path: root/Documentation
diff options
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
19 files changed, 420 insertions, 441 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 894546d..7636199 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -328,9 +328,14 @@ For C programs:
- When you come up with an API, document it.
- - The first #include in C files, except in platform specific
- compat/ implementations, should be git-compat-util.h or another
- header file that includes it, such as cache.h or builtin.h.
+ - The first #include in C files, except in platform specific compat/
+ implementations, must be either "git-compat-util.h", "cache.h" or
+ "builtin.h". You do not have to include more than one of these.
+ - A C file must directly include the header files that declare the
+ functions and the types it uses, except for the functions and types
+ that are made available to it by including one of the header files
+ it must include by the previous rule.
- If you are planning a new command, consider writing it in shell
or perl first, so that changes in semantics can be easily
@@ -413,6 +418,29 @@ Error Messages
- Say what the error is first ("cannot open %s", not "%s: cannot open")
+Externally Visible Names
+ - For configuration variable names, follow the existing convention:
+ . The section name indicates the affected subsystem.
+ . The subsection name, if any, indicates which of an unbounded set
+ of things to set the value for.
+ . The variable name describes the effect of tweaking this knob.
+ The section and variable names that consist of multiple words are
+ formed by concatenating the words without punctuations (e.g. `-`),
+ and are broken using bumpyCaps in documentation as a hint to the
+ reader.
+ When choosing the variable namespace, do not use variable name for
+ specifying possibly unbounded set of things, most notably anything
+ an end user can freely come up with (e.g. branch names). Instead,
+ use subsection names or variable values, like the existing variable
+ branch.<name>.description does.
Writing Documentation:
Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in the
@@ -441,6 +469,10 @@ Writing Documentation:
+ If a placeholder has multiple words, they are separated by dashes:
+ <new-branch-name>
+ --template=<template-directory>
Possibility of multiple occurrences is indicated by three dots:
(One or more of <file>.)
@@ -457,12 +489,12 @@ Writing Documentation:
(Zero or more of <patch>. Note that the dots are inside, not
outside the brackets.)
- Multiple alternatives are indicated with vertical bar:
+ Multiple alternatives are indicated with vertical bars:
[-q | --quiet]
[--utf8 | --no-utf8]
Parentheses are used for grouping:
- [(<rev>|<range>)...]
+ [(<rev> | <range>)...]
(Any number of either <rev> or <range>. Parens are needed to make
it clear that "..." pertains to both <rev> and <range>.)
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cf96186
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+Git v2.3.1 Release Notes
+Fixes since v2.3
+ * The interactive "show a list and let the user choose from it"
+ interface "add -i" used showed and prompted to the user even when
+ the candidate list was empty, against which the only "choice" the
+ user could have made was to choose nothing.
+ * "git apply --whitespace=fix" used to under-allocate the memory
+ when the fix resulted in a longer text than the original patch.
+ * "git log --help" used to show rev-list options that are irrelevant
+ to the "log" command.
+ * The error message from "git commit", when a non-existing author
+ name was given as value to the "--author=" parameter, has been
+ reworded to avoid misunderstanding.
+ * A broken pack .idx file in the receiving repository prevented the
+ dumb http transport from fetching a good copy of it from the other
+ side.
+ * The documentation incorrectly said that C(opy) and R(ename) are the
+ only ones that can be followed by the score number in the output in
+ the --raw format.
+ * Fix a misspelled conditional that is always true.
+ * Code to read branch name from various files in .git/ directory
+ would have misbehaved if the code to write them left an empty file.
+ * The "git push" documentation made the "--repo=<there>" option
+ easily misunderstood.
+ * After attempting and failing a password-less authentication
+ (e.g. kerberos), libcURL refuses to fall back to password based
+ Basic authentication without a bit of help/encouragement.
+ * Setting diff.submodule to 'log' made "git format-patch" produce
+ broken patches.
+ * "git rerere" (invoked internally from many mergy operations) did
+ not correctly signal errors when told to update the working tree
+ files and failed to do so for whatever reason.
+ * "git blame HEAD -- missing" failed to correctly say "HEAD" when it
+ tried to say "No such path 'missing' in HEAD".
