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-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt277
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches346
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt64
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitworkflows.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt27
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt2
26 files changed, 787 insertions, 216 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index 2c8b2d6..c7096f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -11,3 +11,4 @@ doc.dep
cmds-*.txt
mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
+SubmittingPatches.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 471bb29..2ab6556 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -67,6 +67,7 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
+TECH_DOCS += SubmittingPatches
TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
@@ -181,6 +182,7 @@ ASCIIDOC = asciidoctor
ASCIIDOC_CONF =
ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml5
ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook45
+ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
DBLATEX_COMMON =
@@ -323,6 +325,7 @@ clean:
$(RM) *.pdf
$(RM) howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
$(RM) technical/*.html technical/api-index.txt
+ $(RM) SubmittingPatches.txt
$(RM) $(cmds_txt) $(mergetools_txt) *.made
$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
@@ -361,6 +364,9 @@ technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) $*.txt
+SubmittingPatches.txt: SubmittingPatches
+ $(QUIET_GEN) cp $< $@
+
XSLT = docbook.xsl
XSLTOPTS = --xinclude --stringparam html.stylesheet docbook-xsl.css
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c617e37
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,277 @@
+Git 2.16 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is now an error.
+
+
+Updates since v2.15
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * An empty string as a pathspec element that means "everything"
+ i.e. 'git add ""', is now illegal. We started this by first
+ deprecating and warning a pathspec that has such an element in
+ 2.11 (Nov 2016).
+
+ * A hook script that is set unexecutable is simply ignored. Git
+ notifies when such a file is ignored, unless the message is
+ squelched via advice.ignoredHook configuration.
+
+ * "git pull" has been taught to accept "--[no-]signoff" option and
+ pass it down to "git merge".
+
+ * The "--push-option=<string>" option to "git push" now defaults to a
+ list of strings configured via push.pushOption variable.
+
+ * "gitweb" checks if a directory is searchable with Perl's "-x"
+ operator, which can be enhanced by using "filetest 'access'"
+ pragma, which now we do.
+
+ * "git stash save" has been deprecated in favour of "git stash push".
+
+ * The set of paths output from "git status --ignored" was tied
+ closely with its "--untracked=<mode>" option, but now it can be
+ controlled more flexibly. Most notably, a directory that is
+ ignored because it is listed to be ignored in the ignore/exclude
+ mechanism can be handled differently from a directory that ends up
+ to be ignored only because all files in it are ignored.
+
+ * The remote-helper for talking to MediaWiki has been updated to
+ truncate an overlong pagename so that ".mw" suffix can still be
+ added.
+
+ * The remote-helper for talking to MediaWiki has been updated to
+ work with mediawiki namespaces.
+
+ * The "--format=..." option "git for-each-ref" takes learned to show
+ the name of the 'remote' repository and the ref at the remote side
+ that is affected for 'upstream' and 'push' via "%(push:remotename)"
+ and friends.
+
+ * Doc and message updates to teach users "bisect view" is a synonym
+ for "bisect visualize".
+
+ * "git bisect run" that did not specify any command to run used to go
+ ahead and treated all commits to be tested as 'good'. This has
+ been corrected by making the command error out.
+
+ * The SubmittingPatches document has been converted to produce an
+ HTML version via AsciiDoc/Asciidoctor.
+ (merge 049e64aa50 bc/submitting-patches-in-asciidoc later to maint).
+
+ * We learned to talk to watchman to speed up "git status" and other
+ operations that need to see which paths have been modified.
+
+ * The "diff" family of commands learned to ignore differences in
+ carriage return at the end of line.
+
+ * Places that know about "sendemail.to", like documentation and shell
+ completion (in contrib/) have been taught about "sendemail.tocmd",
+ too.
+
+ * "git add --renormalize ." is a new and safer way to record the fact
+ that you are correcting the end-of-line convention and other
+ "convert_to_git()" glitches in the in-repository data.
+
+ * "git branch" and "git checkout -b" are now forbidden from creating
+ a branch whose name is "HEAD".
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to show its output through the pager by
+ default when the output is going to a terminal, which is controlled
+ by the pager.branch configuration variable. This is similar to a
+ recent change to "git tag --list".
+
+ * "git grep -W", "git diff -W" and their friends learned a heuristic
+ to extend a pre-context beyond the line that matches the "function
+ pattern" (aka "diff.*.xfuncname") to include a comment block, if
+ exists, that immediately precedes it.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * An earlier update made it possible to use an on-stack in-core
+ lockfile structure (as opposed to having to deliberately leak an
+ on-heap one). Many codepaths have been updated to take advantage
+ of this new facility.
+
+ * Calling cmd_foo() as if it is a general purpose helper function is
+ a no-no. Correct two instances of such to set an example.
+
+ * We try to see if somebody runs our test suite with a shell that
+ does not support "local" like bash/dash does.
+
+ * An early part of piece-by-piece rewrite of "git bisect" in C.
+
+ * GSoC to piece-by-piece rewrite "git submodule" in C.
+
+ * Optimize the code to find shortest unique prefix of object names.
+
+ * Pathspec-limited revision traversal was taught not to keep finding
+ unneeded differences once it knows two trees are different inside
+ given pathspec.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Code cleanup.
+
+ * A single-word "unsigned flags" in the diff options is being split
+ into a structure with many bitfields.
+
+ * TravisCI build updates.
+
+ * Parts of a test to drive the long-running content filter interface
+ has been split into its own module, hopefully to eventually become
+ reusable.
+
+ * Drop (perhaps overly cautious) sanity check before using the index
+ read from the filesystem at runtime.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.15
+-----------------
+
+ * "auto" as a value for the columnar output configuration ought to
+ judge "is the output consumed by humans?" with the same criteria as
+ "auto" for coloured output configuration, i.e. either the standard
+ output stream is going to tty, or a pager is in use. We forgot the
+ latter, which has been fixed.
+
+ * The experimental "color moved lines differently in diff output"
+ feature was buggy around "ignore whitespace changes" edges, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * Instead of using custom line comparison and hashing functions to
+ implement "moved lines" coloring in the diff output, use the pair
+ of these functions from lower-layer xdiff/ code.
