| * bbbb000 commit B
+| * aaaa000 commit A
+|/
+o 1234567 branch point
+------------
+
+In such cases, git-cherry shows a concise summary of what has yet to
+be applied:
+
+------------
+$ git cherry origin/master topic
+- cccc000... commit C
++ bbbb000... commit B
+- aaaa000... commit A
+------------
+
+Here, we see that the commits A and C (marked with `-`) can be
+dropped from your `topic` branch when you rebase it on top of
+`origin/master`, while the commit B (marked with `+`) still needs to
+be kept so that it will be sent to be applied to `origin/master`.
+
+
+Using a limit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The optional <limit> is useful in cases where your topic is based on
+other work that is not in upstream. Expanding on the previous
+example, this might look like:
+
+------------
+$ git log --graph --oneline --decorate --boundary origin/master...topic
+* 7654321 (origin/master) upstream tip commit
+[... snip some other commits ...]
+* cccc111 cherry-pick of C
+* aaaa111 cherry-pick of A
+[... snip a lot more that has happened ...]
+| * cccc000 (topic) commit C
+| * bbbb000 commit B
+| * aaaa000 commit A
+| * 0000fff (base) unpublished stuff F
+[... snip ...]
+| * 0000aaa unpublished stuff A
+|/
+o 1234567 merge-base between upstream and topic
+------------
+
+By specifying `base` as the limit, you can avoid listing commits
+between `base` and `topic`:
+
+------------
+$ git cherry origin/master topic base
+- cccc000... commit C
++ bbbb000... commit B
+- aaaa000... commit A
+------------
+
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-patch-id[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index bdc3ab8..8997922 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-clean - Remove untracked files from the working tree
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git clean' [-d] [-f] [-n] [-q] [-e <pattern>] [-x | -X] [--] <path>...
+'git clean' [-d] [-f] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-e <pattern>] [-x | -X] [--] <path>...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -34,7 +34,13 @@ OPTIONS
-f::
--force::
If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
- to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f or -n.
+ to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f, -n or
+ -i.
+
+-i::
+--interactive::
+ Show what would be done and clean files interactively. See
+ ``Interactive mode'' for details.
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -63,6 +69,67 @@ OPTIONS
Remove only files ignored by Git. This may be useful to rebuild
everything from scratch, but keep manually created files.
+Interactive mode
+----------------
+When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
+files and directories to be cleaned, and goes into its
+interactive command loop.
+
+The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
+gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
+with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
+and type return, like this:
+
+------------
+ *** Commands ***
+ 1: clean 2: filter by pattern 3: select by numbers
+ 4: ask each 5: quit 6: help
+ What now> 1
+------------
+
+You also could say `c` or `clean` above as long as the choice is unique.
+
+The main command loop has 6 subcommands.
+
+clean::
+
+ Start cleaning files and directories, and then quit.
+
+filter by pattern::
+
+ This shows the files and directories to be deleted and issues an
+ "Input ignore patterns>>" prompt. You can input space-seperated
+ patterns to exclude files and directories from deletion.
+ E.g. "*.c *.h" will excludes files end with ".c" and ".h" from
+ deletion. When you are satisfied with the filtered result, press
+ ENTER (empty) back to the main menu.
+
+select by numbers::
+
+ This shows the files and directories to be deleted and issues an
+ "Select items to delete>>" prompt. When the prompt ends with double
+ '>>' like this, you can make more than one selection, concatenated
+ with whitespace or comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9"
+ to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a
+ range is omitted, all remaining items are selected. E.g. "7-" to
+ choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose everything.
+ Also when you are satisfied with the filtered result, press ENTER
+ (empty) back to the main menu.
+
+ask each::
+
+ This will start to clean, and you must confirm one by one in order
+ to delete items. Please note that this action is not as efficient
+ as the above two actions.
+
+quit::
+
+ This lets you quit without do cleaning.
+
+help::
+
+ Show brief usage of interactive git-clean.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitignore[5]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 5c16e31..0363d00 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
[--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
[--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch]
- [--recursive|--recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
+ [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
[<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -55,15 +55,12 @@ repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
never use the local optimizations). Specifying `--no-local` will
override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
Git transport instead.
-+
-To force copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable if you
-are trying to make a back-up of your repository), but still avoid the
-usual "Git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
--no-hardlinks::
- Optimize the cloning process from a repository on a
- local filesystem by copying files under `.git/objects`
- directory.
+ Force the cloning process from a repository on a local
+ filesystem to copy the files under the `.git/objects`
+ directory instead of using hardlinks. This may be desirable
+ if you are trying to make a back-up of your repository.
--shared::
-s::
@@ -181,14 +178,9 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--depth <depth>::
Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
- specified number of revisions. A shallow repository has a
- number of limitations (you cannot clone or fetch from
- it, nor push from nor into it), but is adequate if you
- are only interested in the recent history of a large project
- with a long history, and would want to send in fixes
- as patches.
-
---single-branch::
+ specified number of revisions.
+
+--[no-]single-branch::
Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
either specified by the `--branch` option or the primary
branch remote's `HEAD` points at. When creating a shallow
@@ -213,7 +205,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
- then make a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
+ then make a filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
The result is Git repository can be separated from working
tree.
@@ -239,8 +231,8 @@ Examples
* Clone from upstream:
+
------------
-$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
-$ cd my2.6
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git my-linux
+$ cd my-linux
$ make
------------
@@ -257,10 +249,10 @@ $ git show-branch
* Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing local directory:
+
------------
-$ git clone --reference my2.6 \
- git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.7 \
- my2.7
-$ cd my2.7
+$ git clone --reference /git/linux.git \
+ git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git \
+ my-linux
+$ cd my-linux
------------
@@ -271,13 +263,6 @@ $ git clone --bare -l /home/proj/.git /pub/scm/proj.git
------------
-* Create a repository on the kernel.org machine that borrows from Linus:
-+
-------------
-$ git clone --bare -l -s /pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6.git \
- /pub/scm/.../me/subsys-2.6.git
-------------
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-column.txt b/Documentation/git-column.txt
index 5d6f1cc..03d1846 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-column.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-column.txt
@@ -43,11 +43,6 @@ OPTIONS
--padding=<N>::
The number of spaces between columns. One space by default.
-
-Author
-------
-Written by Nguyen Thai Ngoc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 86ef56e..a469eab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
-'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [(-m <message>)...] [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
+'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
+ [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -52,6 +54,14 @@ OPTIONS
Read the commit log message from the given file. Use `-` to read
from the standard input.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commit.
+
+--no-gpg-sign::
+ Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
+ set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+
Commit Information
------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 8172938..429267a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
[-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
- [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
+ [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
[-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@ OPTIONS
--cleanup=<mode>::
This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
- `whitespace`, `verbatim`, or `default`.
+ `whitespace`, `verbatim`, `scissors` or `default`.
+
--
strip::
@@ -186,6 +186,12 @@ whitespace::
Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
verbatim::
Do not change the message at all.
+scissors::
+ Same as `whitespace`, except that everything from (and
+ including) the line
+ "`# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------`"
+ is truncated if the message is to be edited. "`#`" can be
+ customized with core.commentChar.
default::
Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
Otherwise `whitespace`.
@@ -302,6 +308,10 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
GPG-sign commit.
+--no-gpg-sign::
+ Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
+ set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 772ae2a..e9917b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --rename-section old_name new_name
@@ -95,29 +96,55 @@ OPTIONS
in which section and variable names are lowercased, but subsection
names are not.
+--get-urlmatch name URL::
+ When given a two-part name section.key, the value for
+ section.<url>.key whose <url> part matches the best to the
+ given URL is returned (if no such key exists, the value for
+ section.key is used as a fallback). When given just the
+ section as name, do so for all the keys in the section and
+ list them.
+
--global::
- For writing options: write to global ~/.gitconfig file rather than
- the repository .git/config, write to $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config file
- if this file exists and the ~/.gitconfig file doesn't.
+ For writing options: write to global `~/.gitconfig` file
+ rather than the repository `.git/config`, write to
+ `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config` file if this file exists and the
+ `~/.gitconfig` file doesn't.
+
-For reading options: read only from global ~/.gitconfig and from
-$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config rather than from all available files.
+For reading options: read only from global `~/.gitconfig` and from
+`$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config` rather than from all available files.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
--system::
- For writing options: write to system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig
- rather than the repository .git/config.
+ For writing options: write to system-wide
+ `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` rather than the repository
+ `.git/config`.
+
-For reading options: read only from system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig
+For reading options: read only from system-wide `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig`
rather than from all available files.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
+--local::
+ For writing options: write to the repository `.git/config` file.
+ This is the default behavior.
++
+For reading options: read only from the repository `.git/config` rather than
+from all available files.
++
+See also <<FILES>>.
+
-f config-file::
--file config-file::
Use the given config file instead of the one specified by GIT_CONFIG.
+--blob blob::
+ Similar to '--file' but use the given blob instead of a file. E.g.
+ you can use 'master:.gitmodules' to read values from the file
+ '.gitmodules' in the master branch. See "SPECIFYING REVISIONS"
+ section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for a more complete list of
+ ways to spell blob names.
+
--remove-section::
Remove the given section from the configuration file.
@@ -186,8 +213,7 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
Opens an editor to modify the specified config file; either
'--system', '--global', or repository (default).
---includes::
---no-includes::
+--[no-]includes::
Respect `include.*` directives in config files when looking up
values. Defaults to on.
@@ -198,23 +224,23 @@ FILES
If not set explicitly with '--file', there are four files where
'git config' will search for configuration options:
-$GIT_DIR/config::
- Repository specific configuration file.
-
-~/.gitconfig::
- User-specific configuration file. Also called "global"
- configuration file.
+$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
+ System-wide configuration file.
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config::
Second user-specific configuration file. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not set
- or empty, $HOME/.config/git/config will be used. Any single-valued
+ or empty, `$HOME/.config/git/config` will be used. Any single-valued
variable set in this file will be overwritten by whatever is in
- ~/.gitconfig. It is a good idea not to create this file if
+ `~/.gitconfig`. It is a good idea not to create this file if
you sometimes use older versions of Git, as support for this
file was added fairly recently.
-$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
- System-wide configuration file.
+~/.gitconfig::
+ User-specific configuration file. Also called "global"
+ configuration file.
+
+$GIT_DIR/config::
+ Repository specific configuration file.
If no further options are given, all reading options will read all of these
files that are available. If the global or the system-wide configuration
@@ -222,6 +248,10 @@ file are not available they will be ignored. If the repository configuration
file is not available or readable, 'git config' will exit with a non-zero
error code. However, in neither case will an error message be issued.
+The files are read in the order given above, with last value found taking
+precedence over values read earlier. When multiple values are taken then all
+values of a key from all files will be used.
+
All writing options will per default write to the repository specific
configuration file. Note that this also affects options like '--replace-all'
and '--unset'. *'git config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
@@ -274,6 +304,13 @@ Given a .git/config like this:
gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
+ ; HTTP
+ [http]
+ sslVerify
+ [http "https://weak.example.com"]
+ sslVerify = false
+ cookieFile = /tmp/cookie.txt
+
you can set the filemode to true with
------------
@@ -359,6 +396,19 @@ RESET=$(git config --get-color "" "reset")
echo "${WS}your whitespace color or blue reverse${RESET}"
------------
+For URLs in `https://weak.example.com`, `http.sslVerify` is set to
+false, while it is set to `true` for all others:
+
+------------
+% git config --bool --get-urlmatch http.sslverify https://good.example.com
+true
+% git config --bool --get-urlmatch http.sslverify https://weak.example.com
+false
+% git config --get-urlmatch http https://weak.example.com
+http.cookiefile /tmp/cookie.txt
+http.sslverify false
+------------
+
include::config.txt[]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index 23c80ce..b300e84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-count-objects - Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git count-objects' [-v]
+'git count-objects' [-v] [-H | --human-readable]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -20,11 +20,29 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-v::
--verbose::
- In addition to the number of loose objects and disk
- space consumed, it reports the number of in-pack
- objects, number of packs, disk space consumed by those packs,
- and number of objects that can be removed by running
- `git prune-packed`.
+ Report in more detail:
++
+count: the number of loose objects
++
+size: disk space consumed by loose objects, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
++
+in-pack: the number of in-pack objects
++
+size-pack: disk space consumed by the packs, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
++
+prune-packable: the number of loose objects that are also present in
+the packs. These objects could be pruned using `git prune-packed`.
++
+garbage: the number of files in object database that are not valid
+loose objects nor valid packs
++
+size-garbage: disk space consumed by garbage files, in KiB (unless -H is
+specified)
+
+-H::
+--human-readable::
+
+Print sizes in human readable format
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
index 7da0f13..b211440 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
credentials in the same manner as Git. The design of this scriptable
interface models the internal C API; see
-link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the Git credential API] for more
+link:technical/api-credentials.html[the Git credential API] for more
background on the concepts.
git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index d1bcda2..260f39f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -21,8 +21,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
*WARNING:* `git cvsimport` uses cvsps version 2, which is considered
deprecated; it does not work with cvsps version 3 and later. If you are
performing a one-shot import of a CVS repository consider using
-link:http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
-link:https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
+http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
+https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
Imports a CVS repository into Git. It will either create a new
repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@ This option can be used several times to provide several detection regexes.
CVS by default uses the Unix username when writing its
commit logs. Using this option and an author-conv-file
maps the name recorded in CVS to author name, e-mail and
- optional timezone:
+ optional time zone:
+
---------
exon=Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@ This option can be used several times to provide several detection regexes.
+
'git cvsimport' will make it appear as those authors had
their GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL set properly
-all along. If a timezone is specified, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE will
+all along. If a time zone is specified, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE will
have the corresponding offset applied.
+
For convenience, this data is saved to `$GIT_DIR/cvs-authors`
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index bfb106c..223f731 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -16,8 +16,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--reuseaddr] [--detach] [--pid-file=<file>]
[--enable=<service>] [--disable=<service>]
[--allow-override=<service>] [--forbid-override=<service>]
- [--access-hook=<path>]
- [--inetd | [--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>] [--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]
+ [--access-hook=<path>] [--[no-]informative-errors]
+ [--inetd |
+ [--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>]
+ [--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]]
[<directory>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -169,8 +171,7 @@ Git configuration files in that directory are readable by `<user>`.
repository configuration. By default, all the services
are overridable.
---informative-errors::
---no-informative-errors::
+--[no-]informative-errors::
When informative errors are turned on, git-daemon will report
more verbose errors to the client, differentiating conditions
like "no such repository" from "repository not exported". This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 28e5ec0..d20ca40 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-describe - Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <committish>...
+'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <commit-ish>...
'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] --dirty[=<mark>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -26,8 +26,8 @@ see the -a and -s options to linkgit:git-tag[1].
OPTIONS
-------
-<committish>...::
- Committish object names to describe.
+<commit-ish>...::
+ Commit-ish object names to describe.
--dirty[=<mark>]::
Describe the working tree.
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ OPTIONS
--candidates=<n>::
Instead of considering only the 10 most recent tags as
- candidates to describe the input committish consider
+ candidates to describe the input commit-ish consider
up to <n> candidates. Increasing <n> above 10 will take
slightly longer but may produce a more accurate result.
An <n> of 0 will cause only exact matches to be output.
@@ -88,6 +88,11 @@ OPTIONS
--always::
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
+--first-parent::
+ Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
+ This is useful when you wish to not match tags on branches merged
+ in the history of the target commit.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -140,7 +145,7 @@ be sufficient to disambiguate these commits.
SEARCH STRATEGY
---------------
-For each committish supplied, 'git describe' will first look for
+For each commit-ish supplied, 'git describe' will first look for
a tag which tags exactly that commit. Annotated tags will always
be preferred over lightweight tags, and tags with newer dates will
always be preferred over tags with older dates. If an exact match
@@ -149,10 +154,12 @@ is found, its name will be output and searching will stop.
If an exact match was not found, 'git describe' will walk back
through the commit history to locate an ancestor commit which
has been tagged. The ancestor's tag will be output along with an
-abbreviation of the input committish's SHA-1.
+abbreviation of the input commit-ish's SHA-1. If '--first-parent' was
+specified then the walk will only consider the first parent of each
+commit.
If multiple tags were found during the walk then the tag which
-has the fewest commits different from the input committish will be
+has the fewest commits different from the input commit-ish will be
selected and output. Here fewest commits different is defined as
the number of commits which would be shown by `git log tag..input`
will be the smallest number of commits possible.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index c0b7c58..a86cf62 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-diff-index(1)
NAME
----
-git-diff-index - Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository
+git-diff-index - Compare a tree to the working tree or index
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree
-object with the content of the current index and, optionally
-ignoring the stat state of the file on disk. When paths are
-specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
-entries in the index are compared.
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found in a tree object
+with the corresponding tracked files in the working tree, or with the
+corresponding paths in the index. When <path> arguments are present,
+compares only paths matching those patterns. Otherwise all tracked
+files are compared.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index a7b4620..56fb7e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -18,8 +18,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Show changes between the working tree and the index or a tree, changes
-between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, or changes
-between two files on disk.
+between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, changes between
+two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
'git diff' [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
@@ -28,10 +28,15 @@ between two files on disk.
words, the differences are what you _could_ tell Git to
further add to the index but you still haven't. You can
stage these changes by using linkgit:git-add[1].
-+
-If exactly two paths are given and at least one points outside
-the current repository, 'git diff' will compare the two files /
-directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
+
+'git diff' --no-index [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
+
+ This form is to compare the given two paths on the
+ filesystem. You can omit the `--no-index` option when
+ running the command in a working tree controlled by Git and
+ at least one of the paths points outside the working tree,
+ or when running the command outside a working tree
+ controlled by Git.
'git diff' [--options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
@@ -39,7 +44,7 @@ directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
would want comparison with the latest commit, so if you
do not give <commit>, it defaults to HEAD.
- If HEAD does not exist (e.g. unborned branches) and
+ If HEAD does not exist (e.g. unborn branches) and
<commit> is not given, it shows all staged changes.
--staged is a synonym of --cached.
@@ -56,11 +61,6 @@ directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
This is to view the changes between two arbitrary
<commit>.
-'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
-
- This form is to view the differences between the raw
- contents of two blob objects.
-
'git diff' [--options] <commit>..<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This is synonymous to the previous form. If <commit> on
@@ -87,6 +87,11 @@ and the range notations ("<commit>..<commit>" and
"<commit>\...<commit>") do not mean a range as defined in the
"SPECIFYING RANGES" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
+
+ This form is to view the differences between the raw
+ contents of two blob objects.
+
OPTIONS
-------
:git-diff: 1
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index e0e12e9..11887e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -69,13 +69,14 @@ with custom merge tool commands and has the same value as `$MERGED`.
--tool-help::
Print a list of diff tools that may be used with `--tool`.
---symlinks::
---no-symlinks::
+--[no-]symlinks::
'git difftool''s default behavior is create symlinks to the
- working tree when run in `--dir-diff` mode.
+ working tree when run in `--dir-diff` mode and the right-hand
+ side of the comparison yields the same content as the file in
+ the working tree.
+
- Specifying `--no-symlinks` instructs 'git difftool' to create
- copies instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
+Specifying `--no-symlinks` instructs 'git difftool' to create copies
+instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
-x <command>::
--extcmd=<command>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index d6487e1..85f1f30 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -27,15 +27,17 @@ OPTIONS
Insert 'progress' statements every <n> objects, to be shown by
'git fast-import' during import.
---signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|strip|abort)::
+--signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|warn-strip|strip|abort)::
Specify how to handle signed tags. Since any transformation
after the export can change the tag names (which can also happen
when excluding revisions) the signatures will not match.
+
When asking to 'abort' (which is the default), this program will die
-when encountering a signed tag. With 'strip', the tags will be made
-unsigned, with 'verbatim', they will be silently exported
-and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a warning.
+when encountering a signed tag. With 'strip', the tags will silently
+be made unsigned, with 'warn-strip' they will be made unsigned but a
+warning will be displayed, with 'verbatim', they will be silently
+exported and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a
+warning.
--tag-of-filtered-object=(abort|drop|rewrite)::
Specify how to handle tags whose tagged object is filtered out.
@@ -66,6 +68,8 @@ produced incorrect results if you gave these options.
incremental runs. As <file> is only opened and truncated
at completion, the same path can also be safely given to
\--import-marks.
+ The file will not be written if no new object has been
+ marked/exported.
--import-marks=<file>::
Before processing any input, load the marks specified in
@@ -102,11 +106,11 @@ marks the same across runs.
different from the commit's first parent).
[<git-rev-list-args>...]::
- A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
- 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
- to export. For example, `master~10..master` causes the
- current master reference to be exported along with all objects
- added since its 10th ancestor commit.
+ A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
+ 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
+ to export. For example, `master~10..master` causes the
+ current master reference to be exported along with all objects
+ added since its 10th ancestor commit.
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -137,7 +141,7 @@ Limitations
-----------
Since 'git fast-import' cannot tag trees, you will not be
-able to export the linux-2.6.git repository completely, as it contains
+able to export the linux.git repository completely, as it contains
a tag referencing a tree instead of a commit.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index bf1a02a..fd22a9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ advisement to help formatting routines display the timestamp.
If the local offset is not available in the source material, use
``+0000'', or the most common local offset. For example many
organizations have a CVS repository which has only ever been accessed
-by users who are located in the same location and timezone. In this
+by users who are located in the same location and time zone. In this
case a reasonable offset from UTC could be assumed.
+
Unlike the `rfc2822` format, this format is very strict. Any
@@ -271,7 +271,7 @@ the malformed string. There are also some types of malformed
strings which Git will parse wrong, and yet consider valid.
Seriously malformed strings will be rejected.
+
-Unlike the `raw` format above, the timezone/UTC offset information
+Unlike the `raw` format above, the time zone/UTC offset information
contained in an RFC 2822 date string is used to adjust the date
value to UTC prior to storage. Therefore it is important that
this information be as accurate as possible.
@@ -287,13 +287,13 @@ format, or its format is easily convertible to it, as there is no
ambiguity in parsing.
`now`::
- Always use the current time and timezone. The literal
+ Always use the current time and time zone. The literal
`now` must always be supplied for `<when>`.
+
-This is a toy format. The current time and timezone of this system
+This is a toy format. The current time and time zone of this system
is always copied into the identity string at the time it is being
created by fast-import. There is no way to specify a different time or
-timezone.
+time zone.
+
This particular format is supplied as it's short to implement and
may be useful to a process that wants to create a new commit
@@ -361,8 +361,8 @@ and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
`--cat-blob-fd` or `stdout` if unspecified.
`feature`::
- Require that fast-import supports the specified feature, or
- abort if it does not.
+ Enable the specified feature. This requires that fast-import
+ supports the specified feature, and aborts if it does not.
`option`::
Specify any of the options listed under OPTIONS that do not
@@ -380,8 +380,8 @@ change to the project.
('author' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
'committer' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
data
- ('from' SP <committish> LF)?
- ('merge' SP <committish> LF)?
+ ('from' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
+ ('merge' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
(filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)*
LF?
....
@@ -460,9 +460,9 @@ as the current commit on that branch is automatically assumed to
be the first ancestor of the new commit.
As `LF` is not valid in a Git refname or SHA-1 expression, no
-quoting or escaping syntax is supported within `<committish>`.
+quoting or escaping syntax is supported within `<commit-ish>`.
-Here `<committish>` is any of the following:
+Here `<commit-ish>` is any of the following:
* The name of an existing branch already in fast-import's internal branch
table. If fast-import doesn't know the name, it's treated as a SHA-1
@@ -509,7 +509,7 @@ additional ancestors (forming a 16-way merge). For this reason
it is suggested that frontends do not use more than 15 `merge`
commands per commit; 16, if starting a new, empty branch.
-Here `<committish>` is any of the commit specification expressions
+Here `<commit-ish>` is any of the commit specification expressions
also accepted by `from` (see above).
`filemodify`
@@ -677,8 +677,8 @@ paths for a commit are encouraged to do so.
`notemodify`
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Included in a `commit` `<notes_ref>` command to add a new note
-annotating a `<committish>` or change this annotation contents.
-Internally it is similar to filemodify 100644 on `<committish>`
+annotating a `<commit-ish>` or change this annotation contents.
+Internally it is similar to filemodify 100644 on `<commit-ish>`
path (maybe split into subdirectories). It's not advised to
use any other commands to write to the `<notes_ref>` tree except
`filedeleteall` to delete all existing notes in this tree.
@@ -691,7 +691,7 @@ External data format::
commit that is to be annotated.
+
....
- 'N' SP <dataref> SP <committish> LF
+ 'N' SP <dataref> SP <commit-ish> LF
....
+
Here `<dataref>` can be either a mark reference (`:<idnum>`)
@@ -704,13 +704,13 @@ Inline data format::
command.
+
....
- 'N' SP 'inline' SP <committish> LF
+ 'N' SP 'inline' SP <commit-ish> LF
data
....
+
See below for a detailed description of the `data` command.
-In both formats `<committish>` is any of the commit specification
+In both formats `<commit-ish>` is any of the commit specification
expressions also accepted by `from` (see above).
`mark`
@@ -741,7 +741,7 @@ lightweight (non-annotated) tags see the `reset` command below.
....
'tag' SP <name> LF
- 'from' SP <committish> LF
+ 'from' SP <commit-ish> LF
'tagger' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
data
....
@@ -786,11 +786,11 @@ branch from an existing commit without creating a new commit.
....
'reset' SP <ref> LF
- ('from' SP <committish> LF)?
+ ('from' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
LF?
....
-For a detailed description of `<ref>` and `<committish>` see above
+For a detailed description of `<ref>` and `<commit-ish>` see above
under `commit` and `from`.
The `LF` after the command is optional (it used to be required).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index b81e90d..93b5067 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -10,9 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git fetch-pack' [--all] [--quiet|-q] [--keep|-k] [--thin] [--include-tag]
- [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>]
- [--depth=<n>] [--no-progress]
- [-v] [<host>:]<directory> [<refs>...]
+ [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>]
+ [--depth=<n>] [--no-progress]
+ [-v] <repository> [<refs>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -90,22 +90,25 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
--no-progress::
Do not show the progress.
+--check-self-contained-and-connected::
+ Output "connectivity-ok" if the received pack is
+ self-contained and connected.
+
-v::
Run verbosely.
-<host>::
- A remote host that houses the repository. When this
- part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
- ssh.
-
-<directory>::
- The repository to sync from.
+<repository>::
+ The URL to the remote repository.
<refs>...::
The remote heads to update from. This is relative to
$GIT_DIR (e.g. "HEAD", "refs/heads/master"). When
unspecified, update from all heads the remote side has.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-fetch[1]
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index e08a028..5809aa4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -24,19 +24,22 @@ The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information is left for a later merge
operation done by 'git merge'.
-When <refspec> stores the fetched result in remote-tracking branches,
-the tags that point at these branches are automatically
-followed. This is done by first fetching from the remote using
-the given <refspec>s, and if the repository has objects that are
-pointed by remote tags that it does not yet have, then fetch
-those missing tags. If the other end has tags that point at
-branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.
+By default, tags are auto-followed. This means that when fetching
+from a remote, any tags on the remote that point to objects that exist
+in the local repository are fetched. The effect is to fetch tags that
+point at branches that you are interested in. This default behavior
+can be changed by using the --tags or --no-tags options, by
+configuring remote.<name>.tagopt, or by using a refspec that fetches
+tags explicitly.
'git fetch' can fetch from either a single named repository,
or from several repositories at once if <group> is given and
there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file.
(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+When no remote is specified, by default the `origin` remote will be used,
+unless there's an upstream branch configured for the current branch.
+
OPTIONS
-------
include::fetch-options.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index e4c8e82..09535f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -393,7 +393,7 @@ git filter-branch --index-filter \
Checklist for Shrinking a Repository
------------------------------------
-git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
+git-filter-branch can be used to get rid of a subset of files,
usually with some combination of `--index-filter` and
`--subdirectory-filter`. People expect the resulting repository to
be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to
@@ -429,6 +429,37 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
+Notes
+-----
+
+git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
+of your Git history, but you probably don't need this flexibility if
+you're simply _removing unwanted data_ like large files or passwords.
+For those operations you may want to consider
+http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/[The BFG Repo-Cleaner],
+a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least
+10-50x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different
+characteristics:
+
+* Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly _once_. The BFG,
+ unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to
+ handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed
+ within your history. This constraint gives the core performance
+ benefit of The BFG, and is well-suited to the task of cleansing bad
+ data - you don't care _where_ the bad data is, you just want it
+ _gone_.
+
+* By default The BFG takes full advantage of multi-core machines,
+ cleansing commit file-trees in parallel. git-filter-branch cleans
+ commits sequentially (ie in a single-threaded manner), though it
+ _is_ possible to write filters that include their own parallellism,
+ in the scripts executed against each commit.
+
+* The http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/#examples[command options]
+ are much more restrictive than git-filter branch, and dedicated just
+ to the tasks of removing unwanted data- e.g:
+ `--strip-blobs-bigger-than 1M`.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 3a0f55e..bb1232a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -35,8 +35,7 @@ OPTIONS
Do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being
merged.
---summary::
---no-summary::
+--[no-]summary::
Synonyms to --log and --no-log; these are deprecated and will be
removed in the future.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index f2e08d1..4240875 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -91,7 +91,19 @@ objectname::
upstream::
The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
from the displayed ref. Respects `:short` in the same way as
- `refname` above.
+ `refname` above. Additionally respects `:track` to show
+ "[ahead N, behind M]" and `:trackshort` to show the terse
+ version: ">" (ahead), "<" (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind),
+ or "=" (in sync). Has no effect if the ref does not have
+ tracking information associated with it.
+
+HEAD::
+ '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
+ otherwise.
+
+color::
+ Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
+ are described in `color.branch.*`.
In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
@@ -207,13 +219,9 @@ eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
eval "$eval"
------------
-Author
-------
-Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
-
-Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 3a62f50..5c0a4ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--ignore-if-in-upstream]
[--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
- [--cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -187,6 +187,21 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
far (from config or command line).
+--from::
+--from=<ident>::
+ Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
+ author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
+ provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
+ message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
+ the committer ident.
++
+Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
+emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
+original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
+header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
+transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
+feeding the result to `git send-email`.
+
--add-header=<header>::
Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
@@ -195,7 +210,7 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
`Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
line.
---cover-letter::
+--[no-]cover-letter::
In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
@@ -227,6 +242,7 @@ configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
+-q::
--quiet::
Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
@@ -260,6 +276,7 @@ attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
cc = <email>
attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
signoff = true
+ coverletter = auto
------------
@@ -421,7 +438,8 @@ Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
In Thunderbird 3:
Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
"mail.wrap_long_lines".
-Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
+Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`. Also, search for
+"mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
3. Disable the use of format=flowed:
Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index e5878bd..25c431d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -30,8 +30,7 @@ index file, all SHA-1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
Print out objects that exist but that aren't reachable from any
of the reference nodes.
---dangling::
---no-dangling::
+--[no-]dangling::
Print objects that exist but that are never 'directly' used (default).
`--no-dangling` can be used to omit this information from the output.
@@ -78,8 +77,7 @@ index file, all SHA-1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
a blob, the contents are written into the file, rather than
its object name.
---progress::
---no-progress::
+--[no-]progress::
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
default when it is attached to a terminal, unless
--no-progress or --verbose is specified. --progress forces
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index b370b02..273c466 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-gc - Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune]
+'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune] [--force]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -62,8 +62,9 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
--prune=<date>::
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
- overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`). This
- option is on by default.
+ overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`).
+ --prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age.
+ --prune is on by default.
--no-prune::
Do not prune any loose objects.
@@ -71,6 +72,10 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
--quiet::
Suppress all progress reports.
+--force::
+ Force `git gc` to run even if there may be another `git gc`
+ instance running on this repository.
+
Configuration
-------------
@@ -119,6 +124,9 @@ the value, the more time is spent optimizing the delta compression. See
the documentation for the --window' option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
more details. This defaults to 250.
+Similarly, the optional configuration variable 'gc.aggressiveDepth'
+controls --depth option in linkgit:git-repack[1]. This defaults to 250.
+
The optional configuration variable 'gc.pruneExpire' controls how old
the unreferenced loose objects have to be before they are pruned. The
default is "2 weeks ago".
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 50d46e1..f837334 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-grep - Print lines matching a pattern
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git grep' [-a | --text] [-I] [-i | --ignore-case] [-w | --word-regexp]
+'git grep' [-a | --text] [-I] [--textconv] [-i | --ignore-case] [-w | --word-regexp]
[-v | --invert-match] [-h|-H] [--full-name]
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-P | --perl-regexp]
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-W | --function-context]
[-f <file>] [-e] <pattern>
[--and|--or|--not|(|)|-e <pattern>...]
- [ [--exclude-standard] [--cached | --no-index | --untracked] | <tree>...]
+ [ [--[no-]exclude-standard] [--cached | --no-index | --untracked] | <tree>...]
[--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -80,6 +80,13 @@ OPTIONS
--text::
Process binary files as if they were text.
+--textconv::
+ Honor textconv filter settings.
+
+--no-textconv::
+ Do not honor textconv filter settings.
+ This is the default.
+
-i::
--ignore-case::
Ignore case differences between the patterns and the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index e07b6dc..b21e9d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -8,31 +8,45 @@ git-help - Display help information about Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git help' [-a|--all|-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND]
+'git help' [-a|--all] [-g|--guide]
+ [-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND|GUIDE]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no options and no COMMAND given, the synopsis of the 'git'
+With no options and no COMMAND or GUIDE given, the synopsis of the 'git'
command and a list of the most commonly used Git commands are printed
on the standard output.
-If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, then all available commands are
+If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, all available commands are
printed on the standard output.
-If a Git subcommand is named, a manual page for that subcommand is brought
-up. The 'man' program is used by default for this purpose, but this
-can be overridden by other options or configuration variables.
+If the option '--guide' or '-g' is given, a list of the useful
+Git guides is also printed on the standard output.
+
+If a command, or a guide, is given, a manual page for that command or
+guide is brought up. The 'man' program is used by default for this
+purpose, but this can be overridden by other options or configuration
+variables.
Note that `git --help ...` is identical to `git help ...` because the
former is internally converted into the latter.
+To display the linkgit:git[1] man page, use `git help git`.
+
+This page can be displayed with 'git help help' or `git help --help`
+
OPTIONS
-------
-a::
--all::
Prints all the available commands on the standard output. This
- option supersedes any other option.
+ option overrides any given command or guide name.
+
+-g::
+--guides::
+ Prints a list of useful guides on the standard output. This
+ option overrides any given command or guide name.
-i::
--info::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
index e3bcdb5..e8c13f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -263,14 +263,6 @@ identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.
All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks
invoked by the 'git-receive-pack'.
-Author
-------
-Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
-
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index bde8eec..7a4e055 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -74,6 +74,9 @@ OPTIONS
--strict::
Die, if the pack contains broken objects or links.
+--check-self-contained-and-connected::
+ Die if the pack contains broken links. For internal use only.
+
--threads=<n>::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
deltas. This requires that index-pack be compiled with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 69db578..1f7bc67 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -9,28 +9,21 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git log' [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[\--] <path>...]
+'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Shows the commit logs.
-The command takes options applicable to the 'git rev-list'
+The command takes options applicable to the `git rev-list`
command to control what is shown and how, and options applicable to
-the 'git diff-*' commands to control how the changes
+the `git diff-*` commands to control how the changes
each commit introduces are shown.
OPTIONS
-------
-<since>..<until>::
- Show only commits between the named two commits. When
- either <since> or <until> is omitted, it defaults to
- `HEAD`, i.e. the tip of the current branch.
- For a more complete list of ways to spell <since>
- and <until>, see linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-
--follow::
Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames
(works only for a single file).
@@ -49,40 +42,59 @@ OPTIONS
--use-mailmap::
Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
- to canonical real names and email addresses. See
+ addresses to canonical real names and email addresses. See
linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
--full-diff::
- Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that
+ Without this flag, `git log -p <path>...` shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
paths. With this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch
the specified paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only
commits, and doesn't limit diff for those commits.
+
Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those
-produced by --stat etc.
+produced by `--stat`, etc.
--log-size::
- Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended
- mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If Git is unable to
- produce a valid value size is set to zero.
- Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown
- its size is not included.
+ Include a line ``log size <number>'' in the output for each commit,
+ where <number> is the length of that commit's message in bytes.
+ Intended to speed up tools that read log messages from `git log`
+ output by allowing them to allocate space in advance.
+
+-L <start>,<end>:<file>::
+-L :<regex>:<file>::
+ Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>"
+ (or the funcname regex <regex>) within the <file>. You may
+ not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
+ a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments.
+ You can specify this option more than once.
++
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
+
+<revision range>::
+ Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
+ <revision range> is specified, it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the
+ whole history leading to the current commit). `origin..HEAD`
+ specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
+ (i.e. `HEAD`), but not from `origin`. For a complete list of
+ ways to spell <revision range>, see the 'Specifying Ranges'
+ section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
[\--] <path>...::
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
- that match the specified paths came to be. See "History
- Simplification" below for details and other simplification
+ that match the specified paths came to be. See 'History
+ Simplification' below for details and other simplification
modes.
+
-To prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need to
-be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from options or refnames.
+Paths may need to be prefixed with ``\-- '' to separate them from
+options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
include::rev-list-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
-Common diff options
+COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
-------------------
:git-log: 1
@@ -90,7 +102,7 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
include::diff-generate-patch.txt[]
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
`git log --no-merges`::
@@ -99,12 +111,12 @@ Examples
`git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi`::
Show all commits since version 'v2.6.12' that changed any file
- in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
+ in the `include/scsi` or `drivers/scsi` subdirectories
`git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk`::
Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
- The "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ The ``--'' is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
'gitk'
`git log --name-status release..test`::
@@ -113,9 +125,9 @@ Examples
in the "release" branch, along with the list of paths
each commit modifies.
-`git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c`::
+`git log --follow builtin/rev-list.c`::
- Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c, including
+ Shows the commits that changed `builtin/rev-list.c`, including
those commits that occurred before the file was given its
present name.
@@ -133,32 +145,38 @@ Examples
`git log -p -m --first-parent`::
Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the
- "main branch" perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
+ ``main branch'' perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
branches, and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the merges.
This makes sense only when following a strict policy of merging all
topic branches when staying on a single integration branch.
+`git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c`::
+
+ Shows how the function `main()` in the file `main.c` evolved
+ over time.
+
`git log -3`::
+
Limits the number of commits to show to 3.
-Discussion
+DISCUSSION
----------
include::i18n.txt[]
-Configuration
+CONFIGURATION
-------------
See linkgit:git-config[1] for core variables and linkgit:git-diff[1]
for settings related to diff generation.
format.pretty::
- Default for the `--format` option. (See "PRETTY FORMATS" above.)
- Defaults to "medium".
+ Default for the `--format` option. (See 'Pretty Formats' above.)
+ Defaults to `medium`.
i18n.logOutputEncoding::
- Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See "Discussion", above.)
- Defaults to the value of `i18n.commitEncoding` if set, UTF-8
+ Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See 'Discussion' above.)
+ Defaults to the value of `i18n.commitEncoding` if set, and UTF-8
otherwise.
log.date::
@@ -167,7 +185,7 @@ log.date::
dates like `Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500`.
log.showroot::
- If `false`, 'git log' and related commands will not treat the
+ If `false`, `git log` and related commands will not treat the
initial commit as a big creation event. Any root commits in
`git log -p` output would be shown without a diff attached.
The default is `true`.
@@ -178,7 +196,7 @@ mailmap.*::
notes.displayRef::
Which refs, in addition to the default set by `core.notesRef`
or 'GIT_NOTES_REF', to read notes from when showing commit
- messages with the 'log' family of commands. See
+ messages with the `log` family of commands. See
linkgit:git-notes[1].
+
May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be specified
diff --git a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index d549328..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,74 +0,0 @@
-git-lost-found(1)
-=================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-lost-found - Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git lost-found'
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-*NOTE*: this command is deprecated. Use linkgit:git-fsck[1] with
-the option '--lost-found' instead.
-
-Finds dangling commits and tags from the object database, and
-creates refs to them in the .git/lost-found/ directory. Commits and
-tags that dereference to commits are stored in .git/lost-found/commit,
-and other objects are stored in .git/lost-found/other.
-
-
-OUTPUT
-------
-Prints to standard output the object names and one-line descriptions
-of any commits or tags found.
-
-EXAMPLE
--------
-
-Suppose you run 'git tag -f' and mistype the tag to overwrite.
-The ref to your tag is overwritten, but until you run 'git
-prune', the tag itself is still there.
-
-------------
-$ git lost-found
-[1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6] GIT 0.99.9c
-...
-------------
-
-Also you can use gitk to browse how any tags found relate to each
-other.
-
-------------
-$ gitk $(cd .git/lost-found/commit && echo ??*)
-------------
-
-After making sure you know which the object is the tag you are looking
-for, you can reconnect it to your regular `refs` hierarchy by using
-the `update-ref` command.
-
-------------
-$ git cat-file -t 1ef2b196
-tag
-$ git cat-file tag 1ef2b196
-object fa41bbce8e38c67a218415de6cfa510c7e50032a
-type commit
-tag v0.99.9c
-tagger Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> 1131059594 -0800
-
-GIT 0.99.9c
-
-This contains the following changes from the "master" branch, since
-...
-$ git update-ref refs/tags/not-lost-anymore 1ef2b196
-$ git rev-parse not-lost-anymore
-1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6
-------------
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 774de5e..2e22915 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -48,9 +48,9 @@ OPTIONS
exit without talking to the remote.
<repository>::
- Location of the repository. The shorthand defined in
- $GIT_DIR/branches/ can be used. Use "." (dot) to list references in
- the local repository.
+ The "remote" repository to query. This parameter can be
+ either a URL or the name of a remote (see the GIT URLS and
+ REMOTES sections of linkgit:git-fetch[1]).
<refs>...::
When unspecified, all references, after filtering done
@@ -70,9 +70,8 @@ EXAMPLES
$ git ls-remote http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master pu rc
5fe978a5381f1fbad26a80e682ddd2a401966740 refs/heads/master
c781a84b5204fb294c9ccc79f8b3baceeb32c061 refs/heads/pu
- b1d096f2926c4e37c9c0b6a7bf2119bedaa277cb refs/heads/rc
- $ echo http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git >.git/branches/public
- $ git ls-remote --tags public v\*
+ $ git remote add korg http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
+ $ git ls-remote --tags korg v\*
d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 97e7a8e..164a3c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-mailinfo - Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
+'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--[no-]scissors] <msg> <patch>
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 87842e3..808426f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git merge-base' [-a|--all] --octopus <commit>...
'git merge-base' --is-ancestor <commit> <commit>
'git merge-base' --independent <commit>...
+'git merge-base' --fork-point <ref> [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -24,8 +25,8 @@ that does not have any better common ancestor is a 'best common
ancestor', i.e. a 'merge base'. Note that there can be more than one
merge base for a pair of commits.
-OPERATION MODE
---------------
+OPERATION MODES
+---------------
As the most common special case, specifying only two commits on the
command line means computing the merge base between the given two commits.
@@ -56,6 +57,14 @@ from linkgit:git-show-branch[1] when used with the `--merge-base` option.
and exit with status 0 if true, or with status 1 if not.
Errors are signaled by a non-zero status that is not 1.
+--fork-point::
+ Find the point at which a branch (or any history that leads
+ to <commit>) forked from another branch (or any reference)
+ <ref>. This does not just look for the common ancestor of
+ the two commits, but also takes into account the reflog of
+ <ref> to see if the history leading to <commit> forked from
+ an earlier incarnation of the branch <ref> (see discussion
+ on this mode below).
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -137,6 +146,31 @@ In modern git, you can say this in a more direct way:
instead.
+Discussion on fork-point mode
+-----------------------------
+
+After working on the `topic` branch created with `git checkout -b
+topic origin/master`, the history of remote-tracking branch
+`origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
+history of this shape:
+
+ o---B1
+ /
+ ---o---o---B2--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \
+ B3
+ \
+ Derived (topic)
+
+where `origin/master` used to point at commits B3, B2, B1 and now it
+points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
+when `origin/master` was at B3. This mode uses the reflog of
+`origin/master` to find B3 as the fork point, so that the `topic`
+can be rebased on top of the updated `origin/master` by:
+
+ $ fork_point=$(git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic)
+ $ git rebase --onto origin/master $fork_point topic
+
See also
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
index d7db2a3..d2fc12e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git merge-file' [-L <current-name> [-L <base-name> [-L <other-name>]]]
[--ours|--theirs|--union] [-p|--stdout] [-q|--quiet] [--marker-size=<n>]
- <current-file> <base-file> <other-file>
+ [--[no-]diff3] <current-file> <base-file> <other-file>
DESCRIPTION
@@ -66,6 +66,9 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
+--diff3::
+ Show conflicts in "diff3" style.
+
--ours::
--theirs::
--union::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
index c5f84b6..58731c1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads three treeish, and output trivial merge results and
+Reads three tree-ish, and output trivial merge results and
conflicting stages to the standard output. This is similar to
what three-way 'git read-tree -m' does, but instead of storing the
results in the index, the command outputs the entries to the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index e073375..4395459 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
- [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>]
+ [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
'git merge' --abort
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ especially if those changes were further modified after the merge
was started), 'git merge --abort' will in some cases be unable to
reconstruct the original (pre-merge) changes. Therefore:
-*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with uncommitted changes is
-discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a state that is hard to
+*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with non-trivial uncommitted changes is
+discouraged: while possible, it may leave you in a state that is hard to
back out of in the case of a conflict.
@@ -65,6 +65,10 @@ OPTIONS
-------
include::merge-options.txt[]
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign the resulting merge commit.
+
-m <msg>::
Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
case one is created).
@@ -76,8 +80,7 @@ The 'git fmt-merge-msg' command can be
used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
invocations.
---rerere-autoupdate::
---no-rerere-autoupdate::
+--[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 6b563c5..07137f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-mergetool - Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y|--no-prompt|--prompt] [<file>...]
+'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y | --[no-]prompt] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
index e93fcb4..e453132 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This script is used to move or rename a file, directory or symlink.
+Move or rename a file, directory or symlink.
git mv [-v] [-f] [-n] [-k] <source> <destination>
git mv [-v] [-f] [-n] [-k] <source> ... <destination directory>
@@ -44,6 +44,26 @@ OPTIONS
--verbose::
Report the names of files as they are moved.
+SUBMODULES
+----------
+Moving a submodule using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
+with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will update the gitfile and
+core.worktree setting to make the submodule work in the new location.
+It also will attempt to update the submodule.<name>.path setting in
+the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file and stage that file (unless -n is used).
+
+BUGS
+----
+Each time a superproject update moves a populated submodule (e.g. when
+switching between commits before and after the move) a stale submodule
+checkout will remain in the old location and an empty directory will
+appear in the new location. To populate the submodule again in the new
+location the user will have to run "git submodule update"
+afterwards. Removing the old directory is only safe when it uses a
+gitfile, as otherwise the history of the submodule will be deleted
+too. Both steps will be obsolete when recursive submodule update has
+been implemented.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index ad1d146..ca28fb8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git name-rev' [--tags] [--refs=<pattern>]
- ( --all | --stdin | <committish>... )
+ ( --all | --stdin | <commit-ish>... )
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -25,14 +25,17 @@ OPTIONS
Do not use branch names, but only tags to name the commits
--refs=<pattern>::
- Only use refs whose names match a given shell pattern.
+ Only use refs whose names match a given shell pattern. The pattern
+ can be one of branch name, tag name or fully qualified ref name.
--all::
List all commits reachable from all refs
--stdin::
- Read from stdin, append "(<rev_name>)" to all sha1's of nameable
- commits, and pass to stdout
+ Transform stdin by substituting all the 40-character SHA-1
+ hexes (say $hex) with "$hex ($rev_name)". When used with
+ --name-only, substitute with "$rev_name", omitting $hex
+ altogether. Intended for the scripter's use.
--name-only::
Instead of printing both the SHA-1 and the name, print only
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index 46ef046..84bb0fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -375,16 +375,6 @@ does not match any refs is silently ignored.
If not set in the environment, the list of notes to copy depends
on the `notes.rewrite.<command>` and `notes.rewriteRef` settings.
-
-Author
-------
-Written by Johannes Schindelin <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de> and
-Johan Herland <johan@herland.net>
-
-Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Johannes Schindelin and Johan Herland
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index c579fbc..6ab5f94 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -168,7 +168,8 @@ All commands except clone accept these options.
--git-dir <dir>::
Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
---verbose, -v::
+-v::
+--verbose::
Provide more progress information.
Sync options
@@ -176,13 +177,16 @@ Sync options
These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
subsequent 'sync' operations.
---branch <branch>::
- Import changes into given branch. If the branch starts with
- 'refs/', it will be used as is. Otherwise if it does not start
- with 'p4/', that prefix is added. The branch is assumed to
- name a remote tracking, but this can be modified using
- '--import-local', or by giving a full ref name. The default
- branch is 'master'.
+--branch <ref>::
+ Import changes into <ref> instead of refs/remotes/p4/master.
+ If <ref> starts with refs/, it is used as is. Otherwise, if
+ it does not start with p4/, that prefix is added.
++
+By default a <ref> not starting with refs/ is treated as the
+name of a remote-tracking branch (under refs/remotes/). This
+behavior can be modified using the --import-local option.
++
+The default <ref> is "master".
+
This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
Git repository:
@@ -276,7 +280,8 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
to the perforce working directory.
---dry-run, -n::
+-n::
+--dry-run::
Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
state in Git or p4.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index d94edcd..d2d8f47 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -51,8 +51,7 @@ base-name::
<base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
When this option is used, the two files are written in
<base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA-1> is a hash
- of the sorted object names to make the resulting filename
- based on the pack content, and written to the standard
+ based on the pack content and is written to the standard
output of the command.
--stdout::
@@ -65,6 +64,8 @@ base-name::
the same way as 'git rev-list' with the `--objects` flag
uses its `commit` arguments to build the list of objects it
outputs. The objects on the resulting list are packed.
+ Besides revisions, `--not` or `--shallow <SHA-1>` lines are
+ also accepted.
--unpacked::
This implies `--revs`. When processing the list of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
index f131677..154081f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
@@ -33,8 +33,8 @@ Subsequent updates to branches always create new files under
`$GIT_DIR/refs` directory hierarchy.
A recommended practice to deal with a repository with too many
-refs is to pack its refs with `--all --prune` once, and
-occasionally run `git pack-refs --prune`. Tags are by
+refs is to pack its refs with `--all` once, and
+occasionally run `git pack-refs`. Tags are by
definition stationary and are not expected to change. Branch
heads will be packed with the initial `pack-refs --all`, but
only the currently active branch heads will become unpacked,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 87ea3fb..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,43 +0,0 @@
-git-peek-remote(1)
-==================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-peek-remote - List the references in a remote repository
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git peek-remote' [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>] [<host>:]<directory>
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-This command is deprecated; use 'git ls-remote' instead.
-
-OPTIONS
--------
---upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>::
- Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
- remote side, if it is not found on your $PATH. Some
- installations of sshd ignores the user's environment
- setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
- your privately installed git may not be found on the system
- default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
- up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
- who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
- shells, but prefer having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
- the things up in .bash_profile).
-
-<host>::
- A remote host that houses the repository. When this
- part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
- ssh.
-
-<directory>::
- The repository to sync from.
-
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
index 80dc022..6738055 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This program searches the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIR` for all objects that currently
+This program searches the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY` for all objects that currently
exist in a pack file as well as the independent object directories.
All such extra objects are removed.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index 80d01b0..058ac0d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -24,6 +24,8 @@ objects unreachable from any of these head objects from the object database.
In addition, it
prunes the unpacked objects that are also found in packs by
running 'git prune-packed'.
+It also removes entries from .git/shallow that are not reachable by
+any ref.
Note that unreachable, packed objects will remain. If this is
not desired, see linkgit:git-repack[1].
@@ -59,7 +61,7 @@ borrows from your repository via its
`.git/objects/info/alternates`:
------------
-$ git prune $(cd ../another && $(git rev-parse --all))
+$ git prune $(cd ../another && git rev-parse --all)
------------
Notes
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index 24ab07a..200eb22 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-pull(1)
NAME
----
-git-pull - Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch
+git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
SYNOPSIS
@@ -42,6 +42,8 @@ Assume the following history exists and the current branch is
A---B---C master on origin
/
D---E---F---G master
+ ^
+ origin/master in your repository
------------
Then "`git pull`" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
@@ -51,7 +53,7 @@ result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits
and a log message from the user describing the changes.
------------
- A---B---C remotes/origin/master
+ A---B---C origin/master
/ \
D---E---F---G---H master
------------
@@ -97,17 +99,23 @@ must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
Options related to merging
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-include::merge-options.txt[]
-
:git-pull: 1
+include::merge-options.txt[]
+
-r::
---rebase::
- Rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after
- fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to
- the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since last
- fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing
- non-local changes.
+--rebase[=false|true|preserve]::
+ When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
+ branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
+ corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
+ was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
+ to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
++
+When preserve, also rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
+branch, but pass `--preserve-merges` along to `git rebase` so that
+locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
++
+When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.
+
See `pull.rebase`, `branch.<name>.rebase` and `branch.autosetuprebase` in
linkgit:git-config[1] if you want to make `git pull` always use
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 577d201..14862fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,10 @@ git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
+'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
- [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
+ [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
+ [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -55,8 +56,13 @@ it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
+
The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
-be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
-updated.
+be named.
+If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
+update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
+`remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
+be omitted---such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
+without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
+`:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
@@ -77,8 +83,8 @@ the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side.
--all::
- Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
- refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
+ Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
+ used with other <refspec>.
--prune::
Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
@@ -117,6 +123,12 @@ already exists on the remote side.
addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
line.
+--follow-tags::
+ Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
+ and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
+ from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
+ reachable from the refs being pushed.
+
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
@@ -124,12 +136,75 @@ already exists on the remote side.
repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
a directory on the default $PATH.
+--[no-]force-with-lease::
+--force-with-lease=<refname>::
+--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
+ Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
+ not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
++
+This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
+current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push"
+fails otherwise.
++
+Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
+You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
+replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
+If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
+rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
+commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
++
+This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
+updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
+still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
+other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease" on
+the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref while
+making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
++
+`--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
+all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
+current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
+for them, unless specified with a `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
+option that explicitly states what the expected value is.
++
+`--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
+protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
+requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
+branch we have for it.
++
+`--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
+if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
+the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
+different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
+or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
+this form is used).
++
+Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
+that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
+still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
+with this feature.
++
+"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
+command line.
+
-f::
--force::
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
- This flag disables the check. This can cause the
- remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
+ Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
+ to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
+ what is expected.
++
+This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
+to lose commits; use it with care.
++
+Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
+using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
+destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
+other than the current branch (including local refs that are
+strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
+one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
+origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
+`<refspec>...` section above for details.
--repo=<repository>::
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
@@ -156,8 +231,7 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
---thin::
---no-thin::
+--[no-]thin::
These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
@@ -190,6 +264,11 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
+--[no-]verify::
+ Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
+ default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
+ push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
+
include::urls-remotes.txt[]
@@ -363,8 +442,10 @@ Examples
configured for the current branch).
`git push origin`::
- Without additional configuration, works like
- `git push origin :`.
+ Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
+ the configured upstream (`remote.origin.merge` configuration
+ variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
+ errors out without pushing otherwise.
+
The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index aca8405..2a93c64 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -208,6 +208,9 @@ rebase.stat::
rebase.autosquash::
If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+rebase.autostash::
+ If set to true enable '--autostash' option by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
--onto <newbase>::
@@ -278,6 +281,10 @@ which makes little sense.
specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
-q::
--quiet::
Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
@@ -319,7 +326,17 @@ You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+
+--fork-point::
+--no-fork-point::
+ Use 'git merge-base --fork-point' to find a better common ancestor
+ between `upstream` and `branch` when calculating which commits have
+ have been introduced by `branch` (see linkgit:git-merge-base[1]).
++
+If no non-option arguments are given on the command line, then the default is
+`--fork-point @{u}` otherwise the `upstream` argument is interpreted literally
+unless the `--fork-point` option is specified.
--ignore-whitespace::
--whitespace=<option>::
@@ -386,7 +403,9 @@ squash/fixup series.
the same ..., automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i
so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved
- commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`).
+ commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). Ignores subsequent
+ "fixup! " or "squash! " after the first, in case you referred to an
+ earlier fixup/squash with `git commit --fixup/--squash`.
+
This option is only valid when the '--interactive' option is used.
+
@@ -394,6 +413,13 @@ If the '--autosquash' option is enabled by default using the
configuration variable `rebase.autosquash`, this option can be
used to override and disable this setting.
+--[no-]autostash::
+ Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation
+ begins, and apply it after the operation ends. This means
+ that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use
+ with care: the final stash application after a successful
+ rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+
--no-ff::
With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
@@ -404,7 +430,7 @@ Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.
You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
include::merge-strategies.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index fb8697e..70791b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -67,14 +67,19 @@ them.
--expire=<time>::
Entries older than this time are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration `gc.reflogExpire`,
- which in turn defaults to 90 days.
+ which in turn defaults to 90 days. --expire=all prunes
+ entries regardless of their age; --expire=never turns off
+ pruning of reachable entries (but see --expire-unreachable).
--expire-unreachable=<time>::
Entries older than this time and not reachable from
the current tip of the branch are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration
`gc.reflogExpireUnreachable`, which in turn defaults to
- 30 days.
+ 30 days. --expire-unreachable=all prunes unreachable
+ entries regardless of their age; --expire-unreachable=never
+ turns off early pruning of unreachable entries (but see
+ --expire).
--all::
Instead of listing <refs> explicitly, prune all refs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index 8cfc748..cd0bb77 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -116,11 +116,6 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
determined by the helper using environment variables (see
above).
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the Git list
-<git@vger.kernel.org>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
index 933c2ad..bcd3766 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
@@ -50,10 +50,6 @@ EXAMPLES
`git push fd::7,8/bar master`::
Same as above.
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the Git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 7a6f354..cb103c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -3,17 +3,17 @@ git-remote(1)
NAME
----
-git-remote - manage set of tracked repositories
+git-remote - Manage set of tracked repositories
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git remote' [-v | --verbose]
-'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--tags|--no-tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
+'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--[no-]tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
'git remote rename' <old> <new>
'git remote remove' <name>
-'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | -d | <branch>)
+'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | --auto | -d | --delete | <branch>)
'git remote set-branches' [--add] <name> <branch>...
'git remote set-url' [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]
'git remote set-url --add' [--push] <name> <newurl>
@@ -101,9 +101,9 @@ branch. For example, if the default branch for `origin` is set to
`master`, then `origin` may be specified wherever you would normally
specify `origin/master`.
+
-With `-d`, the symbolic ref `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is deleted.
+With `-d` or `--delete`, the symbolic ref `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is deleted.
+
-With `-a`, the remote is queried to determine its `HEAD`, then the
+With `-a` or `--auto`, the remote is queried to determine its `HEAD`, then the
symbolic-ref `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is set to the same branch. e.g., if the remote
`HEAD` is pointed at `next`, "`git remote set-head origin -a`" will set
the symbolic-ref `refs/remotes/origin/HEAD` to `refs/remotes/origin/next`. This will
@@ -187,18 +187,25 @@ Examples
$ git remote
origin
$ git branch -r
-origin/master
-$ git remote add linux-nfs git://linux-nfs.org/pub/linux/nfs-2.6.git
+ origin/HEAD -> origin/master
+ origin/master
+$ git remote add staging git://git.kernel.org/.../gregkh/staging.git
$ git remote
-linux-nfs
origin
-$ git fetch
-* refs/remotes/linux-nfs/master: storing branch 'master' ...
- commit: bf81b46
+staging
+$ git fetch staging
+...
+From git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/staging
+ * [new branch] master -> staging/master
+ * [new branch] staging-linus -> staging/staging-linus
+ * [new branch] staging-next -> staging/staging-next
$ git branch -r
-origin/master
-linux-nfs/master
-$ git checkout -b nfs linux-nfs/master
+ origin/HEAD -> origin/master
+ origin/master
+ staging/master
+ staging/staging-linus
+ staging/staging-next
+$ git checkout -b staging staging/master
...
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index 4c1aff6..4786a78 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -9,12 +9,12 @@ git-repack - Pack unpacked objects in a repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
+'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This script is used to combine all objects that do not currently
+This command is used to combine all objects that do not currently
reside in a "pack", into a pack. It can also be used to re-organize
existing packs into a single, more efficient pack.
@@ -110,6 +110,21 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
+-b::
+--write-bitmap-index::
+ Write a reachability bitmap index as part of the repack. This
+ only makes sense when used with `-a` or `-A`, as the bitmaps
+ must be able to refer to all reachable objects. This option
+ overrides the setting of `pack.writebitmaps`.
+
+--pack-kept-objects::
+ Include objects in `.keep` files when repacking. Note that we
+ still do not delete `.keep` packs after `pack-objects` finishes.
