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-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines130
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile140
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt115
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt61
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt453
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt436
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt486
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt27
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt456
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt345
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches209
-rw-r--r--Documentation/asciidoc.conf2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blame-options.txt29
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/cat-texi.perl1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt634
-rw-r--r--Documentation/date-formats.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-config.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt81
-rw-r--r--Documentation/everyday.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-apply.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-archimport.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-archive.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-blame.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bundle.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt89
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-attr.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt116
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry.txt144
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clean.txt79
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt57
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-column.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt62
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt96
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-count-objects.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential-store.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-describe.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-index.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-difftool.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-import.txt141
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gui.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-hash-object.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-backend.txt92
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-index-pack.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-init-db.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-init.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt97
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-lost-found.txt74
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-file.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-index.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt41
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mktag.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mv.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-name-rev.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt119
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-patch-id.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pull.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt132
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reflog.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repo-config.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt165
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-revert.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rm.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-pack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shell.txt82
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-branch.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-index.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-ref.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stripspace.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt104
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt270
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt82
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tools.txt44
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-ref.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-var.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-web--browse.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt290
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt81
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt195
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcredentials.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt49
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitglossary.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitignore.txt68
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt129
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmodules.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt (renamed from Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt)94
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrevisions.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt116
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitweb.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitworkflows.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt253
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/howto-index.sh4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt371
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/new-command.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt242
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/i18n.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/line-range-format.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/mailmap.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-config.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-options.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt675
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt319
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt235
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-index-skel.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/bitmap-format.txt164
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt506
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/shallow.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls-remotes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt922
245 files changed, 10244 insertions, 3954 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index d62aebd..2c8b2d6 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -9,4 +9,5 @@ gitman.info
howto-index.txt
doc.dep
cmds-*.txt
+mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 69f7e9b..ef67b53 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
Like other projects, we also have some guidelines to keep to the
-code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
+code. For Git in general, three rough rules are:
- Most importantly, we never say "It's in POSIX; we'll happily
ignore your needs should your system not conform to it."
@@ -18,11 +18,12 @@ code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
judgement call, the decision based more on real world
constraints people face than what the paper standard says.
+Make your code readable and sensible, and don't try to be clever.
As for more concrete guidelines, just imitate the existing code
(this is a good guideline, no matter which project you are
contributing to). It is always preferable to match the _local_
-convention. New code added to git suite is expected to match
+convention. New code added to Git suite is expected to match
the overall style of existing code. Modifications to existing
code is expected to match the style the surrounding code already
uses (even if it doesn't match the overall style of existing code).
@@ -112,7 +113,7 @@ For C programs:
- We try to keep to at most 80 characters per line.
- - We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile git with,
+ - We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile Git with,
including old ones. That means that you should not use C99
initializers, even if a lot of compilers grok it.
@@ -144,6 +145,14 @@ For C programs:
they were describing changes. Often splitting a function
into two makes the intention of the code much clearer.
+ - Multi-line comments include their delimiters on separate lines from
+ the text. E.g.
+
+ /*
+ * A very long
+ * multi-line comment.
+ */
+
- Double negation is often harder to understand than no negation
at all.
@@ -164,14 +173,14 @@ For C programs:
- If you are planning a new command, consider writing it in shell
or perl first, so that changes in semantics can be easily
- changed and discussed. Many git commands started out like
+ changed and discussed. Many Git commands started out like
that, and a few are still scripts.
- - Avoid introducing a new dependency into git. This means you
+ - Avoid introducing a new dependency into Git. This means you
usually should stay away from scripting languages not already
- used in the git core command set (unless your command is clearly
+ used in the Git core command set (unless your command is clearly
separate from it, such as an importer to convert random-scm-X
- repositories to git).
+ repositories to Git).
- When we pass <string, length> pair to functions, we should try to
pass them in that order.
@@ -179,13 +188,83 @@ For C programs:
- Use Git's gettext wrappers to make the user interface
translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in po/README.
+For Perl programs:
+
+ - Most of the C guidelines above apply.
+
+ - We try to support Perl 5.8 and later ("use Perl 5.008").
+
+ - use strict and use warnings are strongly preferred.
+
+ - Don't overuse statement modifiers unless using them makes the
+ result easier to follow.
+
+ ... do something ...
+ do_this() unless (condition);
+ ... do something else ...
+
+ is more readable than:
+
+ ... do something ...
+ unless (condition) {
+ do_this();
+ }
+ ... do something else ...
+
+ *only* when the condition is so rare that do_this() will be almost
+ always called.
+
+ - We try to avoid assignments inside "if ()" conditions.
+
+ - Learn and use Git.pm if you need that functionality.
+
+ - For Emacs, it's useful to put the following in
+ GIT_CHECKOUT/.dir-locals.el, assuming you use cperl-mode:
+
+ ;; note the first part is useful for C editing, too
+ ((nil . ((indent-tabs-mode . t)
+ (tab-width . 8)
+ (fill-column . 80)))
+ (cperl-mode . ((cperl-indent-level . 8)
+ (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace . nil)
+ (cperl-merge-trailing-else . t))))
+
+For Python scripts:
+
+ - We follow PEP-8 (http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/).
+
+ - As a minimum, we aim to be compatible with Python 2.6 and 2.7.
+
+ - Where required libraries do not restrict us to Python 2, we try to
+ also be compatible with Python 3.1 and later.
+
+ - When you must differentiate between Unicode literals and byte string
+ literals, it is OK to use the 'b' prefix. Even though the Python
+ documentation for version 2.6 does not mention this prefix, it has
+ been supported since version 2.6.0.
+
Writing Documentation:
+ Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in the
+ AsciiDoc format in *.txt files (e.g. Documentation/git.txt), and
+ processed into HTML and manpages (e.g. git.html and git.1 in the
+ same directory).
+
+ The documentation liberally mixes US and UK English (en_US/UK)
+ norms for spelling and grammar, which is somewhat unfortunate.
+ In an ideal world, it would have been better if it consistently
+ used only one and not the other, and we would have picked en_US
+ (if you wish to correct the English of some of the existing
+ documentation, please see the documentation-related advice in the
+ Documentation/SubmittingPatches file).
+
Every user-visible change should be reflected in the documentation.
The same general rule as for code applies -- imitate the existing
- conventions. A few commented examples follow to provide reference
- when writing or modifying command usage strings and synopsis sections
- in the manual pages:
+ conventions.
+
+ A few commented examples follow to provide reference when writing or
+ modifying command usage strings and synopsis sections in the manual
+ pages:
Placeholders are spelled in lowercase and enclosed in angle brackets:
<file>
@@ -230,3 +309,34 @@ Writing Documentation:
valid usage. "*" has its own pair of brackets, because it can
(optionally) be specified only when one or more of the letters is
also provided.
+
+ A note on notation:
+ Use 'git' (all lowercase) when talking about commands i.e. something
+ the user would type into a shell and use 'Git' (uppercase first letter)
+ when talking about the version control system and its properties.
+
+ A few commented examples follow to provide reference when writing or
+ modifying paragraphs or option/command explanations that contain options
+ or commands:
+
+ Literal examples (e.g. use of command-line options, command names, and
+ configuration variables) are typeset in monospace, and if you can use
+ `backticks around word phrases`, do so.
+ `--pretty=oneline`
+ `git rev-list`
+ `remote.pushdefault`
+
+ Word phrases enclosed in `backtick characters` are rendered literally
+ and will not be further expanded. The use of `backticks` to achieve the
+ previous rule means that literal examples should not use AsciiDoc
+ escapes.
+ Correct:
+ `--pretty=oneline`
+ Incorrect:
+ `\--pretty=oneline`
+
+ If some place in the documentation needs to typeset a command usage
+ example with inline substitutions, it is fine to use +monospaced and
+ inline substituted text+ instead of `monospaced literal text`, and with
+ the former, the part that should not get substituted must be
+ quoted/escaped.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index e53d333..fc6b2cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -1,26 +1,51 @@
-MAN1_TXT= \
- $(filter-out $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
- $(wildcard git-*.txt)) \
- gitk.txt gitweb.txt git.txt
-MAN5_TXT=gitattributes.txt gitignore.txt gitmodules.txt githooks.txt \
- gitrepository-layout.txt gitweb.conf.txt
-MAN7_TXT=gitcli.txt gittutorial.txt gittutorial-2.txt \
- gitcvs-migration.txt gitcore-tutorial.txt gitglossary.txt \
- gitdiffcore.txt gitnamespaces.txt gitrevisions.txt gitworkflows.txt
+# Guard against environment variables
+MAN1_TXT =
+MAN5_TXT =
+MAN7_TXT =
+TECH_DOCS =
+ARTICLES =
+SP_ARTICLES =
+
+MAN1_TXT += $(filter-out \
+ $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
+ $(wildcard git-*.txt))
+MAN1_TXT += git.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitk.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitremote-helpers.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitweb.txt
+
+MAN5_TXT += gitattributes.txt
+MAN5_TXT += githooks.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitignore.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitmodules.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitrepository-layout.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitweb.conf.txt
+
+MAN7_TXT += gitcli.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitcore-tutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitcredentials.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitcvs-migration.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitdiffcore.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitglossary.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitnamespaces.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitrevisions.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gittutorial-2.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gittutorial.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
-MAN_XML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
-MAN_HTML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
+MAN_XML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
+MAN_HTML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
-DOC_HTML=$(MAN_HTML)
+OBSOLETE_HTML = git-remote-helpers.html
+DOC_HTML = $(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
-ARTICLES = howto-index
+ARTICLES += howto-index
ARTICLES += everyday
ARTICLES += git-tools
ARTICLES += git-bisect-lk2009
# with their own formatting rules.
-SP_ARTICLES = user-manual
+SP_ARTICLES += user-manual
SP_ARTICLES += howto/new-command
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-branch-rebase
SP_ARTICLES += howto/using-merge-subtree
@@ -31,13 +56,15 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/setup-git-server-over-http
SP_ARTICLES += howto/separating-topic-branches
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-a-faulty-merge
SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object
+SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebuild-from-update-hook
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebase-from-internal-branch
SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
-TECH_DOCS = technical/index-format
+TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
+TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
@@ -52,35 +79,36 @@ SP_ARTICLES += technical/api-index
DOC_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
-DOC_MAN1=$(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
-DOC_MAN5=$(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
-DOC_MAN7=$(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
-
-prefix?=$(HOME)
-bindir?=$(prefix)/bin
-htmldir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
-pdfdir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
-mandir?=$(prefix)/share/man
-man1dir=$(mandir)/man1
-man5dir=$(mandir)/man5
-man7dir=$(mandir)/man7
-# DESTDIR=
+DOC_MAN1 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
+DOC_MAN5 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
+DOC_MAN7 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
+
+prefix ?= $(HOME)
+bindir ?= $(prefix)/bin
+htmldir ?= $(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+infodir ?= $(prefix)/share/info
+pdfdir ?= $(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+mandir ?= $(prefix)/share/man
+man1dir = $(mandir)/man1
+man5dir = $(mandir)/man5
+man7dir = $(mandir)/man7
+# DESTDIR =
ASCIIDOC = asciidoc
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA =
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
XMLTO = xmlto
XMLTO_EXTRA =
-INSTALL?=install
+INSTALL ?= install
RM ?= rm -f
MAN_REPO = ../../git-manpages
HTML_REPO = ../../git-htmldocs
-infodir?=$(prefix)/share/info
-MAKEINFO=makeinfo
-INSTALL_INFO=install-info
-DOCBOOK2X_TEXI=docbook2x-texi
-DBLATEX=dblatex
+MAKEINFO = makeinfo
+INSTALL_INFO = install-info
+DOCBOOK2X_TEXI = docbook2x-texi
+DBLATEX = dblatex
+ASCIIDOC_DBLATEX_DIR = /etc/asciidoc/dblatex
ifndef PERL_PATH
PERL_PATH = /usr/bin/perl
endif
@@ -178,8 +206,6 @@ all: html man
html: $(DOC_HTML)
-$(DOC_HTML) $(DOC_MAN1) $(DOC_MAN5) $(DOC_MAN7): asciidoc.conf
-
man: man1 man5 man7
man1: $(DOC_MAN1)
man5: $(DOC_MAN5)
@@ -224,7 +250,11 @@ install-html: html
#
# Determine "include::" file references in asciidoc files.
#
-doc.dep : $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
+docdep_prereqs = \
+ mergetools-list.made $(mergetools_txt) \
+ cmd-list.made $(cmds_txt)
+
+doc.dep : $(docdep_prereqs) $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(PERL_PATH) ./build-docdep.perl >$@+ $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
mv $@+ $@
@@ -248,21 +278,41 @@ cmd-list.made: cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(MAN1_TXT)
$(PERL_PATH) ./cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
date >$@
+mergetools_txt = mergetools-diff.txt mergetools-merge.txt
+
+$(mergetools_txt): mergetools-list.made
+
+mergetools-list.made: ../git-mergetool--lib.sh $(wildcard ../mergetools/*)
+ $(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ && \
+ $(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
+ . ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
+ show_tool_names can_diff "* " || :' >mergetools-diff.txt && \
+ $(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
+ . ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
+ show_tool_names can_merge "* " || :' >mergetools-merge.txt && \
+ date >$@
+
clean:
$(RM) *.xml *.xml+ *.html *.html+ *.1 *.5 *.7
$(RM) *.texi *.texi+ *.texi++ git.info gitman.info
$(RM) *.pdf
$(RM) howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
$(RM) technical/*.html technical/api-index.txt
- $(RM) $(cmds_txt) *.made
+ $(RM) $(cmds_txt) $(mergetools_txt) *.made
$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
-$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt
+$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf \
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
+$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
+ $(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
+ $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
+ mv $@+ $@
+
manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
@@ -270,7 +320,7 @@ manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
$(XMLTO) -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
-%.xml : %.txt
+%.xml : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(ASCIIDOC) -b docbook -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf \
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
@@ -278,7 +328,7 @@ manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b docbook -d book -o $@+ $< && \
+ $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b docbook -d article -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
@@ -286,7 +336,7 @@ technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
$(QUIET_GEN)cd technical && '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./api-index.sh
technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
-$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt
+$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) $*.txt
@@ -310,7 +360,7 @@ user-manual.texi: user-manual.xml
user-manual.pdf: user-manual.xml
$(QUIET_DBLATEX)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(DBLATEX) -o $@+ -p /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.xsl -s /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.sty $< && \
+ $(DBLATEX) -o $@+ -p $(ASCIIDOC_DBLATEX_DIR)/asciidoc-dblatex.xsl -s $(ASCIIDOC_DBLATEX_DIR)/asciidoc-dblatex.sty $< && \
mv $@+ $@
gitman.texi: $(MAN_XML) cat-texi.perl
@@ -348,8 +398,8 @@ $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
install-webdoc : html
'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
-# You must have a clone of git-htmldocs and git-manpages repositories
-# next to the git repository itself for the following to work.