+
+ * Some codepaths did not check for errors when asking what branch the
+ HEAD points at, which have been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit", after making a commit, did not check for errors when
+ asking on what branch it made the commit, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git status --ignored -u" did not stop at a working tree of a
+ separate project that is embedded in an ignored directory and
+ listed files in that other project, instead of just showing the
+ directory itself as ignored.
+
+ * A broken access to object databases in recent update to "git grep
+ --recurse-submodules" has been fixed.
+
+ * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" that broke execution of git
+ commands from subdirectories via "exec" instruction has been fixed.
+
+ * A (possibly flakey) test fix.
+
+ * "git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}" bit a "BUG()" when run
+ outside a repository for obvious reasons; clarify the documentation
+ and make sure we do not even try to expand the at-mark magic in
+ such a case, but still call the validation logic for branch names.
+
+ * "git fetch --recurse-submodules" now knows that submodules can be
+ moved around in the superproject in addition to getting updated,
+ and finds the ones that need to be fetched accordingly.
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) update.
+
+ * Description of blame.{showroot,blankboundary,showemail,date}
+ configuration variables have been added to "git config --help".
+
+ * After an error from lstat(), diff_populate_filespec() function
+ sometimes still went ahead and used invalid data in struct stat,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * UNC paths are also relevant in Cygwin builds and they are now
+ tested just like Mingw builds.
+
+ * Correct start-up sequence so that a repository could be placed
+ immediately under the root directory again (which was broken at
+ around Git 2.13).
+
+ * The credential helper for libsecret (in contrib/) has been improved
+ to allow possibly prompting the end user to unlock secrets that are
+ currently locked (otherwise the secrets may not be loaded).
+
+ * MinGW updates.
+
+ * Error checking in "git imap-send" for empty response has been
+ improved.
+
+ * Recent update to the refs infrastructure implementation started
+ rewriting packed-refs file more often than before; this has been
+ optimized again for most trivial cases.
+ (merge 7c6bd25c7d mh/avoid-rewriting-packed-refs later to maint).
+
+ * Some error messages did not quote filenames shown in it, which have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" recently started misbehaving when a submodule that
+ is configured with 'submodule.<name>.ignore' is dirty; this has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Building with NO_LIBPCRE1_JIT did not disable it, which has been fixed.
+
+ * We used to add an empty alternate object database to the system
+ that does not help anything; it has been corrected.
+
+ * Doc update around use of "format-patch --subject-prefix" etc.
+
+ * A fix for an ancient bug in "git apply --ignore-space-change" codepath.
+
+ * Clarify and enhance documentation for "merge-base --fork-point", as
+ it was clear what it computed but not why/what for.
+ (merge 6d1700b8af jc/merge-base-fork-point-doc later to maint).
+
+ * A few scripts (both in production and tests) incorrectly redirected
+ their error output. These have been corrected.
+ (merge eadf1c8f45 tz/redirect-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git notes" sent its error message to its standard output stream,
+ which was corrected.
+ (merge 89b9e31dd5 tz/notes-error-to-stderr later to maint).
+
+ * The three-way merge performed by "git cherry-pick" was confused
+ when a new submodule was added in the meantime, which has been
+ fixed (or "papered over").
+ (merge c641ca6707 sb/test-cherry-pick-submodule-getting-in-a-way later to maint).
+
+ * The sequencer machinery (used by "git cherry-pick A..B", and "git
+ rebase -i", among other things) would have lost a commit if stopped
+ due to an unlockable index file, which has been fixed.
+ (merge bd58886775 pw/sequencer-recover-from-unlockable-index later to maint).
+
+ * "git apply --inaccurate-eof" when used with "--ignore-space-change"
+ triggered an internal sanity check, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 4855de1233 rs/apply-inaccurate-eof-with-incomplete-line later to maint).
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught about the
+ "--copy" option of "git branch".
+ (merge 41ca0f773e tz/complete-branch-copy later to maint).
+
+ * When "git rebase" prepared an mailbox of changes and fed it to "git
+ am" to replay them, it was confused when a stray "From " happened
+ to be in the log message of one of the replayed changes. This has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge ae3b2b04bb ew/rebase-mboxrd later to maint).
+
+ * There was a recent semantic mismerge in the codepath to write out a
+ section of a configuration section, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Mentions of "git-rebase" and "git-am" (dashed form) still remained
+ in end-user visible strings emitted by the "git rebase" command;
+ they have been corrected.
+ (merge 82cb775c06 ks/rebase-no-git-foo later to maint).
+
+ * Contrary to the documentation, "git pull -4/-6 other-args" did not
+ ask the underlying "git fetch" to go over IPv4/IPv6, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge ffb4568afe sw/pull-ipv46-passthru later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge c5e3bc6ec4 sd/branch-copy later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 89f2390..3ef3092 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -1,40 +1,47 @@
+Submitting Patches
+==================
+
+== Guidelines
+
Here are some guidelines for people who want to contribute their code
to this software.
-(0) Decide what to base your work on.
+[[base-branch]]
+=== Decide what to base your work on.
In general, always base your work on the oldest branch that your
change is relevant to.
- - A bugfix should be based on 'maint' in general. If the bug is not
- present in 'maint', base it on 'master'. For a bug that's not yet
- in 'master', find the topic that introduces the regression, and
- base your work on the tip of the topic.
+* A bugfix should be based on `maint` in general. If the bug is not
+ present in `maint`, base it on `master`. For a bug that's not yet
+ in `master`, find the topic that introduces the regression, and
+ base your work on the tip of the topic.
- - A new feature should be based on 'master' in general. If the new
- feature depends on a topic that is in 'pu', but not in 'master',
- base your work on the tip of that topic.
+* A new feature should be based on `master` in general. If the new
+ feature depends on a topic that is in `pu`, but not in `master`,
+ base your work on the tip of that topic.
- - Corrections and enhancements to a topic not yet in 'master' should
- be based on the tip of that topic. If the topic has not been merged
- to 'next', it's alright to add a note to squash minor corrections
- into the series.
+* Corrections and enhancements to a topic not yet in `master` should
+ be based on the tip of that topic. If the topic has not been merged
+ to `next`, it's alright to add a note to squash minor corrections
+ into the series.