+ This means that we may duplicate objects, but this makes the
+ option safe to use when there are concurrent pushes or fetches.
+ This option is generally only useful if you are writing bitmaps
+ with `-b` or `pack.writebitmaps`, as it ensures that the
+ bitmapped packfile has the necessary objects.
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index e0b4057..0a02f70 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git replace' [-f] <object> <replacement>
'git replace' -d <object>...
-'git replace' -l [<pattern>]
+'git replace' [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -20,8 +20,14 @@ The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA-1 of the object that is
replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA-1 of the
replacement object.
+The replaced object and the replacement object must be of the same type.
+This restriction can be bypassed using `-f`.
+
Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist.
+There is no other restriction on the replaced and replacement objects.
+Merge commits can be replaced by non-merge commits and vice versa.
+
Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands
except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
fsck).
@@ -49,18 +55,51 @@ achieve the same effect as the `--no-replace-objects` option.
OPTIONS
-------
-f::
+--force::
If an existing replace ref for the same object exists, it will
be overwritten (instead of failing).
-d::
+--delete::
Delete existing replace refs for the given objects.
-l <pattern>::
+--list <pattern>::
List replace refs for objects that match the given pattern (or
all if no pattern is given).
Typing "git replace" without arguments, also lists all replace
refs.
+--format=<format>::
+ When listing, use the specified <format>, which can be one of
+ 'short', 'medium' and 'long'. When omitted, the format
+ defaults to 'short'.
+
+FORMATS
+-------
+
+The following format are available:
+
+* 'short':
+ <replaced sha1>
+* 'medium':
+ <replaced sha1> -> <replacement sha1>
+* 'long':
+ <replaced sha1> (<replaced type>) -> <replacement sha1> (<replacement type>)
+
+CREATING REPLACEMENT OBJECTS
+----------------------------
+
+linkgit:git-filter-branch[1], linkgit:git-hash-object[1] and
+linkgit:git-rebase[1], among other git commands, can be used to create
+replacement objects from existing objects.
+
+If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part of a
+string of commits, you may just want to create a replacement string of
+commits and then only replace the commit at the tip of the target
+string of commits with the commit at the tip of the replacement string
+of commits.
+
BUGS
----
Comparing blobs or trees that have been replaced with those that
@@ -69,12 +108,13 @@ go back to a replaced commit will move the branch to the replacement
commit instead of the replaced commit.
There may be other problems when using 'git rev-list' related to
-pending objects. And of course things may break if an object of one
-type is replaced by an object of another type (for example a blob
-replaced by a commit).
+pending objects.
SEE ALSO
--------
+linkgit:git-hash-object[1]
+linkgit:git-filter-branch[1]
+linkgit:git-rebase[1]
linkgit:git-tag[1]
linkgit:git-branch[1]
linkgit:git[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt b/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 9ec115b..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,23 +0,0 @@
-git-repo-config(1)
-==================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-repo-config - Get and set repository or global options
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git repo-config' ...
-
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-This is a synonym for linkgit:git-config[1]. Please refer to the
-documentation of that command.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
index b99681c..283577b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
@@ -13,22 +13,65 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Summarizes the changes between two commits to the standard output, and includes
-the given URL in the generated summary.
+Generate a request asking your upstream project to pull changes into
+their tree. The request, printed to the standard output, summarizes
+the changes and indicates from where they can be pulled.
+
+The upstream project is expected to have the commit named by
+`<start>` and the output asks it to integrate the changes you made
+since that commit, up to the commit named by `<end>`, by visiting
+the repository named by `<url>`.
+
OPTIONS
-------
-p::
- Show patch text
+ Include patch text in the output.
<start>::
- Commit to start at.
+ Commit to start at. This names a commit that is already in
+ the upstream history.
<url>::
- URL to include in the summary.
+ The repository URL to be pulled from.
<end>::
- Commit to end at; defaults to HEAD.
+ Commit to end at (defaults to HEAD). This names the commit
+ at the tip of the history you are asking to be pulled.
++
+When the repository named by `<url>` has the commit at a tip of a
+ref that is different from the ref you have locally, you can use the
+`<local>:<remote>` syntax, to have its local name, a colon `:`, and
+its remote name.
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+Imagine that you built your work on your `master` branch on top of
+the `v1.0` release, and want it to be integrated to the project.
+First you push that change to your public repository for others to
+see:
+
+ git push https://git.ko.xz/project master
+
+Then, you run this command:
+
+ git request-pull v1.0 https://git.ko.xz/project master
+
+which will produce a request to the upstream, summarizing the
+changes between the `v1.0` release and your `master`, to pull it
+from your public repository.
+
+If you pushed your change to a branch whose name is different from
+the one you have locally, e.g.
+
+ git push https://git.ko.xz/project master:for-linus
+
+then you can ask that to be pulled with
+
+ git request-pull v1.0 https://git.ko.xz/project master:for-linus
+
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index a404b47..a077ba0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-sh>] [--] [<paths>...]
-'git reset' [--soft | --mixed | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git reset' [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -60,6 +60,9 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files
are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not
been updated. This is the default action.
++
+If `-N` is specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add (see
+linkgit:git-add[1]).
--hard::
Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked files in the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 65ac27e..7a1585d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--right-only ]
[ \--cherry-mark ]
[ \--cherry-pick ]
- [ \--encoding[=<encoding>] ]
+ [ \--encoding=<encoding> ]
[ \--(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
[ \--regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
[ \--extended-regexp | -E ]
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--reverse ]
[ \--walk-reflogs ]
[ \--no-walk ] [ \--do-walk ]
+ [ \--use-bitmap-index ]
<commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index f2537bb..e05e6b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -24,9 +24,23 @@ distinguish between them.
OPTIONS
-------
+
+Operation Modes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each of these options must appear first on the command line.
+
--parseopt::
Use 'git rev-parse' in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).
+--sq-quote::
+ Use 'git rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
+ section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
+ mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
+
+Options for --parseopt
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
--keep-dashdash::
Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Tells the option parser to echo
out the first `--` met instead of skipping it.
@@ -36,10 +50,12 @@ OPTIONS
the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands
that take options themselves.
---sq-quote::
- Use 'git rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
- section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
- mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
+--stuck-long::
+ Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Output the options in their
+ long form if available, and with their arguments stuck.
+
+Options for Filtering
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--revs-only::
Do not output flags and parameters not meant for
@@ -55,13 +71,43 @@ OPTIONS
--no-flags::
Do not output flag parameters.
+Options for Output
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
--default <arg>::
If there is no parameter given by the user, use `<arg>`
instead.
+--prefix <arg>::
+ Behave as if 'git rev-parse' was invoked from the `<arg>`
+ subdirectory of the working tree. Any relative filenames are
+ resolved as if they are prefixed by `<arg>` and will be printed
+ in that form.
++
+This can be used to convert arguments to a command run in a subdirectory
+so that they can still be used after moving to the top-level of the
+repository. For example:
++
+----
+prefix=$(git rev-parse --show-prefix)
+cd "$(git rev-parse --show-toplevel)"
+eval "set -- $(git rev-parse --sq --prefix "$prefix" "$@")"
+----
+
--verify::
- The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid
- object name. Otherwise barf and abort.
+ Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it
+ can be turned into a raw 20-byte SHA-1 that can be used to
+ access the object database. If so, emit it to the standard
+ output; otherwise, error out.
++
+If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object in
+your object database and/or can be used as a specific type of object
+you require, you can add "^{type}" peeling operator to the parameter.
+For example, `git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}"` will make sure `$VAR`
+names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a commit, or an
+annotated tag that points at a commit). To make sure that `$VAR`
+names an existing object of any type, `git rev-parse "$VAR^{object}"`
+can be used.
-q::
--quiet::
@@ -83,6 +129,17 @@ OPTIONS
strip '{caret}' prefix from the object names that already have
one.
+--abbrev-ref[=(strict|loose)]::
+ A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name.
+ The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
+ abbreviation mode.
+
+--short::
+--short=number::
+ Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to
+ abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
+ 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
+
--symbolic::
Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with
possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
@@ -96,16 +153,8 @@ OPTIONS
unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as full
refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").
---abbrev-ref[=(strict|loose)]::
- A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name.
- The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
- abbreviation mode.
-
---disambiguate=<prefix>::
- Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix.
- The <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to
- avoid listing each and every object in the repository by
- mistake.
+Options for Objects
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--all::
Show all refs found in `refs/`.
@@ -128,18 +177,34 @@ shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
character (`?`, `*`, or `[`), it is turned into a prefix
match by appending `/*`.
---show-toplevel::
- Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
+ Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
+ `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
+ consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
+ up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
+ `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
+ accumlated patterns).
++
+The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
+`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
+respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
+or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
+explicitly.
---show-prefix::
- When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
- path of the current directory relative to the top-level
- directory.
+--disambiguate=<prefix>::
+ Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix.
+ The <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to
+ avoid listing each and every object in the repository by
+ mistake.
---show-cdup::
- When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
- path of the top-level directory relative to the current
- directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
+Options for Files
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+--local-env-vars::
+ List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
+ repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
+ Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value,
+ even if they are set.
--git-dir::
Show `$GIT_DIR` if defined. Otherwise show the path to
@@ -161,17 +226,27 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-bare-repository::
When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
---local-env-vars::
- List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
- repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
- Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value,
- even if they are set.
+--resolve-git-dir <path>::
+ Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
+ points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
+ repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path
+ to the real repository is printed.
---short::
---short=number::
- Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to
- abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
- 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
+--show-cdup::
+ When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
+ path of the top-level directory relative to the current
+ directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
+
+--show-prefix::
+ When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
+ path of the current directory relative to the top-level
+ directory.
+
+--show-toplevel::
+ Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+
+Other Options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--since=datestring::
--after=datestring::
@@ -186,12 +261,6 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
<args>...::
Flags and parameters to be parsed.
---resolve-git-dir <path>::
- Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
- points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
- repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path
- to the real repository is printed.
-
include::revisions.txt[]
@@ -215,13 +284,13 @@ Input Format
'git rev-parse --parseopt' input format is fully text based. It has two parts,
separated by a line that contains only `--`. The lines before the separator
-(should be more than one) are used for the usage.
+(should be one or more) are used for the usage.
The lines after the separator describe the options.
Each line of options has this format:
------------
-<opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF
+<opt_spec><flags>*<arg_hint>? SP+ help LF
------------
`<opt_spec>`::
@@ -234,7 +303,9 @@ Each line of options has this format:
`<flags>` are of `*`, `=`, `?` or `!`.
* Use `=` if the option takes an argument.
- * Use `?` to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).
+ * Use `?` to mean that the option takes an optional argument. You
+ probably want to use the `--stuck-long` mode to be able to
+ unambiguously parse the optional argument.
* Use `*` to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage
generated for the `-h` argument. It's shown for `--help-all` as
@@ -242,6 +313,12 @@ Each line of options has this format:
* Use `!` to not make the corresponding negated long option available.
+`<arg_hint>`::
+ `<arg_hint>`, if specified, is used as a name of the argument in the
+ help output, for options that take arguments. `<arg_hint>` is
+ terminated by the first whitespace. When you need to use space in the
+ argument hint use dash instead.
+
The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used
as the help associated to the option.
@@ -262,6 +339,8 @@ h,help show the help
foo some nifty option --foo
bar= some cool option --bar with an argument
+baz=arg another cool option --baz with a named argument
+qux?path qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself
An option group Header
C? option C with an optional argument"
@@ -269,6 +348,28 @@ C? option C with an optional argument"
eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"
------------
+
+Usage text
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When `"$@"` is `-h` or `--help` in the above example, the following
+usage text would be shown:
+
+------------
+usage: some-command [options] <args>...
+
+ some-command does foo and bar!
+
+ -h, --help show the help
+ --foo some nifty option --foo
+ --bar ... some cool option --bar with an argument
+ --bar <arg> another cool option --baz with a named argument
+ --qux[=<path>] qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself
+
+An option group Header
+ -C[...] option C with an optional argument
+------------
+
SQ-QUOTE
--------
@@ -308,12 +409,12 @@ $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD
* Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:
+
------------
-$ git rev-parse --verify $REV
+$ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}
------------
+
This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.
-* Same as above:
+* Similar to above:
+
------------
$ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 70152e8..9eb83f0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-revert - Revert some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git revert' [--edit | --no-edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] <commit>...
+'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
'git revert' --continue
'git revert' --quit
'git revert' --abort
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ brought in by the merge. As a result, later merges will only bring in tree
changes introduced by commits that are not ancestors of the previously
reverted merge. This may or may not be what you want.
+
-See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
more details.
--no-edit::
@@ -80,6 +80,10 @@ more details.
This is useful when reverting more than one commits'
effect to your index in a row.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
-s::
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 92bac27..f1efc11 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -134,14 +134,16 @@ use the following command:
git diff --name-only --diff-filter=D -z | xargs -0 git rm --cached
----------------
-Submodules
-~~~~~~~~~~
+SUBMODULES
+----------
Only submodules using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
tree, as their repository lives inside the .git directory of the
superproject. If a submodule (or one of those nested inside it)
still uses a .git directory, `git rm` will fail - no matter if forced
-or not - to protect the submodule's history.
+or not - to protect the submodule's history. If it exists the
+submodule.<name> section in the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file will also
+be removed and that file will be staged (unless --cached or -n are used).
A submodule is considered up-to-date when the HEAD is the same as
recorded in the index, no tracked files are modified and no untracked
@@ -149,6 +151,10 @@ files that aren't ignored are present in the submodules work tree.
Ignored files are deemed expendable and won't stop a submodule's work
tree from being removed.
+If you only want to remove the local checkout of a submodule from your
+work tree without committing the removal,
+use linkgit:git-submodule[1] `deinit` instead.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
`git rm Documentation/\*.txt`::
@@ -164,6 +170,15 @@ of files and subdirectories under the `Documentation/` directory.
(i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it
does not remove `subdir/git-foo.sh`.
+BUGS
+----
+Each time a superproject update removes a populated submodule
+(e.g. when switching between commits before and after the removal) a
+stale submodule checkout will remain in the old location. Removing the
+old directory is only safe when it uses a gitfile, as otherwise the
+history of the submodule will be deleted too. This step will be
+obsolete when recursive submodule update has been implemented.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-add[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 44a1f7c..f0e57a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -45,8 +45,9 @@ Composing
~~~~~~~~~
--annotate::
- Review and edit each patch you're about to send. See the
- CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiedit'.
+ Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
+ of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
+ 'sendemail.multiedit'.
--bcc=<address>::
Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
@@ -164,8 +165,8 @@ Sending
Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
'--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpuser'), but no password has been
-specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then the
-user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
+specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then
+a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
--smtp-server=<host>::
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
@@ -197,6 +198,12 @@ must be used for each option.
--smtp-ssl::
Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
+--smtp-ssl-cert-path::
+ Path to ca-certificates (either a directory or a single file).
+ Set it to an empty string to disable certificate verification.
+ Defaults to the value set to the 'sendemail.smtpsslcertpath'
+ configuration variable, if set, or `/etc/ssl/certs` otherwise.
+
--smtp-user=<user>::
Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpuser';
if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpuser'),
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
index 6a9f66d..4f67c4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -41,9 +41,11 @@ usage::
die with the usage message.
set_reflog_action::
- set the message that will be recorded to describe the
- end-user action in the reflog, when the script updates a
- ref.
+ Set GIT_REFLOG_ACTION environment to a given string (typically
+ the name of the program) unless it is already set. Whenever
+ the script runs a `git` command that updates refs, a reflog
+ entry is created using the value of this string to leave the
+ record of what command updated the ref.
git_editor::
runs an editor of user's choice (GIT_EDITOR, core.editor, VISUAL or
@@ -82,6 +84,12 @@ get_author_ident_from_commit::
outputs code for use with eval to set the GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL and GIT_AUTHOR_DATE variables for a given commit.
+create_virtual_base::
+ modifies the first file so only lines in common with the
+ second file remain. If there is insufficient common material,
+ then the first file is left empty. The result is suitable
+ as a virtual base input for a 3-way merge.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index 9b92506..c35051b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -9,25 +9,81 @@ git-shell - Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git shell' [-c <command> <argument>]
+'chsh' -s $(command -v git-shell) <user>
+'git clone' <user>`@localhost:/path/to/repo.git`
+'ssh' <user>`@localhost`
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A login shell for SSH accounts to provide restricted Git access. When
-'-c' is given, the program executes <command> non-interactively;
-<command> can be one of 'git receive-pack', 'git upload-pack', 'git
-upload-archive', 'cvs server', or a command in COMMAND_DIR. The shell
-is started in interactive mode when no arguments are given; in this
-case, COMMAND_DIR must exist, and any of the executables in it can be
-invoked.
+This is a login shell for SSH accounts to provide restricted Git access.
+It permits execution only of server-side Git commands implementing the
+pull/push functionality, plus custom commands present in a subdirectory
+named `git-shell-commands` in the user's home directory.
-'cvs server' is a special command which executes git-cvsserver.
+COMMANDS
+--------
+
+'git shell' accepts the following commands after the '-c' option:
+
+'git receive-pack <argument>'::
+'git upload-pack <argument>'::
+'git upload-archive <argument>'::
+ Call the corresponding server-side command to support
+ the client's 'git push', 'git fetch', or 'git archive --remote'
+ request.
+'cvs server'::
+ Imitate a CVS server. See linkgit:git-cvsserver[1].
+
+If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell' will
+also handle other, custom commands by running
+"`git-shell-commands/<command> <arguments>`" from the user's home
+directory.
+
+INTERACTIVE USE
+---------------
+
+By default, the commands above can be executed only with the '-c'
+option; the shell is not interactive.
-COMMAND_DIR is the path "$HOME/git-shell-commands". The user must have
-read and execute permissions to the directory in order to execute the
-programs in it. The programs are executed with a cwd of $HOME, and
-<argument> is parsed as a command-line string.
+If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell'
+can also be run interactively (with no arguments). If a `help`
+command is present in the `git-shell-commands` directory, it is
+run to provide the user with an overview of allowed actions. Then a
+"git> " prompt is presented at which one can enter any of the
+commands from the `git-shell-commands` directory, or `exit` to close
+the connection.
+
+Generally this mode is used as an administrative interface to allow
+users to list repositories they have access to, create, delete, or
+rename repositories, or change repository descriptions and
+permissions.
+
+If a `no-interactive-login` command exists, then it is run and the
+interactive shell is aborted.
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+To disable interactive logins, displaying a greeting instead:
++
+----------------
+$ chsh -s /usr/bin/git-shell
+$ mkdir $HOME/git-shell-commands
+$ cat >$HOME/git-shell-commands/no-interactive-login <<\EOF
+#!/bin/sh
+printf '%s\n' "Hi $USER! You've successfully authenticated, but I do not"
+printf '%s\n' "provide interactive shell access."
+exit 128
+EOF
+$ chmod +x $HOME/git-shell-commands/no-interactive-login
+----------------
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+ssh(1),
+linkgit:git-daemon[1],
+contrib/git-shell-commands/README
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index c308e91..31af7f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [-h] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-w]
-'git shortlog' [-n|--numbered] [-s|--summary] [-e|--email] [-w[<width>[,<indent1>[,<indent2>]]]] <commit>...
+git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [<options>]
+'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -26,10 +26,6 @@ reference to the current repository.
OPTIONS
-------
--h::
---help::
- Print a short usage message and exit.
-
-n::
--numbered::
Sort output according to the number of commits per author instead
@@ -60,6 +56,21 @@ OPTIONS
If width is `0` (zero) then indent the lines of the output without wrapping
them.
+<revision range>::
+ Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
+ <revision range> is specified, it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the
+ whole history leading to the current commit). `origin..HEAD`
+ specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
+ (i.e. `HEAD`), but not from `origin`. For a complete list of
+ ways to spell <revision range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
+ section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+
+[\--] <path>...::
+ Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files
+ that match the specified paths came to be.
++
+Paths may need to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from
+options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index de4d352..ffd1b03 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -21,6 +21,8 @@ commit IDs. Results can be filtered using a pattern and tags can be
dereferenced into object IDs. Additionally, it can be used to test whether a
particular ref exists.
+By default, shows the tags, heads, and remote refs.
+
The --exclude-existing form is a filter that does the inverse, it shows the
refs from stdin that don't exist in the local repository.
@@ -32,14 +34,14 @@ OPTIONS
--head::
- Show the HEAD reference.
+ Show the HEAD reference, even if it would normally be filtered out.
--tags::
--heads::
- Limit to only "refs/heads" and "refs/tags", respectively. These
- options are not mutually exclusive; when given both, references stored
- in "refs/heads" and "refs/tags" are displayed.
+ Limit to "refs/heads" and "refs/tags", respectively. These options
+ are not mutually exclusive; when given both, references stored in
+ "refs/heads" and "refs/tags" are displayed.
-d::
--dereference::
@@ -173,6 +175,7 @@ FILES
SEE ALSO
--------
+linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1],
linkgit:git-ls-remote[1],
linkgit:git-update-ref[1],
linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show.txt b/Documentation/git-show.txt
index ae4edcc..4e617e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show.txt
@@ -45,6 +45,15 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
+COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
+-------------------
+
+:git-log: 1
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+include::diff-generate-patch.txt[]
+
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 711ffe1..375213f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -13,10 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
-'git stash' [save [--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
+'git stash' [save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
[-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]]
'git stash' clear
-'git stash' create
+'git stash' create [<message>]
+'git stash' store [-m|--message <message>] [-q|--quiet] <commit>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -43,7 +44,7 @@ is also possible).
OPTIONS
-------
-save [-p|--patch] [--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
+save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
Save your local modifications to a new 'stash', and run `git reset
--hard` to revert them. The <message> part is optional and gives
@@ -151,7 +152,15 @@ create::
Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
+ This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is probably not
+ the command you want to use; see "save" above.
+store::
+
+ Store a given stash created via 'git stash create' (which is a
+ dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating the stash
+ reflog. This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is
+ probably not the command you want to use; see "save" above.
DISCUSSION
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 9046df9..def635f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
OUTPUT
------
The output from this command is designed to be used as a commit
-template comment, and all the output lines are prefixed with '#'.
+template comment.
The default, long format, is designed to be human readable,
verbose and descriptive. Its contents and format are subject to change
at any time.
@@ -210,7 +210,13 @@ directory.
If `status.submodulesummary` is set to a non zero number or true (identical
to -1 or an unlimited number), the submodule summary will be enabled for
the long format and a summary of commits for modified submodules will be
-shown (see --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]).
+shown (see --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]). Please note
+that the summary output from the status command will be suppressed for all
+submodules when `diff.ignoreSubmodules` is set to 'all' or only for those
+submodules where `submodule.<name>.ignore=all`. To also view the summary for
+ignored submodules you can either use the --ignore-submodules=dirty command
+line option or the 'git submodule summary' command, which shows a similar
+output but does not honor these settings.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index c99d795..89c4d3e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -10,12 +10,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force] [--name <name>]
- [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
+ [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] [--] <path>...
'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
- [-f|--force] [--rebase] [--reference <repository>]
- [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+ [-f|--force] [--rebase|--merge] [--reference <repository>]
+ [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
[commit] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
@@ -76,6 +77,8 @@ argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
"humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
+The <path> is also used as the submodule's logical name in its
+configuration entries unless `--name` is used to specify a logical name.
+
<repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
@@ -123,8 +126,10 @@ linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-diff[1] will provide that information
too (and can also report changes to a submodule's work tree).
init::
- Initialize the submodules, i.e. register each submodule name
- and url found in .gitmodules into .git/config.
+ Initialize the submodules recorded in the index (which were
+ added and committed elsewhere) by copying submodule
+ names and urls from .gitmodules to .git/config.
+ Optional <path> arguments limit which submodules will be initialized.
It will also copy the value of `submodule.$name.update` into
.git/config.
The key used in .git/config is `submodule.$name.url`.
@@ -135,13 +140,28 @@ init::
the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
any submodule locations.
+deinit::
+ Unregister the given submodules, i.e. remove the whole
+ `submodule.$name` section from .git/config together with their work
+ tree. Further calls to `git submodule update`, `git submodule foreach`
+ and `git submodule sync` will skip any unregistered submodules until
+ they are initialized again, so use this command if you don't want to
+ have a local checkout of the submodule in your work tree anymore. If
+ you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit
+ that use linkgit:git-rm[1] instead.
++
+If `--force` is specified, the submodule's work tree will be removed even if
+it contains local modifications.
+
update::
Update the registered submodules, i.e. clone missing submodules and
checkout the commit specified in the index of the containing repository.
This will make the submodules HEAD be detached unless `--rebase` or
`--merge` is specified or the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to
`rebase`, `merge` or `none`. `none` can be overridden by specifying
- `--checkout`.
+ `--checkout`. Setting the key `submodule.$name.update` to `!command`
+ will cause `command` to be run. `command` can be any arbitrary shell
+ command that takes a single argument, namely the sha1 to update to.
+
If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the
setting as stored in .gitmodules, you can automatically initialize the
@@ -209,13 +229,15 @@ OPTIONS
-b::
--branch::
Branch of repository to add as submodule.
- The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<path>.branch` in
+ The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<name>.branch` in
`.gitmodules` for `update --remote`.
-f::
--force::
- This option is only valid for add and update commands.
+ This option is only valid for add, deinit and update commands.
When running add, allow adding an otherwise ignored submodule path.
+ When running deinit the submodule work trees will be removed even if
+ they contain local changes.
When running update, throw away local changes in submodules when
switching to a different commit; and always run a checkout operation
in the submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
@@ -242,7 +264,7 @@ OPTIONS
--remote::
This option is only valid for the update command. Instead of using
the superproject's recorded SHA-1 to update the submodule, use the
- status of the submodule's remote tracking branch. The remote used
+ status of the submodule's remote-tracking branch. The remote used
is branch's remote (`branch.<name>.remote`), defaulting to `origin`.
The remote branch used defaults to `master`, but the branch name may
be overridden by setting the `submodule.<name>.branch` option in
@@ -259,12 +281,31 @@ In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, `update --remote`
fetches the submodule's remote repository before calculating the
SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use `submodule update
--remote --no-fetch`.
++
+Use this option to integrate changes from the upstream subproject with
+your submodule's current HEAD. Alternatively, you can run `git pull`
+from the submodule, which is equivalent except for the remote branch
+name: `update --remote` uses the default upstream repository and
+`submodule.<name>.branch`, while `git pull` uses the submodule's
+`branch.<name>.merge`. Prefer `submodule.<name>.branch` if you want
+to distribute the default upstream branch with the superproject and
+`branch.<name>.merge` if you want a more native feel while working in
+the submodule itself.
-N::
--no-fetch::
This option is only valid for the update command.
Don't fetch new objects from the remote site.
+--checkout::
+ This option is only valid for the update command.
+ Checkout the commit recorded in the superproject on a detached HEAD
+ in the submodule. This is the default behavior, the main use of
+ this option is to override `submodule.$name.update` when set to
+ `merge`, `rebase` or `none`.
+ If the key `submodule.$name.update` is either not explicitly set or
+ set to `checkout`, this option is implicit.
+
--merge::
This option is only valid for the update command.
Merge the commit recorded in the superproject into the current branch
@@ -308,6 +349,12 @@ for linkgit:git-clone[1]'s `--reference` and `--shared` options carefully.
only in the submodules of the current repo, but also
in any nested submodules inside those submodules (and so on).
+--depth::
+ This option is valid for add and update commands. Create a 'shallow'
+ clone with a history truncated to the specified number of revisions.
+ See linkgit:git-clone[1]
+
+
<path>...::
Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command
to only operate on the submodules found at the specified paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 7706d41..30c5ee2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -79,12 +79,29 @@ COMMANDS
trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the
argument if that is what you want. If --branches/-b is
specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
- Setting a prefix is useful if you wish to track multiple
- projects that share a common repository.
+ Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly
+ encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will
+ then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/*", which is
+ compatible with Git's own remote-tracking ref layout
+ (refs/remotes/$remote/*). Setting a prefix is also useful
+ if you wish to track multiple projects that share a common
+ repository.
++
+NOTE: In Git v2.0, the default prefix will CHANGE from "" (no prefix)
+to "origin/". This is done to put SVN-tracking refs at
+"refs/remotes/origin/*" instead of "refs/remotes/*", and make them
+more compatible with how Git's own remote-tracking refs are organized
+(i.e. refs/remotes/$remote/*). You can enjoy the same benefits today,
+by using the --prefix option.
+
--ignore-paths=<regex>;;
When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
of '--ignore-paths'.
+--include-paths=<regex>;;
+ When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
+ be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
+ of '--include-paths'.
--no-minimize-url;;
When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
--branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
@@ -100,19 +117,22 @@ COMMANDS
'fetch'::
Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are
tracking. The name of the [svn-remote "..."] section in the
- .git/config file may be specified as an optional command-line
- argument.
+ $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional
+ command-line argument.
++
+This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
+'$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
--localtime;;
- Store Git commit times in the local timezone instead of UTC. This
+ Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This
makes 'git log' (even without --date=local) show the same times
- that `svn log` would in the local timezone.
+ that `svn log` would in the local time zone.
+
This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion
repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git
repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's local Git
repository, either don't use this option or you should both use it in
-the same local timezone.
+the same local time zone.
--parent;;
Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.
@@ -146,12 +166,20 @@ Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories;;
------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
+--include-paths=<regex>;;
+ This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
+ cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN.
+ The '--include-paths' option should match for every 'fetch'
+ (including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
+ 'rebase', etc) on a given repository. '--ignore-paths' takes
+ precedence over '--include-paths'.
+
--log-window-size=<n>;;
- Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history.
- The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger
- values may be needed for 'clone'/'fetch' to complete in reasonable
- time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and
- request timeouts.
+ Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history.
+ The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger
+ values may be needed for 'clone'/'fetch' to complete in reasonable
+ time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and
+ request timeouts.
'clone'::
Runs 'init' and 'fetch'. It will automatically create a
@@ -189,6 +217,9 @@ accept. However, '--fetch-all' only fetches from the current
+
Like 'git rebase'; this requires that the working tree be clean
and have no uncommitted changes.
++
+This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
+'$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
-l;;
--local;;
@@ -244,7 +275,7 @@ first have already been pushed into SVN.
For each patch, one may answer "yes" (accept this patch), "no" (discard this
patch), "all" (accept all patches), or "quit".
+
- 'git svn dcommit' returns immediately if answer if "no" or "quit", without
+ 'git svn dcommit' returns immediately if answer is "no" or "quit", without
committing anything to SVN.