+# You must have a clone of 'git-htmldocs' and 'git-manpages' repositories
+# next to the 'git' repository itself for the following to work.
quick-install: quick-install-man
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
index 806a965..be68524 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.10
not exclude them and tried to apply funny patches only to fail.
* "git blame" started missing quite a few changes from the origin
- since we stopped using the diff minimalization by default in v1.7.2
+ since we stopped using the diff minimization by default in v1.7.2
era.
* When PATH contains an unreadable directory, alias expansion code
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
index a0d24d1..f0cfd02 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.11.1
* "git diff --no-index" did not work with pagers correctly.
* "git diff COPYING HEAD:COPYING" gave a nonsense error message that
- claimed that the treeish HEAD did not have COPYING in it.
+ claimed that the tree-ish HEAD did not have COPYING in it.
* When "git log" gets "--simplify-merges/by-decoration" together with
"--first-parent", the combination of these options makes the
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt
index cf3f455..7796df3 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.4.txt
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.5.3
--------------------
* The single-key mode of "git add -p" was easily fooled into thinking
- that it was told to add everthing ('a') when up-arrow was pressed by
+ that it was told to add everything ('a') when up-arrow was pressed by
mistake.
* Setting a git command that uses custom configuration via "-c var=val"
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt
index e74f4ef..b9c66aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.2.txt
@@ -12,11 +12,11 @@ Fixes since v1.7.8.1
* The configuration file parser used for sizes (e.g. bigFileThreshold)
did not correctly interpret 'g' suffix.
- * The replacement implemention for snprintf used on platforms with
+ * The replacement implementation for snprintf used on platforms with
native snprintf that is broken did not use va_copy correctly.
* LF-to-CRLF streaming filter replaced all LF with CRLF, which might
- be techinically correct but not friendly to people who are trying
+ be technically correct but not friendly to people who are trying
to recover from earlier mistakes of using CRLF in the repository
data in the first place. It now refrains from doing so for LF that
follows a CR.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt
index b4d90bb..2493113 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.8.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ Updates since v1.7.7
* Updates to bash completion scripts.
* The build procedure has been taught to take advantage of computed
- dependency automatically when the complier supports it.
+ dependency automatically when the compiler supports it.
* The date parser now accepts timezone designators that lack minutes
part and also has a colon between "hh:mm".
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ Updates since v1.7.7
* Variants of "git cherry-pick" and "git revert" that take multiple
commits learned to "--continue" and "--abort".
- * "git daemon" gives more human readble error messages to clients
+ * "git daemon" gives more human readable error messages to clients
using ERR packets when appropriate.
* Errors at the network layer is logged by "git daemon".
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6cde07b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,87 @@
+Git 1.8.1.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1
+------------------
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does.
+
+ * When attempting to read the XDG-style $HOME/.config/git/config and
+ finding that $HOME/.config/git is a file, we gave a wrong error
+ message, instead of treating the case as "a custom config file does
+ not exist there" and moving on.
+
+ * After failing to create a temporary file using mkstemp(), failing
+ pathname was not reported correctly on some platforms.
+
+ * http transport was wrong to ask for the username when the
+ authentication is done by certificate identity.
+
+ * The behaviour visible to the end users was confusing, when they
+ attempt to kill a process spawned in the editor that was in turn
+ launched by Git with SIGINT (or SIGQUIT), as Git would catch that
+ signal and die. We ignore these signals now.
+
+ * A child process that was killed by a signal (e.g. SIGINT) was
+ reported in an inconsistent way depending on how the process was
+ spawned by us, with or without a shell in between.
+
+ * After "git add -N" and then writing a tree object out of the
+ index, the cache-tree data structure got corrupted.
+
+ * "git apply" misbehaved when fixing whitespace breakages by removing
+ excess trailing blank lines in some corner cases.
+
+ * A tar archive created by "git archive" recorded a directory in a
+ way that made NetBSD's implementation of "tar" sometimes unhappy.
+
+ * When "git clone --separate-git-dir=$over_there" is interrupted, it
+ failed to remove the real location of the $GIT_DIR it created.
+ This was most visible when interrupting a submodule update.
+
+ * "git fetch --mirror" and fetch that uses other forms of refspec
+ with wildcard used to attempt to update a symbolic ref that match
+ the wildcard on the receiving end, which made little sense (the
+ real ref that is pointed at by the symbolic ref would be updated
+ anyway). Symbolic refs no longer are affected by such a fetch.
+
+ * The "log --graph" codepath fell into infinite loop in some
+ corner cases.
+
+ * "git merge" started calling prepare-commit-msg hook like "git
+ commit" does some time ago, but forgot to pay attention to the exit
+ status of the hook.
+
+ * "git pack-refs" that ran in parallel to another process that
+ created new refs had a race that can lose new ones.
+
+ * When a line to be wrapped has a solid run of non space characters
+ whose length exactly is the wrap width, "git shortlog -w" failed
+ to add a newline after such a line.
+
+ * The way "git svn" asked for password using SSH_ASKPASS and
+ GIT_ASKPASS was not in line with the rest of the system.
+
+ * "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
+ activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
+ nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
+
+ * "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
+ activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
+ nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
+
+ * When autoconf is used, any build on a different commit always ran
+ "config.status --recheck" even when unnecessary.
+
+ * Some scripted programs written in Python did not get updated when
+ PYTHON_PATH changed.
+
+ * We have been carrying a translated and long-unmaintained copy of an
+ old version of the tutorial; removed.
+
+ * Portability issues in many self-test scripts have been addressed.
+
+
+Also contains other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5ab7b18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+Git 1.8.1.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.1
+--------------------
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES list that does not name the
+ real path to a directory (i.e. a symbolic link) could have caused
+ the GIT_DIR discovery logic to escape the ceiling.
+
+ * Command line completion for "tcsh" emitted an unwanted space
+ after completing a single directory name.
+
+ * Command line completion leaked an unnecessary error message while
+ looking for possible matches with paths in <tree-ish>.
+
+ * "git archive" did not record uncompressed size in the header when
+ streaming a zip archive, which confused some implementations of unzip.
+
+ * When users spelled "cc:" in lowercase in the fake "header" in the
+ trailer part, "git send-email" failed to pick up the addresses from
+ there. As e-mail headers field names are case insensitive, this
+ script should follow suit and treat "cc:" and "Cc:" the same way.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..681cb35
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git 1.8.1.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.2
+--------------------
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does. The fix for this in 1.8.1.2 had
+ performance degradations.
+
+ * Command line completion code was inadvertently made incompatible with
+ older versions of bash by using a newer array notation.
+
+ * Scripts to test bash completion was inherently flaky as it was
+ affected by whatever random things the user may have on $PATH.
+
+ * A fix was added to the build procedure to work around buggy
+ versions of ccache broke the auto-generation of dependencies, which
+ unfortunately is still relevant because some people use ancient
+ distros.
+
+ * We used to stuff "user@" and then append what we read from
+ /etc/mailname to come up with a default e-mail ident, but a bug
+ lost the "user@" part.
+
+ * "git am" did not parse datestamp correctly from Hg generated patch,
+ when it is run in a locale outside C (or en).
+
+ * Attempt to "branch --edit-description" an existing branch, while
+ being on a detached HEAD, errored out.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" did not replay a root commit to an unborn branch.
+
+ * We forgot to close the file descriptor reading from "gpg" output,
+ killing "git log --show-signature" on a long history.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" lost empty merges in recent versions
+ of Git.
+
+ * Rebasing the history of superproject with change in the submodule
+ has been broken since v1.7.12.
+
+ * A failure to push due to non-ff while on an unborn branch
+ dereferenced a NULL pointer when showing an error message.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..22af1d1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+Git 1.8.1.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.3
+--------------------
+
+ * "git imap-send" talking over imaps:// did make sure it received a
+ valid certificate from the other end, but did not check if the
+ certificate matched the host it thought it was talking to.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..efa68ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git 1.8.1.5 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.4
+--------------------
+
+ * Given a string with a multi-byte character that begins with '-' on
+ the command line where an option is expected, the option parser
+ used just one byte of the unknown letter when reporting an error.
+
+ * In v1.8.1, the attribute parser was tightened too restrictive to
+ error out upon seeing an entry that begins with an ! (exclamation),
+ which may confuse users to expect a "negative match", which does
+ not exist. This has been demoted to a warning; such an entry is
+ still ignored.
+
+ * "git apply --summary" has been taught to make sure the similarity
+ value shown in its output is sensible, even when the input had a
+ bogus value.
+
+ * "git clean" showed what it was going to do, but sometimes ended
+ up finding that it was not allowed to do so, which resulted in a
+ confusing output (e.g. after saying that it will remove an
+ untracked directory, it found an embedded git repository there
+ which it is not allowed to remove). It now performs the actions
+ and then reports the outcome more faithfully.
+
+ * "git clone" used to allow --bare and --separate-git-dir=$there
+ options at the same time, which was nonsensical.
+
+ * "git cvsimport" mishandled timestamps at DST boundary.
+
+ * We used to have an arbitrary 32 limit for combined diff input,
+ resulting in incorrect number of leading colons shown when showing
+ the "--raw --cc" output.
+
+ * The smart HTTP clients forgot to verify the content-type that comes
+ back from the server side to make sure that the request is being
+ handled properly.
+
+ * "git help remote-helpers" failed to find the documentation.
+
+ * "gitweb" pages served over HTTPS, when configured to show picon or
+ gravatar, referred to these external resources to be fetched via
+ HTTP, resulting in mixed contents warning in browsers.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c15cf2e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+Git 1.8.1.6 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.5
+--------------------
+
+ * An earlier change to the attribute system introduced at v1.8.1.2 by
+ mistake stopped a pattern "dir" (without trailing slash) from
+ matching a directory "dir" (it only wanted to allow pattern "dir/"
+ to also match).
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems can get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and looped forever.
+
+ * When the "--prefix" option is used to "checkout-index", the code
+ did not pick the correct output filter based on the attribute
+ setting.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to the ls-remote and fetch with recent version of Git.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..769a6fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,115 @@
+Git v1.8.2.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2
+------------------
+
+ * An earlier change to the attribute system introduced at v1.8.1.2 by
+ mistake stopped a pattern "dir" (without trailing slash) from
+ matching a directory "dir" (it only wanted to allow pattern "dir/"
+ to also match).
+
+ * Verification of signed tags were not done correctly when not in C
+ or en/US locale.
+
+ * 'git commit -m "$msg"' used to add an extra newline even when
+ $msg already ended with one.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" option of "git describe", when used with
+ "--all" to allow refs that are not annotated tags to be used as a
+ base of description, did not restrict the output from the command
+ to those that match the given pattern.
+
+ * An aliased command spawned from a bare repository that does not say
+ it is bare with "core.bare = yes" is treated as non-bare by mistake.
+
+ * When "format-patch" quoted a non-ascii strings on the header files,
+ it incorrectly applied rfc2047 and chopped a single character in
+ the middle of it.
+
+ * "git archive" reports a failure when asked to create an archive out
+ of an empty tree. It would be more intuitive to give an empty
+ archive back in such a case.
+
+ * "git tag -f <tag>" always said "Updated tag '<tag>'" even when
+ creating a new tag (i.e. not overwriting nor updating).
+
+ * "git cmd -- ':(top'" was not diagnosed as an invalid syntax, and
+ instead the parser kept reading beyond the end of the string.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to the ls-remote and fetch with recent version of Git.
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems can get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and looped forever.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
+ accumulate the prefix paths.
+
+ * "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
+ filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
+ sort messages in the order the writing MUA meant to, by sorting
+ numeric segment in numeric order and non-numeric segment in
+ alphabetical order.
+
+ * When export-subst is used, "zip" output recorded incorrect
+ size of the file.
+
+ * Some platforms and users spell UTF-8 differently; retry with the
+ most official "UTF-8" when the system does not understand the
+ user-supplied encoding name that are the common alternative
+ spellings of UTF-8.
+
+ * "git branch" did not bother to check nonsense command line
+ parameters and issue errors in many cases.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * "git index-pack" had a buffer-overflow while preparing an
+ informational message when the translated version of it was too
+ long.