- - In the exceptional case that a new feature depends on several topics
- not in 'master', start working on 'next' or 'pu' privately and send
- out patches for discussion. Before the final merge, you may have to
- wait until some of the dependent topics graduate to 'master', and
- rebase your work.
+* In the exceptional case that a new feature depends on several topics
+ not in `master`, start working on `next` or `pu` privately and send
+ out patches for discussion. Before the final merge, you may have to
+ wait until some of the dependent topics graduate to `master`, and
+ rebase your work.
- - Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
- repositories (see the section "Subsystems" below). Changes to
- these parts should be based on their trees.
+* Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
+ repositories (see the section "Subsystems" below). Changes to
+ these parts should be based on their trees.
-To find the tip of a topic branch, run "git log --first-parent
-master..pu" and look for the merge commit. The second parent of this
+To find the tip of a topic branch, run `git log --first-parent
+master..pu` and look for the merge commit. The second parent of this
commit is the tip of the topic branch.
-(1) Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
+[[separate-commits]]
+=== Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
Unless your patch is really trivial, you should not be sending
out a patch that was generated between your working tree and
@@ -58,8 +65,9 @@ differs substantially from the prior version, are all good things
to have.
Make sure that you have tests for the bug you are fixing. See
-t/README for guidance.
+`t/README` for guidance.
+[[tests]]
When adding a new feature, make sure that you have new tests to show
the feature triggers the new behavior when it should, and to show the
feature does not trigger when it shouldn't. After any code change, make
@@ -84,41 +92,45 @@ turning en_UK spelling to en_US). Obvious typographical fixes are much
more welcomed ("teh -> "the"), preferably submitted as independent
patches separate from other documentation changes.
+[[whitespace-check]]
Oh, another thing. We are picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
-in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
-run "git diff --check" on your changes before you commit.
+in `templates/hooks--pre-commit`. To help ensure this does not happen,
+run `git diff --check` on your changes before you commit.
-
-(2) Describe your changes well.
+[[describe-changes]]
+=== Describe your changes well.
The first line of the commit message should be a short description (50
-characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION in git-commit(1)), and
-should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
+characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION in linkgit:git-commit[1]),
+and should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
prefix the first line with "area: " where the area is a filename or
identifier for the general area of the code being modified, e.g.
- . doc: clarify distinction between sign-off and pgp-signing
- . githooks.txt: improve the intro section
+* doc: clarify distinction between sign-off and pgp-signing
+* githooks.txt: improve the intro section
-If in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges" on the
+If in doubt which identifier to use, run `git log --no-merges` on the
files you are modifying to see the current conventions.
+[[summary-section]]
It's customary to start the remainder of the first line after "area: "
with a lower-case letter. E.g. "doc: clarify...", not "doc:
Clarify...", or "githooks.txt: improve...", not "githooks.txt:
Improve...".
+[[meaningful-message]]
The body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
- . explains the problem the change tries to solve, i.e. what is wrong
- with the current code without the change.
+. explains the problem the change tries to solve, i.e. what is wrong
+ with the current code without the change.
- . justifies the way the change solves the problem, i.e. why the
- result with the change is better.
+. justifies the way the change solves the problem, i.e. why the
+ result with the change is better.
- . alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
+. alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
+[[imperative-mood]]
Describe your changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed xyzzy
to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase to change
@@ -126,36 +138,43 @@ its behavior. Try to make sure your explanation can be understood
without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
+[[commit-reference]]
If you want to reference a previous commit in the history of a stable
branch, use the format "abbreviated sha1 (subject, date)",
with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes, like this:
- Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
- noticed that ...
+....
+ Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
+ noticed that ...
+....
The "Copy commit summary" command of gitk can be used to obtain this
-format, or this invocation of "git show":
+format, or this invocation of `git show`:
- git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
+....
+ git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
+....
-(3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
+[[git-tools]]
+=== Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
Git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
-You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
-"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
+You do not have to be afraid to use `-M` option to `git diff` or
+`git format-patch`, if your patch involves file renames. The
receiving end can handle them just fine.
+[[review-patch]]
Please make sure your patch does not add commented out debugging code,
or include any extra files which do not relate to what your patch
is trying to achieve. Make sure to review
your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
-sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
+sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the `master`
branch head. If you are preparing a work based on "next" branch,
that is fine, but please mark it as such.
-
-(4) Sending your patches.
+[[send-patches]]
+=== Sending your patches.
Learn to use format-patch and send-email if possible. These commands
are optimized for the workflow of sending patches, avoiding many ways
@@ -192,7 +211,7 @@ discussion before being accepted, [PATCH v2], [PATCH v3] etc.
are often seen when you are sending an update to what you have
previously sent.
-The "git format-patch" command follows the best current practice to
+The `git format-patch` command follows the best current practice to
format the body of an e-mail message. At the beginning of the
patch should come your commit message, ending with the
Signed-off-by: lines, and a line that consists of three dashes,
@@ -213,6 +232,7 @@ an explanation of changes between each iteration can be kept in
Git-notes and inserted automatically following the three-dash
line via `git format-patch --notes`.
+[[attachment]]
Do not attach the patch as a MIME attachment, compressed or not.
Do not let your e-mail client send quoted-printable. Do not let
your e-mail client send format=flowed which would destroy
@@ -227,6 +247,7 @@ that it will be postponed.
Exception: If your mailer is mangling patches then someone may ask
you to re-send them using MIME, that is OK.
+[[pgp-signature]]
Do not PGP sign your patch. Most likely, your maintainer or other people on the
list would not have your PGP key and would not bother obtaining it anyway.
Your patch is not judged by who you are; a good patch from an unknown origin
@@ -235,28 +256,27 @@ origin that is done poorly or does incorrect things.
If you really really really really want to do a PGP signed
patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
-that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
+that starts with `-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----`. That is
not a text/plain, it's something else.
Send your patch with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
people who are involved in the area you are touching (the output from
-"git blame $path" and "git shortlog --no-merges $path" would help to
++git blame _$path_+ and +git shortlog {litdd}no-merges _$path_+ would help to
identify them), to solicit comments and reviews.
