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-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt508
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.1.txt88
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt482
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt49
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt398
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt200
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches367
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt248
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt80
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-annotate.txt1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-apply.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-blame.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt94
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-describe.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-index.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-index-pack.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt62
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt64
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mktree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reflog.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rerere.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rm.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-pack.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt27
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt73
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-worktree.txt93
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt163
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitignore.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt112
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitworkflows.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt2
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/install-doc-quick.sh9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-config.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rebase-config.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-decorate.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt27
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt209
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt97
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt163
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt821
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/long-running-process-protocol.txt50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt53
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt324
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt395
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt36
116 files changed, 5755 insertions, 922 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index 2c8b2d6..c7096f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -11,3 +11,4 @@ doc.dep
cmds-*.txt
mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
+SubmittingPatches.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index c4cb5ff..48aa4ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -386,6 +386,11 @@ For C programs:
- Use Git's gettext wrappers to make the user interface
translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in po/README.
+ - Variables and functions local to a given source file should be marked
+ with "static". Variables that are visible to other source files
+ must be declared with "extern" in header files. However, function
+ declarations should not use "extern", as that is already the default.
+
For Perl programs:
- Most of the C guidelines above apply.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 2415e0d..fa9e5c0 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -39,6 +39,7 @@ MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
MAN_XML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
MAN_HTML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
+GIT_MAN_REF = master
OBSOLETE_HTML += everyday.html
OBSOLETE_HTML += git-remote-helpers.html
@@ -67,13 +68,17 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
+TECH_DOCS += SubmittingPatches
+TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
+TECH_DOCS += technical/long-running-process-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-capabilities
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-common
+TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-v2
TECH_DOCS += technical/racy-git
TECH_DOCS += technical/send-pack-pipeline
TECH_DOCS += technical/shallow
@@ -180,6 +185,7 @@ ASCIIDOC = asciidoctor
ASCIIDOC_CONF =
ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml5
ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook45
+ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
DBLATEX_COMMON =
@@ -322,6 +328,7 @@ clean:
$(RM) *.pdf
$(RM) howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
$(RM) technical/*.html technical/api-index.txt
+ $(RM) SubmittingPatches.txt
$(RM) $(cmds_txt) $(mergetools_txt) *.made
$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
@@ -360,6 +367,9 @@ technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) $*.txt
+SubmittingPatches.txt: SubmittingPatches
+ $(QUIET_GEN) cp $< $@
+
XSLT = docbook.xsl
XSLTOPTS = --xinclude --stringparam html.stylesheet docbook-xsl.css
@@ -430,14 +440,14 @@ require-manrepo::
then echo "git-manpages repository must exist at $(MAN_REPO)"; exit 1; fi
quick-install-man: require-manrepo
- '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-doc-quick.sh $(MAN_REPO) $(DESTDIR)$(mandir)
+ '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-doc-quick.sh $(MAN_REPO) $(DESTDIR)$(mandir) $(GIT_MAN_REF)
require-htmlrepo::
@if test ! -d $(HTML_REPO); \
then echo "git-htmldocs repository must exist at $(HTML_REPO)"; exit 1; fi
quick-install-html: require-htmlrepo
- '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-doc-quick.sh $(HTML_REPO) $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
+ '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-doc-quick.sh $(HTML_REPO) $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir) $(GIT_MAN_REF)
print-man1:
@for i in $(MAN1_TXT); do echo $$i; done
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cdd761b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,508 @@
+Git 2.15 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a
+ more explicit '.' for that instead. The hope is that existing
+ users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be
+ turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of
+ this (mis)feature. That is now scheduled to happen in Git v2.16,
+ the next major release after this one.
+
+ * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
+ sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository. A corner case that
+ happens to work right now may be broken by a call to BUG().
+ We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there
+ might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are
+ greatly appreciated.
+
+ * "branch --set-upstream" that has been deprecated in Git 1.8 has
+ finally been retired.
+
+
+Updates since v2.14
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * An example that is now obsolete has been removed from a sample hook,
+ and an old example in it that added a sign-off manually has been
+ improved to use the interpret-trailers command.
+
+ * The advice message given when "git rebase" stops for conflicting
+ changes has been improved.
+
+ * The "rerere-train" script (in contrib/) learned the "--overwrite"
+ option to allow overwriting existing recorded resolutions.
+
+ * "git contacts" (in contrib/) now lists the address on the
+ "Reported-by:" trailer to its output, in addition to those on
+ S-o-b: and other trailers, to make it easier to notify (and thank)
+ the original bug reporter.
+
+ * "git rebase", especially when it is run by mistake and ends up
+ trying to replay many changes, spent long time in silence. The
+ command has been taught to show progress report when it spends
+ long time preparing these many changes to replay (which would give
+ the user a chance to abort with ^C).
+
+ * "git merge" learned a "--signoff" option to add the Signed-off-by:
+ trailer with the committer's name.
+
+ * "git diff" learned to optionally paint new lines that are the same
+ as deleted lines elsewhere differently from genuinely new lines.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" learned to take the trailer specifications
+ from the command line that overrides the configured values.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" has been taught a "--parse" and a few
+ other options to make it easier for scripts to grab existing
+ trailer lines from a commit log message.
+
+ * The "--format=%(trailers)" option "git log" and its friends take
+ learned to take the 'unfold' and 'only' modifiers to normalize its
+ output, e.g. "git log --format=%(trailers:only,unfold)".
+
+ * "gitweb" shows a link to visit the 'raw' contents of blobs in the
+ history overview page.
+
+ * "[gc] rerereResolved = 5.days" used to be invalid, as the variable
+ is defined to take an integer counting the number of days. It now
+ is allowed.
+
+ * The code to acquire a lock on a reference (e.g. while accepting a
+ push from a client) used to immediately fail when the reference is
+ already locked---now it waits for a very short while and retries,
+ which can make it succeed if the lock holder was holding it during
+ a read-only operation.
+
+ * "branch --set-upstream" that has been deprecated in Git 1.8 has
+ finally been retired.
+
+ * The codepath to call external process filter for smudge/clean
+ operation learned to show the progress meter.
+
+ * "git rev-parse" learned "--is-shallow-repository", that is to be
+ used in a way similar to existing "--is-bare-repository" and
+ friends.
+
+ * "git describe --match <pattern>" has been taught to play well with
+ the "--all" option.
+
+ * "git branch" learned "-c/-C" to create a new branch by copying an
+ existing one.
+
+ * Some commands (most notably "git status") makes an opportunistic
+ update when performing a read-only operation to help optimize later
+ operations in the same repository. The new "--no-optional-locks"
+ option can be passed to Git to disable them.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." learned a new format element,
+ %(trailers), to show only the commit log trailer part of the log
+ message.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Start using selected c99 constructs in small, stable and
+ essential part of the system to catch people who care about
+ older compilers that do not grok them.
+
+ * The filter-process interface learned to allow a process with long
+ latency give a "delayed" response.
+
+ * Many uses of comparison callback function the hashmap API uses
+ cast the callback function type when registering it to
+ hashmap_init(), which defeats the compile time type checking when
+ the callback interface changes (e.g. gaining more parameters).
+ The callback implementations have been updated to take "void *"
+ pointers and cast them to the type they expect instead.
+
+ * Because recent Git for Windows do come with a real msgfmt, the
+ build procedure for git-gui has been updated to use it instead of a
+ hand-rolled substitute.
+
+ * "git grep --recurse-submodules" has been reworked to give a more
+ consistent output across submodule boundary (and do its thing
+ without having to fork a separate process).
+
+ * A helper function to read a single whole line into strbuf
+ mistakenly triggered OOM error at EOF under certain conditions,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * The "ref-store" code reorganization continues.
+
+ * "git commit" used to discard the index and re-read from the filesystem
+ just in case the pre-commit hook has updated it in the middle; this
+ has been optimized out when we know we do not run the pre-commit hook.
+ (merge 680ee550d7 kw/commit-keep-index-when-pre-commit-is-not-run later to maint).
+
+ * Updates to the HTTP layer we made recently unconditionally used
+ features of libCurl without checking the existence of them, causing
+ compilation errors, which has been fixed. Also migrate the code to
+ check feature macros, not version numbers, to cope better with
+ libCurl that vendor ships with backported features.
+
+ * The API to start showing progress meter after a short delay has
+ been simplified.
+ (merge 8aade107dd jc/simplify-progress later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid mixing values read from the .gitmodules file
+ and values read from the .git/config file.
+
+ * We used to spend more than necessary cycles allocating and freeing
+ piece of memory while writing each index entry out. This has been
+ optimized.
+
+ * Platforms that ship with a separate sha1 with collision detection
+ library can link to it instead of using the copy we ship as part of
+ our source tree.
+
+ * Code around "notes" have been cleaned up.
+ (merge 3964281524 mh/notes-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * The long-standing rule that an in-core lockfile instance, once it
+ is used, must not be freed, has been lifted and the lockfile and
+ tempfile APIs have been updated to reduce the chance of programming
+ errors.
+
+ * Our hashmap implementation in hashmap.[ch] is not thread-safe when
+ adding a new item needs to expand the hashtable by rehashing; add
+ an API to disable the automatic rehashing to work it around.
+
+ * Many of our programs consider that it is OK to release dynamic
+ storage that is used throughout the life of the program by simply
+ exiting, but this makes it harder to leak detection tools to avoid
+ reporting false positives. Plug many existing leaks and introduce
+ a mechanism for developers to mark that the region of memory
+ pointed by a pointer is not lost/leaking to help these tools.
+
+ * As "git commit" to conclude a conflicted "git merge" honors the
+ commit-msg hook, "git merge" that records a merge commit that
+ cleanly auto-merges should, but it didn't.
+
+ * The codepath for "git merge-recursive" has been cleaned up.
+
+ * Many leaks of strbuf have been fixed.
+
+ * "git imap-send" has our own implementation of the protocol and also
+ can use more recent libCurl with the imap protocol support. Update
+ the latter so that it can use the credential subsystem, and then
+ make it the default option to use, so that we can eventually
+ deprecate and remove the former.
+
+ * "make style" runs git-clang-format to help developers by pointing
+ out coding style issues.
+
+ * A test to demonstrate "git mv" failing to adjust nested submodules
+ has been added.
+ (merge c514167df2 hv/mv-nested-submodules-test later to maint).
+
+ * On Cygwin, "ulimit -s" does not report failure but it does not work
+ at all, which causes an unexpected success of some tests that
+ expect failures under a limited stack situation. This has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * Many codepaths have been updated to squelch -Wimplicit-fallthrough
+ warnings from Gcc 7 (which is a good code hygiene).
+
+ * Add a helper for DLL loading in anticipation for its need in a
+ future topic RSN.
+
+ * "git status --ignored", when noticing that a directory without any
+ tracked path is ignored, still enumerated all the ignored paths in
+ the directory, which is unnecessary. The codepath has been
+ optimized to avoid this overhead.
+
+ * The final batch to "git rebase -i" updates to move more code from
+ the shell script to C has been merged.
+
+ * Operations that do not touch (majority of) packed refs have been
+ optimized by making accesses to packed-refs file lazy; we no longer
+ pre-parse everything, and an access to a single ref in the
+ packed-refs does not touch majority of irrelevant refs, either.
+
+ * Add comment to clarify that the style file is meant to be used with
+ clang-5 and the rules are still work in progress.
+
+ * Many variables that points at a region of memory that will live
+ throughout the life of the program have been marked with UNLEAK
+ marker to help the leak checkers concentrate on real leaks..
+
+ * Plans for weaning us off of SHA-1 has been documented.
+
+ * A new "oidmap" API has been introduced and oidset API has been
+ rewritten to use it.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.14
+-----------------
+
+ * "%C(color name)" in the pretty print format always produced ANSI
+ color escape codes, which was an early design mistake. They now
+ honor the configuration (e.g. "color.ui = never") and also tty-ness
+ of the output medium.
+
+ * The http.{sslkey,sslCert} configuration variables are to be
+ interpreted as a pathname that honors "~[username]/" prefix, but
+ weren't, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Numerous bugs in walking of reflogs via "log -g" and friends have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit" when seeing an totally empty message said "you did not
+ edit the message", which is clearly wrong. The message has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * When a directory is not readable, "gitweb" fails to build the
+ project list. Work this around by skipping such a directory.
+
+ * Some versions of GnuPG fails to kill gpg-agent it auto-spawned
+ and such a left-over agent can interfere with a test. Work it
+ around by attempting to kill one before starting a new test.
+
+ * A recently added test for the "credential-cache" helper revealed
+ that EOF detection done around the time the connection to the cache
+ daemon is torn down were flaky. This was fixed by reacting to
+ ECONNRESET and behaving as if we got an EOF.
+
+ * "git log --tag=no-such-tag" showed log starting from HEAD, which
+ has been fixed---it now shows nothing.
+
+ * The "tag.pager" configuration variable was useless for those who
+ actually create tag objects, as it interfered with the use of an
+ editor. A new mechanism has been introduced for commands to enable
+ pager depending on what operation is being carried out to fix this,
+ and then "git tag -l" is made to run pager by default.
+
+ * "git push --recurse-submodules $there HEAD:$target" was not
+ propagated down to the submodules, but now it is.
+
+ * Commands like "git rebase" accepted the --rerere-autoupdate option
+ from the command line, but did not always use it. This has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules --quiet" did not pass the quiet
+ option down to submodules.
+
+ * Test portability fix for OBSD.
+
+ * Portability fix for OBSD.
+
+ * "git am -s" has been taught that some input may end with a trailer
+ block that is not Signed-off-by: and it should refrain from adding
+ an extra blank line before adding a new sign-off in such a case.
+
+ * "git svn" used with "--localtime" option did not compute the tz
+ offset for the timestamp in question and instead always used the
+ current time, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Memory leak in an error codepath has been plugged.
+
+ * "git stash -u" used the contents of the committed version of the
+ ".gitignore" file to decide which paths are ignored, even when the
+ file has local changes. The command has been taught to instead use
+ the locally modified contents.
+
+ * bash 4.4 or newer gave a warning on NUL byte in command
+ substitution done in "git stash"; this has been squelched.
+
+ * "git grep -L" and "git grep --quiet -L" reported different exit
+ codes; this has been corrected.
+
+ * When handshake with a subprocess filter notices that the process
+ asked for an unknown capability, Git did not report what program
+ the offending subprocess was running. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git apply" that is used as a better "patch -p1" failed to apply a
+ taken from a file with CRLF line endings to a file with CRLF line
+ endings. The root cause was because it misused convert_to_git()
+ that tried to do "safe-crlf" processing by looking at the index
+ entry at the same path, which is a nonsense---in that mode, "apply"
+ is not working on the data in (or derived from) the index at all.
+ This has been fixed.
+
+ * Killing "git merge --edit" before the editor returns control left
+ the repository in a state with MERGE_MSG but without MERGE_HEAD,
+ which incorrectly tells the subsequent "git commit" that there was
+ a squash merge in progress. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git archive" did not work well with pathspecs and the
+ export-ignore attribute.
+
+ * In addition to "cc: <a@dd.re.ss> # cruft", "cc: a@dd.re.ss # cruft"
+ was taught to "git send-email" as a valid way to tell it that it
+ needs to also send a carbon copy to <a@dd.re.ss> in the trailer
+ section.
+
+ * "git branch -M a b" while on a branch that is completely unrelated
+ to either branch a or branch b misbehaved when multiple worktree
+ was in use. This has been fixed.
+ (merge 31824d180d nd/worktree-kill-parse-ref later to maint).
+
+ * "git gc" and friends when multiple worktrees are used off of a
+ single repository did not consider the index and per-worktree refs
+ of other worktrees as the root for reachability traversal, making
+ objects that are in use only in other worktrees to be subject to
+ garbage collection.
+
+ * A regression to "gitk --bisect" by a recent update has been fixed.
+
+ * "git -c submodule.recurse=yes pull" did not work as if the
+ "--recurse-submodules" option was given from the command line.
+ This has been corrected.
+
+ * Unlike "git commit-tree < file", "git commit-tree -F file" did not
+ pass the contents of the file verbatim and instead completed an
+ incomplete line at the end, if exists. The latter has been updated
+ to match the behaviour of the former.
+
+ * Many codepaths did not diagnose write failures correctly when disks
+ go full, due to their misuse of write_in_full() helper function,
+ which have been corrected.
+ (merge f48ecd38cb jk/write-in-full-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git help co" now says "co is aliased to ...", not "git co is".
+ (merge b3a8076e0d ks/help-alias-label later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive", especially when used with pathspec, stored an empty
+ directory in its output, even though Git itself never does so.
+ This has been fixed.
+
+ * API error-proofing which happens to also squelch warnings from GCC.
+
+ * The explanation of the cut-line in the commit log editor has been
+ slightly tweaked.
+ (merge 8c4b1a3593 ks/commit-do-not-touch-cut-line later to maint).
+
+ * "git gc" tries to avoid running two instances at the same time by
+ reading and writing pid/host from and to a lock file; it used to
+ use an incorrect fscanf() format when reading, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The scripts to drive TravisCI has been reorganized and then an
+ optimization to avoid spending cycles on a branch whose tip is
+ tagged has been implemented.
+ (merge 8376eb4a8f ls/travis-scriptify later to maint).
+
+ * The test linter has been taught that we do not like "echo -e".
+
+ * Code cmp.std.c nitpick.
+
+ * A regression fix for 2.11 that made the code to read the list of
+ alternate object stores overrun the end of the string.
+ (merge f0f7bebef7 jk/info-alternates-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git describe --match" learned to take multiple patterns in v2.13
+ series, but the feature ignored the patterns after the first one
+ and did not work at all. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git filter-branch" cannot reproduce a history with a tag without
+ the tagger field, which only ancient versions of Git allowed to be
+ created. This has been corrected.
+ (merge b2c1ca6b4b ic/fix-filter-branch-to-handle-tag-without-tagger later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --textconv" started segfaulting recently, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The built-in pattern to detect the "function header" for HTML did
+ not match <H1>..<H6> elements without any attributes, which has
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git mailinfo" was loose in decoding quoted printable and produced
+ garbage when the two letters after the equal sign are not
+ hexadecimal. This has been fixed.
+
+ * The machinery to create xdelta used in pack files received the
+ sizes of the data in size_t, but lost the higher bits of them by
+ storing them in "unsigned int" during the computation, which is
+ fixed.
+
+ * The delta format used in the packfile cannot reference data at
+ offset larger than what can be expressed in 4-byte, but the
+ generator for the data failed to make sure the offset does not
+ overflow. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The documentation for '-X<option>' for merges was misleadingly
+ written to suggest that "-s theirs" exists, which is not the case.
+
+ * "git fast-export" with -M/-C option issued "copy" instruction on a
+ path that is simultaneously modified, which was incorrect.
+ (merge b3e8ca89cf jt/fast-export-copy-modify-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Many codepaths have been updated to squelch -Wsign-compare
+ warnings.
+ (merge 071bcaab64 rj/no-sign-compare later to maint).
+
+ * Memory leaks in various codepaths have been plugged.
+ (merge 4d01a7fa65 ma/leakplugs later to maint).
+
+ * Recent versions of "git rev-parse --parseopt" did not parse the
+ option specification that does not have the optional flags (*=?!)
+ correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a6304fa4c2 bc/rev-parse-parseopt-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The checkpoint command "git fast-import" did not flush updates to
+ refs and marks unless at least one object was created since the
+ last checkpoint, which has been corrected, as these things can
+ happen without any new object getting created.
+ (merge 30e215a65c er/fast-import-dump-refs-on-checkpoint later to maint).
+
+ * Spell the name of our system as "Git" in the output from
+ request-pull script.
+
+ * Fixes for a handful memory access issues identified by valgrind.
+
+ * Backports a moral equivalent of 2015 fix to the poll() emulation
+ from the upstream gnulib to fix occasional breakages on HPE NonStop.
+
+ * Users with "color.ui = always" in their configuration were broken
+ by a recent change that made plumbing commands to pay attention to
+ them as the patch created internally by "git add -p" were colored
+ (heh) and made unusable. This has been fixed by reverting the
+ offending change.
+
+ * In the "--format=..." option of the "git for-each-ref" command (and
+ its friends, i.e. the listing mode of "git branch/tag"), "%(atom:)"
+ (e.g. "%(refname:)", "%(body:)" used to error out. Instead, treat
+ them as if the colon and an empty string that follows it were not
+ there.
+
+ * An ancient bug that made Git misbehave with creation/renaming of
+ refs has been fixed.
+
+ * "git fetch <there> <src>:<dst>" allows an object name on the <src>
+ side when the other side accepts such a request since Git v2.5, but
+ the documentation was left stale.
+ (merge 83558a412a jc/fetch-refspec-doc-update later to maint).
+
+ * Update the documentation for "git filter-branch" so that the filter
+ options are listed in the same order as they are applied, as
+ described in an earlier part of the doc.
+ (merge 07c4984508 dg/filter-branch-filter-order-doc later to maint).
+
+ * A possible oom error is now caught as a fatal error, instead of
+ continuing and dereferencing NULL.
+ (merge 55d7d15847 ao/path-use-xmalloc later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge f094b89a4d ma/parse-maybe-bool later to maint).
+ (merge 6cdf8a7929 ma/ts-cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge 7560f547e6 ma/up-to-date later to maint).
+ (merge 0db3dc75f3 rs/apply-epoch later to maint).
+ (merge 276d0e35c0 ma/split-symref-update-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f777623514 ks/branch-tweak-error-message-for-extra-args later to maint).
+ (merge 33f3c683ec ks/verify-filename-non-option-error-message-tweak later to maint).
+ (merge 7cbbf9d6a2 ls/filter-process-delayed later to maint).
+ (merge 488aa65c8f wk/merge-options-gpg-sign-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e61cb19a27 jc/branch-force-doc-readability-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 32fceba3fd np/config-path-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e38c681fb7 sb/rev-parse-show-superproject-root later to maint).
+ (merge 4f851dc883 sg/rev-list-doc-reorder-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ec06704
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,88 @@
+Git v2.15.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.15
+-----------------
+
+ * TravisCI build updates.
+
+ * "auto" as a value for the columnar output configuration ought to
+ judge "is the output consumed by humans?" with the same criteria as
+ "auto" for coloured output configuration, i.e. either the standard
+ output stream is going to tty, or a pager is in use. We forgot the
+ latter, which has been fixed.
+
+ * The experimental "color moved lines differently in diff output"
+ feature was buggy around "ignore whitespace changes" edges, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * Instead of using custom line comparison and hashing functions to
+ implement "moved lines" coloring in the diff output, use the pair
+ of these functions from lower-layer xdiff/ code.
+
+ * Some codepaths did not check for errors when asking what branch the
+ HEAD points at, which have been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit", after making a commit, did not check for errors when
+ asking on what branch it made the commit, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git status --ignored -u" did not stop at a working tree of a
+ separate project that is embedded in an ignored directory and
+ listed files in that other project, instead of just showing the
+ directory itself as ignored.
+
+ * A broken access to object databases in recent update to "git grep
+ --recurse-submodules" has been fixed.
+
+ * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" that broke execution of git
+ commands from subdirectories via "exec" instruction has been fixed.
+
+ * "git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}" bit a "BUG()" when run
+ outside a repository for obvious reasons; clarify the documentation
+ and make sure we do not even try to expand the at-mark magic in
+ such a case, but still call the validation logic for branch names.
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) update.
+
+ * Description of blame.{showroot,blankboundary,showemail,date}
+ configuration variables have been added to "git config --help".
+
+ * After an error from lstat(), diff_populate_filespec() function
+ sometimes still went ahead and used invalid data in struct stat,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * UNC paths are also relevant in Cygwin builds and they are now
+ tested just like Mingw builds.
+
+ * Correct start-up sequence so that a repository could be placed
+ immediately under the root directory again (which was broken at
+ around Git 2.13).
+
+ * The credential helper for libsecret (in contrib/) has been improved
+ to allow possibly prompting the end user to unlock secrets that are
+ currently locked (otherwise the secrets may not be loaded).
+
+ * Updates from GfW project.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" recently started misbehaving when a submodule that
+ is configured with 'submodule.<name>.ignore' is dirty; this has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Some error messages did not quote filenames shown in it, which have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * Building with NO_LIBPCRE1_JIT did not disable it, which has been fixed.
+
+ * We used to add an empty alternate object database to the system
+ that does not help anything; it has been corrected.
+
+ * Error checking in "git imap-send" for empty response has been
+ improved.
+
+ * An ancient bug in "git apply --ignore-space-change" codepath has
+ been fixed.
+
+ * There was a recent semantic mismerge in the codepath to write out a
+ section of a configuration section, which has been corrected.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9f7e28f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git v2.15.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.15.1
+-------------------
+
+ * Recent update to the refs infrastructure implementation started
+ rewriting packed-refs file more often than before; this has been
+ optimized again for most trivial cases.
+
+ * The SubmittingPatches document has been converted to produce an
+ HTML version via AsciiDoc/Asciidoctor.
+
+ * Contrary to the documentation, "git pull -4/-6 other-args" did not
+ ask the underlying "git fetch" to go over IPv4/IPv6, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * When "git rebase" prepared an mailbox of changes and fed it to "git
+ am" to replay them, it was confused when a stray "From " happened
+ to be in the log message of one of the replayed changes. This has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught about the
+ "--copy" option of "git branch".
+
+ * "git apply --inaccurate-eof" when used with "--ignore-space-change"
+ triggered an internal sanity check, which has been fixed.
+
+ * The sequencer machinery (used by "git cherry-pick A..B", and "git
+ rebase -i", among other things) would have lost a commit if stopped
+ due to an unlockable index file, which has been fixed.
+
+ * The three-way merge performed by "git cherry-pick" was confused
+ when a new submodule was added in the meantime, which has been
+ fixed (or "papered over").
+
+ * "git notes" sent its error message to its standard output stream,
+ which was corrected.
+
+ * A few scripts (both in production and tests) incorrectly redirected
+ their error output. These have been corrected.
+
+ * Clarify and enhance documentation for "merge-base --fork-point", as
+ it was clear what it computed but not why/what for.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0c81c59
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,482 @@
+Git 2.16 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is now an error.
+
+
+Updates since v2.15
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * An empty string as a pathspec element that means "everything"
+ i.e. 'git add ""', is now illegal. We started this by first
+ deprecating and warning a pathspec that has such an element in
+ 2.11 (Nov 2016).
+
+ * A hook script that is set unexecutable is simply ignored. Git
+ notifies when such a file is ignored, unless the message is
+ squelched via advice.ignoredHook configuration.
+
+ * "git pull" has been taught to accept "--[no-]signoff" option and
+ pass it down to "git merge".
+
+ * The "--push-option=<string>" option to "git push" now defaults to a
+ list of strings configured via push.pushOption variable.
+
+ * "gitweb" checks if a directory is searchable with Perl's "-x"
+ operator, which can be enhanced by using "filetest 'access'"
+ pragma, which now we do.
+
+ * "git stash save" has been deprecated in favour of "git stash push".
+
+ * The set of paths output from "git status --ignored" was tied
+ closely with its "--untracked=<mode>" option, but now it can be
+ controlled more flexibly. Most notably, a directory that is
+ ignored because it is listed to be ignored in the ignore/exclude
+ mechanism can be handled differently from a directory that ends up
+ to be ignored only because all files in it are ignored.
+
+ * The remote-helper for talking to MediaWiki has been updated to
+ truncate an overlong pagename so that ".mw" suffix can still be
+ added.
+
+ * The remote-helper for talking to MediaWiki has been updated to
+ work with mediawiki namespaces.
+
+ * The "--format=..." option "git for-each-ref" takes learned to show
+ the name of the 'remote' repository and the ref at the remote side
+ that is affected for 'upstream' and 'push' via "%(push:remotename)"
+ and friends.
+
+ * Doc and message updates to teach users "bisect view" is a synonym
+ for "bisect visualize".
+
+ * "git bisect run" that did not specify any command to run used to go
+ ahead and treated all commits to be tested as 'good'. This has
+ been corrected by making the command error out.
+
+ * The SubmittingPatches document has been converted to produce an
+ HTML version via AsciiDoc/Asciidoctor.
+
+ * We learned to optionally talk to a file system monitor via new
+ fsmonitor extension to speed up "git status" and other operations
+ that need to see which paths have been modified. Currently we only
+ support "watchman". See File System Monitor section of
+ git-update-index(1) for more detail.
+
+ * The "diff" family of commands learned to ignore differences in
+ carriage return at the end of line.
+
+ * Places that know about "sendemail.to", like documentation and shell
+ completion (in contrib/) have been taught about "sendemail.tocmd",
+ too.
+
+ * "git add --renormalize ." is a new and safer way to record the fact
+ that you are correcting the end-of-line convention and other
+ "convert_to_git()" glitches in the in-repository data.
+
+ * "git branch" and "git checkout -b" are now forbidden from creating
+ a branch whose name is "HEAD".
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to show its output through the pager by
+ default when the output is going to a terminal, which is controlled
+ by the pager.branch configuration variable. This is similar to a
+ recent change to "git tag --list".
+
+ * "git grep -W", "git diff -W" and their friends learned a heuristic
+ to extend a pre-context beyond the line that matches the "function
+ pattern" (aka "diff.*.xfuncname") to include a comment block, if
+ exists, that immediately precedes it.
+
+ * "git config --expiry-date gc.reflogexpire" can read "2.weeks" from
+ the configuration and report it as a timestamp, just like "--int"
+ would read "1k" and report 1024, to help consumption by scripts.
+
+ * The shell completion (in contrib/) learned that "git pull" can take
+ the "--autostash" option.
+
+ * The tagnames "git log --decorate" uses to annotate the commits can
+ now be limited to subset of available refs with the two additional
+ options, --decorate-refs[-exclude]=<pattern>.
+
+ * "git grep" compiled with libpcre2 sometimes triggered a segfault,
+ which is being fixed.
+
+ * "git send-email" tries to see if the sendmail program is available
+ in /usr/lib and /usr/sbin; extend the list of locations to be
+ checked to also include directories on $PATH.
+
+ * "git diff" learned, "--anchored", a variant of the "--patience"
+ algorithm, to which the user can specify which 'unique' line to be
+ used as anchoring points.
+
+ * The way "git worktree add" determines what branch to create from
+ where and checkout in the new worktree has been updated a bit.
+
+ * Ancient part of codebase still shows dots after an abbreviated
+ object name just to show that it is not a full object name, but
+ these ellipses are confusing to people who newly discovered Git
+ who are used to seeing abbreviated object names and find them
+ confusing with the range syntax.
+
+ * With a configuration variable rebase.abbreviateCommands set,
+ "git rebase -i" produces the todo list with a single-letter
+ command names.
+
+ * "git worktree add" learned to run the post-checkout hook, just like
+ "git checkout" does, after the initial checkout.
+
+ * "git svn" has been updated to strip CRs in the commit messages, as
+ recent versions of Subversion rejects them.
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not correctly quote the folder name when
+ making a request to the server, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Error messages from "git rebase" have been somewhat cleaned up.
+
+ * Git has been taught to support an https:// URL used for http.proxy
+ when using recent versions of libcurl.
+
+ * "git merge" learned to pay attention to merge.verifySignatures
+ configuration variable and pretend as if '--verify-signatures'
+ option was given from the command line.
+
+ * "git describe" was taught to dig trees deeper to find a
+ <commit-ish>:<path> that refers to a given blob object.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * An earlier update made it possible to use an on-stack in-core
+ lockfile structure (as opposed to having to deliberately leak an
+ on-heap one). Many codepaths have been updated to take advantage
+ of this new facility.
+
+ * Calling cmd_foo() as if it is a general purpose helper function is
+ a no-no. Correct two instances of such to set an example.
+
+ * We try to see if somebody runs our test suite with a shell that
+ does not support "local" like bash/dash does.
+
+ * An early part of piece-by-piece rewrite of "git bisect" in C.
+
+ * GSoC to piece-by-piece rewrite "git submodule" in C.
+
+ * Optimize the code to find shortest unique prefix of object names.
+
+ * Pathspec-limited revision traversal was taught not to keep finding
+ unneeded differences once it knows two trees are different inside
+ given pathspec.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Code cleanup.
+
+ * A single-word "unsigned flags" in the diff options is being split
+ into a structure with many bitfields.
+
+ * TravisCI build updates.
+
+ * Parts of a test to drive the long-running content filter interface
+ has been split into its own module, hopefully to eventually become
+ reusable.
+
+ * Drop (perhaps overly cautious) sanity check before using the index
+ read from the filesystem at runtime.
+
+ * The build procedure has been taught to avoid some unnecessary
+ instability in the build products.
+
+ * A new mechanism to upgrade the wire protocol in place is proposed
+ and demonstrated that it works with the older versions of Git
+ without harming them.
+
+ * An infrastructure to define what hash function is used in Git is
+ introduced, and an effort to plumb that throughout various
+ codepaths has been started.
+
+ * The code to iterate over loose object files got optimized.
+
+ * An internal function that was left for backward compatibility has
+ been removed, as there is no remaining callers.
+
+ * Historically, the diff machinery for rename detection had a
+ hardcoded limit of 32k paths; this is being lifted to allow users
+ trade cycles with a (possibly) easier to read result.
+
+ * The tracing infrastructure has been optimized for cases where no
+ tracing is requested.
+
+ * In preparation for implementing narrow/partial clone, the object
+ walking machinery has been taught a way to tell it to "filter" some
+ objects from enumeration.
+
+ * A few structures and variables that are implementation details of
+ the decorate API have been renamed and then the API got documented
+ better.
+
+ * Assorted updates for TravisCI integration.
+ (merge 4f26366679 sg/travis-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Introduce a helper to simplify code to parse a common pattern that
+ expects either "--key" or "--key=<something>".
+
+ * "git version --build-options" learned to report the host CPU and
+ the exact commit object name the binary was built from.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.15
+-----------------
+
+ * "auto" as a value for the columnar output configuration ought to
+ judge "is the output consumed by humans?" with the same criteria as
+ "auto" for coloured output configuration, i.e. either the standard
+ output stream is going to tty, or a pager is in use. We forgot the
+ latter, which has been fixed.
+
+ * The experimental "color moved lines differently in diff output"
+ feature was buggy around "ignore whitespace changes" edges, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * Instead of using custom line comparison and hashing functions to
+ implement "moved lines" coloring in the diff output, use the pair
+ of these functions from lower-layer xdiff/ code.
+
+ * Some codepaths did not check for errors when asking what branch the
+ HEAD points at, which have been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit", after making a commit, did not check for errors when
+ asking on what branch it made the commit, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git status --ignored -u" did not stop at a working tree of a
+ separate project that is embedded in an ignored directory and
+ listed files in that other project, instead of just showing the
+ directory itself as ignored.
+
+ * A broken access to object databases in recent update to "git grep
+ --recurse-submodules" has been fixed.
+
+ * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" that broke execution of git
+ commands from subdirectories via "exec" instruction has been fixed.
+
+ * A (possibly flakey) test fix.
+
+ * "git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}" bit a "BUG()" when run
+ outside a repository for obvious reasons; clarify the documentation
+ and make sure we do not even try to expand the at-mark magic in
+ such a case, but still call the validation logic for branch names.
+
+ * "git fetch --recurse-submodules" now knows that submodules can be
+ moved around in the superproject in addition to getting updated,
+ and finds the ones that need to be fetched accordingly.
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) update.
+
+ * Description of blame.{showroot,blankboundary,showemail,date}
+ configuration variables have been added to "git config --help".
+
+ * After an error from lstat(), diff_populate_filespec() function
+ sometimes still went ahead and used invalid data in struct stat,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * UNC paths are also relevant in Cygwin builds and they are now
+ tested just like Mingw builds.
+
+ * Correct start-up sequence so that a repository could be placed
+ immediately under the root directory again (which was broken at
+ around Git 2.13).
+
+ * The credential helper for libsecret (in contrib/) has been improved
+ to allow possibly prompting the end user to unlock secrets that are
+ currently locked (otherwise the secrets may not be loaded).
+
+ * MinGW updates.
+
+ * Error checking in "git imap-send" for empty response has been
+ improved.
+
+ * Recent update to the refs infrastructure implementation started
+ rewriting packed-refs file more often than before; this has been
+ optimized again for most trivial cases.
+
+ * Some error messages did not quote filenames shown in it, which have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" recently started misbehaving when a submodule that
+ is configured with 'submodule.<name>.ignore' is dirty; this has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Building with NO_LIBPCRE1_JIT did not disable it, which has been fixed.
+
+ * We used to add an empty alternate object database to the system
+ that does not help anything; it has been corrected.
+
+ * Doc update around use of "format-patch --subject-prefix" etc.
+
+ * A fix for an ancient bug in "git apply --ignore-space-change" codepath.
+
+ * Clarify and enhance documentation for "merge-base --fork-point", as
+ it was clear what it computed but not why/what for.
+
+ * A few scripts (both in production and tests) incorrectly redirected
+ their error output. These have been corrected.
+
+ * "git notes" sent its error message to its standard output stream,
+ which was corrected.
+
+ * The three-way merge performed by "git cherry-pick" was confused
+ when a new submodule was added in the meantime, which has been
+ fixed (or "papered over").
+
+ * The sequencer machinery (used by "git cherry-pick A..B", and "git
+ rebase -i", among other things) would have lost a commit if stopped
+ due to an unlockable index file, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git apply --inaccurate-eof" when used with "--ignore-space-change"
+ triggered an internal sanity check, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught about the
+ "--copy" option of "git branch".
+
+ * When "git rebase" prepared a mailbox of changes and fed it to "git
+ am" to replay them, it was confused when a stray "From " happened
+ to be in the log message of one of the replayed changes. This has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * There was a recent semantic mismerge in the codepath to write out a
+ section of a configuration section, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Mentions of "git-rebase" and "git-am" (dashed form) still remained
+ in end-user visible strings emitted by the "git rebase" command;
+ they have been corrected.