+
+ * Clarify in the documentation "what" gets pushed to "where" when the
+ command line to "git push" does not say these explicitly.
+
+ * In "git reflog expire", REACHABLE bit was not cleared from the
+ correct objects.
+
+ * The "--color=<when>" argument to the commands in the diff family
+ was described poorly.
+
+ * The arguments given to pre-rebase hook were not documented.
+
+ * The v4 index format was not documented.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" argument "git describe" takes uses glob
+ pattern but it wasn't obvious from the documentation.
+
+ * Some sources failed to compile on systems that lack NI_MAXHOST in
+ their system header (e.g. z/OS).
+
+ * Add an example use of "--env-filter" in "filter-branch"
+ documentation.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+ * In the v1.8.0 era, we changed symbols that do not have to be global
+ to file scope static, but a few functions in graph.c were used by
+ CGit from sideways bypassing the entry points of the API the
+ in-tree users use.
+
+ * "git merge-tree" had a typo in the logic to detect d/f conflicts,
+ which caused it to segfault in some cases.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..708df1a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
+Git v1.8.2.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2.1
+--------------------
+
+ * Zsh completion forgot that '%' character used to signal untracked
+ files needs to be escaped with another '%'.
+
+ * A commit object whose author or committer ident are malformed
+ crashed some code that trusted that a name, an email and an
+ timestamp can always be found in it.
+
+ * The new core.commentchar configuration was not applied to a few
+ places.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" did not pass "-v/-q" options to underlying
+ "git rebase".
+
+ * When receive-pack detects error in the pack header it received in
+ order to decide which of unpack-objects or index-pack to run, it
+ returned without closing the error stream, which led to a hang
+ sideband thread.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-algorithm=algo" was understood by the command line
+ parser, but "git diff --diff-algorithm algo" was not.
+
+ * "git log -S/-G" started paying attention to textconv filter, but
+ there was no way to disable this. Make it honor --no-textconv
+ option.
+
+ * "git merge $(git rev-parse v1.8.2)" behaved quite differently from
+ "git merge v1.8.2", as if v1.8.2 were written as v1.8.2^0 and did
+ not pay much attention to the annotated tag payload. Make the code
+ notice the type of the tag object, in addition to the dwim_ref()
+ based classification the current code uses (i.e. the name appears
+ in refs/tags/) to decide when to special case merging of tags.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" and "git revert" can take more than one commit
+ on the command line these days, but it was not mentioned on the usage
+ text.
+
+ * Perl scripts like "git-svn" closed (not redirecting to /dev/null)
+ the standard error stream, which is not a very smart thing to do.
+ Later open may return file descriptor #2 for unrelated purpose, and
+ error reporting code may write into them.
+
+ * "git apply --whitespace=fix" was not prepared to see a line getting
+ longer after fixing whitespaces (e.g. tab-in-indent aka Python).
+
+ * "git diff/log --cc" did not work well with options that ignore
+ whitespace changes.
+
+ * Documentation on setting up a http server that requires
+ authentication only on the push but not fetch has been clarified.
+
+ * A few bugfixes to "git rerere" working on corner case merge
+ conflicts have been applied.
+
+ * "git bundle" did not like a bundle created using a commit without
+ any message as its one of the prerequisites.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6139482
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+Git v1.8.2.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2.2
+--------------------
+
+ * "rev-list --stdin" and friends kept bogus pointers into the input
+ buffer around as human readable object names. This was not a
+ huge problem but was exposed by a new change that uses these
+ names in error output.
+
+ * When "git difftool" drove "kdiff3", it mistakenly passed --auto
+ option that was meant while resolving merge conflicts.
+
+ * "git remote add" command did not diagnose extra command line
+ arguments as an error and silently ignored them.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
index 6c85bf4..fc606ae 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
@@ -1,19 +1,51 @@
Git v1.8.2 Release Notes
========================
-Backward compatibility notes
-----------------------------
+Backward compatibility notes (this release)
+-------------------------------------------
-In the upcoming major release (tentatively called 1.8.2), we will
-change the behavior of the "git push" command.
+"git push $there tag v1.2.3" used to allow replacing a tag v1.2.3
+that already exists in the repository $there, if the rewritten tag
+you are pushing points at a commit that is a descendant of a commit
+that the old tag v1.2.3 points at. This was found to be error prone
+and starting with this release, any attempt to update an existing
+ref under refs/tags/ hierarchy will fail, without "--force".
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A" that does not specify what paths
+to add on the command line is run from inside a subdirectory, the
+scope of the operation has always been limited to the subdirectory.
+Many users found this counter-intuitive, given that "git commit -a"
+and other commands operate on the entire tree regardless of where you
+are. In this release, these commands give a warning message that
+suggests the users to use "git add -u/-A ." when they want to limit
+the scope to the current directory; doing so will squelch the message,
+while training their fingers.
+
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
-over there). We will use the "simple" semantics that pushes the
-current branch to the branch with the same name, only when the current
-branch is set to integrate with that remote branch. There is a user
-preference configuration variable "push.default" to change this.
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes the current branch to the branch with the same
+name, only when the current branch is set to integrate with that
+remote branch. There is a user preference configuration variable
+"push.default" to change this. If you are an old-timer who is used
+to the "matching" semantics, you can set it to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early,
+you can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A", that does not specify what paths
+to add on the command line is run from inside a subdirectory, these
+commands will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. Because there will be no
+mechanism to make "git add -u" behave as if "git add -u .", it is
+important for those who are used to "git add -u" (without pathspec)
+updating the index only for paths in the current subdirectory to start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ." when they mean
+it before Git 2.0 comes.
Updates since v1.8.1
@@ -26,13 +58,210 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
* Output from the tests is coloured using "green is okay, yellow is
questionable, red is bad and blue is informative" scheme.
+ * Mention of "GIT/Git/git" in the documentation have been updated to
+ be more uniform and consistent. The name of the system and the
+ concept it embodies is "Git"; the command the users type is "git".
+ All-caps "GIT" was merely a way to imitate "Git" typeset in small
+ caps in our ASCII text only documentation and to be avoided.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/completion) used to let the
+ default completer to suggest pathnames, which gave too many
+ irrelevant choices (e.g. "git add" would not want to add an
+ unmodified path). It learnt to use a more git-aware logic to
+ enumerate only relevant ones.
+
+ * In bare repositories, "git shortlog" and other commands now read
+ mailmap files from the tip of the history, to help running these
+ tools in server settings.
+
+ * Color specifiers, e.g. "%C(blue)Hello%C(reset)", used in the
+ "--format=" option of "git log" and friends can be disabled when
+ the output is not sent to a terminal by prefixing them with
+ "auto,", e.g. "%C(auto,blue)Hello%C(auto,reset)".
+
+ * Scripts can ask Git that wildcard patterns in pathspecs they give do
+ not have any significance, i.e. take them as literal strings.
+
+ * The patterns in .gitignore and .gitattributes files can have **/,
+ as a pattern that matches 0 or more levels of subdirectory.
+ E.g. "foo/**/bar" matches "bar" in "foo" itself or in a
+ subdirectory of "foo".
+
+ * When giving arguments without "--" disambiguation, object names
+ that come earlier on the command line must not be interpretable as
+ pathspecs and pathspecs that come later on the command line must
+ not be interpretable as object names. This disambiguation rule has
+ been tweaked so that ":/" (no other string before or after) is
+ always interpreted as a pathspec; "git cmd -- :/" is no longer
+ needed, you can just say "git cmd :/".
+
+ * Various "hint" lines Git gives when it asks the user to edit
+ messages in the editor are commented out with '#' by default. The
+ core.commentchar configuration variable can be used to customize
+ this '#' to a different character.
+
+ * "git add -u" and "git add -A" without pathspec issues warning to
+ make users aware that they are only operating on paths inside the
+ subdirectory they are in. Use ":/" (everything from the top) or
+ "." (everything from the $cwd) to disambiguate.
+
+ * "git blame" (and "git diff") learned the "--no-follow" option.
+
+ * "git branch" now rejects some nonsense combinations of command line
+ arguments (e.g. giving more than one branch name to rename) with
+ more case-specific error messages.
+
+ * "git check-ignore" command to help debugging .gitignore files has
+ been added.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" can be used to replay a root commit to an unborn
+ branch.
+
+ * "git commit" can be told to use --cleanup=whitespace by setting the
+ configuration variable commit.cleanup to 'whitespace'.
+
+ * "git diff" and other Porcelain commands can be told to use a
+ non-standard algorithm by setting diff.algorithm configuration
+ variable.
+
+ * "git fetch --mirror" and fetch that uses other forms of refspec
+ with wildcard used to attempt to update a symbolic ref that match
+ the wildcard on the receiving end, which made little sense (the
+ real ref that is pointed at by the symbolic ref would be updated
+ anyway). Symbolic refs no longer are affected by such a fetch.
+
+ * "git format-patch" now detects more cases in which a whole branch
+ is being exported, and uses the description for the branch, when
+ asked to write a cover letter for the series.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned "-v $count" option, and prepends a
+ string "v$count-" to the names of its output files, and also
+ automatically sets the subject prefix to "PATCH v$count". This
+ allows patches from rerolled series to be stored under different
+ names and makes it easier to reuse cover letter messages.
+
+ * "git log" and friends can be told with --use-mailmap option to
+ rewrite the names and email addresses of people using the mailmap
+ mechanism.
+
+ * "git log --cc --graph" now shows the combined diff output with the
+ ancestry graph.
+
+ * "git log --grep=<pattern>" honors i18n.logoutputencoding to look
+ for the pattern after fixing the log message to the specified
+ encoding.
+
+ * "git mergetool" and "git difftool" learned to list the available
+ tool backends in a more consistent manner.
+
+ * "git mergetool" is aware of TortoiseGitMerge now and uses it over
+ TortoiseMerge when available.
+
+ * "git push" now requires "-f" to update a tag, even if it is a
+ fast-forward, as tags are meant to be fixed points.
+
+ * Error messages from "git push" when it stops to prevent remote refs
+ from getting overwritten by mistake have been improved to explain
+ various situations separately.
+
+ * "git push" will stop without doing anything if the new "pre-push"
+ hook exists and exits with a failure.
+
+ * When "git rebase" fails to generate patches to be applied (e.g. due
+ to oom), it failed to detect the failure and instead behaved as if
+ there were nothing to do. A workaround to use a temporary file has
+ been applied, but we probably would want to revisit this later, as
+ it hurts the common case of not failing at all.
+
+ * Input and preconditions to "git reset" has been loosened where
+ appropriate. "git reset $fromtree Makefile" requires $fromtree to
+ be any tree (it used to require it to be a commit), for example.
+ "git reset" (without options or parameters) used to error out when
+ you do not have any commits in your history, but it now gives you
+ an empty index (to match non-existent commit you are not even on).
+
+ * "git status" says what branch is being bisected or rebased when
+ able, not just "bisecting" or "rebasing".
+
+ * "git submodule" started learning a new mode to integrate with the
+ tip of the remote branch (as opposed to integrating with the commit
+ recorded in the superproject's gitlink).
+
+ * "git upload-pack" which implements the service "ls-remote" and
+ "fetch" talk to can be told to hide ref hierarchies the server
+ side internally uses (and that clients have no business learning
+ about) with transfer.hiderefs configuration.
+
+
Foreign Interface
- *
+ * "git fast-export" has been updated for its use in the context of
+ the remote helper interface.
+
+ * A new remote helper to interact with bzr has been added to contrib/.
+
+ * "git p4" got various bugfixes around its branch handling. It is
+ also made usable with Python 2.4/2.5. In addition, its various
+ portability issues for Cygwin have been addressed.
+
+ * The remote helper to interact with Hg in contrib/ has seen a few
+ fixes.
+
Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
- *
+ * "git fsck" has been taught to be pickier about entries in tree
+ objects that should not be there, e.g. ".", ".git", and "..".
+
+ * Matching paths with common forms of pathspecs that contain wildcard
+ characters has been optimized further.
+
+ * We stopped paying attention to $GIT_CONFIG environment that points
+ at a single configuration file from any command other than "git config"
+ quite a while ago, but "git clone" internally set, exported, and
+ then unexported the variable during its operation unnecessarily.
+
+ * "git reset" internals has been reworked and should be faster in
+ general. We tried to be careful not to break any behaviour but
+ there could be corner cases, especially when running the command
+ from a conflicted state, that we may have missed.
+
+ * The implementation of "imap-send" has been updated to reuse xml
+ quoting code from http-push codepath, and lost a lot of unused
+ code.
+
+ * There is a simple-minded checker for the test scripts in t/
+ directory to catch most common mistakes (it is not enabled by
+ default).
+
+ * You can build with USE_WILDMATCH=YesPlease to use a replacement
+ implementation of pattern matching logic used for pathname-like
+ things, e.g. refnames and paths in the repository. This new
+ implementation is not expected change the existing behaviour of Git
+ in this release, except for "git for-each-ref" where you can now
+ say "refs/**/master" and match with both refs/heads/master and
+ refs/remotes/origin/master. We plan to use this new implementation
+ in wider places (e.g. "git ls-files '**/Makefile' may find Makefile
+ at the top-level, and "git log '**/t*.sh'" may find commits that
+ touch a shell script whose name begins with "t" at any level) in
+ future versions of Git, but we are not there yet. By building with
+ USE_WILDMATCH, using the resulting Git daily and reporting when you
+ find breakages, you can help us get closer to that goal.
+
+ * Some reimplementations of Git do not write all the stat info back
+ to the index due to their implementation limitations (e.g. jgit).