'branch'::
@@ -259,13 +290,15 @@ first have already been pushed into SVN.
Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
specified during git svn init.
--d;;
---destination;;
+-d<path>;;
+--destination=<path>;;
+
If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the 'init'
or 'clone' command, you must provide the location of the branch (or
- tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. The value of this
- option must match one of the paths specified by a --branches (or
- --tags) option. You can see these paths with the commands
+ tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. <path> specifies which
+ path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern
+ on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags
+ refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands
+
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags
@@ -286,6 +319,11 @@ where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
+
+--parents;;
+ Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter
+ --parents on svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository
+ layouts.
+
'tag'::
Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
'branch -t'.
@@ -328,12 +366,12 @@ environment). This command has the same behaviour.
Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
'blame'::
- Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The
- output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
- `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command,
- local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored;
- the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown
- arguments are passed directly to 'git blame'.
+ Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The
+ output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
+ `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command,
+ local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored;
+ the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown
+ arguments are passed directly to 'git blame'.
+
--git-format;;
Produce output in the same format as 'git blame', but with
@@ -416,8 +454,8 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
specific revision.
'gc'::
- Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files in .git/svn
- and remove $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>index files in .git/svn.
+ Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and remove
+ $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.
'reset'::
Undoes the effects of 'fetch' back to the specified revision.
@@ -430,9 +468,10 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only
way to repair the repo is to use 'reset'.
+
-Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed. Follow 'reset'
-with a 'fetch' and then 'git reset' or 'git rebase' to move local
-branches onto the new tree.
+Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see
+'$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
+Follow 'reset' with a 'fetch' and then 'git reset' or 'git rebase' to
+move local branches onto the new tree.
-r <n>;;
--revision=<n>;;
@@ -665,7 +704,7 @@ svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata::
+
This option can only be used for one-shot imports as 'git svn'
will not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally,
-if you lose your .git/svn/**/.rev_map.* files, 'git svn' will not
+if you lose your '$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' files, 'git svn' will not
be able to rebuild them.
+
The 'git svn log' command will not work on repositories using
@@ -785,16 +824,16 @@ Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
- git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout
+ git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout --prefix svn/
# Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
- git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag
+ git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
# View all branches and tags you have cloned:
git branch -r
# Create a new branch in SVN
- git svn branch waldo
+ git svn branch waldo
# Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
# with the appropriate name):
- git reset --hard remotes/trunk
+ git reset --hard svn/trunk
# You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time. The usage
# of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -808,7 +847,7 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Do the initial import on a server
- ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project
+ ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options...]"
# Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
mkdir project
cd project
@@ -821,8 +860,9 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
git config --remove-section remote.origin
# Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
-# Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and -T/-b/-t options as were used on server)
- git svn init http://svn.example.com/project
+# Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
+# --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
+ git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options...]
# Pull the latest changes from Subversion
git svn rebase
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -954,12 +994,22 @@ without giving any repository layout options. If the full history with
branches and tags is required, the options '--trunk' / '--branches' /
'--tags' must be used.
+When using the options for describing the repository layout (--trunk,
+--tags, --branches, --stdlayout), please also specify the --prefix
+option (e.g. '--prefix=origin/') to cause your SVN-tracking refs to be
+placed at refs/remotes/origin/* rather than the default refs/remotes/*.
+The former is more compatible with the layout of Git's "regular"
+remote-tracking refs (refs/remotes/$remote/*), and may potentially
+prevent similarly named SVN branches and Git remotes from clobbering
+each other. In Git v2.0 the default prefix used (i.e. when no --prefix
+is given) will change from "" (no prefix) to "origin/".
+
When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
use 'init' to set up your Git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
-the .git/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with
-different name spaces. For example:
+the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the branches and tags are associated
+with different name spaces. For example:
branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*
@@ -987,7 +1037,7 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
'git svn' stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
-repository .git/config file. It is similar the core Git
+repository $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git
[remote] sections except 'fetch' keys do not accept glob
arguments; but they are instead handled by the 'branches'
and 'tags' keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly
@@ -1016,14 +1066,46 @@ comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:
[svn-remote "huge-project"]
url = http://server.org/svn
fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
- branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/branches/*
- tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/tags/*
+ branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
+ tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[svn-remote "messy-repo"]
+ url = http://server.org/svn
+ fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
+ fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
+ branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
+ branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
+ tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which
+location to use using the -d or --destination flag:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
-fetching, then .git/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or
-reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
+fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove
+(or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
+
+FILES
+-----
+$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*::
+ Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit
+ names. In a repository where the noMetadata option is not set,
+ this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are at the
+ end of every commit (see the 'svn.noMetadata' section above for
+ details).
++
+'git svn fetch' and 'git svn rebase' automatically update the rev_map
+if it is missing or not up to date. 'git svn reset' automatically
+rewinds it.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 22894cb..b424a1b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -42,6 +42,17 @@ committer identity for the current user is used to find the
GnuPG key for signing. The configuration variable `gpg.program`
is used to specify custom GnuPG binary.
+Tag objects (created with `-a`, `s`, or `-u`) are called "annotated"
+tags; they contain a creation date, the tagger name and e-mail, a
+tagging message, and an optional GnuPG signature. Whereas a
+"lightweight" tag is simply a name for an object (usually a commit
+object).
+
+Annotated tags are meant for release while lightweight tags are meant
+for private or temporary object labels. For this reason, some git
+commands for naming objects (like `git describe`) will ignore
+lightweight tags by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -84,6 +95,12 @@ OPTIONS
using fnmatch(3)). Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
them matches, the tag is shown.
+--sort=<type>::
+ Sort in a specific order. Supported type is "refname"
+ (lexicographic order), "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag
+ names are treated as versions). Prepend "-" to reverse sort
+ order.
+
--column[=<options>]::
--no-column::
Display tag listing in columns. See configuration variable
@@ -92,8 +109,9 @@ OPTIONS
+
This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
---contains <commit>::
- Only list tags which contain the specified commit.
+--contains [<commit>]::
+ Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
+ specified).
--points-at <object>::
Only list tags of the given object.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index f7362dc..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,82 +0,0 @@
-git-tar-tree(1)
-===============
-
-NAME
-----
-git-tar-tree - Create a tar archive of the files in the named tree object
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git tar-tree' [--remote=<repo>] <tree-ish> [ <base> ]
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-THIS COMMAND IS DEPRECATED. Use 'git archive' with `--format=tar`
-option instead (and move the <base> argument to `--prefix=base/`).
-
-Creates a tar archive containing the tree structure for the named tree.
-When <base> is specified it is added as a leading path to the files in the
-generated tar archive.
-
-'git tar-tree' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when given
-a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is used as
-modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter case the
-commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is used instead.
-Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global extended pax header.
-It can be extracted using 'git get-tar-commit-id'.
-
-OPTIONS
--------
-
-<tree-ish>::
- The tree or commit to produce tar archive for. If it is
- the object name of a commit object.
-
-<base>::
- Leading path to the files in the resulting tar archive.
-
---remote=<repo>::
- Instead of making a tar archive from local repository,
- retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
-
-CONFIGURATION
--------------
-
-tar.umask::
- This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
- tar archive entries. The default is 0002, which turns off the
- world write bit. The special value "user" indicates that the
- archiving user's umask will be used instead. See umask(2) for
- details.
-
-EXAMPLES
---------
-`git tar-tree HEAD junk | (cd /var/tmp/ && tar xf -)`::
-
- Create a tar archive that contains the contents of the
- latest commit on the current branch, and extracts it in
- `/var/tmp/junk` directory.
-
-`git tar-tree v1.4.0 git-1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz`::
-
- Create a tarball for v1.4.0 release.
-
-`git tar-tree v1.4.0^{tree} git-1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz`::
-
- Create a tarball for v1.4.0 release, but without a
- global extended pax header.
-
-`git tar-tree --remote=example.com:git.git v1.4.0 >git-1.4.0.tar`::
-
- Get a tarball v1.4.0 from example.com.
-
-`git tar-tree HEAD:Documentation/ git-docs > git-1.4.0-docs.tar`::
-
- Put everything in the current head's Documentation/ directory
- into 'git-1.4.0-docs.tar', with the prefix 'git-docs/'.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
index ff23494..12cb108 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-unpack-objects - Unpack objects from a packed archive
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict] <pack-file
+'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict] < <pack-file>
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 670e9fb..e0a8702 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
[(--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>)...]
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
- [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
- [--skip-worktree | --no-skip-worktree]
+ [--[no-]assume-unchanged]
+ [--[no-]skip-worktree]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
[--info-only] [--index-info]
@@ -77,8 +77,7 @@ OPTIONS
--chmod=(+|-)x::
Set the execute permissions on the updated files.
---assume-unchanged::
---no-assume-unchanged::
+--[no-]assume-unchanged::
When these flags are specified, the object names recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "assume unchanged" bit for the
@@ -102,8 +101,7 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.
---skip-worktree::
---no-skip-worktree::
+--[no-]skip-worktree::
When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index 0df13ff..0a0a551 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-update-ref - Update the object name stored in a ref safely
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>])
+'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>] | --stdin [-z])
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -58,6 +58,58 @@ archive by creating a symlink tree).
With `-d` flag, it deletes the named <ref> after verifying it
still contains <oldvalue>.
+With `--stdin`, update-ref reads instructions from standard input and
+performs all modifications together. Specify commands of the form:
+
+ update SP <ref> SP <newvalue> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
+ create SP <ref> SP <newvalue> LF
+ delete SP <ref> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
+ verify SP <ref> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
+ option SP <opt> LF
+
+Quote fields containing whitespace as if they were strings in C source
+code. Alternatively, use `-z` to specify commands without quoting:
+
+ update SP <ref> NUL <newvalue> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
+ create SP <ref> NUL <newvalue> NUL
+ delete SP <ref> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
+ verify SP <ref> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
+ option SP <opt> NUL
+
+Lines of any other format or a repeated <ref> produce an error.
+Command meanings are:
+
+update::
+ Set <ref> to <newvalue> after verifying <oldvalue>, if given.
+ Specify a zero <newvalue> to ensure the ref does not exist
+ after the update and/or a zero <oldvalue> to make sure the
+ ref does not exist before the update.
+
+create::
+ Create <ref> with <newvalue> after verifying it does not
+ exist. The given <newvalue> may not be zero.
+
+delete::
+ Delete <ref> after verifying it exists with <oldvalue>, if
+ given. If given, <oldvalue> may not be zero.
+
+verify::
+ Verify <ref> against <oldvalue> but do not change it. If
+ <oldvalue> zero or missing, the ref must not exist.
+
+option::
+ Modify behavior of the next command naming a <ref>.
+ The only valid option is `no-deref` to avoid dereferencing
+ a symbolic ref.
+
+Use 40 "0" or the empty string to specify a zero value, except that
+with `-z` an empty <oldvalue> is considered missing.
+
+If all <ref>s can be locked with matching <oldvalue>s
+simultaneously, all modifications are performed. Otherwise, no
+modifications are performed. Note that while each individual
+<ref> is updated or deleted atomically, a concurrent reader may
+still see a subset of the modifications.
Logging Updates
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index d09bbb5..cbef61b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -20,6 +20,38 @@ This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user. The UI
for the protocol is on the 'git archive' side, and the program pair
is meant to be used to get an archive from a remote repository.
+SECURITY
+--------
+
+In order to protect the privacy of objects that have been removed from
+history but may not yet have been pruned, `git-upload-archive` avoids
+serving archives for commits and trees that are not reachable from the
+repository's refs. However, because calculating object reachability is
+computationally expensive, `git-upload-archive` implements a stricter
+but easier-to-check set of rules:
+
+ 1. Clients may request a commit or tree that is pointed to directly by
+ a ref. E.g., `git archive --remote=origin v1.0`.
+
+ 2. Clients may request a sub-tree within a commit or tree using the
+ `ref:path` syntax. E.g., `git archive --remote=origin v1.0:Documentation`.
+
+ 3. Clients may _not_ use other sha1 expressions, even if the end
+ result is reachable. E.g., neither a relative commit like `master^`
+ nor a literal sha1 like `abcd1234` is allowed, even if the result
+ is reachable from the refs.
+
+Note that rule 3 disallows many cases that do not have any privacy
+implications. These rules are subject to change in future versions of
+git, and the server accessed by `git archive --remote` may or may not
+follow these exact rules.
+
+If the config option `uploadArchive.allowUnreachable` is true, these
+rules are ignored, and clients may use arbitrary sha1 expressions.
+This is useful if you do not care about the privacy of unreachable
+objects, or if your object database is already publicly available for
+access via non-smart-http.
+
OPTIONS
-------
<directory>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index ba79cb4..2de575f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -34,6 +34,8 @@ The following browsers (or commands) are currently supported:
* dillo
* open (this is the default under Mac OS X GUI)
* start (this is the default under MinGW)
+* cygstart (this is the default under Cygwin)
+* xdg-open
Custom commands may also be specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
index c600b61..8b63ceb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
@@ -13,43 +13,17 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Shows commit logs and diff output each commit introduces. The
-command internally invokes 'git rev-list' piped to
-'git diff-tree', and takes command line options for both of
-these commands.
-This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
+Shows commit logs and diff output each commit introduces.
+New users are encouraged to use linkgit:git-log[1] instead. The
+`whatchanged` command is essentially the same as linkgit:git-log[1]
+but defaults to show the raw format diff output and to skip merges.
-OPTIONS
--------
--p::
- Show textual diffs, instead of the Git internal diff
- output format that is useful only to tell the changed
- paths and their nature of changes.
+The command is kept primarily for historical reasons; fingers of
+many people who learned Git long before `git log` was invented by
+reading Linux kernel mailing list are trained to type it.
--<n>::
- Limit output to <n> commits.
-
-<since>..<until>::
- Limit output to between the two named commits (bottom
- exclusive, top inclusive).
-
--r::
- Show Git internal diff output, but for the whole tree,
- not just the top level.
-
--m::
- By default, differences for merge commits are not shown.
- With this flag, show differences to that commit from all
- of its parents.
-+
-However, it is not very useful in general, although it
-*is* useful on a file-by-file basis.
-
-include::pretty-options.txt[]
-
-include::pretty-formats.txt[]
Examples
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 9e302b0..e5f8ed0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git - the stupid content tracker
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git' [--version] [--help] [-c <name>=<value>]
+'git' [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
@@ -43,12 +43,47 @@ unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
+* link:v1.9.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.1]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
+
+* link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
+
+* link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
+
+* link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
+
* link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3].
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2].
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1].
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
* link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
@@ -381,6 +416,20 @@ displayed. See linkgit:git-help[1] for more information,
because `git --help ...` is converted internally into `git
help ...`.
+-C <path>::
+ Run as if git was started in '<path>' instead of the current working
+ directory. When multiple `-C` options are given, each subsequent
+ non-absolute `-C <path>` is interpreted relative to the preceding `-C
+ <path>`.
++
+This option affects options that expect path name like `--git-dir` and
+`--work-tree` in that their interpretations of the path names would be
+made relative to the working directory caused by the `-C` option. For
+example the following invocations are equivalent:
+
+ git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
+ git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
+
-c <name>=<value>::
Pass a configuration parameter to the command. The value
given will override values from configuration files.
@@ -443,10 +492,25 @@ help ...`.
linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
--literal-pathspecs::
- Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
- equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
+ Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing, no pathspec magic).
+ This is equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
variable to `1`.
+--glob-pathspecs::
+ Add "glob" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
+ the `GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Disabling
+ globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
+ magic ":(literal)"
+
+--noglob-pathspecs::
+ Add "literal" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
+ the `GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`. Enabling
+ globbing on individual pathspecs can be done using pathspec
+ magic ":(glob)"
+
+--icase-pathspecs::
+ Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
+ the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
GIT COMMANDS
------------
@@ -657,6 +721,11 @@ Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
is used.
+'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
+ This environment variable allows the specification of an index
+ version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
+ files. By default index file version [23] is used.
+
'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
If the object storage directory is specified via this
environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
@@ -677,9 +746,7 @@ Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
- Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
- used in combination with repositories found automatically in
- a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
+ Set the path to the root of the working tree.
This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
@@ -754,6 +821,15 @@ temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
+
For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
parameter, <path>.
++
+For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
+'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
+
+'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
+ A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
+
+'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
+ The total number of paths.
other
~~~~~
@@ -811,8 +887,9 @@ for further details.
'GIT_FLUSH'::
If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
- and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
- after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
+ 'git check-attr' and 'git check-ignore' will
+ force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
+ flushed. If this
variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
@@ -832,6 +909,19 @@ for further details.
as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
into it.
+'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
+ If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
+ the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
+ access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
+ recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
+ pack-related performance problems.
+
+'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
+ If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
+ coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
+ debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
+ is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
+
GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
@@ -841,6 +931,28 @@ GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
`git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
+GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
+ Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+ pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
+
+GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
+ Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+ pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
+
+GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
+ Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+ pathspecs as case-insensitive.
+
+'GIT_REFLOG_ACTION'::
+ When a ref is updated, reflog entries are created to keep
+ track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
+ typically the name of the high-level command that updated
+ the ref), in addition to the old and new values of the ref.
+ A scripted Porcelain command can use set_reflog_action
+ helper function in `git-sh-setup` to set its name to this
+ variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
+ end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
+
Discussion[[Discussion]]
------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index b322a26..643c1ba 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -930,9 +930,12 @@ state.
DEFINING MACRO ATTRIBUTES
-------------------------
-Custom macro attributes can be defined only in the `.gitattributes`
-file at the toplevel (i.e. not in any subdirectory). The built-in
-macro attribute "binary" is equivalent to:
+Custom macro attributes can be defined only in top-level gitattributes
+files (`$GIT_DIR/info/attributes`, the `.gitattributes` file at the
+top level of the working tree, or the global or system-wide
+gitattributes files), not in `.gitattributes` files in working tree
+subdirectories. The built-in macro attribute "binary" is equivalent
+to:
------------
[attr]binary -diff -merge -text
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index 9ac5088..1c3e109 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ arguments. Here are the rules:
they can be disambiguated by placing `--` between them.
E.g. `git diff -- HEAD` is, "I have a file called HEAD in my work
tree. Please show changes between the version I staged in the index
- and what I have in the work tree for that file". not "show difference
+ and what I have in the work tree for that file", not "show difference
between the HEAD commit and the work tree as a whole". You can say
`git diff HEAD --` to ask for the latter.
@@ -59,6 +59,10 @@ working tree. After running `git add hello.c; rm hello.c`, you will _not_
see `hello.c` in your working tree with the former, but with the latter
you will.
+ * Just as the filesystem '.' (period) refers to the current directory,
+ using a '.' as a repository name in Git (a dot-repository) is a relative
+ path and means your current repository.
+
Here are the rules regarding the "flags" that you should follow when you are
scripting Git:
@@ -68,23 +72,23 @@ scripting Git:
* splitting short options to separate words (prefer `git foo -a -b`
to `git foo -ab`, the latter may not even work).
- * when a command line option takes an argument, use the 'sticked' form. In
+ * when a command line option takes an argument, use the 'stuck' form. In
other words, write `git foo -oArg` instead of `git foo -o Arg` for short
options, and `git foo --long-opt=Arg` instead of `git foo --long-opt Arg`
for long options. An option that takes optional option-argument must be
- written in the 'sticked' form.
+ written in the 'stuck' form.
* when you give a revision parameter to a command, make sure the parameter is
not ambiguous with a name of a file in the work tree. E.g. do not write
`git log -1 HEAD` but write `git log -1 HEAD --`; the former will not work
if you happen to have a file called `HEAD` in the work tree.
- * many commands allow a long option "--option" to be abbreviated
+ * many commands allow a long option `--option` to be abbreviated
only to their unique prefix (e.g. if there is no other option
- whose name begins with "opt", you may be able to spell "--opt" to
- invoke the "--option" flag), but you should fully spell them out
+ whose name begins with `opt`, you may be able to spell `--opt` to
+ invoke the `--option` flag), but you should fully spell them out
when writing your scripts; later versions of Git may introduce a
- new option whose name shares the same prefix, e.g. "--optimize",
+ new option whose name shares the same prefix, e.g. `--optimize`,
to make a short prefix that used to be unique no longer unique.
@@ -106,7 +110,7 @@ couple of magic command line options:
+
---------------------------------------------
$ git describe -h
-usage: git describe [options] <committish>*
+usage: git describe [options] <commit-ish>*
or: git describe [options] --dirty
--contains find the tag that comes after the commit
@@ -145,7 +149,7 @@ prefix of a long option as if it is fully spelled out, but use this
with a caution. For example, `git commit --amen` behaves as if you
typed `git commit --amend`, but that is true only until a later version
of Git introduces another option that shares the same prefix,
-e.g `git commit --amenity" option.
+e.g. `git commit --amenity` option.
Separating argument from the option
@@ -161,7 +165,7 @@ $ git foo -o Arg
----------------------------
However, this is *NOT* allowed for switches with an optional value, where the
-'sticked' form must be used:
+'stuck' form must be used:
----------------------------
$ git describe --abbrev HEAD # correct
$ git describe --abbrev=10 HEAD # correct
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index f538a87..d2d7c21 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -534,42 +534,9 @@ all, but just show the actual commit message.
In fact, together with the 'git rev-list' program (which generates a
list of revisions), 'git diff-tree' ends up being a veritable fount of
-changes. A trivial (but very useful) script called 'git whatchanged' is
-included with Git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
-activities.
-
-To see the whole history of our pitiful little git-tutorial project, you
-can do
-
-----------------
-$ git log
-----------------
-
-which shows just the log messages, or if we want to see the log together
-with the associated patches use the more complex (and much more
-powerful)
-
-----------------
-$ git whatchanged -p
-----------------
-
-and you will see exactly what has changed in the repository over its
-short history.
-
-[NOTE]
-When using the above two commands, the initial commit will be shown.
-If this is a problem because it is huge, you can hide it by setting
-the log.showroot configuration variable to false. Having this, you
-can still show it for each command just adding the `--root` option,
-which is a flag for 'git diff-tree' accepted by both commands.
-
-With that, you should now be having some inkling of what Git does, and
-can explore on your own.
-
-[NOTE]
-Most likely, you are not directly using the core
-Git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain such as 'git add', `git-rm'
-and `git-commit'.
+changes. You can emulate `git log`, `git log -p`, etc. with a trivial
+script that pipes the output of `git rev-list` to `git diff-tree --stdin`,
+which was exactly how early versions of `git log` were implemented.
Tagging a version
@@ -1476,7 +1443,7 @@ Although Git is a truly distributed system, it is often
convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in
-link:http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
+http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
There is nothing fundamental in Git that enforces the "chain of
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
index 5ab5b07..5f4e890 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ Importing a CVS archive
-----------------------
First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
-link:http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
+http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
sure it is in your path. Then cd to a checked out CVS working directory
of the project you are interested in and run linkgit:git-cvsimport[1]:
@@ -157,7 +157,7 @@ points. You can use these, for example, to send all commits to the shared
repository to a mailing list. See linkgit:githooks[5].
You can enforce finer grained permissions using update hooks. See
-link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[Controlling access to branches using
+link:howto/update-hook-example.html[Controlling access to branches using
update hooks].
Providing CVS Access to a Git Repository
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index 568d757..c8b3e51 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -222,26 +222,35 @@ version prefixed with '+'.
diffcore-pickaxe: For Detecting Addition/Deletion of Specified String
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-This transformation is used to find filepairs that represent
-changes that touch a specified string, and is controlled by the
--S option and the `--pickaxe-all` option to the 'git diff-*'
-commands.
-
-When diffcore-pickaxe is in use, it checks if there are
-filepairs whose "result" side and whose "origin" side have
-different number of specified string. Such a filepair represents
-"the string appeared in this changeset". It also checks for the
-opposite case that loses the specified string.
-
-When `--pickaxe-all` is not in effect, diffcore-pickaxe leaves
-only such filepairs that touch the specified string in its
-output. When `--pickaxe-all` is used, diffcore-pickaxe leaves all
-filepairs intact if there is such a filepair, or makes the
-output empty otherwise. The latter behaviour is designed to
-make reviewing of the changes in the context of the whole
+This transformation limits the set of filepairs to those that change
+specified strings between the preimage and the postimage in a certain
+way. -S<block of text> and -G<regular expression> options are used to
+specify different ways these strings are sought.
+
+"-S<block of text>" detects filepairs whose preimage and postimage
+have different number of occurrences of the specified block of text.
+By definition, it will not detect in-file moves. Also, when a
+changeset moves a file wholesale without affecting the interesting
+string, diffcore-rename kicks in as usual, and `-S` omits the filepair
+(since the number of occurrences of that string didn't change in that
+rename-detected filepair). When used with `--pickaxe-regex`, treat
+the <block of text> as an extended POSIX regular expression to match,
+instead of a literal string.
+
+"-G<regular expression>" (mnemonic: grep) detects filepairs whose
+textual diff has an added or a deleted line that matches the given
+regular expression. This means that it will detect in-file (or what
+rename-detection considers the same file) moves, which is noise. The
+implementation runs diff twice and greps, and this can be quite
+expensive.
+
+When `-S` or `-G` are used without `--pickaxe-all`, only filepairs
+that match their respective criterion are kept in the output. When
+`--pickaxe-all` is used, if even one filepair matches their respective
+criterion in a changeset, the entire changeset is kept. This behavior
+is designed to make reviewing changes in the context of the whole
changeset easier.
-
diffcore-order: For Sorting the Output Based on Filenames
---------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index d48bf4d..d954bf6 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ three parameters:
- the name of the ref being updated,
- the old object name stored in the ref,
- - and the new objectname to be stored in the ref.
+ - and the new object name to be stored in the ref.
A zero exit from the update hook allows the ref to be updated.
Exiting with a non-zero status prevents 'git-receive-pack'
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index 54e334e..8734c15 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore
SYNOPSIS
--------
-$GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
+$HOME/.config/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -77,10 +77,15 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first hash for patterns
that begin with a hash.
+ - Trailing spaces are ignored unless they are quoted with backlash
+ ("`\`").
+
- An optional prefix "`!`" which negates the pattern; any
matching file excluded by a previous pattern will become
- included again. If a negated pattern matches, this will
- override lower precedence patterns sources.
+ included again. It is not possible to re-include a file if a parent
+ directory of that file is excluded. Git doesn't list excluded
+ directories for performance reasons, so any patterns on contained
+ files have no effect, no matter where they are defined.
Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first "`!`" for patterns
that begin with a literal "`!`", for example, "`\!important!.txt`".
@@ -113,12 +118,12 @@ full pathname may have special meaning:
- A leading "`**`" followed by a slash means match in all
directories. For example, "`**/foo`" matches file or directory
- "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "**/foo/bar"
+ "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "`**/foo/bar`"
matches file or directory "`bar`" anywhere that is directly
under directory "`foo`".
- - A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example,
- "abc/**" matches all files inside directory "abc", relative
+ - A trailing "`/**`" matches everything inside. For example,
+ "`abc/**`" matches all files inside directory "`abc`", relative
to the location of the `.gitignore` file, with infinite depth.
- A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash
@@ -182,6 +187,19 @@ Another example:
The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
`arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S`.
+Example to exclude everything except a specific directory `foo/bar`
+(note the `/*` - without the slash, the wildcard would also exclude
+everything within `foo/bar`):
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+ $ cat .gitignore
+ # exclude everything except directory foo/bar
+ /*
+ !/foo
+ /foo/*
+ !/foo/bar
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-rm[1],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index c17e760..7e03fcc 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ gitk - The Git repository browser
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'gitk' [<option>...] [<revs>] [--] [<path>...]
+'gitk' [<options>] [<revision range>] [\--] [<path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -16,21 +16,38 @@ Displays changes in a repository or a selected set of commits. This includes
visualizing the commit graph, showing information related to each commit, and
the files in the trees of each revision.
-Historically, gitk was the first repository browser. It's written in tcl/tk
-and started off in a separate repository but was later merged into the main
-Git repository.
-
OPTIONS
-------
-To control which revisions to show, the command takes options applicable to
-the 'git rev-list' command (see linkgit:git-rev-list[1]).
-This manual page describes only the most
-frequently used options.
--n <number>::
---max-count=<number>::
+To control which revisions to show, gitk supports most options
+applicable to the 'git rev-list' command. It also supports a few
+options applicable to the 'git diff-*' commands to control how the
+changes each commit introduces are shown. Finally, it supports some
+gitk-specific options.
+
+gitk generally only understands options with arguments in the
+'sticked' form (see linkgit:gitcli[7]) due to limitations in the
+command line parser.
+
+rev-list options and arguments
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This manual page describes only the most frequently used options. See
+linkgit:git-rev-list[1] for a complete list.
+
+--all::
+
+ Show all refs (branches, tags, etc.).
+
+--branches[=<pattern>]::
+--tags[=<pattern>]::
+--remotes[=<pattern>]::
- Limits the number of commits to show.
+ Pretend as if all the branches (tags, remote branches, resp.)
+ are listed on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>'
+ is given, limit refs to ones matching given shell glob. If
+ pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the
+ end is implied.
--since=<date>::
@@ -40,9 +57,9 @@ frequently used options.
Show commits older than a specific date.
---all::
+--date-order::
- Show all branches.
+ Sort commits by date when possible.
--merge::
@@ -51,19 +68,53 @@ frequently used options.
that modify the conflicted files and do not exist on all the heads
being merged.
---argscmd=<command>::
- Command to be run each time gitk has to determine the list of
- <revs> to show. The command is expected to print on its standard
- output a list of additional revs to be shown, one per line.
- Use this instead of explicitly specifying <revs> if the set of
- commits to show may vary between refreshes.
+--left-right::
---select-commit=<ref>::
+ Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable
+ from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with a `<`
+ symbol and those from the right with a `>` symbol.
- Automatically select the specified commit after loading the graph.
- Default behavior is equivalent to specifying '--select-commit=HEAD'.
+--full-history::
+
+ When filtering history with '<path>...', does not prune some
+ history. (See "History simplification" in linkgit:git-log[1]
+ for a more detailed explanation.)
+
+--simplify-merges::
+
+ Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
+ merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
+ commits contributing to this merge. (See "History
+ simplification" in linkgit:git-log[1] for a more detailed
+ explanation.)
+
+--ancestry-path::
-<revs>::
+ When given a range of commits to display
+ (e.g. 'commit1..commit2' or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only
+ display commits that exist directly on the ancestry chain
+ between the 'commit1' and 'commit2', i.e. commits that are
+ both descendants of 'commit1', and ancestors of 'commit2'.
+ (See "History simplification" in linkgit:git-log[1] for a more
+ detailed explanation.)