+:1: footnote:[The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com]
+:2: footnote:[The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org]
+
After the list reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the
-patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer [*1*] and "cc:" the
-list [*2*] for inclusion.
+patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer{1} and "cc:" the
+list{2} for inclusion.
-Do not forget to add trailers such as "Acked-by:", "Reviewed-by:" and
-"Tested-by:" lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
+Do not forget to add trailers such as `Acked-by:`, `Reviewed-by:` and
+`Tested-by:` lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
patch.
- [Addresses]
- *1* The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com
- *2* The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org
-
-
-(5) Certify your work by adding your "Signed-off-by: " line
+[[sign-off]]
+=== Certify your work by adding your "Signed-off-by: " line
To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
@@ -268,35 +288,39 @@ the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
pretty simple: if you can certify the below D-C-O:
- Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
-
- By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
-
- (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
- have the right to submit it under the open source license
- indicated in the file; or
-
- (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
- of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
- license and I have the right under that license to submit that
- work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
- by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
- permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
- in the file; or
-
- (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
- person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
- it.
-
- (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
- are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
- personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
- maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
- this project or the open source license(s) involved.
+[[dco]]
+.Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
+____
+By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
+
+a. The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
+ have the right to submit it under the open source license
+ indicated in the file; or
+
+b. The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
+ of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
+ license and I have the right under that license to submit that
+ work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
+ by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
+ permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
+ in the file; or
+
+c. The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
+ person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
+ it.
+
+d. I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
+ are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
+ personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
+ maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
+ this project or the open source license(s) involved.
+____
then you just add a line saying
- Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
+....
+ Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
+....
This line can be automatically added by Git if you run the git-commit
command with the -s option.
@@ -307,85 +331,86 @@ D-C-O. Indeed you are encouraged to do so. Do not forget to
place an in-body "From: " line at the beginning to properly attribute
the change to its true author (see (2) above).
+[[real-name]]
Also notice that a real name is used in the Signed-off-by: line. Please
don't hide your real name.
+[[commit-trailers]]
If you like, you can put extra tags at the end:
-1. "Reported-by:" is used to credit someone who found the bug that
- the patch attempts to fix.
-2. "Acked-by:" says that the person who is more familiar with the area
- the patch attempts to modify liked the patch.
-3. "Reviewed-by:", unlike the other tags, can only be offered by the
- reviewer and means that she is completely satisfied that the patch
- is ready for application. It is usually offered only after a
- detailed review.
-4. "Tested-by:" is used to indicate that the person applied the patch
- and found it to have the desired effect.
+. `Reported-by:` is used to credit someone who found the bug that
+ the patch attempts to fix.
+. `Acked-by:` says that the person who is more familiar with the area
+ the patch attempts to modify liked the patch.
+. `Reviewed-by:`, unlike the other tags, can only be offered by the
+ reviewer and means that she is completely satisfied that the patch
+ is ready for application. It is usually offered only after a
+ detailed review.
+. `Tested-by:` is used to indicate that the person applied the patch
+ and found it to have the desired effect.
You can also create your own tag or use one that's in common usage
such as "Thanks-to:", "Based-on-patch-by:", or "Mentored-by:".
-------------------------------------------------
-Subsystems with dedicated maintainers
+== Subsystems with dedicated maintainers
Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
repositories.
- - git-gui/ comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
+- 'git-gui/' comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
- git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
+ git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
- - gitk-git/ comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
+- 'gitk-git/' comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
- git://ozlabs.org/~paulus/gitk
+ git://ozlabs.org/~paulus/gitk
- - po/ comes from the localization coordinator, Jiang Xin:
+- 'po/' comes from the localization coordinator, Jiang Xin:
https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po/
Patches to these parts should be based on their trees.
-------------------------------------------------
-An ideal patch flow
+[[patch-flow]]
+== An ideal patch flow
Here is an ideal patch flow for this project the current maintainer
suggests to the contributors:
- (0) You come up with an itch. You code it up.
+. You come up with an itch. You code it up.
- (1) Send it to the list and cc people who may need to know about
- the change.
+. Send it to the list and cc people who may need to know about
+ the change.
++
+The people who may need to know are the ones whose code you
+are butchering. These people happen to be the ones who are
+most likely to be knowledgeable enough to help you, but
+they have no obligation to help you (i.e. you ask for help,
+don't demand). +git log -p {litdd} _$area_you_are_modifying_+ would
+help you find out who they are.
- The people who may need to know are the ones whose code you
- are butchering. These people happen to be the ones who are
- most likely to be knowledgeable enough to help you, but
- they have no obligation to help you (i.e. you ask for help,
- don't demand). "git log -p -- $area_you_are_modifying" would
- help you find out who they are.
+. You get comments and suggestions for improvements. You may
+ even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
- (2) You get comments and suggestions for improvements. You may
- even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
+. Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
+ spend their time to improve your patch. Go back to step (2).
- (3) Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
- spend their time to improve your patch. Go back to step (2).
+. The list forms consensus that the last round of your patch is
+ good. Send it to the maintainer and cc the list.
- (4) The list forms consensus that the last round of your patch is
- good. Send it to the maintainer and cc the list.
-
- (5) A topic branch is created with the patch and is merged to 'next',
- and cooked further and eventually graduates to 'master'.
+. A topic branch is created with the patch and is merged to `next`,
+ and cooked further and eventually graduates to `master`.
In any time between the (2)-(3) cycle, the maintainer may pick it up
-from the list and queue it to 'pu', in order to make it easier for
+from the list and queue it to `pu`, in order to make it easier for
people play with it without having to pick up and apply the patch to
their trees themselves.
-------------------------------------------------
-Know the status of your patch after submission
+[[patch-status]]
+== Know the status of your patch after submission
* You can use Git itself to find out when your patch is merged in
- master. 'git pull --rebase' will automatically skip already-applied
+ master. `git pull --rebase` will automatically skip already-applied
patches, and will let you know. This works only if you rebase on top
of the branch in which your patch has been merged (i.e. it will not
tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
@@ -395,8 +420,8 @@ Know the status of your patch after submission
entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
the status of various proposed changes.