+ A configuration option can tell Git to ignore changes to most of
+ the stat fields and only pay attention to mtime and size, which
+ these implementations can reliably update. This can be used to
+ avoid excessive revalidation of contents.
+
+ * Some platforms ship with old version of expat where xmlparse.h
+ needs to be included instead of expat.h; the build procedure has
+ been taught about this.
+
+ * "make clean" on platforms that cannot compute header dependencies
+ on the fly did not work with implementations of "rm" that do not
+ like an empty argument list.
Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
@@ -47,60 +276,220 @@ details).
* An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES list that does not name the
real path to a directory (i.e. a symbolic link) could have caused
the GIT_DIR discovery logic to escape the ceiling.
- (merge 059b379 mh/ceiling later to maint).
-
- * t4014, t9502 and t0200 tests had various portability issues that
- broke on OpenBSD.
- (merge 27f6342 jc/maint-test-portability later to maint).
-
- * t9020 and t3600 tests had various portability issues.
- (merge 5a02966 jc/test-portability later to maint).
- * t9200 runs "cvs init" on a directory that already exists, but a
- platform can configure this fail for the current user (e.g. you
- need to be in the cvsadmin group on NetBSD 6.0).
- (merge 8666df0 jc/test-cvs-no-init-in-existing-dir later to maint).
+ * When attempting to read the XDG-style $HOME/.config/git/config and
+ finding that $HOME/.config/git is a file, we gave a wrong error
+ message, instead of treating the case as "a custom config file does
+ not exist there" and moving on.
* The behaviour visible to the end users was confusing, when they
attempt to kill a process spawned in the editor that was in turn
launched by Git with SIGINT (or SIGQUIT), as Git would catch that
signal and die. We ignore these signals now.
- (merge 1250857 pf/editor-ignore-sigint later to maint).
+ (merge 0398fc34 pf/editor-ignore-sigint later to maint).
+
+ * A child process that was killed by a signal (e.g. SIGINT) was
+ reported in an inconsistent way depending on how the process was
+ spawned by us, with or without a shell in between.
* After failing to create a temporary file using mkstemp(), failing
pathname was not reported correctly on some platforms.
- (merge f7be59b jc/mkstemp-more-careful-error-reporting later to maint).
+
+ * We used to stuff "user@" and then append what we read from
+ /etc/mailname to come up with a default e-mail ident, but a bug
+ lost the "user@" part.
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does. The initial implementation of this that
+ was merged to 'maint' and 1.8.1.2 was with a severe performance
+ degradations and needs to merge a fix-up topic.
+
+ * The smart HTTP clients forgot to verify the content-type that comes
+ back from the server side to make sure that the request is being
+ handled properly.
+
+ * "git am" did not parse datestamp correctly from Hg generated patch,
+ when it is run in a locale outside C (or en).
+
+ * "git apply" misbehaved when fixing whitespace breakages by removing
+ excess trailing blank lines.
+
+ * "git apply --summary" has been taught to make sure the similarity
+ value shown in its output is sensible, even when the input had a
+ bogus value.
+
+ * A tar archive created by "git archive" recorded a directory in a
+ way that made NetBSD's implementation of "tar" sometimes unhappy.
+
+ * "git archive" did not record uncompressed size in the header when
+ streaming a zip archive, which confused some implementations of unzip.
+
+ * "git archive" did not parse configuration values in tar.* namespace
+ correctly.
+ (merge b3873c3 jk/config-parsing-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Attempt to "branch --edit-description" an existing branch, while
+ being on a detached HEAD, errored out.
+
+ * "git clean" showed what it was going to do, but sometimes end up
+ finding that it was not allowed to do so, which resulted in a
+ confusing output (e.g. after saying that it will remove an
+ untracked directory, it found an embedded git repository there
+ which it is not allowed to remove). It now performs the actions
+ and then reports the outcome more faithfully.
+
+ * When "git clone --separate-git-dir=$over_there" is interrupted, it
+ failed to remove the real location of the $GIT_DIR it created.
+ This was most visible when interrupting a submodule update.
+
+ * "git cvsimport" mishandled timestamps at DST boundary.
+
+ * We used to have an arbitrary 32 limit for combined diff input,
+ resulting in incorrect number of leading colons shown when showing
+ the "--raw --cc" output.
+
+ * "git fetch --depth" was broken in at least three ways. The
+ resulting history was deeper than specified by one commit, it was
+ unclear how to wipe the shallowness of the repository with the
+ command, and documentation was misleading.
+ (merge cfb70e1 nd/fetch-depth-is-broken later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --all -p" that walked refs/notes/textconv/ ref can later
+ try to use the textconv data incorrectly after it gets freed.
+
+ * We forgot to close the file descriptor reading from "gpg" output,
+ killing "git log --show-signature" on a long history.
* The way "git svn" asked for password using SSH_ASKPASS and
GIT_ASKPASS was not in line with the rest of the system.
- (merge e9263e4 ss/svn-prompt later to maint).
* The --graph code fell into infinite loop when asked to do what the
code did not expect.
- (merge 656197a mk/maint-graph-infinity-loop later to maint).
* http transport was wrong to ask for the username when the
authentication is done by certificate identity.
- (merge 75e9a40 rb/http-cert-cred-no-username-prompt later to maint).
* "git pack-refs" that ran in parallel to another process that
created new refs had a nasty race.
- (merge b3f1280 jk/repack-ref-racefix later to maint).
+
+ * Rebasing the history of superproject with change in the submodule
+ has been broken since v1.7.12.
* After "git add -N" and then writing a tree object out of the
index, the cache-tree data structure got corrupted.
- (merge eec3e7e nd/invalidate-i-t-a-cache-tree later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone" used to allow --bare and --separate-git-dir=$there
+ options at the same time, which was nonsensical.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" lost empty merges in recent versions
+ of Git.
+
+ * "git merge --no-edit" computed who were involved in the work done
+ on the side branch, even though that information is to be discarded
+ without getting seen in the editor.
+
+ * "git merge" started calling prepare-commit-msg hook like "git
+ commit" does some time ago, but forgot to pay attention to the exit
+ status of the hook.
+
+ * A failure to push due to non-ff while on an unborn branch
+ dereferenced a NULL pointer when showing an error message.
+
+ * When users spell "cc:" in lowercase in the fake "header" in the
+ trailer part, "git send-email" failed to pick up the addresses from
+ there. As e-mail headers field names are case insensitive, this
+ script should follow suit and treat "cc:" and "Cc:" the same way.
+
+ * Output from "git status --ignored" showed an unexpected interaction
+ with "--untracked".
* "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
- (merge 28dae18 md/gitweb-sort-by-age later to maint).
+
+ * "gitweb"'s code to sanitize control characters before passing it to
+ "highlight" filter lost known-to-be-safe control characters by
+ mistake.
+
+ * "gitweb" pages served over HTTPS, when configured to show picon or
+ gravatar, referred to these external resources to be fetched via
+ HTTP, resulting in mixed contents warning in browsers.
* When a line to be wrapped has a solid run of non space characters
whose length exactly is the wrap width, "git shortlog -w" failed
to add a newline after such a line.
- (merge e0db176 sp/shortlog-missing-lf later to maint).
+
+ * Command line completion leaked an unnecessary error message while
+ looking for possible matches with paths in <tree-ish>.
+
+ * Command line completion for "tcsh" emitted an unwanted space
+ after completing a single directory name.
+
+ * Command line completion code was inadvertently made incompatible with
+ older versions of bash by using a newer array notation.
+
+ * "git push" was taught to refuse updating the branch that is
+ currently checked out long time ago, but the user manual was left
+ stale.
+ (merge 50995ed wk/man-deny-current-branch-is-default-these-days later to maint).
* Some shells do not behave correctly when IFS is unset; work it
around by explicitly setting it to the default value.
- (merge 393050c jc/maint-fbsd-sh-ifs-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * Some scripted programs written in Python did not get updated when
+ PYTHON_PATH changed.
+ (cherry-pick 96a4647fca54031974cd6ad1 later to maint).
+
+ * When autoconf is used, any build on a different commit always ran
+ "config.status --recheck" even when unnecessary.
+
+ * A fix was added to the build procedure to work around buggy
+ versions of ccache broke the auto-generation of dependencies, which
+ unfortunately is still relevant because some people use ancient
+ distros.
+
+ * The autoconf subsystem passed --mandir down to generated
+ config.mak.autogen but forgot to do the same for --htmldir.
+ (merge 55d9bf0 ct/autoconf-htmldir later to maint).
+
+ * A change made on v1.8.1.x maintenance track had a nasty regression
+ to break the build when autoconf is used.
+ (merge 7f1b697 jn/less-reconfigure later to maint).
+
+ * We have been carrying a translated and long-unmaintained copy of an
+ old version of the tutorial; removed.
+
+ * t0050 had tests expecting failures from a bug that was fixed some
+ time ago.
+
+ * t4014, t9502 and t0200 tests had various portability issues that
+ broke on OpenBSD.
+
+ * t9020 and t3600 tests had various portability issues.
+
+ * t9200 runs "cvs init" on a directory that already exists, but a
+ platform can configure this fail for the current user (e.g. you
+ need to be in the cvsadmin group on NetBSD 6.0).
+
+ * t9020 and t9810 had a few non-portable shell script construct.
+
+ * Scripts to test bash completion was inherently flaky as it was
+ affected by whatever random things the user may have on $PATH.
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES could be a "logical" pathname
+ that uses a symbolic link to point at somewhere else (e.g. /home/me
+ that points at /net/host/export/home/me, and the latter directory
+ is automounted). Earlier when Git saw such a pathname e.g. /home/me
+ on this environment variable, the "ceiling" mechanism did not take
+ effect. With this release (the fix has also been merged to the
+ v1.8.1.x maintenance series), elements on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
+ are by default checked for such aliasing coming from symbolic
+ links. As this needs to actually resolve symbolic links for each
+ element on the GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, you can disable this
+ mechanism for some elements by listing them after an empty element
+ on the GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES. e.g. Setting /home/me::/home/him to
+ GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES makes Git resolve symbolic links in
+ /home/me when checking if the current directory is under /home/me,
+ but does not do so for /home/him.
+ (merge 7ec30aa mh/maint-ceil-absolute later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc3ea18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+Git v1.8.3.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3
+------------------
+
+ * When $HOME is misconfigured to point at an unreadable directory, we
+ used to complain and die. The check has been loosened.
+
+ * Handling of negative exclude pattern for directories "!dir" was
+ broken in the update to v1.8.3.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..26ae142
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+Git v1.8.3.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3.1
+--------------------
+
+ * Cloning with "git clone --depth N" while fetch.fsckobjects (or
+ transfer.fsckobjects) is set to true did not tell the cut-off
+ points of the shallow history to the process that validates the
+ objects and the history received, causing the validation to fail.
+
+ * "git checkout foo" DWIMs the intended "upstream" and turns it into
+ "git checkout -t -b foo remotes/origin/foo". This codepath has been
+ updated to correctly take existing remote definitions into account.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a shallow repository from a repository that does
+ not know about the shallow boundary commits (e.g. a different fork
+ from the repository the current shallow repository was cloned from)
+ did not work correctly.
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) had one codepath with loose error
+ checks to lose data at the remote side.
+
+ * "git log --ancestry-path A...B" did not work as expected, as it did
+ not pay attention to the fact that the merge base between A and B
+ was the bottom of the range being specified.
+
+ * "git diff -c -p" was not showing a deleted line from a hunk when
+ another hunk immediately begins where the earlier one ends.
+
+ * "git merge @{-1}~22" was rewritten to "git merge frotz@{1}~22"
+ incorrectly when your previous branch was "frotz" (it should be
+ rewritten to "git merge frotz~22" instead).
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -m ''" should not start an
+ editor.
+
+ * "git push --[no-]verify" was not documented.
+
+ * An entry for "file://" scheme in the enumeration of URL types Git
+ can take in the HTML documentation was made into a clickable link
+ by mistake.
+
+ * zsh prompt script that borrowed from bash prompt script did not
+ work due to slight differences in array variable notation between
+ these two shells.
+
+ * The bash prompt code (in contrib/) displayed the name of the branch
+ being rebased when "rebase -i/-m/-p" modes are in use, but not the
+ plain vanilla "rebase".
+
+ * "git push $there HEAD:branch" did not resolve HEAD early enough, so
+ it was easy to flip it around while push is still going on and push
+ out a branch that the user did not originally intended when the
+ command was started.
+
+ * "difftool --dir-diff" did not copy back changes made by the
+ end-user in the diff tool backend to the working tree in some
+ cases.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9ba4f4d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git v1.8.3.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3.2
+--------------------
+
+ * "git apply" parsed patches that add new files, generated by programs
+ other than Git, incorrectly. This is an old breakage in v1.7.11.
+
+ * Older cURL wanted piece of memory we call it with to be stable, but
+ we updated the auth material after handing it to a call.
+
+ * "git pull" into nothing trashed "local changes" that were in the
+ index.
+
+ * Many "git submodule" operations did not work on a submodule at a
+ path whose name is not in ASCII.
+
+ * "cherry-pick" had a small leak in its error codepath.
+
+ * Logic used by git-send-email to suppress cc mishandled names like
+ "A U. Thor" <author@example.xz>, where the human readable part
+ needs to be quoted (the user input may not have the double quotes
+ around the name, and comparison was done between quoted and
+ unquoted strings). It also mishandled names that need RFC2047
+ quoting.
+
+ * "gitweb" forgot to clear a global variable $search_regexp upon each
+ request, mistakenly carrying over the previous search to a new one
+ when used as a persistent CGI.