+
+-L<start>,<end>:<file>::
+-L:<regex>:<file>::
+
+ Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>"
+ (or the funcname regex <regex>) within the <file>. You may
+ not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
+ a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments.
+ You can specify this option more than once.
++
+*Note:* gitk (unlike linkgit:git-log[1]) currently only understands
+this option if you specify it "glued together" with its argument. Do
+*not* put a space after `-L`.
++
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
+
+<revision range>::
Limit the revisions to show. This can be either a single revision
meaning show from the given revision and back, or it can be a range in
@@ -78,6 +129,23 @@ frequently used options.
avoid ambiguity with respect to revision names use "--" to separate the paths
from any preceding options.
+gitk-specific options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+--argscmd=<command>::
+
+ Command to be run each time gitk has to determine the revision
+ range to show. The command is expected to print on its
+ standard output a list of additional revisions to be shown,
+ one per line. Use this instead of explicitly specifying a
+ '<revision range>' if the set of commits to show may vary
+ between refreshes.
+
+--select-commit=<ref>::
+
+ Select the specified commit after loading the graph.
+ Default behavior is equivalent to specifying '--select-commit=HEAD'.
+
Examples
--------
gitk v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi::
@@ -98,8 +166,21 @@ gitk --max-count=100 --all \-- Makefile::
Files
-----
-Gitk creates the .gitk file in your $HOME directory to store preferences
-such as display options, font, and colors.
+User configuration and preferences are stored at:
+
+* '$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/gitk' if it exists, otherwise
+* '$HOME/.gitk' if it exists
+
+If neither of the above exist then '$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/gitk' is created and
+used by default. If '$XDG_CONFIG_HOME' is not set it defaults to
+'$HOME/.config' in all cases.
+
+History
+-------
+Gitk was the first graphical repository browser. It's written in
+tcl/tk and started off in a separate repository but was later merged
+into the main Git repository.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index 6a1ca4a..347a9f7 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -35,6 +35,8 @@ submodule.<name>.url::
linkgit:git-clone[1] or (if it begins with ./ or ../) a location
relative to the superproject's origin repository.
+In addition, there are a number of optional keys:
+
submodule.<name>.update::
Defines what to do when the submodule is updated by the superproject.
If 'checkout' (the default), the new commit specified in the
@@ -75,7 +77,8 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
the superproject, the setting there will override the one found in
.gitmodules.
Both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
- "--ignore-submodule" option.
+ "--ignore-submodule" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
+ affected by this setting.
EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 0c91aba..64f7ad2 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -120,6 +120,11 @@ connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
When choosing between 'push' and 'export', Git prefers 'push'.
Other frontends may have some other order of preference.
+'no-private-update'::
+ When using the 'refspec' capability, git normally updates the
+ private ref on successful push. This update is disabled when
+ the remote-helper declares the capability 'no-private-update'.
+
Capabilities for Fetching
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
@@ -143,6 +148,10 @@ Supported commands: 'list', 'fetch'.
+
Supported commands: 'list', 'import'.
+'check-connectivity'::
+ Can guarantee that when a clone is requested, the received
+ pack is self contained and is connected.
+
If a helper advertises 'connect', Git will use it if possible and
fall back to another capability if the helper requests so when
connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
@@ -159,11 +168,11 @@ Miscellaneous capabilities
carried out.
'refspec' <refspec>::
- This modifies the 'import' capability, allowing the produced
- fast-import stream to modify refs in a private namespace
- instead of writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly.
+ For remote helpers that implement 'import' or 'export', this capability
+ allows the refs to be constrained to a private namespace, instead of
+ writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly.
It is recommended that all importers providing the 'import'
- capability use this.
+ capability use this. It's mandatory for 'export'.
+
A helper advertising the capability
`refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/*`
@@ -176,6 +185,12 @@ applicable refspec takes precedence. The left-hand of refspecs
advertised with this capability must cover all refs reported by
the list command. If no 'refspec' capability is advertised,
there is an implied `refspec *:*`.
++
+When writing remote-helpers for decentralized version control
+systems, it is advised to keep a local copy of the repository to
+interact with, and to let the private namespace refs point to this
+local repository, while the refs/remotes namespace is used to track
+the remote repository.
'bidi-import'::
This modifies the 'import' capability.
@@ -202,6 +217,10 @@ there is an implied `refspec *:*`.
marks specified in <file> before processing any input. For details,
read up on '--import-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
+'signed-tags'::
+ This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to pass
+ '--signed-tags=verbatim' to linkgit:git-fast-export[1]. In the
+ absence of this capability, Git will use '--signed-tags=warn-strip'.
@@ -266,6 +285,9 @@ Optionally may output a 'lock <file>' line indicating a file under
GIT_DIR/objects/pack which is keeping a pack until refs can be
suitably updated.
+
+If option 'check-connectivity' is requested, the helper must output
+'connectivity-ok' if the clone is self-contained and connected.
++
Supported if the helper has the "fetch" capability.
'push' +<src>:<dst>::
@@ -412,6 +434,20 @@ set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
must not rely on this option being set before
connect request occurs.
+'option check-connectivity' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Request the helper to check connectivity of a clone.
+
+'option force' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Request the helper to perform a force update. Defaults to
+ 'false'.
+
+'option cloning \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Notify the helper this is a clone request (i.e. the current
+ repository is guaranteed empty).
+
+'option update-shallow \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Allow to extend .git/shallow if the new refs require it.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-remote[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index 2ad09f4..17d2ea6 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -176,6 +176,10 @@ info/grafts::
per line describes a commit and its fake parents by
listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object names separated
by a space and terminated by a newline.
++
+Note that the grafts mechanism is outdated and can lead to problems
+transferring objects between repositories; see linkgit:git-replace[1]
+for a more flexible and robust system to do the same thing.
info/exclude::
This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the
@@ -184,6 +188,10 @@ info/exclude::
'git clean' look at it but the core Git commands do not look
at it. See also: linkgit:gitignore[5].
+info/sparse-checkout::
+ This file stores sparse checkout patterns.
+ See also: linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
+
remotes::
Stores shorthands for URL and default refnames for use
when interacting with remote repositories via 'git fetch',
@@ -207,6 +215,9 @@ shallow::
and maintained by shallow clone mechanism. See `--depth`
option to linkgit:git-clone[1] and linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+modules::
+ Contains the git-repositories of the submodules.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-init[1],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index ea0526e..952f503 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -336,8 +336,26 @@ $home_link_str::
used as the first component of gitweb's "breadcrumb trail":
`<home link> / <project> / <action>`. Can be set at build time using
the `GITWEB_HOME_LINK_STR` variable. By default it is set to "projects",
- as this link leads to the list of projects. Other popular choice it to
- set it to the name of site.
+ as this link leads to the list of projects. Another popular choice is to
+ set it to the name of site. Note that it is treated as raw HTML so it
+ should not be set from untrusted sources.
+
+@extra_breadcrumbs::
+ Additional links to be added to the start of the breadcrumb trail before
+ the home link, to pages that are logically "above" the gitweb projects
+ list, such as the organization and department which host the gitweb
+ server. Each element of the list is a reference to an array, in which
+ element 0 is the link text (equivalent to `$home_link_str`) and element
+ 1 is the target URL (equivalent to `$home_link`).
++
+For example, the following setting produces a breadcrumb trail like
+"home / dev / projects / ..." where "projects" is the home link.
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+ our @extra_breadcrumbs = (
+ [ 'home' => 'https://www.example.org/' ],
+ [ 'dev' => 'https://dev.example.org/' ],
+ );
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$logo_url::
$logo_label::
@@ -612,13 +630,13 @@ need to set this element to empty list i.e. `[]`.
override::
If this field has a true value then the given feature is
- overriddable, which means that it can be configured
+ overridable, which means that it can be configured
(or enabled/disabled) on a per-repository basis.
+
Usually given "<feature>" is configurable via the `gitweb.<feature>`
config variable in the per-repository Git configuration file.
+
-*Note* that no feature is overriddable by default.
+*Note* that no feature is overridable by default.
sub::
Internal detail of implementation. What is important is that
@@ -804,18 +822,18 @@ timed::
Project specific override is not supported.
javascript-timezone::
- Enable and configure the ability to change a common timezone for dates
+ Enable and configure the ability to change a common time zone for dates
in gitweb output via JavaScript. Dates in gitweb output include
authordate and committerdate in "commit", "commitdiff" and "log"
views, and taggerdate in "tag" view. Enabled by default.
+
-The value is a list of three values: a default timezone (for if the client
-hasn't selected some other timezone and saved it in a cookie), a name of cookie
-where to store selected timezone, and a CSS class used to mark up
+The value is a list of three values: a default time zone (for if the client
+hasn't selected some other time zone and saved it in a cookie), a name of cookie
+where to store selected time zone, and a CSS class used to mark up
dates for manipulation. If you want to turn this feature off, set "default"
to empty list: `[]`.
+
-Typical gitweb config files will only change starting (default) timezone,
+Typical gitweb config files will only change starting (default) time zone,
and leave other elements at their default values:
+
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -825,12 +843,49 @@ $feature{'javascript-timezone'}{'default'}[0] = "utc";
The example configuration presented here is guaranteed to be backwards
and forward compatible.
+
-Timezone values can be "local" (for local timezone that browser uses), "utc"
+Time zone values can be "local" (for local time zone that browser uses), "utc"
(what gitweb uses when JavaScript or this feature is disabled), or numerical
-timezones in the form of "+/-HHMM", such as "+0200".
+time zones in the form of "+/-HHMM", such as "+0200".
+
Project specific override is not supported.
+extra-branch-refs::
+ List of additional directories under "refs" which are going to
+ be used as branch refs. For example if you have a gerrit setup
+ where all branches under refs/heads/ are official,
+ push-after-review ones and branches under refs/sandbox/,
+ refs/wip and refs/other are user ones where permissions are
+ much wider, then you might want to set this variable as
+ follows:
++
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$feature{'extra-branch-refs'}{'default'} =
+ ['sandbox', 'wip', 'other'];
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+This feature can be configured on per-repository basis after setting
+$feature{'extra-branch-refs'}{'override'} to true, via repository's
+`gitweb.extraBranchRefs` configuration variable, which contains a
+space separated list of refs. An example:
++
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[gitweb]
+ extraBranchRefs = sandbox wip other
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+The gitweb.extraBranchRefs is actually a multi-valued configuration
+variable, so following example is also correct and the result is the
+same as of the snippet above:
++
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[gitweb]
+ extraBranchRefs = sandbox
+ extraBranchRefs = wip other
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+It is an error to specify a ref that does not pass "git check-ref-format"
+scrutiny. Duplicated values are filtered.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
index 40969f1..cd9c895 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ separator (rules for Perl's "`split(" ", $line)`").
* Fields use modified URI encoding, defined in RFC 3986, section 2.1
(Percent-Encoding), or rather "Query string encoding" (see
-link:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string#URL_encoding[]), the difference
+http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string#URL_encoding[]), the difference
being that SP (" ") can be encoded as "{plus}" (and therefore "{plus}" has to be
also percent-encoded).
+
@@ -504,7 +504,7 @@ repositories, you can configure Apache like this:
The above configuration expects your public repositories to live under
'/pub/git' and will serve them as `http://git.domain.org/dir-under-pub-git`,
-both as cloneable Git URL and as browseable gitweb interface. If you then
+both as clonable Git URL and as browseable gitweb interface. If you then
start your linkgit:git-daemon[1] with `--base-path=/pub/git --export-all`
then you can even use the `git://` URL with exactly the same path.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 68a18e1..be0858c 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -82,6 +82,18 @@ to point at the new commit.
to the top <<def_directory,directory>> of the stored
revision.
+[[def_commit-ish]]commit-ish (also committish)::
+ A <<def_commit_object,commit object>> or an
+ <<def_object,object>> that can be recursively dereferenced to
+ a commit object.
+ The following are all commit-ishes:
+ a commit object,
+ a <<def_tag_object,tag object>> that points to a commit
+ object,
+ a tag object that points to a tag object that points to a
+ commit object,
+ etc.
+
[[def_core_git]]core Git::
Fundamental data structures and utilities of Git. Exposes only limited
source code management tools.
@@ -113,7 +125,7 @@ Note that commands that operate on the history of the current branch
while the HEAD is detached. They update the HEAD to point at the tip
of the updated history without affecting any branch. Commands that
update or inquire information _about_ the current branch (e.g. `git
-branch --set-upstream-to` that sets what remote tracking branch the
+branch --set-upstream-to` that sets what remote-tracking branch the
current branch integrates with) obviously do not work, as there is no
(real) current branch to ask about in this state.
@@ -164,6 +176,10 @@ current branch integrates with) obviously do not work, as there is no
you can make Git pretend the set of <<def_parent,parents>> a <<def_commit,commit>> has
is different from what was recorded when the commit was
created. Configured via the `.git/info/grafts` file.
++
+Note that the grafts mechanism is outdated and can lead to problems
+transferring objects between repositories; see linkgit:git-replace[1]
+for a more flexible and robust system to do the same thing.
[[def_hash]]hash::
In Git's context, synonym for <<def_object_name,object name>>.
@@ -267,7 +283,7 @@ This commit is referred to as a "merge commit", or sometimes just a
The default upstream <<def_repository,repository>>. Most projects have
at least one upstream project which they track. By default
'origin' is used for that purpose. New upstream updates
- will be fetched into remote <<def_remote_tracking_branch,remote-tracking branches>> named
+ will be fetched into <<def_remote_tracking_branch,remote-tracking branches>> named
origin/name-of-upstream-branch, which you can see using
`git branch -r`.
@@ -311,24 +327,68 @@ including Documentation/chapter_1/figure_1.jpg.
A pathspec that begins with a colon `:` has special meaning. In the
short form, the leading colon `:` is followed by zero or more "magic
signature" letters (which optionally is terminated by another colon `:`),
-and the remainder is the pattern to match against the path. The optional
-colon that terminates the "magic signature" can be omitted if the pattern
-begins with a character that cannot be a "magic signature" and is not a
-colon.
+and the remainder is the pattern to match against the path.
+The "magic signature" consists of ASCII symbols that are neither
+alphanumeric, glob, regex special charaters nor colon.
+The optional colon that terminates the "magic signature" can be
+omitted if the pattern begins with a character that does not belong to
+"magic signature" symbol set and is not a colon.
+
In the long form, the leading colon `:` is followed by a open
parenthesis `(`, a comma-separated list of zero or more "magic words",
and a close parentheses `)`, and the remainder is the pattern to match
against the path.
+
-The "magic signature" consists of an ASCII symbol that is not
-alphanumeric. Currently only the slash `/` is recognized as a
-"magic signature": it makes the pattern match from the root of
-the working tree, even when you are running the command from
-inside a subdirectory.
-+
A pathspec with only a colon means "there is no pathspec". This form
should not be combined with other pathspec.
++
+--
+top;;
+ The magic word `top` (magic signature: `/`) makes the pattern
+ match from the root of the working tree, even when you are
+ running the command from inside a subdirectory.
+
+literal;;
+ Wildcards in the pattern such as `*` or `?` are treated
+ as literal characters.
+
+icase;;
+ Case insensitive match.
+
+glob;;
+ Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable for
+ consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
+ wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname.
+ For example, "Documentation/{asterisk}.html" matches
+ "Documentation/git.html" but not "Documentation/ppc/ppc.html"
+ or "tools/perf/Documentation/perf.html".
++
+Two consecutive asterisks ("`**`") in patterns matched against
+full pathname may have special meaning:
+
+ - A leading "`**`" followed by a slash means match in all
+ directories. For example, "`**/foo`" matches file or directory
+ "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "`**/foo/bar`"
+ matches file or directory "`bar`" anywhere that is directly
+ under directory "`foo`".
+
+ - A trailing "`/**`" matches everything inside. For example,
+ "`abc/**`" matches all files inside directory "abc", relative
+ to the location of the `.gitignore` file, with infinite depth.
+
+ - A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash
+ matches zero or more directories. For example, "`a/**/b`"
+ matches "`a/b`", "`a/x/b`", "`a/x/y/b`" and so on.
+
+ - Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
++
+Glob magic is incompatible with literal magic.
+
+exclude;;
+ After a path matches any non-exclude pathspec, it will be run
+ through all exclude pathspec (magic signature: `!`). If it
+ matches, the path is ignored.
+--
[[def_parent]]parent::
A <<def_commit_object,commit object>> contains a (possibly empty) list
@@ -383,10 +443,20 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
to the result.
[[def_ref]]ref::
- A 40-byte hex representation of a <<def_SHA1,SHA-1>> or a name that
- denotes a particular <<def_object,object>>. They may be stored in
- a file under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` directory, or
- in the `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs` file.
+ A name that begins with `refs/` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
+ that points to an <<def_object_name,object name>> or another
+ ref (the latter is called a <<def_symref,symbolic ref>>).
+ For convenience, a ref can sometimes be abbreviated when used
+ as an argument to a Git command; see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]
+ for details.
+ Refs are stored in the <<def_repository,repository>>.
++
+The ref namespace is hierarchical.
+Different subhierarchies are used for different purposes (e.g. the
+`refs/heads/` hierarchy is used to represent local branches).
++
+There are a few special-purpose refs that do not begin with `refs/`.
+The most notable example is `HEAD`.
[[def_reflog]]reflog::
A reflog shows the local "history" of a ref. In other words,
@@ -400,12 +470,13 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
<<def_ref,ref>> and local ref.
[[def_remote_tracking_branch]]remote-tracking branch::
- A regular Git <<def_branch,branch>> that is used to follow changes from
- another <<def_repository,repository>>. A remote-tracking
- branch should not contain direct modifications or have local commits
- made to it. A remote-tracking branch can usually be
- identified as the right-hand-side <<def_ref,ref>> in a Pull:
- <<def_refspec,refspec>>.
+ A <<def_ref,ref>> that is used to follow changes from another
+ <<def_repository,repository>>. It typically looks like
+ 'refs/remotes/foo/bar' (indicating that it tracks a branch named
+ 'bar' in a remote named 'foo'), and matches the right-hand-side of
+ a configured fetch <<def_refspec,refspec>>. A remote-tracking
+ branch should not contain direct modifications or have local
+ commits made to it.
[[def_repository]]repository::
A collection of <<def_ref,refs>> together with an
@@ -485,10 +556,19 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
with refs to the associated blob and/or tree objects. A
<<def_tree,tree>> is equivalent to a <<def_directory,directory>>.
-[[def_tree-ish]]tree-ish::
- A <<def_ref,ref>> pointing to either a <<def_commit_object,commit
- object>>, a <<def_tree_object,tree object>>, or a <<def_tag_object,tag
- object>> pointing to a tag or commit or tree object.
+[[def_tree-ish]]tree-ish (also treeish)::
+ A <<def_tree_object,tree object>> or an <<def_object,object>>
+ that can be recursively dereferenced to a tree object.
+ Dereferencing a <<def_commit_object,commit object>> yields the
+ tree object corresponding to the <<def_revision,revision>>'s
+ top <<def_directory,directory>>.
+ The following are all tree-ishes:
+ a <<def_commit-ish,commit-ish>>,
+ a tree object,
+ a <<def_tag_object,tag object>> that points to a tree object,
+ a tag object that points to a tag object that points to a tree
+ object,
+ etc.
[[def_unmerged_index]]unmerged index::
An <<def_index,index>> which contains unmerged
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
index 33ae69c..ca43787 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
@@ -39,26 +39,26 @@ The policy on Integration is informally mentioned in "A Note
from the maintainer" message, which is periodically posted to
this mailing list after each feature release is made.
- - Feature releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z and are meant to
+ - Feature releases are numbered as vX.Y.0 and are meant to
contain bugfixes and enhancements in any area, including
functionality, performance and usability, without regression.
- One release cycle for a feature release is expected to last for
eight to ten weeks.
- - Maintenance releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z.W and are meant
- to contain only bugfixes for the corresponding vX.Y.Z feature
- release and earlier maintenance releases vX.Y.Z.V (V < W).
+ - Maintenance releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z and are meant
+ to contain only bugfixes for the corresponding vX.Y.0 feature
+ release and earlier maintenance releases vX.Y.W (W < Z).
- 'master' branch is used to prepare for the next feature
release. In other words, at some point, the tip of 'master'
- branch is tagged with vX.Y.Z.
+ branch is tagged with vX.Y.0.
- 'maint' branch is used to prepare for the next maintenance
- release. After the feature release vX.Y.Z is made, the tip
+ release. After the feature release vX.Y.0 is made, the tip
of 'maint' branch is set to that release, and bugfixes will
accumulate on the branch, and at some point, the tip of the
- branch is tagged with vX.Y.Z.1, vX.Y.Z.2, and so on.
+ branch is tagged with vX.Y.1, vX.Y.2, and so on.
- 'next' branch is used to publish changes (both enhancements
and fixes) that (1) have worthwhile goal, (2) are in a fairly
@@ -86,6 +86,10 @@ this mailing list after each feature release is made.
users are encouraged to test it so that regressions and bugs
are found before new topics are merged to 'master'.
+Note that before v1.9.0 release, the version numbers used to be
+structured slightly differently. vX.Y.Z were feature releases while
+vX.Y.Z.W were maintenance releases for vX.Y.Z.
+
A Typical Git Day
-----------------
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt b/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
index 2abc3a0..d7de5a3 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ your language, document it in the INSTALL file.
6. There is a file command-list.txt in the distribution main directory
that categorizes commands by type, so they can be listed in appropriate
subsections in the documentation's summary command list. Add an entry
-for yours. To understand the categories, look at git-cmmands.txt
+for yours. To understand the categories, look at git-commands.txt
in the main directory.
7. Give the maintainer one paragraph to include in the RelNotes file
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6f33dac
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,242 @@
+Date: Wed, 16 Oct 2013 04:34:01 -0400
+From: Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
+Subject: pack corruption post-mortem
+Abstract: Recovering a corrupted object when no good copy is available.
+Content-type: text/asciidoc
+
+How to recover an object from scratch
+=====================================
+
+I was recently presented with a repository with a corrupted packfile,
+and was asked if the data was recoverable. This post-mortem describes
+the steps I took to investigate and fix the problem. I thought others
+might find the process interesting, and it might help somebody in the
+same situation.
+
+********************************
+Note: In this case, no good copy of the repository was available. For
+the much easier case where you can get the corrupted object from
+elsewhere, see link:recover-corrupted-blob-object.html[this howto].
+********************************
+
+I started with an fsck, which found a problem with exactly one object
+(I've used $pack and $obj below to keep the output readable, and also
+because I'll refer to them later):
+
+-----------
+ $ git fsck
+ error: $pack SHA1 checksum mismatch
+ error: index CRC mismatch for object $obj from $pack at offset 51653873
+ error: inflate: data stream error (incorrect data check)
+ error: cannot unpack $obj from $pack at offset 51653873
+-----------
+
+The pack checksum failing means a byte is munged somewhere, and it is
+presumably in the object mentioned (since both the index checksum and
+zlib were failing).
+
+Reading the zlib source code, I found that "incorrect data check" means
+that the adler-32 checksum at the end of the zlib data did not match the
+inflated data. So stepping the data through zlib would not help, as it
+did not fail until the very end, when we realize the crc does not match.
+The problematic bytes could be anywhere in the object data.
+
+The first thing I did was pull the broken data out of the packfile. I
+needed to know how big the object was, which I found out with:
+
+------------
+ $ git show-index <$idx | cut -d' ' -f1 | sort -n | grep -A1 51653873
+ 51653873
+ 51664736
+------------
+
+Show-index gives us the list of objects and their offsets. We throw away
+everything but the offsets, and then sort them so that our interesting
+offset (which we got from the fsck output above) is followed immediately
+by the offset of the next object. Now we know that the object data is
+10863 bytes long, and we can grab it with:
+
+------------
+ dd if=$pack of=object bs=1 skip=51653873 count=10863
+------------
+
+I inspected a hexdump of the data, looking for any obvious bogosity
+(e.g., a 4K run of zeroes would be a good sign of filesystem
+corruption). But everything looked pretty reasonable.
+
+Note that the "object" file isn't fit for feeding straight to zlib; it
+has the git packed object header, which is variable-length. We want to
+strip that off so we can start playing with the zlib data directly. You
+can either work your way through it manually (the format is described in
+link:../technical/pack-format.html[Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt]),
+or you can walk through it in a debugger. I did the latter, creating a
+valid pack like:
+
+------------
+ # pack magic and version
+ printf 'PACK\0\0\0\2' >tmp.pack
+ # pack has one object
+ printf '\0\0\0\1' >>tmp.pack
+ # now add our object data
+ cat object >>tmp.pack
+ # and then append the pack trailer
+ /path/to/git.git/test-sha1 -b <tmp.pack >trailer
+ cat trailer >>tmp.pack
+------------
+
+and then running "git index-pack tmp.pack" in the debugger (stop at
+unpack_raw_entry). Doing this, I found that there were 3 bytes of header
+(and the header itself had a sane type and size). So I stripped those
+off with:
+
+------------
+ dd if=object of=zlib bs=1 skip=3
+------------
+
+I ran the result through zlib's inflate using a custom C program. And
+while it did report the error, I did get the right number of output
+bytes (i.e., it matched git's size header that we decoded above). But
+feeding the result back to "git hash-object" didn't produce the same
+sha1. So there were some wrong bytes, but I didn't know which. The file
+happened to be C source code, so I hoped I could notice something
+obviously wrong with it, but I didn't. I even got it to compile!
+
+I also tried comparing it to other versions of the same path in the
+repository, hoping that there would be some part of the diff that didn't
+make sense. Unfortunately, this happened to be the only revision of this
+particular file in the repository, so I had nothing to compare against.
+
+So I took a different approach. Working under the guess that the
+corruption was limited to a single byte, I wrote a program to munge each
+byte individually, and try inflating the result. Since the object was
+only 10K compressed, that worked out to about 2.5M attempts, which took
+a few minutes.
+
+The program I used is here:
+
+----------------------------------------------
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <string.h>
+#include <signal.h>
+#include <zlib.h>
+
+static int try_zlib(unsigned char *buf, int len)
+{
+ /* make this absurdly large so we don't have to loop */
+ static unsigned char out[1024*1024];
+ z_stream z;
+ int ret;
+
+ memset(&z, 0, sizeof(z));
+ inflateInit(&z);
+
+ z.next_in = buf;
+ z.avail_in = len;
+ z.next_out = out;
+ z.avail_out = sizeof(out);
+
+ ret = inflate(&z, 0);
+ inflateEnd(&z);
+ return ret >= 0;
+}
+
+/* eye candy */
+static int counter = 0;
+static void progress(int sig)
+{
+ fprintf(stderr, "\r%d", counter);
+ alarm(1);
+}
+
+int main(void)
+{
+ /* oversized so we can read the whole buffer in */
+ unsigned char buf[1024*1024];
+ int len;
+ unsigned i, j;
+
+ signal(SIGALRM, progress);
+ alarm(1);
+
+ len = read(0, buf, sizeof(buf));
+ for (i = 0; i < len; i++) {
+ unsigned char c = buf[i];
+ for (j = 0; j <= 0xff; j++) {
+ buf[i] = j;
+
+ counter++;
+ if (try_zlib(buf, len))
+ printf("i=%d, j=%x\n", i, j);
+ }
+ buf[i] = c;
+ }
+
+ alarm(0);
+ fprintf(stderr, "\n");
+ return 0;
+}
+----------------------------------------------
+
+I compiled and ran with:
+
+-------
+ gcc -Wall -Werror -O3 munge.c -o munge -lz
+ ./munge <zlib
+-------
+
+
+There were a few false positives early on (if you write "no data" in the
+zlib header, zlib thinks it's just fine :) ). But I got a hit about
+halfway through:
+
+-------
+ i=5642, j=c7
+-------
+
+I let it run to completion, and got a few more hits at the end (where it
+was munging the crc to match our broken data). So there was a good
+chance this middle hit was the source of the problem.
+
+I confirmed by tweaking the byte in a hex editor, zlib inflating the
+result (no errors!), and then piping the output into "git hash-object",
+which reported the sha1 of the broken object. Success!
+
+I fixed the packfile itself with:
+
+-------
+ chmod +w $pack
+ printf '\xc7' | dd of=$pack bs=1 seek=51659518 conv=notrunc
+ chmod -w $pack
+-------
+
+The `\xc7` comes from the replacement byte our "munge" program found.
+The offset 51659518 is derived by taking the original object offset
+(51653873), adding the replacement offset found by "munge" (5642), and
+then adding back in the 3 bytes of git header we stripped.
+
+After that, "git fsck" ran clean.
+
+As for the corruption itself, I was lucky that it was indeed a single
+byte. In fact, it turned out to be a single bit. The byte 0xc7 was
+corrupted to 0xc5. So presumably it was caused by faulty hardware, or a
+cosmic ray.
+
+And the aborted attempt to look at the inflated output to see what was
+wrong? I could have looked forever and never found it. Here's the diff
+between what the corrupted data inflates to, versus the real data:
+
+--------------
+ - cp = strtok (arg, "+");
+ + cp = strtok (arg, ".");
+--------------
+
+It tweaked one byte and still ended up as valid, readable C that just
+happened to do something totally different! One takeaway is that on a
+less unlucky day, looking at the zlib output might have actually been
+helpful, as most random changes would actually break the C code.
+
+But more importantly, git's hashing and checksumming noticed a problem
+that easily could have gone undetected in another system. The result
+still compiled, but would have caused an interesting bug (that would
+have been blamed on some random commit).
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
index 075418e..acf3e47 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ where A and B are on the side development that was not so good, M is the
merge that brings these premature changes into the mainline, x are changes
unrelated to what the side branch did and already made on the mainline,
and W is the "revert of the merge M" (doesn't W look M upside down?).
-IOW, "diff W^..W" is similar to "diff -R M^..M".
+IOW, `"diff W^..W"` is similar to `"diff -R M^..M"`.
Such a "revert" of a merge can be made with:
@@ -121,9 +121,9 @@ If you reverted the revert in such a case as in the previous example:
---A---B A'--B'--C'
where Y is the revert of W, A' and B' are rerolled A and B, and there may
-also be a further fix-up C' on the side branch. "diff Y^..Y" is similar
-to "diff -R W^..W" (which in turn means it is similar to "diff M^..M"),
-and "diff A'^..C'" by definition would be similar but different from that,
+also be a further fix-up C' on the side branch. `"diff Y^..Y"` is similar
+to `"diff -R W^..W"` (which in turn means it is similar to `"diff M^..M"`),
+and `"diff A'^..C'"` by definition would be similar but different from that,
because it is a rerolled series of the earlier change. There will be a
lot of overlapping changes that result in conflicts. So do not do "revert
of revert" blindly without thinking..