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f4caf54
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,79 @@
+Git v2.3.2 Release Notes
+Fixes since v2.3.1
+ * "update-index --refresh" used to leak when an entry cannot be
+ refreshed for whatever reason.
+ * "git fast-import" used to crash when it could not close and
+ conclude the resulting packfile cleanly.
+ * "git blame" died, trying to free an uninitialized piece of memory.
+ * "git merge-file" did not work correctly in a subdirectory.
+ * "git submodule add" failed to squash "path/to/././submodule" to
+ "path/to/submodule".
+ * In v2.2.0, we broke "git prune" that runs in a repository that
+ borrows from an alternate object store.
+ * Certain older vintages of cURL give irregular output from
+ "curl-config --vernum", which confused our build system.
+ * An earlier workaround to squelch unhelpful deprecation warnings
+ from the complier on Mac OSX unnecessarily set minimum required
+ version of the OS, which the user might want to raise (or lower)
+ for other reasons.
+ * Longstanding configuration variable naming rules has been added to
+ the documentation.
+ * The credential helper for Windows (in contrib/) used to mishandle
+ a user name with an at-sign in it.
+ * Older GnuPG implementations may not correctly import the keyring
+ material we prepare for the tests to use.
+ * Clarify in the documentation that "remote.<nick>.pushURL" and
+ "remote.<nick>.URL" are there to name the same repository accessed
+ via different transports, not two separate repositories.
+ * The pack bitmap support did not build with older versions of GCC.
+ * Reading configuration from a blob object, when it ends with a lone
+ CR, use to confuse the configuration parser.
+ * We didn't format an integer that wouldn't fit in "int" but in
+ "uintmax_t" correctly.
+ * "git push --signed" gave an incorrectly worded error message when
+ the other side did not support the capability.
+ * "git fetch" over a remote-helper that cannot respond to "list"
+ command could not fetch from a symbolic reference e.g. HEAD.
+ * The insn sheet "git rebase -i" creates did not fully honor
+ core.abbrev settings.
+ * The tests that wanted to see that file becomes unreadable after
+ running "chmod a-r file", and the tests that wanted to make sure it
+ is not run as root, we used "can we write into the / directory?" as
+ a cheap substitute, but on some platforms that is not a good
+ heuristics. The tests and their prerequisites have been updated to
+ check what they really require.
+ * The configuration variable 'mailinfo.scissors' was hard to
+ discover in the documentation.
+ * Correct a breakage to git-svn around v2.2 era that triggers
+ premature closing of FileHandle.
+ * Even though we officially haven't dropped Perl 5.8 support, the
+ Getopt::Long package that came with it does not support "--no-"
+ prefix to negate a boolean option; manually add support to help
+ people with older Getopt::Long package.
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 1a54eae..1530255 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -683,14 +683,13 @@ core.abbrev::
for abbreviated object names to stay unique for sufficiently long
+add.ignore-errors (deprecated)::
Tells 'git add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
- option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of Git accept only
- `add.ignore-errors`, which does not follow the usual naming
- convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of Git
- honor `add.ignoreErrors` as well.
+ option of linkgit:git-add[1]. `add.ignore-errors` is deprecated,
+ as it does not follow the usual naming convention for configuration
+ variables.
Command aliases for the linkgit:git[1] command wrapper - e.g.
@@ -1740,6 +1739,13 @@ log.mailmap::
If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`.
+ If true, makes linkgit:git-mailinfo[1] (and therefore
+ linkgit:git-am[1]) act by default as if the --scissors option
+ was provided on the command-line. When active, this features
+ removes everything from the message body before a scissors
+ line (i.e. consisting mainly of ">8", "8<" and "-").
The location of an augmenting mailmap file. The default
mailmap, located in the root of the repository, is loaded
@@ -1960,7 +1966,7 @@ pack.useBitmaps::
true. You should not generally need to turn this off unless
you are debugging pack bitmaps.
+pack.writebitmaps (deprecated)::
This is a deprecated synonym for `repack.writeBitmaps`.
@@ -2158,11 +2164,15 @@ receive.denyCurrentBranch::
message. Defaults to "refuse".
