path: root/Documentation
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
45 files changed, 1497 insertions, 138 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 4cd95da..a4191aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -206,11 +206,38 @@ For C programs:
x = 1;
- is frowned upon. A gray area is when the statement extends
- over a few lines, and/or you have a lengthy comment atop of
- it. Also, like in the Linux kernel, if there is a long list
- of "else if" statements, it can make sense to add braces to
- single line blocks.
+ is frowned upon. But there are a few exceptions:
+ - When the statement extends over a few lines (e.g., a while loop
+ with an embedded conditional, or a comment). E.g.:
+ while (foo) {
+ if (x)
+ one();
+ else
+ two();
+ }
+ if (foo) {
+ /*
+ * This one requires some explanation,
+ * so we're better off with braces to make
+ * it obvious that the indentation is correct.
+ */
+ doit();
+ }
+ - When there are multiple arms to a conditional and some of them
+ require braces, enclose even a single line block in braces for
+ consistency. E.g.:
+ if (foo) {
+ doit();
+ } else {
+ one();
+ two();
+ three();
+ }
- We try to avoid assignments in the condition of an "if" statement.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b7b7dd3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,593 @@
+Git 2.11 Release Notes
+Backward compatibility notes.
+ * An empty string used as a pathspec element has always meant
+ 'everything matches', but it is too easy to write a script that
+ finds a path to remove in $path and run 'git rm "$paht"' by
+ mistake (when the user meant to give "$path"), which ends up
+ removing everything. This release starts warning about the
+ use of an empty string that is used for 'everything matches' and
+ asks users to use a more explicit '.' for that instead.
+ The hope is that existing users will not mind this change, and
+ eventually the warning can be turned into a hard error, upgrading
+ the deprecation into removal of this (mis)feature.
+ * The historical argument order "git merge <msg> HEAD <commit>..."
+ has been deprecated for quite some time, and will be removed in the
+ next release (not this one).
+ * The default abbreviation length, which has historically been 7, now
+ scales as the repository grows, using the approximate number of
+ objects in the repository and a bit of math around the birthday
+ paradox. The logic suggests to use 12 hexdigits for the Linux
+ kernel, and 9 to 10 for Git itself.
+Updates since v2.10
+UI, Workflows & Features
+ * Comes with new version of git-gui, now at its 0.21.0 tag.
+ * "git format-patch --cover-letter HEAD^" to format a single patch
+ with a separate cover letter now numbers the output as [PATCH 0/1]
+ and [PATCH 1/1] by default.
+ * An incoming "git push" that attempts to push too many bytes can now
+ be rejected by setting a new configuration variable at the receiving
+ end.
+ * "git nosuchcommand --help" said "No manual entry for gitnosuchcommand",
+ which was not intuitive, given that "git nosuchcommand" said "git:
+ 'nosuchcommand' is not a git command".
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules --reference $path $URL" is a way to
+ reduce network transfer cost by borrowing objects in an existing
+ $path repository when cloning the superproject from $URL; it
+ learned to also peek into $path for presence of corresponding
+ repositories of submodules and borrow objects from there when able.
+ * The "git diff --submodule={short,log}" mechanism has been enhanced
+ to allow "--submodule=diff" to show the patch between the submodule
+ commits bound to the superproject.
+ * Even though "git hash-objects", which is a tool to take an
+ on-filesystem data stream and put it into the Git object store,
+ can perform "outside-world-to-Git" conversions (e.g.
+ end-of-line conversions and application of the clean-filter), and
+ it has had this feature on by default from very early days, its reverse
+ operation "git cat-file", which takes an object from the Git object
+ store and externalizes it for consumption by the outside world,
+ lacked an equivalent mechanism to run the "Git-to-outside-world"
+ conversion. The command learned the "--filters" option to do so.
+ * Output from "git diff" can be made easier to read by intelligently selecting
+ which lines are common and which lines are added/deleted
+ when the lines before and after the changed section
+ are the same. A command line option (--indent-heuristic) and a
+ configuration variable (diff.indentHeuristic) are added to help with the
+ experiment to find good heuristics.
+ * In some projects, it is common to use "[RFC PATCH]" as the subject
+ prefix for a patch meant for discussion rather than application. A
+ new format-patch option "--rfc" is a short-hand for "--subject-prefix=RFC PATCH"
+ to help the participants of such projects.
+ * "git add --chmod={+,-}x <pathspec>" only changed the
+ executable bit for paths that are either new or modified. This has
+ been corrected to change the executable bit for all paths that match
+ the given pathspec.
+ * When "git format-patch --stdout" output is placed as an in-body
+ header and it uses RFC2822 header folding, "git am" fails to
+ put the header line back into a single logical line. The
+ underlying "git mailinfo" was taught to handle this properly.
+ * "gitweb" can spawn "highlight" to show blob contents with
+ (programming) language-specific syntax highlighting, but only
+ when the language is known. "highlight" can however be told
+ to guess the language itself by giving it "--force" option, which
+ has been enabled.
+ * "git gui" l10n to Portuguese.
+ * When given an abbreviated object name that is not (or more
+ realistically, "no longer") unique, we gave a fatal error
+ "ambiguous argument". This error is now accompanied by a hint that
+ lists the objects beginning with the given prefix. During the
+ course of development of this new feature, numerous minor bugs were
+ uncovered and corrected, the most notable one of which is that we
+ gave "short SHA1 xxxx is ambiguous." twice without good reason.
+ * "git log rev^..rev" is an often-used revision range specification
+ to show what was done on a side branch merged at rev. This has
+ gained a short-hand "rev^-1". In general "rev^-$n" is the same as
+ "^rev^$n rev", i.e. what has happened on other branches while the
+ history leading to nth parent was looking the other way.
+ * In recent versions of cURL, GSSAPI credential delegation is
+ disabled by default due to CVE-2011-2192; introduce a http.delegation
+ configuration variable to selectively allow enabling this.
+ (merge 26a7b23429 ps/http-gssapi-cred-delegation later to maint).
+ * "git mergetool" learned to honor "-O<orderfile>" to control the
+ order of paths to present to the end user.
+ * "git diff/log --ws-error-highlight=<kind>" lacked the corresponding
+ configuration variable (diff.wsErrorHighlight) to set it by default.
+ * "git ls-files" learned the "--recurse-submodules" option
+ to get a listing of tracked files across submodules (i.e. this
+ only works with the "--cached" option, not for listing untracked or
+ ignored files). This would be a useful tool to sit on the upstream
+ side of a pipe that is read with xargs to work on all working tree
+ files from the top-level superproject.
+ * A new credential helper that talks via "libsecret" with
+ implementations of XDG Secret Service API has been added to
+ contrib/credential/.
+ * The GPG verification status shown by the "%G?" pretty format specifier
+ was not rich enough to differentiate a signature made by an expired
+ key, a signature made by a revoked key, etc. New output letters
+ have been assigned to express them.
+ * In addition to purely abbreviated commit object names, "gitweb"
+ learned to turn "git describe" output (e.g. v2.9.3-599-g2376d31787)
+ into clickable links in its output.
+ * "git commit" created an empty commit when invoked with an index
+ consisting solely of intend-to-add paths (added with "git add -N").
+ It now requires the "--allow-empty" option to create such a commit.
+ The same logic prevented "git status" from showing such paths as "new files" in the
+ "Changes not staged for commit" section.
+ * The smudge/clean filter API spawns an external process
+ to filter the contents of each path that has a filter defined. A
+ new type of "process" filter API has been added to allow the first
+ request to run the filter for a path to spawn a single process, and
+ all filtering is served by this single process for multiple
+ paths, reducing the process creation overhead.
+ * The user always has to say "stash@{$N}" when naming a single
+ element in the default location of the stash, i.e. reflogs in
+ refs/stash. The "git stash" command learned to accept "git stash
+ apply 4" as a short-hand for "git stash apply stash@{4}".
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+ * The delta-base-cache mechanism has been a key to the performance in
+ a repository with a tightly packed packfile, but it did not scale
+ well even with a larger value of core.deltaBaseCacheLimit.
+ * Enhance "git status --porcelain" output by collecting more data on
+ the state of the index and the working tree files, which may
+ further be used to teach git-prompt (in contrib/) to make fewer
+ calls to git.
+ * Extract a small helper out of the function that reads the authors
+ script file "git am" internally uses.
+ (merge a77598e jc/am-read-author-file later to maint).
+ * Lift calls to exit(2) and die() higher in the callchain in
+ sequencer.c files so that more helper functions in it can be used
+ by callers that want to handle error conditions themselves.
+ * "git am" has been taught to make an internal call to "git apply"'s
+ innards without spawning the latter as a separate process.
+ * The ref-store abstraction was introduced to the refs API so that we
+ can plug in different backends to store references.
+ * The "unsigned char sha1[20]" to "struct object_id" conversion
+ continues. Notable changes in this round includes that ce->sha1,
+ i.e. the object name recorded in the cache_entry, turns into an
+ object_id.
+ * JGit can show a fake ref "capabilities^{}" to "git fetch" when it
+ does not advertise any refs, but "git fetch" was not prepared to
+ see such an advertisement. When the other side disconnects without
+ giving any ref advertisement, we used to say "there may not be a
+ repository at that URL", but we may have seen other advertisements
+ like "shallow" and ".have" in which case we definitely know that a
+ repository is there. The code to detect this case has also been
+ updated.
+ * Some codepaths in "git pack-objects" were not ready to use an
+ existing pack bitmap; now they are and as a result they have
+ become faster.