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
index 84dd839..85f69db 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ How to revert an existing commit
================================
One of the changes I pulled into the 'master' branch turns out to
-break building Git with GCC 2.95. While they were well intentioned
+break building Git with GCC 2.95. While they were well-intentioned
portability fixes, keeping things working with gcc-2.95 was also
important. Here is what I did to revert the change in the 'master'
branch and to adjust the 'pu' branch, using core Git tools and
@@ -154,7 +154,7 @@ $ git pull . master
Packing 0 objects
Unpacking 0 objects
-* committish: e3a693c... refs/heads/master from .
+* commit-ish: e3a693c... refs/heads/master from .
Trying to merge e3a693c... into 8c1f5f0... using 10d781b...
Committed merge 7fb9b7262a1d1e0a47bbfdcbbcf50ce0635d3f8f
cache.h | 8 ++++----
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
index 7f4943e..6de4f3c 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
@@ -6,6 +6,10 @@ Content-type: text/asciidoc
How to setup Git server over http
=================================
+NOTE: This document is from 2006. A lot has happened since then, and this
+document is now relevant mainly if your web host is not CGI capable.
+Almost everyone else should instead look at linkgit:git-http-backend[1].
+
Since Apache is one of those packages people like to compile
themselves while others prefer the bureaucrat's dream Debian, it is
impossible to give guidelines which will work for everyone. Just send
@@ -81,8 +85,8 @@ Initialize a bare repository
$ git --bare init
-Change the ownership to your web-server's credentials. Use "grep ^User
-httpd.conf" and "grep ^Group httpd.conf" to find out:
+Change the ownership to your web-server's credentials. Use `"grep ^User
+httpd.conf"` and `"grep ^Group httpd.conf"` to find out:
$ chown -R www.www .
diff --git a/Documentation/line-range-format.txt b/Documentation/line-range-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d7f2603
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/line-range-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+<start> and <end> can take one of these forms:
+
+- number
++
+If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an
+absolute line number (lines count from 1).
++
+
+- /regex/
++
+This form will use the first line matching the given
+POSIX regex. If <start> is a regex, it will search from the end of
+the previous `-L` range, if any, otherwise from the start of file.
+If <start> is ``^/regex/'', it will search from the start of file.
+If <end> is a regex, it will search
+starting at the line given by <start>.
++
+
+- +offset or -offset
++
+This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number
+of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
+
++
+If ``:<regex>'' is given in place of <start> and <end>, it denotes the range
+from the first funcname line that matches <regex>, up to the next
+funcname line. ``:<regex>'' searches from the end of the previous `-L` range,
+if any, otherwise from the start of file.
+``^:<regex>'' searches from the start of file.
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 34a8445..e134315 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -8,14 +8,18 @@ failed and do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to
inspect and further tweak the merge result before committing.
--edit::
+-e::
--no-edit::
Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user
can explain and justify the merge. The `--no-edit` option can be
used to accept the auto-generated message (this is generally
- discouraged). The `--edit` option is still useful if you are
- giving a draft message with the `-m` option from the command line
- and want to edit it in the editor.
+ discouraged).
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+The `--edit` (or `-e`) option is still useful if you are
+giving a draft message with the `-m` option from the command line
+and want to edit it in the editor.
+endif::git-pull[]
+
Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not allowing the
user to edit the merge log message. They will see an editor opened when
@@ -84,6 +88,11 @@ option can be used to override --squash.
Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge
strategy.
+--verify-signatures::
+--no-verify-signatures::
+ Verify that the commits being merged have good and trusted GPG signatures
+ and abort the merge in case they do not.
+
--summary::
--no-summary::
Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index 49a9a7d..7bbd19b 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
MERGE STRATEGIES
----------------
-The merge mechanism ('git-merge' and 'git-pull' commands) allows the
+The merge mechanism (`git merge` and `git pull` commands) allows the
backend 'merge strategies' to be chosen with `-s` option. Some strategies
can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving `-X<option>`
-arguments to 'git-merge' and/or 'git-pull'.
+arguments to `git merge` and/or `git pull`.
resolve::
This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ recursive::
merged tree of the common ancestors and uses that as
the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without
- causing mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits
+ causing mismerges by tests done on actual merge commits
taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history.
Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving
renames. This is the default merge strategy when
@@ -113,3 +113,11 @@ subtree::
match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at
the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
ancestor tree.
+
+With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default, 'recursive'),
+if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted on one of the
+branches, that change will be present in the merged result; some people find
+this behavior confusing. It occurs because only the heads and the merge base
+are considered when performing a merge, not the individual commits. The merge
+algorithm therefore considers the reverted change as no change at all, and
+substitutes the changed version instead.
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 342965d..1d174fd 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -106,18 +106,22 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%P': parent hashes
- '%p': abbreviated parent hashes
- '%an': author name
-- '%aN': author name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%aN': author name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1]
+ or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ae': author email
-- '%aE': author email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%aE': author email (respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ad': author date (format respects --date= option)
- '%aD': author date, RFC2822 style
- '%ar': author date, relative
- '%at': author date, UNIX timestamp
- '%ai': author date, ISO 8601 format
- '%cn': committer name
-- '%cN': committer name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%cN': committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ce': committer email
-- '%cE': committer email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%cE': committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%cd': committer date
- '%cD': committer date, RFC2822 style
- '%cr': committer date, relative
@@ -131,15 +135,18 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%B': raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
- '%N': commit notes
- '%GG': raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
-- '%G?': show either "G" for Good or "B" for Bad for a signed commit
+- '%G?': show "G" for a Good signature, "B" for a Bad signature, "U" for a good,
+ untrusted signature and "N" for no signature
- '%GS': show the name of the signer for a signed commit
- '%GK': show the key used to sign a signed commit
- '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}`
- '%gd': shortened reflog selector, e.g., `stash@{1}`
- '%gn': reflog identity name
-- '%gN': reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%gN': reflog identity name (respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ge': reflog identity email
-- '%gE': reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%gE': reflog identity email (respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%gs': reflog subject
- '%Cred': switch color to red
- '%Cgreen': switch color to green
@@ -149,13 +156,28 @@ The placeholders are:
adding `auto,` at the beginning will emit color only when colors are
enabled for log output (by `color.diff`, `color.ui`, or `--color`, and
respecting the `auto` settings of the former if we are going to a
- terminal)
+ terminal). `auto` alone (i.e. `%C(auto)`) will turn on auto coloring
+ on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.
- '%m': left, right or boundary mark
- '%n': newline
- '%%': a raw '%'
- '%x00': print a byte from a hex code
- '%w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])': switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
+- '%<(<N>[,trunc|ltrunc|mtrunc])': make the next placeholder take at
+ least N columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary.
+ Optionally truncate at the beginning (ltrunc), the middle (mtrunc)
+ or the end (trunc) if the output is longer than N columns.
+ Note that truncating only works correctly with N >= 2.
+- '%<|(<N>)': make the next placeholder take at least until Nth
+ columns, padding spaces on the right if necessary
+- '%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)': similar to '%<(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
+ respectively, but padding spaces on the left
+- '%>>(<N>)', '%>>|(<N>)': similar to '%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)'
+ respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces
+ than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
+- '%><(<N>)', '%><|(<N>)': similar to '% <(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
+ respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 5e49942..eea0e30 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ people using 80-column terminals.
This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
used together.
---encoding[=<encoding>]::
+--encoding=<encoding>::
The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index 94a9d32..18cffc2 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -68,6 +68,11 @@ Some short-cut notations are also supported.
+
* `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`;
it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
-* A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to
- <ref>: when pulling/fetching, so it merges <ref> into the current
- branch without storing the remote branch anywhere locally
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+* A parameter <ref> without a colon fetches that ref into FETCH_HEAD,
+endif::git-pull[]
+ifdef::git-pull[]
+* A parameter <ref> without a colon merges <ref> into the current
+ branch,
+endif::git-pull[]
+ and updates the remote-tracking branches (if any).
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 3bdbf5e..b813961 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -18,33 +18,27 @@ ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
-<number>::
-n <number>::
--max-count=<number>::
-
Limit the number of commits to output.
--skip=<number>::
-
Skip 'number' commits before starting to show the commit output.
--since=<date>::
--after=<date>::
-
Show commits more recent than a specific date.
--until=<date>::
--before=<date>::
-
Show commits older than a specific date.
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--max-age=<timestamp>::
--min-age=<timestamp>::
-
Limit the commits output to specified time range.
endif::git-rev-list[]
--author=<pattern>::
--committer=<pattern>::
-
Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
expression). With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
@@ -52,7 +46,6 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
--grep-reflog=<pattern>::
-
Limit the commits output to ones with reflog entries that
match the specified pattern (regular expression). With
more than one `--grep-reflog`, commits whose reflog message
@@ -60,7 +53,6 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
error to use this option unless `--walk-reflogs` is in use.
--grep=<pattern>::
-
Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
matches the specified pattern (regular expression). With
more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
@@ -71,46 +63,39 @@ When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes as
if it is part of the log message.
--all-match::
- Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
+ Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
instead of ones that match at least one.
-i::
--regexp-ignore-case::
-
- Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
+ Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
+ case.
--basic-regexp::
-
Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
this is the default.
-E::
--extended-regexp::
-
Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions
instead of the default basic regular expressions.
-F::
--fixed-strings::
-
Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
pattern as a regular expression).
--perl-regexp::
-
- Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regexp.
+ Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.
Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
--remove-empty::
-
Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
--merges::
-
Print only merge commits. This is exactly the same as `--min-parents=2`.
--no-merges::
-
Do not print commits with more than one parent. This is
exactly the same as `--max-parents=1`.
@@ -118,8 +103,7 @@ if it is part of the log message.
--max-parents=<number>::
--no-min-parents::
--no-max-parents::
-
- Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many
+ Show only commits which have at least (or at most) that many parent
commits. In particular, `--max-parents=1` is the same as `--no-merges`,
`--min-parents=2` is the same as `--merges`. `--max-parents=0`
gives all root commits and `--min-parents=3` all octopus merges.
@@ -138,31 +122,26 @@ parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
brought in to your history by such a merge.
--not::
-
Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
- for all following revision specifiers, up to the next '--not'.
+ for all following revision specifiers, up to the next `--not`.
--all::
-
Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/` are listed on the
command line as '<commit>'.
--branches[=<pattern>]::
-
Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/heads` are listed
on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
branches to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?',
'{asterisk}', or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
--tags[=<pattern>]::
-
Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/tags` are listed
on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
tags to ones matching given shell glob. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
--remotes[=<pattern>]::
-
Pretend as if all the refs in `refs/remotes` are listed
on the command line as '<commit>'. If '<pattern>' is given, limit
remote-tracking branches to ones matching given shell glob.
@@ -174,14 +153,27 @@ parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
---ignore-missing::
+--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
+ Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
+ `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
+ consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
+ up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
+ `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
+ accumlated patterns).
++
+The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
+`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
+respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
+or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
+explicitly.
+
+--ignore-missing::
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
the bad input was not given.
ifndef::git-rev-list[]
--bisect::
-
Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `refs/bisect/bad`
was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
@@ -189,7 +181,6 @@ ifndef::git-rev-list[]
endif::git-rev-list[]
--stdin::
-
In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
@@ -197,36 +188,32 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--quiet::
-
Don't print anything to standard output. This form
is primarily meant to allow the caller to
test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
- to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.
+ to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
endif::git-rev-list[]
--cherry-mark::
-
Like `--cherry-pick` (see below) but mark equivalent commits
with `=` rather than omitting them, and inequivalent ones with `+`.
--cherry-pick::
-
Omit any commit that introduces the same change as
- another commit on the "other side" when the set of
+ another commit on the ``other side'' when the set of
commits are limited with symmetric difference.
+
For example, if you have two branches, `A` and `B`, a usual way
to list all commits on only one side of them is with
`--left-right` (see the example below in the description of
-the `--left-right` option). It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked
-from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked
-from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
+the `--left-right` option). However, it shows the commits that were
+cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, ``3rd on b'' may be
+cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are
excluded from the output.
--left-only::
--right-only::
-
List only commits on the respective side of a symmetric range,
i.e. only those which would be marked `<` resp. `>` by
`--left-right`.
@@ -238,7 +225,6 @@ More precisely, `--cherry-pick --right-only --no-merges` gives the exact
list.
--cherry::
-
A synonym for `--right-only --cherry-mark --no-merges`; useful to
limit the output to the commits on our side and mark those that
have been applied to the other side of a forked history with
@@ -247,32 +233,37 @@ list.
-g::
--walk-reflogs::
-
Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk
reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
+
-With '\--pretty' format other than oneline (for obvious reasons),
+With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
taken from the reflog. By default, 'commit@\{Nth}' notation is
used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as
'commit@\{now}', output also uses 'commit@\{timestamp}' notation
-instead. Under '\--pretty=oneline', the commit message is
+instead. Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
prefixed with this information on the same line.
-This option cannot be combined with '\--reverse'.
+This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
--merge::
-
After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
conflict and don't exist on all heads to merge.
--boundary::
+ Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
+ prefixed with `-`.
- Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually
- not shown.
+ifdef::git-rev-list[]
+--use-bitmap-index::
+
+ Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
+ one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
+ trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
+endif::git-rev-list[]
--
@@ -287,11 +278,9 @@ is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
The following options select the commits to be shown:
<paths>::
-
Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
--simplify-by-decoration::
-
Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
@@ -299,33 +288,27 @@ Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
Default mode::
-
Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
with the same content)
--full-history::
-
Same as the default mode, but does not prune some history.
--dense::
-
Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
meaningful history.
--sparse::
-
All commits in the simplified history are shown.
--simplify-merges::
-
- Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
+ Additional option to `--full-history` to remove some needless
merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
commits contributing to this merge.
--ancestry-path::
-
When given a range of commits to display (e.g. 'commit1..commit2'
or 'commit2 {caret}commit1'), only display commits that exist
directly on the ancestry chain between the 'commit1' and
@@ -342,43 +325,45 @@ In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to
illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume
that you are filtering for a file `foo` in this commit graph:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
- .-A---M---N---O---P
- / / / / /
- I B C D E
- \ / / / /
- `-------------'
+ .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
+ / / / / / /
+ I B C D E Y
+ \ / / / / /
+ `-------------' X
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-The horizontal line of history A---P is taken to be the first parent of
+The horizontal line of history A---Q is taken to be the first parent of
each merge. The commits are:
* `I` is the initial commit, in which `foo` exists with contents
- "asdf", and a file `quux` exists with contents "quux". Initial
+ ``asdf'', and a file `quux` exists with contents ``quux''. Initial
commits are compared to an empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
-* In `A`, `foo` contains just "foo".
+* In `A`, `foo` contains just ``foo''.
* `B` contains the same change as `A`. Its merge `M` is trivial and
hence TREESAME to all parents.
-* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to "foobar",
+* `C` does not change `foo`, but its merge `N` changes it to ``foobar'',
so it is not TREESAME to any parent.
-* `D` sets `foo` to "baz". Its merge `O` combines the strings from
- `N` and `D` to "foobarbaz"; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
+* `D` sets `foo` to ``baz''. Its merge `O` combines the strings from
+ `N` and `D` to ``foobarbaz''; i.e., it is not TREESAME to any parent.
-* `E` changes `quux` to "xyzzy", and its merge `P` combines the
- strings to "quux xyzzy". Despite appearing interesting, `P` is
- TREESAME to all parents.
+* `E` changes `quux` to ``xyzzy'', and its merge `P` combines the
+ strings to ``quux xyzzy''. `P` is TREESAME to `O`, but not to `E`.
-'rev-list' walks backwards through history, including or excluding
-commits based on whether '\--full-history' and/or parent rewriting
-(via '\--parents' or '\--children') are used. The following settings
+* `X` is an independent root commit that added a new file `side`, and `Y`
+ modified it. `Y` is TREESAME to `X`. Its merge `Q` added `side` to `P`, and
+ `Q` is TREESAME to `P`, but not to `Y`.
+
+`rev-list` walks backwards through history, including or excluding
+commits based on whether `--full-history` and/or parent rewriting
+(via `--parents` or `--children`) are used. The following settings
are available.
Default mode::
-
Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent
- (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below). If the
+ (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below). If the
commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow
only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME
parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all
@@ -397,12 +382,11 @@ available, removed `B` from consideration entirely. `C` was
considered via `N`, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an
empty tree, so `I` is !TREESAME.
+
-Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does
+Parent/child relations are only visible with `--parents`, but that does
not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the
parent lines.
--full-history without parent rewriting::
-
This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow
all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them.
Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are
@@ -410,10 +394,10 @@ parent lines.
the example, we get
+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
- I A B N D O
+ I A B N D O P Q
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
-`P` and `M` were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. `E`,
+`M` was excluded because it is TREESAME to both parents. `E`,
`C` and `B` were all walked, but only `B` was !TREESAME, so the others
do not appear.
+
@@ -422,47 +406,43 @@ about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show
them disconnected.
--full-history with parent rewriting::
-
Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME
- (though this can be changed, see '\--sparse' below).
+ (though this can be changed, see `--sparse` below).
+
Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten:
Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included
themselves. This results in
+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
- .-A---M---N---O---P
+ .-A---M---N---O---P---Q
/ / / / /
I B / D /
\ / / / /
`-------------'
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
-Compare to '\--full-history' without rewriting above. Note that `E`
+Compare to `--full-history` without rewriting above. Note that `E`
was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was
rewritten to contain `E`'s parent `I`. The same happened for `C` and
-`N`. Note also that `P` was included despite being TREESAME.
+`N`, and `X`, `Y` and `Q`.
In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME
affects inclusion:
--dense::
-
Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME
to any parent.
--sparse::
-
All commits that are walked are included.
+
-Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
+Note that without `--full-history`, this still simplifies merges: if
one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
sides of the merge are never walked.
--simplify-merges::
-
First, build a history graph in the same way that
- '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
+ `--full-history` with parent rewriting does (see above).
+
Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
history according to the following rules:
@@ -471,8 +451,9 @@ history according to the following rules:
* Set `C'` to `C`.
+
* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
- the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
- remove duplicates.
+ the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents or that are
+ root commits TREESAME to an empty tree, and remove duplicates, but take care
+ to never drop all parents that we are TREESAME to.
+
* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
@@ -480,7 +461,7 @@ history according to the following rules:
--
+
The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
-'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
+`--full-history` with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
.-A---M---N---O
@@ -490,7 +471,7 @@ The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
`---------'
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
-Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '--full-history':
+Note the major differences in `N`, `P`, and `Q` over `--full-history`:
+
--
* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
@@ -498,16 +479,19 @@ Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '--full-history':
+
* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
++
+* `Q`'s parent list had `Y` simplified to `X`. `X` was then removed, because it
+ was a TREESAME root. `Q` was then removed completely, because it had one
+ parent and is TREESAME.
--
Finally, there is a fifth simplification mode available:
--ancestry-path::
-
Limit the displayed commits to those directly on the ancestry
- chain between the "from" and "to" commits in the given commit
- range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the "to"
- commit, and descendants of the "from" commit.
+ chain between the ``from'' and ``to'' commits in the given commit
+ range. I.e. only display commits that are ancestor of the ``to''
+ commit and descendants of the ``from'' commit.
+
As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
+
@@ -522,14 +506,14 @@ As an example use case, consider the following commit history:
A regular 'D..M' computes the set of commits that are ancestors of `M`,
but excludes the ones that are ancestors of `D`. This is useful to see
what happened to the history leading to `M` since `D`, in the sense
-that "what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`". The result in this
+that ``what does `M` have that did not exist in `D`''. The result in this
example would be all the commits, except `A` and `B` (and `D` itself,
of course).
+
When we want to find out what commits in `M` are contaminated with the
bug introduced by `D` and need fixing, however, we might want to view
only the subset of 'D..M' that are actually descendants of `D`, i.e.
-excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the '--ancestry-path'
+excluding `C` and `K`. This is exactly what the `--ancestry-path`
option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
+
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -540,7 +524,7 @@ option does. Applied to the 'D..M' range, it results in:
L--M
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
+The `--simplify-by-decoration` option allows you to view only the
big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
@@ -553,50 +537,47 @@ Bisection Helpers
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--bisect::
-
-Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
-included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
-`refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
-exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
-added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
-are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
-
+ Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
+ included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
+ `refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
+ exists) and the good bisection refs `refs/bisect/good-*` are
+ added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
+ are no refs in `refs/bisect/`, if
++
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
$ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
++
outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
-
++
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
$ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
$ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-
++
would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly
generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain is of length
one.
--bisect-vars::
-
-This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
-`refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
-text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
-name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
-expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
-to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
-`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
-number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
-`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
-`bisect_all`.
+ This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
+ `refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
+ text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
+ name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
+ expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
+ to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
+ `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
+ number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
+ `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
+ `bisect_all`.
--bisect-all::
-
-This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
-commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
-commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
-from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
-`--bisect`.)
+ This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
+ commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
+ commits. Refs in `refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
+ from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
+ `--bisect`.)
+
This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
@@ -617,6 +598,10 @@ By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
+--author-date-order::
+ Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
+ otherwise show commits in the author timestamp order.
+
--topo-order::
Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
@@ -642,9 +627,8 @@ avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
together.
--reverse::
-
Output the commits in reverse order.
- Cannot be combined with '\--walk-reflogs'.
+ Cannot be combined with `--walk-reflogs`.
Object Traversal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -652,37 +636,32 @@ Object Traversal
These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
--objects::
-
Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
- commits. '--objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me
+ commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
- object 'bar', but not 'foo'".
+ object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
--objects-edge::
-
- Similar to '--objects', but also print the IDs of excluded
- commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by
- linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build "thin" pack, which records
+ Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
+ commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
+ linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] to build ``thin'' pack, which records
objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these
excluded commits to reduce network traffic.
--unpacked::
-
- Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
+ Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
in packs.
--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
-
Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
- "unsorted" is given, the commits are show in the order they were
- given on the command line. Otherwise (if "sorted" or no argument
- was given), the commits are show in reverse chronological order
+ `unsorted` is given, the commits are shown in the order they were
+ given on the command line. Otherwise (if `sorted` or no argument
+ was given), the commits are shown in reverse chronological order
by commit time.
--do-walk::
-
- Overrides a previous --no-walk.
+ Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
Commit Formatting
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -696,46 +675,41 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
include::pretty-options.txt[]
--relative-date::
-
Synonym for `--date=relative`.
--date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
-
Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
- as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
- value for log command's --date option.
+ as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
+ value for the log command's `--date` option.
+
`--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
-e.g. "2 hours ago".
+e.g. ``2 hours ago''.
+
-`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local timezone.
+`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local time zone.
+
`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
+
`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
-format, often found in E-mail messages.
+format, often found in email messages.
+
-`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
+`--date=short` shows only the date, but not the time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
+
`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
+
-`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
+`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original time zone
(either committer's or author's).
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--header::
-
Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is
separated with a NUL character.
endif::git-rev-list[]
--parents::
-
Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
--children::
-
Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
@@ -745,7 +719,6 @@ ifdef::git-rev-list[]
endif::git-rev-list[]
--left-right::
-
Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from.
Commits from the left side are prefixed with `<` and those from
the right with `>`. If combined with `--boundary`, those
@@ -775,7 +748,6 @@ you would get an output like this:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
--graph::
-
Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history
on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines
to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history
@@ -783,31 +755,36 @@ you would get an output like this:
+
This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+
-This implies the '--topo-order' option by default, but the
-'--date-order' option may also be specified.
+This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
+`--date-order` option may also be specified.
+
+--show-linear-break[=<barrier>]::
+ When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
+ which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
+ do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
+ in between them in that case. If `<barrier>` is specified, it
+ is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--count::
Print a number stating how many commits would have been
listed, and suppress all other output. When used together
- with '--left-right', instead print the counts for left and
+ with `--left-right`, instead print the counts for left and
right commits, separated by a tab. When used together with
- '--cherry-mark', omit patch equivalent commits from these
+ `--cherry-mark`, omit patch equivalent commits from these
counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
by a tab.
endif::git-rev-list[]
-
ifndef::git-rev-list[]
Diff Formatting
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Below are listed options that control the formatting of diff output.
+Listed below are options that control the formatting of diff output.
Some of them are specific to linkgit:git-rev-list[1], however other diff
options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
-c::
-
With this option, diff output for a merge commit
shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
@@ -815,29 +792,22 @@ options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
which were modified from all parents.
--cc::
-
- This flag implies the '-c' option and further compresses the
+ This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
one of them without modification.
-m::
-
This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
- the first parent is shown when '--first-parent' option is given;
+ the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
brought _into_ the then-current branch.
-r::
-
Show recursive diffs.
-t::
-
- Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies '-r'.
-
--s::
- Suppress diff output.
+ Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
endif::git-rev-list[]
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index c582263..5a286d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -58,6 +58,9 @@ the '$GIT_DIR/refs' directory or from the '$GIT_DIR/packed-refs' file.
While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is preferred as
some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
+'@'::
+ '@' alone is a shortcut for 'HEAD'.
+
'<refname>@\{<date>\}', e.g. 'master@\{yesterday\}', 'HEAD@\{5 minutes ago\}'::
A ref followed by the suffix '@' with a date specification
enclosed in a brace
@@ -85,7 +88,7 @@ some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
branch 'blabla' then '@\{1\}' means the same as 'blabla@\{1\}'.
'@\{-<n>\}', e.g. '@\{-1\}'::
- The construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
+ The construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
before the current one.
'<branchname>@\{upstream\}', e.g. 'master@\{upstream\}', '@\{u\}'::
@@ -111,11 +114,23 @@ some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
'<rev>{caret}\{<type>\}', e.g. 'v0.99.8{caret}\{commit\}'::
A suffix '{caret}' followed by an object type name enclosed in
- brace pair means the object
- could be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until an
- object of that type is found or the object cannot be
- dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf). '<rev>{caret}0'
+ brace pair means dereference the object at '<rev>' recursively until
+ an object of type '<type>' is found or the object cannot be
+ dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf).
+ For example, if '<rev>' is a commit-ish, '<rev>{caret}\{commit\}'
+ describes the corresponding commit object.
+ Similarly, if '<rev>' is a tree-ish, '<rev>{caret}\{tree\}'
+ describes the corresponding tree object.
+ '<rev>{caret}0'
is a short-hand for '<rev>{caret}\{commit\}'.
++
+'rev{caret}\{object\}' can be used to make sure 'rev' names an
+object that exists, without requiring 'rev' to be a tag, and
+without dereferencing 'rev'; because a tag is already an object,
+it does not have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.
++
+'rev{caret}\{tag\}' can be used to ensure that 'rev' identifies an
+existing tag object.
'<rev>{caret}\{\}', e.g. 'v0.99.8{caret}\{\}'::
A suffix '{caret}' followed by an empty brace pair
@@ -239,11 +254,13 @@ To summarize:
'<rev1>..<rev2>'::
Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude
- those that are reachable from <rev1>.
+ those that are reachable from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or
+ <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to 'HEAD'.
'<rev1>\...<rev2>'::
Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or
- <rev2> but exclude those that are reachable from both.
+ <rev2> but exclude those that are reachable from both. When
+ either <rev1> or <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to 'HEAD'.
'<rev>{caret}@', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}@'::
A suffix '{caret}' followed by an at sign is the same as listing
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
index 4a4228b..e3d6e7a 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,8 @@ Git:
. Add the external declaration for the function to `builtin.h`.
-. Add the command to `commands[]` table in `handle_internal_command()`,
- defined in `git.c`. The entry should look like:
+. Add the command to the `commands[]` table defined in `git.c`.
+ The entry should look like:
{ "foo", cmd_foo, <options> },
+
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ where options is the bitwise-or of:
on bare repositories.
This only makes sense when `RUN_SETUP` is also set.
-. Add `builtin-foo.o` to `BUILTIN_OBJS` in `Makefile`.
+. Add `builtin/foo.o` to `BUILTIN_OBJS` in `Makefile`.
Additionally, if `foo` is a new command, there are 3 more things to do:
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt
index 2d2ebc0..8b001de 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,8 @@ Calling sequence
* Call `diff_setup_done()`; this inspects the options set up so far for
internal consistency and make necessary tweaking to it (e.g. if
- textual patch output was asked, recursive behaviour is turned on).
+ textual patch output was asked, recursive behaviour is turned on);
+ the callback set_default in diff_options can be used to tweak this more.
* As you find different pairs of files, call `diff_change()` to feed
modified files, `diff_addremove()` to feed created or deleted files,
@@ -115,6 +116,13 @@ Notable members are:
operation, but some do not have anything to do with the diffcore
library.
+`touched_flags`::
+ Records whether a flag has been changed due to user request
+ (rather than just set/unset by default).
+
+`set_default`::
+ Callback which allows tweaking the options in diff_setup_done().
+
BINARY, TEXT;;
Affects the way how a file that is seemingly binary is treated.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 1f349b2..7f8e78d 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -22,12 +22,23 @@ The notable options are:
`flags`::
- A bit-field of options:
+ A bit-field of options (the `*IGNORED*` flags are mutually exclusive):
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`:::
- The traversal is for finding just ignored files, not unignored
- files.
+ Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked files.
+
+`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`:::
+
+ Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in `ignored[]`
+ in addition to untracked files in `entries[]`.
+
+`DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED`:::
+
+ Special mode for git-add. Return ignored files in `ignored[]` and
+ untracked files in `entries[]`. Only returns ignored files that match
+ pathspec exactly (no wildcards). Does not recurse into ignored
+ directories.
`DIR_SHOW_OTHER_DIRECTORIES`:::
@@ -57,6 +68,14 @@ The result of the enumeration is left in these fields:
Internal use; keeps track of allocation of `entries[]` array.
+`ignored[]`::
+
+ An array of `struct dir_entry`, used for ignored paths with the
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` and `DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED` flags.
+
+`ignored_nr`::
+
+ The number of members in `ignored[]` array.
Calling sequence
----------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index e5061e0..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,52 +0,0 @@
-hash API
-========
-
-The hash API is a collection of simple hash table functions. Users are expected
-to implement their own hashing.
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct hash_table`::
-
- The hash table structure. The `array` member points to the hash table
- entries. The `size` member counts the total number of valid and invalid
- entries in the table. The `nr` member keeps track of the number of
- valid entries.
-
-`struct hash_table_entry`::
-
- An opaque structure representing an entry in the hash table. The `hash`
- member is the entry's hash key and the `ptr` member is the entry's
- value.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`init_hash`::
-
- Initialize the hash table.
-
-`free_hash`::
-
- Release memory associated with the hash table.