+
+ * Contrary to the documentation, "git pull -4/-6 other-args" did not
+ ask the underlying "git fetch" to go over IPv4/IPv6, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * "git checkout --recursive" may overwrite and rewind the history of
+ the branch that happens to be checked out in submodule
+ repositories, which might not be desirable. Detach the HEAD but
+ still allow the recursive checkout to succeed in such a case.
+ (merge 57f22bf997 sb/submodule-recursive-checkout-detach-head later to maint).
+
+ * "git branch --set-upstream" has been deprecated and (sort of)
+ removed, as "--set-upstream-to" is the preferred one these days.
+ The documentation still had "--set-upstream" listed on its
+ synopsis section, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a060f3d3d8 tz/branch-doc-remove-set-upstream later to maint).
+
+ * Internally we use 0{40} as a placeholder object name to signal the
+ codepath that there is no such object (e.g. the fast-forward check
+ while "git fetch" stores a new remote-tracking ref says "we know
+ there is no 'old' thing pointed at by the ref, as we are creating
+ it anew" by passing 0{40} for the 'old' side), and expect that a
+ codepath to locate an in-core object to return NULL as a sign that
+ the object does not exist. A look-up for an object that does not
+ exist however is quite costly with a repository with large number
+ of packfiles. This access pattern has been optimized.
+ (merge 87b5e236a1 jk/fewer-pack-rescan later to maint).
+
+ * In addition to "git stash -m message", the command learned to
+ accept "git stash -mmessage" form.
+ (merge 5675473fcb ph/stash-save-m-option-fix later to maint).
+
+ * @{-N} in "git checkout @{-N}" may refer to a detached HEAD state,
+ but the documentation was not clear about it, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 75ce149575 ks/doc-checkout-previous later to maint).
+
+ * A regression in the progress eye-candy was fixed.
+ (merge 9c5951cacf jk/progress-delay-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The code internal to the recursive merge strategy was not fully
+ prepared to see a path that is renamed to try overwriting another
+ path that is only different in case on case insensitive systems.
+ This does not matter in the current code, but will start to matter
+ once the rename detection logic starts taking hints from nearby
+ paths moving to some directory and moves a new path along with them.
+ (merge 4cba2b0108 en/merge-recursive-icase-removal later to maint).
+
+ * An v2.12-era regression in pathspec match logic, which made it look
+ into submodule tree even when it is not desired, has been fixed.
+ (merge eef3df5a93 bw/pathspec-match-submodule-boundary later to maint).
+
+ * Amending commits in git-gui broke the author name that is non-ascii
+ due to incorrect enconding conversion.
+
+ * Recent update to the submodule configuration code broke "diff-tree"
+ by accidentally stopping to read from the index upfront.
+ (merge fd66bcc31f bw/submodule-config-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Git shows a message to tell the user that it is waiting for the
+ user to finish editing when spawning an editor, in case the editor
+ opens to a hidden window or somewhere obscure and the user gets
+ lost.
+ (merge abfb04d0c7 ls/editor-waiting-message later to maint).
+
+ * The "safe crlf" check incorrectly triggered for contents that does
+ not use CRLF as line endings, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 649f1f0948 tb/check-crlf-for-safe-crlf later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone --shared" to borrow from a (secondary) worktree did not
+ work, even though "git clone --local" did. Both are now accepted.
+ (merge b3b05971c1 es/clone-shared-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * The build procedure now allows not just the repositories but also
+ the refs to be used to take pre-formatted manpages and html
+ documents to install.
+ (merge 65289e9dcd rb/quick-install-doc later to maint).
+
+ * Update the shell prompt script (in contrib/) to strip trailing CR
+ from strings read from various "state" files.
+ (merge 041fe8fc83 ra/prompt-eread-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge -s recursive" did not correctly abort when the index is
+ dirty, if the merged tree happened to be the same as the current
+ HEAD, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Bytes with high-bit set were encoded incorrectly and made
+ credential helper fail.
+ (merge 4c267f2ae3 jd/fix-strbuf-add-urlencode-bytes later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -p -X<option>" did not propagate the option properly
+ down to underlying merge strategy backend.
+ (merge dd6fb0053c js/fix-merge-arg-quoting-in-rebase-p later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge -s recursive" did not correctly abort when the index is
+ dirty, if the merged tree happened to be the same as the current
+ HEAD, which has been fixed.
+ (merge f309e8e768 ew/empty-merge-with-dirty-index-maint later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 1a1fc2d5b5 rd/man-prune-progress later to maint).
+ (merge 0ba014035a rd/man-reflog-add-n later to maint).
+ (merge e54b63359f rd/doc-notes-prune-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ff4c9b413a sp/doc-info-attributes later to maint).
+ (merge 7db2cbf4f1 jc/receive-pack-hook-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 5a0526264b tg/t-readme-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 5e83cca0b8 jk/no-optional-locks later to maint).
+ (merge 826c778f7c js/hashmap-update-sample later to maint).
+ (merge 176b2d328c sg/setup-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 1b09073514 rs/am-builtin-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge addcf6cfde rs/fmt-merge-msg-string-leak-fix later to maint).
+ (merge c3ff8f6c14 rs/strbuf-read-once-reset-length later to maint).
+ (merge 6b0eb884f9 db/doc-workflows-neuter-the-maintainer later to maint).
+ (merge 8c87bdfb21 jk/cvsimport-quoting later to maint).
+ (merge 176cb979fe rs/fmt-merge-msg-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge 5a03360e73 tb/delimit-pretty-trailers-args-with-comma later to maint).
+ (merge d0e6326026 ot/pretty later to maint).
+ (merge 44103f4197 sb/test-helper-excludes later to maint).
+ (merge 170078693f jt/transport-no-more-rsync later to maint).
+ (merge c07b3adff1 bw/path-doc later to maint).
+ (merge bf9d7df950 tz/lib-git-svn-svnserve-tests later to maint).
+ (merge dec366c9a8 sr/http-sslverify-config-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 3f824e91c8 jk/test-suite-tracing later to maint).
+ (merge 1feb061701 db/doc-config-section-names-with-bs later to maint).
+ (merge 74dea0e13c jh/memihash-opt later to maint).
+ (merge 2e9fdc795c ma/bisect-leakfix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..66e6436
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+Git v2.16.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.16
+-----------------
+
+ * "git clone" segfaulted when cloning a project that happens to
+ track two paths that differ only in case on a case insensitive
+ filesystem.
+
+Does not contain any other documentation updates or code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a216466
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+Git v2.16.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.16.1
+-------------------
+
+ * An old regression in "git describe --all $annotated_tag^0" has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git svn dcommit" did not take into account the fact that a
+ svn+ssh:// URL with a username@ (typically used for pushing) refers
+ to the same SVN repository without the username@ and failed when
+ svn.pushmergeinfo option is set.
+
+ * "git merge -Xours/-Xtheirs" learned to use our/their version when
+ resolving a conflicting updates to a symbolic link.
+
+ * "git clone $there $here" is allowed even when here directory exists
+ as long as it is an empty directory, but the command incorrectly
+ removed it upon a failure of the operation.
+
+ * "git stash -- <pathspec>" incorrectly blew away untracked files in
+ the directory that matched the pathspec, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git add -p" was taught to ignore local changes to submodules as
+ they do not interfere with the partial addition of regular changes
+ anyway.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..64a0bcb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
+Git v2.16.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.16.2
+-------------------
+
+ * "git status" after moving a path in the working tree (hence making
+ it appear "removed") and then adding with the -N option (hence
+ making that appear "added") detected it as a rename, but did not
+ report the old and new pathnames correctly.
+
+ * "git commit --fixup" did not allow "-m<message>" option to be used
+ at the same time; allow it to annotate resulting commit with more
+ text.
+
+ * When resetting the working tree files recursively, the working tree
+ of submodules are now also reset to match.
+
+ * Fix for a commented-out code to adjust it to a rather old API change
+ around object ID.
+
+ * When there are too many changed paths, "git diff" showed a warning
+ message but in the middle of a line.
+
+ * The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
+ learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
+ so that it can be more safely sharable.
+
+ * Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
+ what it did not acquire lock on.
+
+ * The split-index mode had a few corner case bugs fixed.
+
+ * Assorted fixes to "git daemon".
+
+ * Completion of "git merge -s<strategy>" (in contrib/) did not work
+ well in non-C locale.
+
+ * Workaround for segfault with more recent versions of SVN.
+
+ * Recently introduced leaks in fsck have been plugged.
+
+ * Travis CI integration now builds the executable in 'script' phase
+ to follow the established practice, rather than during
+ 'before_script' phase. This allows the CI categorize the failures
+ better ('failed' is project's fault, 'errored' is build
+ environment's).
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d6db0e1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,398 @@
+Git 2.17 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.16
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "diff" family of commands learned "--find-object=<object-id>" option
+ to limit the findings to changes that involve the named object.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned to give 72-cols to diffstat, which is
+ consistent with other line length limits the subcommand uses for
+ its output meant for e-mails.
+
+ * The log from "git daemon" can be redirected with a new option; one
+ relevant use case is to send the log to standard error (instead of
+ syslog) when running it from inetd.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned to take "--allow-empty-message" option.
+
+ * "git am" has learned the "--quit" option, in addition to the
+ existing "--abort" option; having the pair mirrors a few other
+ commands like "rebase" and "cherry-pick".
+
+ * "git worktree add" learned to run the post-checkout hook, just like
+ "git clone" runs it upon the initial checkout.
+
+ * "git tag" learned an explicit "--edit" option that allows the
+ message given via "-m" and "-F" to be further edited.
+
+ * "git fetch --prune-tags" may be used as a handy short-hand for
+ getting rid of stale tags that are locally held.
+
+ * The new "--show-current-patch" option gives an end-user facing way
+ to get the diff being applied when "git rebase" (and "git am")
+ stops with a conflict.
+
+ * "git add -p" used to offer "/" (look for a matching hunk) as a
+ choice, even there was only one hunk, which has been corrected.
+ Also the single-key help is now given only for keys that are
+ enabled (e.g. help for '/' won't be shown when there is only one
+ hunk).
+
+ * Since Git 1.7.9, "git merge" defaulted to --no-ff (i.e. even when
+ the side branch being merged is a descendant of the current commit,
+ create a merge commit instead of fast-forwarding) when merging a
+ tag object. This was appropriate default for integrators who pull
+ signed tags from their downstream contributors, but caused an
+ unnecessary merges when used by downstream contributors who
+ habitually "catch up" their topic branches with tagged releases
+ from the upstream. Update "git merge" to default to --no-ff only
+ when merging a tag object that does *not* sit at its usual place in
+ refs/tags/ hierarchy, and allow fast-forwarding otherwise, to
+ mitigate the problem.
+
+ * "git status" can spend a lot of cycles to compute the relation
+ between the current branch and its upstream, which can now be
+ disabled with "--no-ahead-behind" option.
+
+ * "git diff" and friends learned funcname patterns for Go language
+ source files.
+
+ * "git send-email" learned "--reply-to=<address>" option.
+
+ * Funcname pattern used for C# now recognizes "async" keyword.
+
+ * In a way similar to how "git tag" learned to honor the pager
+ setting only in the list mode, "git config" learned to ignore the
+ pager setting when it is used for setting values (i.e. when the
+ purpose of the operation is not to "show").
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * More perf tests for threaded grep
+
+ * "perf" test output can be sent to codespeed server.
+
+ * The build procedure for perl/ part has been greatly simplified by
+ weaning ourselves off of MakeMaker.
+
+ * Perl 5.8 or greater has been required since Git 1.7.4 released in
+ 2010, but we continued to assume some core modules may not exist and
+ used a conditional "eval { require <<module>> }"; we no longer do
+ this. Some platforms (Fedora/RedHat/CentOS, for example) ship Perl
+ without all core modules by default (e.g. Digest::MD5, File::Temp,
+ File::Spec, Net::Domain, Net::SMTP). Users on such platforms may
+ need to install these additional modules.
+
+ * As a convenience, we install copies of Perl modules we require which
+ are not part of the core Perl distribution (e.g. Error and
+ Mail::Address). Users and packagers whose operating system provides
+ these modules can set NO_PERL_CPAN_FALLBACKS to avoid installing the
+ bundled modules.
+
+ * In preparation for implementing narrow/partial clone, the machinery
+ for checking object connectivity used by gc and fsck has been
+ taught that a missing object is OK when it is referenced by a
+ packfile specially marked as coming from trusted repository that
+ promises to make them available on-demand and lazily.
+
+ * The machinery to clone & fetch, which in turn involves packing and
+ unpacking objects, has been told how to omit certain objects using
+ the filtering mechanism introduced by another topic. It now knows
+ to mark the resulting pack as a promisor pack to tolerate missing
+ objects, laying foundation for "narrow" clones.
+
+ * The first step to getting rid of mru API and using the
+ doubly-linked list API directly instead.
+
+ * Retire mru API as it does not give enough abstraction over
+ underlying list API to be worth it.
+
+ * Rewrite two more "git submodule" subcommands in C.
+
+ * The tracing machinery learned to report tweaking of environment
+ variables as well.
+
+ * Update Coccinelle rules to catch and optimize strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s", str)
+
+ * Prevent "clang-format" from breaking line after function return type.
+
+ * The sequencer infrastructure is shared across "git cherry-pick",
+ "git rebase -i", etc., and has always spawned "git commit" when it
+ needs to create a commit. It has been taught to do so internally,
+ when able, by reusing the codepath "git commit" itself uses, which
+ gives performance boost for a few tens of percents in some sample
+ scenarios.
+
+ * Push the submodule version of collision-detecting SHA-1 hash
+ implementation a bit harder on builders.
+
+ * Avoid mmapping small files while using packed refs (especially ones
+ with zero size, which would cause later munmap() to fail).
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * More tests for wildmatch functions.
+
+ * The code to binary search starting from a fan-out table (which is
+ how the packfile is indexed with object names) has been refactored
+ into a reusable helper.
+
+ * We now avoid using identifiers that clash with C++ keywords. Even
+ though it is not a goal to compile Git with C++ compilers, changes
+ like this help use of code analysis tools that targets C++ on our
+ codebase.
+
+ * The executable is now built in 'script' phase in Travis CI integration,
+ to follow the established practice, rather than during 'before_script'
+ phase. This allows the CI categorize the failures better ('failed'
+ is project's fault, 'errored' is build environment's).
+ (merge 3c93b82920 sg/travis-build-during-script-phase later to maint).
+
+ * Writing out the index file when the only thing that changed in it
+ is the untracked cache information is often wasteful, and this has
+ been optimized out.
+
+ * Various pieces of Perl code we have have been cleaned up.
+
+ * Internal API clean-up to allow write_locked_index() optionally skip
+ writing the in-core index when it is not modified.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.16
+-----------------
+
+ * An old regression in "git describe --all $annotated_tag^0" has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git status" after moving a path in the working tree (hence making
+ it appear "removed") and then adding with the -N option (hence
+ making that appear "added") detected it as a rename, but did not
+ report the old and new pathnames correctly.
+
+ * "git svn dcommit" did not take into account the fact that a
+ svn+ssh:// URL with a username@ (typically used for pushing) refers
+ to the same SVN repository without the username@ and failed when
+ svn.pushmergeinfo option is set.
+
+ * API clean-up around revision traversal.
+
+ * "git merge -Xours/-Xtheirs" learned to use our/their version when
+ resolving a conflicting updates to a symbolic link.
+
+ * "git clone $there $here" is allowed even when here directory exists
+ as long as it is an empty directory, but the command incorrectly
+ removed it upon a failure of the operation.
+
+ * "git commit --fixup" did not allow "-m<message>" option to be used
+ at the same time; allow it to annotate resulting commit with more
+ text.
+
+ * When resetting the working tree files recursively, the working tree
+ of submodules are now also reset to match.
+
+ * "git stash -- <pathspec>" incorrectly blew away untracked files in
+ the directory that matched the pathspec, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Instead of maintaining home-grown email address parsing code, ship
+ a copy of reasonably recent Mail::Address to be used as a fallback
+ in 'git send-email' when the platform lacks it.
+ (merge d60be8acab mm/send-email-fallback-to-local-mail-address later to maint).
+
+ * "git add -p" was taught to ignore local changes to submodules as
+ they do not interfere with the partial addition of regular changes
+ anyway.
+
+ * Avoid showing a warning message in the middle of a line of "git
+ diff" output.
+ (merge 4e056c989f nd/diff-flush-before-warning later to maint).
+
+ * The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
+ learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
+ so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ (merge 8ba18e6fa4 jt/http-redact-cookies later to maint).
+
+ * Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
+ what it did not acquire lock on.
+ (merge 81fcb698e0 mr/packed-ref-store-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The split-index mode had a few corner case bugs fixed.
+ (merge ae59a4e44f tg/split-index-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Assorted fixes to "git daemon".
+ (merge ed15e58efe jk/daemon-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Completion of "git merge -s<strategy>" (in contrib/) did not work
+ well in non-C locale.
+ (merge 7cc763aaa3 nd/list-merge-strategy later to maint).
+
+ * Workaround for segfault with more recent versions of SVN.
+ (merge 7f6f75e97a ew/svn-branch-segfault-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Plug recently introduced leaks in fsck.
+ (merge ba3a08ca0e jt/fsck-code-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" did not pass verbosity setting down when
+ recursing into a submodule.
+ (merge a56771a668 sb/pull-rebase-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * The way "git reset --hard" reports the commit the updated HEAD
+ points at is made consistent with the way how the commit title is
+ generated by the other parts of the system. This matters when the
+ title is spread across physically multiple lines.
+ (merge 1cf823fb68 tg/reset-hard-show-head-with-pretty later to maint).
+
+ * Test fixes.
+ (merge 63b1a175ee sg/test-i18ngrep later to maint).
+
+ * Some bugs around "untracked cache" feature have been fixed. This
+ will notice corrupt data in the untracked cache left by old and
+ buggy code and issue a warning---the index can be fixed by clearing
+ the untracked cache from it.
+ (merge 0cacebf099 nd/fix-untracked-cache-invalidation later to maint).
+ (merge 7bf0be7501 ab/untracked-cache-invalidation-docs later to maint).
+
+ * "git blame HEAD COPYING" in a bare repository failed to run, while
+ "git blame HEAD -- COPYING" run just fine. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git add" files in the same directory, but spelling the directory
+ path in different cases on case insensitive filesystem, corrupted
+ the name hash data structure and led to unexpected results. This
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge c95525e90d bp/name-hash-dirname-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -p" mangled log messages of a merge commit, which is
+ now fixed.
+ (merge ed5144d7eb js/fix-merge-arg-quoting-in-rebase-p later to maint).
+
+ * Some low level protocol codepath could crash when they get an
+ unexpected flush packet, which is now fixed.
+ (merge bb1356dc64 js/packet-read-line-check-null later to maint).
+
+ * "git check-ignore" with multiple paths got confused when one is a
+ file and the other is a directory, which has been fixed.
+ (merge d60771e930 rs/check-ignore-multi later to maint).
+
+ * "git describe $garbage" stopped giving any errors when the garbage
+ happens to be a string with 40 hexadecimal letters.
+ (merge a8e7a2bf0f sb/describe-blob later to maint).
+
+ * Code to unquote single-quoted string (used in the parser for
+ configuration files, etc.) did not diagnose bogus input correctly
+ and produced bogus results instead.
+ (merge ddbbf8eb25 jk/sq-dequote-on-bogus-input later to maint).
+
+ * Many places in "git apply" knew that "/dev/null" that signals
+ "there is no such file on this side of the diff" can be followed by
+ whitespace and garbage when parsing a patch, except for one, which
+ made an otherwise valid patch (e.g. ones from subversion) rejected.
+ (merge e454ad4bec tk/apply-dev-null-verify-name-fix later to maint).
+
+ * We no longer create any *.spec file, so "make clean" should not
+ remove it.
+ (merge 4321bdcabb tz/do-not-clean-spec-file later to maint).
+
+ * "git push" over http transport did not unquote the push-options
+ correctly.
+ (merge 90dce21eb0 jk/push-options-via-transport-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-email" learned to complain when the batch-size option is
+ not defined when the relogin-delay option is, since these two are
+ mutually required.
+ (merge 9caa70697b xz/send-email-batch-size later to maint).
+
+ * Y2k20 fix ;-) for our perl scripts.
+ (merge a40e06ee33 bw/perl-timegm-timelocal-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Threaded "git grep" has been optimized to avoid allocation in code
+ section that is covered under a mutex.
+ (merge 38ef24dccf rv/grep-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git subtree" script (in contrib/) scripted around "git log", whose
+ output got affected by end-user configuration like log.showsignature
+ (merge 8841b5222c sg/subtree-signed-commits later to maint).
+
+ * While finding unique object name abbreviation, the code may
+ accidentally have read beyond the end of the array of object names
+ in a pack.
+ (merge 21abed500c ds/find-unique-abbrev-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Micro optimization in revision traversal code.
+ (merge ebbed3ba04 ds/mark-parents-uninteresting-optim later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit" used to run "gc --auto" near the end, which was lost
+ when the command was reimplemented in C by mistake.
+ (merge 095c741edd ab/gc-auto-in-commit later to maint).
+
+ * Allow running a couple of tests with "sh -x".
+ (merge c20bf94abc sg/cvs-tests-with-x later to maint).
+
+ * The codepath to replace an existing entry in the index had a bug in
+ updating the name hash structure, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 0e267b7a24 bp/refresh-cache-ent-rehash-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The transfer.fsckobjects configuration tells "git fetch" to
+ validate the data and connected-ness of objects in the received
+ pack; the code to perform this check has been taught about the
+ narrow clone's convention that missing objects that are reachable
+ from objects in a pack that came from a promissor remote is OK.
+
+ * There was an unused file-scope static variable left in http.c when
+ building for versions of libCURL that is older than 7.19.4, which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge b8fd6008ec rj/http-code-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Shell script portability fix.
+ (merge 206a6ae013 ml/filter-branch-portability-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge e2a5a028c7 bw/oidmap-autoinit later to maint).
+ (merge ec3b4b06f8 cl/t9001-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge e1b3f3dd38 ks/submodule-doc-updates later to maint).
+ (merge fbac558a9b rs/describe-unique-abbrev later to maint).
+ (merge 8462ff43e4 tb/crlf-conv-flags later to maint).
+ (merge 7d68bb0766 rb/hashmap-h-compilation-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 3449847168 cc/sha1-file-name later to maint).
+ (merge ad622a256f ds/use-get-be64 later to maint).
+ (merge f919ffebed sg/cocci-move-array later to maint).
+ (merge 4e801463c7 jc/mailinfo-cleanup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ef5b3a6c5e nd/shared-index-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 9f5258cbb8 tz/doc-show-defaults-to-head later to maint).
+ (merge b780e4407d jc/worktree-add-short-help later to maint).
+ (merge ae239fc8e5 rs/cocci-strbuf-addf-to-addstr later to maint).
+ (merge 2e22a85e5c nd/ignore-glob-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 3738031581 jk/gettext-poison later to maint).
+ (merge 54360a1956 rj/sparse-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 12e31a6b12 sg/doc-test-must-fail-args later to maint).
+ (merge 760f1ad101 bc/doc-interpret-trailers-grammofix later to maint).
+ (merge 4ccf461f56 bp/fsmonitor later to maint).
+ (merge a6119f82b1 jk/test-hashmap-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 5aea9fe6cc rd/typofix later to maint).
+ (merge e4e5da2796 sb/status-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 7976e901c8 gs/test-unset-xdg-cache-home later to maint).
+ (merge d023df1ee6 tg/worktree-create-tracking later to maint).
+ (merge 4cbe92fd41 sm/mv-dry-run-update later to maint).
+ (merge 75e5e9c3f7 sb/color-h-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 2708ef4af6 sg/t6300-modernize later to maint).
+ (merge d88e92d4e0 bw/doc-submodule-recurse-config-with-clone later to maint).
+ (merge f74bbc8dd2 jk/cached-commit-buffer later to maint).
+ (merge 1316416903 ms/non-ascii-ticks later to maint).
+ (merge 878056005e rs/strbuf-read-file-or-whine later to maint).
+ (merge 79f0ba1547 jk/strbuf-read-file-close-error later to maint).
+ (merge edfb8ba068 ot/ref-filter-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 11395a3b4b jc/test-must-be-empty later to maint).
+ (merge 768b9d6db7 mk/doc-pretty-fill later to maint).
+ (merge 2caa7b8d27 ab/man-sec-list later to maint).
+ (merge 40c17eb184 ks/t3200-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge bd9958c358 dp/merge-strategy-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 9ee0540a40 js/ming-strftime later to maint).
+ (merge 1775e990f7 tz/complete-tag-delete-tagname later to maint).
+ (merge 00a4b03501 rj/warning-uninitialized-fix later to maint).
+ (merge b635ed97a0 jk/attributes-path-doc later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..31c3f6d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,200 @@
+Git 2.18 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.17
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Rename detection logic in "diff" family that is used in "merge" has
+ learned to guess when all of x/a, x/b and x/c have moved to z/a,
+ z/b and z/c, it is likely that x/d added in the meantime would also
+ want to move to z/d by taking the hint that the entire directory
+ 'x' moved to 'z'. A bug causing dirty files involved in a rename
+ to be overwritten during merge has also been fixed as part of this
+ work.
+
+ * "git filter-branch" learned to use a different exit code to allow
+ the callers to tell the case where there was no new commits to
+ rewrite from other error cases.
+
+ * When built with more recent cURL, GIT_SSL_VERSION can now specify
+ "tlsv1.3" as its value.
+
+ * "git gui" learned that "~/.ssh/id_ecdsa.pub" and
+ "~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub" are also possible SSH key files.
+ (merge 2e2f0288ef bb/git-gui-ssh-key-files later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" performs commit upon CTRL/CMD+ENTER but the
+ CTRL/CMD+KP_ENTER (i.e. enter key on the numpad) did not have the
+ same key binding. It now does.
+ (merge 28a1d94a06 bp/git-gui-bind-kp-enter later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" has been taught to work with old versions of tk (like
+ 8.5.7) that do not support "ttk::style theme use" as a way to query
+ the current theme.
+ (merge 4891961105 cb/git-gui-ttk-style later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" has learned to honor "--signoff" option when using
+ backends other than "am" (but not "--preserve-merges").
+
+ * "git branch --list" during an interrupted "rebase -i" now lets
+ users distinguish the case where a detached HEAD is being rebased
+ and a normal branch is being rebased.
+
+ * "git mergetools" learned talking to guiffy.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * A "git fetch" from a repository with insane number of refs into a
+ repository that is already up-to-date still wasted too many cycles
+ making many lstat(2) calls to see if these objects at the tips
+ exist as loose objects locally. These lstat(2) calls are optimized
+ away by enumerating all loose objects beforehand.
+ It is unknown if the new strategy negatively affects existing use
+ cases, fetching into a repository with many loose objects from a
+ repository with small number of refs.
+
+ * Git can be built to use either v1 or v2 of the PCRE library, and so
+ far, the build-time configuration USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease instructed
+ the build procedure to use v1, but now it means v2. USE_LIBPCRE1
+ and USE_LIBPCRE2 can be used to explicitly choose which version to
+ use, as before.
+
+ * The build procedure learned to optionally use symbolic links
+ (instead of hardlinks and copies) to install "git-foo" for built-in
+ commands, whose binaries are all identical.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * The way "git worktree prune" worked internally has been simplified,
+ by assuming how "git worktree move" moves an existing worktree to a
+ different place.
+
+ * Code clean-up for the "repository" abstraction.
+ (merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
+
+ * Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ optimized to use the same fan-out table.
+
+ * The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
+ completion continues to get extended and polished.
+
+ * Copies of old scripted Porcelain commands in contrib/examples/ have
+ been removed.
+
+ * Some tests that rely on the exact hardcoded values of object names
+ have been updated in preparation for hash function migration.
+
+ * Perf-test update.
+
+ * Test helper update.
+
+ * The effort continues to refactor the internal global data structure
+ to make it possible to open multiple repositories, work with and
+ then close them,
+
+ * Small test-helper programs have been consolidated into a single
+ binary.
+
+ * API clean-up around ref-filter code.
+
+ * Shell completion (in contrib) that gives list of paths have been
+ optimized somewhat.
+
+ * The index file is updated to record the fsmonitor section after a
+ full scan was made, to avoid wasting the effort that has already
+ spent.
+
+ * Performance measuring framework in t/perf learned to help bisecting
+ performance regressions.
+
+ * Some multi-word source filenames are being renamed to separate
+ words with dashes instead of underscores.
+
+ * An reusable "memory pool" implementation has been extracted from
+ fast-import.c, which in turn has become the first user of the
+ mem-pool API.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.17
+-----------------
+
+ * "git shortlog cruft" aborted with a BUG message when run outside a
+ Git repository. The command has been taught to complain about
+ extra and unwanted arguments on its command line instead in such a
+ case.
+ (merge 4aa0161e83 ma/shortlog-revparse later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash push -u -- <pathspec>" gave an unnecessary and confusing
+ error message when there was no tracked files that match the
+ <pathspec>, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 353278687e tg/stash-untracked-with-pathspec-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git tag --contains no-such-commit" gave a full list of options
+ after giving an error message.
+ (merge 3bb0923f06 ps/contains-id-error-message later to maint).
+
+ * "diff-highlight" filter (in contrib/) learned to undertand "git log
+ --graph" output better.
+ (merge 4551fbba14 jk/diff-highlight-graph-fix later to maint).
+
+ * when refs that do not point at committish are given, "git
+ filter-branch" gave a misleading error messages. This has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge f78ab355e7 yk/filter-branch-non-committish-refs later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule status" misbehaved on a submodule that has been
+ removed from the working tree.
+ (merge 74b6bda32f rs/status-with-removed-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * When credential helper exits very quickly without reading its
+ input, it used to cause Git to die with SIGPIPE, which has been
+ fixed.
+ (merge a0d51e8d0e eb/cred-helper-ignore-sigpipe later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --keep-empty" still removed an empty commit if the
+ other side contained an empty commit (due to the "does an
+ equivalent patch exist already?" check), which has been corrected.
+ (merge 3d946165e1 pw/rebase-keep-empty-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Some codepaths, including the refs API, get and keep relative
+ paths, that go out of sync when the process does chdir(2). The
+ chdir-notify API is introduced to let these codepaths adjust these
+ cached paths to the new current directory.
+ (merge fb9c2d2703 jk/relative-directory-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "cd sub/dir && git commit ../path" ought to record the changes to
+ the file "sub/path", but this regressed long time ago.
+ (merge 86238e07ef bw/commit-partial-from-subdirectory-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Recent introduction of "--log-destination" option to "git daemon"
+ did not work well when the daemon was run under "--inetd" mode.
+ (merge e67d906d73 lw/daemon-log-destination later to maint).
+
+ * Small fix to the autoconf build procedure.
+ (merge 249482daf0 es/fread-reads-dir-autoconf-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an unexploitable (because the oversized contents are not under
+ attacker's control) buffer overflow.
+ (merge d8579accfa bp/fsmonitor-bufsize-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 248f66ed8e nd/trace-with-env later to maint).
+ (merge 14ced5562c ys/bisect-object-id-missing-conversion-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5988eb631a ab/doc-hash-brokenness later to maint).
+ (merge a4d4e32a70 pk/test-avoid-pipe-hiding-exit-status later to maint).
+ (merge 05e293c1ac jk/flockfile-stdio later to maint).
+ (merge e9184b0789 jk/t5561-missing-curl later to maint).
+ (merge b1801b85a3 nd/worktree-move later to maint).
+ (merge bbd374dd20 ak/bisect-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 4855f06fb3 mn/send-email-credential-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 8523b1e355 en/doc-typoes later to maint).
+ (merge 43b44ccfe7 js/t5404-path-fix later to maint).
+ (merge decf711fc1 ps/test-chmtime-get later to maint).
+ (merge 22d11a6e8e es/worktree-docs later to maint).
+ (merge 92a5dbbc22 tg/use-git-contacts later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 558d465..945f8ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -1,40 +1,47 @@
+Submitting Patches
+==================
+
+== Guidelines
+
Here are some guidelines for people who want to contribute their code
to this software.
-(0) Decide what to base your work on.
+[[base-branch]]
+=== Decide what to base your work on.
In general, always base your work on the oldest branch that your
change is relevant to.
- - A bugfix should be based on 'maint' in general. If the bug is not
- present in 'maint', base it on 'master'. For a bug that's not yet
- in 'master', find the topic that introduces the regression, and
- base your work on the tip of the topic.
+* A bugfix should be based on `maint` in general. If the bug is not
+ present in `maint`, base it on `master`. For a bug that's not yet
+ in `master`, find the topic that introduces the regression, and
+ base your work on the tip of the topic.
- - A new feature should be based on 'master' in general. If the new
- feature depends on a topic that is in 'pu', but not in 'master',
- base your work on the tip of that topic.
+* A new feature should be based on `master` in general. If the new
+ feature depends on a topic that is in `pu`, but not in `master`,
+ base your work on the tip of that topic.
- - Corrections and enhancements to a topic not yet in 'master' should
- be based on the tip of that topic. If the topic has not been merged
- to 'next', it's alright to add a note to squash minor corrections
- into the series.
+* Corrections and enhancements to a topic not yet in `master` should
+ be based on the tip of that topic. If the topic has not been merged
+ to `next`, it's alright to add a note to squash minor corrections
+ into the series.
- - In the exceptional case that a new feature depends on several topics
- not in 'master', start working on 'next' or 'pu' privately and send
- out patches for discussion. Before the final merge, you may have to
- wait until some of the dependent topics graduate to 'master', and
- rebase your work.
+* In the exceptional case that a new feature depends on several topics
+ not in `master`, start working on `next` or `pu` privately and send
+ out patches for discussion. Before the final merge, you may have to
+ wait until some of the dependent topics graduate to `master`, and
+ rebase your work.
- - Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
- repositories (see the section "Subsystems" below). Changes to
- these parts should be based on their trees.
+* Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
+ repositories (see the section "Subsystems" below). Changes to
+ these parts should be based on their trees.
-To find the tip of a topic branch, run "git log --first-parent
-master..pu" and look for the merge commit. The second parent of this
+To find the tip of a topic branch, run `git log --first-parent
+master..pu` and look for the merge commit. The second parent of this
commit is the tip of the topic branch.
-(1) Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
+[[separate-commits]]
+=== Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
Unless your patch is really trivial, you should not be sending
out a patch that was generated between your working tree and
@@ -58,8 +65,9 @@ differs substantially from the prior version, are all good things
to have.
Make sure that you have tests for the bug you are fixing. See
-t/README for guidance.
+`t/README` for guidance.
+[[tests]]
When adding a new feature, make sure that you have new tests to show
the feature triggers the new behavior when it should, and to show the
feature does not trigger when it shouldn't. After any code change, make
@@ -84,41 +92,45 @@ turning en_UK spelling to en_US). Obvious typographical fixes are much
more welcomed ("teh -> "the"), preferably submitted as independent
patches separate from other documentation changes.
+[[whitespace-check]]
Oh, another thing. We are picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
-in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
-run "git diff --check" on your changes before you commit.
+in `templates/hooks--pre-commit`. To help ensure this does not happen,
+run `git diff --check` on your changes before you commit.
-
-(2) Describe your changes well.
+[[describe-changes]]
+=== Describe your changes well.
The first line of the commit message should be a short description (50
-characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION in git-commit(1)), and
-should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
+characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION in linkgit:git-commit[1]),
+and should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
prefix the first line with "area: " where the area is a filename or
identifier for the general area of the code being modified, e.g.
- . doc: clarify distinction between sign-off and pgp-signing
- . githooks.txt: improve the intro section
+* doc: clarify distinction between sign-off and pgp-signing
+* githooks.txt: improve the intro section
-If in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges" on the
+If in doubt which identifier to use, run `git log --no-merges` on the
files you are modifying to see the current conventions.
+[[summary-section]]
It's customary to start the remainder of the first line after "area: "
with a lower-case letter. E.g. "doc: clarify...", not "doc:
Clarify...", or "githooks.txt: improve...", not "githooks.txt:
Improve...".
+[[meaningful-message]]
The body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
- . explains the problem the change tries to solve, i.e. what is wrong
- with the current code without the change.
+. explains the problem the change tries to solve, i.e. what is wrong
+ with the current code without the change.
- . justifies the way the change solves the problem, i.e. why the
- result with the change is better.
+. justifies the way the change solves the problem, i.e. why the
+ result with the change is better.
- . alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
+. alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
+[[imperative-mood]]
Describe your changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed xyzzy
to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase to change
@@ -126,36 +138,43 @@ its behavior. Try to make sure your explanation can be understood
without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
+[[commit-reference]]
If you want to reference a previous commit in the history of a stable
branch, use the format "abbreviated sha1 (subject, date)",
with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes, like this:
- Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
- noticed that ...
+....
+ Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
+ noticed that ...
+....
The "Copy commit summary" command of gitk can be used to obtain this
-format, or this invocation of "git show":
+format, or this invocation of `git show`:
- git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
+....
+ git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
+....
-(3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
+[[git-tools]]
+=== Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
Git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
-You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
-"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
+You do not have to be afraid to use `-M` option to `git diff` or
+`git format-patch`, if your patch involves file renames. The
receiving end can handle them just fine.
+[[review-patch]]
Please make sure your patch does not add commented out debugging code,
or include any extra files which do not relate to what your patch
is trying to achieve. Make sure to review
your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
-sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
+sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the `master`
branch head. If you are preparing a work based on "next" branch,
that is fine, but please mark it as such.
-
-(4) Sending your patches.
+[[send-patches]]
+=== Sending your patches.
Learn to use format-patch and send-email if possible. These commands
are optimized for the workflow of sending patches, avoiding many ways
@@ -184,14 +203,15 @@ lose tabs that way if you are not careful.