+ * The codepath in "git fsck" to detect malformed tree objects has
+ been updated not to die but keep going after detecting them.
+ * We call "qsort(array, nelem, sizeof(array[0]), fn)", and most of
+ the time third parameter is redundant. A new QSORT() macro lets us
+ omit it.
+ * "git pack-objects" in a repository with many packfiles used to
+ spend a lot of time looking for/at objects in them; the accesses to
+ the packfiles are now optimized by checking the most-recently-used
+ packfile first.
+ (merge c9af708b1a jk/pack-objects-optim-mru later to maint).
+ * Codepaths involved in interacting alternate object stores have
+ been cleaned up.
+ * In order for the receiving end of "git push" to inspect the
+ received history and decide to reject the push, the objects sent
+ from the sending end need to be made available to the hook and
+ the mechanism for the connectivity check, and this was done
+ traditionally by storing the objects in the receiving repository
+ and letting "git gc" expire them. Instead, store the newly
+ received objects in a temporary area, and make them available by
+ reusing the alternate object store mechanism to them only while we
+ decide if we accept the check, and once we decide, either migrate
+ them to the repository or purge them immediately.
+ * The require_clean_work_tree() helper was recreated in C when "git
+ pull" was rewritten from shell; the helper is now made available to
+ other callers in preparation for upcoming "rebase -i" work.
+ * "git upload-pack" had its code cleaned-up and performance improved
+ by reducing use of timestamp-ordered commit-list, which was
+ replaced with a priority queue.
+ * "git diff --no-index" codepath has been updated not to try to peek
+ into a .git/ directory that happens to be under the current
+ directory, when we know we are operating outside any repository.
+ * Update of the sequencer codebase to make it reusable to reimplement
+ "rebase -i" continues.
+ * Git generally does not explicitly close file descriptors that were
+ open in the parent process when spawning a child process, but most
+ of the time the child does not want to access them. As Windows does
+ not allow removing or renaming a file that has a file descriptor
+ open, a slow-to-exit child can even break the parent process by
+ holding onto them. Use O_CLOEXEC flag to open files in various
+ codepaths.
+ * Update "interpret-trailers" machinery and teach it that people in
+ the real world write all sorts of cruft in the "trailer" that was
+ originally designed to have the neat-o "Mail-Header: like thing"
+ and nothing else.
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+Fixes since v2.10
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.9 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+ * Clarify various ways to specify the "revision ranges" in the
+ documentation.
+ * "diff-highlight" script (in contrib/) learned to work better with
+ "git log -p --graph" output.
+ * The test framework left the number of tests and success/failure
+ count in the t/test-results directory, keyed by the name of the
+ test script plus the process ID. The latter however turned out not
+ to serve any useful purpose. The process ID part of the filename
+ has been removed.
+ * Having a submodule whose ".git" repository is somehow corrupt
+ caused a few commands that recurse into submodules to loop forever.
+ * "git symbolic-ref -d HEAD" happily removes the symbolic ref, but
+ the resulting repository becomes an invalid one. Teach the command
+ to forbid removal of HEAD.
+ * A test spawned a short-lived background process, which sometimes
+ prevented the test directory from getting removed at the end of the
+ script on some platforms.
+ * Update a few tests that used to use GIT_CURL_VERBOSE to use the
+ * "git pack-objects --include-tag" was taught that when we know that
+ we are sending an object C, we want a tag B that directly points at
+ C but also a tag A that points at the tag B. We used to miss the
+ intermediate tag B in some cases.
+ * Update Japanese translation for "git-gui".
+ * "git fetch http::/site/path" did not die correctly and segfaulted
+ instead.
+ * "git commit-tree" stopped reading commit.gpgsign configuration
+ variable that was meant for Porcelain "git commit" in Git 2.9; we
+ forgot to update "git gui" to look at the configuration to match
+ this change.
+ * "git add --chmod={+,-}x" added recently lacked documentation, which has
+ been corrected.
+ * "git log --cherry-pick" used to include merge commits as candidates
+ to be matched up with other commits, resulting a lot of wasted time.
+ The patch-id generation logic has been updated to ignore merges and
+ avoid the wastage.
+ * The http transport (with curl-multi option, which is the default
+ these days) failed to remove curl-easy handle from a curlm session,
+ which led to unnecessary API failures.
+ * There were numerous corner cases in which the configuration files
+ are read and used or not read at all depending on the directory a
+ Git command was run, leading to inconsistent behaviour. The code
+ to set-up repository access at the beginning of a Git process has
+ been updated to fix them.
+ (merge 4d0efa1 jk/setup-sequence-update later to maint).
+ * "git diff -W" output needs to extend the context backward to
+ include the header line of the current function and also forward to
+ include the body of the entire current function up to the header
+ line of the next one. This process may have to merge two adjacent
+ hunks, but the code forgot to do so in some cases.
+ * Performance tests done via "t/perf" did not use the right
+ build configuration if the user relied on autoconf generated
+ configuration.
+ * "git format-patch --base=..." feature that was recently added
+ showed the base commit information after the "-- " e-mail signature
+ line, which turned out to be inconvenient. The base information
+ has been moved above the signature line.
+ * More i18n.
+ * Even when "git pull --rebase=preserve" (and the underlying "git
+ rebase --preserve") can complete without creating any new commits
+ (i.e. fast-forwards), it still insisted on having usable ident
+ information (read: is set correctly), which was less
+ than nice. As the underlying commands used inside "git rebase"
+ would fail with a more meaningful error message and advice text
+ when the bogus ident matters, this extra check was removed.
+ * "git gc --aggressive" used to limit the delta-chain length to 250,
+ which is way too deep for gaining additional space savings and is
+ detrimental for runtime performance. The limit has been reduced to
+ 50.
+ * Documentation for individual configuration variables to control use
+ of color (like `color.grep`) said that their default value is
+ 'false', instead of saying their default is taken from `color.ui`.
+ When we updated the default value for color.ui from 'false' to
+ 'auto' quite a while ago, all of them broke. This has been
+ corrected.
+ * The pretty-format specifier "%C(auto)" used by the "log" family of
+ commands to enable coloring of the output is taught to also issue a
+ color-reset sequence to the output.
+ * A shell script example in check-ref-format documentation has been
+ fixed.
+ * "git checkout <word>" does not follow the usual disambiguation
+ rules when the <word> can be both a rev and a path, to allow
+ checking out a branch 'foo' in a project that happens to have a
+ file 'foo' in the working tree without having to disambiguate.
+ This was poorly documented and the check was incorrect when the
+ command was run from a subdirectory.
+ * Some codepaths in "git diff" used regexec(3) on a buffer that was
+ mmap(2)ed, which may not have a terminating NUL, leading to a read
+ beyond the end of the mapped region. This was fixed by introducing
+ a regexec_buf() helper that takes a <ptr,len> pair with REG_STARTEND
+ extension.
+ * The procedure to build Git on Mac OS X for Travis CI hardcoded the
+ internal directory structure we assumed HomeBrew uses, which was a
+ no-no. The procedure has been updated to ask HomeBrew things we
+ need to know to fix this.
+ * When "git rebase -i" is given a broken instruction, it told the
+ user to fix it with "--edit-todo", but didn't say what the step
+ after that was (i.e. "--continue").
+ * Documentation around tools to import from CVS was fairly outdated.
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules" lost the progress eye-candy in
+ a recent update, which has been corrected.
+ * A low-level function verify_packfile() was meant to show errors
+ that were detected without dying itself, but under some conditions
+ it didn't and died instead, which has been fixed.
+ * When "git fetch" tries to find where the history of the repository
+ it runs in has diverged from what the other side has, it has a
+ mechanism to avoid digging too deep into irrelevant side branches.
+ This however did not work well over the "smart-http" transport due
+ to a design bug, which has been fixed.
+ * In the codepath that comes up with the hostname to be used in an
+ e-mail when the user didn't tell us, we looked at the ai_canonname
+ field in struct addrinfo without making sure it is not NULL first.
+ * "git worktree", even though it used the default_abbrev setting that
+ ought to be affected by the core.abbrev configuration variable, ignored
+ the variable setting. The command has been taught to read the
+ default set of configuration variables to correct this.
+ * "git init" tried to record core.worktree in the repository's
+ 'config' file when the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable was set and
+ it was different from where GIT_DIR appears as ".git" at its top,
+ but the logic was faulty when .git is a "gitdir:" file that points
+ at the real place, causing trouble in working trees that are
+ managed by "git worktree". This has been corrected.
+ * Codepaths that read from an on-disk loose object were too loose in
+ validating that they are reading a proper object file and
+ sometimes read past the data they read from the disk, which has
+ been corrected. H/t to Gustavo Grieco for reporting.
+ * The original command line syntax for "git merge", which was "git
+ merge <msg> HEAD <parent>...", has been deprecated for quite some
+ time, and "git gui" was the last in-tree user of the syntax. This
+ is finally fixed, so that we can move forward with the deprecation.
+ * An author name that has a backslash-quoted double quote in the
+ human readable part ("My \"double quoted\" name"), was not unquoted
+ correctly while applying a patch from a piece of e-mail.
+ * Doc update to clarify what "log -3 --reverse" does.
+ * Almost everybody uses DEFAULT_ABBREV to refer to the default
+ setting for the abbreviation, but "git blame" peeked into
+ underlying variable bypassing the macro for no good reason.