-
-`insert_hash`::
-
- Insert a pointer into the hash table. If an entry with that hash
- already exists, a pointer to the existing entry's value is returned.
- Otherwise NULL is returned. This allows callers to implement
- chaining, etc.
-
-`lookup_hash`::
-
- Lookup an entry in the hash table. If an entry with that hash exists
- the entry's value is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned.
-
-`for_each_hash`::
-
- Call a function for each entry in the hash table. The function is
- expected to take the entry's value as its only argument and return an
- int. If the function returns a negative int the loop is aborted
- immediately. Otherwise, the return value is accumulated and the sum
- returned upon completion of the loop.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..42ca234
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,235 @@
+hashmap API
+===========
+
+The hashmap API is a generic implementation of hash-based key-value mappings.
+
+Data Structures
+---------------
+
+`struct hashmap`::
+
+ The hash table structure.
++
+The `size` member keeps track of the total number of entries. The `cmpfn`
+member is a function used to compare two entries for equality. The `table` and
+`tablesize` members store the hash table and its size, respectively.
+
+`struct hashmap_entry`::
+
+ An opaque structure representing an entry in the hash table, which must
+ be used as first member of user data structures. Ideally it should be
+ followed by an int-sized member to prevent unused memory on 64-bit
+ systems due to alignment.
++
+The `hash` member is the entry's hash code and the `next` member points to the
+next entry in case of collisions (i.e. if multiple entries map to the same
+bucket).
+
+`struct hashmap_iter`::
+
+ An iterator structure, to be used with hashmap_iter_* functions.
+
+Types
+-----
+
+`int (*hashmap_cmp_fn)(const void *entry, const void *entry_or_key, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ User-supplied function to test two hashmap entries for equality. Shall
+ return 0 if the entries are equal.
++
+This function is always called with non-NULL `entry` / `entry_or_key`
+parameters that have the same hash code. When looking up an entry, the `key`
+and `keydata` parameters to hashmap_get and hashmap_remove are always passed
+as second and third argument, respectively. Otherwise, `keydata` is NULL.
+
+Functions
+---------
+
+`unsigned int strhash(const char *buf)`::
+`unsigned int strihash(const char *buf)`::
+`unsigned int memhash(const void *buf, size_t len)`::
+`unsigned int memihash(const void *buf, size_t len)`::
+
+ Ready-to-use hash functions for strings, using the FNV-1 algorithm (see
+ http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/comp/fnv).
++
+`strhash` and `strihash` take 0-terminated strings, while `memhash` and
+`memihash` operate on arbitrary-length memory.
++
+`strihash` and `memihash` are case insensitive versions.
+
+`void hashmap_init(struct hashmap *map, hashmap_cmp_fn equals_function, size_t initial_size)`::
+
+ Initializes a hashmap structure.
++
+`map` is the hashmap to initialize.
++
+The `equals_function` can be specified to compare two entries for equality.
+If NULL, entries are considered equal if their hash codes are equal.
++
+If the total number of entries is known in advance, the `initial_size`
+parameter may be used to preallocate a sufficiently large table and thus
+prevent expensive resizing. If 0, the table is dynamically resized.
+
+`void hashmap_free(struct hashmap *map, int free_entries)`::
+
+ Frees a hashmap structure and allocated memory.
++
+`map` is the hashmap to free.
++
+If `free_entries` is true, each hashmap_entry in the map is freed as well
+(using stdlib's free()).
+
+`void hashmap_entry_init(void *entry, unsigned int hash)`::
+
+ Initializes a hashmap_entry structure.
++
+`entry` points to the entry to initialize.
++
+`hash` is the hash code of the entry.
+
+`void *hashmap_get(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ Returns the hashmap entry for the specified key, or NULL if not found.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`key` is a hashmap_entry structure (or user data structure that starts with
+hashmap_entry) that has at least been initialized with the proper hash code
+(via `hashmap_entry_init`).
++
+If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are passed
+to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
+
+`void *hashmap_get_next(const struct hashmap *map, const void *entry)`::
+
+ Returns the next equal hashmap entry, or NULL if not found. This can be
+ used to iterate over duplicate entries (see `hashmap_add`).
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`entry` is the hashmap_entry to start the search from, obtained via a previous
+call to `hashmap_get` or `hashmap_get_next`.
+
+`void hashmap_add(struct hashmap *map, void *entry)`::
+
+ Adds a hashmap entry. This allows to add duplicate entries (i.e.
+ separate values with the same key according to hashmap_cmp_fn).
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`entry` is the entry to add.
+
+`void *hashmap_put(struct hashmap *map, void *entry)`::
+
+ Adds or replaces a hashmap entry. If the hashmap contains duplicate
+ entries equal to the specified entry, only one of them will be replaced.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`entry` is the entry to add or replace.
++
+Returns the replaced entry, or NULL if not found (i.e. the entry was added).
+
+`void *hashmap_remove(struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ Removes a hashmap entry matching the specified key. If the hashmap
+ contains duplicate entries equal to the specified key, only one of
+ them will be removed.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`key` is a hashmap_entry structure (or user data structure that starts with
+hashmap_entry) that has at least been initialized with the proper hash code
+(via `hashmap_entry_init`).
++
+If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are
+passed to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
++
+Returns the removed entry, or NULL if not found.
+
+`void hashmap_iter_init(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
+`void *hashmap_iter_next(struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
+`void *hashmap_iter_first(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
+
+ Used to iterate over all entries of a hashmap.
++
+`hashmap_iter_init` initializes a `hashmap_iter` structure.
++
+`hashmap_iter_next` returns the next hashmap_entry, or NULL if there are no
+more entries.
++
+`hashmap_iter_first` is a combination of both (i.e. initializes the iterator
+and returns the first entry, if any).
+
+Usage example
+-------------
+
+Here's a simple usage example that maps long keys to double values.
+[source,c]
+------------
+struct hashmap map;
+
+struct long2double {
+ struct hashmap_entry ent; /* must be the first member! */
+ long key;
+ double value;
+};
+
+static int long2double_cmp(const struct long2double *e1, const struct long2double *e2, const void *unused)
+{
+ return !(e1->key == e2->key);
+}
+
+void long2double_init(void)
+{
+ hashmap_init(&map, (hashmap_cmp_fn) long2double_cmp, 0);
+}
+
+void long2double_free(void)
+{
+ hashmap_free(&map, 1);
+}
+
+static struct long2double *find_entry(long key)
+{
+ struct long2double k;
+ hashmap_entry_init(&k, memhash(&key, sizeof(long)));
+ k.key = key;
+ return hashmap_get(&map, &k, NULL);
+}
+
+double get_value(long key)
+{
+ struct long2double *e = find_entry(key);
+ return e ? e->value : 0;
+}
+
+void set_value(long key, double value)
+{
+ struct long2double *e = find_entry(key);
+ if (!e) {
+ e = malloc(sizeof(struct long2double));
+ hashmap_entry_init(e, memhash(&key, sizeof(long)));
+ e->key = key;
+ hashmap_add(&map, e);
+ }
+ e->value = value;
+}
+------------
+
+Using variable-sized keys
+-------------------------
+
+The `hashmap_entry_get` and `hashmap_entry_remove` functions expect an ordinary
+`hashmap_entry` structure as key to find the correct entry. If the key data is
+variable-sized (e.g. a FLEX_ARRAY string) or quite large, it is undesirable
+to create a full-fledged entry structure on the heap and copy all the key data
+into the structure.
+
+In this case, the `keydata` parameter can be used to pass
+variable-sized key data directly to the comparison function, and the `key`
+parameter can be a stripped-down, fixed size entry structure allocated on the
+stack.
+
+See test-hashmap.c for an example using arbitrary-length strings as keys.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 32ddc1c..be50cf4 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -29,9 +29,9 @@ that allow to change the behavior of a command.
The parse-options API allows:
-* 'sticked' and 'separate form' of options with arguments.
- `-oArg` is sticked, `-o Arg` is separate form.
- `--option=Arg` is sticked, `--option Arg` is separate form.
+* 'stuck' and 'separate form' of options with arguments.
+ `-oArg` is stuck, `-o Arg` is separate form.
+ `--option=Arg` is stuck, `--option Arg` is separate form.
* Long options may be 'abbreviated', as long as the abbreviation
is unambiguous.
@@ -41,6 +41,8 @@ The parse-options API allows:
* Boolean long options can be 'negated' (or 'unset') by prepending
`no-`, e.g. `--no-abbrev` instead of `--abbrev`. Conversely,
options that begin with `no-` can be 'negated' by removing it.
+ Other long options can be unset (e.g., set string to NULL, set
+ integer to 0) by prepending `no-`.
* Options and non-option arguments can clearly be separated using the `--`
option, e.g. `-a -b --option -- --this-is-a-file` indicates that
@@ -174,6 +176,10 @@ There are some macros to easily define options:
Introduce an option with date argument, see `approxidate()`.
The timestamp is put into `int_var`.
+`OPT_EXPIRY_DATE(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
+ Introduce an option with expiry date argument, see `parse_expiry_date()`.
+ The timestamp is put into `int_var`.
+
`OPT_CALLBACK(short, long, &var, arg_str, description, func_ptr)`::
Introduce an option with argument.
The argument will be fed into the function given by `func_ptr`
@@ -269,10 +275,10 @@ Examples
--------
See `test-parse-options.c` and
-`builtin-add.c`,
-`builtin-clone.c`,
-`builtin-commit.c`,
-`builtin-fetch.c`,
-`builtin-fsck.c`,
-`builtin-rm.c`
+`builtin/add.c`,
+`builtin/clone.c`,
+`builtin/commit.c`,
+`builtin/fetch.c`,
+`builtin/fsck.c`,
+`builtin/rm.c`
for real-world examples.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
index aa1c50f..02adfd4 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
@@ -50,10 +50,10 @@ submodules object database. You can do this by a code-snippet like
this:
const char *path = "path/to/submodule"
- if (!add_submodule_odb(path))
+ if (add_submodule_odb(path))
die("Error submodule '%s' not populated.", path);
-`add_submodule_odb()` will return an non-zero value on success. If you
+`add_submodule_odb()` will return zero on success. If you
do not do this you will get an error for each ref that it does not point
to a valid object.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
index 4be8776..5d245aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
@@ -58,16 +58,16 @@ default remote, given the current branch and configuration.
struct refspec
--------------
-A struct refspec holds the parsed interpretation of a refspec. If it
-will force updates (starts with a '+'), force is true. If it is a
-pattern (sides end with '*') pattern is true. src and dest are the two
-sides (if a pattern, only the part outside of the wildcards); if there
-is only one side, it is src, and dst is NULL; if sides exist but are
-empty (i.e., the refspec either starts or ends with ':'), the
-corresponding side is "".
-
-This parsing can be done to an array of strings to give an array of
-struct refpsecs with parse_ref_spec().
+A struct refspec holds the parsed interpretation of a refspec. If it
+will force updates (starts with a '+'), force is true. If it is a
+pattern (sides end with '*') pattern is true. src and dest are the
+two sides (including '*' characters if present); if there is only one
+side, it is src, and dst is NULL; if sides exist but are empty (i.e.,
+the refspec either starts or ends with ':'), the corresponding side is
+"".
+
+An array of strings can be parsed into an array of struct refspecs
+using parse_fetch_refspec() or parse_push_refspec().
remote_find_tracking(), given a remote and a struct refspec with
either src or dst filled out, will fill out the other such that the
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
index b7d0d9a..55b878a 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ function.
`reset_revision_walk`::
Reset the flags used by the revision walking api. You can use
- this to do multiple sequencial revision walks.
+ this to do multiple sequential revision walks.
Data structures
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt
index 4f63a04..540e455 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt
@@ -8,6 +8,42 @@ Talk about
* is_inside_git_dir()
* is_inside_work_tree()
* setup_work_tree()
-* get_pathspec()
(Dscho)
+
+Pathspec
+--------
+
+See glossary-context.txt for the syntax of pathspec. In memory, a
+pathspec set is represented by "struct pathspec" and is prepared by
+parse_pathspec(). This function takes several arguments:
+
+- magic_mask specifies what features that are NOT supported by the
+ following code. If a user attempts to use such a feature,
+ parse_pathspec() can reject it early.
+
+- flags specifies other things that the caller wants parse_pathspec to
+ perform.
+
+- prefix and args come from cmd_* functions
+
+get_pathspec() is obsolete and should never be used in new code.
+
+parse_pathspec() helps catch unsupported features and reject them
+politely. At a lower level, different pathspec-related functions may
+not support the same set of features. Such pathspec-sensitive
+functions are guarded with GUARD_PATHSPEC(), which will die in an
+unfriendly way when an unsupported feature is requested.
+
+The command designers are supposed to make sure that GUARD_PATHSPEC()
+never dies. They have to make sure all unsupported features are caught
+by parse_pathspec(), not by GUARD_PATHSPEC. grepping GUARD_PATHSPEC()
+should give the designers all pathspec-sensitive codepaths and what
+features they support.
+
+A similar process is applied when a new pathspec magic is added. The
+designer lifts the GUARD_PATHSPEC restriction in the functions that
+support the new magic. At the same time (s)he has to make sure this
+new feature will be caught at parse_pathspec() in commands that cannot
+handle the new magic in some cases. grepping parse_pathspec() should
+help.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
index 2c59cb2..3350d97 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
@@ -230,6 +230,11 @@ which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
destination. This is useful for literal data to be fed to either
strbuf_expand or to the *printf family of functions.
+`strbuf_humanise_bytes`::
+
+ Append the given byte size as a human-readable string (i.e. 12.23 KiB,
+ 3.50 MiB).
+
`strbuf_addf`::
Add a formatted string to the buffer.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/bitmap-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/bitmap-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f8c18a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/bitmap-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,164 @@
+GIT bitmap v1 format
+====================
+
+ - A header appears at the beginning:
+
+ 4-byte signature: {'B', 'I', 'T', 'M'}
+
+ 2-byte version number (network byte order)
+ The current implementation only supports version 1
+ of the bitmap index (the same one as JGit).
+
+ 2-byte flags (network byte order)
+
+ The following flags are supported:
+
+ - BITMAP_OPT_FULL_DAG (0x1) REQUIRED
+ This flag must always be present. It implies that the bitmap
+ index has been generated for a packfile with full closure
+ (i.e. where every single object in the packfile can find
+ its parent links inside the same packfile). This is a
+ requirement for the bitmap index format, also present in JGit,
+ that greatly reduces the complexity of the implementation.
+
+ - BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE (0x4)
+ If present, the end of the bitmap file contains
+ `N` 32-bit name-hash values, one per object in the
+ pack. The format and meaning of the name-hash is
+ described below.
+
+ 4-byte entry count (network byte order)
+
+ The total count of entries (bitmapped commits) in this bitmap index.
+
+ 20-byte checksum
+
+ The SHA1 checksum of the pack this bitmap index belongs to.
+
+ - 4 EWAH bitmaps that act as type indexes
+
+ Type indexes are serialized after the hash cache in the shape
+ of four EWAH bitmaps stored consecutively (see Appendix A for
+ the serialization format of an EWAH bitmap).
+
+ There is a bitmap for each Git object type, stored in the following
+ order:
+
+ - Commits
+ - Trees
+ - Blobs
+ - Tags
+
+ In each bitmap, the `n`th bit is set to true if the `n`th object
+ in the packfile is of that type.
+
+ The obvious consequence is that the OR of all 4 bitmaps will result
+ in a full set (all bits set), and the AND of all 4 bitmaps will
+ result in an empty bitmap (no bits set).
+
+ - N entries with compressed bitmaps, one for each indexed commit
+
+ Where `N` is the total amount of entries in this bitmap index.
+ Each entry contains the following:
+
+ - 4-byte object position (network byte order)
+ The position **in the index for the packfile** where the
+ bitmap for this commit is found.
+
+ - 1-byte XOR-offset
+ The xor offset used to compress this bitmap. For an entry
+ in position `x`, a XOR offset of `y` means that the actual
+ bitmap representing this commit is composed by XORing the
+ bitmap for this entry with the bitmap in entry `x-y` (i.e.
+ the bitmap `y` entries before this one).
+
+ Note that this compression can be recursive. In order to
+ XOR this entry with a previous one, the previous entry needs
+ to be decompressed first, and so on.
+
+ The hard-limit for this offset is 160 (an entry can only be
+ xor'ed against one of the 160 entries preceding it). This
+ number is always positive, and hence entries are always xor'ed
+ with **previous** bitmaps, not bitmaps that will come afterwards
+ in the index.
+
+ - 1-byte flags for this bitmap
+ At the moment the only available flag is `0x1`, which hints
+ that this bitmap can be re-used when rebuilding bitmap indexes
+ for the repository.
+
+ - The compressed bitmap itself, see Appendix A.
+
+== Appendix A: Serialization format for an EWAH bitmap
+
+Ewah bitmaps are serialized in the same protocol as the JAVAEWAH
+library, making them backwards compatible with the JGit
+implementation:
+
+ - 4-byte number of bits of the resulting UNCOMPRESSED bitmap
+
+ - 4-byte number of words of the COMPRESSED bitmap, when stored
+
+ - N x 8-byte words, as specified by the previous field
+
+ This is the actual content of the compressed bitmap.
+
+ - 4-byte position of the current RLW for the compressed
+ bitmap
+
+All words are stored in network byte order for their corresponding
+sizes.
+
+The compressed bitmap is stored in a form of run-length encoding, as
+follows. It consists of a concatenation of an arbitrary number of
+chunks. Each chunk consists of one or more 64-bit words
+
+ H L_1 L_2 L_3 .... L_M
+
+H is called RLW (run length word). It consists of (from lower to higher
+order bits):
+
+ - 1 bit: the repeated bit B
+
+ - 32 bits: repetition count K (unsigned)
+
+ - 31 bits: literal word count M (unsigned)
+
+The bitstream represented by the above chunk is then:
+
+ - K repetitions of B
+
+ - The bits stored in `L_1` through `L_M`. Within a word, bits at
+ lower order come earlier in the stream than those at higher
+ order.
+
+The next word after `L_M` (if any) must again be a RLW, for the next
+chunk. For efficient appending to the bitstream, the EWAH stores a
+pointer to the last RLW in the stream.
+
+
+== Appendix B: Optional Bitmap Sections
+
+These sections may or may not be present in the `.bitmap` file; their
+presence is indicated by the header flags section described above.
+
+Name-hash cache
+---------------
+
+If the BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE flag is set, the end of the bitmap contains
+a cache of 32-bit values, one per object in the pack. The value at
+position `i` is the hash of the pathname at which the `i`th object
+(counting in index order) in the pack can be found. This can be fed
+into the delta heuristics to compare objects with similar pathnames.
+
+The hash algorithm used is:
+
+ hash = 0;
+ while ((c = *name++))
+ if (!isspace(c))
+ hash = (hash >> 2) + (c << 24);
+
+Note that this hashing scheme is tied to the BITMAP_OPT_HASH_CACHE flag.
+If implementations want to choose a different hashing scheme, they are
+free to do so, but MUST allocate a new header flag (because comparing
+hashes made under two different schemes would be pointless).
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..20525d9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,506 @@
+HTTP transfer protocols
+=======================
+
+Git supports two HTTP based transfer protocols. A "dumb" protocol
+which requires only a standard HTTP server on the server end of the
+connection, and a "smart" protocol which requires a Git aware CGI
+(or server module). This document describes both protocols.
+
+As a design feature smart clients can automatically upgrade "dumb"
+protocol URLs to smart URLs. This permits all users to have the
+same published URL, and the peers automatically select the most
+efficient transport available to them.
+
+
+URL Format
+----------
+
+URLs for Git repositories accessed by HTTP use the standard HTTP
+URL syntax documented by RFC 1738, so they are of the form:
+
+ http://<host>:<port>/<path>?<searchpart>
+
+Within this documentation the placeholder `$GIT_URL` will stand for
+the http:// repository URL entered by the end-user.
+
+Servers SHOULD handle all requests to locations matching `$GIT_URL`, as
+both the "smart" and "dumb" HTTP protocols used by Git operate
+by appending additional path components onto the end of the user
+supplied `$GIT_URL` string.
+
+An example of a dumb client requesting for a loose object:
+
+ $GIT_URL: http://example.com:8080/git/repo.git
+ URL request: http://example.com:8080/git/repo.git/objects/d0/49f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355
+
+An example of a smart request to a catch-all gateway:
+
+ $GIT_URL: http://example.com/daemon.cgi?svc=git&q=
+ URL request: http://example.com/daemon.cgi?svc=git&q=/info/refs&service=git-receive-pack
+
+An example of a request to a submodule:
+
+ $GIT_URL: http://example.com/git/repo.git/path/submodule.git
+ URL request: http://example.com/git/repo.git/path/submodule.git/info/refs
+
+Clients MUST strip a trailing `/`, if present, from the user supplied
+`$GIT_URL` string to prevent empty path tokens (`//`) from appearing
+in any URL sent to a server. Compatible clients MUST expand
+`$GIT_URL/info/refs` as `foo/info/refs` and not `foo//info/refs`.
+
+
+Authentication
+--------------
+
+Standard HTTP authentication is used if authentication is required
+to access a repository, and MAY be configured and enforced by the
+HTTP server software.
+
+Because Git repositories are accessed by standard path components
+server administrators MAY use directory based permissions within
+their HTTP server to control repository access.
+
+Clients SHOULD support Basic authentication as described by RFC 2616.
+Servers SHOULD support Basic authentication by relying upon the
+HTTP server placed in front of the Git server software.
+
+Servers SHOULD NOT require HTTP cookies for the purposes of
+authentication or access control.
+
+Clients and servers MAY support other common forms of HTTP based
+authentication, such as Digest authentication.
+
+
+SSL
+---
+
+Clients and servers SHOULD support SSL, particularly to protect
+passwords when relying on Basic HTTP authentication.
+
+
+Session State
+-------------
+
+The Git over HTTP protocol (much like HTTP itself) is stateless
+from the perspective of the HTTP server side. All state MUST be
+retained and managed by the client process. This permits simple
+round-robin load-balancing on the server side, without needing to
+worry about state management.
+
+Clients MUST NOT require state management on the server side in
+order to function correctly.
+
+Servers MUST NOT require HTTP cookies in order to function correctly.
+Clients MAY store and forward HTTP cookies during request processing
+as described by RFC 2616 (HTTP/1.1). Servers SHOULD ignore any
+cookies sent by a client.
+
+
+General Request Processing
+--------------------------
+
+Except where noted, all standard HTTP behavior SHOULD be assumed
+by both client and server. This includes (but is not necessarily
+limited to):
+
+If there is no repository at `$GIT_URL`, or the resource pointed to by a
+location matching `$GIT_URL` does not exist, the server MUST NOT respond
+with `200 OK` response. A server SHOULD respond with
+`404 Not Found`, `410 Gone`, or any other suitable HTTP status code
+which does not imply the resource exists as requested.
+
+If there is a repository at `$GIT_URL`, but access is not currently
+permitted, the server MUST respond with the `403 Forbidden` HTTP
+status code.
+
+Servers SHOULD support both HTTP 1.0 and HTTP 1.1.
+Servers SHOULD support chunked encoding for both request and response
+bodies.
+
+Clients SHOULD support both HTTP 1.0 and HTTP 1.1.
+Clients SHOULD support chunked encoding for both request and response
+bodies.
+
+Servers MAY return ETag and/or Last-Modified headers.
+
+Clients MAY revalidate cached entities by including If-Modified-Since
+and/or If-None-Match request headers.
+
+Servers MAY return `304 Not Modified` if the relevant headers appear
+in the request and the entity has not changed. Clients MUST treat
+`304 Not Modified` identical to `200 OK` by reusing the cached entity.
+
+Clients MAY reuse a cached entity without revalidation if the
+Cache-Control and/or Expires header permits caching. Clients and
+servers MUST follow RFC 2616 for cache controls.
+
+
+Discovering References
+----------------------
+
+All HTTP clients MUST begin either a fetch or a push exchange by
+discovering the references available on the remote repository.
+
+Dumb Clients
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+HTTP clients that only support the "dumb" protocol MUST discover
+references by making a request for the special info/refs file of
+the repository.
+
+Dumb HTTP clients MUST make a `GET` request to `$GIT_URL/info/refs`,
+without any search/query parameters.
+
+ C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs HTTP/1.0
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S:
+ S: 95dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint
+ S: d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master
+ S: 2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0
+ S: a3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}
+
+The Content-Type of the returned info/refs entity SHOULD be
+`text/plain; charset=utf-8`, but MAY be any content type.
+Clients MUST NOT attempt to validate the returned Content-Type.
+Dumb servers MUST NOT return a return type starting with
+`application/x-git-`.
+
+Cache-Control headers MAY be returned to disable caching of the
+returned entity.
+
+When examining the response clients SHOULD only examine the HTTP
+status code. Valid responses are `200 OK`, or `304 Not Modified`.
+
+The returned content is a UNIX formatted text file describing
+each ref and its known value. The file SHOULD be sorted by name
+according to the C locale ordering. The file SHOULD NOT include
+the default ref named `HEAD`.
+
+ info_refs = *( ref_record )
+ ref_record = any_ref / peeled_ref
+
+ any_ref = obj-id HTAB refname LF
+ peeled_ref = obj-id HTAB refname LF
+ obj-id HTAB refname "^{}" LF
+
+Smart Clients
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+HTTP clients that support the "smart" protocol (or both the
+"smart" and "dumb" protocols) MUST discover references by making
+a parameterized request for the info/refs file of the repository.
+
+The request MUST contain exactly one query parameter,
+`service=$servicename`, where `$servicename` MUST be the service
+name the client wishes to contact to complete the operation.
+The request MUST NOT contain additional query parameters.
+
+ C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+
+dumb server reply:
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S:
+ S: 95dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint
+ S: d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master
+ S: 2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0
+ S: a3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}
+
+smart server reply:
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: Content-Type: application/x-git-upload-pack-advertisement
+ S: Cache-Control: no-cache
+ S:
+ S: 001e# service=git-upload-pack\n
+ S: 004895dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint\0multi_ack\n
+ S: 0042d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master\n
+ S: 003c2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0\n
+ S: 003fa3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}\n
+
+Dumb Server Response
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Dumb servers MUST respond with the dumb server reply format.
+
+See the prior section under dumb clients for a more detailed
+description of the dumb server response.
+
+Smart Server Response
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+If the server does not recognize the requested service name, or the
+requested service name has been disabled by the server administrator,
+the server MUST respond with the `403 Forbidden` HTTP status code.
+
+Otherwise, smart servers MUST respond with the smart server reply
+format for the requested service name.
+
+Cache-Control headers SHOULD be used to disable caching of the
+returned entity.
+
+The Content-Type MUST be `application/x-$servicename-advertisement`.
+Clients SHOULD fall back to the dumb protocol if another content
+type is returned. When falling back to the dumb protocol clients
+SHOULD NOT make an additional request to `$GIT_URL/info/refs`, but
+instead SHOULD use the response already in hand. Clients MUST NOT
+continue if they do not support the dumb protocol.
+
+Clients MUST validate the status code is either `200 OK` or
+`304 Not Modified`.
+
+Clients MUST validate the first five bytes of the response entity
+matches the regex `^[0-9a-f]{4}#`. If this test fails, clients
+MUST NOT continue.
+
+Clients MUST parse the entire response as a sequence of pkt-line
+records.
+
+Clients MUST verify the first pkt-line is `# service=$servicename`.
+Servers MUST set $servicename to be the request parameter value.
+Servers SHOULD include an LF at the end of this line.
+Clients MUST ignore an LF at the end of the line.
+
+Servers MUST terminate the response with the magic `0000` end
+pkt-line marker.
+
+The returned response is a pkt-line stream describing each ref and
+its known value. The stream SHOULD be sorted by name according to
+the C locale ordering. The stream SHOULD include the default ref
+named `HEAD` as the first ref. The stream MUST include capability
+declarations behind a NUL on the first ref.
+
+ smart_reply = PKT-LINE("# service=$servicename" LF)
+ ref_list
+ "0000"
+ ref_list = empty_list / non_empty_list
+
+ empty_list = PKT-LINE(zero-id SP "capabilities^{}" NUL cap-list LF)
+
+ non_empty_list = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name NUL cap_list LF)
+ *ref_record
+
+ cap-list = capability *(SP capability)
+ capability = 1*(LC_ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "_")
+ LC_ALPHA = %x61-7A
+
+ ref_record = any_ref / peeled_ref
+ any_ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name LF)
+ peeled_ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name LF)
+ PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name "^{}" LF
+
+
+Smart Service git-upload-pack
+------------------------------
+This service reads from the repository pointed to by `$GIT_URL`.
+
+Clients MUST first perform ref discovery with
+`$GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack`.
+
+ C: POST $GIT_URL/git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+ C: Content-Type: application/x-git-upload-pack-request
+ C:
+ C: 0032want 0a53e9ddeaddad63ad106860237bbf53411d11a7\n
+ C: 0032have 441b40d833fdfa93eb2908e52742248faf0ee993\n
+ C: 0000
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: Content-Type: application/x-git-upload-pack-result
+ S: Cache-Control: no-cache
+ S:
+ S: ....ACK %s, continue
+ S: ....NAK
+
+Clients MUST NOT reuse or revalidate a cached response.
+Servers MUST include sufficient Cache-Control headers
+to prevent caching of the response.
+
+Servers SHOULD support all capabilities defined here.
+
+Clients MUST send at least one "want" command in the request body.
+Clients MUST NOT reference an id in a "want" command which did not
+appear in the response obtained through ref discovery unless the
+server advertises capability `allow-tip-sha1-in-want`.
+
+ compute_request = want_list
+ have_list
+ request_end
+ request_end = "0000" / "done"
+
+ want_list = PKT-LINE(want NUL cap_list LF)
+ *(want_pkt)
+ want_pkt = PKT-LINE(want LF)
+ want = "want" SP id
+ cap_list = *(SP capability) SP
+
+ have_list = *PKT-LINE("have" SP id LF)
+
+TODO: Document this further.
+
+The Negotiation Algorithm
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The computation to select the minimal pack proceeds as follows
+(C = client, S = server):
+
+'init step:'
+
+C: Use ref discovery to obtain the advertised refs.
+
+C: Place any object seen into set `advertised`.
+
+C: Build an empty set, `common`, to hold the objects that are later
+ determined to be on both ends.
+
+C: Build a set, `want`, of the objects from `advertised` the client
+ wants to fetch, based on what it saw during ref discovery.
+
+C: Start a queue, `c_pending`, ordered by commit time (popping newest
+ first). Add all client refs. When a commit is popped from
+ the queue its parents SHOULD be automatically inserted back.