---------------------------------------------------
-GitHub-Travis CI hints
+[[travis]]
+== GitHub-Travis CI hints
With an account at GitHub (you can get one for free to work on open
source projects), you can use Travis CI to test your changes on Linux,
@@ -405,25 +430,25 @@ test build here: https://travis-ci.org/git/git/builds/120473209
Follow these steps for the initial setup:
- (1) Fork https://github.com/git/git to your GitHub account.
- You can find detailed instructions how to fork here:
- https://help.github.com/articles/fork-a-repo/
+. Fork https://github.com/git/git to your GitHub account.
+ You can find detailed instructions how to fork here:
+ https://help.github.com/articles/fork-a-repo/
- (2) Open the Travis CI website: https://travis-ci.org
+. Open the Travis CI website: https://travis-ci.org
- (3) Press the "Sign in with GitHub" button.
+. Press the "Sign in with GitHub" button.
- (4) Grant Travis CI permissions to access your GitHub account.
- You can find more information about the required permissions here:
- https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/github-oauth-scopes
+. Grant Travis CI permissions to access your GitHub account.
+ You can find more information about the required permissions here:
+ https://docs.travis-ci.com/user/github-oauth-scopes
- (5) Open your Travis CI profile page: https://travis-ci.org/profile
+. Open your Travis CI profile page: https://travis-ci.org/profile
- (6) Enable Travis CI builds for your Git fork.
+. Enable Travis CI builds for your Git fork.
After the initial setup, Travis CI will run whenever you push new changes
to your fork of Git on GitHub. You can monitor the test state of all your
-branches here: https://travis-ci.org/<Your GitHub handle>/git/branches
+branches here: https://travis-ci.org/__<Your GitHub handle>__/git/branches
If a branch did not pass all test cases then it is marked with a red
cross. In that case you can click on the failing Travis CI job and
@@ -435,17 +460,16 @@ example: https://travis-ci.org/git/git/jobs/122676187
Fix the problem and push your fix to your Git fork. This will trigger
a new Travis CI build to ensure all tests pass.
-
-------------------------------------------------
-MUA specific hints
+[[mua]]
+== MUA specific hints
Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
patterns of breakage. Please make sure your MUA is set up
properly not to corrupt whitespaces.
-See the DISCUSSION section of git-format-patch(1) for hints on
+See the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-format-patch[1] for hints on
checking your patch by mailing it to yourself and applying with
-git-am(1).
+linkgit:git-am[1].
While you are at it, check the resulting commit log message from
a trial run of applying the patch. If what is in the resulting
@@ -457,23 +481,24 @@ should come after the three-dash line that signals the end of the
commit message.
-Pine
-----
+=== Pine
(Johannes Schindelin)
+....
I don't know how many people still use pine, but for those poor
souls it may be good to mention that the quell-flowed-text is
needed for recent versions.
... the "no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, too. AFAIK it
was introduced in 4.60.
+....
(Linus Torvalds)
+....
And 4.58 needs at least this.
----
diff-tree 8326dd8350be64ac7fc805f6563a1d61ad10d32c (from e886a61f76edf5410573e92e38ce22974f9c40f1)
Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@g5.osdl.org>
Date: Mon Aug 15 17:23:51 2005 -0700
@@ -495,10 +520,11 @@ diff --git a/pico/pico.c b/pico/pico.c
+#endif
c |= COMP_EXIT;
break;
-
+....
(Daniel Barkalow)
+....
> A patch to SubmittingPatches, MUA specific help section for
> users of Pine 4.63 would be very much appreciated.
@@ -508,23 +534,21 @@ that or Gentoo did it.) So you need to set the
"no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, unless the option you have is
"strip-whitespace-before-send", in which case you should avoid checking
it.
+....
+=== Thunderbird, KMail, GMail
-Thunderbird, KMail, GMail
--------------------------
-
-See the MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS section of git-format-patch(1).
+See the MUA-SPECIFIC HINTS section of linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
-Gnus
-----
+=== Gnus
-'|' in the *Summary* buffer can be used to pipe the current
+"|" in the `*Summary*` buffer can be used to pipe the current
message to an external program, and this is a handy way to drive
-"git am". However, if the message is MIME encoded, what is
+`git am`. However, if the message is MIME encoded, what is
piped into the program is the representation you see in your
-*Article* buffer after unwrapping MIME. This is often not what
+`*Article*` buffer after unwrapping MIME. This is often not what
you would want for two reasons. It tends to screw up non ASCII
characters (most notably in people's names), and also
-whitespaces (fatal in patches). Running 'C-u g' to display the
-message in raw form before using '|' to run the pipe can work
+whitespaces (fatal in patches). Running "C-u g" to display the
+message in raw form before using "|" to run the pipe can work
this problem around.
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 9593bfa..531649c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -351,6 +351,9 @@ advice.*::
addEmbeddedRepo::
Advice on what to do when you've accidentally added one
git repo inside of another.
+ ignoredHook::
+ Advice shown if an hook is ignored because the hook is not
+ set as executable.
--
core.fileMode::
@@ -413,6 +416,13 @@ core.protectNTFS::
8.3 "short" names.
Defaults to `true` on Windows, and `false` elsewhere.
+core.fsmonitor::
+ If set, the value of this variable is used as a command which
+ will identify all files that may have changed since the
+ requested date/time. This information is used to speed up git by
+ avoiding unnecessary processing of files that have not changed.
+ See the "fsmonitor-watchman" section of linkgit:githooks[5].
+
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
working tree are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -2638,6 +2648,35 @@ push.gpgSign::
override a value from a lower-priority config file. An explicit
command-line flag always overrides this config option.
+push.pushOption::
+ When no `--push-option=<option>` argument is given from the
+ command line, `git push` behaves as if each <value> of
+ this variable is given as `--push-option=<value>`.
++
+This is a multi-valued variable, and an empty value can be used in a
+higher priority configuration file (e.g. `.git/config` in a
+repository) to clear the values inherited from a lower priority
+configuration files (e.g. `$HOME/.gitconfig`).