Another option is "updateInstead" which will update the working
-directory (must be clean) if pushing into the current branch. This option is
+tree if pushing into the current branch. This option is
intended for synchronizing working directories when one side is not easily
accessible via interactive ssh (e.g. a live web site, hence the requirement
that the working directory be clean). This mode also comes in handy when
developing inside a VM to test and fix code on different Operating Systems.
+By default, "updateInstead" will refuse the push if the working tree or
+the index have any difference from the HEAD, but the `push-to-checkout`
+hook can be used to customize this. See linkgit:githooks[5].
If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
@@ -2302,7 +2312,7 @@ sendemail.smtpencryption::
See linkgit:git-send-email[1] for description. Note that this
setting is not subject to the 'identity' mechanism.
+sendemail.smtpssl (deprecated)::
Deprecated alias for 'sendemail.smtpencryption = ssl'.
@@ -2342,7 +2352,7 @@ sendemail.validate::
See linkgit:git-send-email[1] for description.
+sendemail.signedoffcc (deprecated)::
Deprecated alias for 'sendemail.signedoffbycc'.
@@ -2407,12 +2417,16 @@ status.submodulesummary::
+ The path within this project and URL for a submodule. These
+ variables are initially populated by 'git submodule init'. See
+ linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for
+ details.
- The path within this project, URL, and the updating strategy
- for a submodule. These variables are initially populated
- by 'git submodule init'; edit them to override the
- URL and other values found in the `.gitmodules` file. See
- linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+ The default update procedure for a submodule. This variable
+ is populated by `git submodule init` from the
+ linkgit:gitmodules[5] file. See description of 'update'
+ command in linkgit:git-submodule[1].
The remote branch name for a submodule, used by `git submodule
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index 15c7e79..85b0890 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,8 @@ be committed)
Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
percentage of similarity between the source and target of the move or
-copy), and are the only ones to be so.
+copy). Status letter M may be followed by a score (denoting the
+percentage of dissimilarity) for file rewrites.
<sha1> is shown as all 0's if a file is new on the filesystem
and it is out of sync with the index.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index f4eea28..0d8ba48 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -52,7 +52,8 @@ OPTIONS
Remove everything in body before a scissors line (see
- linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
+ linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]). Can be activated by default using
+ the `mailinfo.scissors` configuration variable.
Ignore scissors lines (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index f605327..9489664 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace ]
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--directory=<root>]
- [--verbose] [<patch>...]
+ [--verbose] [--unsafe-paths] [<patch>...]
@@ -229,6 +229,16 @@ For example, a patch that talks about updating `a/` to `b/`
can be applied to the file in the working tree `modules/git-gui/` by
running `git apply --directory=modules/git-gui`.
+ By default, a patch that affects outside the working area
+ (either a Git controlled working tree, or the current working
+ directory when "git apply" is used as a replacement of GNU
+ patch) is rejected as a mistake (or a mischief).
+When `git apply` is used as a "better GNU patch", the user can pass
+the `--unsafe-paths` option to override this safety check. This option
+has no effect when `--index` or `--cached` is in use.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 94b6d19..641681f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -34,8 +34,12 @@ OPTIONS
If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
- to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f, -n or
- -i.
+ to false, 'git clean' will refuse to delete files or directories
+ unless given -f, -n or -i. Git will refuse to delete directories
+ with .git sub directory or file unless a second -f
+ is given. This affects also git submodules where the storage area
+ of the removed submodule under .git/modules/ is not removed until
+ -f is given twice.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 6ab5f94..a1664b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -241,6 +241,9 @@ Git repository:
Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
See the "CLIENT SPEC" section below.
+-/ <path>::
+ Exclude selected depot paths when cloning or syncing.
Clone options
These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
@@ -254,9 +257,6 @@ options described above.
Perform a bare clone. See linkgit:git-clone[1].
--/ <path>::
- Exclude selected depot paths when cloning.
Submit options
These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index ea97576..e1a46a7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -219,22 +219,8 @@ origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
`<refspec>...` section above for details.
- This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
- passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
- remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
- branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
- the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
- can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
- the difference between these two commands
-git push public #1
-git push --repo=public #2
-is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
-only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
-useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
+ This option is equivalent to the <repository> argument. If both
+ are specified, the command-line argument takes precedence.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index cb103c8..4c6d6de 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -58,6 +58,9 @@ remote repository.