+
+ * The wildmatch engine did not honor WM_CASEFOLD option correctly.
+
+ * "git log -c --follow $path" segfaulted upon hitting the commit that
+ renamed the $path being followed.
+
+ * When a reflog notation is used for implicit "current branch",
+ e.g. "git log @{u}", we did not say which branch and worse said
+ "branch ''" in the error messages.
+
+ * Mac OS X does not like to write(2) more than INT_MAX number of
+ bytes; work it around by chopping write(2) into smaller pieces.
+
+ * Newer MacOS X encourages the programs to compile and link with
+ their CommonCrypto, not with OpenSSL.
+
+Also contains various minor documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..56f106e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Git v1.8.3.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+This update is mostly to propagate documentation fixes and test
+updates from the master front back to the maintenance track.
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3.3
+--------------------
+
+ * The bisect log listed incorrect commits when bisection ends with
+ only skipped ones.
+
+ * The test coverage framework was left broken for some time.
+
+ * The test suite for HTTP transport did not run with Apache 2.4.
+
+ * "git diff" used to fail when core.safecrlf is set and the working
+ tree contents had mixed CRLF/LF line endings. Committing such a
+ content must be prohibited, but "git diff" should help the user to
+ locate and fix such problems without failing.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ead568e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,436 @@
+Git v1.8.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes only the current branch to the branch with the same
+name, and only when the current branch is set to integrate with that
+remote branch. Use the user preference configuration variable
+"push.default" to change this. If you are an old-timer who is used
+to the "matching" semantics, you can set the variable to "matching"
+to keep the traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future
+early, you can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.2
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interface
+
+ * remote-hg and remote-bzr helpers (in contrib/ since v1.8.2) have
+ been updated; especially, the latter has been done in an
+ accelerated schedule (read: we may not have merged to this release
+ if we were following the usual "cook sufficiently in next before
+ unleashing it to the world" workflow) in order to help Emacs folks,
+ whose primary SCM seems to be stagnating.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A handful of updates applied to gitk, including an addition of
+ "revert" action, showing dates in tags in a nicer way, making
+ colors configurable, and support for -G'pickaxe' search.
+
+ * The prompt string generator (in contrib/completion/) learned to
+ show how many changes there are in total and how many have been
+ replayed during a "git rebase" session.
+
+ * "git branch --vv" learned to paint the name of the branch it
+ integrates with in a different color (color.branch.upstream,
+ which defaults to blue).
+
+ * In a sparsely populated working tree, "git checkout <pathspec>" no
+ longer unmarks paths that match the given pathspec that were
+ originally ignored with "--sparse" (use --ignore-skip-worktree-bits
+ option to resurrect these paths out of the index if you really want
+ to).
+
+ * "git log --format" specifier learned %C(auto) token that tells Git
+ to use color when interpolating %d (decoration), %h (short commit
+ object name), etc. for terminal output.
+
+ * "git bisect" leaves the final outcome as a comment in its bisect
+ log file.
+
+ * "git clone --reference" can now refer to a gitfile "textual symlink"
+ that points at the real location of the repository.
+
+ * "git count-objects" learned "--human-readable" aka "-H" option to
+ show various large numbers in Ki/Mi/GiB scaled as necessary.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick $blob" and "git cherry-pick $tree" are nonsense,
+ and a more readable error message e.g. "can't cherry-pick a tree"
+ is given (we used to say "expected exactly one commit").
+
+ * The "--annotate" option to "git send-email" can be turned on (or
+ off) by default with sendemail.annotate configuration variable (you
+ can use --no-annotate from the command line to override it).
+
+ * The "--cover-letter" option to "git format-patch" can be turned on
+ (or off) by default with format.coverLetter configuration
+ variable. By setting it to 'auto', you can turn it on only for a
+ series with two or more patches.
+
+ * The bash completion support (in contrib/) learned that cherry-pick
+ takes a few more options than it already knew about.
+
+ * "git help" learned "-g" option to show the list of guides just like
+ list of commands are given with "-a".
+
+ * A triangular "pull from one place, push to another place" workflow
+ is supported better by new remote.pushdefault (overrides the
+ "origin" thing) and branch.*.pushremote (overrides the
+ branch.*.remote) configuration variables.
+
+ * "git status" learned to report that you are in the middle of a
+ revert session, just like it does for a cherry-pick and a bisect
+ session.
+
+ * The handling by "git branch --set-upstream-to" against various forms
+ of erroneous inputs was suboptimal and has been improved.
+
+ * When the interactive access to git-shell is not enabled, it issues
+ a message meant to help the system administrator to enable it. An
+ explicit way has been added to issue custom messages to refuse an
+ access over the network to help the end users who connect to the
+ service expecting an interactive shell.
+
+ * In addition to the case where the user edits the log message with
+ the "e)dit" option of "am -i", replace the "Applying: this patch"
+ message with the final log message contents after applymsg hook
+ munges it.
+
+ * "git status" suggests users to look into using --untracked=no option
+ when it takes too long.
+
+ * "git status" shows a bit more information during a rebase/bisect
+ session.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned to fetch a commit at the tip of an unadvertised
+ ref by specifying a raw object name from the command line when the
+ server side supports this feature.
+
+ * Output from "git log --graph" works better with submodule log
+ output now.
+
+ * "git count-objects -v" learned to report leftover temporary
+ packfiles and other garbage in the object store.
+
+ * A new read-only credential helper (in contrib/) to interact with
+ the .netrc/.authinfo files has been added.
+
+ * "git send-email" can be used with the credential helper system.
+
+ * There was no Porcelain way to say "I no longer am interested in
+ this submodule", once you express your interest in a submodule with
+ "submodule init". "submodule deinit" is the way to do so.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" learned to pass "-v/-q" options to underlying
+ "git rebase".
+
+ * The new "--follow-tags" option tells "git push" to push relevant
+ annotated tags when pushing branches out.
+
+ * "git merge" and "git pull" can optionally be told to inspect and
+ reject when merging a commit that does not carry a trusted GPG
+ signature.
+
+ * "git mergetool" now feeds files to the "p4merge" backend in the
+ order that matches the p4 convention, where "theirs" is usually
+ shown on the left side, which is the opposite from what other backends
+ expect.
+
+ * "show/log" now honors gpg.program configuration just like other
+ parts of the code that use GnuPG.
+
+ * "git log" that shows the difference between the parent and the
+ child has been optimized somewhat.
+
+ * "git difftool" allows the user to write into the temporary files
+ being shown; if the user makes changes to the working tree at the
+ same time, it now refrains from overwriting the copy in the working
+ tree and leaves the temporary file so that changes can be merged
+ manually.
+
+ * There was no good way to ask "I have a random string that came from
+ outside world. I want to turn it into a 40-hex object name while
+ making sure such an object exists". A new peeling suffix ^{object}
+ can be used for that purpose, together with "rev-parse --verify".
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * Updates for building under msvc.
+
+ * A handful of issues in the code that traverses the working tree to find
+ untracked and/or ignored files have been fixed, and the general
+ codepath involved in "status -u" and "clean" have been cleaned up
+ and optimized.
+
+ * The stack footprint of some codepaths that access an object from a
+ pack has been shrunk.
+
+ * The logic to coalesce the same lines removed from the parents in
+ the output from "diff -c/--cc" has been updated, but with O(n^2)
+ complexity, so this might turn out to be undesirable.
+
+ * The code to enforce permission bits on files in $GIT_DIR/ for
+ shared repositories has been simplified.
+
+ * A few codepaths know how much data they need to put in the
+ hashtables they use when they start, but still began with small tables
+ and repeatedly grew and rehashed them.
+
+ * The API to walk reflog entries from the latest to older, which was
+ necessary for operations such as "git checkout -", was cumbersome
+ to use correctly and also inefficient.
+
+ * Codepaths that inspect log-message-to-be and decide when to add a
+ new Signed-off-by line in various commands have been consolidated.
+
+ * The pkt-line API, implementation and its callers have been cleaned
+ up to make them more robust.
+
+ * The Cygwin port has a faster-but-lying lstat(2) emulation whose
+ incorrectness does not matter in practice except for a few
+ codepaths, and setting permission bits on directories is a codepath
+ that needs to use a more correct one.
+
+ * "git checkout" had repeated pathspec matches on the same paths,
+ which have been consolidated. Also a bug in "git checkout dir/"
+ that is started from an unmerged index has been fixed.
+
+ * A few bugfixes to "git rerere" working on corner case merge
+ conflicts have been applied.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.2 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * Recent versions of File::Temp (used by "git svn") started blowing
+ up when its tempfile sub is called as a class method; updated the
+ callsite to call it as a plain vanilla function to fix it.
+ (merge eafc2dd hb/git-pm-tempfile later to maint).
+
+ * Various subcommands of "git remote" simply ignored extraneous
+ command line arguments instead of diagnosing them as errors.
+
+ * When receive-pack detects an error in the pack header it received in
+ order to decide which of unpack-objects or index-pack to run, it
+ returned without closing the error stream, which led to a hung
+ sideband thread.
+
+ * Zsh completion forgot that the '%' character used to signal untracked
+ files needs to be escaped with another '%'.
+
+ * A commit object whose author or committer ident are malformed
+ crashed some code that trusted that a name, an email and a
+ timestamp can always be found in it.
+
+ * When "upload-pack" fails while generating a pack in response to
+ "git fetch" (or "git clone"), the receiving side had
+ a programming error that triggered the die handler
+ recursively.
+
+ * "rev-list --stdin" and friends kept bogus pointers into the input
+ buffer around as human readable object names. This was not a huge
+ problem but was exposed by a new change that uses these names in
+ error output.
+
+ * Smart-capable HTTP servers were not restricted via the
+ GIT_NAMESPACE mechanism when talking with commit-walking clients,
+ like they are when talking with smart HTTP clients.
+ (merge 6130f86 jk/http-dumb-namespaces later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-tree" did not omit a merge result that is identical to
+ the "our" side in certain cases.
+ (merge aacecc3 jk/merge-tree-added-identically later to maint).
+
+ * Perl scripts like "git-svn" closed (instead of redirecting to /dev/null)
+ the standard error stream, which is not a very smart thing to do.
+ A later open may return file descriptor #2 for an unrelated purpose, and
+ error reporting code may write into it.
+
+ * "git show-branch" was not prepared to show a very long run of
+ ancestor operators e.g. foobar^2~2^2^2^2...^2~4 correctly.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-algorithm algo" is also understood as "git diff
+ --diff-algorithm=algo".
+
+ * The new core.commentchar configuration was not applied in a few
+ places.
+
+ * "git bundle" erroneously bailed out when parsing a valid bundle
+ containing a prerequisite commit without a commit message.
+
+ * "git log -S/-G" started paying attention to textconv filter, but
+ there was no way to disable this. Make it honor the --no-textconv
+ option.
+
+ * When used with the "-d temporary-directory" option, "git filter-branch"
+ failed to come back to the original working tree to perform the
+ final clean-up procedure.
+
+ * "git merge $(git rev-parse v1.8.2)" behaved quite differently from
+ "git merge v1.8.2", as if v1.8.2 were written as v1.8.2^0 and did
+ not pay much attention to the annotated tag payload. Make the code
+ notice the type of the tag object, in addition to the dwim_ref()
+ based classification the current code uses (i.e. the name appears
+ in refs/tags/) to decide when to special-case tag merging.
+
+ * Fix a 1.8.1.x regression that stopped matching "dir" (without a
+ trailing slash) to a directory "dir".
+
+ * "git apply --whitespace=fix" was not prepared to see a line getting
+ longer after fixing whitespaces (e.g. tab-in-indent aka Python).
+
+ * The prompt string generator (in contrib/completion/) did not notice
+ when we are in a middle of a "git revert" session.
+
+ * "submodule summary --summary-limit" option did not support the
+ "--option=value" form.
+
+ * "index-pack --fix-thin" used an uninitialized value to compute
+ the delta depths of objects it appends to the resulting pack.
+
+ * "index-pack --verify-stat" used a few counters outside the protection
+ of a mutex, possibly showing incorrect numbers.
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems could get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and would loop forever.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside the refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to ls-remote and fetch with recent versions of Git.
+
+ * Recent optimizations broke shallow clones.
+
+ * "git cmd -- ':(top'" was not diagnosed as an invalid syntax, and
+ instead the parser kept reading beyond the end of the string.
+
+ * "git tag -f <tag>" always said "Updated tag '<tag>'" even when
+ creating a new tag (i.e. neither overwriting nor updating).
+
+ * "git p4" did not behave well when the path to the root of the P4
+ client was not its real path.
+ (merge bbd8486 pw/p4-symlinked-root later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" reported a failure when asked to create an archive out
+ of an empty tree. It is more intuitive to give an empty
+ archive back in such a case.
+
+ * When "format-patch" quoted a non-ascii string in header files,
+ it incorrectly applied rfc2047 and chopped a single character in
+ the middle of the string.
+
+ * An aliased command spawned from a bare repository that does not say
+ it is bare with "core.bare = yes" was treated as non-bare by mistake.
+
+ * In "git reflog expire", the REACHABLE bit was not cleared from the
+ correct objects.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" option of "git describe", when used with
+ "--all" to allow refs that are not annotated tags to be a
+ base of description, did not restrict the output from the command
+ to those refs that match the given pattern.
+
+ * Clarify in the documentation "what" gets pushed to "where" when the
+ command line to "git push" does not say these explicitly.
+
+ * The "--color=<when>" argument to the commands in the diff family
+ was described poorly.
+
+ * The arguments given to the pre-rebase hook were not documented.