++
+--
+
+Example:
+
+/etc/gitconfig
+ push.pushoption = a
+ push.pushoption = b
+
+~/.gitconfig
+ push.pushoption = c
+
+repo/.git/config
+ push.pushoption =
+ push.pushoption = b
+
+This will result in only b (a and c are cleared).
+
+--
+
push.recurseSubmodules::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
are available on a remote-tracking branch. If the value is 'check'
@@ -2968,6 +3007,7 @@ sendemail.smtpPass::
sendemail.suppresscc::
sendemail.suppressFrom::
sendemail.to::
+sendemail.tocmd::
sendemail.smtpDomain::
sendemail.smtpServer::
sendemail.smtpServerPort::
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index dd0dba5..3c93c21 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -557,6 +557,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--text::
Treat all files as text.
+--ignore-cr-at-eol::
+ Ignore carrige-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
+
--ignore-space-at-eol::
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index b700bea..d50fa33 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
[--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
- [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
+ [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
[--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -175,6 +175,13 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
warning (e.g., if you are manually performing operations on
submodules).
+--renormalize::
+ Apply the "clean" process freshly to all tracked files to
+ forcibly add them again to the index. This is useful after
+ changing `core.autocrlf` configuration or the `text` attribute
+ in order to correct files added with wrong CRLF/LF line endings.
+ This option implies `-u`.
+
--chmod=(+|-)x::
Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable
bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 6c42abf..4a1417b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ on the subcommand:
git bisect terms [--term-good | --term-bad]
git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
git bisect reset [<commit>]
- git bisect visualize
+ git bisect (visualize|view)
git bisect replay <logfile>
git bisect log
git bisect run <cmd>...
@@ -193,24 +193,23 @@ git bisect start --term-new fixed --term-old broken
Then, use `git bisect <term-old>` and `git bisect <term-new>` instead
of `git bisect good` and `git bisect bad` to mark commits.
-Bisect visualize
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Bisect visualize/view
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To see the currently remaining suspects in 'gitk', issue the following
-command during the bisection process:
+command during the bisection process (the subcommand `view` can be used
+as an alternative to `visualize`):
------------
$ git bisect visualize
------------
-`view` may also be used as a synonym for `visualize`.
-
If the `DISPLAY` environment variable is not set, 'git log' is used
instead. You can also give command-line options such as `-p` and
`--stat`.
------------
-$ git bisect view --stat
+$ git bisect visualize --stat
------------
Bisect log and bisect replay
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index d6587c5..520c53b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -281,6 +281,12 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
and the object it points at. The format is the same as
that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+`pager.branch` is only respected when listing branches, i.e., when
+`--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
+See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
Examples
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 1d420e4..dffa14a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -145,18 +145,25 @@ upstream::
(behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
- information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
- no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
- associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
- are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
- is selected.
+ information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M").
++
+For any remote-tracking branch `%(upstream)`, `%(upstream:remotename)`
+and `%(upstream:remoteref)` refer to the name of the remote and the
+name of the tracked remote ref, respectively. In other words, the
+remote-tracking branch can be updated explicitly and individually by
+using the refspec `%(upstream:remoteref):%(upstream)` to fetch from
+`%(upstream:remotename)`.
++
+Has no effect if the ref does not have tracking information associated
+with it. All the options apart from `nobracket` are mutually exclusive,
+but if used together the last option is selected.
push::
The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
- `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
- does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
- configured.
+ `:rstrip`, `:track`, `:trackshort`, `:remotename`, and `:remoteref`
+ options as `upstream` does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}`
+ ref is configured.
HEAD::
'*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index d153c17..3ac3e3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-ls-files - Show information about files in the index and the working tree
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git ls-files' [-z] [-t] [-v]
+'git ls-files' [-z] [-t] [-v] [-f]
(--[cached|deleted|others|ignored|stage|unmerged|killed|modified])*
(-[c|d|o|i|s|u|k|m])*
[--eol]
@@ -133,6 +133,11 @@ a space) at the start of each line:
that are marked as 'assume unchanged' (see
linkgit:git-update-index[1]).
+-f::
+ Similar to `-t`, but use lowercase letters for files
+ that are marked as 'fsmonitor valid' (see
+ linkgit:git-update-index[1]).
+
--full-name::
When run from a subdirectory, the command usually
outputs paths relative to the current directory. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index b968b64..502e00e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -154,23 +154,71 @@ topic origin/master`, the history of remote-tracking branch
`origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
history of this shape:
- o---B1
+ o---B2
/
- ---o---o---B2--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ ---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
\
- B3
+ B0
\
- Derived (topic)
+ D0---D1---D (topic)
-where `origin/master` used to point at commits B3, B2, B1 and now it
+where `origin/master` used to point at commits B0, B1, B2 and now it
points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
-when `origin/master` was at B3. This mode uses the reflog of
-`origin/master` to find B3 as the fork point, so that the `topic`
-can be rebased on top of the updated `origin/master` by:
+when `origin/master` was at B0, and you built three commits, D0, D1,
+and D, on top of it. Imagine that you now want to rebase the work
+you did on the topic on top of the updated origin/master.
+
+In such a case, `git merge-base origin/master topic` would return the
+parent of B0 in the above picture, but B0^..D is *not* the range of
+commits you would want to replay on top of B (it includes B0, which
+is not what you wrote; it is a commit the other side discarded when
+it moved its tip from B0 to B1).
+
+`git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic` is designed to
+help in such a case. It takes not only B but also B0, B1, and B2
+(i.e. old tips of the remote-tracking branches your repository's
+reflog knows about) into account to see on which commit your topic
+branch was built and finds B0, allowing you to replay only the
+commits on your topic, excluding the commits the other side later
+discarded.
+
+Hence
$ fork_point=$(git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic)
+
+will find B0, and
+
$ git rebase --onto origin/master $fork_point topic
+will replay D0, D1 and D on top of B to create a new history of this
+shape:
+
+ o---B2
+ /
+ ---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \ \
+ B0 D0'--D1'--D' (topic - updated)
+ \
+ D0---D1---D (topic - old)
+
+A caveat is that older reflog entries in your repository may be
+expired by `git gc`. If B0 no longer appears in the reflog of the
+remote-tracking branch `origin/master`, the `--fork-point` mode
+obviously cannot find it and fails, avoiding to give a random and
+useless result (such as the parent of B0, like the same command
+without the `--fork-point` option gives).