+ * The "graph" API used in "git log --graph" miscounted the number of
+ output columns consumed so far when drawing a padding line, which
+ has been fixed; this did not affect any existing code as nobody
+ tried to write anything after the padding on such a line, though.
+ * The code that parses the format parameter of the for-each-ref command
+ has seen a micro-optimization.
+ * When we started to use cURL to talk to an imap server, we forgot to explicitly add
+ imap(s):// before the destination. To some folks, that didn't work
+ and the library tried to make HTTP(s) requests instead.
+ * The ./configure script generated from was taught how
+ to detect support of SSL by libcurl better.
+ * The command-line completion script (in contrib/) learned to
+ complete "git cmd ^mas<HT>" to complete the negative end of
+ reference to "git cmd ^master".
+ (merge 49416ad22a cp/completion-negative-refs later to maint).
+ * The existing "git fetch --depth=<n>" option was hard to use
+ correctly when making the history of an existing shallow clone
+ deeper. A new option, "--deepen=<n>", has been added to make this
+ easier to use. "git clone" also learned "--shallow-since=<date>"
+ and "--shallow-exclude=<tag>" options to make it easier to specify
+ "I am interested only in the recent N months worth of history" and
+ "Give me only the history since that version".
+ (merge cccf74e2da nd/shallow-deepen later to maint).
+ * "git blame --reverse OLD path" is now DWIMmed to show how lines
+ in path in an old revision OLD have survived up to the current
+ commit.
+ (merge e1d09701a4 jc/blame-reverse later to maint).
+ * The http.emptyauth configuration variable is a way to allow an empty username to
+ pass when attempting to authenticate using mechanisms like
+ Kerberos. We took an unspecified (NULL) username and sent ":"
+ (i.e. no username, no password) to CURLOPT_USERPWD, but did not do
+ the same when the username is explicitly set to an empty string.
+ * "git clone" of a local repository can be done at the filesystem
+ level, but the codepath did not check errors while copying and
+ adjusting the file that lists alternate object stores.
+ * Documentation for "git commit" was updated to clarify that "commit
+ -p <paths>" adds to the current contents of the index to come up
+ with what to commit.
+ * A stray symbolic link in the $GIT_DIR/refs/ directory could make name
+ resolution loop forever, which has been corrected.
+ * The "submodule.<name>.path" stored in .gitmodules is never copied
+ to .git/config and such a key in .git/config has no meaning, but
+ the documentation described it next to submodule.<name>.url
+ as if both belong to .git/config. This has been fixed.
+ * In a worktree created via "git
+ worktree", "git checkout" attempts to protect users from confusion
+ by refusing to check out a branch that is already checked out in
+ another worktree. However, this also prevented checking out a
+ branch which is designated as the primary branch of a bare
+ repository, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
+ repository. The check has been corrected to allow it.
+ * "git rebase" immediately after "git clone" failed to find the fork
+ point from the upstream.
+ * When fetching from a remote that has many tags that are irrelevant
+ to branches we are following, we used to waste way too many cycles
+ checking if the object pointed at by a tag (that we are not
+ going to fetch!) exists in our repository too carefully.
+ * Protect our code from over-eager compilers.
+ * Recent git allows submodule.<name>.branch to use a special token
+ "." instead of the branch name; the documentation has been updated
+ to describe it.
+ * "git send-email" attempts to pick up valid e-mails from the
+ trailers, but people in the real world write non-addresses there, like
+ "Cc: Stable <> # 4.8+", which broke the output depending
+ on the availability and vintage of the Mail::Address perl module.
+ (merge dcfafc5214 mm/send-email-cc-cruft-after-address later to maint).
+ * The Travis CI configuration we ship ran the tests with the --verbose
+ option but this risks non-TAP output that happens to be "ok" to be
+ misinterpreted as TAP signalling a test that passed. This resulted
+ in unnecessary failures. This has been corrected by introducing a
+ new mode to run our tests in the test harness to send the verbose
+ output separately to the log file.
+ * Some AsciiDoc formatters mishandle a displayed illustration with
+ tabs in it. Adjust a few of them in merge-base documentation to
+ work around them.
+ * Fixed a minor regression in "git submodule" that was introduced
+ when more helper functions were reimplemented in C.
+ (merge 77b63ac31e sb/submodule-ignore-trailing-slash later to maint).
+ * The code that we have used for the past 10+ years to cycle
+ 4-element ring buffers turns out to be not quite portable in
+ theoretical world.
+ (merge bb84735c80 rs/ring-buffer-wraparound later to maint).
+ * "git daemon" used fixed-length buffers to turn URLs to the
+ repository the client asked for into the server side directory
+ paths, using snprintf() to avoid overflowing these buffers, but
+ allowed possibly truncated paths to the directory. This has been
+ tightened to reject such a request that causes an overlong path to be
+ served.
+ (merge 6bdb0083be jk/daemon-path-ok-check-truncation later to maint).
+ * Recent update to git-sh-setup (a library of shell functions that
+ are used by our in-tree scripted Porcelain commands) included
+ another shell library git-sh-i18n without specifying where it is,
+ relying on the $PATH. This has been fixed to be more explicit by
+ prefixing with $(git --exec-path) output.
+ (merge 1073094f30 ak/sh-setup-dot-source-i18n-fix later to maint).
+ * Fix for a racy false-positive test failure.
+ (merge fdf4f6c79b as/merge-attr-sleep later to maint).
+ * Portability update and workaround for builds on recent Mac OS X.
+ (merge a296bc0132 ls/macos-update later to maint).
+ * Using a %(HEAD) placeholder in "for-each-ref --format=" option
+ caused the command to segfault when on an unborn branch.
+ (merge 84679d470d jc/for-each-ref-head-segfault-fix later to maint).
+ * "git rebase -i" did not work well with the core.commentchar
+ configuration variable for two reasons, both of which have been
+ fixed.
+ (merge 882cd23777 js/rebase-i-commentchar-fix later to maint).
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 5c238e29a8 jk/common-main later to maint).
+ (merge 5a5749e45b ak/pre-receive-hook-template-modefix later to maint).
+ (merge 6d834ac8f1 jk/rebase-config-insn-fmt-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge de9f7fa3b0 rs/commit-pptr-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge 4259d693fc sc/fmt-merge-msg-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 28fab7b23d nd/test-helpers later to maint).
+ (merge c2bb0c1d1e rs/cocci later to maint).
+ (merge 3285b7badb ps/common-info-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 2b090822e8 nd/worktree-lock later to maint).
+ (merge 4bd488ea7c jk/create-branch-remove-unused-param later to maint).
+ (merge 974e0044d6 tk/diffcore-delta-remove-unused later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9cd14c8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,168 @@
+Git v2.11.1 Release Notes
+Fixes since v2.11
+ * The default Travis-CI configuration specifies newer P4 and GitLFS.
+ * The character width table has been updated to match Unicode 9.0
+ * Update the isatty() emulation for Windows by updating the previous
+ hack that depended on internals of (older) MSVC runtime.
+ * "git rev-parse --symbolic" failed with a more recent notation like
+ "HEAD^-1" and "HEAD^!".
+ * An empty directory in a working tree that can simply be nuked used
+ to interfere while merging or cherry-picking a change to create a
+ submodule directory there, which has been fixed..
+ * The code in "git push" to compute if any commit being pushed in the
+ superproject binds a commit in a submodule that hasn't been pushed
+ out was overly inefficient, making it unusable even for a small
+ project that does not have any submodule but have a reasonable
+ number of refs.
+ * "git push --dry-run --recurse-submodule=on-demand" wasn't
+ "--dry-run" in the submodules.
+ * The output from "git worktree list" was made in readdir() order,
+ and was unstable.
+ * mergetool.<tool>.trustExitCode configuration variable did not apply
+ to built-in tools, but now it does.
+ * "git p4" LFS support was broken when LFS stores an empty blob.
+ * Fix a corner case in merge-recursive regression that crept in
+ during 2.10 development cycle.
+ * Update the error messages from the dumb-http client when it fails
+ to obtain loose objects; we used to give sensible error message
+ only upon 404 but we now forbid unexpected redirects that needs to
+ be reported with something sensible.
+ * When diff.renames configuration is on (and with Git 2.9 and later,
+ it is enabled by default, which made it worse), "git stash"
+ misbehaved if a file is removed and another file with a very
+ similar content is added.
+ * "git diff --no-index" did not take "--no-abbrev" option.
+ * "git difftool --dir-diff" had a minor regression when started from
+ a subdirectory, which has been fixed.
+ * "git commit --allow-empty --only" (no pathspec) with dirty index
+ ought to be an acceptable way to create a new commit that does not
+ change any paths, but it was forbidden, perhaps because nobody
+ needed it so far.
+ * A pathname that begins with "//" or "\\" on Windows is special but
+ path normalization logic was unaware of it.
+ * "git pull --rebase", when there is no new commits on our side since
+ we forked from the upstream, should be able to fast-forward without
+ invoking "git rebase", but it didn't.
+ * The way to specify hotkeys to "xxdiff" that is used by "git
+ mergetool" has been modernized to match recent versions of xxdiff.
+ * Unlike "git am --abort", "git cherry-pick --abort" moved HEAD back
+ to where cherry-pick started while picking multiple changes, when
+ the cherry-pick stopped to ask for help from the user, and the user
+ did "git reset --hard" to a different commit in order to re-attempt
+ the operation.
+ * Code cleanup in shallow boundary computation.
