path: root/Documentation
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
75 files changed, 2252 insertions, 429 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 62269e3..c34c1ca 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ MAN5_TXT=gitattributes.txt gitignore.txt gitmodules.txt githooks.txt \
MAN7_TXT=gitcli.txt gittutorial.txt gittutorial-2.txt \
gitcvs-migration.txt gitcore-tutorial.txt gitglossary.txt \
- gitdiffcore.txt
+ gitdiffcore.txt gitworkflows.txt
MAN_XML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
@@ -44,6 +44,7 @@ MANPAGE_XSL = callouts.xsl
RM ?= rm -f
DOC_REF = origin/man
+HTML_REF = origin/html
@@ -86,7 +87,9 @@ man7: $(DOC_MAN7)
-install: man
+install: install-man
+install-man: man
$(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(man1dir)
$(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(man5dir)
$(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(man7dir)
@@ -219,7 +222,12 @@ $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
install-webdoc : html
sh ./ $(WEBDOC_DEST)
+quick-install: quick-install-man
sh ./ $(DOC_REF) $(DESTDIR)$(mandir)
+ sh ./ $(HTML_REF) $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes- b/Documentation/RelNotes-
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..88454c1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+GIT v1.6.1.1 Release Notes
+Fixes since v1.6.1
+* "git add frotz/nitfol" when "frotz" is a submodule should have errored
+ out, but it didn't.
+* "git apply" took file modes from the patch text and updated the mode
+ bits of the target tree even when the patch was not about mode changes.
+* "git bisect view" on Cygwin did not launch gitk
+* "git checkout $tree" did not trigger an error.
+* "git commit" tried to remove COMMIT_EDITMSG from the work tree by mistake.
+* "git describe --all" complained when a commit is described with a tag,
+ which was nonsense.
+* "git diff --no-index --" did not trigger no-index (aka "use git-diff as
+ a replacement of diff on untracked files") behaviour.
+* "git format-patch -1 HEAD" on a root commit failed to produce patch
+ text.
+* "git fsck branch" did not work as advertised; instead it behaved the same
+ way as "git fsck".
+* "git log --pretty=format:%s" did not handle a multi-line subject the
+ same way as built-in log listers (i.e. shortlog, --pretty=oneline, etc.)
+* "git daemon", and "git merge-file" are more careful when freopen fails
+ and barf, instead of going on and writing to unopened filehandle.
+* "git http-push" did not like some RFC 4918 compliant DAV server
+ responses.
+* "git merge -s recursive" mistakenly overwritten an untracked file in the
+ work tree upon delete/modify conflict.
+* "git merge -s recursive" didn't leave the index unmerged for entries with
+ rename/delete conflictd.
+* "git merge -s recursive" clobbered untracked files in the work tree.
+* "git mv -k" with more than one errorneous paths misbehaved.
+* "git read-tree -m -u" hence branch switching incorrectly lost a
+ subdirectory in rare cases.
+* "git rebase -i" issued an unnecessary error message upon a user error of
+ marking the first commit to be "squash"ed.
+* "git shortlog" did not format a commit message with multi-line
+ subject correctly.
+Many documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..adb7cca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,286 @@
+GIT v1.6.1 Release Notes
+Updates since v1.6.0
+When some commands (e.g. "git log", "git diff") spawn pager internally, we
+used to make the pager the parent process of the git command that produces
+output. This meant that the exit status of the whole thing comes from the
+pager, not the underlying git command. We swapped the order of the
+processes around and you will see the exit code from the command from now
+* gitk can call out to git-gui to view "git blame" output; git-gui in turn
+ can run gitk from its blame view.
+* Various git-gui updates including updated translations.
+* Various gitweb updates from installation.
+* Updates to emacs bindings.
+* A few test scripts used nonportable "grep" that did not work well on
+ some platforms, e.g. Solaris.
+* Sample pre-auto-gc script has OS X support.
+* Makefile has support for (ancient) FreeBSD 4.9.
+* Many operations that are lstat(3) heavy can be told to pre-execute
+ necessary lstat(3) in parallel before their main operations, which
+ potentially gives much improved performance for cold-cache cases or in
+ environments with weak metadata caching (e.g. NFS).
+* The underlying diff machinery to produce textual output has been
+ optimized, which would result in faster "git blame" processing.
+* Most of the test scripts (but not the ones that try to run servers)
+ can be run in parallel.
+* Bash completion of refnames in a repository with massive number of
+ refs has been optimized.
+* Cygwin port uses native stat/lstat implementations when applicable,
+ which leads to improved performance.
+* "git push" pays attention to alternate repositories to avoid sending
+ unnecessary objects.
+* "git svn" can rebuild an out-of-date rev_map file.
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+* When you mistype a command name, git helpfully suggests what it guesses
+ you might have meant to say. help.autocorrect configuration can be set
+ to a non-zero value to accept the suggestion when git can uniquely
+ guess.
+* The packfile machinery hopefully is more robust when dealing with
+ corrupt packs if redundant objects involved in the corruption are
+ available elsewhere.
+* "git add -N path..." adds the named paths as an empty blob, so that
+ subsequent "git diff" will show a diff as if they are creation events.
+* "git add" gained a built-in synonym for people who want to say "stage
+ changes" instead of "add contents to the staging area" which amounts
+ to the same thing.
+* "git apply" learned --include=paths option, similar to the existing
+ --exclude=paths option.
+* "git bisect" is careful about a user mistake and suggests testing of
+ merge base first when good is not a strict ancestor of bad.
+* "git bisect skip" can take a range of commits.
+* "git blame" re-encodes the commit metainfo to UTF-8 from i18n.commitEncoding
+ by default.
+* "git check-attr --stdin" can check attributes for multiple paths.
+* "git checkout --track origin/hack" used to be a syntax error. It now
+ DWIMs to create a corresponding local branch "hack", i.e. acts as if you
+ said "git checkout --track -b hack origin/hack".
+* "git checkout --ours/--theirs" can be used to check out one side of a
+ conflicting merge during conflict resolution.
+* "git checkout -m" can be used to recreate the initial conflicted state
+ during conflict resolution.
+* "git cherry-pick" can also utilize rerere for conflict resolution.
+* "git clone" learned to be verbose with -v
+* "git commit --author=$name" can look up author name from existing
+ commits.
+* output from "git commit" has been reworded in a more concise and yet
+ more informative way.
+* "git count-objects" reports the on-disk footprint for packfiles and
+ their corresponding idx files.
+* "git daemon" learned --max-connections=<count> option.
+* "git daemon" exports REMOTE_ADDR to record client address, so that
+ spawned programs can act differently on it.
+* "git describe --tags" favours closer lightweight tags than farther
+ annotated tags now.
+* "git diff" learned to mimic --suppress-blank-empty from GNU diff via a
+ configuration option.
+* "git diff" learned to put more sensible hunk headers for Python,
+ HTML and ObjC contents.
+* "git diff" learned to vary the a/ vs b/ prefix depending on what are
+ being compared, controlled by diff.mnemonicprefix configuration.
+* "git diff" learned --dirstat-by-file to count changed files, not number
+ of lines, when summarizing the global picture.
+* "git diff" learned "textconv" filters --- a binary or hard-to-read
+ contents can be munged into human readable form and the difference
+ between the results of the conversion can be viewed (obviously this
+ cannot produce a patch that can be applied, so this is disabled in
+ format-patch among other things).
+* "--cached" option to "git diff has an easier to remember synonym "--staged",
+ to ask "what is the difference between the given commit and the
+ contents staged in the index?"
+* "git for-each-ref" learned "refname:short" token that gives an
+ unambiguously abbreviated refname.
+* Auto-numbering of the subject lines is the default for "git
+ format-patch" now.
+* "git grep" learned to accept -z similar to GNU grep.
+* "git help" learned to use GIT_MAN_VIEWER environment variable before
+ using "man" program.
+* "git imap-send" can optionally talk SSL.
+* "git index-pack" is more careful against disk corruption while
+ completing a thin pack.
+* "git log --check" and "git log --exit-code" passes their underlying diff
+ status with their exit status code.
+* "git log" learned --simplify-merges, a milder variant of --full-history;
+ "gitk --simplify-merges" is easier to view than with --full-history.
+* "git log" learned "--source" to show what ref each commit was reached
+ from.
+* "git log" also learned "--simplify-by-decoration" to show the
+ birds-eye-view of the topology of the history.
+* "git log --pretty=format:" learned "%d" format element that inserts
+ names of tags that point at the commit.
+* "git merge --squash" and "git merge --no-ff" into an unborn branch are
+ noticed as user errors.
+* "git merge -s $strategy" can use a custom built strategy if you have a
+ command "git-merge-$strategy" on your $PATH.
+* "git pull" (and "git fetch") can be told to operate "-v"erbosely or
+ "-q"uietly.
+* "git push" can be told to reject deletion of refs with receive.denyDeletes
+ configuration.
+* "git rebase" honours pre-rebase hook; use --no-verify to bypass it.
+* "git rebase -p" uses interactive rebase machinery now to preserve the merges.
+* "git reflog expire branch" can be used in place of "git reflog expire
+ refs/heads/branch".
+* "git remote show $remote" lists remote branches one-per-line now.
+* "git send-email" can be given revision range instead of files and
+ maildirs on the command line, and automatically runs format-patch to
+ generate patches for the given revision range.
+* "git submodule foreach" subcommand allows you to iterate over checked
+ out submodules.
+* "git submodule sync" subcommands allows you to update the origin URL
+ recorded in submodule directories from the toplevel .gitmodules file.
+* "git svn branch" can create new branches on the other end.
+* "gitweb" can use more saner PATH_INFO based URL.
+* "git hash-object" learned to lie about the path being hashed, so that
+ correct gitattributes processing can be done while hashing contents
+ stored in a temporary file.
+* various callers of git-merge-recursive avoid forking it as an external
+ process.
+* Git class defined in "" can be subclasses a bit more easily.
+* We used to link GNU regex library as a compatibility layer for some
+ platforms, but it turns out it is not necessary on most of them.
+* Some path handling routines used fixed number of buffers used alternately
+ but depending on the call depth, this arrangement led to hard to track
+ bugs. This issue is being addressed.
+Fixes since v1.6.0
+All of the fixes in v1.6.0.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
+* Porcelains implemented as shell scripts were utterly confused when you
+ entered to a subdirectory of a work tree from sideways, following a
+ symbolic link (this may need to be backported to older releases later).
+* Tracking symbolic links would work better on filesystems whose lstat()
+ returns incorrect st_size value for them.
+* "git add" and "git update-index" incorrectly allowed adding S/F when S
+ is a tracked symlink that points at a directory D that has a path F in
+ it (we still need to fix a similar nonsense when S is a submodule and F
+ is a path in it).
+* "git am" after stopping at a broken patch lost --whitespace, -C, -p and
+ --3way options given from the command line initially.
+* "git diff --stdin" used to take two trees on a line and compared them,
+ but we dropped support for such a use case long time ago. This has
+ been resurrected.
+* "git filter-branch" failed to rewrite a tag name with slashes in it.
+* "git http-push" did not understand URI scheme other than opaquelocktoken
+ when acquiring a lock from the server (this may need to be backported to
+ older releases later).
+* After "git rebase -p" stopped with conflicts while replaying a merge,
+ "git rebase --continue" did not work (may need to be backported to older
+ releases).
+* "git revert" records relative to which parent a revert was made when
+ reverting a merge. Together with new documentation that explains issues
+ around reverting a merge and merging from the updated branch later, this
+ hopefully will reduce user confusion (this may need to be backported to
+ older releases later).
+* "git rm --cached" used to allow an empty blob that was added earlier to
+ be removed without --force, even when the file in the work tree has
+ since been modified.
+* "git push --tags --all $there" failed with generic usage message without
+ telling saying these two options are incompatible.
+* "git log --author/--committer" match used to potentially match the
+ timestamp part, exposing internal implementation detail. Also these did
+ not work with --fixed-strings match at all.
+* "gitweb" did not mark non-ASCII characters imported from external HTML fragments
+ correctly.
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+echo O=$(git describe master)
+git shortlog --no-merges $O..master ^maint
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 34fdc83..ba07c8c 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
(1a) Try to be nice to older C compilers
-We try to support wide range of C compilers to compile
+We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile
git with. That means that you should not use C99 initializers, even
if a lot of compilers grok it.
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 2da867d..1e735df 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -7,6 +7,9 @@
# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
# the command.
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index 5428111..1ab1b96 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -49,6 +49,13 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
Show the result incrementally in a format designed for
machine consumption.
+ Specifies the encoding used to output author names
+ and commit summaries. Setting it to `none` makes blame
+ output unconverted data. For more information see the
+ discussion about encoding in the linkgit:git-log[1]
+ manual page.
--contents <file>::
When <rev> is not specified, the command annotates the
changes starting backwards from the working tree copy.