+
+Also, the remote-tracking branch you use the `--fork-point` mode
+with must be the one your topic forked from its tip. If you forked
+from an older commit than the tip, this mode would not find the fork
+point (imagine in the above sample history B0 did not exist,
+origin/master started at B1, moved to B2 and then B, and you forked
+your topic at origin/master^ when origin/master was B1; the shape of
+the history would be the same as above, without B0, and the parent
+of B1 is what `git merge-base origin/master topic` correctly finds,
+but the `--fork-point` mode will not, because it is not one of the
+commits that used to be at the tip of origin/master).
+
See also
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 3c6927b..d5dfd84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -64,14 +64,6 @@ OPTIONS
-------
include::merge-options.txt[]
---signoff::
- Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
- log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
- but it typically certifies that committer has
- the rights to submit this work under the same license and
- agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
- (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
-
-m <msg>::
Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
case one is created).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 3e76e99..5b08302 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -156,11 +156,17 @@ already exists on the remote side.
Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
--o::
---push-option::
+-o <option>::
+--push-option=<option>::
Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to
the pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
must not contain a NUL or LF character.
+ When multiple `--push-option=<option>` are given, they are
+ all sent to the other side in the order listed on the
+ command line.
+ When no `--push-option=<option>` is given from the command
+ line, the values of configuration variable `push.pushOption`
+ are used instead.
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 00f95fe..8be6610 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -13,8 +13,6 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
-'git stash' save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
- [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]
'git stash' [push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
[-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]]
[--] [<pathspec>...]]
@@ -33,7 +31,7 @@ and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
`git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
(potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
-Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
+Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash push`.
A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
you create one.
@@ -48,7 +46,6 @@ stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `stash@{n}`).
OPTIONS
-------
-save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [-m|--message <message>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
Save your local modifications to a new 'stash entry' and roll them
@@ -87,6 +84,12 @@ linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
`--no-keep-index` to override this.
+save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
+
+ This option is deprecated in favour of 'git stash push'. It
+ differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take pathspecs,
+ and any non-option arguments form the message.
+
list [<options>]::
List the stash entries that you currently have. Each 'stash entry' is
@@ -118,7 +121,7 @@ pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
- operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
+ operation of `git stash push`. The working directory must
match the index.
+
Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
@@ -137,7 +140,7 @@ apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
`<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
- `stash save` or `stash create`.
+ `stash push` or `stash create`.
branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
@@ -148,7 +151,7 @@ branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
`stash@{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
is given, applies the latest one.
+
-This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
+This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash push` has
changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
the stash entry is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the
time `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state
@@ -255,14 +258,14 @@ $ git stash pop
Testing partial commits::
-You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
+You can use `git stash push --keep-index` when you want to make two or
more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
each change before committing:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
-$ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
+$ git stash push --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
$ edit/build/test first part
$ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
$ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 9f3a78a..fc282e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -97,8 +97,27 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
(and suppresses the output of submodule summaries when the config option
`status.submoduleSummary` is set).
---ignored::
+--ignored[=<mode>]::
Show ignored files as well.
++
+The mode parameter is used to specify the handling of ignored files.
+It is optional: it defaults to 'traditional'.
++
+The possible options are:
++
+ - 'traditional' - Shows ignored files and directories, unless
+ --untracked-files=all is specifed, in which case
+ individual files in ignored directories are
+ displayed.
+ - 'no' - Show no ignored files.
+ - 'matching' - Shows ignored files and directories matching an
+ ignore pattern.
++
+When 'matching' mode is specified, paths that explicity match an
+ignored pattern are shown. If a directory matches an ignore pattern,
+then it is shown, but not paths contained in the ignored directory. If
+a directory does not match an ignore pattern, but all contents are
+ignored, then the directory is not shown, but all contents are shown.
-z::
Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF. This implies
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 75c7dd9..bdb0342 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -16,9 +16,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
[--[no-]assume-unchanged]
[--[no-]skip-worktree]
+ [--[no-]fsmonitor-valid]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--[no-]split-index]
[--[no-|test-|force-]untracked-cache]
+ [--[no-]fsmonitor]
[--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
[--info-only] [--index-info]
[-z] [--stdin] [--index-version <n>]
@@ -111,6 +113,12 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
section "Skip-worktree bit" below for more information.
+--[no-]fsmonitor-valid::
+ When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
+ for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
+ set and unset the "fsmonitor valid" bit for the paths. See
+ section "File System Monitor" below for more information.
+
-g::
--again::
Runs 'git update-index' itself on the paths whose index
@@ -201,6 +209,15 @@ will remove the intended effect of the option.
`--untracked-cache` used to imply `--test-untracked-cache` but
this option would enable the extension unconditionally.
+--fsmonitor::
+--no-fsmonitor::
+ Enable or disable files system monitor feature. These options
+ take effect whatever the value of the `core.fsmonitor`
+ configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]). But a warning
+ is emitted when the change goes against the configured value, as
+ the configured value will take effect next time the index is
+ read and this will remove the intended effect of the option.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
@@ -447,6 +464,34 @@ command reads the index; while when `--[no-|force-]untracked-cache`
are used, the untracked cache is immediately added to or removed from
the index.
+File System Monitor
+-------------------
+
+This feature is intended to speed up git operations for repos that have
+large working directories.
+
+It enables git to work together with a file system monitor (see the
+"fsmonitor-watchman" section of linkgit:githooks[5]) that can
+inform it as to what files have been modified. This enables git to avoid
+having to lstat() every file to find modified files.
+
+When used in conjunction with the untracked cache, it can further improve
+performance by avoiding the cost of scanning the entire working directory
+looking for new files.
+
+If you want to enable (or disable) this feature, it is easier to use
+the `core.fsmonitor` configuration variable (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]) than using the `--fsmonitor` option to
+`git update-index` in each repository, especially if you want to do so
+across all repositories you use, because you can set the configuration
+variable to `true` (or `false`) in your `$HOME/.gitconfig` just once
+and have it affect all repositories you touch.