+ * A recent update to receive-pack to make it easier to drop garbage
+ objects made it clear that GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES cannot
+ have a pathname with a colon in it (no surprise!), and this in turn
+ made it impossible to push into a repository at such a path. This
+ has been fixed by introducing a quoting mechanism used when
+ appending such a path to the colon-separated list.
+ * The function usage_msg_opt() has been updated to say "fatal:"
+ before the custom message programs give, when they want to die
+ with a message about wrong command line options followed by the
+ standard usage string.
+ * "git index-pack --stdin" needs an access to an existing repository,
+ but "git index-pack file.pack" to generate an .idx file that
+ corresponds to a packfile does not.
+ * Fix for NDEBUG builds.
+ * A lazy "git push" without refspec did not internally use a fully
+ specified refspec to perform 'current', 'simple', or 'upstream'
+ push, causing unnecessary "ambiguous ref" errors.
+ * "git p4" misbehaved when swapping a directory and a symbolic link.
+ * Even though an fix was attempted in Git 2.9.3 days, but running
+ "git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
+ has been fixed.
+ * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
+ by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
+ * A potential but unlikely buffer overflow in Windows port has been
+ fixed.
+ * When the http server gives an incomplete response to a smart-http
+ rpc call, it could lead to client waiting for a full response that
+ will never come. Teach the client side to notice this condition
+ and abort the transfer.
+ * Some platforms no longer understand "latin-1" that is still seen in
+ the wild in e-mail headers; replace them with "iso-8859-1" that is
+ more widely known when conversion fails from/to it.
+ * Update the procedure to generate "tags" for developer support.
+ * Update the definition of the MacOSX test environment used by
+ TravisCI.
+ * A few git-svn updates.
+ * Compression setting for producing packfiles were spread across
+ three codepaths, one of which did not honor any configuration.
+ Unify these so that all of them honor core.compression and
+ pack.compression variables the same way.
+ * "git fast-import" sometimes mishandled while rebalancing notes
+ tree, which has been fixed.
+ * Recent update to the default abbreviation length that auto-scales
+ lacked documentation update, which has been corrected.
+ * Leakage of lockfiles in the config subsystem has been fixed.
+ * It is natural that "git gc --auto" may not attempt to pack
+ everything into a single pack, and there is no point in warning
+ when the user has configured the system to use the pack bitmap,
+ leading to disabling further "gc".
+ * "git archive" did not read the standard configuration files, and
+ failed to notice a file that is marked as binary via the userdiff
+ driver configuration.
+ * "git blame --porcelain" misidentified the "previous" <commit, path>
+ pair (aka "source") when contents came from two or more files.
+ * "git rebase -i" with a recent update started showing an incorrect
+ count when squashing more than 10 commits.
+ * "git <cmd> @{push}" on a detached HEAD used to segfault; it has
+ been corrected to error out with a message.
+ * Tighten a test to avoid mistaking an extended ERE regexp engine as
+ a PRE regexp engine.
+ * Typing ^C to pager, which usually does not kill it, killed Git and
+ took the pager down as a collateral damage in certain process-tree
+ structure. This has been fixed.
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index 02cb684..2669b87 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -28,12 +28,13 @@ include::line-range-format.txt[]
-S <revs-file>::
Use revisions from revs-file instead of calling linkgit:git-rev-list[1].
+--reverse <rev>..<rev>::
Walk history forward instead of backward. Instead of showing
the revision in which a line appeared, this shows the last
revision in which a line has existed. This requires a range of
revision like START..END where the path to blame exists in
+ START. `git blame --reverse START` is taken as `git blame
+ --reverse START..HEAD` for convenience.
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index cbae7a6..1fee83c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -783,10 +783,11 @@ core.sparseCheckout::
linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
- Set the length object names are abbreviated to. If unspecified,
- many commands abbreviate to 7 hexdigits, which may not be enough
- for abbreviated object names to stay unique for sufficiently long
- time.
+ Set the length object names are abbreviated to. If
+ unspecified or set to "auto", an appropriate value is
+ computed based on the approximate number of packed objects
+ in your repository, which hopefully is enough for
+ abbreviated object names to stay unique for some time.
add.ignore-errors (deprecated)::
@@ -1409,7 +1410,9 @@ gc.pruneExpire::
Override the grace period with this config variable. The value
"now" may be used to disable this grace period and always prune
unreachable objects immediately, or "never" may be used to
- suppress pruning.
+ suppress pruning. This feature helps prevent corruption when
+ 'git gc' runs concurrently with another process writing to the
+ repository; see the "NOTES" section of linkgit:git-gc[1].
When 'git gc' is run, it calls
@@ -1736,6 +1739,20 @@ http.emptyAuth::
a username in the URL, as libcurl normally requires a username for
+ Control GSSAPI credential delegation. The delegation is disabled
+ by default in libcurl since version 7.21.7. Set parameter to tell
+ the server what it is allowed to delegate when it comes to user
+ credentials. Used with GSS/kerberos. Possible values are:
+* `none` - Don't allow any delegation.
+* `policy` - Delegates if and only if the OK-AS-DELEGATE flag is set in the
+ Kerberos service ticket, which is a matter of realm policy.
+* `always` - Unconditionally allow the server to delegate.
Pass an additional HTTP header when communicating with a server. If
more than one such entry exists, all of them are added as extra
@@ -1877,6 +1894,16 @@ http.userAgent::
of common USER_AGENT strings (but not including those like git/1.7.1).
Can be overridden by the `GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT` environment variable.
+ Whether git should follow HTTP redirects. If set to `true`, git
+ will transparently follow any redirect issued by a server it
+ encounters. If set to `false`, git will treat all redirects as
+ errors. If set to `initial`, git will follow redirects only for
+ the initial request to a remote, but not for subsequent
+ follow-up HTTP requests. Since git uses the redirected URL as
+ the base for the follow-up requests, this is generally
+ sufficient. The default is `initial`.
Any of the http.* options above can be applied selectively to some URLs.
For a config key to match a URL, each element of the config key is
@@ -2523,6 +2550,12 @@ receive.unpackLimit::
especially on slow filesystems. If not set, the value of
`transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
+ If the size of the incoming pack stream is larger than this
+ limit, then git-receive-pack will error out, instead of
+ accepting the pack file. If not set or set to 0, then the size
+ is unlimited.
If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update that deletes
the ref. Use this to prevent such a ref deletion via a push.
@@ -2854,6 +2887,18 @@ submodule.fetchJobs::
in parallel. A value of 0 will give some reasonable default.
If unset, it defaults to 1.
+ Specifies how the submodules obtain alternates when submodules are
+ cloned. Possible values are `no`, `superproject`.
+ By default `no` is assumed, which doesn't add references. When the
+ value is set to `superproject` the submodule to be cloned computes
+ its alternates location relative to the superprojects alternate.
+ Specifies how to treat errors with the alternates for a submodule
+ as computed via `submodule.alternateLocation`. Possible values are
+ `ignore`, `info`, `die`. Default is `die`.
A boolean to specify whether annotated tags created should be GPG signed.
If `--annotate` is specified on the command line, it takes
@@ -2898,6 +2943,11 @@ is omitted from the advertisements but `refs/heads/master` and
`refs/namespaces/bar/refs/heads/master` are still advertised as so-called
"have" lines. In order to match refs before stripping, add a `^` in front of
the ref name. If you combine `!` and `^`, `!` must be specified first.
+Even if you hide refs, a client may still be able to steal the target
+objects via the techniques described in the "SECURITY" section of the
+linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] man page; it's best to keep private data in a
+separate repository.
When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
@@ -2907,7 +2957,7 @@ transfer.unpackLimit::
If true, allow clients to use `git archive --remote` to request
any tree, whether reachable from the ref tips or not. See the
- discussion in the `SECURITY` section of
+ discussion in the "SECURITY" section of
linkgit:git-upload-archive[1] for more details. Defaults to
@@ -2921,12 +2971,23 @@ uploadpack.allowTipSHA1InWant::
When `uploadpack.hideRefs` is in effect, allow `upload-pack`
to accept a fetch request that asks for an object at the tip
of a hidden ref (by default, such a request is rejected).
- see also `uploadpack.hideRefs`.
+ See also `uploadpack.hideRefs`. Even if this is false, a client
+ may be able to steal objects via the techniques described in the
+ "SECURITY" section of the linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] man page; it's
+ best to keep private data in a separate repository.
Allow `upload-pack` to accept a fetch request that asks for an
object that is reachable from any ref tip. However, note that
calculating object reachability is computationally expensive.
+ Defaults to `false`. Even if this is false, a client may be able
+ to steal objects via the techniques described in the "SECURITY"
+ section of the linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] man page; it's best to
+ keep private data in a separate repository.
+ Allow `upload-pack` to accept a fetch request that asks for any
+ object at all.
Defaults to `false`.
diff --git a/Documentation/date-formats.txt b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
index 35e8da2..6926e0a 100644
--- a/Documentation/date-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ Git internal format::
It is `<unix timestamp> <time zone offset>`, where `<unix
timestamp>` is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.
`<time zone offset>` is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
- For example CET (which is 2 hours ahead UTC) is `+0200`.
+ For example CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is `+0100`.
RFC 2822::
The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index d5a5b17..58f4bd6 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -122,10 +122,11 @@ diff.suppressBlankEmpty::
Specify the format in which differences in submodules are
- shown. The "log" format lists the commits in the range like
- linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary` does. The "short" format
- format just shows the names of the commits at the beginning
- and end of the range. Defaults to short.