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 113d9d1..2ed868c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -117,6 +117,17 @@ core.fileMode::
the working copy are ignored; useful on broken filesystems like FAT.
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+ This option is only used by Cygwin implementation of Git. If false,
+ the Cygwin stat() and lstat() functions are used. This may be useful
+ if your repository consists of a few separate directories joined in
+ one hierarchy using Cygwin mount. If true, Git uses native Win32 API
+ whenever it is possible and falls back to Cygwin functions only to
+ handle symbol links. The native mode is more than twice faster than
+ normal Cygwin l/stat() functions. True by default, unless core.filemode
+ is true, in which case ignoreCygwinFSTricks is ignored as Cygwin's
+ POSIX emulation is required to support core.filemode.
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
working copy are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -402,6 +413,15 @@ data writes properly, but can be useful for filesystems that do not use
journalling (traditional UNIX filesystems) or that only journal metadata
and not file contents (OS X's HFS+, or Linux ext3 with "data=writeback").
+ Enable parallel index preload for operations like 'git diff'
+This can speed up operations like 'git diff' and 'git status' especially
+on filesystems like NFS that have weak caching semantics and thus
+relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', git will do the
+index comparison to the filesystem data in parallel, allowing
+overlapping IO's.
Command aliases for the linkgit:git[1] command wrapper - e.g.
after defining "alias.last = cat-file commit HEAD", the invocation
@@ -590,6 +610,22 @@ diff.external::
you want to use an external diff program only on a subset of
your files, you might want to use linkgit:gitattributes[5] instead.
+ If set, 'git-diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
+ standard "a/" and "b/" depending on what is being compared. When
+ this configuration is in effect, reverse diff output also swaps
+ the order of the prefixes:
+ compares the (i)ndex and the (w)ork tree;
+'git-diff HEAD';;
+ compares a (c)ommit and the (w)ork tree;
+'git diff --cached';;
+ compares a (c)ommit and the (i)ndex;
+'git-diff HEAD:file1 file2';;
+ compares an (o)bject and a (w)ork tree entity;
+'git diff --no-index a b';;
+ compares two non-git things (1) and (2).
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
detection; equivalent to the 'git-diff' option '-l'.
@@ -599,6 +635,10 @@ diff.renames::
will enable basic rename detection. If set to "copies" or
"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
+ A boolean to inhibit the standard behavior of printing a space
+ before each empty output line. Defaults to false.
If the number of objects fetched over the git native
transfer is below this
@@ -611,10 +651,11 @@ fetch.unpackLimit::
`transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
- A boolean which can enable sequence numbers in patch subjects.
- Setting this option to "auto" will enable it only if there is
- more than one patch. See --numbered option in
- linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
+ A boolean which can enable or disable sequence numbers in patch
+ subjects. It defaults to "auto" which enables it only if there
+ is more than one patch. It can be enabled or disabled for all
+ messages by setting it to "true" or "false". See --numbered
+ option in linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
Additional email headers to include in a patch to be submitted
@@ -661,7 +702,9 @@ gc.packrefs::
When 'git-gc' is run, it will call 'prune --expire 2.weeks.ago'.
- Override the grace period with this config variable.
+ Override the grace period with this config variable. The value
+ "now" may be used to disable this grace period and always prune
+ unreachable objects immediately.
'git-reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
@@ -752,6 +795,14 @@ gui.diffcontext::
Specifies how many context lines should be used in calls to diff
made by the linkgit:git-gui[1]. The default is "5".
+ Specifies the default encoding to use for displaying of
+ file contents in linkgit:git-gui[1] and linkgit:gitk[1].
+ It can be overridden by setting the 'encoding' attribute
+ for relevant files (see linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
+ If this option is not set, the tools default to the
+ locale encoding.
Determines if new branches created with linkgit:git-gui[1] should
default to tracking remote branches with matching names or
@@ -774,6 +825,73 @@ gui.spellingdictionary::
the linkgit:git-gui[1]. When set to "none" spell checking is turned
+ If true, 'git gui blame' uses '-C' instead of '-C -C' for original
+ location detection. It makes blame significantly faster on huge
+ repositories at the expense of less thorough copy detection.
+ Specifies the threshold to use in 'git gui blame' original location
+ detection, measured in alphanumeric characters. See the
+ linkgit:git-blame[1] manual for more information on copy detection.
+ Specifies the radius of history context in days to show in
+ linkgit:gitk[1] for the selected commit, when the `Show History
+ Context` menu item is invoked from 'git gui blame'. If this
+ variable is set to zero, the whole history is shown.
+ Specifies the shell command line to execute when the corresponding item
+ of the linkgit:git-gui[1] `Tools` menu is invoked. This option is
+ mandatory for every tool. The command is executed from the root of
+ the working directory, and in the environment it receives the name of
+ the tool as 'GIT_GUITOOL', the name of the currently selected file as
+ 'FILENAME', and the name of the current branch as 'CUR_BRANCH' (if
+ the head is detached, 'CUR_BRANCH' is empty).
+ Run the tool only if a diff is selected in the GUI. It guarantees
+ that 'FILENAME' is not empty.
+ Run the command silently, without creating a window to display its
+ output.
+ Don't rescan the working directory for changes after the tool
+ finishes execution.
+ Show a confirmation dialog before actually running the tool.
+ Request a string argument from the user, and pass it to the tool
+ through the 'ARGS' environment variable. Since requesting an
+ argument implies confirmation, the 'confirm' option has no effect
+ if this is enabled. If the option is set to 'true', 'yes', or '1',
+ the dialog uses a built-in generic prompt; otherwise the exact
+ value of the variable is used.
+ Request a single valid revision from the user, and set the
+ 'REVISION' environment variable. In other aspects this option
+ is similar to 'argprompt', and can be used together with it.
+ Show only unmerged branches in the 'revprompt' subdialog.
+ This is useful for tools similar to merge or rebase, but not
+ for things like checkout or reset.
+ Specifies the title to use for the prompt dialog. The default
+ is the tool name.
+ Specifies the general prompt string to display at the top of
+ the dialog, before subsections for 'argprompt' and 'revprompt'.
+ The default value includes the actual command.
Specify the browser that will be used to display help in the
'web' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
@@ -783,6 +901,15 @@ help.format::
Values 'man', 'info', 'web' and 'html' are supported. 'man' is
the default. 'web' and 'html' are the same.
+ Automatically correct and execute mistyped commands after
+ waiting for the given number of deciseconds (0.1 sec). If more
+ than one command can be deduced from the entered text, nothing
+ will be executed. If the value of this option is negative,
+ the corrected command will be executed immediately. If the
+ value is 0 - the command will be just shown but not executed.
+ This is the default.
Override the HTTP proxy, normally configured using the 'http_proxy'
environment variable (see linkgit:curl[1]). This can be overridden
@@ -1014,6 +1141,19 @@ receive.unpackLimit::
especially on slow filesystems. If not set, the value of
`transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
+ If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update that deletes
+ the ref. Use this to prevent such a ref deletion via a push.
+ If set to true or "refuse", receive-pack will deny a ref update
+ to the currently checked out branch of a non-bare repository.
+ Such a push is potentially dangerous because it brings the HEAD
+ out of sync with the index and working tree. If set to "warn",
+ print a warning of such a push to stderr, but allow the push to
+ proceed. If set to false or "ignore", allow such pushes with no
+ message. Defaults to "warn".
If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
not a fast forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 45885bb..b432d25 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -19,16 +19,12 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
{git-diff? This is the default.}
- Synonym for "-p".
- Shorthand for "--unified=<n>".
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
the usual three. Implies "-p".
@@ -65,6 +61,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
can be set with "--dirstat=limit". Changes in a child directory is not
counted for the parent directory, unless "--cumulative" is used.
+ Same as --dirstat, but counts changed files instead of lines.
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
such as creations, renames and mode changes.
@@ -106,9 +105,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
- Instead of the first handful characters, show full
- object name of pre- and post-image blob on the "index"
- line when generating a patch format output.
+ Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
+ pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
+ line when generating patch format output.
In addition to --full-index, output "binary diff" that
@@ -187,31 +186,25 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a <path> as an argument.
Treat all files as text.
- Shorthand for "--text".
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
- Shorthand for "--ignore-space-change".
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
- Shorthand for "--ignore-all-space".
Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 2b6d6c8..7c129cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
- [--all | [--update | -u]] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--]
- <filepattern>...
+ [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
+ [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--] <filepattern>...
@@ -92,6 +92,15 @@ OPTIONS
and add all untracked files that are not ignored by '.gitignore'
+ Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
+ for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
+ useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
+ such files with 'git diff' and committing them with 'git commit
+ -a'.
Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
information in the index.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index feb51f1..e726510 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--allow-binary-replacement | --binary] [--reject] [-z]
[-pNUM] [-CNUM] [--inaccurate-eof] [--recount] [--cached]
- [--exclude=PATH] [--directory=<root>] [--verbose] [<patch>...]
+ [--exclude=PATH] [--include=PATH] [--directory=<root>]
+ [--verbose] [<patch>...]
@@ -137,6 +138,17 @@ discouraged.
be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to exclude certain
files or directories.
+ Apply changes to files matching the given path pattern. This can
+ be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to include certain
+ files or directories.
+When --exclude and --include patterns are used, they are examined in the
+order they appear on the command line, and the first match determines if a
+patch to each path is used. A patch to a path that does not match any
+include/exclude pattern is used by default if there is no include pattern
+on the command line, and ignored if there is any include pattern.
When applying a patch, detect a new or modified line that has
whitespace errors. What are considered whitespace errors is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 39034ec..147ea38 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ on the subcommand:
git bisect start [<bad> [<good>...]] [--] [<paths>...]
git bisect bad [<rev>]
git bisect good [<rev>...]
- git bisect skip [<rev>...]
+ git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
git bisect reset [<branch>]
git bisect visualize
git bisect replay <logfile>
@@ -164,6 +164,25 @@ But computing the commit to test may be slower afterwards and git may
eventually not be able to tell the first bad among a bad and one or
more "skip"ped commits.
+You can even skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
+using the "'<commit1>'..'<commit2>'" notation. For example:
+$ git bisect skip v2.5..v2.6
+would mean that no commit between `v2.5` excluded and `v2.6` included
+can be tested.
+Note that if you want to also skip the first commit of a range you can
+use something like:
+$ git bisect skip v2.5 v2.5..v2.6
+and the commit pointed to by `v2.5` will be skipped too.
Cutting down bisection by giving more parameters to bisect start
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 043274b..8c2ac12 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,9 @@ git-check-attr - Display gitattributes information
'git check-attr' attr... [--] pathname...
+'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] attr... < <list-of-paths>
@@ -17,6 +19,13 @@ For every pathname, this command will list if each attr is 'unspecified',
+ Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+ Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
+ NUL character instead of LF.
Interpret all preceding arguments as attributes, and all following
arguments as path names. If not supplied, only the first argument will
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 5aa69c0..9cd5151 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
-'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [[--track | --no-track] -b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
-'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
+'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [--track | --no-track] [-b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
@@ -21,16 +21,26 @@ specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
+As a convenience, --track will default to create a branch whose
+name is constructed from the specified branch name by stripping
+the first namespace level.
When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
-the index file (i.e. it runs `git checkout-index -f -u`), or
-from a named commit. In
-this case, the `-f` and `-b` options are meaningless and giving
+the index file, or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit). In
+this case, the `-b` options is meaningless and giving
either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
to update the index for the given paths before updating the
working tree.
+The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
+default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
+checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
+Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
+specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
+using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
+file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
@@ -38,8 +48,17 @@ OPTIONS
Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
- Proceed even if the index or the working tree differs
- from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.
+ When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
+ working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
+ local changes.
+When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
+entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
+ When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
+ ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
@@ -59,6 +78,17 @@ OPTIONS
'git-checkout' and 'git-branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
start-point is either a local or remote branch.
+If no '-b' option was given, the name of the new branch will be
+derived from the remote branch, by attempting to guess the name
+of the branch on remote system. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
+are prefixed, it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
+next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
+This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
+off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
+"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
+guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
+explicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
Ignore the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable.
@@ -69,7 +99,9 @@ OPTIONS
based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
- If you have local modifications to one or more files that
+ When switching branches,
+ if you have local modifications to one or more files that
are different between the current branch and the branch to
which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
@@ -81,6 +113,16 @@ When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
should result in deletion of the path).
+When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
+the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
+ The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
+ conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
+ merge.conflictstyle configuration variable. Possible values are
+ "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
+ "merge" style, shows the original contents).
Name for the new branch.
@@ -190,7 +232,6 @@ the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
$ git checkout -m mytopic
Auto-merging frotz
-merge: warning: conflicts during merge
ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
fatal: merge program failed
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 0e14e73..95f08b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -90,6 +90,11 @@ then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
Operate quietly. This flag is also passed to the `rsync'
command when given.