+
+When the `core.fsmonitor` configuration variable is changed, the
+file system monitor is added to or removed from the index the next time
+a command reads the index. When `--[no-]fsmonitor` are used, the file
+system monitor is immediately added to or removed from the index.
+
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 463b0eb..483a1f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -595,6 +595,10 @@ into it.
Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
+`GIT_TRACE_FSMONITOR`::
+ Enables trace messages for the filesystem monitor extension.
+ See `GIT_TRACE` for available trace output options.
+
`GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS`::
Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 4c68bc1..30687de 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -232,8 +232,7 @@ From a clean working directory:
-------------------------------------------------
$ echo "* text=auto" >.gitattributes
-$ git read-tree --empty # Clean index, force re-scan of working directory
-$ git add .
+$ git add --renormalize .
$ git status # Show files that will be normalized
$ git commit -m "Introduce end-of-line normalization"
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -328,6 +327,9 @@ You can declare that a filter turns a content that by itself is unusable
into a usable content by setting the filter.<driver>.required configuration
variable to `true`.
+Note: Whenever the clean filter is changed, the repo should be renormalized:
+$ git add --renormalize .
+
For example, in .gitattributes, you would assign the `filter`
attribute for paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 5d3f455..0bb0042 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -454,6 +454,34 @@ the name of the file that holds the e-mail to be sent. Exiting with a
non-zero status causes 'git send-email' to abort before sending any
e-mails.
+fsmonitor-watchman
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is invoked when the configuration option core.fsmonitor is
+set to .git/hooks/fsmonitor-watchman. It takes two arguments, a version
+(currently 1) and the time in elapsed nanoseconds since midnight,
+January 1, 1970.
+
+The hook should output to stdout the list of all files in the working
+directory that may have changed since the requested time. The logic
+should be inclusive so that it does not miss any potential changes.
+The paths should be relative to the root of the working directory
+and be separated by a single NUL.
+
+It is OK to include files which have not actually changed. All changes
+including newly-created and deleted files should be included. When
+files are renamed, both the old and the new name should be included.
+
+Git will limit what files it checks for changes as well as which
+directories are checked for untracked files based on the path names
+given.
+
+An optimized way to tell git "all files have changed" is to return
+the filename '/'.
+
+The exit status determines whether git will use the data from the
+hook to limit its search. On error, it will fall back to verifying
+all files and folders.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
index 177610e..02569d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ beginning. It is always easier to squash a few commits together than
to split one big commit into several. Don't be afraid of making too
small or imperfect steps along the way. You can always go back later
and edit the commits with `git rebase --interactive` before you
-publish them. You can use `git stash save --keep-index` to run the
+publish them. You can use `git stash push --keep-index` to run the
test suite independent of other uncommitted changes; see the EXAMPLES
section of linkgit:git-stash[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 2552ab8..3888c3f 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -57,6 +57,16 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the
actual commits being merged.
+--signoff::
+--no-signoff::
+ Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
+ log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
+ but it typically certifies that committer has
+ the rights to submit this work under the same license and
+ agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
+ (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
++
+With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.
--stat::
-n::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index a09d597..fd5d748 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -58,11 +58,12 @@ diff-algorithm=[patience|minimal|histogram|myers];;
ignore-space-change;;
ignore-all-space;;
ignore-space-at-eol;;
+ignore-cr-at-eol;;
Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace
changes mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored.
- See also linkgit:git-diff[1] `-b`, `-w`, and
- `--ignore-space-at-eol`.
+ See also linkgit:git-diff[1] `-b`, `-w`,
+ `--ignore-space-at-eol`, and `--ignore-cr-at-eol`.
+
* If 'their' version only introduces whitespace changes to a line,
'our' version is used;
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 6c77b49..7fae00f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -22,16 +22,20 @@ The notable options are:
`flags`::
- A bit-field of options (the `*IGNORED*` flags are mutually exclusive):
+ A bit-field of options:
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`:::
- Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked files.
+ Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked
+ files. This flag is mutually exclusive with
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`.
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`:::
- Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in `ignored[]`
- in addition to untracked files in `entries[]`.
+ Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in
+ `ignored[]` in addition to untracked files in
+ `entries[]`. This flag is mutually exclusive with
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`.
`DIR_KEEP_UNTRACKED_CONTENTS`:::
@@ -39,6 +43,21 @@ The notable options are:
untracked contents of untracked directories are also returned in
`entries[]`.
+`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO_MODE_MATCHING`:::
+
+ Only has meaning if `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` is also set; if
+ this is set, returns ignored files and directories that match
+ an exclude pattern. If a directory matches an exclude pattern,
+ then the directory is returned and the contained paths are
+ not. A directory that does not match an exclude pattern will
+ not be returned even if all of its contents are ignored. In
+ this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
++
+If this is set, files and directories that explicity match an ignore
+pattern are reported. Implicity ignored directories (directories that
+do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
+are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
+
`DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED`:::
Special mode for git-add. Return ignored files in `ignored[]` and
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index ade0b0c..db35726 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -295,3 +295,22 @@ The remaining data of each directory block is grouped by type:
in the previous ewah bitmap.
- One NUL.
+
+== File System Monitor cache
+
+ The file system monitor cache tracks files for which the core.fsmonitor
+ hook has told us about changes. The signature for this extension is
+ { 'F', 'S', 'M', 'N' }.
+
+ The extension starts with
+
+ - 32-bit version number: the current supported version is 1.
+
+ - 64-bit time: the extension data reflects all changes through the given
+ time which is stored as the nanoseconds elapsed since midnight,
+ January 1, 1970.
+
+ - 32-bit bitmap size: the size of the CE_FSMONITOR_VALID bitmap.
+
+ - An ewah bitmap, the n-th bit indicates whether the n-th index entry
+ is not CE_FSMONITOR_VALID.
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index b4d88af..3a03e63 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1556,7 +1556,7 @@ so on a different branch and then coming back), unstash the
work-in-progress changes.
------------------------------------------------
-$ git stash save "work in progress for foo feature"
+$ git stash push -m "work in progress for foo feature"
------------------------------------------------
This command will save your changes away to the `stash`, and