It is a common convention to prefix your subject line with
[PATCH]. This lets people easily distinguish patches from other
-e-mail discussions. Use of additional markers after PATCH and
-the closing bracket to mark the nature of the patch is also
-encouraged. E.g. [PATCH/RFC] is often used when the patch is
-not ready to be applied but it is for discussion, [PATCH v2],
-[PATCH v3] etc. are often seen when you are sending an update to
-what you have previously sent.
-
-"git format-patch" command follows the best current practice to
+e-mail discussions. Use of markers in addition to PATCH within
+the brackets to describe the nature of the patch is also
+encouraged. E.g. [RFC PATCH] (where RFC stands for "request for
+comments") is often used to indicate a patch needs further
+discussion before being accepted, [PATCH v2], [PATCH v3] etc.
+are often seen when you are sending an update to what you have
+previously sent.
+
+The `git format-patch` command follows the best current practice to
format the body of an e-mail message. At the beginning of the
patch should come your commit message, ending with the
Signed-off-by: lines, and a line that consists of three dashes,
@@ -199,6 +219,10 @@ followed by the diffstat information and the patch itself. If
you are forwarding a patch from somebody else, optionally, at
the beginning of the e-mail message just before the commit
message starts, you can put a "From: " line to name that person.
+To change the default "[PATCH]" in the subject to "[<text>]", use
+`git format-patch --subject-prefix=<text>`. As a shortcut, you
+can use `--rfc` instead of `--subject-prefix="RFC PATCH"`, or
+`-v <n>` instead of `--subject-prefix="PATCH v<n>"`.
You often want to add additional explanation about the patch,
other than the commit message itself. Place such "cover letter"
@@ -208,6 +232,7 @@ an explanation of changes between each iteration can be kept in
Git-notes and inserted automatically following the three-dash
line via `git format-patch --notes`.
+[[attachment]]
Do not attach the patch as a MIME attachment, compressed or not.
Do not let your e-mail client send quoted-printable. Do not let
your e-mail client send format=flowed which would destroy
@@ -222,6 +247,7 @@ that it will be postponed.
Exception: If your mailer is mangling patches then someone may ask
you to re-send them using MIME, that is OK.
+[[pgp-signature]]
Do not PGP sign your patch. Most likely, your maintainer or other people on the
list would not have your PGP key and would not bother obtaining it anyway.
Your patch is not judged by who you are; a good patch from an unknown origin
@@ -230,28 +256,27 @@ origin that is done poorly or does incorrect things.
If you really really really really want to do a PGP signed
patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
-that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
+that starts with `-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----`. That is
not a text/plain, it's something else.
Send your patch with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
-people who are involved in the area you are touching (the output from
-"git blame $path" and "git shortlog --no-merges $path" would help to
+people who are involved in the area you are touching (the `git
+contacts` command in `contrib/contacts/` can help to
identify them), to solicit comments and reviews.
+:1: footnote:[The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com]
+:2: footnote:[The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org]
+
After the list reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the
-patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer [*1*] and "cc:" the
-list [*2*] for inclusion.
+patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer{1} and "cc:" the
+list{2} for inclusion.
-Do not forget to add trailers such as "Acked-by:", "Reviewed-by:" and
-"Tested-by:" lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
+Do not forget to add trailers such as `Acked-by:`, `Reviewed-by:` and
+`Tested-by:` lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
patch.
- [Addresses]
- *1* The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com
- *2* The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org
-
-
-(5) Certify your work by adding your "Signed-off-by: " line
+[[sign-off]]
+=== Certify your work by adding your "Signed-off-by: " line
To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
@@ -263,35 +288,39 @@ the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
pretty simple: if you can certify the below D-C-O:
- Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
-
- By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
-
- (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
- have the right to submit it under the open source license
- indicated in the file; or
-
- (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
- of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
- license and I have the right under that license to submit that
- work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
- by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
- permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
- in the file; or
-
- (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
- person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
- it.
-
- (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
- are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
- personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
- maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
- this project or the open source license(s) involved.
+[[dco]]
+.Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
+____
+By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
+
+a. The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
+ have the right to submit it under the open source license
+ indicated in the file; or
+
+b. The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
+ of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
+ license and I have the right under that license to submit that
+ work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
+ by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
+ permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
+ in the file; or
+
+c. The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
+ person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
+ it.
+
+d. I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
+ are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
+ personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
+ maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
+ this project or the open source license(s) involved.
+____
then you just add a line saying
- Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
+....
+ Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
+....
This line can be automatically added by Git if you run the git-commit
command with the -s option.
@@ -302,85 +331,86 @@ D-C-O. Indeed you are encouraged to do so. Do not forget to
place an in-body "From: " line at the beginning to properly attribute
the change to its true author (see (2) above).
+[[real-name]]
Also notice that a real name is used in the Signed-off-by: line. Please
don't hide your real name.
+[[commit-trailers]]
If you like, you can put extra tags at the end:
-1. "Reported-by:" is used to credit someone who found the bug that
- the patch attempts to fix.
-2. "Acked-by:" says that the person who is more familiar with the area
- the patch attempts to modify liked the patch.
-3. "Reviewed-by:", unlike the other tags, can only be offered by the
- reviewer and means that she is completely satisfied that the patch
- is ready for application. It is usually offered only after a
- detailed review.
-4. "Tested-by:" is used to indicate that the person applied the patch
- and found it to have the desired effect.
+. `Reported-by:` is used to credit someone who found the bug that
+ the patch attempts to fix.
+. `Acked-by:` says that the person who is more familiar with the area
+ the patch attempts to modify liked the patch.
+. `Reviewed-by:`, unlike the other tags, can only be offered by the
+ reviewer and means that she is completely satisfied that the patch
+ is ready for application. It is usually offered only after a
+ detailed review.
+. `Tested-by:` is used to indicate that the person applied the patch
+ and found it to have the desired effect.
You can also create your own tag or use one that's in common usage
such as "Thanks-to:", "Based-on-patch-by:", or "Mentored-by:".
-------------------------------------------------
-Subsystems with dedicated maintainers
+== Subsystems with dedicated maintainers
Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
repositories.
- - git-gui/ comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
+- 'git-gui/' comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
- git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
+ git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
- - gitk-git/ comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
+- 'gitk-git/' comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
- git://ozlabs.org/~paulus/gitk
+ git://ozlabs.org/~paulus/gitk
- - po/ comes from the localization coordinator, Jiang Xin:
+- 'po/' comes from the localization coordinator, Jiang Xin:
https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po/
Patches to these parts should be based on their trees.
-------------------------------------------------
-An ideal patch flow
+[[patch-flow]]
+== An ideal patch flow
Here is an ideal patch flow for this project the current maintainer
suggests to the contributors:
- (0) You come up with an itch. You code it up.
+. You come up with an itch. You code it up.
- (1) Send it to the list and cc people who may need to know about
- the change.
+. Send it to the list and cc people who may need to know about
+ the change.
++
+The people who may need to know are the ones whose code you
+are butchering. These people happen to be the ones who are
+most likely to be knowledgeable enough to help you, but
+they have no obligation to help you (i.e. you ask for help,
+don't demand). +git log -p {litdd} _$area_you_are_modifying_+ would
+help you find out who they are.
- The people who may need to know are the ones whose code you
- are butchering. These people happen to be the ones who are
- most likely to be knowledgeable enough to help you, but
- they have no obligation to help you (i.e. you ask for help,
- don't demand). "git log -p -- $area_you_are_modifying" would
- help you find out who they are.
+. You get comments and suggestions for improvements. You may
+ even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
- (2) You get comments and suggestions for improvements. You may
- even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
+. Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
+ spend their time to improve your patch. Go back to step (2).
- (3) Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
- spend their time to improve your patch. Go back to step (2).
+. The list forms consensus that the last round of your patch is
+ good. Send it to the maintainer and cc the list.
- (4) The list forms consensus that the last round of your patch is
- good. Send it to the maintainer and cc the list.
-
- (5) A topic branch is created with the patch and is merged to 'next',
- and cooked further and eventually graduates to 'master'.
+. A topic branch is created with the patch and is merged to `next`,
+ and cooked further and eventually graduates to `master`.
In any time between the (2)-(3) cycle, the maintainer may pick it up
-from the list and queue it to 'pu', in order to make it easier for
+from the list and queue it to `pu`, in order to make it easier for
people play with it without having to pick up and apply the patch to
their trees themselves.
-------------------------------------------------
-Know the status of your patch after submission
+[[patch-status]]
+== Know the status of your patch after submission
* You can use Git itself to find out when your patch is merged in
- master. 'git pull --rebase' will automatically skip already-applied
+ master. `git pull --rebase` will automatically skip already-applied
patches, and will let you know. This works only if you rebase on top
of the branch in which your patch has been merged (i.e. it will not
tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
@@ -390,8 +420,8 @@ Know the status of your patch after submission
entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
the status of various proposed changes.
---------------------------------------------------
-GitHub-Travis CI hints
+[[travis]]
+== GitHub-Travis CI hints
With an account at GitHub (you can get one for free to work on open
source projects), you can use Travis CI to test your changes on Linux,
@@ -400,25 +430,25 @@ test build here: https://travis-ci.org/git/git/builds/120473209
Follow these steps for the initial setup:
- (1) Fork https://github.com/git/git to your GitHub account.
- You can find detailed instructions how to fork here:
- https://help.github.com/articles/fork-a-repo/
+. Fork https://github.com/git/git to your GitHub account.
+ You can find detailed instructions how to fork here:
+ https://help.github.com/articles/fork-a-repo/
- (2) Open the Travis CI website: https://travis-ci.org
+. Open the Travis CI website: https://travis-ci.org
- (3) Press the "Sign in with GitHub" button.
+. Press the "Sign in with GitHub" button.
- (4) Grant Travis CI permissions to access your GitHub account.
- You can find more information about the required permissions here:
- https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/github-oauth-scopes
+. Grant Travis CI permissions to access your GitHub account.
+ You can find more information about the required permissions here:
+ https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/github-oauth-scopes
- (5) Open your Travis CI profile page: https://travis-ci.org/profile
+. Open your Travis CI profile page: https://travis-ci.org/profile
- (6) Enable Travis CI builds for your Git fork.
+. Enable Travis CI builds for your Git fork.
After the initial setup, Travis CI will run whenever you push new changes
to your fork of Git on GitHub. You can monitor the test state of all your
-branches here: https://travis-ci.org/<Your GitHub handle>/git/branches
+branches here: https://travis-ci.org/__<Your GitHub handle>__/git/branches
If a branch did not pass all test cases then it is marked with a red
cross. In that case you can click on the failing Travis CI job and
@@ -430,17 +460,16 @@ example: https://travis-ci.org/git/git/jobs/122676187
Fix the problem and push your fix to your Git fork. This will trigger
a new Travis CI build to ensure all tests pass.
-
-------------------------------------------------
-MUA specific hints
+[[mua]]
+== MUA specific hints
Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
patterns of breakage. Please make sure your MUA is set up
properly not to corrupt whitespaces.
-See the DISCUSSION section of git-format-patch(1) for hints on
+See the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-format-patch[1] for hints on
checking your patch by mailing it to yourself and applying with
-git-am(1).
+linkgit:git-am[1].
While you are at it, check the resulting commit log message from
a trial run of applying the patch. If what is in the resulting
@@ -452,23 +481,24 @@ should come after the three-dash line that signals the end of the
commit message.
-Pine
-----
+=== Pine
(Johannes Schindelin)
+....
I don't know how many people still use pine, but for those poor
souls it may be good to mention that the quell-flowed-text is
needed for recent versions.
... the "no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, too. AFAIK it
was introduced in 4.60.
+....
(Linus Torvalds)
+....
And 4.58 needs at least this.
----
diff-tree 8326dd8350be64ac7fc805f6563a1d61ad10d32c (from e886a61f76edf5410573e92e38ce22974f9c40f1)
Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@g5.osdl.org>
Date: Mon Aug 15 17:23:51 2005 -0700
@@ -490,10 +520,11 @@ diff --git a/pico/pico.c b/pico/pico.c
+#endif
c |= COMP_EXIT;
break;
-
+....
(Daniel Barkalow)
+....
> A patch to SubmittingPatches, MUA specific help section for
> users of Pine 4.63 would be very much appreciated.
@@ -503,23 +534,21 @@ that or Gentoo did it.) So you need to set the
"no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, unless the option you have is
"strip-whitespace-before-send", in which case you should avoid checking
it.
+....
+=== Thunderbird, KMail, GMail
-Thunderbird, KMail, GMail
--------------------------
-
-See the MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS section of git-format-patch(1).
+See the MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS section of linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
-Gnus
-----
+=== Gnus
-'|' in the *Summary* buffer can be used to pipe the current
+"|" in the `*Summary*` buffer can be used to pipe the current
message to an external program, and this is a handy way to drive
-"git am". However, if the message is MIME encoded, what is
+`git am`. However, if the message is MIME encoded, what is
piped into the program is the representation you see in your
-*Article* buffer after unwrapping MIME. This is often not what
+`*Article*` buffer after unwrapping MIME. This is often not what
you would want for two reasons. It tends to screw up non ASCII
characters (most notably in people's names), and also
-whitespaces (fatal in patches). Running 'C-u g' to display the
-message in raw form before using '|' to run the pipe can work
+whitespaces (fatal in patches). Running "C-u g" to display the
+message in raw form before using "|" to run the pipe can work
this problem around.
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 2271809..8213c12 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -41,11 +41,13 @@ in the section header, like in the example below:
--------
Subsection names are case sensitive and can contain any characters except
-newline (doublequote `"` and backslash can be included by escaping them
-as `\"` and `\\`, respectively). Section headers cannot span multiple
-lines. Variables may belong directly to a section or to a given subsection.
-You can have `[section]` if you have `[section "subsection"]`, but you
-don't need to.
+newline and the null byte. Doublequote `"` and backslash can be included
+by escaping them as `\"` and `\\`, respectively. Backslashes preceding
+other characters are dropped when reading; for example, `\t` is read as
+`t` and `\0` is read as `0` Section headers cannot span multiple lines.
+Variables may belong directly to a section or to a given subsection. You
+can have `[section]` if you have `[section "subsection"]`, but you don't
+need to.
There is also a deprecated `[section.subsection]` syntax. With this
syntax, the subsection name is converted to lower-case and is also
@@ -351,6 +353,12 @@ advice.*::
addEmbeddedRepo::
Advice on what to do when you've accidentally added one
git repo inside of another.
+ ignoredHook::
+ Advice shown if an hook is ignored because the hook is not
+ set as executable.
+ waitingForEditor::
+ Print a message to the terminal whenever Git is waiting for
+ editor input from the user.
--
core.fileMode::
@@ -413,6 +421,13 @@ core.protectNTFS::
8.3 "short" names.
Defaults to `true` on Windows, and `false` elsewhere.
+core.fsmonitor::
+ If set, the value of this variable is used as a command which
+ will identify all files that may have changed since the
+ requested date/time. This information is used to speed up git by
+ avoiding unnecessary processing of files that have not changed.
+ See the "fsmonitor-watchman" section of linkgit:githooks[5].
+
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
working tree are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -515,6 +530,12 @@ core.autocrlf::
This variable can be set to 'input',
in which case no output conversion is performed.
+core.checkRoundtripEncoding::
+ A comma and/or whitespace separated list of encodings that Git
+ performs UTF-8 round trip checks on if they are used in an
+ `working-tree-encoding` attribute (see linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
+ The default value is `SHIFT-JIS`.
+
core.symlinks::
If false, symbolic links are checked out as small plain files that
contain the link text. linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
@@ -776,6 +797,12 @@ core.commentChar::
If set to "auto", `git-commit` would select a character that is not
the beginning character of any line in existing commit messages.
+core.filesRefLockTimeout::
+ The length of time, in milliseconds, to retry when trying to
+ lock an individual reference. Value 0 means not to retry at
+ all; -1 means to try indefinitely. Default is 100 (i.e.,
+ retry for 100ms).
+
core.packedRefsTimeout::
The length of time, in milliseconds, to retry when trying to
lock the `packed-refs` file. Value 0 means not to retry at
@@ -877,6 +904,10 @@ core.notesRef::
This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and it can be overridden by
the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable. See linkgit:git-notes[1].
+core.commitGraph::
+ Enable git commit graph feature. Allows reading from the
+ commit-graph file.
+
core.sparseCheckout::
Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
@@ -943,6 +974,23 @@ apply.whitespace::
Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
as the `--whitespace` option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
+blame.showRoot::
+ Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.blankBoundary::
+ Show blank commit object name for boundary commits in
+ linkgit:git-blame[1]. This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.showEmail::
+ Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.date::
+ Specifies the format used to output dates in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ If unset the iso format is used. For supported values,
+ see the discussion of the `--date` option at linkgit:git-log[1].
+
branch.autoSetupMerge::
Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
@@ -1077,14 +1125,25 @@ This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or the
'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands. Can be overridden on the
command line with the `--color[=<when>]` option.
+diff.colorMoved::
+ If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
+ in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
+ see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
+ true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
+ moved lines are not colored.
+
color.diff.<slot>::
Use customized color for diff colorization. `<slot>` specifies
which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
of `context` (context text - `plain` is a historical synonym),
`meta` (metainformation), `frag`
(hunk header), 'func' (function in hunk header), `old` (removed lines),
- `new` (added lines), `commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace`
- (highlighting whitespace errors).
+ `new` (added lines), `commit` (commit headers), `whitespace`
+ (highlighting whitespace errors), `oldMoved` (deleted lines),
+ `newMoved` (added lines), `oldMovedDimmed`, `oldMovedAlternative`,
+ `oldMovedAlternativeDimmed`, `newMovedDimmed`, `newMovedAlternative`
+ and `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
+ setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details).
color.decorate.<slot>::
Use customized color for 'git log --decorate' output. `<slot>` is one
@@ -1349,7 +1408,16 @@ fetch.unpackLimit::
fetch.prune::
If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the `--prune`
- option was given on the command line. See also `remote.<name>.prune`.
+ option was given on the command line. See also `remote.<name>.prune`
+ and the PRUNING section of linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
+fetch.pruneTags::
+ If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the
+ `refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*` refspec was provided when pruning,
+ if not set already. This allows for setting both this option
+ and `fetch.prune` to maintain a 1=1 mapping to upstream
+ refs. See also `remote.<name>.pruneTags` and the PRUNING
+ section of linkgit:git-fetch[1].
fetch.output::
Control how ref update status is printed. Valid values are
@@ -1553,11 +1621,13 @@ gc.<pattern>.reflogExpireUnreachable::
gc.rerereResolved::
Records of conflicted merge you resolved earlier are
kept for this many days when 'git rerere gc' is run.
+ You can also use more human-readable "1.month.ago", etc.
The default is 60 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
gc.rerereUnresolved::
Records of conflicted merge you have not resolved are
kept for this many days when 'git rerere gc' is run.
+ You can also use more human-readable "1.month.ago", etc.
The default is 15 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
gitcvs.commitMsgAnnotation::
@@ -1897,6 +1967,7 @@ http.sslVersion::
- tlsv1.0
- tlsv1.1
- tlsv1.2
+ - tlsv1.3
+
Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_VERSION` environment variable.
@@ -1919,8 +1990,8 @@ empty string.
http.sslVerify::
Whether to verify the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
- over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY` environment
- variable.
+ over HTTPS. Defaults to true. Can be overridden by the
+ `GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY` environment variable.
http.sslCert::
File containing the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
@@ -2062,15 +2133,40 @@ matched against are those given directly to Git commands. This means any URLs
visited as a result of a redirection do not participate in matching.
ssh.variant::
- Depending on the value of the environment variables `GIT_SSH` or
- `GIT_SSH_COMMAND`, or the config setting `core.sshCommand`, Git
- auto-detects whether to adjust its command-line parameters for use
- with plink or tortoiseplink, as opposed to the default (OpenSSH).
+ By default, Git determines the command line arguments to use
+ based on the basename of the configured SSH command (configured
+ using the environment variable `GIT_SSH` or `GIT_SSH_COMMAND` or
+ the config setting `core.sshCommand`). If the basename is
+ unrecognized, Git will attempt to detect support of OpenSSH
+ options by first invoking the configured SSH command with the
+ `-G` (print configuration) option and will subsequently use
+ OpenSSH options (if that is successful) or no options besides
+ the host and remote command (if it fails).
++
+The config variable `ssh.variant` can be set to override this detection.
+Valid values are `ssh` (to use OpenSSH options), `plink`, `putty`,
+`tortoiseplink`, `simple` (no options except the host and remote command).
+The default auto-detection can be explicitly requested using the value
+`auto`. Any other value is treated as `ssh`. This setting can also be
+overridden via the environment variable `GIT_SSH_VARIANT`.
++
+The current command-line parameters used for each variant are as
+follows:
+
-The config variable `ssh.variant` can be set to override this auto-detection;
-valid values are `ssh`, `plink`, `putty` or `tortoiseplink`. Any other value
-will be treated as normal ssh. This setting can be overridden via the
-environment variable `GIT_SSH_VARIANT`.
+--
+
+* `ssh` - [-p port] [-4] [-6] [-o option] [username@]host command
+
+* `simple` - [username@]host command
+
+* `plink` or `putty` - [-P port] [-4] [-6] [username@]host command
+
+* `tortoiseplink` - [-P port] [-4] [-6] -batch [username@]host command
+
+--
++
+Except for the `simple` variant, command-line parameters are likely to
+change as git gains new features.
i18n.commitEncoding::
Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; Git itself
@@ -2498,6 +2594,23 @@ The protocol names currently used by git are:
`hg` to allow the `git-remote-hg` helper)
--
+protocol.version::
+ Experimental. If set, clients will attempt to communicate with a
+ server using the specified protocol version. If unset, no
+ attempt will be made by the client to communicate using a
+ particular protocol version, this results in protocol version 0
+ being used.
+ Supported versions:
++
+--
+
+* `0` - the original wire protocol.
+
+* `1` - the original wire protocol with the addition of a version string
+ in the initial response from the server.
+
+--
+
pull.ff::
By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
a commit that is a descendant of the current commit. Instead, the
@@ -2602,6 +2715,35 @@ push.gpgSign::
override a value from a lower-priority config file. An explicit
command-line flag always overrides this config option.
+push.pushOption::
+ When no `--push-option=<option>` argument is given from the
+ command line, `git push` behaves as if each <value> of
+ this variable is given as `--push-option=<value>`.
++
+This is a multi-valued variable, and an empty value can be used in a
+higher priority configuration file (e.g. `.git/config` in a
+repository) to clear the values inherited from a lower priority
+configuration files (e.g. `$HOME/.gitconfig`).
++
+--
+
+Example:
+
+/etc/gitconfig
+ push.pushoption = a
+ push.pushoption = b
+
+~/.gitconfig
+ push.pushoption = c
+
+repo/.git/config
+ push.pushoption =
+ push.pushoption = b
+
+This will result in only b (a and c are cleared).
+
+--
+
push.recurseSubmodules::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
are available on a remote-tracking branch. If the value is 'check'
@@ -2616,36 +2758,7 @@ push.recurseSubmodules::
is retained. You may override this configuration at time of push by
specifying '--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|no'.
-rebase.stat::
- Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
- rebase. False by default.
-
-rebase.autoSquash::
- If set to true enable `--autosquash` option by default.
-
-rebase.autoStash::
- When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash entry
- before the operation begins, and apply it after the operation
- ends. This means that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.
- However, use with care: the final stash application after a
- successful rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
- Defaults to false.
-
-rebase.missingCommitsCheck::
- If set to "warn", git rebase -i will print a warning if some
- commits are removed (e.g. a line was deleted), however the
- rebase will still proceed. If set to "error", it will print
- the previous warning and stop the rebase, 'git rebase
- --edit-todo' can then be used to correct the error. If set to
- "ignore", no checking is done.
- To drop a commit without warning or error, use the `drop`
- command in the todo-list.
- Defaults to "ignore".
-
-rebase.instructionFormat::
- A format string, as specified in linkgit:git-log[1], to be used for
- the instruction list during an interactive rebase. The format will automatically
- have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
+include::rebase-config.txt[]
receive.advertiseAtomic::
By default, git-receive-pack will advertise the atomic push
@@ -2852,6 +2965,15 @@ remote.<name>.prune::
remote (as if the `--prune` option was given on the command line).
Overrides `fetch.prune` settings, if any.
+remote.<name>.pruneTags::
+ When set to true, fetching from this remote by default will also
+ remove any local tags that no longer exist on the remote if pruning
+ is activated in general via `remote.<name>.prune`, `fetch.prune` or
+ `--prune`. Overrides `fetch.pruneTags` settings, if any.
++
+See also `remote.<name>.prune` and the PRUNING section of
+linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
remotes.<group>::
The list of remotes which are fetched by "git remote update
<group>". See linkgit:git-remote[1].
@@ -2932,6 +3054,7 @@ sendemail.smtpPass::
sendemail.suppresscc::
sendemail.suppressFrom::
sendemail.to::
+sendemail.tocmd::
sendemail.smtpDomain::
sendemail.smtpServer::
sendemail.smtpServerPort::
@@ -3066,10 +3189,14 @@ submodule.<name>.url::
See linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
submodule.<name>.update::
- The default update procedure for a submodule. This variable
- is populated by `git submodule init` from the
- linkgit:gitmodules[5] file. See description of 'update'
- command in linkgit:git-submodule[1].
+ The method by which a submodule is updated by 'git submodule update',
+ which is the only affected command, others such as
+ 'git checkout --recurse-submodules' are unaffected. It exists for
+ historical reasons, when 'git submodule' was the only command to
+ interact with submodules; settings like `submodule.active`
+ and `pull.rebase` are more specific. It is populated by
+ `git submodule init` from the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file.
+ See description of 'update' command in linkgit:git-submodule[1].
submodule.<name>.branch::
The remote branch name for a submodule, used by `git submodule
@@ -3112,7 +3239,8 @@ submodule.active::
submodule.recurse::
Specifies if commands recurse into submodules by default. This
- applies to all commands that have a `--recurse-submodules` option.
+ applies to all commands that have a `--recurse-submodules` option,
+ except `clone`.
Defaults to false.
submodule.fetchJobs::
@@ -3245,6 +3373,10 @@ uploadpack.packObjectsHook::
was run. I.e., `upload-pack` will feed input intended for
`pack-objects` to the hook, and expects a completed packfile on
stdout.
+
+uploadpack.allowFilter::
+ If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support partial
+ clone and partial fetch object filtering.
+
Note that this configuration variable is ignored if it is seen in the
repository-level config (this is a safety measure against fetching from
@@ -3346,3 +3478,13 @@ web.browser::
Specify a web browser that may be used by some commands.
Currently only linkgit:git-instaweb[1] and linkgit:git-help[1]
may use it.
+
+worktree.guessRemote::
+ With `add`, if no branch argument, and neither of `-b` nor
+ `-B` nor `--detach` are given, the command defaults to
+ creating a new branch from HEAD. If `worktree.guessRemote` is
+ set to true, `worktree add` tries to find a remote-tracking
+ branch whose name uniquely matches the new branch name. If
+ such a branch exists, it is checked out and set as "upstream"
+ for the new branch. If no such match can be found, it falls
+ back to creating a new branch from the current HEAD.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index d4f3d95..0000000
--- a/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,5 +0,0 @@
---indent-heuristic::
---no-indent-heuristic::
- These are to help debugging and tuning experimental heuristics
- (which are off by default) that shift diff hunk boundaries to
- make patches easier to read.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 56dedaf..f466600 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -63,7 +63,12 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
Synonym for `-p --raw`.
endif::git-format-patch[]
-include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
+--indent-heuristic::
+ Enable the heuristic that shift diff hunk boundaries to make patches
+ easier to read. This is the default.
+
+--no-indent-heuristic::
+ Disable the indent heuristic.
--minimal::
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
@@ -75,6 +80,16 @@ include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
--histogram::
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
+--anchored=<text>::
+ Generate a diff using the "anchored diff" algorithm.
++
+This option may be specified more than once.
++
+If a line exists in both the source and destination, exists only once,
+and starts with this text, this algorithm attempts to prevent it from
+appearing as a deletion or addition in the output. It uses the "patience
+diff" algorithm internally.
+
--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}::
Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
+
@@ -113,6 +128,14 @@ have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
These parameters can also be set individually with `--stat-width=<width>`,
`--stat-name-width=<name-width>` and `--stat-count=<count>`.
+--compact-summary::
+ Output a condensed summary of extended header information such
+ as file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l"
+ if it's a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding
+ or removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The
+ information is put betwen the filename part and the graph
+ part. Implies `--stat`.
+
--numstat::
Similar to `--stat`, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
@@ -231,6 +254,40 @@ ifdef::git-diff[]
endif::git-diff[]
It is the same as `--color=never`.
+--color-moved[=<mode>]::
+ Moved lines of code are colored differently.
+ifdef::git-diff[]
+ It can be changed by the `diff.colorMoved` configuration setting.
+endif::git-diff[]
+ The <mode> defaults to 'no' if the option is not given
+ and to 'zebra' if the option with no mode is given.
+ The mode must be one of:
++
+--
+no::
+ Moved lines are not highlighted.
+default::
+ Is a synonym for `zebra`. This may change to a more sensible mode
+ in the future.
+plain::
+ Any line that is added in one location and was removed
+ in another location will be colored with 'color.diff.newMoved'.
+ Similarly 'color.diff.oldMoved' will be used for removed lines
+ that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
+ moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
+ if a block of code was moved without permutation.
+zebra::
+ Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
+ are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
+ painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
+ 'color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative'. The change between
+ the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
+dimmed_zebra::
+ Similar to 'zebra', but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
+ of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
+ blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
+--
+
--word-diff[=<mode>]::
Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words.
By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
@@ -420,6 +477,12 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
+
Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
`--diff-filter=ad` excludes added and deleted paths.
++
+Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, diffs
+from the index to the working tree can never have Added entries
+(because the set of paths included in the diff is limited by what is in
+the index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot appear if
+detection for those types is disabled.
-S<string>::
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
@@ -453,6 +516,15 @@ occurrences of that string did not change).
See the 'pickaxe' entry in linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more
information.
+--find-object=<object-id>::
+ Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
+ the specified object. Similar to `-S`, just the argument is different
+ in that it doesn't search for a specific string but for a specific
+ object id.
++
+The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the `-t` option in
+`git-log` to also find trees.
+
--pickaxe-all::
When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
@@ -461,6 +533,7 @@ information.
--pickaxe-regex::
Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
expression to match.
+
endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
@@ -495,7 +568,7 @@ the normal order.
--
+
Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
-fnmantch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
+fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "`foo*bar`"
matches "`fooasdfbar`" and "`foo/bar/baz/asdf`" but not "`foobarx`".
@@ -518,6 +591,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--text::
Treat all files as text.
+--ignore-cr-at-eol::
+ Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
+
--ignore-space-at-eol::
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index fb6bebb..8631e36 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -73,7 +73,22 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command
line or in the remote configuration, for example if the remote
was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are also
- subject to pruning.
+ subject to pruning. Supplying `--prune-tags` is a shorthand for
+ providing the tag refspec.
++
+See the PRUNING section below for more details.
+
+-P::
+--prune-tags::
+ Before fetching, remove any local tags that no longer exist on
+ the remote if `--prune` is enabled. This option should be used
+ more carefully, unlike `--prune` it will remove any local
+ references (local tags) that have been created. This option is
+ a shorthand for providing the explicit tag refspec along with
+ `--prune`, see the discussion about that in its documentation.
++
+See the PRUNING section below for more details.
+
endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index b700bea..d50fa33 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
[--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
- [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
+ [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
[--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -175,6 +175,13 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
warning (e.g., if you are manually performing operations on
submodules).
+--renormalize::
+ Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to
+ forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful after
+ changing `core.autocrlf` configuration or the `text` attribute
+ in order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings.
+ This option implies `-u`.
+
--chmod=(+|-)x::
Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable
bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 12879e4..6f6c34b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
[--[no-]scissors] [-S[<keyid>]] [--patch-format=<format>]
[(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
-'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
+'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --show-current-patch)
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -167,6 +167,14 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--abort::
Restore the original branch and abort the patching operation.
+--quit::
+ Abort the patching operation but keep HEAD and the index
+ untouched.
+
+--show-current-patch::
+ Show the patch being applied when "git am" is stopped because
+ of conflicts.
+
DISCUSSION
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
index 94be4b8..05fd482 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,6 @@ familiar command name for people coming from other SCM systems.
OPTIONS
-------
include::blame-options.txt[]
-include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 631cbd8..4ebc3d3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ OPTIONS
disables it is in effect), make sure the patch is
applicable to what the current index file records. If
the file to be patched in the working tree is not
- up-to-date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
+ up to date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
causes the index file to be updated.
--cached::
@@ -259,7 +259,7 @@ treats these changes as follows.
If `--index` is specified (explicitly or implicitly), then the submodule
commits must match the index exactly for the patch to apply. If any
of the submodules are checked-out, then these check-outs are completely
-ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up-to-date or clean and they
+ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up to date or clean and they
are not updated.
If `--index` is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 6c42abf..4b45d83 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ on the subcommand:
git bisect terms [--term-good | --term-bad]
git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
git bisect reset [<commit>]
- git bisect visualize
+ git bisect (visualize|view)
git bisect replay <logfile>
git bisect log
git bisect run <cmd>...
@@ -165,8 +165,8 @@ To get a reminder of the currently used terms, use
git bisect terms
------------------------------------------------
-You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect term
---term-old` or `git bisect term --term-good`.
+You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect terms
+--term-old` or `git bisect terms --term-good`.
If you would like to use your own terms instead of "bad"/"good" or
"new"/"old", you can choose any names you like (except existing bisect
@@ -193,24 +193,23 @@ git bisect start --term-new fixed --term-old broken
Then, use `git bisect <term-old>` and `git bisect <term-new>` instead
of `git bisect good` and `git bisect bad` to mark commits.
-Bisect visualize
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Bisect visualize/view
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To see the currently remaining suspects in 'gitk', issue the following
-command during the bisection process:
+command during the bisection process (the subcommand `view` can be used
+as an alternative to `visualize`):
------------
$ git bisect visualize
------------
-`view` may also be used as a synonym for `visualize`.
-
If the `DISPLAY` environment variable is not set, 'git log' is used
instead. You can also give command-line options such as `-p` and
`--stat`.
------------
-$ git bisect view --stat
+$ git bisect visualize --stat
------------
Bisect log and bisect replay
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index fdc3aea..16323eb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -89,8 +89,6 @@ include::blame-options.txt[]
abbreviated object name, use <n>+1 digits. Note that 1 column
is used for a caret to mark the boundary commit.
-include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
-
THE PORCELAIN FORMAT
--------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 7463dc4..b3084c9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -14,10 +14,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
[--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
[--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
-'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
+'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
+'git branch' (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
@@ -64,6 +65,10 @@ If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
to happen.
+The `-c` and `-C` options have the exact same semantics as `-m` and
+`-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its
+config and reflog will be copied to a new name.
+
With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
@@ -81,7 +86,7 @@ OPTIONS
--delete::
Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged in its
upstream branch, or in `HEAD` if no upstream was set with
- `--track` or `--set-upstream`.
+ `--track` or `--set-upstream-to`.
-D::
Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
@@ -99,12 +104,12 @@ OPTIONS
-f::
--force::
- Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
- already. Without `-f` 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
+ Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
+ already. Without `-f`, 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
`-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
- branch name already exists.
+ branch name already exists, the same applies for `-c` (or `--copy`).
-m::
--move::
@@ -113,6 +118,13 @@ OPTIONS
-M::
Shortcut for `--move --force`.
+-c::
+--copy::
+ Copy a branch and the corresponding reflog.
+
+-C::
+ Shortcut for `--copy --force`.
+
--color[=<when>]::
Color branches to highlight current, local, and
remote-tracking branches.
@@ -195,10 +207,8 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
--set-upstream::
- If specified branch does not exist yet or if `--force` has been
- given, acts exactly like `--track`. Otherwise sets up configuration
- like `--track` would when creating the branch, except that where
- branch points to is not changed.
+ As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
+ Please use `--track` or `--set-upstream-to` instead.
-u <upstream>::
--set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
@@ -271,6 +281,12 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
and the object it points at. The format is the same as
that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+`pager.branch` is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when
+`--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
+See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
Examples
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index fb09cd6..f90f09b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -42,8 +42,9 @@ OPTIONS
<object>.
-e::
- Suppress all output; instead exit with zero status if <object>
- exists and is a valid object.
+ Exit with zero status if <object> exists and is a valid
+ object. If <object> is of an invalid format exit with non-zero and
+ emits an error on stderr.
-p::
Pretty-print the contents of <object> based on its type.
@@ -168,7 +169,7 @@ If `-t` is specified, one of the <type>.
If `-s` is specified, the size of the <object> in bytes.
-If `-e` is specified, no output.
+If `-e` is specified, no output, unless the <object> is malformed.
If `-p` is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 92777ce..d9de992 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -77,11 +77,23 @@ reference name expressions (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]):
. at-open-brace `@{` is used as a notation to access a reflog entry.
-With the `--branch` option, it expands the ``previous branch syntax''
-`@{-n}`. For example, `@{-1}` is a way to refer the last branch you
-were on. This option should be used by porcelains to accept this
-syntax anywhere a branch name is expected, so they can act as if you
-typed the branch name.
+With the `--branch` option, the command takes a name and checks if
+it can be used as a valid branch name (e.g. when creating a new
+branch). But be cautious when using the
+previous checkout syntax that may refer to a detached HEAD state.
+The rule `git check-ref-format --branch $name` implements
+may be stricter than what `git check-ref-format refs/heads/$name`
+says (e.g. a dash may appear at the beginning of a ref component,
+but it is explicitly forbidden at the beginning of a branch name).