+ Display the progressbar, even in case the standard output is not
+ a terminal.
No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 5cce3a3..b5d81be 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -29,7 +29,8 @@ The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
- record the current content of the listed files;
+ record the current content of the listed files (which must already
+ be known to git);
4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
"add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
@@ -75,8 +76,10 @@ OPTIONS
read the message from the standard input.
- Override the author name used in the commit. Use
- `A U Thor <>` format.
+ Override the author name used in the commit. You can use the
+ standard `A U Thor <>` format. Otherwise,
+ an existing commit that matches the given string and its author
+ name is used.
-m <msg>::
@@ -143,6 +146,10 @@ It is a rough equivalent for:
but can be used to amend a merge commit.
+You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
+amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
+FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index 75a8da1..6bc1c21 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -21,8 +21,9 @@ OPTIONS
In addition to the number of loose objects and disk
space consumed, it reports the number of in-pack
- objects, number of packs, and number of objects that can be
- removed by running `git prune-packed`.
+ objects, number of packs, disk space consumed by those packs,
+ and number of objects that can be removed by running
+ `git prune-packed`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 4ba4b75..36f00ae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git daemon' [--verbose] [--syslog] [--export-all]
- [--timeout=n] [--init-timeout=n] [--strict-paths]
- [--base-path=path] [--user-path | --user-path=path]
+ [--timeout=n] [--init-timeout=n] [--max-connections=n]
+ [--strict-paths] [--base-path=path] [--base-path-relaxed]
+ [--user-path | --user-path=path]
[--reuseaddr] [--detach] [--pid-file=file]
[--enable=service] [--disable=service]
@@ -99,15 +100,19 @@ OPTIONS
it takes for the server to process the sub-request and time spent
waiting for next client's request.
+ Maximum number of concurrent clients, defaults to 32. Set it to
+ zero for no limit.
Log to syslog instead of stderr. Note that this option does not imply
--verbose, thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
- Allow ~user notation to be used in requests. When
+ Allow {tilde}user notation to be used in requests. When
specified with no parameter, requests to
- git://host/~alice/foo is taken as a request to access
+ git://host/{tilde}alice/foo is taken as a request to access
'foo' repository in the home directory of user `alice`.
If `--user-path=path` is specified, the same request is
taken as a request to access `path/foo` repository in
@@ -265,6 +270,15 @@ selectively enable/disable services per repository::
+'git-daemon' will set REMOTE_ADDR to the IP address of the client
+that connected to it, if the IP address is available. REMOTE_ADDR will
+be available in the environment of hooks called when
+services are performed.
Written by Linus Torvalds <>, YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index c4dbc2a..a30c5ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -18,6 +18,9 @@ shown. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of
additional commits on top of the tagged object and the
abbreviated object name of the most recent commit.
+By default (without --all or --tags) `git describe` only shows
+annotated tags. For more information about creating annotated tags
+see the -a and -s options to linkgit:git-tag[1].
@@ -26,11 +29,13 @@ OPTIONS
Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
- found in `.git/refs/`.
+ found in `.git/refs/`. This option enables matching
+ any known branch, remote branch, or lightweight tag.
Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any tag
- found in `.git/refs/tags`.
+ found in `.git/refs/tags`. This option enables matching
+ a lightweight (non-annotated) tag.
Instead of finding the tag that predates the commit, find
@@ -38,7 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
Automatically implies --tags.
- Instead of using the default 8 hexadecimal digits as the
+ Instead of using the default 7 hexadecimal digits as the
abbreviated object name, use <n> digits.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
index 5c8c1d9..c526141 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,10 @@ OPTIONS
--1 -2 -3 or --base --ours --theirs, and -0::
+-1 --base::
+-2 --ours::
+-3 --theirs::
Diff against the "base" version, "our branch" or "their
branch" respectively. With these options, diffs for
merged entries are not shown.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
index 4e83067..23b7abd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -49,13 +49,22 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
When '--stdin' is specified, the command does not take
<tree-ish> arguments from the command line. Instead, it
- reads either one <commit> or a list of <commit>
- separated with a single space from its standard input.
+ reads lines containing either two <tree>, one <commit>, or a
+ list of <commit> from its standard input. (Use a single space
+ as separator.)
-When a single commit is given on one line of such input, it compares
-the commit with its parents. The following flags further affects its
-behavior. The remaining commits, when given, are used as if they are
+When two trees are given, it compares the first tree with the second.
+When a single commit is given, it compares the commit with its
+parents. The remaining commits, when given, are used as if they are
parents of the first commit.
+When comparing two trees, the ID of both trees (separated by a space
+and terminated by a newline) is printed before the difference. When
+comparing commits, the ID of the first (or only) commit, followed by a
+newline, is printed.
+The following flags further affect the behavior when comparing
+commits (but not trees).
By default, 'git-diff-tree --stdin' does not show
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index c53eba5..a2f192f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ forced by --no-index.
commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
would want comparison with the latest commit, so if you
do not give <commit>, it defaults to HEAD.
+ --staged is a synonym of --cached.
'git diff' [--options] <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index 539decb..0c9eb56 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
This program dumps the given revisions in a form suitable to be piped
into 'git-fast-import'.
-You can use it as a human readable bundle replacement (see
+You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement (see
linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a kind of an interactive
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index b0e710d..fed6de6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,9 @@ the objects and will not converge with the original branch. You will not
be able to easily push and distribute the rewritten branch on top of the
original branch. Please do not use this command if you do not know the
full implications, and avoid using it anyway, if a simple single commit
-would suffice to fix your problem.
+would suffice to fix your problem. (See the "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM
+REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1] for further information about
+rewriting published history.)
Always verify that the rewritten version is correct: The original refs,
if different from the rewritten ones, will be stored in the namespace
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index ebd7c5f..5061d3e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -74,6 +74,7 @@ For all objects, the following names can be used:
The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
+ For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 7426109..11a7d77 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -59,8 +59,10 @@ output, unless the --stdout option is specified.
If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
they are created in the current working directory.
-If -n is specified, instead of "[PATCH] Subject", the first line
-is formatted as "[PATCH n/m] Subject".
+By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
+the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
+Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use -n. To omit
+patch numbers from the subject, use -N
If given --thread, 'git-format-patch' will generate In-Reply-To and
References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
@@ -82,7 +84,7 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
- Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format.
+ Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index fa4d133..553da6c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-F | --fixed-strings] [-n]
[-l | --files-with-matches] [-L | --files-without-match]
+ [-z | --null]
[-c | --count] [--all-match]
[-A <post-context>] [-B <pre-context>] [-C <context>]
[-f <file>] [-e] <pattern>
@@ -94,6 +95,11 @@ OPTIONS
For better compatibility with 'git-diff', --name-only is a
synonym for --files-with-matches.
+ Output \0 instead of the character that normally follows a
+ file name.
Instead of showing every matched line, show the number of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 0e650f4..d0bc98b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -65,9 +65,28 @@ git gui blame v0.99.8 Makefile::
example the file is read from the object database and not
the working directory.
+git gui blame --line=100 Makefile::
+ Loads annotations as described above and automatically
+ scrolls the view to center on line '100'.
git gui citool::
Make one commit and return to the shell when it is complete.
+ This command returns a non-zero exit code if the window was
+ closed in any way other than by making a commit.
+git gui citool --amend::
+ Automatically enter the 'Amend Last Commit' mode of
+ the interface.
+git gui citool --nocommit::
+ Behave as normal citool, but instead of making a commit
+ simply terminate with a zero exit code. It still checks
+ that the index does not contain any unmerged entries, so
+ you can use it as a GUI version of linkgit:git-mergetool[1]
git citool::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index ac928e1..0af40cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,9 @@ git-hash-object - Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file
-'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--stdin | --stdin-paths] [--] <file>...
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--path=<file>|--no-filters] [--stdin] [--] <file>...
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths < <list-of-paths>
@@ -35,6 +37,22 @@ OPTIONS
Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+ Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
+ file does not directly influence on the hash value, but path is
+ used to determine what git filters should be applied to the object
+ before it can be placed to the object database, and, as result of
+ applying filters, the actual blob put into the object database may
+ differ from the given file. This option is mainly useful for hashing
+ temporary files located outside of the working directory or files
+ read from stdin.
+ Hash the contents as is, ignoring any input filter that would
+ have been chosen by the attributes mechanism, including crlf
+ conversion. If the file is read from standard input then this
+ is always implied, unless the --path option is given.
Written by Junio C Hamano <>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index f414583..d9b9c34 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -112,7 +112,9 @@ For example, this configuration:
will try to use konqueror first. But this may fail (for example if
DISPLAY is not set) and in that case emacs' woman mode will be tried.
-If everything fails the 'man' program will be tried anyway.
+If everything fails, or if no viewer is configured, the viewer specified
+in the GIT_MAN_VIEWER environment variable will be tried. If that
+fails too, the 'man' program will be tried anyway.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index b3d8da3..bd49a0a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-imap-send(1)
-git-imap-send - Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder
+git-imap-send - Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder
@@ -13,9 +13,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
-This command uploads a mailbox generated with git-format-patch
-into an imap drafts folder. This allows patches to be sent as
-other email is sent with mail clients that cannot read mailbox
+This command uploads a mailbox generated with 'git-format-patch'
+into an IMAP drafts folder. This allows patches to be sent as
+other email is when using mail clients that cannot read mailbox
files directly.
Typical usage is something like:
@@ -26,21 +26,75 @@ git format-patch --signoff --stdout --attach origin | git imap-send
-'git-imap-send' requires the following values in the repository
-configuration file (shown with examples):
+To use the tool, imap.folder and either imap.tunnel or must be set
+to appropriate values.
+ The folder to drop the mails into, which is typically the Drafts
+ folder. For example: "INBOX.Drafts", "INBOX/Drafts" or
+ "[Gmail]/Drafts". Required to use imap-send.
+ Command used to setup a tunnel to the IMAP server through which
+ commands will be piped instead of using a direct network connection
+ to the server. Required when is not set to use imap-send.
+ A URL identifying the server. Use a `imap://` prefix for non-secure
+ connections and a `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
+ Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required to use imap-send
+ otherwise.
+ The username to use when logging in to the server.
+ The password to use when logging in to the server.
+ An integer port number to connect to on the server.
+ Defaults to 143 for imap:// hosts and 993 for imaps:// hosts.
+ Ignored when imap.tunnel is set.
+ A boolean to enable/disable verification of the server certificate
+ used by the SSL/TLS connection. Default is `true`. Ignored when
+ imap.tunnel is set.
+Using tunnel mode:
- Folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ tunnel = "ssh -q -C /usr/bin/imapd ./Maildir 2> /dev/null"
+Using direct mode:
- Tunnel = "ssh -q /usr/bin/imapd ./Maildir 2> /dev/null"
+ folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ host = imap://
+ user = bob
+ pass = p4ssw0rd
+Using direct mode with SSL:
- Host =
- User = bob
- Pass = pwd
- Port = 143
+ folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ host = imaps://
+ user = bob
+ pass = p4ssw0rd
+ port = 123
+ sslverify = false
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 93a2a22..34cf4e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -40,6 +40,10 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown.
+ Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
+ commit was reached.
Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
index 4c7262f..db6ebcc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git ls-tree' [-d] [-r] [-t] [-l] [-z]
- [--name-only] [--name-status] [--full-name] [--abbrev=[<n>]]
+ [--name-only] [--name-status] [--full-name] [--full-tree] [--abbrev=[<n>]]
<tree-ish> [paths...]
@@ -30,6 +30,8 @@ in the current working directory. Note that:
'sub/dir' in 'HEAD'). You don't want to give a tree that is not at the
root level (e.g. 'git ls-tree -r HEAD:sub dir') in this case, as that
would result in asking for 'sub/sub/dir' in the 'HEAD' commit.
+ However, the current working directory can be ignored by passing
+ --full-tree option.
@@ -66,6 +68,10 @@ OPTIONS
Instead of showing the path names relative to the current working
directory, show the full path names.
+ Do not limit the listing to the current working directory.
+ Implies --full-name.
When paths are given, show them (note that this isn't really raw
pathnames, but rather a list of patterns to match). Otherwise
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 1a7ecbf..767486c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -8,26 +8,80 @@ git-merge-base - Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge
-'git merge-base' [--all] <commit> <commit>
+'git merge-base' [--all] <commit> <commit>...
-'git-merge-base' finds as good a common ancestor as possible between
-the two commits. That is, given two commits A and B, `git merge-base A
-B` will output a commit which is reachable from both A and B through
-the parent relationship.
+'git-merge-base' finds best common ancestor(s) between two commits to use
+in a three-way merge. One common ancestor is 'better' than another common
+ancestor if the latter is an ancestor of the former. A common ancestor
+that does not have any better common ancestor is a 'best common
+ancestor', i.e. a 'merge base'. Note that there can be more than one
+merge base for a pair of commits.