With `--no-tags` option, `git fetch <name>` does not import tags from
the remote repository.
+By default, only tags on fetched branches are imported
+(see linkgit:git-fetch[1]).
With `-t <branch>` option, instead of the default glob
refspec for the remote to track all branches under
the `refs/remotes/<name>/` namespace, a refspec to track only `<branch>`
@@ -130,17 +133,25 @@ branches, adds to that list.
-Changes URL remote points to. Sets first URL remote points to matching
+Changes URLs for the remote. Sets first URL for remote <name> that matches
regex <oldurl> (first URL if no <oldurl> is given) to <newurl>. If
-<oldurl> doesn't match any URL, error occurs and nothing is changed.
+<oldurl> doesn't match any URL, an error occurs and nothing is changed.
With '--push', push URLs are manipulated instead of fetch URLs.
-With '--add', instead of changing some URL, new URL is added.
+With '--add', instead of changing existing URLs, new URL is added.
+With '--delete', instead of changing existing URLs, all URLs matching
+regex <url> are deleted for remote <name>. Trying to delete all
+non-push URLs is an error.
-With '--delete', instead of changing some URL, all URLs matching
-regex <url> are deleted. Trying to delete all non-push URLs is an
+Note that the push URL and the fetch URL, even though they can
+be set differently, must still refer to the same place. What you
+pushed to the push URL should be what you would see if you
+immediately fetched from the fetch URL. If you are trying to
+fetch from one place (e.g. your upstream) and push to another (e.g.
+your publishing repository), use two separate remotes.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 8e6af65..2c25916 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -154,27 +154,51 @@ If `--force` is specified, the submodule's work tree will be removed even if
it contains local modifications.
- Update the registered submodules, i.e. clone missing submodules and
- checkout the commit specified in the index of the containing repository.
- This will make the submodules HEAD be detached unless `--rebase` or
- `--merge` is specified or the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to
- `rebase`, `merge` or `none`. `none` can be overridden by specifying
- `--checkout`. Setting the key `submodule.$name.update` to `!command`
- will cause `command` to be run. `command` can be any arbitrary shell
- command that takes a single argument, namely the sha1 to update to.
+Update the registered submodules to match what the superproject
+expects by cloning missing submodules and updating the working tree of
+the submodules. The "updating" can be done in several ways depending
+on command line options and the value of `submodule.<name>.update`
+configuration variable. Supported update procedures are:
+ checkout;; the commit recorded in the superproject will be
+ checked out in the submodule on a detached HEAD. This is
+ done when `--checkout` option is given, or no option is
+ given, and `submodule.<name>.update` is unset, or if it is
+ set to 'checkout'.
+If `--force` is specified, the submodule will be checked out (using
+`git checkout --force` if appropriate), even if the commit specified
+in the index of the containing repository already matches the commit
+checked out in the submodule.
+ rebase;; the current branch of the submodule will be rebased
+ onto the commit recorded in the superproject. This is done
+ when `--rebase` option is given, or no option is given, and
+ `submodule.<name>.update` is set to 'rebase'.
+ merge;; the commit recorded in the superproject will be merged
+ into the current branch in the submodule. This is done
+ when `--merge` option is given, or no option is given, and
+ `submodule.<name>.update` is set to 'merge'.
+ custom command;; arbitrary shell command that takes a single
+ argument (the sha1 of the commit recorded in the
+ superproject) is executed. This is done when no option is
+ given, and `submodule.<name>.update` has the form of
+ '!command'.
+When no option is given and `submodule.<name>.update` is set to 'none',
+the submodule is not updated.
If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the
setting as stored in .gitmodules, you can automatically initialize the
submodule with the `--init` option.
If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
registered submodules, and update any nested submodules within.
-If `--force` is specified, the submodule will be checked out (using
-`git checkout --force` if appropriate), even if the commit specified in the
-index of the containing repository already matches the commit checked out in
-the submodule.
Show commit summary between the given commit (defaults to HEAD) and
working tree/index. For a submodule in question, a series of commits
@@ -238,10 +262,12 @@ OPTIONS
When running add, allow adding an otherwise ignored submodule path.