+When run with `--branch` option in a repository, the input is first
+expanded for the ``previous checkout syntax''
+`@{-n}`. For example, `@{-1}` is a way to refer the last thing that
+was checked out using "git checkout" operation. This option should be
+used by porcelains to accept this syntax anywhere a branch name is
+expected, so they can act as if you typed the branch name. As an
+exception note that, the ``previous checkout operation'' might result
+in a commit object name when the N-th last thing checked out was not
+a branch.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -109,7 +121,7 @@ OPTIONS
EXAMPLES
--------
-* Print the name of the previous branch:
+* Print the name of the previous thing checked out:
+
------------
$ git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index e108b0f..ca5fc9c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -264,6 +264,8 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
local modifications in a submodule would be overwritten the checkout
will fail unless `-f` is used. If nothing (or --no-recurse-submodules)
is used, the work trees of submodules will not be updated.
+ Just like linkgit:git-submodule[1], this will detach the
+ submodules HEAD.
<branch>::
Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
@@ -272,11 +274,11 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
any branch (see below for details).
+
-As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch/commit
-checks out branches (instead of detaching). You may also specify
-`-` which is synonymous with `"@{-1}"`.
+You can use the `"@{-N}"` syntax to refer to the N-th last
+branch/commit checked out using "git checkout" operation. You may
+also specify `-` which is synonymous to `"@{-1}`.
+
-As a further special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
+As a special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
merge base of `A` and `B` if there is exactly one merge base. You can
leave out at most one of `A` and `B`, in which case it defaults to `HEAD`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 83c8e9b..42ca7b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
[--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
[--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch] [--no-tags]
- [--recurse-submodules] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
+ [--recurse-submodules[=<pathspec>]] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
[--jobs <n>] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -231,14 +231,17 @@ branch of some repository for search indexing.
After the clone is created, initialize and clone submodules
within based on the provided pathspec. If no pathspec is
provided, all submodules are initialized and cloned.
- Submodules are initialized and cloned using their default
- settings. The resulting clone has `submodule.active` set to
+ This option can be given multiple times for pathspecs consisting
+ of multiple entries. The resulting clone has `submodule.active` set to
the provided pathspec, or "." (meaning all submodules) if no
- pathspec is provided. This is equivalent to running
- `git submodule update --init --recursive` immediately after
- the clone is finished. This option is ignored if the cloned
- repository does not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of
- `--no-checkout`/`-n`, `--bare`, or `--mirror` is given)
+ pathspec is provided.
++
+Submodules are initialized and cloned using their default settings. This is
+equivalent to running
+`git submodule update --init --recursive <pathspec>` immediately after
+the clone is finished. This option is ignored if the cloned repository does
+not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of `--no-checkout`/`-n`, `--bare`,
+or `--mirror` is given)
--[no-]shallow-submodules::
All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a depth of 1.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4c97b55
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,94 @@
+git-commit-graph(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit graph files
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Manage the serialized commit graph file.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--object-dir::
+ Use given directory for the location of packfiles and commit graph
+ file. This parameter exists to specify the location of an alternate
+ that only has the objects directory, not a full .git directory. The
+ commit graph file is expected to be at <dir>/info/commit-graph and
+ the packfiles are expected to be in <dir>/pack.
+
+
+COMMANDS
+--------
+'write'::
+
+Write a commit graph file based on the commits found in packfiles.
++
+With the `--stdin-packs` option, generate the new commit graph by
+walking objects only in the specified pack-indexes. (Cannot be combined
+with --stdin-commits.)
++
+With the `--stdin-commits` option, generate the new commit graph by
+walking commits starting at the commits specified in stdin as a list
+of OIDs in hex, one OID per line. (Cannot be combined with
+--stdin-packs.)
++
+With the `--append` option, include all commits that are present in the
+existing commit-graph file.
+
+'read'::
+
+Read a graph file given by the commit-graph file and output basic
+details about the graph file. Used for debugging purposes.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Write a commit graph file for the packed commits in your local .git folder.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit-graph write
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a graph file, extending the current graph file using commits
+* in <pack-index>.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ echo <pack-index> | git commit-graph write --stdin-packs
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a graph file containing all reachable commits.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-ref -s | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a graph file containing all commits in the current
+* commit-graph file along with those reachable from HEAD.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git rev-parse HEAD | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits --append
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Read basic information from the commit-graph file.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit-graph read
+------------------------------------------------
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 8c74a2c..f970a43 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -144,6 +144,8 @@ OPTIONS
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
concatenated as separate paragraphs.
++
+The `-m` option is mutually exclusive with `-c`, `-C`, and `-F`.
-t <file>::
--template=<file>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 83f86b9..e09ed5d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -174,11 +174,16 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
either --bool or --int, as described above.
--path::
- 'git-config' will expand leading '{tilde}' to the value of
- '$HOME', and '{tilde}user' to the home directory for the
+ `git config` will expand a leading `~` to the value of
+ `$HOME`, and `~user` to the home directory for the
specified user. This option has no effect when setting the
- value (but you can use 'git config bla {tilde}/' from the
- command line to let your shell do the expansion).
+ value (but you can use `git config section.variable ~/`
+ from the command line to let your shell do the expansion).
+
+--expiry-date::
+ `git config` will ensure that the output is converted from
+ a fixed or relative date-string to a timestamp. This option
+ has no effect when setting the value.
-z::
--null::
@@ -228,6 +233,12 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
using `--file`, `--global`, etc) and `on` when searching all
config files.
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+`pager.config` is only respected when listing configuration, i.e., when
+using `--list` or any of the `--get-*` which may return multiple results.
+The default is to use a pager.
+
[[FILES]]
FILES
-----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index a336ae5..ba90066 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -223,7 +223,7 @@ access method and requested operation.
That means that even if you offer only read access (e.g. by using
the pserver method), 'git-cvsserver' should have write access to
the database to work reliably (otherwise you need to make sure
-that the database is up-to-date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
+that the database is up to date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
`gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite`. Note that the SQLite backend creates
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 3c91db7..56d54a4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--inetd |
[--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>]
[--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]]
+ [--log-destination=(stderr|syslog|none)]
[<directory>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -80,7 +81,8 @@ OPTIONS
do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
--inetd::
- Have the server run as an inetd service. Implies --syslog.
+ Have the server run as an inetd service. Implies --syslog (may be
+ overridden with `--log-destination=`).
Incompatible with --detach, --port, --listen, --user and --group
options.
@@ -110,8 +112,28 @@ OPTIONS
zero for no limit.
--syslog::
- Log to syslog instead of stderr. Note that this option does not imply
- --verbose, thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
+ Short for `--log-destination=syslog`.
+
+--log-destination=<destination>::
+ Send log messages to the specified destination.
+ Note that this option does not imply --verbose,
+ thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
+ The <destination> must be one of:
++
+--
+stderr::
+ Write to standard error.
+ Note that if `--detach` is specified,
+ the process disconnects from the real standard error,
+ making this destination effectively equivalent to `none`.
+syslog::
+ Write to syslog, using the `git-daemon` identifier.
+none::
+ Disable all logging.
+--
++
+The default destination is `syslog` if `--inetd` or `--detach` is specified,
+otherwise `stderr`.
--user-path::
--user-path=<path>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 26f19d3..e027fb8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -3,14 +3,14 @@ git-describe(1)
NAME
----
-git-describe - Describe a commit using the most recent tag reachable from it
-
+git-describe - Give an object a human readable name based on an available ref
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] [<commit-ish>...]
'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] --dirty[=<mark>]
+'git describe' <blob>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -24,6 +24,12 @@ By default (without --all or --tags) `git describe` only shows
annotated tags. For more information about creating annotated tags
see the -a and -s options to linkgit:git-tag[1].
+If the given object refers to a blob, it will be described
+as `<commit-ish>:<path>`, such that the blob can be found
+at `<path>` in the `<commit-ish>`, which itself describes the
+first commit in which this blob occurs in a reverse revision walk
+from HEAD.
+
OPTIONS
-------
<commit-ish>...::
@@ -87,19 +93,23 @@ OPTIONS
--match <pattern>::
Only consider tags matching the given `glob(7)` pattern,
- excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix. This can be used to avoid
- leaking private tags from the repository. If given multiple times, a
- list of patterns will be accumulated, and tags matching any of the
- patterns will be considered. Use `--no-match` to clear and reset the
- list of patterns.
+ excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix. If used with `--all`, it also
+ considers local branches and remote-tracking references matching the
+ pattern, excluding respectively "refs/heads/" and "refs/remotes/"
+ prefix; references of other types are never considered. If given
+ multiple times, a list of patterns will be accumulated, and tags
+ matching any of the patterns will be considered. Use `--no-match` to
+ clear and reset the list of patterns.
--exclude <pattern>::
Do not consider tags matching the given `glob(7)` pattern, excluding
- the "refs/tags/" prefix. This can be used to narrow the tag space and
- find only tags matching some meaningful criteria. If given multiple
- times, a list of patterns will be accumulated and tags matching any
- of the patterns will be excluded. When combined with --match a tag will
- be considered when it matches at least one --match pattern and does not
+ the "refs/tags/" prefix. If used with `--all`, it also does not consider
+ local branches and remote-tracking references matching the pattern,
+ excluding respectively "refs/heads/" and "refs/remotes/" prefix;
+ references of other types are never considered. If given multiple times,
+ a list of patterns will be accumulated and tags matching any of the
+ patterns will be excluded. When combined with --match a tag will be
+ considered when it matches at least one --match pattern and does not
match any of the --exclude patterns. Use `--no-exclude` to clear and
reset the list of patterns.
@@ -182,6 +192,14 @@ selected and output. Here fewest commits different is defined as
the number of commits which would be shown by `git log tag..input`
will be the smallest number of commits possible.
+BUGS
+----
+
+Tree objects as well as tag objects not pointing at commits, cannot be described.
+When describing blobs, the lightweight tags pointing at blobs are ignored,
+but the blob is still described as <committ-ish>:<path> despite the lightweight
+tag being favorable.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index a171506..b380677 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ a 'git write-tree' + 'git diff-tree'. Thus that's the default mode.
The non-cached version asks the question:
show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
- tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up-to-date
+ tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up to date
which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
you *could* commit. Again, the output matches the 'git diff-tree -r'
@@ -100,8 +100,8 @@ have not actually done a 'git update-index' on it yet - there is no
torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> git diff-index --abbrev HEAD
:100644 100664 7476bb... 000000... kernel/sched.c
-i.e., it shows that the tree has changed, and that `kernel/sched.c` has is
-not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
+i.e., it shows that the tree has changed, and that `kernel/sched.c` is
+not up to date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index f7ebe36..c975884 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
--shallow-since=<date>::
- Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow'repository to
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
include all reachable commits after <date>.
--shallow-exclude=<revision>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index b153aef..e319935 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -99,6 +99,93 @@ The latter use of the `remote.<repository>.fetch` values can be
overridden by giving the `--refmap=<refspec>` parameter(s) on the
command line.
+PRUNING
+-------
+
+Git has a default disposition of keeping data unless it's explicitly
+thrown away; this extends to holding onto local references to branches
+on remotes that have themselves deleted those branches.
+
+If left to accumulate, these stale references might make performance
+worse on big and busy repos that have a lot of branch churn, and
+e.g. make the output of commands like `git branch -a --contains
+<commit>` needlessly verbose, as well as impacting anything else
+that'll work with the complete set of known references.
+
+These remote-tracking references can be deleted as a one-off with
+either of:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+# While fetching
+$ git fetch --prune <name>
+
+# Only prune, don't fetch
+$ git remote prune <name>
+------------------------------------------------
+
+To prune references as part of your normal workflow without needing to
+remember to run that, set `fetch.prune` globally, or
+`remote.<name>.prune` per-remote in the config. See
+linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+Here's where things get tricky and more specific. The pruning feature
+doesn't actually care about branches, instead it'll prune local <->
+remote-references as a function of the refspec of the remote (see
+`<refspec>` and <<CRTB,CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES>> above).
+
+Therefore if the refspec for the remote includes
+e.g. `refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*`, or you manually run e.g. `git fetch
+--prune <name> "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"` it won't be stale remote
+tracking branches that are deleted, but any local tag that doesn't
+exist on the remote.
+
+This might not be what you expect, i.e. you want to prune remote
+`<name>`, but also explicitly fetch tags from it, so when you fetch
+from it you delete all your local tags, most of which may not have
+come from the `<name>` remote in the first place.
+
+So be careful when using this with a refspec like
+`refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*`, or any other refspec which might map
+references from multiple remotes to the same local namespace.
+
+Since keeping up-to-date with both branches and tags on the remote is
+a common use-case the `--prune-tags` option can be supplied along with
+`--prune` to prune local tags that don't exist on the remote, and
+force-update those tags that differ. Tag pruning can also be enabled
+with `fetch.pruneTags` or `remote.<name>.pruneTags` in the config. See
+linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+The `--prune-tags` option is equivalent to having
+`refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*` declared in the refspecs of the remote. This
+can lead to some seemingly strange interactions:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+# These both fetch tags
+$ git fetch --no-tags origin 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
+$ git fetch --no-tags --prune-tags origin
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The reason it doesn't error out when provided without `--prune` or its
+config versions is for flexibility of the configured versions, and to
+maintain a 1=1 mapping between what the command line flags do, and
+what the configuration versions do.
+
+It's reasonable to e.g. configure `fetch.pruneTags=true` in
+`~/.gitconfig` to have tags pruned whenever `git fetch --prune` is
+run, without making every invocation of `git fetch` without `--prune`
+an error.
+
+Pruning tags with `--prune-tags` also works when fetching a URL
+instead of a named remote. These will all prune tags not found on
+origin:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git fetch origin --prune --prune-tags
+$ git fetch origin --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
+$ git fetch <url of origin> --prune --prune-tags
+$ git fetch <url of origin> --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
+------------------------------------------------
+
OUTPUT
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 9e5169a..b634043 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -8,13 +8,13 @@ git-filter-branch - Rewrite branches
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git filter-branch' [--setup <command>] [--env-filter <command>]
- [--tree-filter <command>] [--index-filter <command>]
- [--parent-filter <command>] [--msg-filter <command>]
- [--commit-filter <command>] [--tag-name-filter <command>]
- [--subdirectory-filter <directory>] [--prune-empty]
+'git filter-branch' [--setup <command>] [--subdirectory-filter <directory>]
+ [--env-filter <command>] [--tree-filter <command>]
+ [--index-filter <command>] [--parent-filter <command>]
+ [--msg-filter <command>] [--commit-filter <command>]
+ [--tag-name-filter <command>] [--prune-empty]
[--original <namespace>] [-d <directory>] [-f | --force]
- [--] [<rev-list options>...]
+ [--state-branch <branch>] [--] [<rev-list options>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -89,6 +89,11 @@ OPTIONS
can be used or modified in the following filter steps except
the commit filter, for technical reasons.
+--subdirectory-filter <directory>::
+ Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory.
+ The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
+ project root. Implies <<Remap_to_ancestor>>.
+
--env-filter <command>::
This filter may be used if you only need to modify the environment
in which the commit will be performed. Specifically, you might
@@ -167,11 +172,6 @@ be removed, buyer beware. There is also no support for changing the
author or timestamp (or the tag message for that matter). Tags which point
to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
---subdirectory-filter <directory>::
- Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory.
- The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
- project root. Implies <<Remap_to_ancestor>>.
-
--prune-empty::
Some filters will generate empty commits that leave the tree untouched.
This option instructs git-filter-branch to remove such commits if they
@@ -198,6 +198,12 @@ to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
directory or when there are already refs starting with
'refs/original/', unless forced.
+--state-branch <branch>::
+ This option will cause the mapping from old to new objects to
+ be loaded from named branch upon startup and saved as a new
+ commit to that branch upon exit, enabling incremental of large
+ trees. If '<branch>' does not exist it will be created.
+
<rev-list options>...::
Arguments for 'git rev-list'. All positive refs included by
these options are rewritten. You may also specify options
@@ -216,6 +222,14 @@ this purpose, they are instead rewritten to point at the nearest ancestor that
was not excluded.
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+On success, the exit status is `0`. If the filter can't find any commits to
+rewrite, the exit status is `2`. On any other error, the exit status may be
+any other non-zero value.
+
+
Examples
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index cbd0a62..085d177 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ refname::
stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
+
-`strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
+`strip` can be used as a synonym to `lstrip`.
objecttype::
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
@@ -145,18 +145,25 @@ upstream::
(behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
- information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
- no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
- associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
- are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
- is selected.
+ information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M").
++
+For any remote-tracking branch `%(upstream)`, `%(upstream:remotename)`
+and `%(upstream:remoteref)` refer to the name of the remote and the
+name of the tracked remote ref, respectively. In other words, the
+remote-tracking branch can be updated explicitly and individually by
+using the refspec `%(upstream:remoteref):%(upstream)` to fetch from
+`%(upstream:remotename)`.
++
+Has no effect if the ref does not have tracking information associated
+with it. All the options apart from `nobracket` are mutually exclusive,
+but if used together the last option is selected.
push::
The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
- `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
- does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
- configured.
+ `:rstrip`, `:track`, `:trackshort`, `:remotename`, and `:remoteref`
+ options as `upstream` does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}`
+ ref is configured.
HEAD::
'*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
@@ -218,11 +225,15 @@ and `date` to extract the named component.
The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
-line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
+line is `contents:body`, where body is all of the lines after the first
blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
-are obtained as 'contents:trailers'.
+are obtained as `trailers` (or by using the historical alias
+`contents:trailers`). Non-trailer lines from the trailer block can be omitted
+with `trailers:only`. Whitespace-continuations can be removed from trailers so
+that each trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content with
+`trailers:unfold`. Both can be used together as `trailers:unfold,only`.
For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
(`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index c890328..b41e132 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
[--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--progress]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -46,7 +47,7 @@ There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
-history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
+history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
@@ -283,6 +284,9 @@ you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
of this flag.
+--progress::
+ Show progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.
+
CONFIGURATION
-------------
You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 2e159a1..7c8a2ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Runs a number of housekeeping tasks within the current repository,
such as compressing file revisions (to reduce disk space and increase
-performance) and removing unreachable objects which may have been
-created from prior invocations of 'git add'.
+performance), removing unreachable objects which may have been
+created from prior invocations of 'git add', packing refs, pruning
+reflog, rerere metadata or stale working trees.
Users are encouraged to run this task on a regular basis within
each repository to maintain good disk space utilization and good
@@ -45,20 +46,25 @@ OPTIONS
With this option, 'git gc' checks whether any housekeeping is
required; if not, it exits without performing any work.
Some git commands run `git gc --auto` after performing
- operations that could create many loose objects.
+ operations that could create many loose objects. Housekeeping
+ is required if there are too many loose objects or too many
+ packs in the repository.
+
-Housekeeping is required if there are too many loose objects or
-too many packs in the repository. If the number of loose objects
-exceeds the value of the `gc.auto` configuration variable, then
-all loose objects are combined into a single pack using
-`git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of `gc.auto` to 0
-disables automatic packing of loose objects.
+If the number of loose objects exceeds the value of the `gc.auto`
+configuration variable, then all loose objects are combined into a
+single pack using `git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of `gc.auto`
+to 0 disables automatic packing of loose objects.
+
If the number of packs exceeds the value of `gc.autoPackLimit`,
then existing packs (except those marked with a `.keep` file)
are consolidated into a single pack by using the `-A` option of
'git repack'. Setting `gc.autoPackLimit` to 0 disables
automatic consolidation of packs.
++
+If houskeeping is required due to many loose objects or packs, all
+other housekeeping tasks (e.g. rerere, working trees, reflog...) will
+be performed as well.
+
--prune=<date>::
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
@@ -133,6 +139,10 @@ The optional configuration variable `gc.pruneExpire` controls how old
the unreferenced loose objects have to be before they are pruned. The
default is "2 weeks ago".
+Optional configuration variable `gc.worktreePruneExpire` controls how
+old a stale working tree should be before `git worktree prune` deletes
+it. Default is "3 months ago".
+
Notes
-----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 5edb1da..18b4947 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -95,13 +95,6 @@ OPTIONS
<tree> option the prefix of all submodule output will be the name of
the parent project's <tree> object.
---parent-basename <basename>::
- For internal use only. In order to produce uniform output with the
- --recurse-submodules option, this option can be used to provide the
- basename of a parent's <tree> object to a submodule so the submodule
- can prefix its output with the parent's name rather than the SHA1 of
- the submodule.
-
-a::
--text::
Process binary files as if they were text.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 1b4b65d..138edb4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -77,6 +77,9 @@ OPTIONS
--check-self-contained-and-connected::
Die if the pack contains broken links. For internal use only.
+--fsck-objects::
+ Die if the pack contains broken objects. For internal use only.
+
--threads=<n>::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
deltas. This requires that index-pack be compiled with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index 31cdeae..ff446f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -3,24 +3,27 @@ git-interpret-trailers(1)
NAME
----
-git-interpret-trailers - help add structured information into commit messages
+git-interpret-trailers - add or parse structured information in commit messages
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git interpret-trailers' [--in-place] [--trim-empty] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
+'git interpret-trailers' [options] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
+'git interpret-trailers' [options] [--parse] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Help adding 'trailers' lines, that look similar to RFC 822 e-mail
+Help parsing or adding 'trailers' lines, that look similar to RFC 822 e-mail
headers, at the end of the otherwise free-form part of a commit
message.
This command reads some patches or commit messages from either the
-<file> arguments or the standard input if no <file> is specified. Then
-this command applies the arguments passed using the `--trailer`
-option, if any, to the commit message part of each input file. The
-result is emitted on the standard output.
+<file> arguments or the standard input if no <file> is specified. If
+`--parse` is specified, the output consists of the parsed trailers.
+
+Otherwise, this command applies the arguments passed using the
+`--trailer` option, if any, to the commit message part of each input
+file. The result is emitted on the standard output.
Some configuration variables control the way the `--trailer` arguments
are applied to each commit message and the way any existing trailer in
@@ -48,7 +51,7 @@ with only spaces at the end of the commit message part, one blank line
will be added before the new trailer.
Existing trailers are extracted from the input message by looking for
-a group of one or more lines that (i) are all trailers, or (ii) contains at
+a group of one or more lines that (i) is all trailers, or (ii) contains at
least one Git-generated or user-configured trailer and consists of at
least 25% trailers.
The group must be preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
@@ -80,6 +83,45 @@ OPTIONS
trailer to the input messages. See the description of this
command.
+--where <placement>::
+--no-where::
+ Specify where all new trailers will be added. A setting
+ provided with '--where' overrides all configuration variables
+ and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
+ '--where' or '--no-where'.
+
+--if-exists <action>::
+--no-if-exists::
+ Specify what action will be performed when there is already at
+ least one trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
+ provided with '--if-exists' overrides all configuration variables
+ and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
+ '--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'.
+
+--if-missing <action>::
+--no-if-missing::
+ Specify what action will be performed when there is no other
+ trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
+ provided with '--if-missing' overrides all configuration variables
+ and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
+ '--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'.
+
+--only-trailers::
+ Output only the trailers, not any other parts of the input.
+
+--only-input::
+ Output only trailers that exist in the input; do not add any
+ from the command-line or by following configured `trailer.*`
+ rules.
+
+--unfold::
+ Remove any whitespace-continuation in trailers, so that each
+ trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content.
+
+--parse::
+ A convenience alias for `--only-trailers --only-input
+ --unfold`.
+
CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
-----------------------
@@ -170,8 +212,8 @@ trailer.<token>.where::
configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
-trailer.<token>.ifexist::
- This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifexist'
+trailer.<token>.ifexists::
+ This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifexists'
configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 32246fd..90761f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
+'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -38,6 +38,13 @@ OPTIONS
are shown as if 'short' were given, otherwise no ref names are
shown. The default option is 'short'.
+--decorate-refs=<pattern>::
+--decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>::
+ If no `--decorate-refs` is given, pretend as if all refs were
+ included. For each candidate, do not use it for decoration if it
+ matches any patterns given to `--decorate-refs-exclude` or if it
+ doesn't match any of the patterns given to `--decorate-refs`.
+
--source::
Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
commit was reached.
@@ -83,13 +90,13 @@ include::line-range-format.txt[]
ways to spell <revision range>, see the 'Specifying Ranges'
section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-[\--] <path>...::
+[--] <path>...::
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be. See 'History
Simplification' below for details and other simplification
modes.
+
-Paths may need to be prefixed with ``\-- '' to separate them from
+Paths may need to be prefixed with `--` to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
include::rev-list-options.txt[]
@@ -118,7 +125,7 @@ EXAMPLES
`git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk`::
Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
- The ``--'' is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ The `--` is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
'gitk'
`git log --name-status release..test`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index d153c17..3ac3e3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-ls-files - Show information about files in the index and the working tree
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git ls-files' [-z] [-t] [-v]
+'git ls-files' [-z] [-t] [-v] [-f]
(--[cached|deleted|others|ignored|stage|unmerged|killed|modified])*
(-[c|d|o|i|s|u|k|m])*
[--eol]
@@ -133,6 +133,11 @@ a space) at the start of each line:
that are marked as 'assume unchanged' (see
linkgit:git-update-index[1]).
+-f::
+ Similar to `-t`, but use lowercase letters for files
+ that are marked as 'fsmonitor valid' (see
+ linkgit:git-update-index[1]).
+
--full-name::
When run from a subdirectory, the command usually
outputs paths relative to the current directory. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index b968b64..502e00e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -154,23 +154,71 @@ topic origin/master`, the history of remote-tracking branch
`origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
history of this shape:
- o---B1
+ o---B2
/
- ---o---o---B2--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ ---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
\
- B3
+ B0
\
- Derived (topic)
+ D0---D1---D (topic)
-where `origin/master` used to point at commits B3, B2, B1 and now it
+where `origin/master` used to point at commits B0, B1, B2 and now it
points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
-when `origin/master` was at B3. This mode uses the reflog of
-`origin/master` to find B3 as the fork point, so that the `topic`
-can be rebased on top of the updated `origin/master` by:
+when `origin/master` was at B0, and you built three commits, D0, D1,
+and D, on top of it. Imagine that you now want to rebase the work
+you did on the topic on top of the updated origin/master.
+
+In such a case, `git merge-base origin/master topic` would return the
+parent of B0 in the above picture, but B0^..D is *not* the range of
+commits you would want to replay on top of B (it includes B0, which
+is not what you wrote; it is a commit the other side discarded when
+it moved its tip from B0 to B1).
+
+`git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic` is designed to
+help in such a case. It takes not only B but also B0, B1, and B2
+(i.e. old tips of the remote-tracking branches your repository's
+reflog knows about) into account to see on which commit your topic
+branch was built and finds B0, allowing you to replay only the
+commits on your topic, excluding the commits the other side later
+discarded.
+
+Hence
$ fork_point=$(git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic)
+
+will find B0, and
+
$ git rebase --onto origin/master $fork_point topic
+will replay D0, D1 and D on top of B to create a new history of this
+shape:
+
+ o---B2
+ /
+ ---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \ \
+ B0 D0'--D1'--D' (topic - updated)
+ \
+ D0---D1---D (topic - old)
+
+A caveat is that older reflog entries in your repository may be
+expired by `git gc`. If B0 no longer appears in the reflog of the
+remote-tracking branch `origin/master`, the `--fork-point` mode
+obviously cannot find it and fails, avoiding to give a random and
+useless result (such as the parent of B0, like the same command
+without the `--fork-point` option gives).
+
+Also, the remote-tracking branch you use the `--fork-point` mode
+with must be the one your topic forked from its tip. If you forked
+from an older commit than the tip, this mode would not find the fork
+point (imagine in the above sample history B0 did not exist,
+origin/master started at B1, moved to B2 and then B, and you forked
+your topic at origin/master^ when origin/master was B1; the shape of
+the history would be the same as above, without B0, and the parent
+of B1 is what `git merge-base origin/master topic` correctly finds,
+but the `--fork-point` mode will not, because it is not one of the
+commits that used to be at the tip of origin/master).
+
See also
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index f90faf7..d5dfd84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -64,12 +64,6 @@ OPTIONS
-------
include::merge-options.txt[]
--S[<keyid>]::
---gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
- GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The `keyid` argument is
- optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified,
- it must be stuck to the option without a space.
-
-m <msg>::
Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
case one is created).
@@ -133,7 +127,7 @@ exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that
would result from the merge already.)
If all named commits are already ancestors of `HEAD`, 'git merge'
-will exit early with the message "Already up-to-date."
+will exit early with the message "Already up to date."
FAST-FORWARD MERGE
------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
index c3616e7..27fe2b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads standard input in non-recursive `ls-tree` output format, and creates
-a tree object. The order of the tree entries is normalised by mktree so
+a tree object. The order of the tree entries is normalized by mktree so
pre-sorting the input is not required. The object name of the tree object
built is written to the standard output.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index 4367729..e8dec1b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git notes' merge --commit [-v | -q]
'git notes' merge --abort [-v | -q]
'git notes' remove [--ignore-missing] [--stdin] [<object>...]
-'git notes' prune [-n | -v]
+'git notes' prune [-n] [-v]
'git notes' get-ref
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 7436c64..d8c8f11 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -157,6 +157,12 @@ The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
+To shelve changes instead of submitting, use `--shelve` and `--update-shelve`:
+
+----
+$ git p4 submit --shelve
+$ git p4 submit --update-shelve 1234 --update-shelve 2345
+----
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -310,7 +316,7 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
--update-shelve CHANGELIST::
Update an existing shelved changelist with this commit. Implies
- --shelve.
+ --shelve. Repeat for multiple shelved changelists.
--conflict=(ask|skip|quit)::
Conflicts can occur when applying a commit to p4. When this
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 473a161..81bc490 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git pack-objects' [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
[--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
[--local] [--incremental] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
- [--revs [--unpacked | --all]] [--stdout | base-name]
+ [--revs [--unpacked | --all]]
+ [--stdout [--filter=<filter-spec>] | base-name]
[--shallow] [--keep-true-parents] < object-list
@@ -236,6 +237,36 @@ So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
With this option, parents that are hidden by grafts are packed
nevertheless.
+--filter=<filter-spec>::
+ Requires `--stdout`. Omits certain objects (usually blobs) from
+ the resulting packfile. See linkgit:git-rev-list[1] for valid
+ `<filter-spec>` forms.
+
+--no-filter::
+ Turns off any previous `--filter=` argument.
+
+--missing=<missing-action>::
+ A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development.
+ This option specifies how missing objects are handled.
++
+The form '--missing=error' requests that pack-objects stop with an error if
+a missing object is encountered. This is the default action.
++
+The form '--missing=allow-any' will allow object traversal to continue
+if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will silently be
+omitted from the results.
++
+The form '--missing=allow-promisor' is like 'allow-any', but will only
+allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing objects.
+Unexpected missing object will raise an error.
+
+--exclude-promisor-objects::
+ Omit objects that are known to be in the promisor remote. (This
+ option has the purpose of operating only on locally created objects,
+ so that when we repack, we still maintain a distinction between
+ locally created objects [without .promisor] and objects from the
+ promisor remote [with .promisor].) This is used with partial clone.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-rev-list[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index 7a493c8..a37c0af 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-prune - Prune all unreachable objects from the object database
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
+'git prune' [-n] [-v] [--progress] [--expire <time>] [--] [<head>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -42,12 +42,15 @@ OPTIONS
--verbose::
Report all removed objects.
-\--::
- Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+--progress::
+ Show progress.
--expire <time>::
Only expire loose objects older than <time>.
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
<head>...::
In addition to objects
reachable from any of our references, keep objects
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 0a63966..34410f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
[-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
- [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
+ [--[no-]signed|--signed=(true|false|if-asked)]
[--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ already exists on the remote side.
information, see `push.followTags` in linkgit:git-config[1].
--[no-]signed::
---sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
+--signed=(true|false|if-asked)::
GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
@@ -156,11 +156,17 @@ already exists on the remote side.
Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
--o::
---push-option::
+-o <option>::
+--push-option=<option>::
Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to
the pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
must not contain a NUL or LF character.
+ When multiple `--push-option=<option>` are given, they are
+ all sent to the other side in the order listed on the
+ command line.
+ When no `--push-option=<option>` is given from the command
+ line, the values of configuration variable `push.pushOption`
+ are used instead.
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
@@ -294,7 +300,7 @@ origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
- \--thin.
+ `--thin`.
-q::
--quiet::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index 72bd809..f2a07d5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -81,12 +81,11 @@ OPTIONS
* when both sides add a path identically. The resolution
is to add that path.
---prefix=<prefix>/::
+--prefix=<prefix>::
Keep the current index contents, and read the contents
of the named tree-ish under the directory at `<prefix>`.
The command will refuse to overwrite entries that already
- existed in the original index file. Note that the `<prefix>/`
- value must end with a slash.
+ existed in the original index file.
--exclude-per-directory=<gitignore>::
When running the command with `-u` and `-m` options, the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 4f6bed6..dd85206 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[<upstream> [<branch>]]
'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
--root [<branch>]
-'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --edit-todo
+'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --edit-todo | --show-current-patch
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -203,24 +203,7 @@ Alternatively, you can undo the 'git rebase' with
CONFIGURATION
-------------
-rebase.stat::
- Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
- rebase. False by default.
-
-rebase.autoSquash::
- If set to true enable `--autosquash` option by default.
-
-rebase.autoStash::
- If set to true enable `--autostash` option by default.
-
-rebase.missingCommitsCheck::
- If set to "warn", print warnings about removed commits in
- interactive mode. If set to "error", print the warnings and
- stop the rebase. If set to "ignore", no checking is
- done. "ignore" by default.
-
-rebase.instructionFormat::
- Custom commit list format to use during an `--interactive` rebase.
+include::rebase-config.txt[]
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -261,12 +244,22 @@ leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
parents in the result.
+--allow-empty-message::
+ By default, rebasing commits with an empty message will fail.
+ This option overrides that behavior, allowing commits with empty
+ messages to be rebased.
+
--skip::
Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
--edit-todo::
Edit the todo list during an interactive rebase.
+--show-current-patch::
+ Show the current patch in an interactive rebase or when rebase
+ is stopped because of conflicts. This is the equivalent of
+ `git show REBASE_HEAD`.
+
-m::
--merge::
Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
@@ -334,7 +327,7 @@ which makes little sense.
-f::
--force-rebase::
- Force a rebase even if the current branch is up-to-date and
+ Force a rebase even if the current branch is up to date and
the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
+
You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
@@ -371,9 +364,10 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
Incompatible with the --interactive option.
--signoff::
- This flag is passed to 'git am' to sign off all the rebased
- commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]). Incompatible with the
- --interactive option.
+ Add a Signed-off-by: trailer to all the rebased commits. Note
+ that if `--interactive` is given then only commits marked to be
+ picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added. Incompatible
+ with the `--preserve-merges` option.
-i::
--interactive::
@@ -430,13 +424,15 @@ without an explicit `--interactive`.
--autosquash::
--no-autosquash::
When the commit log message begins with "squash! ..." (or
- "fixup! ..."), and there is a commit whose title begins with
- the same ..., automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i
- so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
- commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved
- commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). Ignores subsequent
- "fixup! " or "squash! " after the first, in case you referred to an
- earlier fixup/squash with `git commit --fixup/--squash`.
+ "fixup! ..."), and there is already a commit in the todo list that
+ matches the same `...`, automatically modify the todo list of rebase
+ -i so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
+ commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved commit
+ from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). A commit matches the `...` if
+ the commit subject matches, or if the `...` refers to the commit's
+ hash. As a fall-back, partial matches of the commit subject work,
+ too. The recommended way to create fixup/squash commits is by using
+ the `--fixup`/`--squash` options of linkgit:git-commit[1].
+
This option is only valid when the `--interactive` option is used.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 44c736f..472a680 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -20,9 +20,9 @@ depending on the subcommand:
'git reflog' ['show'] [log-options] [<ref>]
'git reflog expire' [--expire=<time>] [--expire-unreachable=<time>]
[--rewrite] [--updateref] [--stale-fix]
- [--dry-run] [--verbose] [--all | <refs>...]
+ [--dry-run | -n] [--verbose] [--all | <refs>...]
'git reflog delete' [--rewrite] [--updateref]
- [--dry-run] [--verbose] ref@\{specifier\}...
+ [--dry-run | -n] [--verbose] ref@\{specifier\}...
'git reflog exists' <ref>
Reference logs, or "reflogs", record when the tips of branches and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 577b969..4feddc0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -172,10 +172,14 @@ With `-n` option, the remote heads are not queried first with
'prune'::
-Deletes all stale remote-tracking branches under <name>.
-These stale branches have already been removed from the remote repository
-referenced by <name>, but are still locally available in
-"remotes/<name>".
+Deletes stale references associated with <name>. By default, stale
+remote-tracking branches under <name> are deleted, but depending on
+global configuration and the configuration of the remote we might even
+prune local tags that haven't been pushed there. Equivalent to `git
+fetch --prune <name>`, except that no new references will be fetched.
++
+See the PRUNING section of linkgit:git-fetch[1] for what it'll prune
+depending on various configuration.
+
With `--dry-run` option, report what branches will be pruned, but do not
actually prune them.
@@ -189,7 +193,7 @@ remotes.default is not defined, all remotes which do not have the
configuration parameter remote.<name>.skipDefaultUpdate set to true will
be updated. (See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
-With `--prune` option, prune all the remotes that are updated.
+With `--prune` option, run pruning against all the remotes that are updated.
DISCUSSION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rerere.txt b/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
index 9ee083c..031f31f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@ development on the topic branch:
------------
you could run `git rebase master topic`, to bring yourself
-up-to-date before your topic is ready to be sent upstream.
+up to date before your topic is ready to be sent upstream.
This would result in falling back to a three-way merge, and it
would conflict the same way as the test merge you resolved earlier.