-Given a selection of equally good common ancestors it should not be
-relied on to decide in any particular way.
-The 'git-merge-base' algorithm is still in flux - use the source...
+Among the two commits to compute the merge base from, one is specified by
+the first commit argument on the command line; the other commit is a
+(possibly hypothetical) commit that is a merge across all the remaining
+commits on the command line. As the most common special case, specifying only
+two commits on the command line means computing the merge base between
+the given two commits.
- Output all common ancestors for the two commits instead of
- just one.
+ Output all merge bases for the commits, instead of just one.
+Given two commits 'A' and 'B', `git merge-base A B` will output a commit
+which is reachable from both 'A' and 'B' through the parent relationship.
+For example, with this topology:
+ o---o---o---B
+ /
+ ---o---1---o---o---o---A
+the merge base between 'A' and 'B' is '1'.
+Given three commits 'A', 'B' and 'C', `git merge-base A B C` will compute the
+merge base between 'A' and a hypothetical commit 'M', which is a merge
+between 'B' and 'C'. For example, with this topology:
+ o---o---o---o---C
+ /
+ / o---o---o---B
+ / /
+ ---2---1---o---o---o---A
+the result of `git merge-base A B C` is '1'. This is because the
+equivalent topology with a merge commit 'M' between 'B' and 'C' is:
+ o---o---o---o---o
+ / \
+ / o---o---o---o---M
+ / /
+ ---2---1---o---o---o---A
+and the result of `git merge-base A M` is '1'. Commit '2' is also a
+common ancestor between 'A' and 'M', but '1' is a better common ancestor,
+because '2' is an ancestor of '1'. Hence, '2' is not a merge base.
+When the history involves criss-cross merges, there can be more than one
+'best' common ancestor for two commits. For example, with this topology:
+ ---1---o---A
+ \ /
+ X
+ / \
+ ---2---o---o---B
+both '1' and '2' are merge-bases of A and B. Neither one is better than
+the other (both are 'best' merge bases). When the `--all` option is not given,
+it is unspecified which best one is output.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
index 024ec01..3035373 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
@@ -15,17 +15,17 @@ SYNOPSIS
-'git-file-merge' incorporates all changes that lead from the `<base-file>`
+'git-merge-file' incorporates all changes that lead from the `<base-file>`
to `<other-file>` into `<current-file>`. The result ordinarily goes into
`<current-file>`. 'git-merge-file' is useful for combining separate changes
to an original. Suppose `<base-file>` is the original, and both
-`<current-file>` and `<other-file>` are modifications of `<base-file>`.
-Then 'git-merge-file' combines both changes.
+`<current-file>` and `<other-file>` are modifications of `<base-file>`,
+then 'git-merge-file' combines both changes.
A conflict occurs if both `<current-file>` and `<other-file>` have changes
in a common segment of lines. If a conflict is found, 'git-merge-file'
-normally outputs a warning and brackets the conflict with <<<<<<< and
->>>>>>> lines. A typical conflict will look like this:
+normally outputs a warning and brackets the conflict with lines containing
+<<<<<<< and >>>>>>> markers. A typical conflict will look like this:
<<<<<<< A
lines in file A
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ OPTIONS
- Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
+ Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index ff088c5..123e6d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -29,11 +29,11 @@ OPTIONS
Instead of stopping at the first failed merge, do all of them
in one shot - continue with merging even when previous merges
returned errors, and only return the error code after all the
- merges are over.
+ merges.
- Do not complain about failed merge program (the merge program
- failure usually indicates conflicts during merge). This is for
+ Do not complain about a failed merge program (a merge program
+ failure usually indicates conflicts during the merge). This is for
porcelains which might want to emit custom messages.
If 'git-merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
index dbb0c18..f869a7f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
@@ -14,14 +14,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
Reads three treeish, and output trivial merge results and
conflicting stages to the standard output. This is similar to
-what three-way read-tree -m does, but instead of storing the
+what three-way 'git read-tree -m' does, but instead of storing the
results in the index, the command outputs the entries to the
standard output.
This is meant to be used by higher level scripts to compute
-merge results outside index, and stuff the results back into the
+merge results outside of the index, and stuff the results back into the
index. For this reason, the output from the command omits
-entries that match <branch1> tree.
+entries that match the <branch1> tree.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 17a15ac..f7be584 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -69,20 +69,20 @@ Three kinds of merge can happen:
simplest case, called "Already up-to-date."
* `HEAD` is already contained in the merged commit. This is the
- most common case especially when involved through 'git pull':
- you are tracking an upstream repository, committed no local
+ most common case especially when invoked from 'git pull':
+ you are tracking an upstream repository, have committed no local
changes and now you want to update to a newer upstream revision.
- Your `HEAD` (and the index) is updated to at point the merged
+ Your `HEAD` (and the index) is updated to point at the merged
commit, without creating an extra merge commit. This is
called "Fast-forward".
* Both the merged commit and `HEAD` are independent and must be
- tied together by a merge commit that has them both as its parents.
+ tied together by a merge commit that has both of them as its parents.
The rest of this section describes this "True merge" case.
The chosen merge strategy merges the two commits into a single
new source tree.
-When things cleanly merge, these things happen:
+When things merge cleanly, this is what happens:
1. The results are updated both in the index file and in your
working tree;
@@ -91,16 +91,16 @@ When things cleanly merge, these things happen:
4. The `HEAD` pointer gets advanced.
Because of 2., we require that the original state of the index
-file to match exactly the current `HEAD` commit; otherwise we
+file matches exactly the current `HEAD` commit; otherwise we
will write out your local changes already registered in your
index file along with the merge result, which is not good.
-Because 1. involves only the paths different between your
+Because 1. involves only those paths differing between your
branch and the remote branch you are pulling from during the
merge (which is typically a fraction of the whole tree), you can
have local modifications in your working tree as long as they do
not overlap with what the merge updates.
-When there are conflicts, these things happen:
+When there are conflicts, the following happens:
1. `HEAD` stays the same.
@@ -111,28 +111,105 @@ When there are conflicts, these things happen:
versions; stage1 stores the version from the common ancestor,
stage2 from `HEAD`, and stage3 from the remote branch (you
can inspect the stages with `git ls-files -u`). The working
- tree files have the result of "merge" program; i.e. 3-way
- merge result with familiar conflict markers `<<< === >>>`.
+ tree files contain the result of the "merge" program; i.e. 3-way
+ merge results with familiar conflict markers `<<< === >>>`.
4. No other changes are done. In particular, the local
modifications you had before you started merge will stay the
same and the index entries for them stay as they were,
i.e. matching `HEAD`.
+During a merge, the working tree files are updated to reflect the result
+of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor's version,
+non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the file while the
+other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are incorporated in the
+final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same area,
+however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
+resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.
+By default, git uses the same style as that is used by "merge" program
+from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:
+Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
+ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
+<<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
+Conflict resolution is hard;
+let's go shopping.
+Git makes conflict resolution easy.
+>>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
+And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.
+The area where a pair of conflicting changes happened is marked with markers
+"`<<<<<<<`", "`=======`", and "`>>>>>>>`". The part before the "`=======`"
+is typically your side, and the part afterwards is typically their side.
+The default format does not show what the original said in the conflicting
+area. You cannot tell how many lines are deleted and replaced with
+Barbie's remark on your side. The only thing you can tell is that your
+side wants to say it is hard and you'd prefer to go shopping, while the
+other side wants to claim it is easy.
+An alternative style can be used by setting the "merge.conflictstyle"
+configuration variable to "diff3". In "diff3" style, the above conflict
+may look like this:
+Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
+ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
+<<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
+Conflict resolution is hard;
+let's go shopping.
+Conflict resolution is hard.
+Git makes conflict resolution easy.
+>>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
+And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.
+In addition to the "`<<<<<<<`", "`=======`", and "`>>>>>>>`" markers, it uses
+another "`|||||||`" marker that is followed by the original text. You can
+tell that the original just stated a fact, and your side simply gave in to
+that statement and gave up, while the other side tried to have a more
+positive attitude. You can sometimes come up with a better resolution by
+viewing the original.
After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:
- * Decide not to merge. The only clean-up you need are to reset
+ * Decide not to merge. The only clean-ups you need are to reset
the index file to the `HEAD` commit to reverse 2. and to clean
up working tree changes made by 2. and 3.; 'git-reset --hard' can
be used for this.
- * Resolve the conflicts. `git diff` would report only the
- conflicting paths because of the above 2. and 3.
- Edit the working tree files into a desirable shape
- ('git mergetool' can ease this task), 'git-add' or 'git-rm'
- them, to make the index file contain what the merge result
- should be, and run 'git-commit' to commit the result.
+ * Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in
+ the working tree. Edit the files into shape and
+ 'git-add' them to the index. Use 'git-commit' to seal the deal.
+You can work through the conflict with a number of tools:
+ * Use a mergetool. 'git mergetool' to launch a graphical
+ mergetool which will work you through the merge.
+ * Look at the diffs. 'git diff' will show a three-way diff,
+ highlighting changes from both the HEAD and remote versions.
+ * Look at the diffs on their own. 'git log --merge -p <path>'
+ will show diffs first for the HEAD version and then the
+ remote version.
+ * Look at the originals. 'git show :1:filename' shows the
+ common ancestor, 'git show :2:filename' shows the HEAD
+ version and 'git show :3:filename' shows the remote version.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index e0b2703..602e7c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ can configure the absolute path to kdiff3 by setting
`mergetool.kdiff3.path`. Otherwise, 'git-mergetool' assumes the
tool is available in PATH.
-Instead of running one of the known merge tool programs
+Instead of running one of the known merge tool programs,
'git-mergetool' can be customized to run an alternative program
by specifying the command line to invoke in a configuration
variable `mergetool.<tool>.cmd`.
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ of the file to which the merge tool should write the result of the
merge resolution.
If the custom merge tool correctly indicates the success of a
-merge resolution with its exit code then the configuration
+merge resolution with its exit code, then the configuration
variable `mergetool.<tool>.trustExitCode` can be set to `true`.
Otherwise, 'git-mergetool' will prompt the user to indicate the
success of the resolution after the custom tool has exited.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index 54f1dab..da6055d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-prune - Prune all unreachable objects from the object database
-'git-prune' [-n] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
+'git-prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
@@ -34,6 +34,9 @@ OPTIONS
Do not remove anything; just report what it would
+ Report all removed objects.
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 6150b1b..7b27dc6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,9 @@ OPTIONS
The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
- operation. See the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below.
+ operation. This parameter can be either a URL
+ (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
+ of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is
@@ -42,22 +44,21 @@ tip of `master` branch); see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]) that you
want to push. The <dst> side represents the destination location.
The local ref that matches <src> is used
-to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst> (or, if no <dst> was
-specified, the same ref that <src> referred to locally). If
+to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst>. If
the optional leading plus `+` is used, the remote ref is updated
even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
-A parameter <ref> without a colon pushes the <ref> from the source
-repository to the destination repository under the same name.
+A lonely <src> parameter (without a colon and a destination) pushes
+the <src> to the same name in the destination repository.
Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
-directs git to push "matching" heads: for every head that exists on
-the local side, the remote side is updated if a head of the same name
+directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
+the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
@@ -86,14 +87,12 @@ nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
a directory on the default $PATH.
- Same as \--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>.
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index 309deac..7160fa1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -212,7 +212,7 @@ output after two-tree merge.
Case #3 is slightly tricky and needs explanation. The result from this
rule logically should be to remove the path if the user staged the removal
-of the path and then swiching to a new branch. That however will prevent
+of the path and then switching to a new branch. That however will prevent
the initial checkout from happening, so the rule is modified to use M (new
tree) only when the contents of the index is empty. Otherwise the removal
of the path is kept as long as $H and $M are the same.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 59c1b02..c8ad86a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [-v | --verbose] [-m | --merge]
- [-s <strategy> | --strategy=<strategy>]
+ [-s <strategy> | --strategy=<strategy>] [--no-verify]
[-C<n>] [ --whitespace=<option>] [-p | --preserve-merges]
[--onto <newbase>] <upstream> [<branch>]
'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch
from the latter branch, using `rebase --onto`.
First let's assume your 'topic' is based on branch 'next'.
-For example feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
+For example, a feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
functionality which is found in 'next'.
@@ -103,9 +103,9 @@ functionality which is found in 'next'.
o---o---o topic
-We would want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master',
-for example because the functionality 'topic' branch depend on
-got merged into more stable 'master' branch, like this:
+We want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master'; for example,
+because the functionality on which 'topic' depends was merged into the
+more stable 'master' branch. We want our tree to look like this:
o---o---o---o---o master
@@ -232,6 +232,9 @@ OPTIONS
Display a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase.