+ shown. The "short" format just shows the names of the commits
+ at the beginning and end of the range. The "log" format lists
+ the commits in the range like linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary`
+ does. The "diff" format shows an inline diff of the changed
+ contents of the submodule. Defaults to "short".
A POSIX Extended Regular Expression used to determine what is a "word"
@@ -170,10 +171,11 @@ diff.tool::
- Set this option to `true` to enable an experimental heuristic that
- shifts the hunk boundary in an attempt to make the resulting
- patch easier to read.
+ Set one of these options to `true` to enable one of two
+ experimental heuristics that shift diff hunk boundaries to
+ make patches easier to read.
Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
@@ -191,3 +193,9 @@ diff.algorithm::
low-occurrence common elements".
+ A comma separated list of `old`, `new`, `context`, that
+ specifies how whitespace errors on lines are highlighted
+ with `color.diff.whitespace`. Can be overridden by the
+ command line option `--ws-error-highlight=<kind>`
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..36cb549
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+ These are to help debugging and tuning experimental heuristics
+ (which are off by default) that shift diff hunk boundaries to
+ make patches easier to read.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 705a873..e6215c3 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -63,12 +63,7 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
Synonym for `-p --raw`.
- These are to help debugging and tuning an experimental
- heuristic (which is off by default) that shifts the hunk
- boundary in an attempt to make the resulting patch easier
- to read.
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
@@ -210,13 +205,16 @@ any of those replacements occurred.
of the `--diff-filter` option on what the status letters mean.
- Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When `--submodule`
- or `--submodule=log` is given, the 'log' format is used. This format lists
- the commits in the range like linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary` does.
- Omitting the `--submodule` option or specifying `--submodule=short`,
- uses the 'short' format. This format just shows the names of the commits
- at the beginning and end of the range. Can be tweaked via the
- `diff.submodule` configuration variable.
+ Specify how differences in submodules are shown. When specifying
+ `--submodule=short` the 'short' format is used. This format just
+ shows the names of the commits at the beginning and end of the range.
+ When `--submodule` or `--submodule=log` is specified, the 'log'
+ format is used. This format lists the commits in the range like
+ linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary` does. When `--submodule=diff`
+ is specified, the 'diff' format is used. This format shows an
+ inline diff of the changes in the submodule contents between the
+ commit range. Defaults to `diff.submodule` or the 'short' format
+ if the config option is unset.
Show colored diff.
@@ -310,6 +308,8 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
lines are highlighted. E.g. `--ws-error-highlight=new,old`
highlights whitespace errors on both deleted and added lines.
`all` can be used as a short-hand for `old,new,context`.
+ The `diff.wsErrorHighlight` configuration variable can be
+ used to specify the default behaviour.
@@ -569,5 +569,16 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Do not show any source or destination prefix.
+ Prepend an additional prefix to every line of output.
+ By default entries added by "git add -N" appear as an existing
+ empty file in "git diff" and a new file in "git diff --cached".
+ This option makes the entry appear as a new file in "git diff"
+ and non-existent in "git diff --cached". This option could be
+ reverted with `--ita-visible-in-index`. Both options are
+ experimental and could be removed in future.
For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 9eab1f5..fb6bebb 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -14,6 +14,20 @@
linkgit:git-clone[1]), deepen or shorten the history to the specified
number of commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
+ Similar to --depth, except it specifies the number of commits
+ from the current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of
+ each remote branch history.
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
+ include all reachable commits after <date>.
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
+ exclude commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag.
+ This option can be specified multiple times.
If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations
diff --git a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
index 05fd482..94be4b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ familiar command name for people coming from other SCM systems.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 2bb9a57..bdd915a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -18,8 +18,8 @@ on the subcommand:
git bisect start [--term-{old,good}=<term> --term-{new,bad}=<term>]
[--no-checkout] [<bad> [<good>...]] [--] [<paths>...]
- git bisect (bad|new) [<rev>]
- git bisect (good|old) [<rev>...]
+ git bisect (bad|new|<term-new>) [<rev>]
+ git bisect (good|old|<term-old>) [<rev>...]
git bisect terms [--term-good | --term-bad]
git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
git bisect reset [<commit>]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index ba54175..fdc3aea 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental]
[-L <range>] [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
- [--progress] [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>]
+ [--progress] [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>..<rev>]
[--] <file>
@@ -89,6 +89,8 @@ include::blame-options.txt[]
abbreviated object name, use <n>+1 digits. Note that 1 column
is used for a caret to mark the boundary commit.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 18d03d8..204541c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -9,18 +9,22 @@ git-cat-file - Provide content or type and size information for repository objec
-'git cat-file' (-t [--allow-unknown-type]| -s [--allow-unknown-type]| -e | -p | <type> | --textconv ) <object>
-'git cat-file' (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks]
+'git cat-file' (-t [--allow-unknown-type]| -s [--allow-unknown-type]| -e | -p | <type> | --textconv | --filters ) [--path=<path>] <object>
+'git cat-file' (--batch | --batch-check) [ --textconv | --filters ] [--follow-symlinks]
In its first form, the command provides the content or the type of an object in
the repository. The type is required unless `-t` or `-p` is used to find the
-object type, or `-s` is used to find the object size, or `--textconv` is used
-(which implies type "blob").
+object type, or `-s` is used to find the object size, or `--textconv` or
+`--filters` is used (which imply type "blob").
In the second form, a list of objects (separated by linefeeds) is provided on
-stdin, and the SHA-1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
+stdin, and the SHA-1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout. The
+output format can be overridden using the optional `<format>` argument. If
+either `--textconv` or `--filters` was specified, the input is expected to
+list the object names followed by the path name, separated by a single white
+space, so that the appropriate drivers can be determined.
@@ -54,19 +58,35 @@ OPTIONS
Show the content as transformed by a textconv filter. In this case,
- <object> has be of the form <tree-ish>:<path>, or :<path> in order
- to apply the filter to the content recorded in the index at <path>.
+ <object> has to be of the form <tree-ish>:<path>, or :<path> in
+ order to apply the filter to the content recorded in the index at
+ <path>.
+ Show the content as converted by the filters configured in
+ the current working tree for the given <path> (i.e. smudge filters,
+ end-of-line conversion, etc). In this case, <object> has to be of
+ the form <tree-ish>:<path>, or :<path>.
+ For use with --textconv or --filters, to allow specifying an object
+ name and a path separately, e.g. when it is difficult to figure out
+ the revision from which the blob came.
Print object information and contents for each object provided
- on stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
- See the section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
+ on stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments
+ except `--textconv` or `--filters`, in which case the input lines
+ also need to specify the path, separated by white space. See the
+ section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
Print object information for each object provided on stdin. May
- not be combined with any other options or arguments. See the
+ not be combined with any other options or arguments except
+ `--textconv` or `--filters`, in which case the input lines also
+ need to specify the path, separated by white space. See the
section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index ec41d3d..35cc34b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -90,13 +90,16 @@ If you want to break the dependency of a repository cloned with `-s` on
its source repository, you can simply run `git repack -a` to copy all
objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
---reference <repository>::
+--reference[-if-able] <repository>::
If the reference repository is on the local machine,
automatically setup `.git/objects/info/alternates` to
obtain objects from the reference repository. Using
an already existing repository as an alternate will
require fewer objects to be copied from the repository
being cloned, reducing network and local storage costs.
+ When using the `--reference-if-able`, a non existing
+ directory is skipped with a warning instead of aborting
+ the clone.
*NOTE*: see the NOTE for the `--shared` option, and also the
`--dissociate` option.
@@ -194,6 +197,14 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
tips of all branches. If you want to clone submodules shallowly,
also pass `--shallow-submodules`.
+ Create a shallow clone with a history after the specified time.
+ Create a shallow clone with a history, excluding commits
+ reachable from a specified remote branch or tag. This option
+ can be specified multiple times.
Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
either specified by the `--branch` option or the primary
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index f2ab0ee..4f8f20a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -265,7 +265,8 @@ FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
If this option is specified together with `--amend`, then
no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
the last commit without committing changes that have
- already been staged.
+ already been staged. If used together with `--allow-empty`
+ paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be created.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index 2ff3568..cb9b4d2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -38,6 +38,11 @@ objects nor valid packs
size-garbage: disk space consumed by garbage files, in KiB (unless -H is
+alternate: absolute path of alternate object databases; may appear
+multiple times, one line per path. Note that if the path contains
+non-printable characters, it may be surrounded by double-quotes and
+contain C-style backslashed escape sequences.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index 24417ee..f7ebe36 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -87,6 +87,20 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
'git-upload-pack' treats the special depth 2147483647 as
infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow'repository to
+ include all reachable commits after <date>.
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
+ exclude commits reachable from a specified remote branch or tag.
+ This option can be specified multiple times.
+ Argument --depth specifies the number of commits from the
+ current shallow boundary instead of from the tip of each
+ remote branch history.
Do not show the progress.
@@ -105,9 +119,9 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
$GIT_DIR (e.g. "HEAD", "refs/heads/master"). When
unspecified, update from all heads the remote side has.
-If the remote has enabled the options `uploadpack.allowTipSHA1InWant` or
-`uploadpack.allowReachableSHA1InWant`, they may alternatively be 40-hex
-sha1s present on the remote.