+ Commits MUST only enter the queue once.
+
+'one compute step:'
+
+C: Send one `$GIT_URL/git-upload-pack` request:
+
+ C: 0032want <want #1>...............................
+ C: 0032want <want #2>...............................
+ ....
+ C: 0032have <common #1>.............................
+ C: 0032have <common #2>.............................
+ ....
+ C: 0032have <have #1>...............................
+ C: 0032have <have #2>...............................
+ ....
+ C: 0000
+
+The stream is organized into "commands", with each command
+appearing by itself in a pkt-line. Within a command line
+the text leading up to the first space is the command name,
+and the remainder of the line to the first LF is the value.
+Command lines are terminated with an LF as the last byte of
+the pkt-line value.
+
+Commands MUST appear in the following order, if they appear
+at all in the request stream:
+
+* "want"
+* "have"
+
+The stream is terminated by a pkt-line flush (`0000`).
+
+A single "want" or "have" command MUST have one hex formatted
+SHA-1 as its value. Multiple SHA-1s MUST be sent by sending
+multiple commands.
+
+The `have` list is created by popping the first 32 commits
+from `c_pending`. Less can be supplied if `c_pending` empties.
+
+If the client has sent 256 "have" commits and has not yet
+received one of those back from `s_common`, or the client has
+emptied `c_pending` it SHOULD include a "done" command to let
+the server know it won't proceed:
+
+ C: 0009done
+
+S: Parse the git-upload-pack request:
+
+Verify all objects in `want` are directly reachable from refs.
+
+The server MAY walk backwards through history or through
+the reflog to permit slightly stale requests.
+
+If no "want" objects are received, send an error:
+TODO: Define error if no "want" lines are requested.
+
+If any "want" object is not reachable, send an error:
+TODO: Define error if an invalid "want" is requested.
+
+Create an empty list, `s_common`.
+
+If "have" was sent:
+
+Loop through the objects in the order supplied by the client.
+
+For each object, if the server has the object reachable from
+a ref, add it to `s_common`. If a commit is added to `s_common`,
+do not add any ancestors, even if they also appear in `have`.
+
+S: Send the git-upload-pack response:
+
+If the server has found a closed set of objects to pack or the
+request ends with "done", it replies with the pack.
+TODO: Document the pack based response
+
+ S: PACK...
+
+The returned stream is the side-band-64k protocol supported
+by the git-upload-pack service, and the pack is embedded into
+stream 1. Progress messages from the server side MAY appear
+in stream 2.
+
+Here a "closed set of objects" is defined to have at least
+one path from every "want" to at least one "common" object.
+
+If the server needs more information, it replies with a
+status continue response:
+TODO: Document the non-pack response
+
+C: Parse the upload-pack response:
+ TODO: Document parsing response
+
+'Do another compute step.'
+
+
+Smart Service git-receive-pack
+------------------------------
+This service reads from the repository pointed to by `$GIT_URL`.
+
+Clients MUST first perform ref discovery with
+`$GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-receive-pack`.
+
+ C: POST $GIT_URL/git-receive-pack HTTP/1.0
+ C: Content-Type: application/x-git-receive-pack-request
+ C:
+ C: ....0a53e9ddeaddad63ad106860237bbf53411d11a7 441b40d833fdfa93eb2908e52742248faf0ee993 refs/heads/maint\0 report-status
+ C: 0000
+ C: PACK....
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: Content-Type: application/x-git-receive-pack-result
+ S: Cache-Control: no-cache
+ S:
+ S: ....
+
+Clients MUST NOT reuse or revalidate a cached response.
+Servers MUST include sufficient Cache-Control headers
+to prevent caching of the response.
+
+Servers SHOULD support all capabilities defined here.
+
+Clients MUST send at least one command in the request body.
+Within the command portion of the request body clients SHOULD send
+the id obtained through ref discovery as old_id.
+
+ update_request = command_list
+ "PACK" <binary data>
+
+ command_list = PKT-LINE(command NUL cap_list LF)
+ *(command_pkt)
+ command_pkt = PKT-LINE(command LF)
+ cap_list = *(SP capability) SP
+
+ command = create / delete / update
+ create = zero-id SP new_id SP name
+ delete = old_id SP zero-id SP name
+ update = old_id SP new_id SP name
+
+TODO: Document this further.
+
+
+References
+----------
+
+http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt[RFC 1738: Uniform Resource Locators (URL)]
+http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2616.txt[RFC 2616: Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1]
+link:technical/pack-protocol.html
+link:technical/protocol-capabilities.html
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index 0810251..f352a9b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ Git index format
A conflict is represented in the index as a set of higher stage entries.
When a conflict is resolved (e.g. with "git add path"), these higher
- stage entries will be removed and a stage-0 entry with proper resoluton
+ stage entries will be removed and a stage-0 entry with proper resolution
is added.
When these higher stage entries are removed, they are saved in the
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt
index 8b7ae1c..95a07db 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
- Concerning Git's Packing Heuristics
- ===================================
+Concerning Git's Packing Heuristics
+===================================
Oh, here's a really stupid question:
@@ -366,12 +366,6 @@ been detailed!
<linus> Yes, we always write out most recent first
-For the other record:
-
- <pasky> njs`: http://pastebin.com/547965
-
-The 'net never forgets, so that should be good until the end of time.
-
<njs`> And, yeah, I got the part about deeper-in-history stuff
having worse IO characteristics, one sort of doesn't care.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index f1a51ed..39c6410 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -161,6 +161,7 @@ MUST peel the ref if it's an annotated tag.
----
advertised-refs = (no-refs / list-of-refs)
+ *shallow
flush-pkt
no-refs = PKT-LINE(zero-id SP "capabilities^{}"
@@ -174,6 +175,8 @@ MUST peel the ref if it's an annotated tag.
other-tip = obj-id SP refname LF
other-peeled = obj-id SP refname "^{}" LF
+ shallow = PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id)
+
capability-list = capability *(SP capability)
capability = 1*(LC_ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "_")
LC_ALPHA = %x61-7A
@@ -228,8 +231,7 @@ obtained through ref discovery.
The client MUST write all obj-ids which it only has shallow copies
of (meaning that it does not have the parents of a commit) as
'shallow' lines so that the server is aware of the limitations of
-the client's history. Clients MUST NOT mention an obj-id which
-it does not know exists on the server.
+the client's history.
The client now sends the maximum commit history depth it wants for
this transaction, which is the number of commits it wants from the
@@ -336,7 +338,8 @@ during a prior round. This helps to ensure that at least one common
ancestor is found before we give up entirely.
Once the 'done' line is read from the client, the server will either
-send a final 'ACK obj-id' or it will send a 'NAK'. The server only sends
+send a final 'ACK obj-id' or it will send a 'NAK'. 'obj-id' is the object
+name of the last commit determined to be common. The server only sends
ACK after 'done' if there is at least one common base and multi_ack or
multi_ack_detailed is enabled. The server always sends NAK after 'done'
if there is no common base found.
@@ -462,7 +465,9 @@ contain all the objects that the server will need to complete the new
references.
----
- update-request = command-list [pack-file]
+ update-request = *shallow command-list [pack-file]
+
+ shallow = PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id)
command-list = PKT-LINE(command NUL capability-list LF)
*PKT-LINE(command LF)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
index b15517f..e174343 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
@@ -18,11 +18,12 @@ was sent. Server MUST NOT ignore capabilities that client requested
and server advertised. As a consequence of these rules, server MUST
NOT advertise capabilities it does not understand.
-The 'report-status' and 'delete-refs' capabilities are sent and
+The 'report-status', 'delete-refs', and 'quiet' capabilities are sent and
recognized by the receive-pack (push to server) process.
-The 'ofs-delta' capability is sent and recognized by both upload-pack
-and receive-pack protocols.
+The 'ofs-delta' and 'side-band-64k' capabilities are sent and recognized
+by both upload-pack and receive-pack protocols. The 'agent' capability
+may optionally be sent in both protocols.
All other capabilities are only recognized by the upload-pack (fetch
from server) process.
@@ -68,17 +69,50 @@ ends.
Without multi_ack the client would have sent that c-b-a chain anyway,
interleaved with S-R-Q.
+multi_ack_detailed
+------------------
+This is an extension of multi_ack that permits client to better
+understand the server's in-memory state. See pack-protocol.txt,
+section "Packfile Negotiation" for more information.
+
+no-done
+-------
+This capability should only be used with the smart HTTP protocol. If
+multi_ack_detailed and no-done are both present, then the sender is
+free to immediately send a pack following its first "ACK obj-id ready"
+message.
+
+Without no-done in the smart HTTP protocol, the server session would
+end and the client has to make another trip to send "done" before
+the server can send the pack. no-done removes the last round and
+thus slightly reduces latency.
+
thin-pack
---------
-This capability means that the server can send a 'thin' pack, a pack
-which does not contain base objects; if those base objects are available
-on client side. Client requests 'thin-pack' capability when it
-understands how to "thicken" it by adding required delta bases making
-it self-contained.
+A thin pack is one with deltas which reference base objects not
+contained within the pack (but are known to exist at the receiving
+end). This can reduce the network traffic significantly, but it
+requires the receiving end to know how to "thicken" these packs by
+adding the missing bases to the pack.
+
+The upload-pack server advertises 'thin-pack' when it can generate
+and send a thin pack. A client requests the 'thin-pack' capability
+when it understands how to "thicken" it, notifying the server that
+it can receive such a pack. A client MUST NOT request the
+'thin-pack' capability if it cannot turn a thin pack into a
+self-contained pack.
+
+Receive-pack, on the other hand, is assumed by default to be able to
+handle thin packs, but can ask the client not to use the feature by
+advertising the 'no-thin' capability. A client MUST NOT send a thin
+pack if the server advertises the 'no-thin' capability.
-Client MUST NOT request 'thin-pack' capability if it cannot turn a thin
-pack into a self-contained pack.
+The reasons for this asymmetry are historical. The receive-pack
+program did not exist until after the invention of thin packs, so
+historically the reference implementation of receive-pack always
+understood thin packs. Adding 'no-thin' later allowed receive-pack
+to disable the feature in a backwards-compatible manner.
side-band, side-band-64k
@@ -123,6 +157,20 @@ Server can send, and client understand PACKv2 with delta referring to
its base by position in pack rather than by an obj-id. That is, they can
send/read OBJ_OFS_DELTA (aka type 6) in a packfile.
+agent
+-----
+
+The server may optionally send a capability of the form `agent=X` to
+notify the client that the server is running version `X`. The client may
+optionally return its own agent string by responding with an `agent=Y`
+capability (but it MUST NOT do so if the server did not mention the
+agent capability). The `X` and `Y` strings may contain any printable
+ASCII characters except space (i.e., the byte range 32 < x < 127), and
+are typically of the form "package/version" (e.g., "git/1.8.3.1"). The
+agent strings are purely informative for statistics and debugging
+purposes, and MUST NOT be used to programatically assume the presence
+or absence of particular features.
+
shallow
-------
@@ -168,7 +216,7 @@ of whether or not there are tags available.
report-status
-------------
-The upload-pack process can receive a 'report-status' capability,
+The receive-pack process can receive a 'report-status' capability,
which tells it that the client wants a report of what happened after
a packfile upload and reference update. If the pushing client requests
this capability, after unpacking and updating references the server
@@ -185,3 +233,20 @@ it is capable of accepting a zero-id value as the target
value of a reference update. It is not sent back by the client, it
simply informs the client that it can be sent zero-id values
to delete references.
+
+quiet
+-----
+
+If the receive-pack server advertises the 'quiet' capability, it is
+capable of silencing human-readable progress output which otherwise may
+be shown when processing the received pack. A send-pack client should
+respond with the 'quiet' capability to suppress server-side progress
+reporting if the local progress reporting is also being suppressed
+(e.g., via `push -q`, or if stderr does not go to a tty).
+
+allow-tip-sha1-in-want
+----------------------
+
+If the upload-pack server advertises this capability, fetch-pack may
+send "want" lines with SHA-1s that exist at the server but are not
+advertised by upload-pack.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
index 6dc82ca..242a044 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ because in-core timestamps can have finer granularity than
on-disk timestamps, resulting in meaningless changes when an
inode is evicted from the inode cache. See commit 8ce13b0
of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tglx/history.git
-([PATCH] Sync in core time granuality with filesystems,
+([PATCH] Sync in core time granularity with filesystems,
2005-01-04).
Racy Git
@@ -135,9 +135,9 @@ them, and give the same timestamp to the index file:
$ git ls-files | git update-index --stdin
$ touch -r .datestamp .git/index
-This will make all index entries racily clean. The linux-2.6
-project, for example, there are over 20,000 files in the working
-tree. On my Athlon 64 X2 3800+, after the above:
+This will make all index entries racily clean. The linux project, for
+example, there are over 20,000 files in the working tree. On my
+Athlon 64 X2 3800+, after the above:
$ /usr/bin/time git diff-files
1.68user 0.54system 0:02.22elapsed 100%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 0maxresident)k
diff --git a/Documentation/urls.txt b/Documentation/urls.txt
index 3ca122f..9ccb246 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,9 @@ and ftps can be used for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching
and pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use
them).
+The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
+should be used with caution on unsecured networks.
+
The following syntaxes may be used with them:
- ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
@@ -23,6 +26,12 @@ An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:
- {startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz:path/to/repo.git/
+This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the
+first colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a
+colon. For example the local path `foo:bar` could be specified as an
+absolute path or `./foo:bar` to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh
+url.
+
The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:
- ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/~{startsb}user{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
@@ -33,7 +42,7 @@ For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
syntaxes may be used:
- /path/to/repo.git/
-- file:///path/to/repo.git/
+- \file:///path/to/repo.git/
ifndef::git-clone[]
These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index e831cc2..d4f9804 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,5 @@
-Git User's Manual (for version 1.5.3 or newer)
-______________________________________________
-
+Git User Manual
+===============
Git is a fast distributed revision control system.
@@ -57,17 +56,17 @@ download a copy of an existing repository. If you don't already have a
project in mind, here are some interesting examples:
------------------------------------------------
- # Git itself (approx. 10MB download):
+ # Git itself (approx. 40MB download):
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
- # the Linux kernel (approx. 150MB download):
-$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git
+ # the Linux kernel (approx. 640MB download):
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git
------------------------------------------------
The initial clone may be time-consuming for a large project, but you
will only need to clone once.
-The clone command creates a new directory named after the project (`git`
-or `linux-2.6` in the examples above). After you cd into this
+The clone command creates a new directory named after the project
+(`git` or `linux` in the examples above). After you cd into this
directory, you will see that it contains a copy of the project files,
called the <<def_working_tree,working tree>>, together with a special
top-level directory named `.git`, which contains all the information
@@ -220,7 +219,7 @@ of development leading to that point.
The best way to see how this works is using the linkgit:gitk[1]
command; running gitk now on a Git repository and looking for merge
-commits will help understand how the Git organizes history.
+commits will help understand how Git organizes history.
In the following, we say that commit X is "reachable" from commit Y
if commit X is an ancestor of commit Y. Equivalently, you could say
@@ -269,27 +268,23 @@ Creating, deleting, and modifying branches is quick and easy; here's
a summary of the commands:
`git branch`::
- list all branches
+ list all branches.
`git branch <branch>`::
create a new branch named `<branch>`, referencing the same
- point in history as the current branch
+ point in history as the current branch.
`git branch <branch> <start-point>`::
create a new branch named `<branch>`, referencing
`<start-point>`, which may be specified any way you like,
- including using a branch name or a tag name
+ including using a branch name or a tag name.
`git branch -d <branch>`::
- delete the branch `<branch>`; if the branch you are deleting
- points to a commit which is not reachable from the current
- branch, this command will fail with a warning.
+ delete the branch `<branch>`; if the branch is not fully
+ merged in its upstream branch or contained in the current branch,
+ this command will fail with a warning.
`git branch -D <branch>`::
- even if the branch points to a commit not reachable
- from the current branch, you may know that that commit
- is still reachable from some other branch or tag. In that
- case it is safe to use this command to force Git to delete
- the branch.
+ delete the branch `<branch>` irrespective of its merged status.
`git checkout <branch>`::
make the current branch `<branch>`, updating the working
- directory to reflect the version referenced by `<branch>`
+ directory to reflect the version referenced by `<branch>`.
`git checkout -b <new> <start-point>`::
create a new branch `<new>` referencing `<start-point>`, and
check it out.
@@ -313,10 +308,17 @@ referenced by a tag:
------------------------------------------------
$ git checkout v2.6.17
-Note: moving to "v2.6.17" which isn't a local branch
-If you want to create a new branch from this checkout, you may do so
-(now or later) by using -b with the checkout command again. Example:
- git checkout -b <new_branch_name>
+Note: checking out 'v2.6.17'.
+
+You are in 'detached HEAD' state. You can look around, make experimental
+changes and commit them, and you can discard any commits you make in this
+state without impacting any branches by performing another checkout.
+
+If you want to create a new branch to retain commits you create, you may
+do so (now or later) by using -b with the checkout command again. Example:
+
+ git checkout -b new_branch_name
+
HEAD is now at 427abfa... Linux v2.6.17
------------------------------------------------
@@ -327,7 +329,7 @@ and git branch shows that you are no longer on a branch:
$ cat .git/HEAD
427abfa28afedffadfca9dd8b067eb6d36bac53f
$ git branch
-* (no branch)
+* (detached from v2.6.17)
master
------------------------------------------------
@@ -431,19 +433,25 @@ You can also track branches from repositories other than the one you
cloned from, using linkgit:git-remote[1]:
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git remote add linux-nfs git://linux-nfs.org/pub/nfs-2.6.git
-$ git fetch linux-nfs
-* refs/remotes/linux-nfs/master: storing branch 'master' ...
- commit: bf81b46
+$ git remote add staging git://git.kernel.org/.../gregkh/staging.git
+$ git fetch staging
+...
+From git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/staging
+ * [new branch] master -> staging/master
+ * [new branch] staging-linus -> staging/staging-linus
+ * [new branch] staging-next -> staging/staging-next
-------------------------------------------------
New remote-tracking branches will be stored under the shorthand name
-that you gave `git remote add`, in this case `linux-nfs`:
+that you gave `git remote add`, in this case `staging`:
-------------------------------------------------
$ git branch -r
-linux-nfs/master
-origin/master
+ origin/HEAD -> origin/master
+ origin/master
+ staging/master
+ staging/staging-linus
+ staging/staging-next
-------------------------------------------------
If you run `git fetch <remote>` later, the remote-tracking branches
@@ -455,9 +463,9 @@ a new stanza:
-------------------------------------------------
$ cat .git/config
...
-[remote "linux-nfs"]
- url = git://linux-nfs.org/pub/nfs-2.6.git
- fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/linux-nfs/*
+[remote "staging"]
+ url = git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/staging.git
+ fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/staging/*
...
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -781,7 +789,7 @@ e05db0fd4f31dde7005f075a84f96b360d05984b
-------------------------------------------------
Or you could recall that the `...` operator selects all commits
-contained reachable from either one reference or the other but not
+reachable from either one reference or the other but not
both; so
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -808,7 +816,7 @@ You could just visually inspect the commits since e05db0fd:
$ gitk e05db0fd..
-------------------------------------------------
-Or you can use linkgit:git-name-rev[1], which will give the commit a
+or you can use linkgit:git-name-rev[1], which will give the commit a
name based on any tag it finds pointing to one of the commit's
descendants:
@@ -852,8 +860,8 @@ because it outputs only commits that are not reachable from v1.5.0-rc1.
As yet another alternative, the linkgit:git-show-branch[1] command lists
the commits reachable from its arguments with a display on the left-hand
-side that indicates which arguments that commit is reachable from. So,
-you can run something like
+side that indicates which arguments that commit is reachable from.
+So, if you run something like
-------------------------------------------------
$ git show-branch e05db0fd v1.5.0-rc0 v1.5.0-rc1 v1.5.0-rc2
@@ -865,15 +873,15 @@ available
...
-------------------------------------------------
-then search for a line that looks like
+then a line like
-------------------------------------------------
+ ++ [e05db0fd] Fix warnings in sha1_file.c - use C99 printf format if
available
-------------------------------------------------
-Which shows that e05db0fd is reachable from itself, from v1.5.0-rc1, and
-from v1.5.0-rc2, but not from v1.5.0-rc0.
+shows that e05db0fd is reachable from itself, from v1.5.0-rc1,
+and from v1.5.0-rc2, and not from v1.5.0-rc0.
[[showing-commits-unique-to-a-branch]]
Showing commits unique to a given branch
@@ -1068,19 +1076,13 @@ produce no output at that point.
Modifying the index is easy:
-To update the index with the new contents of a modified file, use
+To update the index with the contents of a new or modified file, use
-------------------------------------------------
$ git add path/to/file
-------------------------------------------------
-To add the contents of a new file to the index, use
-
--------------------------------------------------
-$ git add path/to/file
--------------------------------------------------
-
-To remove a file from the index and from the working tree,
+To remove a file from the index and from the working tree, use
-------------------------------------------------
$ git rm path/to/file
@@ -1781,7 +1783,7 @@ $ git pull . branch
$ git merge branch
-------------------------------------------------
-are roughly equivalent. The former is actually very commonly used.
+are roughly equivalent.
[[submitting-patches]]
Submitting patches to a project
@@ -1835,7 +1837,7 @@ Once the index is updated with the results of the conflict
resolution, instead of creating a new commit, just run
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git am --resolved
+$ git am --continue
-------------------------------------------------
and Git will create the commit for you and continue applying the
@@ -1971,7 +1973,7 @@ $ git clone http://yourserver.com/~you/proj.git
-------------------------------------------------
(See also
-link:howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt[setup-git-server-over-http]
+link:howto/setup-git-server-over-http.html[setup-git-server-over-http]
for a slightly more sophisticated setup using WebDAV which also
allows pushing over HTTP.)
@@ -2156,7 +2158,7 @@ To set this up, first create your work tree by cloning Linus's public
tree:
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git work
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git work
$ cd work
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -2198,7 +2200,7 @@ make it easy to push both branches to your public tree. (See
-------------------------------------------------
$ cat >> .git/config <<EOF
[remote "mytree"]
- url = master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/aegl/linux-2.6.git
+ url = master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/aegl/linux.git
push = release
push = test
EOF
@@ -2243,11 +2245,11 @@ commit to this branch.
$ ... patch ... test ... commit [ ... patch ... test ... commit ]*
-------------------------------------------------
-When you are happy with the state of this change, you can pull it into the
+When you are happy with the state of this change, you can merge it into the
"test" branch in preparation to make it public:
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git checkout test && git pull . speed-up-spinlocks
+$ git checkout test && git merge speed-up-spinlocks
-------------------------------------------------
It is unlikely that you would have any conflicts here ... but you might if you
@@ -2259,7 +2261,7 @@ see the value of keeping each patch (or patch series) in its own branch. It
means that the patches can be moved into the `release` tree in any order.
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git checkout release && git pull . speed-up-spinlocks
+$ git checkout release && git merge speed-up-spinlocks
-------------------------------------------------
After a while, you will have a number of branches, and despite the
@@ -3185,23 +3187,21 @@ those "loose" objects.
You can save space and make Git faster by moving these loose objects in
to a "pack file", which stores a group of objects in an efficient
compressed format; the details of how pack files are formatted can be
-found in link:technical/pack-format.txt[technical/pack-format.txt].
+found in link:technical/pack-format.html[pack format].
To put the loose objects into a pack, just run git repack:
------------------------------------------------
$ git repack
-Generating pack...
-Done counting 6020 objects.
-Deltifying 6020 objects.
- 100% (6020/6020) done
-Writing 6020 objects.
- 100% (6020/6020) done
-Total 6020, written 6020 (delta 4070), reused 0 (delta 0)
-Pack pack-3e54ad29d5b2e05838c75df582c65257b8d08e1c created.
+Counting objects: 6020, done.
+Delta compression using up to 4 threads.
+Compressing objects: 100% (6020/6020), done.
+Writing objects: 100% (6020/6020), done.
+Total 6020 (delta 4070), reused 0 (delta 0)
------------------------------------------------
-You can then run
+This creates a single "pack file" in .git/objects/pack/
+containing all currently unpacked objects. You can then run
------------------------------------------------
$ git prune
@@ -3299,17 +3299,11 @@ state, you can just prune all unreachable objects:
$ git prune
------------------------------------------------
-and they'll be gone. But you should only run `git prune` on a quiescent
+and they'll be gone. (You should only run `git prune` on a quiescent
repository--it's kind of like doing a filesystem fsck recovery: you
don't want to do that while the filesystem is mounted.
-
-(The same is true of `git fsck` itself, btw, but since
-`git fsck` never actually *changes* the repository, it just reports
-on what it found, `git fsck` itself is never 'dangerous' to run.
-Running it while somebody is actually changing the repository can cause
-confusing and scary messages, but it won't actually do anything bad. In
-contrast, running `git prune` while somebody is actively changing the
-repository is a *BAD* idea).
+`git prune` is designed not to cause any harm in such cases of concurrent
+accesses to a repository but you might receive confusing or scary messages.)
[[recovering-from-repository-corruption]]
Recovering from repository corruption
@@ -3532,7 +3526,7 @@ with Git 1.5.2 can look up the submodule commits in the repository and
manually check them out; earlier versions won't recognize the submodules at
all.
-To see how submodule support works, create (for example) four example
+To see how submodule support works, create four example
repositories that can be used later as a submodule:
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -3634,7 +3628,7 @@ working on a branch.
-------------------------------------------------
$ git branch
-* (no branch)
+* (detached from d266b98)
master
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -3801,7 +3795,7 @@ like so:
$ git update-index filename
-------------------------------------------------
-but to avoid common mistakes with filename globbing etc, the command
+but to avoid common mistakes with filename globbing etc., the command
will not normally add totally new entries or remove old entries,
i.e. it will normally just update existing cache entries.
@@ -3904,7 +3898,7 @@ fact that such a commit brings together ("merges") two or more
previous states represented by other commits.
In other words, while a "tree" represents a particular directory state
-of a working directory, a "commit" represents that state in "time",
+of a working directory, a "commit" represents that state in time,
and explains how we got there.
You create a commit object by giving it the tree that describes the
@@ -3924,8 +3918,7 @@ save the note about that state, in practice we tend to just write the
result to the file pointed at by `.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see
what the last committed state was.
-Here is an ASCII art by Jon Loeliger that illustrates how
-various pieces fit together.
+Here is a picture that illustrates how various pieces fit together:
------------
@@ -4004,27 +3997,26 @@ to see what the top commit was.
Merging multiple trees
----------------------
-Git helps you do a three-way merge, which you can expand to n-way by
-repeating the merge procedure arbitrary times until you finally
-"commit" the state. The normal situation is that you'd only do one
-three-way merge (two parents), and commit it, but if you like to, you
-can do multiple parents in one go.
+Git can help you perform a three-way merge, which can in turn be
+used for a many-way merge by repeating the merge procedure several
+times. The usual situation is that you only do one three-way merge
+(reconciling two lines of history) and commit the result, but if
+you like to, you can merge several branches in one go.
-To do a three-way merge, you need the two sets of "commit" objects
-that you want to merge, use those to find the closest common parent (a
-third "commit" object), and then use those commit objects to find the
-state of the directory ("tree" object) at these points.
+To perform a three-way merge, you start with the two commits you
+want to merge, find their closest common parent (a third commit),
+and compare the trees corresponding to these three commits.
-To get the "base" for the merge, you first look up the common parent
-of two commits with
+To get the "base" for the merge, look up the common parent of two
+commits:
-------------------------------------------------
$ git merge-base <commit1> <commit2>
-------------------------------------------------
-which will return you the commit they are both based on. You should
-now look up the "tree" objects of those commits, which you can easily
-do with (for example)
+This prints the name of a commit they are both based on. You should
+now look up the tree objects of those commits, which you can easily
+do with
-------------------------------------------------
$ git cat-file commit <commitname> | head -1
@@ -4146,8 +4138,6 @@ about the data in the object. It's worth noting that the SHA-1 hash
that is used to name the object is the hash of the original data
plus this header, so `sha1sum` 'file' does not match the object name
for 'file'.
-(Historical note: in the dawn of the age of Git the hash
-was the SHA-1 of the 'compressed' object.)
As a result, the general consistency of an object can always be tested
independently of the contents or the type of the object: all objects can
@@ -4256,15 +4246,16 @@ no longer need to call `setup_pager()` directly).
Nowadays, `git log` is a builtin, which means that it is _contained_ in the
command `git`. The source side of a builtin is
-- a function called `cmd_<bla>`, typically defined in `builtin-<bla>.c`,
- and declared in `builtin.h`,
+- a function called `cmd_<bla>`, typically defined in `builtin/<bla.c>`
+ (note that older versions of Git used to have it in `builtin-<bla>.c`
+ instead), and declared in `builtin.h`.
- an entry in the `commands[]` array in `git.c`, and
- an entry in `BUILTIN_OBJECTS` in the `Makefile`.
Sometimes, more than one builtin is contained in one source file. For
-example, `cmd_whatchanged()` and `cmd_log()` both reside in `builtin-log.c`,
+example, `cmd_whatchanged()` and `cmd_log()` both reside in `builtin/log.c`,
since they share quite a bit of code. In that case, the commands which are
_not_ named like the `.c` file in which they live have to be listed in
`BUILT_INS` in the `Makefile`.
@@ -4287,10 +4278,10 @@ For the sake of clarity, let's stay with `git cat-file`, because it
- is plumbing, and
- was around even in the initial commit (it literally went only through
- some 20 revisions as `cat-file.c`, was renamed to `builtin-cat-file.c`
+ some 20 revisions as `cat-file.c`, was renamed to `builtin/cat-file.c`
when made a builtin, and then saw less than 10 versions).
-So, look into `builtin-cat-file.c`, search for `cmd_cat_file()` and look what
+So, look into `builtin/cat-file.c`, search for `cmd_cat_file()` and look what
it does.
------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -4366,7 +4357,7 @@ Another example: Find out what to do in order to make some script a
builtin:
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git log --no-merges --diff-filter=A builtin-*.c
+$ git log --no-merges --diff-filter=A builtin/*.c
-------------------------------------------------
You see, Git is actually the best tool to find out about the source of Git
@@ -4668,5 +4659,5 @@ Write a chapter on using plumbing and writing scripts.
Alternates, clone -reference, etc.
More on recovery from repository corruption. See:
- http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=117263864820799&w=2
- http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=117147855503798&w=2
+ http://marc.info/?l=git&m=117263864820799&w=2
+ http://marc.info/?l=git&m=117147855503798&w=2