+
+ * The v4 index format was not documented.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" argument "git describe" takes uses glob
+ pattern but it wasn't obvious from the documentation.
+
+ * Some sources failed to compile on systems that lack NI_MAXHOST in
+ their system header (e.g. z/OS).
+
+ * Add an example use of "--env-filter" in "filter-branch"
+ documentation.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+ * In the v1.8.0 era, we changed symbols that do not have to be global
+ to file scope static, but a few functions in graph.c were used by
+ CGit sideways, bypassing the entry points of the API the
+ in-tree users use.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * "git index-pack" had a buffer-overflow while preparing an
+ informational message when the translated version of it was too
+ long.
+
+ * 'git commit -m "$msg"' used to add an extra newline even when
+ $msg already ended with one.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect to SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * "git branch" did not bother to check nonsense command line
+ parameters. It now issues errors in many cases.
+
+ * Verification of signed tags was not done correctly when not in C
+ or en/US locale.
+
+ * Some platforms and users spell UTF-8 differently; retry with the
+ most official "UTF-8" when the system does not understand the
+ user-supplied encoding name that is a common alternative
+ spelling of UTF-8.
+
+ * When export-subst is used, "zip" output recorded an incorrect
+ size of the file.
+
+ * "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
+ filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
+ sort the messages in the order the writing MUA meant to, by sorting
+ numeric segments in numeric order and non-numeric segments in
+ alphabetical order.
+
+ * "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
+ accumulate the prefix paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3aa25a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+Git v1.8.4.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4
+------------------
+
+ * Some old versions of bash do not grok some constructs like
+ 'printf -v varname' which the prompt and completion code started
+ to use recently. The completion and prompt scripts have been
+ adjusted to work better with these old versions of bash.
+
+ * In FreeBSD's and NetBSD's "sh", a return in a dot script in a
+ function returns from the function, not only in the dot script,
+ breaking "git rebase" on these platforms (regression introduced
+ in 1.8.4-rc1).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" and other scripted commands were feeding a
+ random, data dependant error message to 'echo' and expecting it
+ to come out literally.
+
+ * Setting the "submodule.<name>.path" variable to the empty
+ "true" caused the configuration parser to segfault.
+
+ * Output from "git log --full-diff -- <pathspec>" looked strange
+ because comparison was done with the previous ancestor that
+ touched the specified <pathspec>, causing the patches for paths
+ outside the pathspec to show more than the single commit has
+ changed.
+
+ * The auto-tag-following code in "git fetch" tries to reuse the
+ same transport twice when the serving end does not cooperate and
+ does not give tags that point to commits that are asked for as
+ part of the primary transfer. Unfortunately, Git-aware transport
+ helper interface is not designed to be used more than once, hence
+ this did not work over smart-http transfer. Fixed.
+
+ * Send a large request to read(2)/write(2) as a smaller but still
+ reasonably large chunks, which would improve the latency when the
+ operation needs to be killed and incidentally works around broken
+ 64-bit systems that cannot take a 2GB write or read in one go.
+
+ * A ".mailmap" file that ends with an incomplete line, when read
+ from a blob, was not handled properly.
+
+ * The recent "short-cut clone connectivity check" topic broke a
+ shallow repository when a fetch operation tries to auto-follow
+ tags.
+
+ * When send-email comes up with an error message to die with upon
+ failure to start an SSL session, it tried to read the error
+ string from a wrong place.
+
+ * A call to xread() was used without a loop to cope with short
+ read in the codepath to stream large blobs to a pack.
+
+ * On platforms with fgetc() and friends defined as macros, the
+ configuration parser did not compile.
+
+ * New versions of MediaWiki introduced a new API for returning
+ more than 500 results in response to a query, which would cause
+ the MediaWiki remote helper to go into an infinite loop.
+
+ * Subversion's serf access method (the only one available in
+ Subversion 1.8) for http and https URLs in skelta mode tells its
+ caller to open multiple files at a time, which made "git svn
+ fetch" complain that "Temp file with moniker 'svn_delta' already
+ in use" instead of fetching.
+
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9adccb1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,77 @@
+Git v1.8.4.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.1
+--------------------
+
+ * "git clone" gave some progress messages to the standard output, not
+ to the standard error, and did not allow suppressing them with the
+ "--no-progress" option.
+
+ * "format-patch --from=<whom>" forgot to omit unnecessary in-body
+ from line, i.e. when <whom> is the same as the real author.
+
+ * "git shortlog" used to choke and die when there is a malformed
+ commit (e.g. missing authors); it now simply ignore such a commit
+ and keeps going.
+
+ * "git merge-recursive" did not parse its "--diff-algorithm=" command
+ line option correctly.
+
+ * "git branch --track" had a minor regression in v1.8.3.2 and later
+ that made it impossible to base your local work on anything but a
+ local branch of the upstream repository you are tracking from.
+
+ * "git ls-files -k" needs to crawl only the part of the working tree
+ that may overlap the paths in the index to find killed files, but
+ shared code with the logic to find all the untracked files, which
+ made it unnecessarily inefficient.
+
+ * When there is no sufficient overlap between old and new history
+ during a "git fetch" into a shallow repository, objects that the
+ sending side knows the receiving end has were unnecessarily sent.
+
+ * When running "fetch -q", a long silence while the sender side
+ computes the set of objects to send can be mistaken by proxies as
+ dropped connection. The server side has been taught to send a
+ small empty messages to keep the connection alive.
+
+ * When the webserver responds with "405 Method Not Allowed", "git
+ http-backend" should tell the client what methods are allowed with
+ the "Allow" header.
+
+ * "git cvsserver" computed the permission mode bits incorrectly for
+ executable files.
+
+ * The implementation of "add -i" has a crippling code to work around
+ ActiveState Perl limitation but it by mistake also triggered on Git
+ for Windows where MSYS perl is used.
+
+ * We made sure that we notice the user-supplied GIT_DIR is actually a
+ gitfile, but did not do the same when the default ".git" is a
+ gitfile.
+
+ * When an object is not found after checking the packfiles and then
+ loose object directory, read_sha1_file() re-checks the packfiles to
+ prevent racing with a concurrent repacker; teach the same logic to
+ has_sha1_file().
+
+ * "git commit --author=$name", when $name is not in the canonical
+ "A. U. Thor <au.thor@example.xz>" format, looks for a matching name
+ from existing history, but did not consult mailmap to grab the
+ preferred author name.
+
+ * The commit object names in the insn sheet that was prepared at the
+ beginning of "rebase -i" session can become ambiguous as the
+ rebasing progresses and the repository gains more commits. Make
+ sure the internal record is kept with full 40-hex object names.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" internally used the merge machinery
+ and as a side effect, left merge summary message in the log, but
+ when rebasing, there should not be a need for merge summary.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" forgot that the comment character can be
+ configurable while reading its insn sheet.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..03f3d17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+Git v1.8.4.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.2
+--------------------
+
+ * The interaction between use of Perl in our test suite and NO_PERL
+ has been clarified a bit.
+
+ * A fast-import stream expresses a pathname with funny characters by
+ quoting them in C style; remote-hg remote helper (in contrib/)
+ forgot to unquote such a path.
+
+ * One long-standing flaw in the pack transfer protocol used by "git
+ clone" was that there was no way to tell the other end which branch
+ "HEAD" points at, and the receiving end needed to guess. A new
+ capability has been defined in the pack protocol to convey this
+ information so that cloning from a repository with more than one
+ branches pointing at the same commit where the HEAD is at now
+ reliably sets the initial branch in the resulting repository.
+
+ * We did not handle cases where http transport gets redirected during
+ the authorization request (e.g. from http:// to https://).
+
+ * "git rev-list --objects ^v1.0^ v1.0" gave v1.0 tag itself in the
+ output, but "git rev-list --objects v1.0^..v1.0" did not.
+
+ * The fall-back parsing of commit objects with broken author or
+ committer lines were less robust than ideal in picking up the
+ timestamps.
+
+ * Bash prompting code to deal with an SVN remote as an upstream
+ were coded in a way not supported by older Bash versions (3.x).
+
+ * "git checkout topic", when there is not yet a local "topic" branch
+ but there is a unique remote-tracking branch for a remote "topic"
+ branch, pretended as if "git checkout -t -b topic remote/$r/topic"
+ (for that unique remote $r) was run. This hack however was not
+ implemented for "git checkout topic --".
+
+ * Coloring around octopus merges in "log --graph" output was screwy.
+
+ * We did not generate HTML version of documentation to "git subtree"
+ in contrib/.
+
+ * The synopsis section of "git unpack-objects" documentation has been
+ clarified a bit.
+
+ * An ancient How-To on serving Git repositories on an HTTP server
+ lacked a warning that it has been mostly superseded with more
+ modern way.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7bc4c5dc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+Git v1.8.4.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.3
+--------------------
+
+ * The fix in v1.8.4.3 to the pack transfer protocol to propagate
+ the target of symbolic refs broke "git clone/git fetch" from a
+ repository with too many symbolic refs. As a hotfix/workaround,
+ we transfer only the information on HEAD.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..215bd1a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,13 @@
+Git v1.8.4.5 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4.4
+--------------------
+
+ * Recent update to remote-hg that attempted to make it work better
+ with non ASCII pathnames fed Unicode strings to the underlying Hg
+ API, which was wrong.
+
+ * "git submodule init" copied "submodule.$name.update" settings from
+ .gitmodules to .git/config without making sure if the suggested
+ value was sensible.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..02f681b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,486 @@
+Git v1.8.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.3
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * Cygwin port has been updated for more recent Cygwin 1.7.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" now honors --strategy and -X options.
+
+ * Git-gui has been updated to its 0.18.0 version.
+
+ * MediaWiki remote helper (in contrib/) has been updated to use the
+ credential helper interface from Git.pm.
+
+ * Update build for Cygwin 1.[57]. Torsten Bögershausen reports that
+ this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 ($gmane/225824) so let's try moving it
+ ahead.
+
+ * The credential helper to talk to keychain on OS X (in contrib/) has
+ been updated to kick in not just when talking http/https but also
+ imap(s) and smtp.
+
+ * Remote transport helper has been updated to report errors and
+ maintain ref hierarchy used to keep track of its own state better.
+
+ * With "export" remote-helper protocol, (1) a push that tries to
+ update a remote ref whose name is different from the pushing side
+ does not work yet, and (2) the helper may not know how to do
+ --dry-run; these problematic cases are disabled for now.
+
+ * git-remote-hg/bzr (in contrib/) updates.
+
+ * git-remote-mw (in contrib/) hints users to check the certificate,
+ when https:// connection failed.
+
+ * git-remote-mw (in contrib/) adds a command to allow previewing the
+ contents locally before pushing it out, when working with a
+ MediaWiki remote.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Sample "post-receive-email" hook script got an enhanced replacement
+ "multimail" (in contrib/).
+
+ * Also in contrib/ is a new "contacts" script that runs "git blame"
+ to find out the people who may be interested in a set of changes.
+
+ * "git clean" command learned an interactive mode.
+
+ * The "--head" option to "git show-ref" was only to add "HEAD" to the
+ list of candidate refs to be filtered by the usual rules
+ (e.g. "--heads" that only show refs under refs/heads). The meaning
+ of the option has been changed to always show "HEAD" regardless of
+ what filtering will be applied to any other ref.
+
+ This is a backward incompatible change and might cause breakages to
+ people's existing scripts.
+
+ * "git show -s" was less discoverable than it should have been. It
+ now has a natural synonym "git show --no-patch".
+
+ * "git check-mailmap" is a new command that lets you map usernames
+ and e-mail addresses through the mailmap mechanism, just like many
+ built-in commands do.
+
+ * "git name-rev" learned to name an annotated tag object back to its
+ tagname; "git name-rev $(git rev-parse v1.0.0)" gives "tags/v1.0.0",
+ for example.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=<format>" is added, primarily to allow
+ on-disk footprint of objects in packfiles (often they are a lot
+ smaller than their true size, when expressed as deltas) to be
+ reported.
+
+ * "git rebase [-i]" used to leave just "rebase" as its reflog messages
+ for some operations. They have been reworded to be more informative.
+
+ * In addition to the choice from "rebase, merge, or checkout-detach",
+ "submodule update" can allow a custom command to be used in to
+ update the working tree of submodules via the "submodule.*.update"
+ configuration variable.
+
+ * "git submodule update" can optionally clone the submodule
+ repositories shallowly.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned "--from[=whom]" option, which sets the
+ "From: " header to the specified person (or the person who runs the
+ command, if "=whom" part is missing) and move the original author
+ information to an in-body From: header as necessary.
+
+ * The configuration variable "merge.ff" was cleary a tri-state to
+ choose one from "favor fast-forward when possible", "always create
+ a merge even when the history could fast-forward" and "do not
+ create any merge, only update when the history fast-forwards", but
+ the command line parser did not implement the usual convention of
+ "last one wins, and command line overrides the configuration"
+ correctly.
+
+ * "gitweb" learned to optionally place extra links that point at the
+ levels higher than the Gitweb pages themselves in the breadcrumbs,
+ so that it can be used as part of a larger installation.
+
+ * "git log --format=" now honors i18n.logoutputencoding configuration
+ variable.
+
+ * The "push.default=simple" mode of "git push" has been updated to
+ behave like "current" without requiring a remote tracking
+ information, when you push to a remote that is different from where
+ you fetch from (i.e. a triangular workflow).
+
+ * Having multiple "fixup!" on a line in the rebase instruction sheet
+ did not work very well with "git rebase -i --autosquash".