+If the remote has enabled the options `uploadpack.allowTipSHA1InWant`,
+`uploadpack.allowReachableSHA1InWant`, or `uploadpack.allowAnySHA1InWant`,
+they may alternatively be 40-hex sha1s present on the remote.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index 9e42169..b153aef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -192,6 +192,8 @@ The first command fetches the `maint` branch from the repository at
objects will eventually be removed by git's built-in housekeeping (see
Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 9624c84..9b200b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
[--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
- [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
+ [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
+ [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
[--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
[<common diff options>]
@@ -172,6 +173,11 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
combined with the `--numbered` option.
+ Alias for `--subject-prefix="RFC PATCH"`. RFC means "Request For
+ Comments"; use this when sending an experimental patch for
+ discussion rather than application.
-v <n>::
Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index bed60f4..852b72c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -63,11 +63,10 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`).
- --prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age (do
- not use --prune=all unless you know exactly what you are doing.
- Unless the repository is quiescent, you will lose newly created
- objects that haven't been anchored with the refs and end up
- corrupting your repository). --prune is on by default.
+ --prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age and
+ increases the risk of corruption if another process is writing to
+ the repository concurrently; see "NOTES" below. --prune is on by
+ default.
Do not prune any loose objects.
@@ -138,17 +137,36 @@ default is "2 weeks ago".
-'git gc' tries very hard to be safe about the garbage it collects. In
+'git gc' tries very hard not to delete objects that are referenced
+anywhere in your repository. In
particular, it will keep not only objects referenced by your current set
of branches and tags, but also objects referenced by the index,
remote-tracking branches, refs saved by 'git filter-branch' in
refs/original/, or reflogs (which may reference commits in branches
that were later amended or rewound).
-If you are expecting some objects to be collected and they aren't, check
+If you are expecting some objects to be deleted and they aren't, check
all of those locations and decide whether it makes sense in your case to
remove those references.
+On the other hand, when 'git gc' runs concurrently with another process,
+there is a risk of it deleting an object that the other process is using
+but hasn't created a reference to. This may just cause the other process
+to fail or may corrupt the repository if the other process later adds a
+reference to the deleted object. Git has two features that significantly
+mitigate this problem:
+. Any object with modification time newer than the `--prune` date is kept,
+ along with everything reachable from it.
+. Most operations that add an object to the database update the
+ modification time of the object if it is already present so that #1
+ applies.
+However, these features fall short of a complete solution, so users who
+run commands concurrently have to live with some risk of corruption (which
+seems to be low in practice) unless they turn off automatic garbage
+collection with 'git config 0'.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 7a4e055..1b4b65d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -87,6 +87,8 @@ OPTIONS
Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and use maximum 3 threads.
+ Die, if the pack is larger than <size>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index 93d1db6..09074c7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -48,19 +48,22 @@ with only spaces at the end of the commit message part, one blank line
will be added before the new trailer.
Existing trailers are extracted from the input message by looking for
-a group of one or more lines that contain a colon (by default), where
-the group is preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
+a group of one or more lines that (i) are all trailers, or (ii) contains at
+least one Git-generated or user-configured trailer and consists of at
+least 25% trailers.
+The group must be preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
The group must either be at the end of the message or be the last
non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---'. Such three
minus signs start the patch part of the message.
-When reading trailers, there can be whitespaces before and after the
+When reading trailers, there can be whitespaces after the
token, the separator and the value. There can also be whitespaces
-inside the token and the value.
+inside the token and the value. The value may be split over multiple lines with
+each subsequent line starting with whitespace, like the "folding" in RFC 822.
Note that 'trailers' do not follow and are not intended to follow many
-rules for RFC 822 headers. For example they do not follow the line
-folding rules, the encoding rules and probably many other rules.
+rules for RFC 822 headers. For example they do not follow
+the encoding rules and probably many other rules.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 0d933ac..446209e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--error-unmatch] [--with-tree=<tree-ish>]
- [--full-name] [--abbrev] [--] [<file>...]
+ [--full-name] [--recurse-submodules]
+ [--abbrev] [--] [<file>...]
@@ -137,6 +138,10 @@ a space) at the start of each line:
option forces paths to be output relative to the project
top directory.
+ Recursively calls ls-files on each submodule in the repository.
+ Currently there is only support for the --cached mode.
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
lines, show only a partial prefix.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index e846c2e..3622d66 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -79,6 +79,13 @@ success of the resolution after the custom tool has exited.
Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program
to give the user a chance to skip the path.
+ Process files in the order specified in the
+ <orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+ This overrides the `diff.orderFile` configuration variable
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). To cancel `diff.orderFile`,
+ use `-O/dev/null`.
`git mergetool` creates `*.orig` backup files while resolving merges.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index d033b25..4470e4b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -237,6 +237,8 @@ If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and
would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 47b77e6..8eefabd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -559,6 +559,8 @@ Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 000ee8d..0ccd5fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -33,6 +33,9 @@ post-update hooks found in the Documentation/howto directory.
option, which tells it if updates to a ref should be denied if they
are not fast-forwards.
+A number of other receive.* config options are available to tweak
+its behavior, see linkgit:git-config[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 92df596..2e9cef0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@ The latest stash you created is stored in `refs/stash`; older
stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the most recently
created stash, `stash@{1}` is the one before it, `stash@{2.hours.ago}`
-is also possible).
+is also possible). Stashes may also be referenced by specifying just the
+stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `stash@{n}`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index e1e8f57..725065e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -32,11 +32,14 @@ OPTIONS
Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
Give the output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
This is similar to the short output, but will remain stable
across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
below for details.
+The version parameter is used to specify the format version.
+This is optional and defaults to the original version 'v1' format.
Give the output in the long-format. This is the default.
@@ -96,7 +99,7 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF. This implies
- the `--porcelain` output format if no other format is given.
+ the `--porcelain=v1` output format if no other format is given.
@@ -180,12 +183,12 @@ in which case `XY` are `!!`.
If -b is used the short-format status is preceded by a line
-## branchname tracking info
+ ## branchname tracking info
-Porcelain Format
+Porcelain Format Version 1
-The porcelain format is similar to the short format, but is guaranteed
+Version 1 porcelain format is similar to the short format, but is guaranteed
not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between Git versions or
based on user configuration. This makes it ideal for parsing by scripts.
The description of the short format above also describes the porcelain
@@ -207,6 +210,124 @@ field from the first filename). Third, filenames containing special
characters are not specially formatted; no quoting or
backslash-escaping is performed.
+Porcelain Format Version 2
+Version 2 format adds more detailed information about the state of
+the worktree and changed items. Version 2 also defines an extensible
+set of easy to parse optional headers.
+Header lines start with "#" and are added in response to specific
+command line arguments. Parsers should ignore headers they
+don't recognize.
+### Branch Headers
+If `--branch` is given, a series of header lines are printed with
+information about the current branch.
+ Line Notes
+ ------------------------------------------------------------
+ # branch.oid <commit> | (initial) Current commit.
+ # branch.head <branch> | (detached) Current branch.
+ # branch.upstream <upstream_branch> If upstream is set.
+ # branch.ab +<ahead> -<behind> If upstream is set and
+ the commit is present.
+ ------------------------------------------------------------
+### Changed Tracked Entries
+Following the headers, a series of lines are printed for tracked
+entries. One of three different line formats may be used to describe
+an entry depending on the type of change. Tracked entries are printed
+in an undefined order; parsers should allow for a mixture of the 3
+line types in any order.
+Ordinary changed entries have the following format:
+ 1 <XY> <sub> <mH> <mI> <mW> <hH> <hI> <path>
+Renamed or copied entries have the following format:
+ 2 <XY> <sub> <mH> <mI> <mW> <hH> <hI> <X><score> <path><sep><origPath>
+ Field Meaning
+ --------------------------------------------------------
+ <XY> A 2 character field containing the staged and
+ unstaged XY values described in the short format,
+ with unchanged indicated by a "." rather than
+ a space.
+ <sub> A 4 character field describing the submodule state.
+ "N..." when the entry is not a submodule.
+ "S<c><m><u>" when the entry is a submodule.
+ <c> is "C" if the commit changed; otherwise ".".
+ <m> is "M" if it has tracked changes; otherwise ".".
+ <u> is "U" if there are untracked changes; otherwise ".".
+ <mH> The octal file mode in HEAD.
+ <mI> The octal file mode in the index.
+ <mW> The octal file mode in the worktree.
+ <hH> The object name in HEAD.
+ <hI> The object name in the index.
+ <X><score> The rename or copy score (denoting the percentage
+ of similarity between the source and target of the
+ move or copy). For example "R100" or "C75".
+ <path> The pathname. In a renamed/copied entry, this
+ is the path in the index and in the working tree.
+ <sep> When the `-z` option is used, the 2 pathnames are separated
+ with a NUL (ASCII 0x00) byte; otherwise, a tab (ASCII 0x09)
+ byte separates them.
+ <origPath> The pathname in the commit at HEAD. This is only
+ present in a renamed/copied entry, and tells
+ where the renamed/copied contents came from.
+ --------------------------------------------------------
+Unmerged entries have the following format; the first character is
+a "u" to distinguish from ordinary changed entries.
+ u <xy> <sub> <m1> <m2> <m3> <mW> <h1> <h2> <h3> <path>
+ Field Meaning
+ --------------------------------------------------------
+ <XY> A 2 character field describing the conflict type
+ as described in the short format.
+ <sub> A 4 character field describing the submodule state
+ as described above.
+ <m1> The octal file mode in stage 1.
+ <m2> The octal file mode in stage 2.
+ <m3> The octal file mode in stage 3.
+ <mW> The octal file mode in the worktree.
+ <h1> The object name in stage 1.
+ <h2> The object name in stage 2.