'git rerere' will be run by 'git rebase' to help you resolve this
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index ef22f17..88609ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ --fixed-strings | -F ]
[ --date=<format>]
[ [ --objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
- [ --unpacked ] ]
+ [ --unpacked ]
+ [ --filter=<filter-spec> [ --filter-print-omitted ] ] ]
+ [ --missing=<missing-action> ]
[ --pretty | --header ]
[ --bisect ]
[ --bisect-vars ]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index b1293f2..95326b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -235,6 +235,9 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-bare-repository::
When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
+--is-shallow-repository::
+ When the repository is shallow print "true", otherwise "false".
+
--resolve-git-dir <path>::
Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
@@ -261,7 +264,7 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--show-toplevel::
Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
---show-superproject-working-tree
+--show-superproject-working-tree::
Show the absolute path of the root of the superproject's
working tree (if exists) that uses the current repository as
its submodule. Outputs nothing if the current repository is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 683e591..b5c4622 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -146,7 +146,7 @@ the submodule's history. If it exists the submodule.<name> section
in the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file will also be removed and that file
will be staged (unless --cached or -n are used).
-A submodule is considered up-to-date when the HEAD is the same as
+A submodule is considered up to date when the HEAD is the same as
recorded in the index, no tracked files are modified and no untracked
files that aren't ignored are present in the submodules work tree.
Ignored files are deemed expendable and won't stop a submodule's work
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index bac9014..60cf96f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -84,6 +84,11 @@ See the CONFIGURATION section for `sendemail.multiEdit`.
the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not
set, as returned by "git var -l".
+--reply-to=<address>::
+ Specify the address where replies from recipients should go to.
+ Use this if replies to messages should go to another address than what
+ is specified with the --from parameter.
+
--in-reply-to=<identifier>::
Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
@@ -203,9 +208,9 @@ a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead;
the program must support the `-i` option. Default value can
be specified by the `sendemail.smtpServer` configuration
- option; the built-in default is `/usr/sbin/sendmail` or
- `/usr/lib/sendmail` if such program is available, or
- `localhost` otherwise.
+ option; the built-in default is to search for `sendmail` in
+ `/usr/sbin`, `/usr/lib` and $PATH if such program is
+ available, falling back to `localhost` otherwise.
--smtp-server-port=<port>::
Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
@@ -250,7 +255,7 @@ must be used for each option.
--batch-size=<num>::
Some email servers (e.g. smtp.163.com) limit the number emails to be
- sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a faliure when
+ sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a failure when
sending many messages. With this option, send-email will disconnect after
sending $<num> messages and wait for a few seconds (see --relogin-delay)
and reconnect, to work around such a limit. You may want to
@@ -468,16 +473,7 @@ edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail account, you will
need to generate an app-specific password for use with 'git send-email'. Visit
-https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswords to setup an
-app-specific password. Once setup, you can store it with the credentials
-helper:
-
- $ git credential fill
- protocol=smtp
- host=smtp.gmail.com
- username=youname@gmail.com
- password=app-password
-
+https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswords to create it.
Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
following commands:
@@ -486,6 +482,11 @@ following commands:
$ edit outgoing/0000-*
$ git send-email outgoing/*
+The first time you run it, you will be prompted for your credentials. Enter the
+app-specific or your regular password as appropriate. If you have credential
+helper configured (see linkgit:git-credential[1]), the password will be saved in
+the credential store so you won't have to type it the next time.
+
Note: the following perl modules are required
Net::SMTP::SSL, MIME::Base64 and Authen::SASL
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index 966abb0..f51c649 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git send-pack' [--all] [--dry-run] [--force] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--verbose] [--thin] [--atomic]
- [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
+ [--[no-]signed|--signed=(true|false|if-asked)]
[<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
refs.
--[no-]signed::
---sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
+--signed=(true|false|if-asked)::
GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index ee6c547..bc80905 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
+'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [<options>]
-'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -69,11 +69,11 @@ them.
ways to spell <revision range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-[\--] <path>...::
+[--] <path>...::
Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be.
+
-Paths may need to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from
+Paths may need to be prefixed with `--` to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
MAPPING AUTHORS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show.txt b/Documentation/git-show.txt
index 82a4125..e73ef54 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-show - Show various types of objects
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git show' [options] <object>...
+'git show' [options] [<object>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
OPTIONS
-------
<object>...::
- The names of objects to show.
+ The names of objects to show (defaults to 'HEAD').
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 00f95fe..7ef8c47 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -13,10 +13,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
-'git stash' save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
- [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]
'git stash' [push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
- [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]]
+ [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]
[--] [<pathspec>...]]
'git stash' clear
'git stash' create [<message>]
@@ -33,7 +31,7 @@ and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
`git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
(potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
-Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
+Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash push`.
A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
you create one.
@@ -48,7 +46,6 @@ stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `stash@{n}`).
OPTIONS
-------
-save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [-m|--message <message>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
Save your local modifications to a new 'stash entry' and roll them
@@ -87,6 +84,12 @@ linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
`--no-keep-index` to override this.
+save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
+
+ This option is deprecated in favour of 'git stash push'. It
+ differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take pathspecs,
+ and any non-option arguments form the message.
+
list [<options>]::
List the stash entries that you currently have. Each 'stash entry' is
@@ -118,7 +121,7 @@ pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
- operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
+ operation of `git stash push`. The working directory must
match the index.
+
Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
@@ -137,7 +140,7 @@ apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
`<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
- `stash save` or `stash create`.
+ `stash push` or `stash create`.
branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
@@ -148,7 +151,7 @@ branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
`stash@{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
is given, applies the latest one.
+
-This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
+This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash push` has
changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
the stash entry is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the
time `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state
@@ -172,14 +175,14 @@ create::
return its object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref
namespace.
This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is probably not
- the command you want to use; see "save" above.
+ the command you want to use; see "push" above.
store::
Store a given stash created via 'git stash create' (which is a
dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating the stash
reflog. This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is
- probably not the command you want to use; see "save" above.
+ probably not the command you want to use; see "push" above.
DISCUSSION
----------
@@ -255,14 +258,14 @@ $ git stash pop
Testing partial commits::
-You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
+You can use `git stash push --keep-index` when you want to make two or
more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
each change before committing:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
-$ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
+$ git stash push --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
$ edit/build/test first part
$ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
$ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 9f3a78a..c16e27e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -97,8 +97,27 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
(and suppresses the output of submodule summaries when the config option
`status.submoduleSummary` is set).
---ignored::
+--ignored[=<mode>]::
Show ignored files as well.
++
+The mode parameter is used to specify the handling of ignored files.
+It is optional: it defaults to 'traditional'.
++
+The possible options are:
++
+ - 'traditional' - Shows ignored files and directories, unless
+ --untracked-files=all is specifed, in which case
+ individual files in ignored directories are
+ displayed.
+ - 'no' - Show no ignored files.
+ - 'matching' - Shows ignored files and directories matching an
+ ignore pattern.
++
+When 'matching' mode is specified, paths that explicitly match an
+ignored pattern are shown. If a directory matches an ignore pattern,
+then it is shown, but not paths contained in the ignored directory. If
+a directory does not match an ignore pattern, but all contents are
+ignored, then the directory is not shown, but all contents are shown.
-z::
Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF. This implies
@@ -111,6 +130,11 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never'
respectively.
+--ahead-behind::
+--no-ahead-behind::
+ Display or do not display detailed ahead/behind counts for the
+ branch relative to its upstream branch. Defaults to true.
+
<pathspec>...::
See the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
@@ -130,14 +154,15 @@ the status.relativePaths config option below.
Short Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-In the short-format, the status of each path is shown as
+In the short-format, the status of each path is shown as one of these
+forms
- XY PATH1 -> PATH2
+ XY PATH
+ XY ORIG_PATH -> PATH
-where `PATH1` is the path in the `HEAD`, and the " `-> PATH2`" part is
-shown only when `PATH1` corresponds to a different path in the
-index/worktree (i.e. the file is renamed). The `XY` is a two-letter
-status code.
+where `ORIG_PATH` is where the renamed/copied contents came
+from. `ORIG_PATH` is only shown when the entry is renamed or
+copied. The `XY` is a two-letter status code.
The fields (including the `->`) are separated from each other by a
single space. If a filename contains whitespace or other nonprintable
@@ -164,15 +189,17 @@ in which case `XY` are `!!`.
X Y Meaning
-------------------------------------------------
- [MD] not updated
+ [AMD] not updated
M [ MD] updated in index
A [ MD] added to index
- D [ M] deleted from index
+ D deleted from index
R [ MD] renamed in index
C [ MD] copied in index
[MARC] index and work tree matches
[ MARC] M work tree changed since index
[ MARC] D deleted in work tree
+ [ D] R renamed in work tree
+ [ D] C copied in work tree
-------------------------------------------------
D D unmerged, both deleted
A U unmerged, added by us
@@ -290,13 +317,13 @@ Renamed or copied entries have the following format:
of similarity between the source and target of the
move or copy). For example "R100" or "C75".
<path> The pathname. In a renamed/copied entry, this
- is the path in the index and in the working tree.
+ is the target path.
<sep> When the `-z` option is used, the 2 pathnames are separated
with a NUL (ASCII 0x00) byte; otherwise, a tab (ASCII 0x09)
byte separates them.
- <origPath> The pathname in the commit at HEAD. This is only
- present in a renamed/copied entry, and tells
- where the renamed/copied contents came from.
+ <origPath> The pathname in the commit at HEAD or in the index.
+ This is only present in a renamed/copied entry, and
+ tells where the renamed/copied contents came from.
--------------------------------------------------------
Unmerged entries have the following format; the first character is
@@ -368,6 +395,19 @@ ignored submodules you can either use the --ignore-submodules=dirty command
line option or the 'git submodule summary' command, which shows a similar
output but does not honor these settings.
+BACKGROUND REFRESH
+------------------
+
+By default, `git status` will automatically refresh the index, updating
+the cached stat information from the working tree and writing out the
+result. Writing out the updated index is an optimization that isn't
+strictly necessary (`status` computes the values for itself, but writing
+them out is just to save subsequent programs from repeating our
+computation). When `status` is run in the background, the lock held
+during the write may conflict with other simultaneous processes, causing
+them to fail. Scripts running `status` in the background should consider
+using `git --no-optional-locks status` (see linkgit:git[1] for details).
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitignore[5]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index ff61200..630999f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -70,8 +70,8 @@ status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
Show the status of the submodules. This will print the SHA-1 of the
currently checked out commit for each submodule, along with the
submodule path and the output of 'git describe' for the
- SHA-1. Each SHA-1 will be prefixed with `-` if the submodule is not
- initialized, `+` if the currently checked out submodule commit
+ SHA-1. Each SHA-1 will possibly be prefixed with `-` if the submodule is
+ not initialized, `+` if the currently checked out submodule commit
does not match the SHA-1 found in the index of the containing
repository and `U` if the submodule has merge conflicts.
+
@@ -132,15 +132,15 @@ expects by cloning missing submodules and updating the working tree of
the submodules. The "updating" can be done in several ways depending
on command line options and the value of `submodule.<name>.update`
configuration variable. The command line option takes precedence over
-the configuration variable. if neither is given, a checkout is performed.
-update procedures supported both from the command line as well as setting
-`submodule.<name>.update`:
+the configuration variable. If neither is given, a 'checkout' is performed.
+The 'update' procedures supported both from the command line as well as
+through the `submodule.<name>.update` configuration are:
checkout;; the commit recorded in the superproject will be
checked out in the submodule on a detached HEAD.
+
If `--force` is specified, the submodule will be checked out (using
-`git checkout --force` if appropriate), even if the commit specified
+`git checkout --force`), even if the commit specified
in the index of the containing repository already matches the commit
checked out in the submodule.
@@ -150,8 +150,8 @@ checked out in the submodule.
merge;; the commit recorded in the superproject will be merged
into the current branch in the submodule.
-The following procedures are only available via the `submodule.<name>.update`
-configuration variable:
+The following 'update' procedures are only available via the
+`submodule.<name>.update` configuration variable:
custom command;; arbitrary shell command that takes a single
argument (the sha1 of the commit recorded in the
@@ -213,8 +213,8 @@ sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
submodule URLs change upstream and you need to update your local
repositories accordingly.
+
-"git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while
-"git submodule sync \-- A" synchronizes submodule "A" only.
+`git submodule sync` synchronizes all submodules while
+`git submodule sync -- A` synchronizes submodule "A" only.
+
If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
registered submodules, and sync any nested submodules within.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index aa2aeab..d59379e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
'set-tree'::
You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on
- your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This makes
+ your imported fetch data being up to date. This makes
absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it
simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or
commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
@@ -635,7 +635,8 @@ config key: svn.findcopiesharder
-A<filename>::
--authors-file=<filename>::
- Syntax is compatible with the file used by 'git cvsimport':
+ Syntax is compatible with the file used by 'git cvsimport' but
+ an empty email address can be supplied with '<>':
+
------------------------------------------------------------------------
loginname = Joe User <user@example.com>
@@ -654,8 +655,14 @@ config key: svn.authorsfile
If this option is specified, for each SVN committer name that
does not exist in the authors file, the given file is executed
with the committer name as the first argument. The program is
- expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>",
- which will be treated as if included in the authors file.
+ expected to return a single line of the form "Name <email>" or
+ "Name <>", which will be treated as if included in the authors
+ file.
++
+Due to historical reasons a relative 'filename' is first searched
+relative to the current directory for 'init' and 'clone' and relative
+to the root of the working tree for 'fetch'. If 'filename' is
+not found, it is searched like any other command in '$PATH'.
+
[verse]
config key: svn.authorsProg
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 956fc01..1d17101 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-tag - Create, list, delete or verify a tag object signed with GPG
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <keyid>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
+'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <keyid>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>] [-e]
<tagname> [<commit> | <object>]
'git tag' -d <tagname>...
'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--no-contains <commit>]
@@ -167,6 +167,12 @@ This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <keyid>`
is given.
+-e::
+--edit::
+ The message taken from file with `-F` and command line with
+ `-m` are usually used as the tag message unmodified.
+ This option lets you further edit the message taken from these sources.
+
--cleanup=<mode>::
This option sets how the tag message is cleaned up.
The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace' and 'strip'. The
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index a14e6ae..3897a59 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -16,9 +16,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
[--[no-]assume-unchanged]
[--[no-]skip-worktree]
+ [--[no-]fsmonitor-valid]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--[no-]split-index]
[--[no-|test-|force-]untracked-cache]
+ [--[no-]fsmonitor]
[--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
[--info-only] [--index-info]
[-z] [--stdin] [--index-version <n>]
@@ -111,6 +113,12 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
section "Skip-worktree bit" below for more information.
+--[no-]fsmonitor-valid::
+ When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
+ for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
+ set and unset the "fsmonitor valid" bit for the paths. See
+ section "File System Monitor" below for more information.
+
-g::
--again::
Runs 'git update-index' itself on the paths whose index
@@ -201,6 +209,15 @@ will remove the intended effect of the option.
`--untracked-cache` used to imply `--test-untracked-cache` but
this option would enable the extension unconditionally.
+--fsmonitor::
+--no-fsmonitor::
+ Enable or disable files system monitor feature. These options
+ take effect whatever the value of the `core.fsmonitor`
+ configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]). But a warning
+ is emitted when the change goes against the configured value, as
+ the configured value will take effect next time the index is
+ read and this will remove the intended effect of the option.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
@@ -214,7 +231,7 @@ will remove the intended effect of the option.
Using --refresh
---------------
`--refresh` does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
-up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
+up to date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
"re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
the stat entry is out of date.
@@ -447,6 +464,60 @@ command reads the index; while when `--[no-|force-]untracked-cache`
are used, the untracked cache is immediately added to or removed from
the index.
+Before 2.17, the untracked cache had a bug where replacing a directory
+with a symlink to another directory could cause it to incorrectly show
+files tracked by git as untracked. See the "status: add a failing test
+showing a core.untrackedCache bug" commit to git.git. A workaround for
+that is (and this might work for other undiscovered bugs in the
+future):
+
+----------------
+$ git -c core.untrackedCache=false status
+----------------
+
+This bug has also been shown to affect non-symlink cases of replacing
+a directory with a file when it comes to the internal structures of
+the untracked cache, but no case has been reported where this resulted in
+wrong "git status" output.
+
+There are also cases where existing indexes written by git versions
+before 2.17 will reference directories that don't exist anymore,
+potentially causing many "could not open directory" warnings to be
+printed on "git status". These are new warnings for existing issues
+that were previously silently discarded.
+
+As with the bug described above the solution is to one-off do a "git
+status" run with `core.untrackedCache=false` to flush out the leftover
+bad data.
+
+File System Monitor
+-------------------
+
+This feature is intended to speed up git operations for repos that have
+large working directories.
+
+It enables git to work together with a file system monitor (see the
+"fsmonitor-watchman" section of linkgit:githooks[5]) that can
+inform it as to what files have been modified. This enables git to avoid
+having to lstat() every file to find modified files.
+
+When used in conjunction with the untracked cache, it can further improve
+performance by avoiding the cost of scanning the entire working directory
+looking for new files.
+
+If you want to enable (or disable) this feature, it is easier to use
+the `core.fsmonitor` configuration variable (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]) than using the `--fsmonitor` option to
+`git update-index` in each repository, especially if you want to do so
+across all repositories you use, because you can set the configuration
+variable in your `$HOME/.gitconfig` just once and have it affect all
+repositories you touch.
+
+When the `core.fsmonitor` configuration variable is changed, the
+file system monitor is added to or removed from the index the next time
+a command reads the index. When `--[no-]fsmonitor` are used, the file
+system monitor is immediately added to or removed from the index.
+
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index b472acc..9920d9c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -9,10 +9,12 @@ git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
+'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<commit-ish>]
'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
+'git worktree move' <worktree> <new-path>
'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
+'git worktree remove' [-f] <worktree>
'git worktree unlock' <worktree>
DESCRIPTION
@@ -25,19 +27,16 @@ out more than one branch at a time. With `git worktree add` a new working
tree is associated with the repository. This new working tree is called a
"linked working tree" as opposed to the "main working tree" prepared by "git
init" or "git clone". A repository has one main working tree (if it's not a
-bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees.
+bare repository) and zero or more linked working trees. When you are done
+with a linked working tree, remove it with `git worktree remove`.
-When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
-The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
-"DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
+If a working tree is deleted without using `git worktree remove`, then
+its associated administrative files, which reside in the repository
+(see "DETAILS" below), will eventually be removed automatically (see
`gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
`git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
clean up any stale administrative files.
-If you move a linked working tree, you need to manually update the
-administrative files so that they do not get pruned automatically. See
-section "DETAILS" for more information.
-
If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
being pruned by issuing the `git worktree lock` command, optionally
@@ -45,14 +44,23 @@ specifying `--reason` to explain why the working tree is locked.
COMMANDS
--------
-add <path> [<branch>]::
+add <path> [<commit-ish>]::
-Create `<path>` and checkout `<branch>` into it. The new working directory
+Create `<path>` and checkout `<commit-ish>` into it. The new working directory
is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc. `-` may also be
-specified as `<branch>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
+specified as `<commit-ish>`; it is synonymous with `@{-1}`.
++
+If <commit-ish> is a branch name (call it `<branch>`) and is not found,
+and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` are used, but there does
+exist a tracking branch in exactly one remote (call it `<remote>`)
+with a matching name, treat as equivalent to:
+
-If `<branch>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
+------------
+$ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
+------------
++
+If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
@@ -71,10 +79,22 @@ files from being pruned automatically. This also prevents it from
being moved or deleted. Optionally, specify a reason for the lock
with `--reason`.
+move::
+
+Move a working tree to a new location. Note that the main working tree
+or linked working trees containing submodules cannot be moved.
+
prune::
Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
+remove::
+
+Remove a working tree. Only clean working trees (no untracked files
+and no modification in tracked files) can be removed. Unclean working
+trees or ones with submodules can be removed with `--force`. The main
+working tree cannot be removed.
+
unlock::
Unlock a working tree, allowing it to be pruned, moved or deleted.
@@ -84,29 +104,46 @@ OPTIONS
-f::
--force::
- By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when `<branch>`
- is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides
- that safeguard.
+ By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when
+ `<commit-ish>` is a branch name and is already checked out by
+ another working tree and `remove` refuses to remove an unclean
+ working tree. This option overrides these safeguards.
-b <new-branch>::
-B <new-branch>::
With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
- `<branch>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
- If `<branch>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
+ `<commit-ish>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
+ If `<commit-ish>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
- `<branch>`.
+ `<commit-ish>`.
--detach::
With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
--[no-]checkout::
- By default, `add` checks out `<branch>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
+ By default, `add` checks out `<commit-ish>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
+--[no-]guess-remote::
+ With `worktree add <path>`, without `<commit-ish>`, instead
+ of creating a new branch from HEAD, if there exists a tracking
+ branch in exactly one remote matching the basename of `<path>`,
+ base the new branch on the remote-tracking branch, and mark
+ the remote-tracking branch as "upstream" from the new branch.
++
+This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
+`worktree.guessRemote` config option.
+
+--[no-]track::
+ When creating a new branch, if `<commit-ish>` is a branch,
+ mark it as "upstream" from the new branch. This is the
+ default if `<commit-ish>` is a remote-tracking branch. See
+ "--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
+
--lock::
Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
@@ -172,7 +209,7 @@ thumb is do not make any assumption about whether a path belongs to
$GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
-If you move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
+If you manually move a linked working tree, you need to update the 'gitdir' file
in the entry's directory. For example, if a linked working tree is moved
to `/newpath/test-next` and its `.git` file points to
`/path/main/.git/worktrees/test-next`, then update
@@ -196,7 +233,7 @@ The worktree list command has two output formats. The default format shows the
details on a single line with columns. For example:
------------
-S git worktree list
+$ git worktree list
/path/to/bare-source (bare)
/path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
/path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
@@ -211,7 +248,7 @@ if the value is true. An empty line indicates the end of a worktree. For
example:
------------
-S git worktree list --porcelain
+$ git worktree list --porcelain
worktree /path/to/bare-source
bare
@@ -242,8 +279,7 @@ $ pushd ../temp
# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git commit -a -m 'emergency fix for boss'
$ popd
-$ rm -rf ../temp
-$ git worktree prune
+$ git worktree remove ../temp
------------
BUGS
@@ -252,13 +288,6 @@ Multiple checkout in general is still experimental, and the support
for submodules is incomplete. It is NOT recommended to make multiple
checkouts of a superproject.
-git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently
-performed manually, such as:
-
-- `remove` to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and
- warn if the working tree is dirty)
-- `mv` to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 98b9b46..4767860 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -159,6 +159,10 @@ foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string which `git config
Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
+--no-optional-locks::
+ Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
+ equivalent to setting the `GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS` to `0`.
+
GIT COMMANDS
------------
@@ -518,11 +522,10 @@ other
If either of these environment variables is set then 'git fetch'
and 'git push' will use the specified command instead of 'ssh'
when they need to connect to a remote system.
- The command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the
- 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the shell
- command to execute on that remote system, optionally preceded by
- `-p` (literally) and the 'port' from the URL when it specifies
- something other than the default SSH port.
+ The command-line parameters passed to the configured command are
+ determined by the ssh variant. See `ssh.variant` option in
+ linkgit:git-config[1] for details.
+
+
`$GIT_SSH_COMMAND` takes precedence over `$GIT_SSH`, and is interpreted
by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
@@ -591,6 +594,10 @@ into it.
Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
+`GIT_TRACE_FSMONITOR`::
+ Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension.
+ See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
+
`GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
@@ -639,6 +646,16 @@ of clones and fetches.
variable.
See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
+`GIT_TRACE_CURL_NO_DATA`::
+ When a curl trace is enabled (see `GIT_TRACE_CURL` above), do not dump
+ data (that is, only dump info lines and headers).
+
+`GIT_REDACT_COOKIES`::
+ This can be set to a comma-separated list of strings. When a curl trace
+ is enabled (see `GIT_TRACE_CURL` above), whenever a "Cookies:" header
+ sent by the client is dumped, values of cookies whose key is in that
+ list (case-sensitive) are redacted.
+
`GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS`::
Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
@@ -697,6 +714,47 @@ of clones and fetches.
which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
linkgit:git-config[1] for more details.
+`GIT_PROTOCOL`::
+ For internal use only. Used in handshaking the wire protocol.
+ Contains a colon ':' separated list of keys with optional values
+ 'key[=value]'. Presence of unknown keys and values must be
+ ignored.
+
+`GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS`::
+ If set to `0`, Git will complete any requested operation without
+ performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
+ For example, this will prevent `git status` from refreshing the
+ index as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in
+ the background which do not want to cause lock contention with
+ other operations on the repository. Defaults to `1`.
+
+`GIT_REDIRECT_STDIN`::
+`GIT_REDIRECT_STDOUT`::
+`GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR`::
+ Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
+ handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
+ particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
+ canonical way to pass standard handles via `CreateProcess()` is
+ not an option because it would require the handles to be marked
+ inheritable (and consequently *every* spawned process would
+ inherit them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The
+ primary intended use case is to use named pipes for communication
+ (e.g. `\\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123`).
++
+Two special values are supported: `off` will simply close the
+corresponding standard handle, and if `GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR` is
+`2>&1`, standard error will be redirected to the same handle as
+standard output.
+
+`GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS` (deprecated)::
+ If set to `yes`, print an ellipsis following an
+ (abbreviated) SHA-1 value. This affects indications of
+ detached HEADs (linkgit:git-checkout[1]) and the raw
+ diff output (linkgit:git-diff[1]). Printing an
+ ellipsis in the cases mentioned is no longer considered
+ adequate and support for it is likely to be removed in the
+ foreseeable future (along with the variable).
+
Discussion[[Discussion]]
------------------------
@@ -791,6 +849,9 @@ Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
subscribed to the list to send a message there.
+Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to
+the Git Security mailing list <git-security@googlegroups.com>.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 4c68bc1..ee210be 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -56,9 +56,16 @@ Unspecified::
When more than one pattern matches the path, a later line
overrides an earlier line. This overriding is done per
-attribute. The rules how the pattern matches paths are the
-same as in `.gitignore` files; see linkgit:gitignore[5].
-Unlike `.gitignore`, negative patterns are forbidden.
+attribute.
+
+The rules by which the pattern matches paths are the same as in
+`.gitignore` files (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), with a few exceptions:
+
+ - negative patterns are forbidden
+
+ - patterns that match a directory do not recursively match paths
+ inside that directory (so using the trailing-slash `path/` syntax is
+ pointless in an attributes file; use `path/**` instead)
When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, Git
consults `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file (which has the highest
@@ -232,8 +239,7 @@ From a clean working directory:
-------------------------------------------------
$ echo "* text=auto" >.gitattributes
-$ git read-tree --empty # Clean index, force re-scan of working directory
-$ git add .
+$ git add --renormalize .
$ git status # Show files that will be normalized
$ git commit -m "Introduce end-of-line normalization"
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -273,6 +279,94 @@ few exceptions. Even though...
catch potential problems early, safety triggers.
+`working-tree-encoding`
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Git recognizes files encoded in ASCII or one of its supersets (e.g.
+UTF-8, ISO-8859-1, ...) as text files. Files encoded in certain other
+encodings (e.g. UTF-16) are interpreted as binary and consequently
+built-in Git text processing tools (e.g. 'git diff') as well as most Git
+web front ends do not visualize the contents of these files by default.
+
+In these cases you can tell Git the encoding of a file in the working
+directory with the `working-tree-encoding` attribute. If a file with this
+attribute is added to Git, then Git reencodes the content from the
+specified encoding to UTF-8. Finally, Git stores the UTF-8 encoded
+content in its internal data structure (called "the index"). On checkout
+the content is reencoded back to the specified encoding.
+
+Please note that using the `working-tree-encoding` attribute may have a
+number of pitfalls:
+
+- Alternative Git implementations (e.g. JGit or libgit2) and older Git
+ versions (as of March 2018) do not support the `working-tree-encoding`
+ attribute. If you decide to use the `working-tree-encoding` attribute
+ in your repository, then it is strongly recommended to ensure that all
+ clients working with the repository support it.
+
+ For example, Microsoft Visual Studio resources files (`*.rc`) or
+ PowerShell script files (`*.ps1`) are sometimes encoded in UTF-16.
+ If you declare `*.ps1` as files as UTF-16 and you add `foo.ps1` with
+ a `working-tree-encoding` enabled Git client, then `foo.ps1` will be
+ stored as UTF-8 internally. A client without `working-tree-encoding`
+ support will checkout `foo.ps1` as UTF-8 encoded file. This will
+ typically cause trouble for the users of this file.
+
+ If a Git client, that does not support the `working-tree-encoding`
+ attribute, adds a new file `bar.ps1`, then `bar.ps1` will be
+ stored "as-is" internally (in this example probably as UTF-16).
+ A client with `working-tree-encoding` support will interpret the
+ internal contents as UTF-8 and try to convert it to UTF-16 on checkout.
+ That operation will fail and cause an error.
+
+- Reencoding content to non-UTF encodings can cause errors as the
+ conversion might not be UTF-8 round trip safe. If you suspect your
+ encoding to not be round trip safe, then add it to
+ `core.checkRoundtripEncoding` to make Git check the round trip
+ encoding (see linkgit:git-config[1]). SHIFT-JIS (Japanese character
+ set) is known to have round trip issues with UTF-8 and is checked by
+ default.
+
+- Reencoding content requires resources that might slow down certain
+ Git operations (e.g 'git checkout' or 'git add').
+
+Use the `working-tree-encoding` attribute only if you cannot store a file
+in UTF-8 encoding and if you want Git to be able to process the content
+as text.
+
+As an example, use the following attributes if your '*.ps1' files are
+UTF-16 encoded with byte order mark (BOM) and you want Git to perform
+automatic line ending conversion based on your platform.
+
+------------------------
+*.ps1 text working-tree-encoding=UTF-16
+------------------------
+
+Use the following attributes if your '*.ps1' files are UTF-16 little
+endian encoded without BOM and you want Git to use Windows line endings
+in the working directory. Please note, it is highly recommended to
+explicitly define the line endings with `eol` if the `working-tree-encoding`
+attribute is used to avoid ambiguity.
+
+------------------------
+*.ps1 text working-tree-encoding=UTF-16LE eol=CRLF
+------------------------
+
+You can get a list of all available encodings on your platform with the
+following command:
+
+------------------------
+iconv --list
+------------------------
+
+If you do not know the encoding of a file, then you can use the `file`
+command to guess the encoding:
+
+------------------------
+file foo.ps1
+------------------------
+
+
`ident`
^^^^^^^
@@ -328,6 +422,9 @@ You can declare that a filter turns a content that by itself is unusable
into a usable content by setting the filter.<driver>.required configuration
variable to `true`.
+Note: Whenever the clean filter is changed, the repo should be renormalized:
+$ git add --renormalize .
+
For example, in .gitattributes, you would assign the `filter`
attribute for paths.
@@ -390,46 +487,14 @@ Long Running Filter Process
If the filter command (a string value) is defined via
`filter.<driver>.process` then Git can process all blobs with a
single filter invocation for the entire life of a single Git
-command. This is achieved by using a packet format (pkt-line,
-see technical/protocol-common.txt) based protocol over standard
-input and standard output as follows. All packets, except for the
-"*CONTENT" packets and the "0000" flush packet, are considered
-text and therefore are terminated by a LF.
-
-Git starts the filter when it encounters the first file
-that needs to be cleaned or smudged. After the filter started
-Git sends a welcome message ("git-filter-client"), a list of supported
-protocol version numbers, and a flush packet. Git expects to read a welcome
-response message ("git-filter-server"), exactly one protocol version number
-from the previously sent list, and a flush packet. All further
-communication will be based on the selected version. The remaining
-protocol description below documents "version=2". Please note that
-"version=42" in the example below does not exist and is only there
-to illustrate how the protocol would look like with more than one
-version.
-
-After the version negotiation Git sends a list of all capabilities that
-it supports and a flush packet. Git expects to read a list of desired
-capabilities, which must be a subset of the supported capabilities list,
-and a flush packet as response:
-------------------------
-packet: git> git-filter-client
-packet: git> version=2
-packet: git> version=42
-packet: git> 0000
-packet: git< git-filter-server
-packet: git< version=2
-packet: git< 0000
-packet: git> capability=clean
-packet: git> capability=smudge
-packet: git> capability=not-yet-invented
-packet: git> 0000
-packet: git< capability=clean
-packet: git< capability=smudge
-packet: git< 0000
-------------------------
-Supported filter capabilities in version 2 are "clean", "smudge",
-and "delay".
+command. This is achieved by using the long-running process protocol
+(described in technical/long-running-process-protocol.txt).
+
+When Git encounters the first file that needs to be cleaned or smudged,
+it starts the filter and performs the handshake. In the handshake, the
+welcome message sent by Git is "git-filter-client", only version 2 is
+suppported, and the supported capabilities are "clean", "smudge", and
+"delay".
Afterwards Git sends a list of "key=value" pairs terminated with
a flush packet. The list will contain at least the filter command
@@ -515,12 +580,6 @@ the protocol then Git will stop the filter process and restart it
with the next file that needs to be processed. Depending on the
`filter.<driver>.required` flag Git will interpret that as error.
-After the filter has processed a command it is expected to wait for
-a "key=value" list containing the next command. Git will close
-the command pipe on exit. The filter is expected to detect EOF
-and exit gracefully on its own. Git will wait until the filter
-process has stopped.
-
Delay
^^^^^
@@ -750,6 +809,8 @@ patterns are available:
- `fountain` suitable for Fountain documents.
+- `golang` suitable for source code in the Go language.
+
- `html` suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.
- `java` suitable for source code in the Java language.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 7577f27..e29a9ef 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -631,7 +631,7 @@ So after you do a `cp -a` to create a new copy, you'll want to do
$ git update-index --refresh
----------------
+
-in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up-to-date.
+in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up to date.
Note that the second point is true even across machines. You can
duplicate a remote Git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
@@ -701,7 +701,7 @@ $ git checkout-index -u -a
----------------
where the `-u` flag means that you want the checkout to keep the index
-up-to-date (so that you don't have to refresh it afterward), and the
+up to date (so that you don't have to refresh it afterward), and the
`-a` flag means "check out all files" (if you have a stale copy or an
older version of a checked out tree you may also need to add the `-f`
flag first, to tell 'git checkout-index' to *force* overwriting of any old
@@ -1283,7 +1283,7 @@ run a single command, 'git-receive-pack'.
First, you need to create an empty repository on the remote
machine that will house your public repository. This empty
-repository will be populated and be kept up-to-date by pushing
+repository will be populated and be kept up to date by pushing
into it later. Obviously, this repository creation needs to be
done only once.
@@ -1450,7 +1450,7 @@ transport protocols (HTTP), you need to keep this repository
would contain a call to 'git update-server-info'
but you need to manually enable the hook with
`mv post-update.sample post-update`. This makes sure
-'git update-server-info' keeps the necessary files up-to-date.
+'git update-server-info' keeps the necessary files up to date.
3. Push into the public repository from your primary
repository.
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index b2514f4..f877f7b 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -121,17 +121,16 @@ it is not suppressed by the `--no-verify` option. A non-zero exit
means a failure of the hook and aborts the commit. It should not
be used as replacement for pre-commit hook.
-The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with Git comments
-out the `Conflicts:` part of a merge's commit message.
+The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with Git removes the
+help message found in the commented portion of the commit template.
commit-msg
~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git commit', and can be bypassed
-with the `--no-verify` option. It takes a single parameter, the
-name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
-Exiting with a non-zero status causes the 'git commit' to
-abort.
+This hook is invoked by 'git commit' and 'git merge', and can be
+bypassed with the `--no-verify` option. It takes a single parameter,
+the name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
+Exiting with a non-zero status causes the command to abort.
The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can be used
to normalize the message into some project standard format. It
@@ -171,7 +170,8 @@ This hook cannot affect the outcome of 'git checkout'.
It is also run after 'git clone', unless the --no-checkout (-n) option is
used. The first parameter given to the hook is the null-ref, the second the
-ref of the new HEAD and the flag is always 1.
+ref of the new HEAD and the flag is always 1. Likewise for 'git worktree add'
+unless --no-checkout is used.
This hook can be used to perform repository validity checks, auto-display
differences from the previous HEAD if different, or set working dir metadata
@@ -224,8 +224,8 @@ to the user by writing to standard error.
pre-receive
~~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' on the remote repository,
-which happens when a 'git push' is done on a local repository.
+This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' when it reacts to
+'git push' and updates reference(s) in its repository.
Just before starting to update refs on the remote repository, the
pre-receive hook is invoked. Its exit status determines the success
or failure of the update.
@@ -265,8 +265,8 @@ linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for some caveats.
update
~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' on the remote repository,
-which happens when a 'git push' is done on a local repository.
+This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' when it reacts to
+'git push' and updates reference(s) in its repository.
Just before updating the ref on the remote repository, the update hook
is invoked. Its exit status determines the success or failure of
the ref update.
@@ -310,8 +310,8 @@ unannotated tags to be pushed.
post-receive
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' on the remote repository,
-which happens when a 'git push' is done on a local repository.
+This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' when it reacts to
+'git push' and updates reference(s) in its repository.
It executes on the remote repository once after all the refs have
been updated.
@@ -349,8 +349,8 @@ will be set to zero, `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_COUNT=0`.
post-update
~~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' on the remote repository,
-which happens when a 'git push' is done on a local repository.
+This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' when it reacts to
+'git push' and updates reference(s) in its repository.
It executes on the remote repository once after all the refs have
been updated.
@@ -369,7 +369,7 @@ them.
When enabled, the default 'post-update' hook runs
'git update-server-info' to keep the information used by dumb
-transports (e.g., HTTP) up-to-date. If you are publishing
+transports (e.g., HTTP) up to date. If you are publishing
a Git repository that is accessible via HTTP, you should
probably enable this hook.