+
+ * "git log" learned the "--author-date-order" option, with which the
+ output is topologically sorted and commits in parallel histories
+ are shown intermixed together based on the author timestamp.
+
+ * Various subcommands of "git submodule" refused to run from anywhere
+ other than the top of the working tree of the superproject, but
+ they have been taught to let you run from a subdirectory.
+
+ * "git diff" learned a mode that ignores hunks whose change consists
+ only of additions and removals of blank lines, which is the same as
+ "diff -B" (ignore blank lines) of GNU diff.
+
+ * "git rm" gives a single message followed by list of paths to report
+ multiple paths that cannot be removed.
+
+ * "git rebase" can be told with ":/look for this string" syntax commits
+ to replay the changes onto and where the work to be replayed begins.
+
+ * Many tutorials teach users to set "color.ui" to "auto" as the first
+ thing after you set "user.name/email" to introduce yourselves to
+ Git. Now the variable defaults to "auto".
+
+ * On Cygwin, "cygstart" is now recognised as a possible way to start
+ a web browser (used in "help -w" and "instaweb" among others).
+
+ * "git status" learned status.branch and status.short configuration
+ variables to use --branch and --short options by default (override
+ with --no-branch and --no-short options from the command line).
+
+ * "git cmd <name>", when <name> happens to be a 40-hex string,
+ directly uses the 40-hex string as an object name, even if a ref
+ "refs/<some hierarchy>/<name>" exists. This disambiguation order
+ is unlikely to change, but we should warn about the ambiguity just
+ like we warn when more than one refs/ hierarchies share the same
+ name.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned "--[no-]autostash" option to save local
+ changes instead of refusing to run (to which people's normal
+ response was to stash them and re-run). This introduced a corner
+ case breakage to "git am --abort" but it has been fixed.
+
+ * "check-ignore" (new feature since 1.8.2) has been updated to work
+ more like "check-attr" over bidi-pipes.
+
+ * "git describe" learned "--first-parent" option to limit its closest
+ tagged commit search to the first-parent chain.
+
+ * "git merge foo" that might have meant "git merge origin/foo" is
+ diagnosed with a more informative error message.
+
+ * "git log -L<line>,<range>:<filename>" has been added. This may
+ still have leaks and rough edges, though.
+
+ * We used the approxidate() parser for "--expire=<timestamp>" options
+ of various commands, but it is better to treat --expire=all and
+ --expire=now a bit more specially than using the current timestamp.
+ "git gc" and "git reflog" have been updated with a new parsing
+ function for expiry dates.
+
+ * Updates to completion (both bash and zsh) helpers.
+
+ * The behaviour of the "--chain-reply-to" option of "git send-email"
+ have changed at 1.7.0, and we added a warning/advice message to
+ help users adjust to the new behaviour back then, but we kept it
+ around for too long. The message has finally been removed.
+
+ * "git fetch origin master" unlike "git fetch origin" or "git fetch"
+ did not update "refs/remotes/origin/master"; this was an early
+ design decision to keep the update of remote tracking branches
+ predictable, but in practice it turns out that people find it more
+ convenient to opportunistically update them whenever we have a
+ chance, and we have been updating them when we run "git push" which
+ already breaks the original "predictability" anyway.
+
+ * The configuration variable core.checkstat was advertised in the
+ documentation but the code expected core.statinfo instead.
+ For now, we accept both core.checkstat and core.statinfo, but the
+ latter will be removed in the longer term.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * On Cygwin, we used to use our own lstat(2) emulation that is
+ allegedly faster than the platform one in codepaths where some of
+ the information it returns did not matter, but it started to bite
+ us in a few codepaths where the trick it uses to cheat does show
+ breakages. This emulation has been removed and we use the native
+ lstat(2) emulation supplied by Cygwin now.
+
+ * The function attributes extensions are used to catch mistakes in
+ use of our own variadic functions that use NULL sentinel at the end
+ (i.e. like execl(3)) and format strings (i.e. like printf(3)).
+
+ * The code to allow configuration data to be read from in-tree blob
+ objects is in. This may help working in a bare repository and
+ submodule updates.
+
+ * Fetching between repositories with many refs employed O(n^2)
+ algorithm to match up the common objects, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The original way to specify remote repository using .git/branches/
+ used to have a nifty feature. The code to support the feature was
+ still in a function but the caller was changed not to call it 5
+ years ago, breaking that feature and leaving the supporting code
+ unreachable. The dead code has been removed.
+
+ * "git pack-refs" that races with new ref creation or deletion have
+ been susceptible to lossage of refs under right conditions, which
+ has been tightened up.
+
+ * We read loose and packed references in two steps, but after
+ deciding to read a loose ref but before actually opening it to read
+ it, another process racing with us can unlink it, which would cause
+ us to barf. The codepath has been updated to retry when such a
+ race is detected, instead of outright failing.
+
+ * Uses of the platform fnmatch(3) function (many places in the code,
+ matching pathspec, .gitignore and .gitattributes to name a few)
+ have been replaced with wildmatch, allowing "foo/**/bar" that would
+ match foo/bar, foo/a/bar, foo/a/b/bar, etc.
+
+ * Memory ownership and lifetime rules for what for-each-ref feeds to
+ its callbacks have been clarified (in short, "you do not own it, so
+ make a copy if you want to keep it").
+
+ * The revision traversal logic to improve culling of irrelevant
+ parents while traversing a mergy history has been updated.
+
+ * Some leaks in unpack-trees (used in merge, cherry-pick and other
+ codepaths) have been plugged.
+
+ * The codepath to read from marks files in fast-import/export did not
+ have to accept anything but 40-hex representation of the object
+ name. Further, fast-export did not need full in-core object
+ representation to have parsed wen reading from them. These
+ codepaths have been optimized by taking advantage of these access
+ patterns.
+
+ * Object lookup logic, when the object hashtable starts to become
+ crowded, has been optimized.
+
+ * When TEST_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY setting is used, it was handled somewhat
+ inconsistently between the test framework and t/Makefile, and logic
+ to summarize the results looked at a wrong place.
+
+ * "git clone" uses a lighter-weight implementation when making sure
+ that the history behind refs are complete.
+
+ * Many warnings from sparse source checker in compat/ area has been
+ squelched.
+
+ * The code to reading and updating packed-refs file has been updated,
+ correcting corner case bugs.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.3 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * Newer Net::SMTP::SSL module does not want the user programs to use
+ the default behaviour to let server certificate go without
+ verification, so by default enable the verification with a
+ mechanism to turn it off if needed.
+ (merge 35035bb rr/send-email-ssl-verify later to maint).
+
+ * When "git" is spawned in such a way that any of the low 3 file
+ descriptors is closed, our first open() may yield file descriptor 2,
+ and writing error message to it would screw things up in a big way.
+ (merge a11c396 tr/protect-low-3-fds later to maint).
+
+ * The mailmap mechanism unnecessarily downcased the e-mail addresses
+ in the output, and also ignored the human name when it is a single
+ character name.
+ (merge bd23794 jc/mailmap-case-insensitivity later to maint).
+
+ * In two places we did not check return value (expected to be a file
+ descriptor) correctly.
+ (merge a77f106 tr/fd-gotcha-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Logic to auto-detect character encodings in the commit log message
+ did not reject overlong and invalid UTF-8 characters.
+ (merge 81050ac bc/commit-invalid-utf8 later to maint).
+
+ * Pass port number as a separate argument when "send-email" initializes
+ Net::SMTP, instead of as a part of the hostname, i.e. host:port.
+ This allows GSSAPI codepath to match with the hostname given.
+ (merge 1a741bf bc/send-email-use-port-as-separate-param later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff" refused to even show difference when core.safecrlf is
+ set to true (i.e. error out) and there are offending lines in the
+ working tree files.
+ (merge 5430bb2 jc/maint-diff-core-safecrlf later to maint).
+
+ * A test that should have failed but didn't revealed a bug that needs
+ to be corrected.
+ (merge 94d75d1 jc/t1512-fix later to maint).
+
+ * An overlong path to a .git directory may have overflown the
+ temporary path buffer used to create a name for lockfiles.
+ (merge 2fbd4f9 mh/maint-lockfile-overflow later to maint).
+
+ * Invocations of "git checkout" used internally by "git rebase" were
+ counted as "checkout", and affected later "git checkout -" to the
+ the user to an unexpected place.
+ (merge 3bed291 rr/rebase-checkout-reflog later to maint).
+
+ * The configuration variable column.ui was poorly documented.
+ (merge 5e62cc1 rr/column-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "git name-rev --refs=tags/v*" were forbidden, which was a bit
+ inconvenient (you had to give a pattern to match refs fully, like
+ --refs=refs/tags/v*).
+ (merge 98c5c4a nk/name-rev-abbreviated-refs later to maint).
+
+ * "git apply" parsed patches that add new files, generated by
+ programs other than Git, incorrectly. This is an old breakage in
+ v1.7.11 and will need to be merged down to the maintenance tracks.
+
+ * Older cURL wanted piece of memory we call it with to be stable, but
+ we updated the auth material after handing it to a call.
+
+ * "git pull" into nothing trashed "local changes" that were in the
+ index, and this avoids it.
+
+ * Many "git submodule" operations do not work on a submodule at a
+ path whose name is not in ASCII.
+
+ * "cherry-pick" had a small leak in an error codepath.
+
+ * Logic used by git-send-email to suppress cc mishandled names like
+ "A U. Thor" <author@example.xz>, where the human readable part
+ needs to be quoted (the user input may not have the double quotes
+ around the name, and comparison was done between quoted and
+ unquoted strings). It also mishandled names that need RFC2047
+ quoting.
+
+ * Call to discard_cache/discard_index (used when we use different
+ contents of the index in-core, in many operations like commit,
+ apply, and merge) used to leak memory that held the array of index
+ entries, which has been plugged.
+ (merge a0fc4db rs/discard-index-discard-array later to maint).
+
+ * "gitweb" forgot to clear a global variable $search_regexp upon each
+ request, mistakenly carrying over the previous search to a new one
+ when used as a persistent CGI.
+
+ * The wildmatch engine did not honor WM_CASEFOLD option correctly.
+
+ * "git log -c --follow $path" segfaulted upon hitting the commit that
+ renamed the $path being followed.
+
+ * When a reflog notation is used for implicit "current branch", we
+ did not say which branch and worse said "branch ''".
+
+ * "difftool --dir-diff" did not copy back changes made by the
+ end-user in the diff tool backend to the working tree in some
+ cases.
+
+ * "git push $there HEAD:branch" did not resolve HEAD early enough, so
+ it was easy to flip it around while push is still going on and push
+ out a branch that the user did not originally intended when the
+ command was started.
+
+ * The bash prompt code (in contrib/) displayed the name of the branch
+ being rebased when "rebase -i/-m/-p" modes are in use, but not the
+ plain vanilla "rebase".
+
+ * Handling of negative exclude pattern for directories "!dir" was
+ broken in the update to v1.8.3.
+
+ * zsh prompt script that borrowed from bash prompt script did not
+ work due to slight differences in array variable notation between
+ these two shells.
+
+ * An entry for "file://" scheme in the enumeration of URL types Git
+ can take in the HTML documentation was made into a clickable link
+ by mistake.
+
+ * "git push --[no-]verify" was not documented.
+
+ * Stop installing the git-remote-testpy script that is only used for
+ testing.
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -m ''" should not start an
+ editor.
+
+ * "git merge @{-1}~22" was rewritten to "git merge frotz@{1}~22"
+ incorrectly when your previous branch was "frotz" (it should be
+ rewritten to "git merge frotz~22" instead).
+
+ * "git diff -c -p" was not showing a deleted line from a hunk when
+ another hunk immediately begins where the earlier one ends.
+
+ * "git log --ancestry-path A...B" did not work as expected, as it did
+ not pay attention to the fact that the merge base between A and B
+ was the bottom of the range being specified.
+
+ * Mac OS X does not like to write(2) more than INT_MAX number of
+ bytes; work it around by chopping write(2) into smaller pieces.
+
+ * Newer MacOS X encourages the programs to compile and link with
+ their CommonCrypto, not with OpenSSL.
+
+ * "git clone foo/bar:baz" cannot be a request to clone from a remote
+ over git-over-ssh specified in the scp style. This case is now
+ detected and clones from a local repository at "foo/bar:baz".
+
+ * When $HOME is misconfigured to point at an unreadable directory, we
+ used to complain and die. Loosen the check.
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) had one codepath with loose error
+ checks to lose data at the remote side.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a shallow repository from a repository that does
+ not know about the shallow boundary commits (e.g. a different fork
+ from the repository the current shallow repository was cloned from)
+ did not work correctly.
+
+ * "git checkout foo" DWIMs the intended "upstream" and turns it into
+ "git checkout -t -b foo remotes/origin/foo". This codepath has been
+ updated to correctly take existing remote definitions into account.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7236aaf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+Git v1.8.5.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5
+------------------
+
+ * "git submodule init" copied "submodule.$name.update" settings from
+ .gitmodules to .git/config without making sure if the suggested
+ value was sensible.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3ac4984
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Git v1.8.5.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.1
+--------------------
+
+ * "git diff -- ':(icase)makefile'" was unnecessarily rejected at the
+ command line parser.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=ok" did not check the existence of
+ the named object.
+
+ * "git am --abort" sometimes complained about not being able to write
+ a tree with an 0{40} object in it.
+
+ * Two processes creating loose objects at the same time could have
+ failed unnecessarily when the name of their new objects started
+ with the same byte value, due to a race condition.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3de2dd0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,27 @@
+Git v1.8.5.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.2
+--------------------
+
+ * The "--[no-]informative-errors" options to "git daemon" were parsed
+ a bit too loosely, allowing any other string after these option
+ names.