When running deinit the submodule work trees will be removed even if
they contain local changes.
- When running update, throw away local changes in submodules when
- switching to a different commit; and always run a checkout operation
- in the submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
- containing repository matches the commit checked out in the submodule.
+ When running update (only effective with the checkout procedure),
+ throw away local changes in submodules when switching to a
+ different commit; and always run a checkout operation in the
+ submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
+ containing repository matches the commit checked out in the
+ submodule.
This option is only valid for status and summary commands. These
@@ -302,7 +328,7 @@ the submodule itself.
Checkout the commit recorded in the superproject on a detached HEAD
in the submodule. This is the default behavior, the main use of
this option is to override `submodule.$name.update` when set to
- `merge`, `rebase` or `none`.
+ a value other than `checkout`.
If the key `submodule.$name.update` is either not explicitly set or
set to `checkout`, this option is implicit.
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index eadbd05..52c4d2a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -43,9 +43,11 @@ unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
-* link:v2.3.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.3]
+* link:v2.3.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.2]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
+ link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
* link:v2.2.2/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.2]
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 9ef2469..7ba0ac9 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -341,6 +341,36 @@ Both standard output and standard error output are forwarded to
'git send-pack' on the other end, so you can simply `echo` messages
for the user.
+This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' on the remote repository,
+which happens when a 'git push' is done on a local repository, when
+the push tries to update the branch that is currently checked out
+and the `receive.denyCurrentBranch` configuration variable is set to
+`updateInstead`. Such a push by default is refused if the working
+tree and the index of the remote repository has any difference from
+the currently checked out commit; when both the working tree and the
+index match the current commit, they are updated to match the newly
+pushed tip of the branch. This hook is to be used to override the
+default behaviour.
+The hook receives the commit with which the tip of the current
+branch is going to be updated. It can exit with a non-zero status
+to refuse the push (when it does so, it must not modify the index or
+the working tree). Or it can make any necessary changes to the
+working tree and to the index to bring them to the desired state
+when the tip of the current branch is updated to the new commit, and
+exit with a zero status.
+For example, the hook can simply run `git read-tree -u -m HEAD "$1"`
+in order to emulate 'git fetch' that is run in the reverse direction
+with `git push`, as the two-tree form of `read-tree -u -m` is
+essentially the same as `git checkout` that switches branches while
+keeping the local changes in the working tree that do not interfere
+with the difference between the branches.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index f6c0dfd..ac70eca 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -38,18 +38,15 @@ submodule.<name>.url::
In addition, there are a number of optional keys:
- Defines what to do when the submodule is updated by the superproject.
- If 'checkout' (the default), the new commit specified in the
- superproject will be checked out in the submodule on a detached HEAD.
- If 'rebase', the current branch of the submodule will be rebased onto
- the commit specified in the superproject. If 'merge', the commit
- specified in the superproject will be merged into the current branch
- in the submodule.
- If 'none', the submodule with name `$name` will not be updated
- by default.
- This config option is overridden if 'git submodule update' is given
- the '--merge', '--rebase' or '--checkout' options.
+ Defines the default update procedure for the named submodule,
+ i.e. how the submodule is updated by "git submodule update"
+ command in the superproject. This is only used by `git
+ submodule init` to initialize the configuration variable of
+ the same name. Allowed values here are 'checkout', 'rebase',
+ 'merge' or 'none'. See description of 'update' command in
+ linkgit:git-submodule[1] for their meaning. Note that the
+ '!command' form is intentionally ignored here for security
+ reasons.
A remote branch name for tracking updates in the upstream submodule.
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 8569e29..74aa01a 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -3,9 +3,13 @@
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
where '<format>' can be one of 'oneline', 'short', 'medium',
- 'full', 'fuller', 'email', 'raw' and 'format:<string>'. See
- the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
- format. When omitted, the format defaults to 'medium'.
+ 'full', 'fuller', 'email', 'raw', 'format:<string>'
+ and 'tformat:<string>'. When '<format>' is none of the above,
+ and has '%placeholder' in it, it acts as if
+ '--pretty=tformat:<format>' were given.