@@ -380,8 +380,8 @@ for the user.
push-to-checkout
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' on the remote repository,
-which happens when a 'git push' is done on a local repository, when
+This hook is invoked by 'git-receive-pack' when it reacts to
+'git push' and updates reference(s) in its repository, and when
the push tries to update the branch that is currently checked out
and the `receive.denyCurrentBranch` configuration variable is set to
`updateInstead`. Such a push by default is refused if the working
@@ -455,6 +455,34 @@ the name of the file that holds the e-mail to be sent. Exiting with a
non-zero status causes 'git send-email' to abort before sending any
e-mails.
+fsmonitor-watchman
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is invoked when the configuration option core.fsmonitor is
+set to .git/hooks/fsmonitor-watchman. It takes two arguments, a version
+(currently 1) and the time in elapsed nanoseconds since midnight,
+January 1, 1970.
+
+The hook should output to stdout the list of all files in the working
+directory that may have changed since the requested time. The logic
+should be inclusive so that it does not miss any potential changes.
+The paths should be relative to the root of the working directory
+and be separated by a single NUL.
+
+It is OK to include files which have not actually changed. All changes
+including newly-created and deleted files should be included. When
+files are renamed, both the old and the new name should be included.
+
+Git will limit what files it checks for changes as well as which
+directories are checked for untracked files based on the path names
+given.
+
+An optimized way to tell git "all files have changed" is to return
+the filename '/'.
+
+The exit status determines whether git will use the data from the
+hook to limit its search. On error, it will fall back to verifying
+all files and folders.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index 63260f0..ff5d7f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -102,12 +102,11 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
(relative to the toplevel of the work tree if not from a
`.gitignore` file).
- - Otherwise, Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable
- for consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
- wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname.
- For example, "Documentation/{asterisk}.html" matches
- "Documentation/git.html" but not "Documentation/ppc/ppc.html"
- or "tools/perf/Documentation/perf.html".
+ - Otherwise, Git treats the pattern as a shell glob: "`*`" matches
+ anything except "`/`", "`?`" matches any one character except "`/`"
+ and "`[]`" matches one character in a selected range. See
+ fnmatch(3) and the FNM_PATHNAME flag for a more detailed
+ description.
- A leading slash matches the beginning of the pathname.
For example, "/{asterisk}.c" matches "cat-file.c" but not
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index ca96c28..244cd01 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ gitk - The Git repository browser
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'gitk' [<options>] [<revision range>] [\--] [<path>...]
+'gitk' [<options>] [<revision range>] [--] [<path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 4a584f3..9d1459a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -102,6 +102,14 @@ Capabilities for Pushing
+
Supported commands: 'connect'.
+'stateless-connect'::
+ Experimental; for internal use only.
+ Can attempt to connect to a remote server for communication
+ using git's wire-protocol version 2. See the documentation
+ for the stateless-connect command for more information.
++
+Supported commands: 'stateless-connect'.
+
'push'::
Can discover remote refs and push local commits and the
history leading up to them to new or existing remote refs.
@@ -136,6 +144,14 @@ Capabilities for Fetching
+
Supported commands: 'connect'.
+'stateless-connect'::
+ Experimental; for internal use only.
+ Can attempt to connect to a remote server for communication
+ using git's wire-protocol version 2. See the documentation
+ for the stateless-connect command for more information.
++
+Supported commands: 'stateless-connect'.
+
'fetch'::
Can discover remote refs and transfer objects reachable from
them to the local object store.
@@ -375,6 +391,22 @@ Supported if the helper has the "export" capability.
+
Supported if the helper has the "connect" capability.
+'stateless-connect' <service>::
+ Experimental; for internal use only.
+ Connects to the given remote service for communication using
+ git's wire-protocol version 2. Valid replies to this command
+ are empty line (connection established), 'fallback' (no smart
+ transport support, fall back to dumb transports) and just
+ exiting with error message printed (can't connect, don't bother
+ trying to fall back). After line feed terminating the positive
+ (empty) response, the output of the service starts. Messages
+ (both request and response) must consist of zero or more
+ PKT-LINEs, terminating in a flush packet. The client must not
+ expect the server to store any state in between request-response
+ pairs. After the connection ends, the remote helper exits.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "stateless-connect" capability.
+
If a fatal error occurs, the program writes the error message to
stderr and exits. The caller should expect that a suitable error
message has been printed if the child closes the connection without
@@ -466,6 +498,13 @@ set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
Transmit <string> as a push option. As the push option
must not contain LF or NUL characters, the string is not encoded.
+'option from-promisor' {'true'|'false'}::
+ Indicate that these objects are being fetched from a promisor.
+
+'option no-dependents' {'true'|'false'}::
+ Indicate that only the objects wanted need to be fetched, not
+ their dependents.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-remote[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index f51ed4e..e85148f 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ objects/info/packs::
This file is to help dumb transports discover what packs
are available in this object store. Whenever a pack is
added or removed, `git update-server-info` should be run
- to keep this file up-to-date if the repository is
+ to keep this file up to date if the repository is
published for dumb transports. 'git repack' does this
by default.
@@ -208,6 +208,10 @@ info/exclude::
'git clean' look at it but the core Git commands do not look
at it. See also: linkgit:gitignore[5].
+info/attributes::
+ Defines which attributes to assign to a path, similar to per-directory
+ `.gitattributes` files. See also: linkgit:gitattributes[5].
+
info/sparse-checkout::
This file stores sparse checkout patterns.
See also: linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
@@ -271,11 +275,6 @@ worktrees/<id>/locked::
or manually by `git worktree prune`. The file may contain a string
explaining why the repository is locked.
-worktrees/<id>/link::
- If this file exists, it is a hard link to the linked .git
- file. It is used to detect if the linked repository is
- manually removed.
-
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-init[1],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
index 46cf120..3b9faab 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ On the filesystem, a submodule usually (but not always - see FORMS below)
consists of (i) a Git directory located under the `$GIT_DIR/modules/`
directory of its superproject, (ii) a working directory inside the
superproject's working directory, and a `.git` file at the root of
-the submodule’s working directory pointing to (i).
+the submodule's working directory pointing to (i).
Assuming the submodule has a Git directory at `$GIT_DIR/modules/foo/`
and a working directory at `path/to/bar/`, the superproject tracks the
@@ -33,11 +33,11 @@ in its `.gitmodules` file (see linkgit:gitmodules[5]) of the form
`submodule.foo.path = path/to/bar`.
The `gitlink` entry contains the object name of the commit that the
-superproject expects the submodule’s working directory to be at.
+superproject expects the submodule's working directory to be at.
The section `submodule.foo.*` in the `.gitmodules` file gives additional
-hints to Gits porcelain layer such as where to obtain the submodule via
-the `submodule.foo.url` setting.
+hints to Git's porcelain layer. For example, the `submodule.foo.url`
+setting specifies where to obtain the submodule.
Submodules can be used for at least two different use cases:
@@ -51,18 +51,21 @@ Submodules can be used for at least two different use cases:
2. Splitting a (logically single) project into multiple
repositories and tying them back together. This can be used to
- overcome current limitations of Gits implementation to have
+ overcome current limitations of Git's implementation to have
finer grained access:
- * Size of the git repository:
+ * Size of the Git repository:
In its current form Git scales up poorly for large repositories containing
content that is not compressed by delta computation between trees.
- However you can also use submodules to e.g. hold large binary assets
- and these repositories are then shallowly cloned such that you do not
+ For example, you can use submodules to hold large binary assets
+ and these repositories can be shallowly cloned such that you do not
have a large history locally.
* Transfer size:
In its current form Git requires the whole working tree present. It
does not allow partial trees to be transferred in fetch or clone.
+ If the project you work on consists of multiple repositories tied
+ together as submodules in a superproject, you can avoid fetching the
+ working trees of the repositories you are not interested in.
* Access control:
By restricting user access to submodules, this can be used to implement
read/write policies for different users.
@@ -73,9 +76,10 @@ The configuration of submodules
Submodule operations can be configured using the following mechanisms
(from highest to lowest precedence):
- * The command line for those commands that support taking submodule specs.
- Most commands have a boolean flag '--recurse-submodules' whether to
- recurse into submodules. Examples are `ls-files` or `checkout`.
+ * The command line for those commands that support taking submodules
+ as part of their pathspecs. Most commands have a boolean flag
+ `--recurse-submodules` which specify whether to recurse into submodules.
+ Examples are `grep` and `checkout`.
Some commands take enums, such as `fetch` and `push`, where you can
specify how submodules are affected.
@@ -87,8 +91,8 @@ Submodule operations can be configured using the following mechanisms
For example an effect from the submodule's `.gitignore` file
would be observed when you run `git status --ignore-submodules=none` in
the superproject. This collects information from the submodule's working
-directory by running `status` in the submodule, which does pay attention
-to its `.gitignore` file.
+directory by running `status` in the submodule while paying attention
+to the `.gitignore` file of the submodule.
+
The submodule's `$GIT_DIR/config` file would come into play when running
`git push --recurse-submodules=check` in the superproject, as this would
@@ -97,20 +101,20 @@ remotes are configured in the submodule as usual in the `$GIT_DIR/config`
file.
* The configuration file `$GIT_DIR/config` in the superproject.
- Typical configuration at this place is controlling if a submodule
- is recursed into at all via the `active` flag for example.
+ Git only recurses into active submodules (see "ACTIVE SUBMODULES"
+ section below).
+
If the submodule is not yet initialized, then the configuration
-inside the submodule does not exist yet, so configuration where to
+inside the submodule does not exist yet, so where to
obtain the submodule from is configured here for example.
- * the `.gitmodules` file inside the superproject. Additionally to the
- required mapping between submodule's name and path, a project usually
+ * The `.gitmodules` file inside the superproject. A project usually
uses this file to suggest defaults for the upstream collection
- of repositories.
+ of repositories for the mapping that is required between a
+ submodule's name and its path.
+
-This file mainly serves as the mapping between name and path in
-the superproject, such that the submodule's git directory can be
+This file mainly serves as the mapping between the name and path of submodules
+in the superproject, such that the submodule's Git directory can be
located.
+
If the submodule has never been initialized, this is the only place
@@ -132,27 +136,27 @@ using older versions of Git.
+
It is possible to construct these old form repositories manually.
+
-When deinitialized or deleted (see below), the submodule’s Git
+When deinitialized or deleted (see below), the submodule's Git
directory is automatically moved to `$GIT_DIR/modules/<name>/`
of the superproject.
* Deinitialized submodule: A `gitlink`, and a `.gitmodules` entry,
-but no submodule working directory. The submodule’s git directory
-may be there as after deinitializing the git directory is kept around.
+but no submodule working directory. The submodule's Git directory
+may be there as after deinitializing the Git directory is kept around.
The directory which is supposed to be the working directory is empty instead.
+
A submodule can be deinitialized by running `git submodule deinit`.
Besides emptying the working directory, this command only modifies
-the superproject’s `$GIT_DIR/config` file, so the superproject’s history
+the superproject's `$GIT_DIR/config` file, so the superproject's history
is not affected. This can be undone using `git submodule init`.
* Deleted submodule: A submodule can be deleted by running
`git rm <submodule path> && git commit`. This can be undone
using `git revert`.
+
-The deletion removes the superproject’s tracking data, which are
+The deletion removes the superproject's tracking data, which are
both the `gitlink` entry and the section in the `.gitmodules` file.
-The submodule’s working directory is removed from the file
+The submodule's working directory is removed from the file
system, but the Git directory is kept around as it to make it
possible to checkout past commits without requiring fetching
from another repository.
@@ -160,6 +164,60 @@ from another repository.
To completely remove a submodule, manually delete
`$GIT_DIR/modules/<name>/`.
+ACTIVE SUBMODULES
+-----------------
+
+A submodule is considered active,
+
+ (a) if `submodule.<name>.active` is set to `true`
+ or
+ (b) if the submodule's path matches the pathspec in `submodule.active`
+ or
+ (c) if `submodule.<name>.url` is set.
+
+and these are evaluated in this order.
+
+For example:
+
+ [submodule "foo"]
+ active = false
+ url = https://example.org/foo
+ [submodule "bar"]
+ active = true
+ url = https://example.org/bar
+ [submodule "baz"]
+ url = https://example.org/baz
+
+In the above config only the submodule 'bar' and 'baz' are active,
+'bar' due to (a) and 'baz' due to (c). 'foo' is inactive because
+(a) takes precedence over (c)
+
+Note that (c) is a historical artefact and will be ignored if the
+(a) and (b) specify that the submodule is not active. In other words,
+if we have an `submodule.<name>.active` set to `false` or if the
+submodule's path is excluded in the pathspec in `submodule.active`, the
+url doesn't matter whether it is present or not. This is illustrated in
+the example that follows.
+
+ [submodule "foo"]
+ active = true
+ url = https://example.org/foo
+ [submodule "bar"]
+ url = https://example.org/bar
+ [submodule "baz"]
+ url = https://example.org/baz
+ [submodule "bob"]
+ ignore = true
+ [submodule]
+ active = b*
+ active = :(exclude) baz
+
+In here all submodules except 'baz' (foo, bar, bob) are active.
+'foo' due to its own active flag and all the others due to the
+submodule active pathspec, which specifies that any submodule
+starting with 'b' except 'baz' are also active, regardless of the
+presence of the .url field.
+
Workflow for a third party library
----------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index 794b833..242de31 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -109,7 +109,7 @@ summary of the situation with 'git status':
$ git status
On branch master
Changes to be committed:
-Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master'.
+Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'.
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
modified: file1
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
index 177610e..926e044 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ beginning. It is always easier to squash a few commits together than
to split one big commit into several. Don't be afraid of making too
small or imperfect steps along the way. You can always go back later
and edit the commits with `git rebase --interactive` before you
-publish them. You can use `git stash save --keep-index` to run the
+publish them. You can use `git stash push --keep-index` to run the
test suite independent of other uncommitted changes; see the EXAMPLES
section of linkgit:git-stash[1].
@@ -407,8 +407,8 @@ follows.
`git pull <url> <branch>`
=====================================
-Occasionally, the maintainer may get merge conflicts when he tries to
-pull changes from downstream. In this case, he can ask downstream to
+Occasionally, the maintainer may get merge conflicts when they try to
+pull changes from downstream. In this case, they can ask downstream to
do the merge and resolve the conflicts themselves (perhaps they will
know better how to resolve them). It is one of the rare cases where
downstream 'should' merge from upstream.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 6b8888d..6c2d23d 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -463,7 +463,7 @@ exclude;;
[[def_push]]push::
Pushing a <<def_branch,branch>> means to get the branch's
<<def_head_ref,head ref>> from a remote <<def_repository,repository>>,
- find out if it is a direct ancestor to the branch's local
+ find out if it is an ancestor to the branch's local
head ref, and in that case, putting all
objects, which are <<def_reachable,reachable>> from the local
head ref, and which are missing from the remote
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
index 9c4cd09..8994e25 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ valid pack like:
# now add our object data
cat object >>tmp.pack
# and then append the pack trailer
- /path/to/git.git/test-sha1 -b <tmp.pack >trailer
+ /path/to/git.git/t/helper/test-tool sha1 -b <tmp.pack >trailer
cat trailer >>tmp.pack
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/install-doc-quick.sh b/Documentation/install-doc-quick.sh
index 327f69b..17231d8 100755
--- a/Documentation/install-doc-quick.sh
+++ b/Documentation/install-doc-quick.sh
@@ -3,11 +3,12 @@
repository=${1?repository}
destdir=${2?destination}
+GIT_MAN_REF=${3?master}
-head=master GIT_DIR=
+GIT_DIR=
for d in "$repository/.git" "$repository"
do
- if GIT_DIR="$d" git rev-parse refs/heads/master >/dev/null 2>&1
+ if GIT_DIR="$d" git rev-parse "$GIT_MAN_REF" >/dev/null 2>&1
then
GIT_DIR="$d"
export GIT_DIR
@@ -27,12 +28,12 @@ export GIT_INDEX_FILE GIT_WORK_TREE
rm -f "$GIT_INDEX_FILE"
trap 'rm -f "$GIT_INDEX_FILE"' 0
-git read-tree $head
+git read-tree "$GIT_MAN_REF"
git checkout-index -a -f --prefix="$destdir"/
if test -n "$GZ"
then
- git ls-tree -r --name-only $head |
+ git ls-tree -r --name-only "$GIT_MAN_REF" |
xargs printf "$destdir/%s\n" |
xargs gzip -f
fi
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-config.txt b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
index df3ea37..12b6bbf 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,10 @@ merge.ff::
allowed (equivalent to giving the `--ff-only` option from the
command line).
+merge.verifySignatures::
+ If true, this is equivalent to the --verify-signatures command
+ line option. See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details.
+
include::fmt-merge-msg-config.txt[]
merge.renameLimit::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 5b4a62e..63a3fc0 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -35,13 +35,20 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
--no-ff::
Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
- annotated (and possibly signed) tag.
+ annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in
+ its natural place in 'refs/tags/' hierarchy.
--ff-only::
Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
- current `HEAD` is already up-to-date or the merge can be
+ current `HEAD` is already up to date or the merge can be
resolved as a fast-forward.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The `keyid` argument is
+ optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified,
+ it must be stuck to the option without a space.
+
--log[=<n>]::
--no-log::
In addition to branch names, populate the log message with
@@ -51,6 +58,16 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the
actual commits being merged.
+--signoff::
+--no-signoff::
+ Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
+ log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
+ but it typically certifies that committer has
+ the rights to submit this work under the same license and
+ agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
+ (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
++
+With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.
--stat::
-n::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index a09d597..4a58aad 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ the other tree did, declaring 'our' history contains all that happened in it.
theirs;;
This is the opposite of 'ours'; note that, unlike 'ours', there is
- no 'theirs' merge stragegy to confuse this merge option with.
+ no 'theirs' merge strategy to confuse this merge option with.
patience;;
With this option, 'merge-recursive' spends a little extra time
@@ -58,11 +58,12 @@ diff-algorithm=[patience|minimal|histogram|myers];;
ignore-space-change;;
ignore-all-space;;
ignore-space-at-eol;;
+ignore-cr-at-eol;;
Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace
changes mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored.
- See also linkgit:git-diff[1] `-b`, `-w`, and
- `--ignore-space-at-eol`.
+ See also linkgit:git-diff[1] `-b`, `-w`,
+ `--ignore-space-at-eol`, and `--ignore-cr-at-eol`.
+
* If 'their' version only introduces whitespace changes to a line,
'our' version is used;
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 973d196..6109ef0 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -202,10 +202,15 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
- '%>>(<N>)', '%>>|(<N>)': similar to '%>(<N>)', '%>|(<N>)'
respectively, except that if the next placeholder takes more spaces
than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
-- '%><(<N>)', '%><|(<N>)': similar to '% <(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
+- '%><(<N>)', '%><|(<N>)': similar to '%<(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
-- %(trailers): display the trailers of the body as interpreted by
- linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
+- %(trailers[:options]): display the trailers of the body as interpreted
+ by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]. The `trailers` string may be
+ followed by a colon and zero or more comma-separated options. If the
+ `only` option is given, omit non-trailer lines from the trailer block.
+ If the `unfold` option is given, behave as if interpret-trailer's
+ `--unfold` option was given. E.g., `%(trailers:only,unfold)` to do
+ both.
NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
diff --git a/Documentation/rebase-config.txt b/Documentation/rebase-config.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..42e1ba7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/rebase-config.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+rebase.stat::
+ Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
+ rebase. False by default.
+
+rebase.autoSquash::
+ If set to true enable `--autosquash` option by default.
+
+rebase.autoStash::
+ When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash entry
+ before the operation begins, and apply it after the operation
+ ends. This means that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.
+ However, use with care: the final stash application after a
+ successful rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+ This option can be overridden by the `--no-autostash` and
+ `--autostash` options of linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+ Defaults to false.
+
+rebase.missingCommitsCheck::
+ If set to "warn", git rebase -i will print a warning if some
+ commits are removed (e.g. a line was deleted), however the
+ rebase will still proceed. If set to "error", it will print
+ the previous warning and stop the rebase, 'git rebase
+ --edit-todo' can then be used to correct the error. If set to
+ "ignore", no checking is done.
+ To drop a commit without warning or error, use the `drop`
+ command in the todo list.
+ Defaults to "ignore".
+
+rebase.instructionFormat::
+ A format string, as specified in linkgit:git-log[1], to be used for the
+ todo list during an interactive rebase. The format will
+ automatically have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
+
+rebase.abbreviateCommands::
+ If set to true, `git rebase` will use abbreviated command names in the
+ todo list resulting in something like this:
++
+-------------------------------------------
+ p deadbee The oneline of the commit
+ p fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit
+ ...
+-------------------------------------------
++
+instead of:
++
+-------------------------------------------
+ pick deadbee The oneline of the commit
+ pick fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit
+ ...
+-------------------------------------------
++
+Defaults to false.
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index a6cf9eb..7b27363 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -184,6 +184,14 @@ explicitly.
Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
command line as `<commit>`.
+--single-worktree::
+ By default, all working trees will be examined by the
+ following options when there are more than one (see
+ linkgit:git-worktree[1]): `--all`, `--reflog` and
+ `--indexed-objects`.
+ This option forces them to examine the current working tree
+ only.
+
--ignore-missing::
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
the bad input was not given.
@@ -678,6 +686,11 @@ ifdef::git-rev-list[]
all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit
object _bar_ but not _foo_''.
+--in-commit-order::
+ Print tree and blob ids in order of the commits. The tree
+ and blob ids are printed after they are first referenced
+ by a commit.
+
--objects-edge::
Similar to `--objects`, but also print the IDs of excluded
commits prefixed with a ``-'' character. This is used by
@@ -698,8 +711,60 @@ ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--unpacked::
Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that are not
in packs.
+
+--filter=<filter-spec>::
+ Only useful with one of the `--objects*`; omits objects (usually
+ blobs) from the list of printed objects. The '<filter-spec>'
+ may be one of the following:
++
+The form '--filter=blob:none' omits all blobs.
++
+The form '--filter=blob:limit=<n>[kmg]' omits blobs larger than n bytes
+or units. n may be zero. The suffixes k, m, and g can be used to name
+units in KiB, MiB, or GiB. For example, 'blob:limit=1k' is the same
+as 'blob:limit=1024'.
++
+The form '--filter=sparse:oid=<blob-ish>' uses a sparse-checkout
+specification contained in the blob (or blob-expression) '<blob-ish>'
+to omit blobs that would not be not required for a sparse checkout on
+the requested refs.
++
+The form '--filter=sparse:path=<path>' similarly uses a sparse-checkout
+specification contained in <path>.
+
+--no-filter::
+ Turn off any previous `--filter=` argument.
+
+--filter-print-omitted::
+ Only useful with `--filter=`; prints a list of the objects omitted
+ by the filter. Object IDs are prefixed with a ``~'' character.
+
+--missing=<missing-action>::
+ A debug option to help with future "partial clone" development.
+ This option specifies how missing objects are handled.
++
+The form '--missing=error' requests that rev-list stop with an error if
+a missing object is encountered. This is the default action.
++
+The form '--missing=allow-any' will allow object traversal to continue
+if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will silently be
+omitted from the results.
++
+The form '--missing=allow-promisor' is like 'allow-any', but will only
+allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing objects.
+Unexpected missing objects will raise an error.
++
+The form '--missing=print' is like 'allow-any', but will also print a
+list of the missing objects. Object IDs are prefixed with a ``?'' character.
endif::git-rev-list[]
+--exclude-promisor-objects::
+ (For internal use only.) Prefilter object traversal at
+ promisor boundary. This is used with partial clone. This is
+ stronger than `--missing=allow-promisor` because it limits the
+ traversal, rather than just silencing errors about missing
+ objects.
+
--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
@@ -791,11 +856,11 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
--parents::
Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
- Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+ Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
--children::
Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
- Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+ Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--timestamp::
@@ -838,7 +903,7 @@ you would get an output like this:
to be drawn properly.
Cannot be combined with `--no-walk`.
+
-This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
+
This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
`--date-order` option may also be specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 6127746..dfcc49c 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -271,7 +271,7 @@ The '..' (two-dot) Range Notation::
for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
from r1 by '{caret}r1 r2' and it can be written as 'r1..r2'.
-The '...' (three dot) Symmetric Difference Notation::
+The '...' (three-dot) Symmetric Difference Notation::
A similar notation 'r1\...r2' is called symmetric difference
of 'r1' and 'r2' and is defined as
'r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)'.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
index cfc0630..870c8ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ always NULL-terminated at the element pointed to by `argv[argc]`. This
makes the result suitable for passing to functions expecting to receive
argv from main(), or the link:api-run-command.html[run-command API].
-The link:api-string-list.html[string-list API] is similar, but cannot be
+The string-list API (documented in string-list.h) is similar, but cannot be
used for these purposes; instead of storing a straight string pointer,
it contains an item structure with a `util` field that is not compatible
with the traditional argv interface.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
index 20741f3..9a778b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ parsing is successful, the return value is the result.
Same as `git_config_bool`, except that integers are returned as-is, and
an `is_bool` flag is unset.
-`git_config_maybe_bool`::
+`git_parse_maybe_bool`::
Same as `git_config_bool`, except that it returns -1 on error rather
than dying.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-decorate.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-decorate.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 1d52a6c..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-decorate.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,6 +0,0 @@
-decorate API
-============
-
-Talk about <decorate.h>
-
-(Linus)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 6c77b49..4f44ca2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -22,16 +22,20 @@ The notable options are:
`flags`::
- A bit-field of options (the `*IGNORED*` flags are mutually exclusive):
+ A bit-field of options:
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`:::
- Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked files.
+ Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked
+ files. This flag is mutually exclusive with
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`.
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`:::
- Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in `ignored[]`
- in addition to untracked files in `entries[]`.
+ Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in
+ `ignored[]` in addition to untracked files in
+ `entries[]`. This flag is mutually exclusive with
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`.
`DIR_KEEP_UNTRACKED_CONTENTS`:::
@@ -39,6 +43,21 @@ The notable options are:
untracked contents of untracked directories are also returned in
`entries[]`.
+`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO_MODE_MATCHING`:::
+
+ Only has meaning if `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` is also set; if
+ this is set, returns ignored files and directories that match
+ an exclude pattern. If a directory matches an exclude pattern,
+ then the directory is returned and the contained paths are
+ not. A directory that does not match an exclude pattern will
+ not be returned even if all of its contents are ignored. In
+ this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
++
+If this is set, files and directories that explicitly match an ignore
+pattern are reported. Implicity ignored directories (directories that
+do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
+are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
+
`DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED`:::
Special mode for git-add. Return ignored files in `ignored[]` and
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
index 03bb0e9..5b29622 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
@@ -1,13 +1,13 @@
object access API
=================
-Talk about <sha1_file.c> and <object.h> family, things like
+Talk about <sha1-file.c> and <object.h> family, things like
* read_sha1_file()
* read_object_with_reference()
* has_sha1_file()
* write_sha1_file()
-* pretend_sha1_file()
+* pretend_object_file()
* lookup_{object,commit,tag,blob,tree}
* parse_{object,commit,tag,blob,tree}
* Use of object flags
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
index 37379d8..46c3d5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
@@ -32,11 +32,8 @@ Iteration functions
* `for_each_glob_ref_in()` the previous and `for_each_ref_in()` combined.
-* `head_ref_submodule()`, `for_each_ref_submodule()`,
- `for_each_ref_in_submodule()`, `for_each_tag_ref_submodule()`,
- `for_each_branch_ref_submodule()`, `for_each_remote_ref_submodule()`
- do the same as the functions described above but for a specified
- submodule.
+* Use `refs_` API for accessing submodules. The submodule ref store could
+ be obtained with `get_submodule_ref_store()`.
* `for_each_rawref()` can be used to learn about broken ref and symref.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index c08402b..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,209 +0,0 @@
-string-list API
-===============
-
-The string_list API offers a data structure and functions to handle
-sorted and unsorted string lists. A "sorted" list is one whose
-entries are sorted by string value in `strcmp()` order.
-
-The 'string_list' struct used to be called 'path_list', but was renamed
-because it is not specific to paths.
-
-The caller:
-
-. Allocates and clears a `struct string_list` variable.
-
-. Initializes the members. You might want to set the flag `strdup_strings`
- if the strings should be strdup()ed. For example, this is necessary
- when you add something like git_path("..."), since that function returns
- a static buffer that will change with the next call to git_path().
-+
-If you need something advanced, you can manually malloc() the `items`
-member (you need this if you add things later) and you should set the
-`nr` and `alloc` members in that case, too.
-
-. Adds new items to the list, using `string_list_append`,
- `string_list_append_nodup`, `string_list_insert`,
- `string_list_split`, and/or `string_list_split_in_place`.
-
-. Can check if a string is in the list using `string_list_has_string` or
- `unsorted_string_list_has_string` and get it from the list using
- `string_list_lookup` for sorted lists.
-
-. Can sort an unsorted list using `string_list_sort`.
-
-. Can remove duplicate items from a sorted list using
- `string_list_remove_duplicates`.
-
-. Can remove individual items of an unsorted list using
- `unsorted_string_list_delete_item`.
-
-. Can remove items not matching a criterion from a sorted or unsorted
- list using `filter_string_list`, or remove empty strings using
- `string_list_remove_empty_items`.
-
-. Finally it should free the list using `string_list_clear`.
-
-Example:
-
-----
-struct string_list list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
-int i;
-
-string_list_append(&list, "foo");
-string_list_append(&list, "bar");
-for (i = 0; i < list.nr; i++)
- printf("%s\n", list.items[i].string)
-----
-
-NOTE: It is more efficient to build an unsorted list and sort it
-afterwards, instead of building a sorted list (`O(n log n)` instead of
-`O(n^2)`).
-+
-However, if you use the list to check if a certain string was added
-already, you should not do that (using unsorted_string_list_has_string()),
-because the complexity would be quadratic again (but with a worse factor).
-
-Functions
----------
-
-* General ones (works with sorted and unsorted lists as well)
-
-`string_list_init`::
-
- Initialize the members of the string_list, set `strdup_strings`
- member according to the value of the second parameter.
-
-`filter_string_list`::
-
- Apply a function to each item in a list, retaining only the
- items for which the function returns true. If free_util is
- true, call free() on the util members of any items that have
- to be deleted. Preserve the order of the items that are
- retained.
-
-`string_list_remove_empty_items`::
-
- Remove any empty strings from the list. If free_util is true,
- call free() on the util members of any items that have to be
- deleted. Preserve the order of the items that are retained.
-
-`print_string_list`::
-
- Dump a string_list to stdout, useful mainly for debugging purposes. It
- can take an optional header argument and it writes out the
- string-pointer pairs of the string_list, each one in its own line.
-
-`string_list_clear`::
-
- Free a string_list. The `string` pointer of the items will be freed in
- case the `strdup_strings` member of the string_list is set. The second
- parameter controls if the `util` pointer of the items should be freed
- or not.
-
-* Functions for sorted lists only
-
-`string_list_has_string`::
-
- Determine if the string_list has a given string or not.
-
-`string_list_insert`::
-
- Insert a new element to the string_list. The returned pointer can be
- handy if you want to write something to the `util` pointer of the
- string_list_item containing the just added string. If the given
- string already exists the insertion will be skipped and the
- pointer to the existing item returned.
-+
-Since this function uses xrealloc() (which die()s if it fails) if the
-list needs to grow, it is safe not to check the pointer. I.e. you may
-write `string_list_insert(...)->util = ...;`.
-
-`string_list_lookup`::
-
- Look up a given string in the string_list, returning the containing
- string_list_item. If the string is not found, NULL is returned.
-
-`string_list_remove_duplicates`::
-
- Remove all but the first of consecutive entries that have the
- same string value. If free_util is true, call free() on the
- util members of any items that have to be deleted.
-
-* Functions for unsorted lists only
-
-`string_list_append`::
-
- Append a new string to the end of the string_list. If
- `strdup_string` is set, then the string argument is copied;
- otherwise the new `string_list_entry` refers to the input
- string.
-
-`string_list_append_nodup`::
-
- Append a new string to the end of the string_list. The new
- `string_list_entry` always refers to the input string, even if
- `strdup_string` is set. This function can be used to hand
- ownership of a malloc()ed string to a `string_list` that has
- `strdup_string` set.
-
-`string_list_sort`::
-
- Sort the list's entries by string value in `strcmp()` order.
-
-`unsorted_string_list_has_string`::
-
- It's like `string_list_has_string()` but for unsorted lists.
-
-`unsorted_string_list_lookup`::
-
- It's like `string_list_lookup()` but for unsorted lists.
-+
-The above two functions need to look through all items, as opposed to their
-counterpart for sorted lists, which performs a binary search.
-
-`unsorted_string_list_delete_item`::
-
- Remove an item from a string_list. The `string` pointer of the items
- will be freed in case the `strdup_strings` member of the string_list
- is set. The third parameter controls if the `util` pointer of the
- items should be freed or not.
-
-`string_list_split`::
-`string_list_split_in_place`::
-
- Split a string into substrings on a delimiter character and
- append the substrings to a `string_list`. If `maxsplit` is
- non-negative, then split at most `maxsplit` times. Return the
- number of substrings appended to the list.
-+
-`string_list_split` requires a `string_list` that has `strdup_strings`
-set to true; it leaves the input string untouched and makes copies of
-the substrings in newly-allocated memory.
-`string_list_split_in_place` requires a `string_list` that has
-`strdup_strings` set to false; it splits the input string in place,
-overwriting the delimiter characters with NULs and creating new
-string_list_items that point into the original string (the original
-string must therefore not be modified or freed while the `string_list`
-is in use).
-
-
-Data structures
----------------
-
-* `struct string_list_item`
-
-Represents an item of the list. The `string` member is a pointer to the
-string, and you may use the `util` member for any purpose, if you want.
-
-* `struct string_list`
-
-Represents the list itself.
-
-. The array of items are available via the `items` member.
-. The `nr` member contains the number of items stored in the list.
-. The `alloc` member is used to avoid reallocating at every insertion.
- You should not tamper with it.
-. Setting the `strdup_strings` member to 1 will strdup() the strings
- before adding them, see above.
-. The `compare_strings_fn` member is used to specify a custom compare
- function, otherwise `strcmp()` is used as the default function.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
index 3dce003..fb06089 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ submodule config cache API
The submodule config cache API allows to read submodule
configurations/information from specified revisions. Internally
information is lazily read into a cache that is used to avoid
-unnecessary parsing of the same .gitmodule files. Lookups can be done by
+unnecessary parsing of the same .gitmodules files. Lookups can be done by
submodule path or name.
Usage
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ Data Structures
Functions
---------
-`void submodule_free()`::
+`void submodule_free(struct repository *r)`::
Use these to free the internally cached values.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
index 14af37c..bde1862 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
@@ -55,9 +55,9 @@ Initializing
`fill_tree_descriptor`::
- Initialize a `tree_desc` and decode its first entry given the sha1 of
- a tree. Returns the `buffer` member if the sha1 is a valid tree
- identifier and NULL otherwise.
+ Initialize a `tree_desc` and decode its first entry given the
+ object ID of a tree. Returns the `buffer` member if the latter
+ is a valid tree identifier and NULL otherwise.
`setup_traverse_info`::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ad6af81
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,97 @@
+Git commit graph format
+=======================
+
+The Git commit graph stores a list of commit OIDs and some associated
+metadata, including:
+
+- The generation number of the commit. Commits with no parents have
+ generation number 1; commits with parents have generation number
+ one more than the maximum generation number of its parents. We
+ reserve zero as special, and can be used to mark a generation
+ number invalid or as "not computed".
+
+- The root tree OID.
+
+- The commit date.
+
+- The parents of the commit, stored using positional references within
+ the graph file.
+
+These positional references are stored as unsigned 32-bit integers
+corresponding to the array position withing the list of commit OIDs. We
+use the most-significant bit for special purposes, so we can store at most
+(1 << 31) - 1 (around 2 billion) commits.
+
+== Commit graph files have the following format:
+
+In order to allow extensions that add extra data to the graph, we organize
+the body into "chunks" and provide a binary lookup table at the beginning
+of the body. The header includes certain values, such as number of chunks
+and hash type.
+
+All 4-byte numbers are in network order.
+
+HEADER:
+
+ 4-byte signature:
+ The signature is: {'C', 'G', 'P', 'H'}
+
+ 1-byte version number:
+ Currently, the only valid version is 1.
+
+ 1-byte Hash Version (1 = SHA-1)
+ We infer the hash length (H) from this value.
+
+ 1-byte number (C) of "chunks"
+
+ 1-byte (reserved for later use)
+ Current clients should ignore this value.
+
+CHUNK LOOKUP:
+
+ (C + 1) * 12 bytes listing the table of contents for the chunks:
+ First 4 bytes describe the chunk id. Value 0 is a terminating label.
+ Other 8 bytes provide the byte-offset in current file for chunk to
+ start. (Chunks are ordered contiguously in the file, so you can infer
+ the length using the next chunk position if necessary.) Each chunk
+ ID appears at most once.
+
+ The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
+ these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
+ otherwise specified.
+
+CHUNK DATA:
+
+ OID Fanout (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'F'}) (256 * 4 bytes)
+ The ith entry, F[i], stores the number of OIDs with first
+ byte at most i. Thus F[255] stores the total
+ number of commits (N).
+
+ OID Lookup (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'L'}) (N * H bytes)
+ The OIDs for all commits in the graph, sorted in ascending order.
+
+ Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'G', 'E', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
+ * The first H bytes are for the OID of the root tree.
+ * The next 8 bytes are for the positions of the first two parents
+ of the ith commit. Stores value 0xffffffff if no parent in that
+ position. If there are more than two parents, the second value
+ has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store an array
+ position into the Large Edge List chunk.