+ This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
@@ -250,18 +253,16 @@ OPTIONS
- Instead of ignoring merges, try to recreate them. This option
- only works in interactive mode.
+ Instead of ignoring merges, try to recreate them.
-When you rebase a branch, you are changing its history in a way that
-will cause problems for anyone who already has a copy of the branch
-in their repository and tries to pull updates from you. You should
-understand the implications of using 'git-rebase' on a repository that
-you share.
+You should understand the implications of using 'git-rebase' on a
+repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
When the git-rebase command is run, it will first execute a "pre-rebase"
hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity checks and
@@ -396,6 +397,127 @@ consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use
after each commit, test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.
+Rebasing (or any other form of rewriting) a branch that others have
+based work on is a bad idea: anyone downstream of it is forced to
+manually fix their history. This section explains how to do the fix
+from the downstream's point of view. The real fix, however, would be
+to avoid rebasing the upstream in the first place.
+To illustrate, suppose you are in a situation where someone develops a
+'subsystem' branch, and you are working on a 'topic' that is dependent
+on this 'subsystem'. You might end up with a history like the
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \
+ o---o---o---o---o subsystem
+ \
+ *---*---* topic
+If 'subsystem' is rebased against 'master', the following happens:
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \ \
+ o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
+ \
+ *---*---* topic
+If you now continue development as usual, and eventually merge 'topic'
+to 'subsystem', the commits from 'subsystem' will remain duplicated forever:
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \ \
+ o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o'--M subsystem
+ \ /
+ *---*---*-..........-*--* topic
+Such duplicates are generally frowned upon because they clutter up
+history, making it harder to follow. To clean things up, you need to
+transplant the commits on 'topic' to the new 'subsystem' tip, i.e.,
+rebase 'topic'. This becomes a ripple effect: anyone downstream from
+'topic' is forced to rebase too, and so on!
+There are two kinds of fixes, discussed in the following subsections:
+Easy case: The changes are literally the same.::
+ This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase was a simple rebase and
+ had no conflicts.
+Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
+ This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
+ `\--interactive` to omit, edit, or squash commits; or if the
+ upstream used one of `commit \--amend`, `reset`, or
+ `filter-branch`.
+The easy case
+Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
+'subsystem' are literally the same before and after the rebase
+'subsystem' did.
+In that case, the fix is easy because 'git-rebase' knows to skip
+changes that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say
+(assuming you're on 'topic')
+ $ git rebase subsystem
+you will end up with the fixed history
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \
+ o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
+ \
+ *---*---* topic
+The hard case
+Things get more complicated if the 'subsystem' changes do not exactly
+correspond to the ones before the rebase.
+NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
+ even in the hard case, it may have unintended consequences. For
+ example, a commit that was removed via `git rebase
+ \--interactive` will be **resurrected**!
+The idea is to manually tell 'git-rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
+ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
+between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
+of the old 'subsystem', for example:
+* With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git-fetch', the old tip of
+ 'subsystem' is at `subsystem@\{1}`. Subsequent fetches will
+ increase the number. (See linkgit:git-reflog[1].)
+* Relative to the tip of 'topic': knowing that your 'topic' has three
+ commits, the old tip of 'subsystem' must be `topic~3`.
+You can then transplant the old `subsystem..topic` to the new tip by
+saying (for the reflog case, and assuming you are on 'topic' already):
+ $ git rebase --onto subsystem subsystem@{1}
+The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
+'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
+case" recovery too!
Written by Junio C Hamano <> and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index bb99810..fad983e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git remote' [-v | --verbose]
'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--mirror] <name> <url>
+'git remote rename' <old> <new>
'git remote rm' <name>
'git remote show' [-n] <name>
'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>
@@ -61,6 +62,15 @@ only makes sense in bare repositories. If a remote uses mirror
mode, furthermore, `git push` will always behave as if `\--mirror`
was passed.
+Rename the remote named <old> to <new>. All remote tracking branches and
+configuration settings for the remote are updated.
+In case <old> and <new> are the same, and <old> is a file under
+`$GIT_DIR/remotes` or `$GIT_DIR/branches`, the remote is converted to
+the configuration file format.
Remove the remote named <name>. All remote tracking branches and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 6abaeac..2049f3d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -82,7 +82,9 @@ $ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <1>
<1> The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad
and you do not want to ever see them again. Do *not* do this if
-you have already given these commits to somebody else.
+you have already given these commits to somebody else. (See the
+"RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1] for
+the implications of doing so.)
Undo a commit, making it a topic branch::
@@ -128,7 +130,7 @@ Undo a merge or pull::
$ git pull <1>
Auto-merging nitfol
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
-Automatic merge failed/prevented; fix up by hand
+Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
$ git reset --hard <2>
$ git pull . topic/branch <3>
Updating from 41223... to 13134...
@@ -175,6 +177,8 @@ $ git reset <3>
<3> At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
committed as 'snapshot WIP'. This updates the index to show your
WIP files as uncommitted.
+See also linkgit:git-stash[1].
Reset a single file in the index::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index caa0729..5e11758 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -44,6 +44,14 @@ OPTIONS
option specifies the parent number (starting from 1) of
the mainline and allows revert to reverse the change
relative to the specified parent.
+Reverting a merge commit declares that you will never want the tree changes
+brought in by the merge. As a result, later merges will only bring in tree
+changes introduced by commits that are not ancestors of the previously
+reverted merge. This may or may not be what you want.
+See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+more details.
With this option, 'git-revert' will not start the commit
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 3c3e1b0..ff4aeff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,7 @@ git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails
-'git send-email' [options] <file|directory> [... file|directory]
+'git send-email' [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
@@ -20,39 +19,42 @@ The header of the email is configurable by command line options. If not
specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
-The options available are:
- Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email.
+ Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
+ 'sendemail.bcc'.
The --bcc option must be repeated for each user you want on the bcc list.
Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
+ Default is the value of ''.
The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
- Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
- should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
- Output of this command must be single email address per line.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccmd' configuration value.
- If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
- email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
- the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
- this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
- entire patch series.
- Default is the value of the 'sendemail.chainreplyto' configuration
- value; if that is unspecified, default to --chain-reply-to.
+ Review each patch you're about to send in an editor. The setting
+ 'sendemail.multiedit' defines if this will spawn one editor per patch
+ or one for all of them at once.
Use $GIT_EDITOR, core.editor, $VISUAL, or $EDITOR to edit an
introductory message for the patch series.
+When '--compose' is used, git send-email gets less interactive will use the
+values of the headers you set there. If the body of the email (what you type
+after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank (or GIT: prefixed)
+lines, the summary won't be sent, but git-send-email will still use the
+Headers values if you don't removed them.
+If it wasn't able to see a header in the summary it will ask you about it
+interactively after quitting your editor.
Specify the sender of the emails. This will default to
@@ -66,22 +68,47 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
is not set, this will be prompted for.
- If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
- cc list.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffcc' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
+ Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
+ Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
+ is not set, this will be prompted for.
- Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
- all that is output.
+ Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
+ will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
+ value of the '' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
+ this will be prompted for.
+The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
- A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
- 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
- values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
- the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
+ Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
+ This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
+ subscribed to a list. If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
+ suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of
+ the 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
+ unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
+ Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
+ value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
+ 'sendemail.smtpencryption'.
+ Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
+ argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
+ the password. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtppass',
+ however '--smtp-pass' always overrides this value.
+Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
+or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
+'--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpuser'), but no password has been
+specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then the
+user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
@@ -96,61 +123,44 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
servers typically listen to smtp port 25 and ssmtp port
- 465).
+ 465). This can be set with 'sendemail.smtpserverport'.
+ Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
- Username for SMTP-AUTH. In place of this option, the following
- configuration variables can be specified:
- * sendemail.smtpuser
- * sendemail.<identity>.smtpuser (see sendemail.identity).
-However, --smtp-user always overrides these variables.
-If a username is not specified (with --smtp-user or a
-configuration variable), then authentication is not attempted.
+ Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpuser';
+ if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpuser'),
+ then authentication is not attempted.
- Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
- argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
- the password.
-In place of this option, the following configuration variables
-can be specified:
- * sendemail.smtppass
- * sendemail.<identity>.smtppass (see sendemail.identity).
-However, --smtp-pass always overrides these variables.
-Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
-or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
---smtp-user or a configuration variable), but no password has been
-specified (with --smtp-pass or a configuration variable), then the
-user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
- Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
- value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
- 'sendemail.smtpencryption'.
- Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption=ssl'.
+ Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
+ should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
+ Output of this command must be single email address per line.
+ Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccmd' configuration value.
- Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
- Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
- is not set, this will be prompted for.
+ If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
+ email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
+ the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
+ this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
+ entire patch series. Default is the value of the 'sendemail.chainreplyto'
+ configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --chain-reply-to.
- If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressfrom' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
+ A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
+ 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
+ values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
+ the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
+ If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
+ cc list. Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffbycc' configuration
+ value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
@@ -163,44 +173,49 @@ user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
if that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
specified, as well as 'sob' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
+ If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
+ Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressfrom' configuration
+ value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
If this is set, the In-Reply-To header will be set on each email sent.
If disabled with "--no-thread", no emails will have the In-Reply-To
- header set.
- Default is the value of the 'sendemail.thread' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to --thread.
+ header set. Default is the value of the 'sendemail.thread' configuration
+ value; if that is unspecified, default to --thread.
Do everything except actually send the emails.
- Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
- This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
- subscribed to a list. If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
- suitable privileges for the -f parameter.
- Default is the value of the 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration
- variable; if that is unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left
- to your MTA.
+ Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
+ all that is output.
- Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated.
- Generally, this will be the upstream maintainer of the
- project involved.
- Default is the value of the '' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, this will be prompted for.
+ Perform sanity checks on patches.
+ Currently, validation means the following:
-The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
+ * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
+ is due to SMTP limits as described by
+Default is the value of 'sendemail.validate'; if this is not set,
+default to '--validate'.
+ When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name,
+ choose to understand it as a format-patch argument ('--format-patch')
+ or as a file name ('--no-format-patch'). By default, when such a conflict
+ occurs, git send-email will fail.
- The default configuration identity. When specified,
- 'sendemail.<identity>.<item>' will have higher precedence than
- 'sendemail.<item>'. This is useful to declare multiple SMTP
- identities and to hoist sensitive authentication information
- out of the repository and into the global configuration file.
To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
@@ -210,38 +225,12 @@ sendemail.aliasfiletype::
Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesfile. Must be
one of 'mutt', 'mailrc', 'pine', or 'gnus'.
- Email address (or alias) to always send to.
- Command to execute to generate per patch file specific "Cc:"s.
- Email address (or alias) to always bcc.
- Boolean value specifying the default to the '--chain_reply_to'
- parameter.
+ If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit
+ files you have to edit (patches when '--annotate' is used, and the
+ summary when '--compose' is used). If false, files will be edited one
+ after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
- Default SMTP server to use.
- Default SMTP server port to use.
- Default SMTP-AUTH username.
- Default SMTP-AUTH password.
- Default encryption method. Use 'ssl' for SSL (and specify an
- appropriate port), or 'tls' for TLS. Takes precedence over
- 'smtpssl' if both are specified.
- Legacy boolean that sets 'smtpencryption=ssl' if enabled.
@@ -250,10 +239,12 @@ Written by Ryan Anderson <>
git-send-email is originally based upon by Greg Kroah-Hartman.
Documentation by Ryan Anderson
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index ff420f8..3f8d973 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -18,8 +18,9 @@ of server-side GIT commands implementing the pull/push functionality.
The commands can be executed only by the '-c' option; the shell is not
-Currently, only the 'git-receive-pack' and 'git-upload-pack' commands
-are permitted to be called, with a single required argument.
+Currently, only three commands are permitted to be called, 'git-receive-pack'
+'git-upload-pack' with a single required argument or 'cvs server' (to invoke
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index 7ccf31c..8f7c0e2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -48,15 +48,41 @@ OPTIONS
-If the file `.mailmap` exists, it will be used for mapping author
-email addresses to a real author name. One mapping per line, first
-the author name followed by the email address enclosed by
-'<' and '>'. Use hash '#' for comments. Example:
+If a file `.mailmap` exists at the toplevel of the repository,
+it is used to map an author email address to a canonical real name. This
+can be used to coalesce together commits by the same person where their
+name was spelled differently (whether with the same email address or
+Each line in the file consists, in this order, of the canonical real name
+of an author, whitespace, and an email address (enclosed by '<' and '>')
+to map to the name. Use hash '#' for comments, either on their own line,
+or after the email address.
+A canonical name may appear in more than one line, associated with
+different email addresses, but it doesn't make sense for a given address
+to appear more than once (if that happens, a later line overrides the
+earlier ones).