+See the "PRETTY FORMATS" section for some additional details for each
+format. When '=<format>' part is omitted, it defaults to 'medium'.
Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository
configuration (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 2984f40..4ed8587 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -66,6 +66,10 @@ if it is part of the log message.
Limit the commits output to ones that match all given `--grep`,
instead of ones that match at least one.
+ Limit the commits output to ones with log message that do not
+ match the pattern specified with `--grep=<pattern>`.
Match the regular expression limiting patterns without regard to letter
@@ -172,11 +176,6 @@ explicitly.
Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
command line as `<commit>`.
- Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed
- on the command line. Note that you probably want to use
- `--objects`, too.
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
the bad input was not given.
@@ -644,6 +643,7 @@ Object Traversal
These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed
commits. `--objects foo ^bar` thus means ``send me
@@ -662,9 +662,15 @@ These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
commits at the cost of increased time. This is used instead of
`--objects-edge` to build ``thin'' packs for shallow repositories.
+ Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed
+ on the command line. Note that you probably want to use
+ `--objects`, too.
Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
in packs.
Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-error-handling.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-error-handling.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc68db1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-error-handling.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+Error reporting in git
+`die`, `usage`, `error`, and `warning` report errors of various
+- `die` is for fatal application errors. It prints a message to
+ the user and exits with status 128.
+- `usage` is for errors in command line usage. After printing its
+ message, it exits with status 129. (See also `usage_with_options`
+ in the link:api-parse-options.html[parse-options API].)
+- `error` is for non-fatal library errors. It prints a message
+ to the user and returns -1 for convenience in signaling the error
+ to the caller.
+- `warning` is for reporting situations that probably should not
+ occur but which the user (and Git) can continue to work around
+ without running into too many problems. Like `error`, it
+ returns -1 after reporting the situation to the caller.
+Customizable error handlers
+The default behavior of `die` and `error` is to write a message to
+stderr and then exit or return as appropriate. This behavior can be
+overridden using `set_die_routine` and `set_error_routine`. For
+example, "git daemon" uses set_die_routine to write the reason `die`
+was called to syslog before exiting.
+Library errors
+Functions return a negative integer on error. Details beyond that
+vary from function to function:
+- Some functions return -1 for all errors. Others return a more
+ specific value depending on how the caller might want to react
+ to the error.
+- Some functions report the error to stderr with `error`,
+ while others leave that for the caller to do.
+- errno is not meaningful on return from most functions (except
+ for thin wrappers for system calls).
+Check the function's API documentation to be sure.
+Caller-handled errors
+An increasing number of functions take a parameter 'struct strbuf *err'.
+On error, such functions append a message about what went wrong to the
+'err' strbuf. The message is meant to be complete enough to be passed
+to `die` or `error` as-is. For example:
+ if (ref_transaction_commit(transaction, &err))
+ die("%s", err.buf);
+The 'err' parameter will be untouched if no error occured, so multiple
+function calls can be chained:
+ t = ref_transaction_begin(&err);
+ if (!t ||
+ ref_transaction_update(t, "HEAD", ..., &err) ||
+ ret_transaction_commit(t, &err))
+ die("%s", err.buf);
+The 'err' parameter must be a pointer to a valid strbuf. To silence
+a message, pass a strbuf that is explicitly ignored:
+ if (thing_that_can_fail_in_an_ignorable_way(..., &err))
+ /* This failure is okay. */
+ strbuf_reset(&err);
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index cca6543..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,351 +0,0 @@
-strbuf API
-strbuf's are meant to be used with all the usual C string and memory
-APIs. Given that the length of the buffer is known, it's often better to
-use the mem* functions than a str* one (memchr vs. strchr e.g.).
-Though, one has to be careful about the fact that str* functions often
-stop on NULs and that strbufs may have embedded NULs.
-A strbuf is NUL terminated for convenience, but no function in the
-strbuf API actually relies on the string being free of NULs.
-strbufs have some invariants that are very important to keep in mind:
-. The `buf` member is never NULL, so it can be used in any usual C
-string operations safely. strbuf's _have_ to be initialized either by
-`strbuf_init()` or by `= STRBUF_INIT` before the invariants, though.