+ <h3> The object name in stage 3.
+ <path> The pathname.
+ --------------------------------------------------------
+### Other Items
+Following the tracked entries (and if requested), a series of
+lines will be printed for untracked and then ignored items
+found in the worktree.
+Untracked items have the following format:
+ ? <path>
+Ignored items have the following format:
+ ! <path>
+### Pathname Format Notes and -z
+When the `-z` option is given, pathnames are printed as is and
+without any quoting and lines are terminated with a NUL (ASCII 0x00)
+Otherwise, all pathnames will be "C-quoted" if they contain any tab,
+linefeed, double quote, or backslash characters. In C-quoting, these
+characters will be replaced with the corresponding C-style escape
+sequences and the resulting pathname will be double quoted.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 5f9e65b..9bee9b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -664,13 +664,19 @@ creating the branch or tag.
When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
'dcommit' operations), look for the first `From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line
in the log message and use that as the author string.
+config key: svn.useLogAuthor
When committing to svn from Git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
`From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line, append a `From:` line based on the
Git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.
+config key: svn.addAuthorFrom
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
index 3e887d1..b3de50d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
@@ -44,6 +44,9 @@ OPTIONS
Don't write objects with broken content or links.
+ Die, if the pack is larger than <size>.
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 89157e2..2a663e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
+ [--super-prefix=<path>]
<command> [<args>]
@@ -43,6 +44,12 @@ unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
+* link:v2.11.1/git.html[documentation for release 2.11.1]
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/2.11.1.txt[2.11.1],
+ link:RelNotes/2.11.0.txt[2.11].
* link:v2.10.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.10.3]
* release notes for
@@ -611,6 +618,11 @@ ...`) sets `` to the empty string.
details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
+ Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix which gives a path from
+ above a repository down to its root. One use is to give submodules
+ context about the superproject that invoked it.
Treat the repository as a bare repository. If GIT_DIR
environment is not set, it is set to the current working
@@ -868,6 +880,12 @@ Git so take care if using a foreign front-end.
specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
+ Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
+ as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
+ double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
+ `"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
+ `path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.
If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 7aff940..e0b66c1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -293,7 +293,15 @@ checkout, when the `smudge` command is specified, the command is
fed the blob object from its standard input, and its standard
output is used to update the worktree file. Similarly, the
`clean` command is used to convert the contents of worktree file
-upon checkin.
+upon checkin. By default these commands process only a single
+blob and terminate. If a long running `process` filter is used
+in place of `clean` and/or `smudge` filters, then Git can process
+all blobs with a single filter command invocation for the entire
+life of a single Git command, for example `git add --all`. If a
+long running `process` filter is configured then it always takes
+precedence over a configured single blob filter. See section
+below for the description of the protocol used to communicate with
+a `process` filter.
One use of the content filtering is to massage the content into a shape
that is more convenient for the platform, filesystem, and the user to use.
@@ -373,6 +381,155 @@ not exist, or may have different contents. So, smudge and clean commands
should not try to access the file on disk, but only act as filters on the
content provided to them on standard input.
+Long Running Filter Process
+If the filter command (a string value) is defined via
+`filter.<driver>.process` then Git can process all blobs with a
+single filter invocation for the entire life of a single Git
+command. This is achieved by using a packet format (pkt-line,
+see technical/protocol-common.txt) based protocol over standard
+input and standard output as follows. All packets, except for the
+"*CONTENT" packets and the "0000" flush packet, are considered
+text and therefore are terminated by a LF.
+Git starts the filter when it encounters the first file
+that needs to be cleaned or smudged. After the filter started
+Git sends a welcome message ("git-filter-client"), a list of supported
+protocol version numbers, and a flush packet. Git expects to read a welcome
+response message ("git-filter-server"), exactly one protocol version number
+from the previously sent list, and a flush packet. All further
+communication will be based on the selected version. The remaining
+protocol description below documents "version=2". Please note that
+"version=42" in the example below does not exist and is only there
+to illustrate how the protocol would look like with more than one
+After the version negotiation Git sends a list of all capabilities that
+it supports and a flush packet. Git expects to read a list of desired
+capabilities, which must be a subset of the supported capabilities list,
+and a flush packet as response:
+packet: git> git-filter-client
+packet: git> version=2
+packet: git> version=42
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git< git-filter-server
+packet: git< version=2
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git> capability=clean
+packet: git> capability=smudge
+packet: git> capability=not-yet-invented
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git< capability=clean
+packet: git< capability=smudge
+packet: git< 0000
+Supported filter capabilities in version 2 are "clean" and
+Afterwards Git sends a list of "key=value" pairs terminated with
+a flush packet. The list will contain at least the filter command
+(based on the supported capabilities) and the pathname of the file
+to filter relative to the repository root. Right after the flush packet
+Git sends the content split in zero or more pkt-line packets and a
+flush packet to terminate content. Please note, that the filter
+must not send any response before it received the content and the
+final flush packet. Also note that the "value" of a "key=value" pair
+can contain the "=" character whereas the key would never contain
+that character.
+packet: git> command=smudge
+packet: git> pathname=path/testfile.dat
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git> CONTENT
+packet: git> 0000
+The filter is expected to respond with a list of "key=value" pairs
+terminated with a flush packet. If the filter does not experience
+problems then the list must contain a "success" status. Right after
+these packets the filter is expected to send the content in zero
+or more pkt-line packets and a flush packet at the end. Finally, a
+second list of "key=value" pairs terminated with a flush packet
+is expected. The filter can change the status in the second list
+or keep the status as is with an empty list. Please note that the
+empty list must be terminated with a flush packet regardless.
+packet: git< status=success
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< SMUDGED_CONTENT
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< 0000 # empty list, keep "status=success" unchanged!
+If the result content is empty then the filter is expected to respond
+with a "success" status and a flush packet to signal the empty content.
+packet: git< status=success
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< 0000 # empty content!
+packet: git< 0000 # empty list, keep "status=success" unchanged!
+In case the filter cannot or does not want to process the content,
+it is expected to respond with an "error" status.
+packet: git< status=error
+packet: git< 0000
+If the filter experiences an error during processing, then it can
+send the status "error" after the content was (partially or
+completely) sent.
+packet: git< status=success
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< status=error
+packet: git< 0000
+In case the filter cannot or does not want to process the content
+as well as any future content for the lifetime of the Git process,
+then it is expected to respond with an "abort" status at any point
+in the protocol.
+packet: git< status=abort
+packet: git< 0000
+Git neither stops nor restarts the filter process in case the
+"error"/"abort" status is set. However, Git sets its exit code
+according to the `filter.<driver>.required` flag, mimicking the
+behavior of the `filter.<driver>.clean` / `filter.<driver>.smudge`
+If the filter dies during the communication or does not adhere to
+the protocol then Git will stop the filter process and restart it
+with the next file that needs to be processed. Depending on the
+`filter.<driver>.required` flag Git will interpret that as error.
+After the filter has processed a blob it is expected to wait for
+the next "key=value" list containing a command. Git will close
+the command pipe on exit. The filter is expected to detect EOF
+and exit gracefully on its own. Git will wait until the filter
+process has stopped.
+A long running filter demo implementation can be found in
+`contrib/long-running-filter/` located in the Git
+core repository. If you develop your own long running filter
+process then the `GIT_TRACE_PACKET` environment variables can be
+very helpful for debugging (see linkgit:git[1]).
+Please note that you cannot use an existing `filter.<driver>.clean`
+or `filter.<driver>.smudge` command with `filter.<driver>.process`
+because the former two use a different inter process communication
+protocol than the latter one.
Interaction between checkin/checkout attributes
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 4546fa0..22309cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ you want to understand Git's internals.
The core Git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
interfaces on top of it called "porcelain". You may not want to use the
plumbing directly very often, but it can be good to know what the
-plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing.
+plumbing does when the porcelain isn't flushing.
Back when this document was originally written, many porcelain
commands were shell scripts. For simplicity, it still uses them as
@@ -1368,7 +1368,7 @@ $ git repack
will do it for you. If you followed the tutorial examples, you
would have accumulated about 17 objects in `.git/objects/??/`
directories by now. 'git repack' tells you how many objects it
-packed, and stores the packed file in `.git/objects/pack`
+packed, and stores the packed file in the `.git/objects/pack`
@@ -1478,7 +1478,7 @@ You can repack this private repository whenever you feel like.
A recommended work cycle for a "subsystem maintainer" who works
on that project and has an own "public repository" goes like this:
-1. Prepare your work repository, by 'git clone' the public
+1. Prepare your work repository, by running 'git clone' on the public
repository of the "project lead". The URL used for the
initial cloning is stored in the remote.origin.url
configuration variable.
@@ -1543,9 +1543,9 @@ like this:
Working with Others, Shared Repository Style
-If you are coming from CVS background, the style of cooperation
+If you are coming from a CVS background, the style of cooperation
suggested in the previous section may be new to you. You do not
-have to worry. Git supports "shared public repository" style of
+have to worry. Git supports the "shared public repository" style of
cooperation you are probably more familiar with as well.
See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7] for the details.
@@ -1635,7 +1635,7 @@ $ git show-branch
++* [master~2] Pretty-print messages.
-Note that you should not do Octopus because you can. An octopus
+Note that you should not do Octopus just because you can. An octopus
is a valid thing to do and often makes it easier to view the
commit history if you are merging more than two independent
changes at the same time. However, if you have merge conflicts
diff --git a/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt b/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
index 7685e36..b614969 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
@@ -61,22 +61,4 @@ For a simple local test, you can use linkgit:git-remote-ext[1]:
git clone ext::'git --namespace=foo %s /tmp/prefixed.git'
-Anyone with access to any namespace within a repository can potentially
-access objects from any other namespace stored in the same repository.