+So, for example, if your history contains commits by two authors, Jane
+and Joe, whose names appear in the repository under several forms:
+Joe Developer <>
+Joe R. Developer <>
+Jane Doe <>
+Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
+Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>
+Then, supposing Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane prefers
+her family name fully spelled out, a proper `.mailmap` file would look like:
-# Keep alphabetized
-Adam Morrow <adam@localhost.localdomain>
-Eve Jones <eve@laptop.(none)>
+# Note how we don't need an entry for <jane@laptop.(none)>, because the
+# real name of that author is correct already, and coalesced directly.
+Jane Doe <jane@desktop.(none)>
+Joe R. Developer <>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index fb269ff..8277577 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@ only the primary branches. In addition, if you happen to be on
your topic branch, it is shown as well.
-$ git show-branch --reflog='10,1 hour ago' --list master
+$ git show-branch --reflog="10,1 hour ago" --list master
shows 10 reflog entries going back from the tip as of 1 hour ago.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stage.txt b/Documentation/git-stage.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7f251a5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-stage.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+git-stage - Add file contents to the staging area
+'git stage' args...
+This is a synonym for linkgit:git-add[1]. Please refer to the
+documentation of that command.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index e6652a7..2f207fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -14,6 +14,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--summary-limit <n>] [commit] [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach <command>
+'git submodule' [--quiet] sync [--] [<path>...]
@@ -123,6 +125,30 @@ summary::
in the submodule between the given super project commit and the
index or working tree (switched by --cached) are shown.
+ Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule.
+ The command has access to the variables $path and $sha1:
+ $path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the
+ superproject, and $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the superproject.
+ Any submodules defined in the superproject but not checked out are
+ ignored by this command. Unless given --quiet, foreach prints the name
+ of each submodule before evaluating the command.
+ A non-zero return from the command in any submodule causes
+ the processing to terminate. This can be overridden by adding '|| :'
+ to the end of the command.
+As an example, "git submodule foreach 'echo $path `git rev-parse HEAD`' will
+show the path and currently checked out commit for each submodule.
+ Synchronizes submodules' remote URL configuration setting
+ to the value specified in .gitmodules. This is useful when
+ submodule URLs change upstream and you need to update your local
+ repositories accordingly.
+"git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while
+"git submodule sync -- A" synchronizes submodule "A" only.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 5d6d30f..8d0c421 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -149,6 +149,22 @@ and have no uncommitted changes.
is very strongly discouraged.
+ Create a branch in the SVN repository.
+ Allows to specify the commit message.
+ Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
+ specified during git svn init.
+ Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
+ 'branch -t'.
This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
users refer to -r/--revision numbers.
@@ -372,7 +388,8 @@ Passed directly to 'git-rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
-This can be used with the 'dcommit' and 'rebase' commands.
+This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and 'tag'
For 'dcommit', print out the series of git arguments that would show
which diffs would be committed to SVN.
@@ -381,6 +398,9 @@ For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
repository associated with the current branch and the URL of svn
repository that will be fetched from.
+For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
+creating the branch or tag.
@@ -498,6 +518,8 @@ Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
git svn clone -T trunk -b branches -t tags
# View all branches and tags you have cloned:
git branch -r
+# Create a new branch in SVN
+ git svn branch waldo
# Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
# with the appropriate name):
git reset --hard remotes/trunk
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 046ab35..e44f543 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -70,7 +70,7 @@ OPTIONS
-m <msg>::
Use the given tag message (instead of prompting).
- If multiple `-m` options are given, there values are
+ If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
concatenated as separate paragraphs.
Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
is given.
@@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ determines who are interested in whose tags.
A one-shot pull is a sign that a commit history is now crossing
the boundary between one circle of people (e.g. "people who are
-primarily interested in networking part of the kernel") who may
+primarily interested in the networking part of the kernel") who may
have their own set of tags (e.g. "this is the third release
candidate from the networking group to be proposed for general
consumption with 2.6.21 release") to another circle of people
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index 7f7a45b..278cf73 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@ The following browsers (or commands) are currently supported:
* lynx
* dillo
* open (this is the default under Mac OS X GUI)
+* start (this is the default under MinGW)
Custom commands may also be specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index df420ae..17dc8b2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -43,16 +43,26 @@ unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
-* link:v1.6.0.2/git.html[documentation for release]
+* link:v1.6.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
+* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release]
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-[],
+ link:RelNotes-[],
+ link:RelNotes-[],
+ link:RelNotes-[],
-* link:v1.5.6.5/git.html[documentation for release]
+* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-[],
@@ -60,18 +70,22 @@ Documentation for older releases are available here:
-* link:v1.5.5.4/git.html[documentation for release]
+* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-[],
+ link:RelNotes-[],
-* link:v1.5.4.5/git.html[documentation for release]
+* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-[],
+ link:RelNotes-[],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 37fff20..8af22ec 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -216,10 +216,12 @@ Generating diff text
-The attribute `diff` affects if 'git-diff' generates textual
-patch for the path or just says `Binary files differ`. It also
-can affect what line is shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@`
+The attribute `diff` affects how 'git' generates diffs for particular
+files. It can tell git whether to generate a textual patch for the path
+or to treat the path as a binary file. It can also affect what line is
+shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@` line, tell git to use an
+external command to generate the diff, or ask git to convert binary
+files to a text format before generating the diff.
@@ -230,7 +232,8 @@ Set::
A path to which the `diff` attribute is unset will
- generate `Binary files differ`.
+ generate `Binary files differ` (or a binary patch, if
+ binary patches are enabled).
@@ -241,21 +244,21 @@ Unspecified::
- Diff is shown using the specified custom diff driver.
- The driver program is given its input using the same
- calling convention as used for GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
- program. This name is also used for custom hunk header
- selection.
+ Diff is shown using the specified diff driver. Each driver may
+ specify one or more options, as described in the following
+ section. The options for the diff driver "foo" are defined
+ by the configuration variables in the "" section of the
+ git config file.
-Defining a custom diff driver
+Defining an external diff driver
The definition of a diff driver is done in `gitconfig`, not
`gitattributes` file, so strictly speaking this manual page is a
wrong place to talk about it. However...
-To define a custom diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
+To define an external diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
`$GIT_DIR/config` file (or `$HOME/.gitconfig` file) like this:
@@ -314,15 +317,60 @@ patterns are available:
- `bibtex` suitable for files with BibTeX coded references.
+- `html` suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.
- `java` suitable for source code in the Java language.
+- `objc` suitable for source code in the Objective-C language.
- `pascal` suitable for source code in the Pascal/Delphi language.
+- `php` suitable for source code in the PHP language.
+- `python` suitable for source code in the Python language.
- `ruby` suitable for source code in the Ruby language.
- `tex` suitable for source code for LaTeX documents.
+Performing text diffs of binary files
+Sometimes it is desirable to see the diff of a text-converted
+version of some binary files. For example, a word processor
+document can be converted to an ASCII text representation, and
+the diff of the text shown. Even though this conversion loses
+some information, the resulting diff is useful for human
+viewing (but cannot be applied directly).
+The `textconv` config option is used to define a program for
+performing such a conversion. The program should take a single
+argument, the name of a file to convert, and produce the
+resulting text on stdout.
+For example, to show the diff of the exif information of a
+file instead of the binary information (assuming you have the
+exif tool installed):
+[diff "jpg"]
+ textconv = exif
+NOTE: The text conversion is generally a one-way conversion;
+in this example, we lose the actual image contents and focus
+just on the text data. This means that diffs generated by
+textconv are _not_ suitable for applying. For this reason,
+only `git diff` and the `git log` family of commands (i.e.,
+log, whatchanged, show) will perform text conversion. `git
+format-patch` will never generate this output. If you want to
+send somebody a text-converted diff of a binary file (e.g.,
+because it quickly conveys the changes you have made), you
+should generate it separately and send it as a comment _in
+addition to_ the usual binary diff that you might send.
Performing a three-way merge
@@ -487,6 +535,23 @@ in the file. E.g. the string `$Format:%H$` will be replaced by the
commit hash.
+Viewing files in GUI tools
+The value of this attribute specifies the character encoding that should
+be used by GUI tools (e.g. linkgit:gitk[1] and linkgit:git-gui[1]) to
+display the contents of the relevant file. Note that due to performance
+considerations linkgit:gitk[1] does not use this attribute unless you
+manually enable per-file encodings in its options.
+If this attribute is not set or has an invalid value, the value of the
+`gui.encoding` configuration variable is used instead
+(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 896cbdf..e4dd551 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -899,7 +899,7 @@ file, which had no differences in the `mybranch` branch), and say:
Auto-merging hello
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in hello
- Automatic merge failed; fix up by hand
+ Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
It tells you that it did an "Automatic merge", which
@@ -993,7 +993,7 @@ would be different)
Updating from ae3a2da... to a80b4aa....
-Fast forward
+Fast forward (no commit created; -m option ignored)
example | 1 +
hello | 1 +
2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
@@ -1265,9 +1265,8 @@ file, using 3-way merge. This is done by giving
$ git merge-index git-merge-one-file hello
-Auto-merging hello.
-merge: warning: conflicts during merge
-ERROR: Merge conflict in hello.
+Auto-merging hello
+ERROR: Merge conflict in hello
fatal: merge program failed
@@ -1447,7 +1446,7 @@ public repository you might want to repack & prune often, or
If you run `git repack` again at this point, it will say
-"Nothing to pack". Once you continue your development and
+"Nothing new to pack.". Once you continue your development and
accumulate the changes, running `git repack` again will create a
new pack, that contains objects created since you packed your
repository the last time. We recommend that you pack your project
@@ -1693,6 +1692,7 @@ SEE ALSO
link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 5faaaa5..28a8abc 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -20,6 +20,10 @@ directory to trigger action at certain points. When
all disabled. To enable a hook, rename it by removing its `.sample`
+NOTE: It is also a requirement for a given hook to be executable.
+However - in a freshly initialized repository - the `.sample` files are
+executable by default.
This document describes the currently defined hooks.
@@ -86,7 +90,7 @@ This hook is invoked by 'git-commit' right after preparing the
default log message, and before the editor is started.
It takes one to three parameters. The first is the name of the file
-that the commit log message. The second is the source of the commit
+that contains the commit log message. The second is the source of the commit
message, and can be: `message` (if a `-m` or `-F` option was
given); `template` (if a `-t` option was given or the
configuration option `commit.template` is set); `merge` (if the
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index 5ef3687..4673a75 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -56,6 +56,11 @@ frequently used options.
Use this instead of explicitly specifying <revs> if the set of
commits to show may vary between refreshes.
+ Automatically select the specified commit after loading the graph.
+ Default behavior is equivalent to specifying '--select-commit=HEAD'.
Limit the revisions to show. This can be either a single revision
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index a969b3f..1befca9 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -134,7 +134,8 @@ hooks::
Hooks are customization scripts used by various git
commands. A handful of sample hooks are installed when
'git-init' is run, but all of them are disabled by
- default. To enable, they need to be made executable.
+ default. To enable, the `.sample` suffix has to be
+ removed from the filename by renaming.
Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about
each hook.
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
index 6609046..a057b50 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
@@ -32,22 +32,27 @@ Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
$ echo 'hello world' > file.txt
$ git add .
$ git commit -a -m "initial commit"
-Created initial commit 54196cc2703dc165cbd373a65a4dcf22d50ae7f7
+[master (root-commit)] created 54196cc: "initial commit"
+ 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 file.txt
$ echo 'hello world!' >file.txt
$ git commit -a -m "add emphasis"
-Created commit c4d59f390b9cfd4318117afde11d601c1085f241
+[master] created c4d59f3: "add emphasis"
+ 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
-What are the 40 digits of hex that git responded to the commit with?
+What are the 7 digits of hex that git responded to the commit with?
We saw in part one of the tutorial that commits have names like this.
It turns out that every object in the git history is stored under
-such a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA1 hash of the object's
+a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA1 hash of the object's
contents; among other things, this ensures that git will never store
the same data twice (since identical data is given an identical SHA1
name), and that the contents of a git object will never change (since
-that would change the object's name as well).
+that would change the object's name as well). The 7 char hex strings
+here are simply the abbreviation of such 40 character long strings.
+Abbreviations can be used everywhere where the 40 character strings
+can be used, so long as they are unambiguous.
It is expected that the content of the commit object you created while
following the example above generates a different SHA1 hash than
@@ -420,6 +425,7 @@ linkgit:gittutorial[7],
link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index 384972c..458fafd 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,15 @@ First, note that you can get documentation for a command such as
$ man git-log
+$ git help log
+With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see
+linkgit:git-help[1] for more information.
It is a good idea to introduce yourself to git with your name and
public email address before doing any operation. The easiest
way to do so is:
@@ -581,7 +590,7 @@ list. When the history has lines of development that diverged and
then merged back together, the order in which 'git-log' presents
those commits is meaningless.
-Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the linux kernel,
+Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the Linux kernel,
or git itself) have frequent merges, and 'gitk' does a better job of
visualizing their history. For example,
@@ -633,7 +642,7 @@ digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
* linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-am[1]: These convert
series of git commits into emailed patches, and vice versa,
- useful for projects such as the linux kernel which rely heavily
+ useful for projects such as the Linux kernel which rely heavily
on emailed patches.
* linkgit:git-bisect[1]: When there is a regression in your
@@ -653,6 +662,7 @@ linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2b021e3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,364 @@
+gitworkflows - An overview of recommended workflows with git
+git *
+This document attempts to write down and motivate some of the workflow
+elements used for `git.git` itself. Many ideas apply in general,
+though the full workflow is rarely required for smaller projects with
+fewer people involved.
+We formulate a set of 'rules' for quick reference, while the prose
+tries to motivate each of them. Do not always take them literally;
+you should value good reasons for your actions higher than manpages
+such as this one.
+As a general rule, you should try to split your changes into small
+logical steps, and commit each of them. They should be consistent,
+working independently of any later commits, pass the test suite, etc.
+This makes the review process much easier, and the history much more
+useful for later inspection and analysis, for example with
+linkgit:git-blame[1] and linkgit:git-bisect[1].
+To achieve this, try to split your work into small steps from the very
+beginning. It is always easier to squash a few commits together than
+to split one big commit into several. Don't be afraid of making too
+small or imperfect steps along the way. You can always go back later
+and edit the commits with `git rebase \--interactive` before you
+publish them. You can use `git stash save \--keep-index` to run the
+test suite independent of other uncommitted changes; see the EXAMPLES
+section of linkgit:git-stash[1].
+There are two main tools that can be used to include changes from one
+branch on another: linkgit:git-merge[1] and
+Merges have many advantages, so we try to solve as many problems as
+possible with merges alone. Cherry-picking is still occasionally
+useful; see "Merging upwards" below for an example.
+Most importantly, merging works at the branch level, while
+cherry-picking works at the commit level. This means that a merge can
+carry over the changes from 1, 10, or 1000 commits with equal ease,
+which in turn means the workflow scales much better to a large number
+of contributors (and contributions). Merges are also easier to
+understand because a merge commit is a "promise" that all changes from
+all its parents are now included.
+There is a tradeoff of course: merges require a more careful branch
+management. The following subsections discuss the important points.
+As a given feature goes from experimental to stable, it also
+"graduates" between the corresponding branches of the software.
+`git.git` uses the following 'integration branches':
+* 'maint' tracks the commits that should go into the next "maintenance
+ release", i.e., update of the last released stable version;
+* 'master' tracks the commits that should go into the next release;
+* 'next' is intended as a testing branch for topics being tested for
+ stability for master.
+There is a fourth official branch that is used slightly differently:
+* 'pu' (proposed updates) is an integration branch for things that are
+ not quite ready for inclusion yet (see "Integration Branches"
+ below).
+Each of the four branches is usually a direct descendant of the one
+above it.
+Conceptually, the feature enters at an unstable branch (usually 'next'
+or 'pu'), and "graduates" to 'master' for the next release once it is
+considered stable enough.
+Merging upwards
+The "downwards graduation" discussed above cannot be done by actually
+merging downwards, however, since that would merge 'all' changes on
+the unstable branch into the stable one. Hence the following:
+.Merge upwards
+[caption="Rule: "]
+Always commit your fixes to the oldest supported branch that require
+them. Then (periodically) merge the integration branches upwards into each
+This gives a very controlled flow of fixes. If you notice that you
+have applied a fix to e.g. 'master' that is also required in 'maint',
+you will need to cherry-pick it (using linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1])
+downwards. This will happen a few times and is nothing to worry about
+unless you do it very frequently.
+Topic branches
+Any nontrivial feature will require several patches to implement, and
+may get extra bugfixes or improvements during its lifetime.
+Committing everything directly on the integration branches leads to many
+problems: Bad commits cannot be undone, so they must be reverted one
+by one, which creates confusing histories and further error potential
+when you forget to revert part of a group of changes. Working in
+parallel mixes up the changes, creating further confusion.
+Use of "topic branches" solves these problems. The name is pretty
+self explanatory, with a caveat that comes from the "merge upwards"
+rule above:
+.Topic branches
+[caption="Rule: "]
+Make a side branch for every topic (feature, bugfix, ...). Fork it off
+at the oldest integration branch that you will eventually want to merge it
+Many things can then be done very naturally:
+* To get the feature/bugfix into an integration branch, simply merge
+ it. If the topic has evolved further in the meantime, merge again.
+ (Note that you do not necessarily have to merge it to the oldest
+ integration branch first. For example, you can first merge a bugfix
+ to 'next', give it some testing time, and merge to 'maint' when you
+ know it is stable.)
+* If you find you need new features from the branch 'other' to continue
+ working on your topic, merge 'other' to 'topic'. (However, do not
+ do this "just habitually", see below.)
+* If you find you forked off the wrong branch and want to move it
+ "back in time", use linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+Note that the last point clashes with the other two: a topic that has
+been merged elsewhere should not be rebased. See the section on
+RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE in linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+We should point out that "habitually" (regularly for no real reason)
+merging an integration branch into your topics -- and by extension,
+merging anything upstream into anything downstream on a regular basis
+-- is frowned upon:
+.Merge to downstream only at well-defined points
+[caption="Rule: "]
+Do not merge to downstream except with a good reason: upstream API
+changes affect your branch; your branch no longer merges to upstream
+cleanly; etc.
+Otherwise, the topic that was merged to suddenly contains more than a
+single (well-separated) change. The many resulting small merges will
+greatly clutter up history. Anyone who later investigates the history
+of a file will have to find out whether that merge affected the topic
+in development. An upstream might even inadvertently be merged into a
+"more stable" branch. And so on.
+Throw-away integration
+If you followed the last paragraph, you will now have many small topic
+branches, and occasionally wonder how they interact. Perhaps the
+result of merging them does not even work? But on the other hand, we
+want to avoid merging them anywhere "stable" because such merges
+cannot easily be undone.
+The solution, of course, is to make a merge that we can undo: merge
+into a throw-away branch.
+.Throw-away integration branches
+[caption="Rule: "]
+To test the interaction of several topics, merge them into a
+throw-away branch. You must never base any work on such a branch!
+If you make it (very) clear that this branch is going to be deleted
+right after the testing, you can even publish this branch, for example
+to give the testers a chance to work with it, or other developers a
+chance to see if their in-progress work will be compatible. `git.git`
+has such an official throw-away integration branch called 'pu'.
+After the last section, you should know how to manage topics. In
+general, you will not be the only person working on the project, so
+you will have to share your work.
+Roughly speaking, there are two important workflows: merge and patch.
+The important difference is that the merge workflow can propagate full
+history, including merges, while patches cannot. Both workflows can
+be used in parallel: in `git.git`, only subsystem maintainers use
+the merge workflow, while everyone else sends patches.
+Note that the maintainer(s) may impose restrictions, such as
+"Signed-off-by" requirements, that all commits/patches submitted for
+inclusion must adhere to. Consult your project's documentation for
+more information.
+Merge workflow
+The merge workflow works by copying branches between upstream and
+downstream. Upstream can merge contributions into the official
+history; downstream base their work on the official history.
+There are three main tools that can be used for this:
+* linkgit:git-push[1] copies your branches to a remote repository,
+ usually to one that can be read by all involved parties;
+* linkgit:git-fetch[1] that copies remote branches to your repository;
+ and
+* linkgit:git-pull[1] that does fetch and merge in one go.
+Note the last point. Do 'not' use 'git-pull' unless you actually want
+to merge the remote branch.
+Getting changes out is easy:
+.Push/pull: Publishing branches/topics
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+`git push <remote> <branch>` and tell everyone where they can fetch
+You will still have to tell people by other means, such as mail. (Git
+provides the linkgit:git-request-pull[1] to send preformatted pull
+requests to upstream maintainers to simplify this task.)
+If you just want to get the newest copies of the integration branches,
+staying up to date is easy too:
+.Push/pull: Staying up to date
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+Use `git fetch <remote>` or `git remote update` to stay up to date.
+Then simply fork your topic branches from the stable remotes as
+explained earlier.
+If you are a maintainer and would like to merge other people's topic
+branches to the integration branches, they will typically send a
+request to do so by mail. Such a request looks like
+Please pull from
+ <url> <branch>
+In that case, 'git-pull' can do the fetch and merge in one go, as
+.Push/pull: Merging remote topics
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+`git pull <url> <branch>`
+Occasionally, the maintainer may get merge conflicts when he tries to
+pull changes from downstream. In this case, he can ask downstream to
+do the merge and resolve the conflicts themselves (perhaps they will
+know better how to resolve them). It is one of the rare cases where
+downstream 'should' merge from upstream.
+Patch workflow
+If you are a contributor that sends changes upstream in the form of
+emails, you should use topic branches as usual (see above). Then use
+linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to generate the corresponding emails
+(highly recommended over manually formatting them because it makes the
+maintainer's life easier).
+.format-patch/am: Publishing branches/topics
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+* `git format-patch -M upstream..topic` to turn them into preformatted
+ patch files
+* `git send-email --to=<recipient> <patches>`
+See the linkgit:git-format-patch[1] and linkgit:git-send-email[1]
+manpages for further usage notes.
+If the maintainer tells you that your patch no longer applies to the
+current upstream, you will have to rebase your topic (you cannot use a
+merge because you cannot format-patch merges):
+.format-patch/am: Keeping topics up to date
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+`git pull --rebase <url> <branch>`
+You can then fix the conflicts during the rebase. Presumably you have
+not published your topic other than by mail, so rebasing it is not a
+If you receive such a patch series (as maintainer, or perhaps as a
+reader of the mailing list it was sent to), save the mails to files,
+create a new topic branch and use 'git-am' to import the commits:
+.format-patch/am: Importing patches
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+`git am < patch`
+One feature worth pointing out is the three-way merge, which can help
+if you get conflicts: `git am -3` will use index information contained
+in patches to figure out the merge base. See linkgit:git-am[1] for
+other options.
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 9b4a4f4..9afca75 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -183,7 +183,8 @@ to point at the new commit.
and potentially aborted, and allow for a post-notification after the
operation is done. The hook scripts are found in the
`$GIT_DIR/hooks/` directory, and are enabled by simply
- making them executable.
+ removing the `.sample` suffix from the filename. In earlier versions
+ of git you had to make them executable.
A collection of files with stat information, whose contents are stored
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 554909f..0000000
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,79 +0,0 @@
-Date: Sat, 13 Aug 2005 22:16:02 -0700 (PDT)
-From: Linus Torvalds <>
-To: Steve French <>
-Subject: Re: sending changesets from the middle of a git tree
-Abstract: In this article, Linus demonstrates how a broken commit
- in a sequence of commits can be removed by rewinding the head and
- reapplying selected changes.
-On Sat, 13 Aug 2005, Linus Torvalds wrote:
-> That's correct. Same things apply: you can move a patch over, and create a
-> new one with a modified comment, but basically the _old_ commit will be
-> immutable.
-Let me clarify.
-You can entirely _drop_ old branches, so commits may be immutable, but
-nothing forces you to keep them. Of course, when you drop a commit, you'll
-always end up dropping all the commits that depended on it, and if you
-actually got somebody else to pull that commit you can't drop it from
-_their_ repository, but undoing things is not impossible.
-For example, let's say that you've made a mess of things: you've committed
-three commits "old->a->b->c", and you notice that "a" was broken, but you
-want to save "b" and "c". What you can do is
- # Create a branch "broken" that is the current code
- # for reference
- git branch broken
- # Reset the main branch to three parents back: this
- # effectively undoes the three top commits
- git reset HEAD^^^
- git checkout -f
- # Check the result visually to make sure you know what's
- # going on
- gitk --all
- # Re-apply the two top ones from "broken"
- #
- # First "parent of broken" (aka b):
- git-diff-tree -p broken^ | git-apply --index
- git commit --reedit=broken^
- # Then "top of broken" (aka c):
- git-diff-tree -p broken | git-apply --index
- git commit --reedit=broken
-and you've now re-applied (and possibly edited the comments) the two
-commits b/c, and commit "a" is basically gone (it still exists in the
-"broken" branch, of course).
-Finally, check out the end result again:
- # Look at the new commit history
- gitk --all
-to see that everything looks sensible.
-And then, you can just remove the broken branch if you decide you really
-don't want it:
- # remove 'broken' branch
- git branch -d broken
- # Prune old objects if you're really really sure
- git prune
-And yeah, I'm sure there are other ways of doing this. And as usual, the
-above is totally untested, and I just wrote it down in this email, so if
-I've done something wrong, you'll have to figure it out on your own ;)
- Linus
-To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe git" in
-the body of a message to
-More majordomo info at
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..39b1da4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
+Date: Fri, 19 Dec 2008 00:45:19 -0800
+From: Linus Torvalds <>, Junio C Hamano <>
+Subject: Re: Odd merge behaviour involving reverts
+Abstract: Sometimes a branch that was already merged to the mainline
+ is later found to be faulty. Linus and Junio give guidance on
+ recovering from such a premature merge and continuing development
+ after the offending branch is fixed.