-Do *not* assume anything on what `buf` really is (e.g. if it is
-allocated memory or not), use `strbuf_detach()` to unwrap a memory
-buffer from its strbuf shell in a safe way. That is the sole supported
-way. This will give you a malloced buffer that you can later `free()`.
-However, it is totally safe to modify anything in the string pointed by
-the `buf` member, between the indices `0` and `len-1` (inclusive).
-. The `buf` member is a byte array that has at least `len + 1` bytes
- allocated. The extra byte is used to store a `'\0'`, allowing the
- `buf` member to be a valid C-string. Every strbuf function ensure this
- invariant is preserved.
-NOTE: It is OK to "play" with the buffer directly if you work it this
- way:
-strbuf_grow(sb, SOME_SIZE); <1>
-strbuf_setlen(sb, sb->len + SOME_OTHER_SIZE);
-<1> Here, the memory array starting at `sb->buf`, and of length
-`strbuf_avail(sb)` is all yours, and you can be sure that
-`strbuf_avail(sb)` is at least `SOME_SIZE`.
-NOTE: `SOME_OTHER_SIZE` must be smaller or equal to `strbuf_avail(sb)`.
-Doing so is safe, though if it has to be done in many places, adding the
-missing API to the strbuf module is the way to go.
-WARNING: Do _not_ assume that the area that is yours is of size `alloc
-- 1` even if it's true in the current implementation. Alloc is somehow a
-"private" member that should not be messed with. Use `strbuf_avail()`
-Data structures
-* `struct strbuf`
-This is the string buffer structure. The `len` member can be used to
-determine the current length of the string, and `buf` member provides
-access to the string itself.
-* Life cycle
- Initialize the structure. The second parameter can be zero or a bigger
- number to allocate memory, in case you want to prevent further reallocs.
- Release a string buffer and the memory it used. You should not use the
- string buffer after using this function, unless you initialize it again.
- Detach the string from the strbuf and returns it; you now own the
- storage the string occupies and it is your responsibility from then on
- to release it with `free(3)` when you are done with it.
- Attach a string to a buffer. You should specify the string to attach,
- the current length of the string and the amount of allocated memory.
- The amount must be larger than the string length, because the string you
- pass is supposed to be a NUL-terminated string. This string _must_ be
- malloc()ed, and after attaching, the pointer cannot be relied upon
- anymore, and neither be free()d directly.
- Swap the contents of two string buffers.
-* Related to the size of the buffer
- Determine the amount of allocated but unused memory.
- Ensure that at least this amount of unused memory is available after
- `len`. This is used when you know a typical size for what you will add
- and want to avoid repetitive automatic resizing of the underlying buffer.
- This is never a needed operation, but can be critical for performance in
- some cases.
- Set the length of the buffer to a given value. This function does *not*
- allocate new memory, so you should not perform a `strbuf_setlen()` to a
- length that is larger than `len + strbuf_avail()`. `strbuf_setlen()` is
- just meant as a 'please fix invariants from this strbuf I just messed
- with'.
- Empty the buffer by setting the size of it to zero.
-* Related to the contents of the buffer
- Strip whitespace from the beginning and end of a string.
- Equivalent to performing `strbuf_rtrim()` followed by `strbuf_ltrim()`.
- Strip whitespace from the end of a string.
- Strip whitespace from the beginning of a string.
- Replace the contents of the strbuf with a reencoded form. Returns -1
- on error, 0 on success.
- Lowercase each character in the buffer using `tolower`.
- Compare two buffers. Returns an integer less than, equal to, or greater
- than zero if the first buffer is found, respectively, to be less than,
- to match, or be greater than the second buffer.
-* Adding data to the buffer
-NOTE: All of the functions in this section will grow the buffer as necessary.
-If they fail for some reason other than memory shortage and the buffer hadn't
-been allocated before (i.e. the `struct strbuf` was set to `STRBUF_INIT`),
-then they will free() it.
- Add a single character to the buffer.
- Add a character the specified number of times to the buffer.
- Insert data to the given position of the buffer. The remaining contents
- will be shifted, not overwritten.
- Remove given amount of data from a given position of the buffer.
- Remove the bytes between `pos..pos+len` and replace it with the given
- data.