-You can't directly say "give me object ABCD" if you don't have a ref to
-it, but you can do some other sneaky things like:
-. Claiming to push ABCD, at which point the server will optimize out the
- need for you to actually send it. Now you have a ref to ABCD and can
- fetch it (claiming not to have it, of course).
-. Requesting other refs, claiming that you have ABCD, at which point the
- server may generate deltas against ABCD.
-None of this causes a problem if you only host public repositories, or
-if everyone who may read one namespace may also read everything in every
-other namespace (for instance, if everyone in an organization has read
-permission to every repository).
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index a4de50a..9e8681f 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -415,6 +415,17 @@ set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
'option depth' <depth>::
Deepens the history of a shallow repository.
+'option deepen-since <timestamp>::
+ Deepens the history of a shallow repository based on time.
+'option deepen-not <ref>::
+ Deepens the history of a shallow repository excluding ref.
+ Multiple options add up.
+'option deepen-relative {'true'|'false'}::
+ Deepens the history of a shallow repository relative to
+ current boundary. Only valid when used with "option depth".
'option followtags' {'true'|'false'}::
If enabled the helper should automatically fetch annotated
tag objects if the object the tag points at was transferred
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index a79e350..e632089 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -246,13 +246,20 @@ $highlight_bin::
Note that 'highlight' feature must be set for gitweb to actually
use syntax highlighting.
-*NOTE*: if you want to add support for new file type (supported by
-"highlight" but not used by gitweb), you need to modify `%highlight_ext`
-or `%highlight_basename`, depending on whether you detect type of file
-based on extension (for example "sh") or on its basename (for example
-"Makefile"). The keys of these hashes are extension and basename,
-respectively, and value for given key is name of syntax to be passed via
-`--syntax <syntax>` to highlighter.
+*NOTE*: for a file to be highlighted, its syntax type must be detected
+and that syntax must be supported by "highlight". The default syntax
+detection is minimal, and there are many supported syntax types with no
+detection by default. There are three options for adding syntax
+detection. The first and second priority are `%highlight_basename` and
+`%highlight_ext`, which detect based on basename (the full filename, for
+example "Makefile") and extension (for example "sh"). The keys of these
+hashes are the basename and extension, respectively, and the value for a
+given key is the name of the syntax to be passed via `--syntax <syntax>`
+to "highlight". The last priority is the "highlight" configuration of
+`Shebang` regular expressions to detect the language based on the first
+line in the file, (for example, matching the line "#!/bin/bash"). See
+the highlight documentation and the default config at
+/etc/highlight/filetypes.conf for more details.
For example if repositories you are hosting use "phtml" extension for
PHP files, and you want to have correct syntax-highlighting for those
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 69c289d..3bcee2d 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -143,8 +143,14 @@ ifndef::git-rev-list[]
- '%N': commit notes
- '%GG': raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
-- '%G?': show "G" for a good (valid) signature, "B" for a bad signature,
- "U" for a good signature with unknown validity and "N" for no signature
+- '%G?': show "G" for a good (valid) signature,
+ "B" for a bad signature,
+ "U" for a good signature with unknown validity,
+ "X" for a good signature that has expired,
+ "Y" for a good signature made by an expired key,
+ "R" for a good signature made by a revoked key,
+ "E" if the signature cannot be checked (e.g. missing key)
+ and "N" for no signature
- '%GS': show the name of the signer for a signed commit
- '%GK': show the key used to sign a signed commit
- '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}` or
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 4bed5b1..ba11b9c 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -283,7 +283,7 @@ empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.
Other <rev>{caret} Parent Shorthand Notations
-Two other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
+Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits.
The 'r1{caret}@' notation means all parents of 'r1'.
@@ -291,8 +291,15 @@ The 'r1{caret}@' notation means all parents of 'r1'.
The 'r1{caret}!' notation includes commit 'r1' but excludes all of its parents.
By itself, this notation denotes the single commit 'r1'.
+The '<rev>{caret}-{<n>}' notation includes '<rev>' but excludes the <n>th
+parent (i.e. a shorthand for '<rev>{caret}<n>..<rev>'), with '<n>' = 1 if
+not given. This is typically useful for merge commits where you
+can just pass '<commit>{caret}-' to get all the commits in the branch
+that was merged in merge commit '<commit>' (including '<commit>'
While '<rev>{caret}<n>' was about specifying a single commit parent, these
-two notations consider all its parents. For example you can say
+three notations also consider its parents. For example you can say
'HEAD{caret}2{caret}@', however you cannot say 'HEAD{caret}@{caret}2'.
Revision Range Summary
@@ -326,6 +333,10 @@ Revision Range Summary
as giving commit '<rev>' and then all its parents prefixed with
'{caret}' to exclude them (and their ancestors).
+'<rev>{caret}-{<n>}', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}-, HEAD{caret}-2'::
+ Equivalent to '<rev>{caret}<n>..<rev>', with '<n>' = 1 if not
+ given.
Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above,
with each step in the notation's expansion and selection carefully
spelt out:
@@ -339,6 +350,8 @@ spelt out:
B..C = ^B C C
B...C = B ^F C G H D E B C
+ B^- = B^..B
+ = ^B^1 B E I J F B
C^@ = C^1
= F I J F
B^@ = B^1 B^2 B^3
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-in-core-index.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-in-core-index.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index adbdbf5..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-in-core-index.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,21 +0,0 @@
-in-core index API
-Talk about <read-cache.c> and <cache-tree.c>, things like:
-* cache -> the_index macros
-* read_index()
-* write_index()
-* ie_match_stat() and ie_modified(); how they are different and when to
- use which.
-* index_name_pos()
-* remove_index_entry_at()
-* remove_file_from_index()
-* add_file_to_index()
-* add_index_entry()
-* refresh_index()
-* discard_index()
-* cache_tree_invalidate_path()
-* cache_tree_update()
-(JC, Linus)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt
index 3e75497..dcc5294 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt
@@ -38,16 +38,20 @@ Functions
Efficiently iterate over each unique element of the list,
executing the callback function for each one. If the array is
- not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting it.
+ not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting it. If
+ the callback returns a non-zero value, the iteration ends
+ immediately and the callback's return is propagated; otherwise,
+ 0 is returned.
-void print_callback(const unsigned char sha1[20],
+int print_callback(const unsigned char sha1[20],
void *data)
printf("%s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+ return 0; /* always continue */
void some_func(void)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 736f389..c59ac99 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -219,7 +219,9 @@ out of what the server said it could do with the first 'want' line.
shallow-line = PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id)
- depth-request = PKT-LINE("deepen" SP depth)
+ depth-request = PKT-LINE("deepen" SP depth) /
+ PKT-LINE("deepen-since" SP timestamp) /
+ PKT-LINE("deepen-not" SP ref)
first-want = PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id SP capability-list)
additional-want = PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
index 4c28d3a..26dcc6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
@@ -179,6 +179,31 @@ This capability adds "deepen", "shallow" and "unshallow" commands to
the fetch-pack/upload-pack protocol so clients can request shallow
+This capability adds "deepen-since" command to fetch-pack/upload-pack
+protocol so the client can request shallow clones that are cut at a
+specific time, instead of depth. Internally it's equivalent of doing
+"rev-list --max-age=<timestamp>" on the server side. "deepen-since"
+cannot be used with "deepen".
+This capability adds "deepen-not" command to fetch-pack/upload-pack
+protocol so the client can request shallow clones that are cut at a
+specific revision, instead of depth. Internally it's equivalent of
+doing "rev-list --not <rev>" on the server side. "deepen-not"
+cannot be used with "deepen", but can be used with "deepen-since".
+If this capability is requested by the client, the semantics of
+"deepen" command is changed. The "depth" argument is the depth from
+the current shallow boundary, instead of the depth from remote refs.
diff --git a/Documentation/transfer-data-leaks.txt b/Documentation/transfer-data-leaks.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..914bacc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/transfer-data-leaks.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+The fetch and push protocols are not designed to prevent one side from
+stealing data from the other repository that was not intended to be
+shared. If you have private data that you need to protect from a malicious
+peer, your best option is to store it in another repository. This applies
+to both clients and servers. In particular, namespaces on a server are not
+effective for read access control; you should only grant read access to a
+namespace to clients that you would trust with read access to the entire
+The known attack vectors are as follows:
+. The victim sends "have" lines advertising the IDs of objects it has that
+ are not explicitly intended to be shared but can be used to optimize the
+ transfer if the peer also has them. The attacker chooses an object ID X
+ to steal and sends a ref to X, but isn't required to send the content of
+ X because the victim already has it. Now the victim believes that the
+ attacker has X, and it sends the content of X back to the attacker
+ later. (This attack is most straightforward for a client to perform on a
+ server, by creating a ref to X in the namespace the client has access
+ to and then fetching it. The most likely way for a server to perform it
+ on a client is to "merge" X into a public branch and hope that the user
+ does additional work on this branch and pushes it back to the server
+ without noticing the merge.)
+. As in #1, the attacker chooses an object ID X to steal. The victim sends
+ an object Y that the attacker already has, and the attacker falsely
+ claims to have X and not Y, so the victim sends Y as a delta against X.
+ The delta reveals regions of X that are similar to Y to the attacker.