+Message-ID: <>
+References: <alpine.LFD.2.00.0812181949450.14014@localhost.localdomain>
+Alan <> said:
+ I have a master branch. We have a branch off of that that some
+ developers are doing work on. They claim it is ready. We merge it
+ into the master branch. It breaks something so we revert the merge.
+ They make changes to the code. they get it to a point where they say
+ it is ok and we merge again.
+ When examined, we find that code changes made before the revert are
+ not in the master branch, but code changes after are in the master
+ branch.
+and asked for help recovering from this situation.
+The history immediately after the "revert of the merge" would look like
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W
+ /
+ ---A---B
+where A and B are on the side development that was not so good, M is the
+merge that brings these premature changes into the mainline, x are changes
+unrelated to what the side branch did and already made on the mainline,
+and W is the "revert of the merge M" (doesn't W look M upside down?).
+IOW, "diff W^..W" is similar to "diff -R M^..M".
+Such a "revert" of a merge can be made with:
+ $ git revert -m 1 M
+After the develpers of the side branch fixes their mistakes, the history
+may look like this:
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x
+ /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+where C and D are to fix what was broken in A and B, and you may already
+have some other changes on the mainline after W.
+If you merge the updated side branch (with D at its tip), none of the
+changes made in A nor B will be in the result, because they were reverted
+by W. That is what Alan saw.
+Linus explains the situation:
+ Reverting a regular commit just effectively undoes what that commit
+ did, and is fairly straightforward. But reverting a merge commit also
+ undoes the _data_ that the commit changed, but it does absolutely
+ nothing to the effects on _history_ that the merge had.
+ So the merge will still exist, and it will still be seen as joining
+ the two branches together, and future merges will see that merge as
+ the last shared state - and the revert that reverted the merge brought
+ in will not affect that at all.
+ So a "revert" undoes the data changes, but it's very much _not_ an
+ "undo" in the sense that it doesn't undo the effects of a commit on
+ the repository history.
+ So if you think of "revert" as "undo", then you're going to always
+ miss this part of reverts. Yes, it undoes the data, but no, it doesn't
+ undo history.
+In such a situation, you would want to first revert the previous revert,
+which would make the history look like this:
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---Y
+ /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+where Y is the revert of W. Such a "revert of the revert" can be done
+ $ git revert W
+This history would (ignoring possible conflicts between what W and W..Y
+changed) be equivalent to not having W nor Y at all in the history:
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x-------x----
+ /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+and merging the side branch again will not have conflict arising from an
+earlier revert and revert of the revert.
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x-------x-------*
+ / /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+Of course the changes made in C and D still can conflict with what was
+done by any of the x, but that is just a normal merge conflict.
+On the other hand, if the developers of the side branch discarded their
+faulty A and B, and redone the changes on top of the updated mainline
+after the revert, the history would have looked like this:
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---x
+ / \
+ ---A---B A'--B'--C'
+If you reverted the revert in such a case as in the previous example:
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---x---Y---*
+ / \ /
+ ---A---B A'--B'--C'
+where Y is the revert of W, A' and B'are rerolled A and B, and there may
+also be a further fix-up C' on the side branch. "diff Y^..Y" is similar
+to "diff -R W^..W" (which in turn means it is similar to "diff M^..M"),
+and "diff A'^..C'" by definition would be similar but different from that,
+because it is a rerolled series of the earlier change. There will be a
+lot of overlapping changes that result in conflicts. So do not do "revert
+of revert" blindly without thinking..
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---x
+ / \
+ ---A---B A'--B'--C'
+In the history with rebased side branch, W (and M) are behind the merge
+base of the updated branch and the tip of the mainline, and they should
+merge without the past faulty merge and its revert getting in the way.
+To recap, these are two very different scenarios, and they want two very
+different resolution strategies:
+ - If the faulty side branch was fixed by adding corrections on top, then
+ doing a revert of the previous revert would be the right thing to do.
+ - If the faulty side branch whose effects were discarded by an earlier
+ revert of a merge was rebuilt from scratch (i.e. rebasing and fixing,
+ as you seem to have interpreted), then re-merging the result without
+ doing anything else fancy would be the right thing to do.
+However, there are things to keep in mind when reverting a merge (and
+reverting such a revert).
+For example, think about what reverting a merge (and then reverting the
+revert) does to bisectability. Ignore the fact that the revert of a revert
+is undoing it - just think of it as a "single commit that does a lot".
+Because that is what it does.
+When you have a problem you are chasing down, and you hit a "revert this
+merge", what you're hitting is essentially a single commit that contains
+all the changes (but obviously in reverse) of all the commits that got
+merged. So it's debugging hell, because now you don't have lots of small
+changes that you can try to pinpoint which _part_ of it changes.
+But does it all work? Sure it does. You can revert a merge, and from a
+purely technical angle, git did it very naturally and had no real
+troubles. It just considered it a change from "state before merge" to
+"state after merge", and that was it. Nothing complicated, nothing odd,
+nothing really dangerous. Git will do it without even thinking about it.
+So from a technical angle, there's nothing wrong with reverting a merge,
+but from a workflow angle it's something that you generally should try to
+If at all possible, for example, if you find a problem that got merged
+into the main tree, rather than revert the merge, try _really_ hard to
+bisect the problem down into the branch you merged, and just fix it, or
+try to revert the individual commit that caused it.
+Yes, it's more complex, and no, it's not always going to work (sometimes
+the answer is: "oops, I really shouldn't have merged it, because it wasn't
+ready yet, and I really need to undo _all_ of the merge"). So then you
+really should revert the merge, but when you want to re-do the merge, you
+now need to do it by reverting the revert.
diff --git a/Documentation/i18n.txt b/Documentation/i18n.txt
index c673966..708da6c 100644
--- a/Documentation/i18n.txt
+++ b/Documentation/i18n.txt
@@ -37,9 +37,9 @@ of `i18n.commitencoding` in its `encoding` header. This is to
help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header
implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
-. 'git-log', 'git-show' and friends looks at the `encoding`
- header of a commit object, and tries to re-code the log
- message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
+. 'git-log', 'git-show', 'git-blame' and friends look at the
+ `encoding` header of a commit object, and try to re-code the
+ log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
specify the desired output encoding with
`i18n.logoutputencoding` in `.git/config` file, like this:
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-config.txt b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
index c735788..1ff08ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,10 @@
- Whether to print the diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and the merge result
- at the end of the merge. True by default.
+ Specify the style in which conflicted hunks are written out to
+ working tree files upon merge. The default is "merge", which
+ shows a `<<<<<<<` conflict marker, changes made by one side,
+ a `=======` marker, changes made by the other side, and then
+ a `>>>>>>>` marker. An alternate style, "diff3", adds a `|||||||`
+ marker and the original text before the `=======` marker.
Whether to include summaries of merged commits in newly created
@@ -11,6 +15,10 @@ merge.renameLimit::
during a merge; if not specified, defaults to the value of
+ Whether to print the diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and the merge result
+ at the end of the merge. True by default.
Controls which merge resolution program is used by
linkgit:git-mergetool[1]. Valid built-in values are: "kdiff3",
@@ -24,10 +32,10 @@ merge.verbosity::
message if conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only
conflicts, 2 outputs conflicts and file changes. Level 5 and
above outputs debugging information. The default is level 2.
- Can be overridden by 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY' environment variable.
+ Can be overridden by the 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY' environment variable.
- Defines a human readable name for a custom low-level
+ Defines a human-readable name for a custom low-level
merge driver. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 007909a..637b53f 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -1,10 +1,18 @@
+ Operate quietly.
+ Be verbose.
Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.
- Do not show diffstat at the end of the merge.
+ Do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 388d492..0a8a948 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
commit <sha1>
Author: <author>
- Date: <author date>
+ Date: <author date>
<title line>
@@ -49,9 +49,9 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'fuller'
commit <sha1>
- Author: <author>
+ Author: <author>
AuthorDate: <author date>
- Commit: <committer>
+ Commit: <committer>
CommitDate: <committer date>
<title line>
@@ -116,6 +116,7 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%cr': committer date, relative
- '%ct': committer date, UNIX timestamp
- '%ci': committer date, ISO 8601 format
+- '%d': ref names, like the --decorate option of linkgit:git-log[1]
- '%e': encoding
- '%s': subject
- '%b': body
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 1023ac2..b9f6e4d 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -222,6 +222,21 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
command line as '<commit>'.
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
+ on the command line as '<commit>'.
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
+ on the command line as '<commit>'.
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
+ on the command line as '<commit>'.
@@ -285,8 +300,52 @@ See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
History Simplification
-When optional paths are given, 'git rev-list' simplifies commits with
-various strategies, according to the options you have selected.
+Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
+commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
+'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
+is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
+The following options select the commits to be shown:
+ Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
+ Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
+Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
+The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
+Default mode::
+ Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
+ final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
+ branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
+ with the same content)
+ As the default mode but does not prune some history.
+ Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
+ meaningful history.
+ All commits in the simplified history are shown.
+ Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
+ merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
+ commits contributing to this merge.
+A more detailed explanation follows.
Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
@@ -413,6 +472,56 @@ Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
sides of the merge are never walked.
+Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
+ First, build a history graph in the same way that
+ '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
+Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
+history according to the following rules:
+* Set `C'` to `C`.
+* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
+ the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
+ remove duplicates.
+* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
+ zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
+ Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
+The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
+'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
+ .-A---M---N---O
+ / / /
+ I B D
+ \ / /
+ `---------'
+Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
+* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
+ other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
+* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
+ removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
+The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
+big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
+that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
+(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
+above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
+contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
+commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
Bisection Helpers
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
index 75aa5d4..82e9e83 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ Functions
start_command() followed by finish_command(). Takes a pointer
to a `struct child_process` that specifies the details.
-`run_command_v_opt`, `run_command_v_opt_cd`, `run_command_v_opt_cd_env`::
+`run_command_v_opt`, `run_command_v_opt_cd_env`::
Convenience functions that encapsulate a sequence of
start_command() followed by finish_command(). The argument argv
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
index a9668e5..a8ee2fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
@@ -205,6 +205,13 @@ In order to facilitate caching and to make it possible to give
parameters to the callback, `strbuf_expand()` passes a context pointer,
which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
+ Used as callback for `strbuf_expand()`, expects an array of
+ struct strbuf_expand_dict_entry as context, i.e. pairs of
+ placeholder and replacement string. The array needs to be
+ terminated by an entry with placeholder set to NULL.
Add a formatted string to the buffer.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
index 6bdf034..48bb97f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@ them, and give the same timestamp to the index file:
This will make all index entries racily clean. The linux-2.6
project, for example, there are over 20,000 files in the working
-tree. On my Athron 64X2 3800+, after the above:
+tree. On my Athlon 64 X2 3800+, after the above:
$ /usr/bin/time git diff-files
1.68user 0.54system 0:02.22elapsed 100%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 0maxresident)k
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index 99cb808..19f571a 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -18,12 +18,22 @@ People needing to do actual development will also want to read
Further chapters cover more specialized topics.
Comprehensive reference documentation is available through the man
-pages. For a command such as "git clone <repo>", just use
+pages, or linkgit:git-help[1] command. For example, for the command
+"git clone <repo>", you can either use:
$ man git-clone
+$ git help clone
+With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see
+linkgit:git-help[1] for more information.
See also <<git-quick-start>> for a brief overview of git commands,
without any explanation.
@@ -49,7 +59,7 @@ project in mind, here are some interesting examples:
# git itself (approx. 10MB download):
$ git clone git://
- # the linux kernel (approx. 150MB download):
+ # the Linux kernel (approx. 150MB download):
$ git clone git://
@@ -999,7 +1009,7 @@ $ git init
If you have some initial content (say, a tarball):
-$ tar -xzvf project.tar.gz
+$ tar xzvf project.tar.gz
$ cd project
$ git init
$ git add . # include everything below ./ in the first commit:
@@ -1330,7 +1340,7 @@ These will display all commits which exist only on HEAD or on
MERGE_HEAD, and which touch an unmerged file.
You may also use linkgit:git-mergetool[1], which lets you merge the
-unmerged files using external tools such as emacs or kdiff3.
+unmerged files using external tools such as Emacs or kdiff3.
Each time you resolve the conflicts in a file and update the index:
@@ -4356,7 +4366,9 @@ $ git remote show example # get details
* remote example
URL: git://
Tracked remote branches
- master next ...
+ master
+ next
+ ...
$ git fetch example # update branches from example
$ git branch -r # list all remote branches