- Add a NUL-terminated string to the buffer. Each line will be prepended
- by a comment character and a blank.
- Add data of given length to the buffer.
-Add a NUL-terminated string to the buffer.
-NOTE: This function will *always* be implemented as an inline or a macro
-that expands to:
-strbuf_add(..., s, strlen(s));
-Meaning that this is efficient to write things like:
-strbuf_addstr(sb, "immediate string");
- Copy the contents of another buffer at the end of the current one.
- Copy part of the buffer from a given position till a given length to the
- end of the buffer.
- This function can be used to expand a format string containing
- placeholders. To that end, it parses the string and calls the specified
- function for every percent sign found.
-The callback function is given a pointer to the character after the `%`
-and a pointer to the struct strbuf. It is expected to add the expanded
-version of the placeholder to the strbuf, e.g. to add a newline
-character if the letter `n` appears after a `%`. The function returns
-the length of the placeholder recognized and `strbuf_expand()` skips
-over it.
-The format `%%` is automatically expanded to a single `%` as a quoting
-mechanism; callers do not need to handle the `%` placeholder themselves,
-and the callback function will not be invoked for this placeholder.
-All other characters (non-percent and not skipped ones) are copied
-verbatim to the strbuf. If the callback returned zero, meaning that the
-placeholder is unknown, then the percent sign is copied, too.
-In order to facilitate caching and to make it possible to give
-parameters to the callback, `strbuf_expand()` passes a context pointer,
-which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
- Used as callback for `strbuf_expand()`, expects an array of
- struct strbuf_expand_dict_entry as context, i.e. pairs of
- placeholder and replacement string. The array needs to be
- terminated by an entry with placeholder set to NULL.
- Append the contents of one strbuf to another, quoting any
- percent signs ("%") into double-percents ("%%") in the
- destination. This is useful for literal data to be fed to either
- strbuf_expand or to the *printf family of functions.
- Append the given byte size as a human-readable string (i.e. 12.23 KiB,
- 3.50 MiB).
- Add a formatted string to the buffer.
- Add a formatted string prepended by a comment character and a
- blank to the buffer.
- Read a given size of data from a FILE* pointer to the buffer.
-NOTE: The buffer is rewound if the read fails. If -1 is returned,
-`errno` must be consulted, like you would do for `read(3)`.
-`strbuf_read()`, `strbuf_read_file()` and `strbuf_getline()` has the
-same behaviour as well.
- Read the contents of a given file descriptor. The third argument can be
- used to give a hint about the file size, to avoid reallocs.
- Read the contents of a file, specified by its path. The third argument
- can be used to give a hint about the file size, to avoid reallocs.
- Read the target of a symbolic link, specified by its path. The third
- argument can be used to give a hint about the size, to avoid reallocs.
- Read a line from a FILE *, overwriting the existing contents
- of the strbuf. The second argument specifies the line
- terminator character, typically `'\n'`.
- Reading stops after the terminator or at EOF. The terminator
- is removed from the buffer before returning. Returns 0 unless
- there was nothing left before EOF, in which case it returns `EOF`.
- Like `strbuf_getline`, but keeps the trailing terminator (if
- any) in the buffer.
- Like `strbuf_getwholeline`, but operates on a file descriptor.
- It reads one character at a time, so it is very slow. Do not
- use it unless you need the correct position in the file
- descriptor.
- Set the buffer to the path of the current working directory.
- Add a path to a buffer, converting a relative path to an
- absolute one in the process. Symbolic links are not
- resolved.
- Strip whitespace from a buffer. The second parameter controls if
- comments are considered contents to be removed or not.
- Split a string or strbuf into a list of strbufs at a specified
- terminator character. The returned substrings include the
- terminator characters. Some of these functions take a `max`
- parameter, which, if positive, limits the output to that
- number of substrings.
- Free a list of strbufs (for example, the return values of the
- `strbuf_split()` functions).
- Launch the user preferred editor to edit a file and fill the buffer
- with the file's contents upon the user completing their editing. The
- third argument can be used to set the environment which the editor is
- run in. If the buffer is NULL the editor is launched as usual but the
- file's contents are not read into the buffer upon completion.