+ * The next 8 bytes store the generation number of the commit and
+ the commit time in seconds since EPOCH. The generation number
+ uses the higher 30 bits of the first 4 bytes, while the commit
+ time uses the 32 bits of the second 4 bytes, along with the lowest
+ 2 bits of the lowest byte, storing the 33rd and 34th bit of the
+ commit time.
+
+ Large Edge List (ID: {'E', 'D', 'G', 'E'}) [Optional]
+ This list of 4-byte values store the second through nth parents for
+ all octopus merges. The second parent value in the commit data stores
+ an array position within this list along with the most-significant bit
+ on. Starting at that array position, iterate through this list of commit
+ positions for the parents until reaching a value with the most-significant
+ bit on. The other bits correspond to the position of the last parent.
+
+TRAILER:
+
+ H-byte HASH-checksum of all of the above.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0550c6d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,163 @@
+Git Commit Graph Design Notes
+=============================
+
+Git walks the commit graph for many reasons, including:
+
+1. Listing and filtering commit history.
+2. Computing merge bases.
+
+These operations can become slow as the commit count grows. The merge
+base calculation shows up in many user-facing commands, such as 'merge-base'
+or 'status' and can take minutes to compute depending on history shape.
+
+There are two main costs here:
+
+1. Decompressing and parsing commits.
+2. Walking the entire graph to satisfy topological order constraints.
+
+The commit graph file is a supplemental data structure that accelerates
+commit graph walks. If a user downgrades or disables the 'core.commitGraph'
+config setting, then the existing ODB is sufficient. The file is stored
+as "commit-graph" either in the .git/objects/info directory or in the info
+directory of an alternate.
+
+The commit graph file stores the commit graph structure along with some
+extra metadata to speed up graph walks. By listing commit OIDs in lexi-
+cographic order, we can identify an integer position for each commit and
+refer to the parents of a commit using those integer positions. We use
+binary search to find initial commits and then use the integer positions
+for fast lookups during the walk.
+
+A consumer may load the following info for a commit from the graph:
+
+1. The commit OID.
+2. The list of parents, along with their integer position.
+3. The commit date.
+4. The root tree OID.
+5. The generation number (see definition below).
+
+Values 1-4 satisfy the requirements of parse_commit_gently().
+
+Define the "generation number" of a commit recursively as follows:
+
+ * A commit with no parents (a root commit) has generation number one.
+
+ * A commit with at least one parent has generation number one more than
+ the largest generation number among its parents.
+
+Equivalently, the generation number of a commit A is one more than the
+length of a longest path from A to a root commit. The recursive definition
+is easier to use for computation and observing the following property:
+
+ If A and B are commits with generation numbers N and M, respectively,
+ and N <= M, then A cannot reach B. That is, we know without searching
+ that B is not an ancestor of A because it is further from a root commit
+ than A.
+
+ Conversely, when checking if A is an ancestor of B, then we only need
+ to walk commits until all commits on the walk boundary have generation
+ number at most N. If we walk commits using a priority queue seeded by
+ generation numbers, then we always expand the boundary commit with highest
+ generation number and can easily detect the stopping condition.
+
+This property can be used to significantly reduce the time it takes to
+walk commits and determine topological relationships. Without generation
+numbers, the general heuristic is the following:
+
+ If A and B are commits with commit time X and Y, respectively, and
+ X < Y, then A _probably_ cannot reach B.
+
+This heuristic is currently used whenever the computation is allowed to
+violate topological relationships due to clock skew (such as "git log"
+with default order), but is not used when the topological order is
+required (such as merge base calculations, "git log --graph").
+
+In practice, we expect some commits to be created recently and not stored
+in the commit graph. We can treat these commits as having "infinite"
+generation number and walk until reaching commits with known generation
+number.
+
+Design Details
+--------------
+
+- The commit graph file is stored in a file named 'commit-graph' in the
+ .git/objects/info directory. This could be stored in the info directory
+ of an alternate.
+
+- The core.commitGraph config setting must be on to consume graph files.
+
+- The file format includes parameters for the object ID hash function,
+ so a future change of hash algorithm does not require a change in format.
+
+Future Work
+-----------
+
+- The commit graph feature currently does not honor commit grafts. This can
+ be remedied by duplicating or refactoring the current graft logic.
+
+- The 'commit-graph' subcommand does not have a "verify" mode that is
+ necessary for integration with fsck.
+
+- The file format includes room for precomputed generation numbers. These
+ are not currently computed, so all generation numbers will be marked as
+ 0 (or "uncomputed"). A later patch will include this calculation.
+
+- After computing and storing generation numbers, we must make graph
+ walks aware of generation numbers to gain the performance benefits they
+ enable. This will mostly be accomplished by swapping a commit-date-ordered
+ priority queue with one ordered by generation number. The following
+ operations are important candidates:
+
+ - paint_down_to_common()
+ - 'log --topo-order'
+
+- Currently, parse_commit_gently() requires filling in the root tree
+ object for a commit. This passes through lookup_tree() and consequently
+ lookup_object(). Also, it calls lookup_commit() when loading the parents.
+ These method calls check the ODB for object existence, even if the
+ consumer does not need the content. For example, we do not need the
+ tree contents when computing merge bases. Now that commit parsing is
+ removed from the computation time, these lookup operations are the
+ slowest operations keeping graph walks from being fast. Consider
+ loading these objects without verifying their existence in the ODB and
+ only loading them fully when consumers need them. Consider a method
+ such as "ensure_tree_loaded(commit)" that fully loads a tree before
+ using commit->tree.
+
+- The current design uses the 'commit-graph' subcommand to generate the graph.
+ When this feature stabilizes enough to recommend to most users, we should
+ add automatic graph writes to common operations that create many commits.
+ For example, one could compute a graph on 'clone', 'fetch', or 'repack'
+ commands.
+
+- A server could provide a commit graph file as part of the network protocol
+ to avoid extra calculations by clients. This feature is only of benefit if
+ the user is willing to trust the file, because verifying the file is correct
+ is as hard as computing it from scratch.
+
+Related Links
+-------------
+[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=8
+ Chromium work item for: Serialized Commit Graph
+
+[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20110713070517.GC18566@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+ An abandoned patch that introduced generation numbers.
+
+[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170908033403.q7e6dj7benasrjes@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+ Discussion about generation numbers on commits and how they interact
+ with fsck.
+
+[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170908034739.4op3w4f2ma5s65ku@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+ More discussion about generation numbers and not storing them inside
+ commit objects. A valuable quote:
+
+ "I think we should be moving more in the direction of keeping
+ repo-local caches for optimizations. Reachability bitmaps have been
+ a big performance win. I think we should be doing the same with our
+ properties of commits. Not just generation numbers, but making it
+ cheap to access the graph structure without zlib-inflating whole
+ commit objects (i.e., packv4 or something like the "metapacks" I
+ proposed a few years ago)."
+
+[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/20180108154822.54829-1-git@jeffhostetler.com/T/#u
+ A patch to remove the ahead-behind calculation from 'status'.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4ab6cd1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,821 @@
+Git hash function transition
+============================
+
+Objective
+---------
+Migrate Git from SHA-1 to a stronger hash function.
+
+Background
+----------
+At its core, the Git version control system is a content addressable
+filesystem. It uses the SHA-1 hash function to name content. For
+example, files, directories, and revisions are referred to by hash
+values unlike in other traditional version control systems where files
+or versions are referred to via sequential numbers. The use of a hash
+function to address its content delivers a few advantages:
+
+* Integrity checking is easy. Bit flips, for example, are easily
+ detected, as the hash of corrupted content does not match its name.
+* Lookup of objects is fast.
+
+Using a cryptographically secure hash function brings additional
+advantages:
+
+* Object names can be signed and third parties can trust the hash to
+ address the signed object and all objects it references.
+* Communication using Git protocol and out of band communication
+ methods have a short reliable string that can be used to reliably
+ address stored content.
+
+Over time some flaws in SHA-1 have been discovered by security
+researchers. On 23 February 2017 the SHAttered attack
+(https://shattered.io) demonstrated a practical SHA-1 hash collision.
+
+Git v2.13.0 and later subsequently moved to a hardened SHA-1
+implementation by default, which isn't vulnerable to the SHAttered
+attack.
+
+Thus Git has in effect already migrated to a new hash that isn't SHA-1
+and doesn't share its vulnerabilities, its new hash function just
+happens to produce exactly the same output for all known inputs,
+except two PDFs published by the SHAttered researchers, and the new
+implementation (written by those researchers) claims to detect future
+cryptanalytic collision attacks.
+
+Regardless, it's considered prudent to move past any variant of SHA-1
+to a new hash. There's no guarantee that future attacks on SHA-1 won't
+be published in the future, and those attacks may not have viable
+mitigations.
+
+If SHA-1 and its variants were to be truly broken, Git's hash function
+could not be considered cryptographically secure any more. This would
+impact the communication of hash values because we could not trust
+that a given hash value represented the known good version of content
+that the speaker intended.
+
+SHA-1 still possesses the other properties such as fast object lookup
+and safe error checking, but other hash functions are equally suitable
+that are believed to be cryptographically secure.
+
+Goals
+-----
+Where NewHash is a strong 256-bit hash function to replace SHA-1 (see
+"Selection of a New Hash", below):
+
+1. The transition to NewHash can be done one local repository at a time.
+ a. Requiring no action by any other party.
+ b. A NewHash repository can communicate with SHA-1 Git servers
+ (push/fetch).
+ c. Users can use SHA-1 and NewHash identifiers for objects
+ interchangeably (see "Object names on the command line", below).
+ d. New signed objects make use of a stronger hash function than
+ SHA-1 for their security guarantees.
+2. Allow a complete transition away from SHA-1.
+ a. Local metadata for SHA-1 compatibility can be removed from a
+ repository if compatibility with SHA-1 is no longer needed.
+3. Maintainability throughout the process.
+ a. The object format is kept simple and consistent.
+ b. Creation of a generalized repository conversion tool.
+
+Non-Goals
+---------
+1. Add NewHash support to Git protocol. This is valuable and the
+ logical next step but it is out of scope for this initial design.
+2. Transparently improving the security of existing SHA-1 signed
+ objects.
+3. Intermixing objects using multiple hash functions in a single
+ repository.
+4. Taking the opportunity to fix other bugs in Git's formats and
+ protocols.
+5. Shallow clones and fetches into a NewHash repository. (This will
+ change when we add NewHash support to Git protocol.)
+6. Skip fetching some submodules of a project into a NewHash
+ repository. (This also depends on NewHash support in Git
+ protocol.)
+
+Overview
+--------
+We introduce a new repository format extension. Repositories with this
+extension enabled use NewHash instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
+This affects both object names and object content --- both the names
+of objects and all references to other objects within an object are
+switched to the new hash function.
+
+NewHash repositories cannot be read by older versions of Git.
+
+Alongside the packfile, a NewHash repository stores a bidirectional
+mapping between NewHash and SHA-1 object names. The mapping is generated
+locally and can be verified using "git fsck". Object lookups use this
+mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and NewHash names
+interchangeably.
+
+"git cat-file" and "git hash-object" gain options to display an object
+in its sha1 form and write an object given its sha1 form. This
+requires all objects referenced by that object to be present in the
+object database so that they can be named using the appropriate name
+(using the bidirectional hash mapping).
+
+Fetches from a SHA-1 based server convert the fetched objects into
+NewHash form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
+(see below for details). Pushes to a SHA-1 based server convert the
+objects being pushed into sha1 form so the server does not have to be
+aware of the hash function the client is using.
+
+Detailed Design
+---------------
+Repository format extension
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+A NewHash repository uses repository format version `1` (see
+Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt) with extensions
+`objectFormat` and `compatObjectFormat`:
+
+ [core]
+ repositoryFormatVersion = 1
+ [extensions]
+ objectFormat = newhash
+ compatObjectFormat = sha1
+
+The combination of setting `core.repositoryFormatVersion=1` and
+populating `extensions.*` ensures that all versions of Git later than
+`v0.99.9l` will die instead of trying to operate on the NewHash
+repository, instead producing an error message.
+
+ # Between v0.99.9l and v2.7.0
+ $ git status
+ fatal: Expected git repo version <= 0, found 1
+ # After v2.7.0
+ $ git status
+ fatal: unknown repository extensions found:
+ objectformat
+ compatobjectformat
+
+See the "Transition plan" section below for more details on these
+repository extensions.
+
+Object names
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Objects can be named by their 40 hexadecimal digit sha1-name or 64
+hexadecimal digit newhash-name, plus names derived from those (see
+gitrevisions(7)).
+
+The sha1-name of an object is the SHA-1 of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha1-content. This is the
+traditional <sha1> used in Git to name objects.
+
+The newhash-name of an object is the NewHash of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's newhash-content.
+
+Object format
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The content as a byte sequence of a tag, commit, or tree object named
+by sha1 and newhash differ because an object named by newhash-name refers to
+other objects by their newhash-names and an object named by sha1-name
+refers to other objects by their sha1-names.
+
+The newhash-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
+that objects referenced by the object are named using their newhash-names
+instead of sha1-names. Because a blob object does not refer to any
+other object, its sha1-content and newhash-content are the same.
+
+The format allows round-trip conversion between newhash-content and
+sha1-content.
+
+Object storage
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Loose objects use zlib compression and packed objects use the packed
+format described in Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt, just like
+today. The content that is compressed and stored uses newhash-content
+instead of sha1-content.
+
+Pack index
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Pack index (.idx) files use a new v3 format that supports multiple
+hash functions. They have the following format (all integers are in
+network byte order):
+
+- A header appears at the beginning and consists of the following:
+ - The 4-byte pack index signature: '\377t0c'
+ - 4-byte version number: 3
+ - 4-byte length of the header section, including the signature and
+ version number
+ - 4-byte number of objects contained in the pack
+ - 4-byte number of object formats in this pack index: 2
+ - For each object format:
+ - 4-byte format identifier (e.g., 'sha1' for SHA-1)
+ - 4-byte length in bytes of shortened object names. This is the
+ shortest possible length needed to make names in the shortened
+ object name table unambiguous.
+ - 4-byte integer, recording where tables relating to this format
+ are stored in this index file, as an offset from the beginning.
+ - 4-byte offset to the trailer from the beginning of this file.
+ - Zero or more additional key/value pairs (4-byte key, 4-byte
+ value). Only one key is supported: 'PSRC'. See the "Loose objects
+ and unreachable objects" section for supported values and how this
+ is used. All other keys are reserved. Readers must ignore
+ unrecognized keys.
+- Zero or more NUL bytes. This can optionally be used to improve the
+ alignment of the full object name table below.
+- Tables for the first object format:
+ - A sorted table of shortened object names. These are prefixes of
+ the names of all objects in this pack file, packed together
+ without offset values to reduce the cache footprint of the binary
+ search for a specific object name.
+
+ - A table of full object names in pack order. This allows resolving
+ a reference to "the nth object in the pack file" (from a
+ reachability bitmap or from the next table of another object
+ format) to its object name.
+
+ - A table of 4-byte values mapping object name order to pack order.
+ For an object in the table of sorted shortened object names, the
+ value at the corresponding index in this table is the index in the
+ previous table for that same object.
+
+ This can be used to look up the object in reachability bitmaps or
+ to look up its name in another object format.
+
+ - A table of 4-byte CRC32 values of the packed object data, in the
+ order that the objects appear in the pack file. This is to allow
+ compressed data to be copied directly from pack to pack during
+ repacking without undetected data corruption.
+
+ - A table of 4-byte offset values. For an object in the table of
+ sorted shortened object names, the value at the corresponding
+ index in this table indicates where that object can be found in
+ the pack file. These are usually 31-bit pack file offsets, but
+ large offsets are encoded as an index into the next table with the
+ most significant bit set.
+
+ - A table of 8-byte offset entries (empty for pack files less than
+ 2 GiB). Pack files are organized with heavily used objects toward
+ the front, so most object references should not need to refer to
+ this table.
+- Zero or more NUL bytes.
+- Tables for the second object format, with the same layout as above,
+ up to and not including the table of CRC32 values.
+- Zero or more NUL bytes.
+- The trailer consists of the following:
+ - A copy of the 20-byte NewHash checksum at the end of the
+ corresponding packfile.
+
+ - 20-byte NewHash checksum of all of the above.
+
+Loose object index
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+A new file $GIT_OBJECT_DIR/loose-object-idx contains information about
+all loose objects. Its format is
+
+ # loose-object-idx
+ (newhash-name SP sha1-name LF)*
+
+where the object names are in hexadecimal format. The file is not
+sorted.
+
+The loose object index is protected against concurrent writes by a
+lock file $GIT_OBJECT_DIR/loose-object-idx.lock. To add a new loose
+object:
+
+1. Write the loose object to a temporary file, like today.
+2. Open loose-object-idx.lock with O_CREAT | O_EXCL to acquire the lock.
+3. Rename the loose object into place.
+4. Open loose-object-idx with O_APPEND and write the new object
+5. Unlink loose-object-idx.lock to release the lock.
+
+To remove entries (e.g. in "git pack-refs" or "git-prune"):
+
+1. Open loose-object-idx.lock with O_CREAT | O_EXCL to acquire the
+ lock.
+2. Write the new content to loose-object-idx.lock.
+3. Unlink any loose objects being removed.
+4. Rename to replace loose-object-idx, releasing the lock.
+
+Translation table
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The index files support a bidirectional mapping between sha1-names
+and newhash-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
+lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a newhash-name:
+
+ 1. Look for the object in idx files. If a match is present in the
+ idx's sorted list of truncated sha1-names, then:
+ a. Read the corresponding entry in the sha1-name order to pack
+ name order mapping.
+ b. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha1-name table to
+ verify we found the right object. If it is, then
+ c. Read the corresponding entry in the full newhash-name table.
+ That is the object's newhash-name.
+ 2. Check for a loose object. Read lines from loose-object-idx until
+ we find a match.
+
+Step (1) takes the same amount of time as an ordinary object lookup:
+O(number of packs * log(objects per pack)). Step (2) takes O(number of
+loose objects) time. To maintain good performance it will be necessary
+to keep the number of loose objects low. See the "Loose objects and
+unreachable objects" section below for more details.
+
+Since all operations that make new objects (e.g., "git commit") add
+the new objects to the corresponding index, this mapping is possible
+for all objects in the object store.
+
+Reading an object's sha1-content
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all newhash-names
+its newhash-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
+
+Fetch
+~~~~~
+Fetching from a SHA-1 based server requires translating between SHA-1
+and NewHash based representations on the fly.
+
+SHA-1s named in the ref advertisement that are present on the client
+can be translated to NewHash and looked up as local objects using the
+translation table.
+
+Negotiation proceeds as today. Any "have"s generated locally are
+converted to SHA-1 before being sent to the server, and SHA-1s
+mentioned by the server are converted to NewHash when looking them up
+locally.
+
+After negotiation, the server sends a packfile containing the
+requested objects. We convert the packfile to NewHash format using
+the following steps:
+
+1. index-pack: inflate each object in the packfile and compute its
+ SHA-1. Objects can contain deltas in OBJ_REF_DELTA format against
+ objects the client has locally. These objects can be looked up
+ using the translation table and their sha1-content read as
+ described above to resolve the deltas.
+2. topological sort: starting at the "want"s from the negotiation
+ phase, walk through objects in the pack and emit a list of them,
+ excluding blobs, in reverse topologically sorted order, with each
+ object coming later in the list than all objects it references.
+ (This list only contains objects reachable from the "wants". If the
+ pack from the server contained additional extraneous objects, then
+ they will be discarded.)
+3. convert to newhash: open a new (newhash) packfile. Read the topologically
+ sorted list just generated. For each object, inflate its
+ sha1-content, convert to newhash-content, and write it to the newhash
+ pack. Record the new sha1<->newhash mapping entry for use in the idx.
+4. sort: reorder entries in the new pack to match the order of objects
+ in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a newhash idx
+ file
+5. clean up: remove the SHA-1 based pack file, index, and
+ topologically sorted list obtained from the server in steps 1
+ and 2.
+
+Step 3 requires every object referenced by the new object to be in the
+translation table. This is why the topological sort step is necessary.
+
+As an optimization, step 1 could write a file describing what non-blob
+objects each object it has inflated from the packfile references. This
+makes the topological sort in step 2 possible without inflating the
+objects in the packfile for a second time. The objects need to be
+inflated again in step 3, for a total of two inflations.
+
+Step 4 is probably necessary for good read-time performance. "git
+pack-objects" on the server optimizes the pack file for good data
+locality (see Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt).
+
+Details of this process are likely to change. It will take some
+experimenting to get this to perform well.
+
+Push
+~~~~
+Push is simpler than fetch because the objects referenced by the
+pushed objects are already in the translation table. The sha1-content
+of each object being pushed can be read as described in the "Reading
+an object's sha1-content" section to generate the pack written by git
+send-pack.
+
+Signed Commits
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the commit object format to allow
+signing commits without relying on SHA-1. It is similar to the
+existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the newhash-content of the
+commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-newhash" fields removed.
+
+This means commits can be signed
+1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed commit objects
+2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using both gpgsig-newhash and gpgsig
+ fields.
+3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+
+Old versions of "git verify-commit" can verify the gpgsig signature in
+cases (1) and (2) without modifications and view case (3) as an
+ordinary unsigned commit.
+
+Signed Tags
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the tag object format to allow
+signing tags without relying on SHA-1. Its signed payload is the
+newhash-content of the tag with its gpgsig-newhash field and "-----BEGIN PGP
+SIGNATURE-----" delimited in-body signature removed.
+
+This means tags can be signed
+1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed tag objects
+2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using gpgsig-newhash and an in-body
+ signature.
+3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+
+Mergetag embedding
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The mergetag field in the sha1-content of a commit contains the
+sha1-content of a tag that was merged by that commit.
+
+The mergetag field in the newhash-content of the same commit contains the
+newhash-content of the same tag.
+
+Submodules
+~~~~~~~~~~
+To convert recorded submodule pointers, you need to have the converted
+submodule repository in place. The translation table of the submodule
+can be used to look up the new hash.
+
+Loose objects and unreachable objects
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Fast lookups in the loose-object-idx require that the number of loose
+objects not grow too high.
+
+"git gc --auto" currently waits for there to be 6700 loose objects
+present before consolidating them into a packfile. We will need to
+measure to find a more appropriate threshold for it to use.
+
+"git gc --auto" currently waits for there to be 50 packs present
+before combining packfiles. Packing loose objects more aggressively
+may cause the number of pack files to grow too quickly. This can be
+mitigated by using a strategy similar to Martin Fick's exponential
+rolling garbage collection script:
+https://gerrit-review.googlesource.com/c/gerrit/+/35215
+
+"git gc" currently expels any unreachable objects it encounters in
+pack files to loose objects in an attempt to prevent a race when
+pruning them (in case another process is simultaneously writing a new
+object that refers to the about-to-be-deleted object). This leads to
+an explosion in the number of loose objects present and disk space
+usage due to the objects in delta form being replaced with independent
+loose objects. Worse, the race is still present for loose objects.
+
+Instead, "git gc" will need to move unreachable objects to a new
+packfile marked as UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE (using the PSRC field; see
+below). To avoid the race when writing new objects referring to an
+about-to-be-deleted object, code paths that write new objects will
+need to copy any objects from UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE packs that they
+refer to to new, non-UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE packs (or loose objects).
+UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE are then safe to delete if their creation time (as
+indicated by the file's mtime) is long enough ago.
+
+To avoid a proliferation of UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE packs, they can be
+combined under certain circumstances. If "gc.garbageTtl" is set to
+greater than one day, then packs created within a single calendar day,
+UTC, can be coalesced together. The resulting packfile would have an
+mtime before midnight on that day, so this makes the effective maximum
+ttl the garbageTtl + 1 day. If "gc.garbageTtl" is less than one day,
+then we divide the calendar day into intervals one-third of that ttl
+in duration. Packs created within the same interval can be coalesced
+together. The resulting packfile would have an mtime before the end of
+the interval, so this makes the effective maximum ttl equal to the
+garbageTtl * 4/3.
+
+This rule comes from Thirumala Reddy Mutchukota's JGit change
+https://git.eclipse.org/r/90465.
+
+The UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE setting goes in the PSRC field of the pack
+index. More generally, that field indicates where a pack came from:
+
+ - 1 (PACK_SOURCE_RECEIVE) for a pack received over the network
+ - 2 (PACK_SOURCE_AUTO) for a pack created by a lightweight
+ "gc --auto" operation
+ - 3 (PACK_SOURCE_GC) for a pack created by a full gc
+ - 4 (PACK_SOURCE_UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE) for potential garbage
+ discovered by gc
+ - 5 (PACK_SOURCE_INSERT) for locally created objects that were
+ written directly to a pack file, e.g. from "git add ."
+
+This information can be useful for debugging and for "gc --auto" to
+make appropriate choices about which packs to coalesce.
+
+Caveats
+-------
+Invalid objects
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The conversion from sha1-content to newhash-content retains any
+brokenness in the original object (e.g., tree entry modes encoded with
+leading 0, tree objects whose paths are not sorted correctly, and
+commit objects without an author or committer). This is a deliberate
+feature of the design to allow the conversion to round-trip.
+
+More profoundly broken objects (e.g., a commit with a truncated "tree"
+header line) cannot be converted but were not usable by current Git
+anyway.
+
+Shallow clone and submodules
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Because it requires all referenced objects to be available in the
+locally generated translation table, this design does not support
+shallow clone or unfetched submodules. Protocol improvements might
+allow lifting this restriction.
+
+Alternates
+~~~~~~~~~~
+For the same reason, a newhash repository cannot borrow objects from a
+sha1 repository using objects/info/alternates or
+$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_REPOSITORIES.
+
+git notes
+~~~~~~~~~
+The "git notes" tool annotates objects using their sha1-name as key.
+This design does not describe a way to migrate notes trees to use
+newhash-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
+example using a file at the root of the notes tree to describe which
+hash it uses).
+
+Server-side cost
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Until Git protocol gains NewHash support, using NewHash based storage
+on public-facing Git servers is strongly discouraged. Once Git
+protocol gains NewHash support, NewHash based servers are likely not
+to support SHA-1 compatibility, to avoid what may be a very expensive
+hash reencode during clone and to encourage peers to modernize.
+
+The design described here allows fetches by SHA-1 clients of a
+personal NewHash repository because it's not much more difficult than
+allowing pushes from that repository. This support needs to be guarded
+by a configuration option --- servers like git.kernel.org that serve a
+large number of clients would not be expected to bear that cost.
+
+Meaning of signatures
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The signed payload for signed commits and tags does not explicitly
+name the hash used to identify objects. If some day Git adopts a new
+hash function with the same length as the current SHA-1 (40
+hexadecimal digit) or NewHash (64 hexadecimal digit) objects then the
+intent behind the PGP signed payload in an object signature is
+unclear:
+
+ object e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7
+ type commit
+ tag v2.12.0
+ tagger Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> 1487962205 -0800
+
+ Git 2.12
+
+Does this mean Git v2.12.0 is the commit with sha1-name
+e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7 or the commit with
+new-40-digit-hash-name e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7?
+
+Fortunately NewHash and SHA-1 have different lengths. If Git starts
+using another hash with the same length to name objects, then it will
+need to change the format of signed payloads using that hash to
+address this issue.
+
+Object names on the command line
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+To support the transition (see Transition plan below), this design
+supports four different modes of operation:
+
+ 1. ("dark launch") Treat object names input by the user as SHA-1 and
+ convert any object names written to output to SHA-1, but store
+ objects using NewHash. This allows users to test the code with no
+ visible behavior change except for performance. This allows
+ allows running even tests that assume the SHA-1 hash function, to
+ sanity-check the behavior of the new mode.
+
+ 2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
+ input. Any object names written to output use SHA-1. This allows
+ users to continue to make use of SHA-1 to communicate with peers
+ (e.g. by email) that have not migrated yet and prepares for mode 3.
+
+ 3. ("late transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
+ input. Any object names written to output use NewHash. In this
+ mode, users are using a more secure object naming method by
+ default. The disruption is minimal as long as most of their peers
+ are in mode 2 or mode 3.
+
+ 4. ("post-transition") Treat object names input by the user as
+ NewHash and write output using NewHash. This is safer than mode 3
+ because there is less risk that input is incorrectly interpreted
+ using the wrong hash function.
+
+The mode is specified in configuration.
+
+The user can also explicitly specify which format to use for a
+particular revision specifier and for output, overriding the mode. For
+example:
+
+git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{newhash}
+
+Selection of a New Hash
+-----------------------
+In early 2005, around the time that Git was written, Xiaoyun Wang,
+Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu announced an attack finding SHA-1
+collisions in 2^69 operations. In August they published details.
+Luckily, no practical demonstrations of a collision in full SHA-1 were
+published until 10 years later, in 2017.
+
+The hash function NewHash to replace SHA-1 should be stronger than
+SHA-1 was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice
+for at least 10 years.
+
+Some other relevant properties:
+
+1. A 256-bit hash (long enough to match common security practice; not
+ excessively long to hurt performance and disk usage).
+
+2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g. in
+ OpenSSL).
+
+3. The hash function's properties should match Git's needs (e.g. Git
+ requires collision and 2nd preimage resistance and does not require
+ length extension resistance).
+
+4. As a tiebreaker, the hash should be fast to compute (fortunately
+ many contenders are faster than SHA-1).
+
+Some hashes under consideration are SHA-256, SHA-512/256, SHA-256x16,
+K12, and BLAKE2bp-256.
+
+Transition plan
+---------------
+Some initial steps can be implemented independently of one another:
+- adding a hash function API (vtable)
+- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-newhash field
+- excluding gpgsig-* from the fields copied by "git commit --amend"
+- annotating tests that depend on SHA-1 values with a SHA1 test
+ prerequisite
+- using "struct object_id", GIT_MAX_RAWSZ, and GIT_MAX_HEXSZ
+ consistently instead of "unsigned char *" and the hardcoded
+ constants 20 and 40.
+- introducing index v3
+- adding support for the PSRC field and safer object pruning
+
+
+The first user-visible change is the introduction of the objectFormat
+extension (without compatObjectFormat). This requires:
+- implementing the loose-object-idx
+- teaching fsck about this mode of operation
+- using the hash function API (vtable) when computing object names
+- signing objects and verifying signatures
+- rejecting attempts to fetch from or push to an incompatible
+ repository
+
+Next comes introduction of compatObjectFormat:
+- translating object names between object formats
+- translating object content between object formats
+- generating and verifying signatures in the compat format
+- adding appropriate index entries when adding a new object to the
+ object store
+- --output-format option
+- ^{sha1} and ^{newhash} revision notation
+- configuration to specify default input and output format (see
+ "Object names on the command line" above)
+
+The next step is supporting fetches and pushes to SHA-1 repositories:
+- allow pushes to a repository using the compat format
+- generate a topologically sorted list of the SHA-1 names of fetched
+ objects
+- convert the fetched packfile to newhash format and generate an idx
+ file
+- re-sort to match the order of objects in the fetched packfile
+
+The infrastructure supporting fetch also allows converting an existing
+repository. In converted repositories and new clones, end users can
+gain support for the new hash function without any visible change in
+behavior (see "dark launch" in the "Object names on the command line"
+section). In particular this allows users to verify NewHash signatures
+on objects in the repository, and it should ensure the transition code
+is stable in production in preparation for using it more widely.
+
+Over time projects would encourage their users to adopt the "early
+transition" and then "late transition" modes to take advantage of the
+new, more futureproof NewHash object names.
+
+When objectFormat and compatObjectFormat are both set, commands
+generating signatures would generate both SHA-1 and NewHash signatures
+by default to support both new and old users.
+
+In projects using NewHash heavily, users could be encouraged to adopt
+the "post-transition" mode to avoid accidentally making implicit use
+of SHA-1 object names.
+
+Once a critical mass of users have upgraded to a version of Git that
+can verify NewHash signatures and have converted their existing
+repositories to support verifying them, we can add support for a
+setting to generate only NewHash signatures. This is expected to be at
+least a year later.
+
+That is also a good moment to advertise the ability to convert
+repositories to use NewHash only, stripping out all SHA-1 related
+metadata. This improves performance by eliminating translation
+overhead and security by avoiding the possibility of accidentally
+relying on the safety of SHA-1.
+
+Updating Git's protocols to allow a server to specify which hash
+functions it supports is also an important part of this transition. It
+is not discussed in detail in this document but this transition plan
+assumes it happens. :)
+
+Alternatives considered
+-----------------------
+Upgrading everyone working on a particular project on a flag day
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Projects like the Linux kernel are large and complex enough that
+flipping the switch for all projects based on the repository at once
+is infeasible.
+
+Not only would all developers and server operators supporting
+developers have to switch on the same flag day, but supporting tooling
+(continuous integration, code review, bug trackers, etc) would have to
+be adapted as well. This also makes it difficult to get early feedback
+from some project participants testing before it is time for mass
+adoption.
+
+Using hash functions in parallel
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+(e.g. https://public-inbox.org/git/22708.8913.864049.452252@chiark.greenend.org.uk/ )
+Objects newly created would be addressed by the new hash, but inside
+such an object (e.g. commit) it is still possible to address objects
+using the old hash function.
+* You cannot trust its history (needed for bisectability) in the
+ future without further work
+* Maintenance burden as the number of supported hash functions grows
+ (they will never go away, so they accumulate). In this proposal, by
+ comparison, converted objects lose all references to SHA-1.
+
+Signed objects with multiple hashes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Instead of introducing the gpgsig-newhash field in commit and tag objects
+for newhash-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
+added "hash newhash <newhash-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
+sha1-content based signatures.
+
+In other words, a single signature was used to attest to the object
+content using both hash functions. This had some advantages:
+* Using one signature instead of two speeds up the signing process.
+* Having one signed payload with both hashes allows the signer to
+ attest to the sha1-name and newhash-name referring to the same object.
+* All users consume the same signature. Broken signatures are likely
+ to be detected quickly using current versions of git.
+
+However, it also came with disadvantages:
+* Verifying a signed object requires access to the sha1-names of all
+ objects it references, even after the transition is complete and
+ translation table is no longer needed for anything else. To support
+ this, the design added fields such as "hash sha1 tree <sha1-name>"
+ and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the newhash-content of a signed
+ commit, complicating the conversion process.
+* Allowing signed objects without a sha1 (for after the transition is
+ complete) complicated the design further, requiring a "nohash sha1"
+ field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the newhash-content
+ and signed payload.
+
+Lazily populated translation table
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Some of the work of building the translation table could be deferred to
+push time, but that would significantly complicate and slow down pushes.
+Calculating the sha1-name at object creation time at the same time it is
+being streamed to disk and having its newhash-name calculated should be
+an acceptable cost.
+
+Document History
+----------------
+
+2017-03-03
+bmwill@google.com, jonathantanmy@google.com, jrnieder@gmail.com,
+sbeller@google.com
+
+Initial version sent to
+http://public-inbox.org/git/20170304011251.GA26789@aiede.mtv.corp.google.com
+
+2017-03-03 jrnieder@gmail.com
+Incorporated suggestions from jonathantanmy and sbeller:
+* describe purpose of signed objects with each hash type
+* redefine signed object verification using object content under the
+ first hash function
+
+2017-03-06 jrnieder@gmail.com
+* Use SHA3-256 instead of SHA2 (thanks, Linus and brian m. carlson).[1][2]
+* Make sha3-based signatures a separate field, avoiding the need for
+ "hash" and "nohash" fields (thanks to peff[3]).
+* Add a sorting phase to fetch (thanks to Junio for noticing the need
+ for this).
+* Omit blobs from the topological sort during fetch (thanks to peff).
+* Discuss alternates, git notes, and git servers in the caveats
+ section (thanks to Junio Hamano, brian m. carlson[4], and Shawn
+ Pearce).
+* Clarify language throughout (thanks to various commenters,
+ especially Junio).
+
+2017-09-27 jrnieder@gmail.com, sbeller@google.com
+* use placeholder NewHash instead of SHA3-256
+* describe criteria for picking a hash function.
+* include a transition plan (thanks especially to Brandon Williams
+ for fleshing these ideas out)
+* define the translation table (thanks, Shawn Pearce[5], Jonathan
+ Tan, and Masaya Suzuki)
+* avoid loose object overhead by packing more aggressively in
+ "git gc --auto"
+
+[1] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
+[2] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
+[3] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+[4] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170304224936.rqqtkdvfjgyezsht@genre.crustytoothpaste.net
+[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/CAJo=hJtoX9=AyLHHpUJS7fueV9ciZ_MNpnEPHUz8Whui6g9F0A@mail.gmail.com/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
index 1c561bd..64f49d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
@@ -214,10 +214,16 @@ smart server reply:
S: Cache-Control: no-cache
S:
S: 001e# service=git-upload-pack\n
+ S: 0000
S: 004895dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint\0multi_ack\n
S: 0042d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master\n
S: 003c2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0\n
S: 003fa3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}\n
+ S: 0000
+
+The client may send Extra Parameters (see
+Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt) as a colon-separated string
+in the Git-Protocol HTTP header.
Dumb Server Response
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
@@ -269,7 +275,12 @@ the C locale ordering. The stream SHOULD include the default ref
named `HEAD` as the first ref. The stream MUST include capability
declarations behind a NUL on the first ref.
+The returned response contains "version 1" if "version=1" was sent as an
+Extra Parameter.
+
smart_reply = PKT-LINE("# service=$servicename" LF)
+ "0000"
+ *1("version 1")
ref_list
"0000"
ref_list = empty_list / non_empty_list
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index ade0b0c..db35726 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -295,3 +295,22 @@ The remaining data of each directory block is grouped by type:
in the previous ewah bitmap.
- One NUL.
+
+== File System Monitor cache
+
+ The file system monitor cache tracks files for which the core.fsmonitor
+ hook has told us about changes. The signature for this extension is
+ { 'F', 'S', 'M', 'N' }.
+
+ The extension starts with
+
+ - 32-bit version number: the current supported version is 1.
+
+ - 64-bit time: the extension data reflects all changes through the given
+ time which is stored as the nanoseconds elapsed since midnight,
+ January 1, 1970.
+
+ - 32-bit bitmap size: the size of the CE_FSMONITOR_VALID bitmap.
+
+ - An ewah bitmap, the n-th bit indicates whether the n-th index entry
+ is not CE_FSMONITOR_VALID.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/long-running-process-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/long-running-process-protocol.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa0aa9a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/long-running-process-protocol.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+Long-running process protocol
+=============================
+
+This protocol is used when Git needs to communicate with an external
+process throughout the entire life of a single Git command. All
+communication is in pkt-line format (see technical/protocol-common.txt)
+over standard input and standard output.
+
+Handshake
+---------
+
+Git starts by sending a welcome message (for example,
+"git-filter-client"), a list of supported protocol version numbers, and
+a flush packet. Git expects to read the welcome message with "server"
+instead of "client" (for example, "git-filter-server"), exactly one
+protocol version number from the previously sent list, and a flush
+packet. All further communication will be based on the selected version.
+The remaining protocol description below documents "version=2". Please
+note that "version=42" in the example below does not exist and is only
+there to illustrate how the protocol would look like with more than one
+version.
+
+After the version negotiation Git sends a list of all capabilities that
+it supports and a flush packet. Git expects to read a list of desired
+capabilities, which must be a subset of the supported capabilities list,
+and a flush packet as response:
+------------------------
+packet: git> git-filter-client
+packet: git> version=2
+packet: git> version=42
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git< git-filter-server
+packet: git< version=2
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git> capability=clean
+packet: git> capability=smudge
+packet: git> capability=not-yet-invented
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git< capability=clean
+packet: git< capability=smudge
+packet: git< 0000
+------------------------
+
+Shutdown
+--------
+
+Git will close
+the command pipe on exit. The filter is expected to detect EOF
+and exit gracefully on its own. Git will wait until the filter
+process has stopped.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index a349171..7fee6b7 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -39,6 +39,19 @@ communicates with that invoked process over the SSH connection.
The file:// transport runs the 'upload-pack' or 'receive-pack'
process locally and communicates with it over a pipe.
+Extra Parameters
+----------------
+
+The protocol provides a mechanism in which clients can send additional
+information in its first message to the server. These are called "Extra
+Parameters", and are supported by the Git, SSH, and HTTP protocols.
+
+Each Extra Parameter takes the form of `<key>=<value>` or `<key>`.
+
+Servers that receive any such Extra Parameters MUST ignore all
+unrecognized keys. Currently, the only Extra Parameter recognized is
+"version=1".
+
Git Transport
-------------
@@ -46,18 +59,25 @@ The Git transport starts off by sending the command and repository
on the wire using the pkt-line format, followed by a NUL byte and a
hostname parameter, terminated by a NUL byte.
- 0032git-upload-pack /project.git\0host=myserver.com\0
+ 0033git-upload-pack /project.git\0host=myserver.com\0
+
+The transport may send Extra Parameters by adding an additional NUL
+byte, and then adding one or more NUL-terminated strings:
+
+ 003egit-upload-pack /project.git\0host=myserver.com\0\0version=1\0
--
- git-proto-request = request-command SP pathname NUL [ host-parameter NUL ]
+ git-proto-request = request-command SP pathname NUL
+ [ host-parameter NUL ] [ NUL extra-parameters ]
request-command = "git-upload-pack" / "git-receive-pack" /
"git-upload-archive" ; case sensitive
pathname = *( %x01-ff ) ; exclude NUL
host-parameter = "host=" hostname [ ":" port ]
+ extra-parameters = 1*extra-parameter
+ extra-parameter = 1*( %x01-ff ) NUL
--
-Only host-parameter is allowed in the git-proto-request. Clients
-MUST NOT attempt to send additional parameters. It is used for the
+host-parameter is used for the
git-daemon name based virtual hosting. See --interpolated-path
option to git daemon, with the %H/%CH format characters.
@@ -117,6 +137,12 @@ we execute it without the leading '/'.
v
ssh user@example.com "git-upload-pack '~alice/project.git'"
+Depending on the value of the `protocol.version` configuration variable,
+Git may attempt to send Extra Parameters as a colon-separated string in
+the GIT_PROTOCOL environment variable. This is done only if
+the `ssh.variant` configuration variable indicates that the ssh command
+supports passing environment variables as an argument.
+
A few things to remember here:
- The "command name" is spelled with dash (e.g. git-upload-pack), but
@@ -137,11 +163,13 @@ Reference Discovery
-------------------
When the client initially connects the server will immediately respond
-with a listing of each reference it has (all branches and tags) along
+with a version number (if "version=1" is sent as an Extra Parameter),
+and a listing of each reference it has (all branches and tags) along
with the object name that each reference currently points to.
- $ echo -e -n "0039git-upload-pack /schacon/gitbook.git\0host=example.com\0" |
+ $ echo -e -n "0044git-upload-pack /schacon/gitbook.git\0host=example.com\0\0version=1\0" |
nc -v example.com 9418
+ 000aversion 1
00887217a7c7e582c46cec22a130adf4b9d7d950fba0 HEAD\0multi_ack thin-pack
side-band side-band-64k ofs-delta shallow no-progress include-tag
00441d3fcd5ced445d1abc402225c0b8a1299641f497 refs/heads/integration
@@ -165,7 +193,8 @@ immediately after the ref itself, if presented. A conforming server
MUST peel the ref if it's an annotated tag.
----
- advertised-refs = (no-refs / list-of-refs)
+ advertised-refs = *1("version 1")
+ (no-refs / list-of-refs)
*shallow
flush-pkt
@@ -199,7 +228,7 @@ After reference and capabilities discovery, the client can decide to
terminate the connection by sending a flush-pkt, telling the server it can
now gracefully terminate, and disconnect, when it does not need any pack
data. This can happen with the ls-remote command, and also can happen when
-the client already is up-to-date.
+the client already is up to date.
Otherwise, it enters the negotiation phase, where the client and
server determine what the minimal packfile necessary for transport is,
@@ -212,6 +241,7 @@ out of what the server said it could do with the first 'want' line.
upload-request = want-list
*shallow-line
*1depth-request
+ [filter-request]
flush-pkt
want-list = first-want
@@ -227,6 +257,8 @@ out of what the server said it could do with the first 'want' line.
additional-want = PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id)
depth = 1*DIGIT
+
+ filter-request = PKT-LINE("filter" SP filter-spec)
----
Clients MUST send all the obj-ids it wants from the reference
@@ -249,6 +281,11 @@ complete those commits. Commits whose parents are not received as a
result are defined as shallow and marked as such in the server. This
information is sent back to the client in the next step.
+The client can optionally request that pack-objects omit various
+objects from the packfile using one of several filtering techniques.
+These are intended for use with partial clone and partial fetch
+operations. See `rev-list` for possible "filter-spec" values.
+
Once all the 'want's and 'shallow's (and optional 'deepen') are
transferred, clients MUST send a flush-pkt, to tell the server side
that it is done sending the list.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0bed247
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,324 @@
+Partial Clone Design Notes
+==========================
+
+The "Partial Clone" feature is a performance optimization for Git that
+allows Git to function without having a complete copy of the repository.
+The goal of this work is to allow Git better handle extremely large
+repositories.
+
+During clone and fetch operations, Git downloads the complete contents
+and history of the repository. This includes all commits, trees, and
+blobs for the complete life of the repository. For extremely large
+repositories, clones can take hours (or days) and consume 100+GiB of disk
+space.
+
+Often in these repositories there are many blobs and trees that the user
+does not need such as:
+
+ 1. files outside of the user's work area in the tree. For example, in
+ a repository with 500K directories and 3.5M files in every commit,
+ we can avoid downloading many objects if the user only needs a
+ narrow "cone" of the source tree.
+
+ 2. large binary assets. For example, in a repository where large build
+ artifacts are checked into the tree, we can avoid downloading all
+ previous versions of these non-mergeable binary assets and only
+ download versions that are actually referenced.
+
+Partial clone allows us to avoid downloading such unneeded objects *in
+advance* during clone and fetch operations and thereby reduce download
+times and disk usage. Missing objects can later be "demand fetched"
+if/when needed.
+
+Use of partial clone requires that the user be online and the origin
+remote be available for on-demand fetching of missing objects. This may
+or may not be problematic for the user. For example, if the user can
+stay within the pre-selected subset of the source tree, they may not
+encounter any missing objects. Alternatively, the user could try to
+pre-fetch various objects if they know that they are going offline.
+
+
+Non-Goals
+---------
+
+Partial clone is a mechanism to limit the number of blobs and trees downloaded
+*within* a given range of commits -- and is therefore independent of and not
+intended to conflict with existing DAG-level mechanisms to limit the set of
+requested commits (i.e. shallow clone, single branch, or fetch '<refspec>').
+
+
+Design Overview
+---------------
+
+Partial clone logically consists of the following parts:
+
+- A mechanism for the client to describe unneeded or unwanted objects to
+ the server.
+
+- A mechanism for the server to omit such unwanted objects from packfiles
+ sent to the client.
+
+- A mechanism for the client to gracefully handle missing objects (that
+ were previously omitted by the server).
+
+- A mechanism for the client to backfill missing objects as needed.
+
+
+Design Details
+--------------
+
+- A new pack-protocol capability "filter" is added to the fetch-pack and
+ upload-pack negotiation.
+
+ This uses the existing capability discovery mechanism.
+ See "filter" in Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt.
+
+- Clients pass a "filter-spec" to clone and fetch which is passed to the
+ server to request filtering during packfile construction.
+
+ There are various filters available to accommodate different situations.
+ See "--filter=<filter-spec>" in Documentation/rev-list-options.txt.
+
+- On the server pack-objects applies the requested filter-spec as it
+ creates "filtered" packfiles for the client.
+
+ These filtered packfiles are *incomplete* in the traditional sense because
+ they may contain objects that reference objects not contained in the
+ packfile and that the client doesn't already have. For example, the
+ filtered packfile may contain trees or tags that reference missing blobs
+ or commits that reference missing trees.
+
+- On the client these incomplete packfiles are marked as "promisor packfiles"
+ and treated differently by various commands.
+
+- On the client a repository extension is added to the local config to
+ prevent older versions of git from failing mid-operation because of
+ missing objects that they cannot handle.
+ See "extensions.partialClone" in Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt"
+
+
+Handling Missing Objects
+------------------------
+
+- An object may be missing due to a partial clone or fetch, or missing due
+ to repository corruption. To differentiate these cases, the local
+ repository specially indicates such filtered packfiles obtained from the
+ promisor remote as "promisor packfiles".
+
+ These promisor packfiles consist of a "<name>.promisor" file with
+ arbitrary contents (like the "<name>.keep" files), in addition to
+ their "<name>.pack" and "<name>.idx" files.
+
+- The local repository considers a "promisor object" to be an object that
+ it knows (to the best of its ability) that the promisor remote has promised
+ that it has, either because the local repository has that object in one of
+ its promisor packfiles, or because another promisor object refers to it.
+
+ When Git encounters a missing object, Git can see if it a promisor object
+ and handle it appropriately. If not, Git can report a corruption.
+
+ This means that there is no need for the client to explicitly maintain an
+ expensive-to-modify list of missing objects.[a]
+
+- Since almost all Git code currently expects any referenced object to be
+ present locally and because we do not want to force every command to do
+ a dry-run first, a fallback mechanism is added to allow Git to attempt
+ to dynamically fetch missing objects from the promisor remote.
+
+ When the normal object lookup fails to find an object, Git invokes
+ fetch-object to try to get the object from the server and then retry
+ the object lookup. This allows objects to be "faulted in" without
+ complicated prediction algorithms.
+
+ For efficiency reasons, no check as to whether the missing object is
+ actually a promisor object is performed.
+
+ Dynamic object fetching tends to be slow as objects are fetched one at
+ a time.
+
+- `checkout` (and any other command using `unpack-trees`) has been taught
+ to bulk pre-fetch all required missing blobs in a single batch.
+
+- `rev-list` has been taught to print missing objects.
+
+ This can be used by other commands to bulk prefetch objects.
+ For example, a "git log -p A..B" may internally want to first do
+ something like "git rev-list --objects --quiet --missing=print A..B"
+ and prefetch those objects in bulk.
+
+- `fsck` has been updated to be fully aware of promisor objects.
+
+- `repack` in GC has been updated to not touch promisor packfiles at all,
+ and to only repack other objects.
+
+- The global variable "fetch_if_missing" is used to control whether an
+ object lookup will attempt to dynamically fetch a missing object or
+ report an error.
+
+ We are not happy with this global variable and would like to remove it,
+ but that requires significant refactoring of the object code to pass an
+ additional flag. We hope that concurrent efforts to add an ODB API can
+ encompass this.
+
+
+Fetching Missing Objects
+------------------------
+
+- Fetching of objects is done using the existing transport mechanism using
+ transport_fetch_refs(), setting a new transport option
+ TRANS_OPT_NO_DEPENDENTS to indicate that only the objects themselves are
+ desired, not any object that they refer to.
+
+ Because some transports invoke fetch_pack() in the same process, fetch_pack()
+ has been updated to not use any object flags when the corresponding argument
+ (no_dependents) is set.
+
+- The local repository sends a request with the hashes of all requested
+ objects as "want" lines, and does not perform any packfile negotiation.
+ It then receives a packfile.
+
+- Because we are reusing the existing fetch-pack mechanism, fetching
+ currently fetches all objects referred to by the requested objects, even
+ though they are not necessary.
+
+
+Current Limitations
+-------------------
+
+- The remote used for a partial clone (or the first partial fetch
+ following a regular clone) is marked as the "promisor remote".
+
+ We are currently limited to a single promisor remote and only that
+ remote may be used for subsequent partial fetches.
+
+ We accept this limitation because we believe initial users of this
+ feature will be using it on repositories with a strong single central
+ server.
+
+- Dynamic object fetching will only ask the promisor remote for missing
+ objects. We assume that the promisor remote has a complete view of the
+ repository and can satisfy all such requests.
+
+- Repack essentially treats promisor and non-promisor packfiles as 2
+ distinct partitions and does not mix them. Repack currently only works
+ on non-promisor packfiles and loose objects.
+
+- Dynamic object fetching invokes fetch-pack once *for each item*
+ because most algorithms stumble upon a missing object and need to have
+ it resolved before continuing their work. This may incur significant
+ overhead -- and multiple authentication requests -- if many objects are
+ needed.
+
+- Dynamic object fetching currently uses the existing pack protocol V0
+ which means that each object is requested via fetch-pack. The server
+ will send a full set of info/refs when the connection is established.
+ If there are large number of refs, this may incur significant overhead.
+
+
+Future Work
+-----------
+
+- Allow more than one promisor remote and define a strategy for fetching
+ missing objects from specific promisor remotes or of iterating over the
+ set of promisor remotes until a missing object is found.
+
+ A user might want to have multiple geographically-close cache servers
+ for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do filtered `git-fetch`
+ commands from the central server, for example.
+
+ Or the user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
+ promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
+
+- Allow repack to work on promisor packfiles (while keeping them distinct
+ from non-promisor packfiles).
+
+- Allow non-pathname-based filters to make use of packfile bitmaps (when
+ present). This was just an omission during the initial implementation.
+
+- Investigate use of a long-running process to dynamically fetch a series
+ of objects, such as proposed in [5,6] to reduce process startup and
+ overhead costs.
+
+ It would be nice if pack protocol V2 could allow that long-running
+ process to make a series of requests over a single long-running
+ connection.
+
+- Investigate pack protocol V2 to avoid the info/refs broadcast on
+ each connection with the server to dynamically fetch missing objects.
+
+- Investigate the need to handle loose promisor objects.
+
+ Objects in promisor packfiles are allowed to reference missing objects
+ that can be dynamically fetched from the server. An assumption was
+ made that loose objects are only created locally and therefore should
+ not reference a missing object. We may need to revisit that assumption
+ if, for example, we dynamically fetch a missing tree and store it as a
+ loose object rather than a single object packfile.
+
+ This does not necessarily mean we need to mark loose objects as promisor;
+ it may be sufficient to relax the object lookup or is-promisor functions.
+
+
+Non-Tasks
+---------
+
+- Every time the subject of "demand loading blobs" comes up it seems
+ that someone suggests that the server be allowed to "guess" and send
+ additional objects that may be related to the requested objects.
+
+ No work has gone into actually doing that; we're just documenting that
+ it is a common suggestion. We're not sure how it would work and have
+ no plans to work on it.
+
+ It is valid for the server to send more objects than requested (even
+ for a dynamic object fetch), but we are not building on that.
+
+
+Footnotes
+---------
+
+[a] expensive-to-modify list of missing objects: Earlier in the design of
+ partial clone we discussed the need for a single list of missing objects.
+ This would essentially be a sorted linear list of OIDs that the were
+ omitted by the server during a clone or subsequent fetches.
+
+ This file would need to be loaded into memory on every object lookup.
+ It would need to be read, updated, and re-written (like the .git/index)
+ on every explicit "git fetch" command *and* on any dynamic object fetch.
+
+ The cost to read, update, and write this file could add significant
+ overhead to every command if there are many missing objects. For example,
+ if there are 100M missing blobs, this file would be at least 2GiB on disk.
+
+ With the "promisor" concept, we *infer* a missing object based upon the
+ type of packfile that references it.
+
+
+Related Links
+-------------
+[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=2
+ Chromium work item for: Partial Clone
+
+[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
+ Subject: [RFC] Add support for downloading blobs on demand
+ Date: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:52:53 -0500
+
+[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/
+ Subject: [PATCH 00/18] Partial clone (from clone to lazy fetch in 18 patches)
+ Date: Fri, 29 Sep 2017 13:11:36 -0700
+
+[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/
+ Subject: Proposal for missing blob support in Git repos
+ Date: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 15:13:46 -0700
+
+[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/
+ Subject: [PATCH 00/10] RFC Partial Clone and Fetch
+ Date: Wed, 8 Mar 2017 18:50:29 +0000
+
+[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
+ Subject: [PATCH v7 00/10] refactor the filter process code into a reusable module
+ Date: Fri, 5 May 2017 11:27:52 -0400
+
+[6] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
+ Subject: [RFC/PATCH v2 0/1] Add support for downloading blobs on demand
+ Date: Fri, 14 Jul 2017 09:26:50 -0400
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
index 26dcc6f..332d209 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
@@ -309,3 +309,11 @@ to accept a signed push certificate, and asks the <nonce> to be
included in the push certificate. A send-pack client MUST NOT
send a push-cert packet unless the receive-pack server advertises
this capability.
+
+filter
+------
+
+If the upload-pack server advertises the 'filter' capability,
+fetch-pack may send "filter" commands to request a partial clone
+or partial fetch and request that the server omit various objects
+from the packfile.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..136179d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,395 @@
+ Git Wire Protocol, Version 2
+==============================
+
+This document presents a specification for a version 2 of Git's wire
+protocol. Protocol v2 will improve upon v1 in the following ways:
+
+ * Instead of multiple service names, multiple commands will be
+ supported by a single service
+ * Easily extendable as capabilities are moved into their own section
+ of the protocol, no longer being hidden behind a NUL byte and
+ limited by the size of a pkt-line
+ * Separate out other information hidden behind NUL bytes (e.g. agent
+ string as a capability and symrefs can be requested using 'ls-refs')
+ * Reference advertisement will be omitted unless explicitly requested
+ * ls-refs command to explicitly request some refs
+ * Designed with http and stateless-rpc in mind. With clear flush
+ semantics the http remote helper can simply act as a proxy
+
+In protocol v2 communication is command oriented. When first contacting a
+server a list of capabilities will advertised. Some of these capabilities
+will be commands which a client can request be executed. Once a command
+has completed, a client can reuse the connection and request that other
+commands be executed.
+
+ Packet-Line Framing
+---------------------
+
+All communication is done using packet-line framing, just as in v1. See
+`Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt` and
+`Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt` for more information.
+
+In protocol v2 these special packets will have the following semantics:
+
+ * '0000' Flush Packet (flush-pkt) - indicates the end of a message
+ * '0001' Delimiter Packet (delim-pkt) - separates sections of a message
+
+ Initial Client Request
+------------------------
+
+In general a client can request to speak protocol v2 by sending
+`version=2` through the respective side-channel for the transport being
+used which inevitably sets `GIT_PROTOCOL`. More information can be
+found in `pack-protocol.txt` and `http-protocol.txt`. In all cases the
+response from the server is the capability advertisement.
+
+ Git Transport
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When using the git:// transport, you can request to use protocol v2 by
+sending "version=2" as an extra parameter:
+
+ 003egit-upload-pack /project.git\0host=myserver.com\0\0version=2\0
+
+ SSH and File Transport
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When using either the ssh:// or file:// transport, the GIT_PROTOCOL
+environment variable must be set explicitly to include "version=2".
+
+ HTTP Transport
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When using the http:// or https:// transport a client makes a "smart"
+info/refs request as described in `http-protocol.txt` and requests that
+v2 be used by supplying "version=2" in the `Git-Protocol` header.
+
+ C: Git-Protocol: version=2
+ C:
+ C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+
+A v2 server would reply:
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: <Some headers>
+ S: ...
+ S:
+ S: 000eversion 2\n
+ S: <capability-advertisement>
+
+Subsequent requests are then made directly to the service
+`$GIT_URL/git-upload-pack`. (This works the same for git-receive-pack).
+
+ Capability Advertisement
+--------------------------
+
+A server which decides to communicate (based on a request from a client)
+using protocol version 2, notifies the client by sending a version string
+in its initial response followed by an advertisement of its capabilities.
+Each capability is a key with an optional value. Clients must ignore all
+unknown keys. Semantics of unknown values are left to the definition of
+each key. Some capabilities will describe commands which can be requested
+to be executed by the client.
+
+ capability-advertisement = protocol-version
+ capability-list
+ flush-pkt
+
+ protocol-version = PKT-LINE("version 2" LF)
+ capability-list = *capability
+ capability = PKT-LINE(key[=value] LF)
+
+ key = 1*(ALPHA | DIGIT | "-_")
+ value = 1*(ALPHA | DIGIT | " -_.,?\/{}[]()<>!@#$%^&*+=:;")
+
+ Command Request
+-----------------
+
+After receiving the capability advertisement, a client can then issue a
+request to select the command it wants with any particular capabilities
+or arguments. There is then an optional section where the client can
+provide any command specific parameters or queries. Only a single
+command can be requested at a time.
+
+ request = empty-request | command-request
+ empty-request = flush-pkt
+ command-request = command
+ capability-list
+ [command-args]
+ flush-pkt
+ command = PKT-LINE("command=" key LF)
+ command-args = delim-pkt
+ *command-specific-arg
+
+ command-specific-args are packet line framed arguments defined by
+ each individual command.
+
+The server will then check to ensure that the client's request is
+comprised of a valid command as well as valid capabilities which were
+advertised. If the request is valid the server will then execute the
+command. A server MUST wait till it has received the client's entire
+request before issuing a response. The format of the response is
+determined by the command being executed, but in all cases a flush-pkt
+indicates the end of the response.
+
+When a command has finished, and the client has received the entire
+response from the server, a client can either request that another
+command be executed or can terminate the connection. A client may
+optionally send an empty request consisting of just a flush-pkt to
+indicate that no more requests will be made.
+
+ Capabilities
+--------------
+
+There are two different types of capabilities: normal capabilities,
+which can be used to to convey information or alter the behavior of a
+request, and commands, which are the core actions that a client wants to
+perform (fetch, push, etc).
+
+Protocol version 2 is stateless by default. This means that all commands
+must only last a single round and be stateless from the perspective of the
+server side, unless the client has requested a capability indicating that
+state should be maintained by the server. Clients MUST NOT require state
+management on the server side in order to function correctly. This
+permits simple round-robin load-balancing on the server side, without
+needing to worry about state management.
+
+ agent
+~~~~~~~
+
+The server can advertise the `agent` capability with a value `X` (in the
+form `agent=X`) to notify the client that the server is running version
+`X`. The client may optionally send its own agent string by including
+the `agent` capability with a value `Y` (in the form `agent=Y`) in its
+request to the server (but it MUST NOT do so if the server did not
+advertise the agent capability). The `X` and `Y` strings may contain any
+printable ASCII characters except space (i.e., the byte range 32 < x <
+127), and are typically of the form "package/version" (e.g.,
+"git/1.8.3.1"). The agent strings are purely informative for statistics
+and debugging purposes, and MUST NOT be used to programmatically assume
+the presence or absence of particular features.
+
+ ls-refs
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+`ls-refs` is the command used to request a reference advertisement in v2.
+Unlike the current reference advertisement, ls-refs takes in arguments
+which can be used to limit the refs sent from the server.
+
+Additional features not supported in the base command will be advertised
+as the value of the command in the capability advertisement in the form
+of a space separated list of features: "<command>=<feature 1> <feature 2>"
+
+ls-refs takes in the following arguments:
+
+ symrefs
+ In addition to the object pointed by it, show the underlying ref
+ pointed by it when showing a symbolic ref.
+ peel
+ Show peeled tags.
+ ref-prefix <prefix>
+ When specified, only references having a prefix matching one of
+ the provided prefixes are displayed.
+
+The output of ls-refs is as follows:
+
+ output = *ref
+ flush-pkt
+ ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP refname *(SP ref-attribute) LF)
+ ref-attribute = (symref | peeled)
+ symref = "symref-target:" symref-target
+ peeled = "peeled:" obj-id
+
+ fetch
+~~~~~~~
+
+`fetch` is the command used to fetch a packfile in v2. It can be looked
+at as a modified version of the v1 fetch where the ref-advertisement is
+stripped out (since the `ls-refs` command fills that role) and the
+message format is tweaked to eliminate redundancies and permit easy
+addition of future extensions.
+
+Additional features not supported in the base command will be advertised
+as the value of the command in the capability advertisement in the form
+of a space separated list of features: "<command>=<feature 1> <feature 2>"
+
+A `fetch` request can take the following arguments:
+
+ want <oid>
+ Indicates to the server an object which the client wants to
+ retrieve. Wants can be anything and are not limited to
+ advertised objects.
+
+ have <oid>
+ Indicates to the server an object which the client has locally.
+ This allows the server to make a packfile which only contains
+ the objects that the client needs. Multiple 'have' lines can be
+ supplied.
+
+ done
+ Indicates to the server that negotiation should terminate (or
+ not even begin if performing a clone) and that the server should
+ use the information supplied in the request to construct the
+ packfile.
+
+ thin-pack
+ Request that a thin pack be sent, which is a pack with deltas
+ which reference base objects not contained within the pack (but
+ are known to exist at the receiving end). This can reduce the
+ network traffic significantly, but it requires the receiving end
+ to know how to "thicken" these packs by adding the missing bases
+ to the pack.
+
+ no-progress
+ Request that progress information that would normally be sent on
+ side-band channel 2, during the packfile transfer, should not be
+ sent. However, the side-band channel 3 is still used for error
+ responses.
+
+ include-tag
+ Request that annotated tags should be sent if the objects they
+ point to are being sent.
+
+ ofs-delta
+ Indicate that the client understands PACKv2 with delta referring
+ to its base by position in pack rather than by an oid. That is,
+ they can read OBJ_OFS_DELTA (ake type 6) in a packfile.
+
+If the 'shallow' feature is advertised the following arguments can be
+included in the clients request as well as the potential addition of the
+'shallow-info' section in the server's response as explained below.
+
+ shallow <oid>
+ A client must notify the server of all commits for which it only
+ has shallow copies (meaning that it doesn't have the parents of
+ a commit) by supplying a 'shallow <oid>' line for each such
+ object so that the server is aware of the limitations of the
+ client's history. This is so that the server is aware that the
+ client may not have all objects reachable from such commits.
+
+ deepen <depth>
+ Requests that the fetch/clone should be shallow having a commit
+ depth of <depth> relative to the remote side.
+
+ deepen-relative
+ Requests that the semantics of the "deepen" command be changed
+ to indicate that the depth requested is relative to the client's
+ current shallow boundary, instead of relative to the requested
+ commits.
+
+ deepen-since <timestamp>
+ Requests that the shallow clone/fetch should be cut at a
+ specific time, instead of depth. Internally it's equivalent to
+ doing "git rev-list --max-age=<timestamp>". Cannot be used with
+ "deepen".
+
+ deepen-not <rev>
+ Requests that the shallow clone/fetch should be cut at a
+ specific revision specified by '<rev>', instead of a depth.
+ Internally it's equivalent of doing "git rev-list --not <rev>".
+ Cannot be used with "deepen", but can be used with
+ "deepen-since".
+
+The response of `fetch` is broken into a number of sections separated by
+delimiter packets (0001), with each section beginning with its section
+header.
+
+ output = *section
+ section = (acknowledgments | shallow-info | packfile)
+ (flush-pkt | delim-pkt)
+
+ acknowledgments = PKT-LINE("acknowledgments" LF)
+ (nak | *ack)
+ (ready)
+ ready = PKT-LINE("ready" LF)
+ nak = PKT-LINE("NAK" LF)
+ ack = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id LF)
+
+ shallow-info = PKT-LINE("shallow-info" LF)
+ *PKT-LINE((shallow | unshallow) LF)
+ shallow = "shallow" SP obj-id
+ unshallow = "unshallow" SP obj-id
+
+ packfile = PKT-LINE("packfile" LF)
+ *PKT-LINE(%x01-03 *%x00-ff)
+
+ acknowledgments section
+ * If the client determines that it is finished with negotiations
+ by sending a "done" line, the acknowledgments sections MUST be
+ omitted from the server's response.
+
+ * Always begins with the section header "acknowledgments"
+
+ * The server will respond with "NAK" if none of the object ids sent
+ as have lines were common.
+
+ * The server will respond with "ACK obj-id" for all of the
+ object ids sent as have lines which are common.
+
+ * A response cannot have both "ACK" lines as well as a "NAK"
+ line.
+
+ * The server will respond with a "ready" line indicating that
+ the server has found an acceptable common base and is ready to
+ make and send a packfile (which will be found in the packfile
+ section of the same response)
+
+ * If the server has found a suitable cut point and has decided
+ to send a "ready" line, then the server can decide to (as an
+ optimization) omit any "ACK" lines it would have sent during
+ its response. This is because the server will have already
+ determined the objects it plans to send to the client and no
+ further negotiation is needed.
+
+ shallow-info section
+ * If the client has requested a shallow fetch/clone, a shallow
+ client requests a fetch or the server is shallow then the
+ server's response may include a shallow-info section. The
+ shallow-info section will be included if (due to one of the
+ above conditions) the server needs to inform the client of any
+ shallow boundaries or adjustments to the clients already
+ existing shallow boundaries.
+
+ * Always begins with the section header "shallow-info"
+
+ * If a positive depth is requested, the server will compute the
+ set of commits which are no deeper than the desired depth.
+
+ * The server sends a "shallow obj-id" line for each commit whose
+ parents will not be sent in the following packfile.
+
+ * The server sends an "unshallow obj-id" line for each commit
+ which the client has indicated is shallow, but is no longer
+ shallow as a result of the fetch (due to its parents being
+ sent in the following packfile).
+
+ * The server MUST NOT send any "unshallow" lines for anything
+ which the client has not indicated was shallow as a part of
+ its request.
+
+ * This section is only included if a packfile section is also
+ included in the response.
+
+ packfile section
+ * This section is only included if the client has sent 'want'
+ lines in its request and either requested that no more
+ negotiation be done by sending 'done' or if the server has
+ decided it has found a sufficient cut point to produce a
+ packfile.
+
+ * Always begins with the section header "packfile"
+
+ * The transmission of the packfile begins immediately after the
+ section header
+
+ * The data transfer of the packfile is always multiplexed, using
+ the same semantics of the 'side-band-64k' capability from
+ protocol version 1. This means that each packet, during the
+ packfile data stream, is made up of a leading 4-byte pkt-line
+ length (typical of the pkt-line format), followed by a 1-byte
+ stream code, followed by the actual data.
+
+ The stream code can be one of:
+ 1 - pack data
+ 2 - progress messages
+ 3 - fatal error message just before stream aborts
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt b/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt
index 00ad379..e03eacc 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt
@@ -86,3 +86,15 @@ for testing format-1 compatibility.
When the config key `extensions.preciousObjects` is set to `true`,
objects in the repository MUST NOT be deleted (e.g., by `git-prune` or
`git repack -d`).
+
+`partialclone`
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When the config key `extensions.partialclone` is set, it indicates
+that the repo was created with a partial clone (or later performed
+a partial fetch) and that the remote may have omitted sending
+certain unwanted objects. Such a remote is called a "promisor remote"
+and it promises that all such omitted objects can be fetched from it
+in the future.
+
+The value of this key is the name of the promisor remote.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt b/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
index c79d4a7..1f1c33d 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ or the result.
If multiple cases apply, the one used is listed first.
A result which changes the index is an error if the index is not empty
-and not up-to-date.
+and not up to date.
Entries marked '+' have stat information. Spaces marked '*' don't
affect the result.
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ empty, no entry is left for that stage). Otherwise, the given entry is
left in stage 0, and there are no other entries.
A result of "no merge" is an error if the index is not empty and not
-up-to-date.
+up to date.
*empty* means that the tree must not have a directory-file conflict
with the entry.
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index bc29298..eff7890 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -319,7 +319,7 @@ do so (now or later) by using -b with the checkout command again. Example:
git checkout -b new_branch_name
-HEAD is now at 427abfa... Linux v2.6.17
+HEAD is now at 427abfa Linux v2.6.17
------------------------------------------------
The HEAD then refers to the SHA-1 of the commit instead of to a branch,
@@ -508,7 +508,7 @@ Bisecting: 3537 revisions left to test after this
If you run `git branch` at this point, you'll see that Git has
temporarily moved you in "(no branch)". HEAD is now detached from any
-branch and points directly to a commit (with commit id 65934...) that
+branch and points directly to a commit (with commit id 65934) that
is reachable from "master" but not from v2.6.18. Compile and test it,
and see whether it crashes. Assume it does crash. Then:
@@ -549,14 +549,14 @@ says "bisect". Choose a safe-looking commit nearby, note its commit
id, and check it out with:
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git reset --hard fb47ddb2db...
+$ git reset --hard fb47ddb2db
-------------------------------------------------
then test, run `bisect good` or `bisect bad` as appropriate, and
continue.
Instead of `git bisect visualize` and then `git reset --hard
-fb47ddb2db...`, you might just want to tell Git that you want to skip
+fb47ddb2db`, you might just want to tell Git that you want to skip
the current commit:
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -1556,7 +1556,7 @@ so on a different branch and then coming back), unstash the
work-in-progress changes.
------------------------------------------------
-$ git stash save "work in progress for foo feature"
+$ git stash push -m "work in progress for foo feature"
------------------------------------------------
This command will save your changes away to the `stash`, and
@@ -2044,10 +2044,12 @@ If a push would not result in a <<fast-forwards,fast-forward>> of the
remote branch, then it will fail with an error like:
-------------------------------------------------
-error: remote 'refs/heads/master' is not an ancestor of
- local 'refs/heads/master'.
- Maybe you are not up-to-date and need to pull first?
-error: failed to push to 'ssh://yourserver.com/~you/proj.git'
+ ! [rejected] master -> master (non-fast-forward)
+error: failed to push some refs to '...'
+hint: Updates were rejected because the tip of your current branch is behind
+hint: its remote counterpart. Integrate the remote changes (e.g.
+hint: 'git pull ...') before pushing again.
+hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in 'git push --help' for details.
-------------------------------------------------
This can happen, for example, if you:
@@ -2193,7 +2195,7 @@ $ cd work
Linus's tree will be stored in the remote-tracking branch named origin/master,
and can be updated using linkgit:git-fetch[1]; you can track other
public trees using linkgit:git-remote[1] to set up a "remote" and
-linkgit:git-fetch[1] to keep them up-to-date; see
+linkgit:git-fetch[1] to keep them up to date; see
<<repositories-and-branches>>.
Now create the branches in which you are going to work; these start out
@@ -3414,7 +3416,7 @@ commit abc
Author:
Date:
...
-:100644 100644 4b9458b... newsha... M somedirectory/myfile
+:100644 100644 4b9458b newsha M somedirectory/myfile
commit xyz
@@ -3422,7 +3424,7 @@ Author:
Date:
...
-:100644 100644 oldsha... 4b9458b... M somedirectory/myfile
+:100644 100644 oldsha 4b9458b M somedirectory/myfile
------------------------------------------------
This tells you that the immediately following version of the file was
@@ -3447,7 +3449,7 @@ and your repository is good again!
$ git log --raw --all
------------------------------------------------
-and just looked for the sha of the missing object (4b9458b..) in that
+and just looked for the sha of the missing object (4b9458b) in that
whole thing. It's up to you--Git does *have* a lot of information, it is
just missing one particular blob version.
@@ -4112,9 +4114,9 @@ program, e.g. `diff3`, `merge`, or Git's own merge-file, on
the blob objects from these three stages yourself, like this:
------------------------------------------------
-$ git cat-file blob 263414f... >hello.c~1
-$ git cat-file blob 06fa6a2... >hello.c~2
-$ git cat-file blob cc44c73... >hello.c~3
+$ git cat-file blob 263414f >hello.c~1
+$ git cat-file blob 06fa6a2 >hello.c~2
+$ git cat-file blob cc44c73 >hello.c~3
$ git merge-file hello.c~2 hello.c~1 hello.c~3
------------------------------------------------
@@ -4372,7 +4374,7 @@ $ git log --no-merges t/
------------------------
In the pager (`less`), just search for "bundle", go a few lines back,
-and see that it is in commit 18449ab0... Now just copy this object name,
+and see that it is in commit 18449ab0. Now just copy this object name,
and paste it into the command line
-------------------