+
+ * A "gc" process running as a different user should be able to stop a
+ new "gc" process from starting.
+
+ * An earlier "clean-up" introduced an unnecessary memory leak to the
+ credential subsystem.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * "git rev-parse <revs> -- <paths>" did not implement the usual
+ disambiguation rules the commands in the "git log" family used in
+ the same way.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch=", an admittedly useless command, did not
+ behave very well.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d18c403
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+Git v1.8.5.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.3
+--------------------
+
+ * "git fetch --depth=0" was a no-op, and was silently ignored.
+ Diagnose it as an error.
+
+ * Remote repository URL expressed in scp-style host:path notation are
+ parsed more carefully (e.g. "foo/bar:baz" is local, "[::1]:/~user" asks
+ to connect to user's home directory on host at address ::1.
+
+ * SSL-related options were not passed correctly to underlying socket
+ layer in "git send-email".
+
+ * "git commit -v" appends the patch to the log message before
+ editing, and then removes the patch when the editor returned
+ control. However, the patch was not stripped correctly when the
+ first modified path was a submodule.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * When we figure out how many file descriptors to allocate for
+ keeping packfiles open, a system with non-working getrlimit() could
+ cause us to die(), but because we make this call only to get a
+ rough estimate of how many is available and we do not even attempt
+ to use up all file descriptors available ourselves, it is nicer to
+ fall back to a reasonable low value rather than dying.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" did not handle a tag pointed by another tag
+ nicely.
+
+ * "git add -A" (no other arguments) in a totally empty working tree
+ used to emit an error.
+
+ * There is no reason to have a hardcoded upper limit of the number of
+ parents for an octopus merge, created via the graft mechanism, but
+ there was.
+
+ * The implementation of 'git stash $cmd "stash@{...}"' did not quote
+ the stash argument properly and left it split at IFS whitespace.
+
+ * The documentation to "git pull" hinted there is an "-m" option
+ because it incorrectly shared the documentation with "git merge".
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9191ce9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+Git v1.8.5.5 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5.4
+--------------------
+
+ * The pathspec matching code, while comparing two trees (e.g. "git
+ diff A B -- path1 path2") was too aggressive and failed to match
+ some paths when multiple pathspecs were involved.
+
+ * "git repack --max-pack-size=8g" stopped being parsed correctly when
+ the command was reimplemented in C.
+
+ * A recent update to "git send-email" broke platforms where
+ /etc/ssl/certs/ directory exists but cannot be used as SSL_ca_path
+ (e.g. Fedora rawhide).
+
+ * A handful of bugs around interpreting $branch@{upstream} notation
+ and its lookalike, when $branch part has interesting characters,
+ e.g. "@", and ":", have been fixed.
+
+ * "git clone" would fail to clone from a repository that has a ref
+ directly under "refs/", e.g. "refs/stash", because different
+ validation paths do different things on such a refname. Loosen the
+ client side's validation to allow such a ref.
+
+ * "git log --left-right A...B" lost the "leftness" of commits
+ reachable from A when A is a tag as a side effect of a recent
+ bugfix. This is a regression in 1.8.4.x series.
+
+ * "git merge-base --octopus" used to leave cleaning up suboptimal
+ result to the caller, but now it does the clean-up itself.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..602df0c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,456 @@
+Git v1.8.5 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics, which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.4
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * "git-svn" has been taught to use the serf library, which is the
+ only option SVN 1.8.0 offers us when talking the HTTP protocol.
+
+ * "git-svn" talking over an https:// connection using the serf library
+ dumped core due to a bug in the serf library that SVN uses. Work
+ around it on our side, even though the SVN side is being fixed.
+
+ * On MacOS X, we detected if the filesystem needs the "pre-composed
+ unicode strings" workaround, but did not automatically enable it.
+ Now we do.
+
+ * remote-hg remote helper misbehaved when interacting with a local Hg
+ repository relative to the home directory, e.g. "clone hg::~/there".
+
+ * imap-send ported to OS X uses Apple's security framework instead of
+ OpenSSL's.
+
+ * "git fast-import" treats an empty path given to "ls" as the root of
+ the tree.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * xdg-open can be used as a browser backend for "git web-browse"
+ (hence to show "git help -w" output), when available.
+
+ * "git grep" and "git show" pay attention to the "--textconv" option
+ when these commands are told to operate on blob objects (e.g. "git
+ grep -e pattern --textconv HEAD:Makefile").
+
+ * "git replace" helper no longer allows an object to be replaced with
+ another object of a different type to avoid confusion (you can
+ still manually craft such a replacement using "git update-ref", as an
+ escape hatch).
+
+ * "git status" no longer prints the dirty status information of
+ submodules for which submodule.$name.ignore is set to "all".
+
+ * "git rebase -i" honours core.abbrev when preparing the insn sheet
+ for editing.
+
+ * "git status" during a cherry-pick shows which original commit is
+ being picked.
+
+ * Instead of typing four capital letters "HEAD", you can say "@" now,
+ e.g. "git log @".
+
+ * "git check-ignore" follows the same rule as "git add" and "git
+ status" in that the ignore/exclude mechanism does not take effect
+ on paths that are already tracked. With the "--no-index" option, it
+ can be used to diagnose which paths that should have been ignored
+ have been mistakenly added to the index.
+
+ * Some irrelevant "advice" messages that are shared with "git status"
+ output have been removed from the commit log template.
+
+ * "update-refs" learned a "--stdin" option to read multiple update
+ requests and perform them in an all-or-none fashion.
+
+ * Just like "make -C <directory>", "git -C <directory> ..." tells Git
+ to go there before doing anything else.
+
+ * Just like "git checkout -" knows to check out, and "git merge -"
+ knows to merge, the branch you were previously on, "git cherry-pick"
+ now understands "git cherry-pick -" to pick from the previous
+ branch.
+
+ * "git status" now omits the prefix to make its output a comment in a
+ commit log editor, which is not necessary for human consumption.
+ Scripts that parse the output of "git status" are advised to use
+ "git status --porcelain" instead, as its format is stable and easier
+ to parse.
+
+ * The ref syntax "foo^{tag}" (with the literal string "{tag}") peels a
+ tag ref to itself, i.e. it's a no-op., and fails if
+ "foo" is not a tag. "git rev-parse --verify v1.0^{tag}" is
+ a more convenient way than "test $(git cat-file -t v1.0) = tag" to
+ check if v1.0 is a tag.
+
+ * "git branch -v -v" (and "git status") did not distinguish among a
+ branch that is not based on any other branch, a branch that is in
+ sync with its upstream branch, and a branch that is configured with an
+ upstream branch that no longer exists.
+
+ * Earlier we started rejecting any attempt to add the 0{40} object name to
+ the index and to tree objects, but it sometimes is necessary to
+ allow this to be able to use tools like filter-branch to correct such
+ broken tree objects. "filter-branch" can again be used to do this.
+
+ * "git config" did not provide a way to set or access numbers larger
+ than a native "int" on the platform; it now provides 64-bit signed
+ integers on all platforms.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" always chose to do the bog-standard flattening
+ rebase. You can tell it to run "rebase --preserve-merges" with
+ "git pull --rebase=preserve" or by
+ setting "pull.rebase" configuration to "preserve".
+
+ * "git push --no-thin" actually disables the "thin pack transfer"
+ optimization.
+
+ * Magic pathspecs like ":(icase)makefile" (matches both Makefile
+ and makefile) and ":(glob)foo/**/bar" (matches "bar" in "foo"
+ and any subdirectory of "foo") can be used in more places.
+
+ * The "http.*" variables can now be specified for individual URLs.
+ For example,
+
+ [http]
+ sslVerify = true
+ [http "https://weak.example.com/"]
+ sslVerify = false
+
+ would flip http.sslVerify off only when talking to that specific
+ site.
+
+ * "git mv A B" when moving a submodule has been taught to
+ relocate the submodule's working tree and to adjust the paths in the
+ .gitmodules file.
+
+ * "git blame" can now take more than one -L option to discover the
+ origin of multiple blocks of lines.
+
+ * The http transport clients can optionally ask to save cookies
+ with the http.savecookies configuration variable.
+
+ * "git push" learned a more fine grained control over a blunt
+ "--force" when requesting a non-fast-forward update with the
+ "--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expected object name>" option.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-filter=<classes of changes>" can now take
+ lowercase letters (e.g. "--diff-filter=d") to mean "show
+ everything but these classes". "git diff-files -q" is now a
+ deprecated synonym for "git diff-files --diff-filter=d".
+
+ * "git fetch" (hence "git pull" as well) learned to check
+ "fetch.prune" and "remote.*.prune" configuration variables and
+ to behave as if the "--prune" command line option was given.
+
+ * "git check-ignore -z" applied the NUL termination to both its input
+ (with --stdin) and its output, but "git check-attr -z" ignored the
+ option on the output side. Make both honor -z on the input and
+ output side the same way.
+
+ * "git whatchanged" may still be used by old timers, but mention of
+ it in documents meant for new users will only waste readers' time
+ wondering what the difference is between it and "git log". Make it
+ less prominent in the general part of the documentation and explain
+ that it is merely a "git log" with different default behaviour in
+ its own document.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" when asking for merely the object name does not
+ have to parse the object pointed at by the refs; the codepath has
+ been optimized.
+
+ * The HTTP transport will try to use TCP keepalive when able.
+
+ * "git repack" is now written in C.
+
+ * Build procedure for MSVC has been updated.
+
+ * If a build-time fallback is set to "cat" instead of "less", we
+ should apply the same "no subprocess or pipe" optimization as we
+ apply to user-supplied GIT_PAGER=cat.
+
+ * Many commands use a --dashed-option as an operation mode selector
+ (e.g. "git tag --delete") that excludes other operation modes
+ (e.g. "git tag --delete --verify" is nonsense) and that cannot be
+ negated (e.g. "git tag --no-delete" is nonsense). The parse-options
+ API learned a new OPT_CMDMODE macro to make it easier to implement
+ such a set of options.
+
+ * OPT_BOOLEAN() in the parse-options API was misdesigned to be "counting
+ up" but many subcommands expect it to behave as "on/off". Update
+ them to use OPT_BOOL() which is a proper boolean.
+
+ * "git gc" exits early without doing any work when it detects
+ that another instance of itself is already running.
+
+ * Under memory pressure and/or file descriptor pressure, we used to
+ close pack windows that are not used and also closed filehandles to
+ open but unused packfiles. These are now controlled separately
+ to better cope with the load.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.4
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.4 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes for
+details).
+
+ * An ancient How-To on serving Git repositories on an HTTP server
+ lacked a warning that it has been mostly superseded with a more
+ modern way.
+ (merge 6d52bc3 sc/doc-howto-dumb-http later to maint).
+
+ * The interaction between the use of Perl in our test suite and NO_PERL
+ has been clarified a bit.
+ (merge f8fc0ee jn/test-prereq-perl-doc later to maint).
+
+ * The synopsis section of the "git unpack-objects" documentation has been
+ clarified a bit.
+ (merge 61e2e22 vd/doc-unpack-objects later to maint).
+
+ * We did not generate the HTML version of the documentation to "git subtree"
+ in contrib/.
+ (merge 95c62fb jk/subtree-install-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A fast-import stream expresses a pathname with funny characters by
+ quoting them in C style; the remote-hg remote helper forgot to unquote
+ such a path.
+ (merge 1136265 ap/remote-hg-unquote-cquote later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset -p HEAD" has a codepath to special-case it to behave
+ differently from resetting to contents of other commits, but a
+ recent change broke it.
+
+ * Coloring around octopus merges in "log --graph" output was screwy.
+ (merge 339c17b hn/log-graph-color-octopus later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout topic", when there is not yet a local "topic" branch
+ but there is a unique remote-tracking branch for a remote "topic"
+ branch, pretended as if "git checkout -t -b topic remote/$r/topic"
+ (for that unique remote $r) was run. This hack however was not
+ implemented for "git checkout topic --".
+ (merge bca3969 mm/checkout-auto-track-fix later to maint).
+
+ * One long-standing flaw in the pack transfer protocol used by "git
+ clone" was that there was no way to tell the other end which branch
+ "HEAD" points at, and the receiving end needed to guess. A new
+ capability has been defined in the pack protocol to convey this
+ information so that cloning from a repository with more than one
+ branch pointing at the same commit where the HEAD is at now
+ reliably sets the initial branch in the resulting repository.
+ (merge 360a326 jc/upload-pack-send-symref later to maint).
+
+ * We did not handle cases where the http transport gets redirected during
+ the authorization request (e.g. from http:// to https://).
+ (merge 70900ed jk/http-auth-redirects later to maint).
+
+ * Bash prompting code to deal with an SVN remote as an upstream
+ was coded in a way unsupported by older Bash versions (3.x).
+ (merge 52ec889 sg/prompt-svn-remote-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The fall-back parsing of commit objects with broken author or
+ committer lines was less robust than ideal in picking up the
+ timestamps.
+ (merge 03818a4 jk/split-broken-ident later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-list --objects ^v1.0^ v1.0" gave the v1.0 tag itself in the
+ output, but "git rev-list --objects v1.0^..v1.0" did not.
+ (merge 895c5ba jc/revision-range-unpeel later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone" wrote some progress messages to standard output, not
+ to standard error, and did not suppress them with the
+ --no-progress option.
+ (merge 643f918 jk/clone-progress-to-stderr later to maint).
+
+ * "format-patch --from=<whom>" forgot to omit an unnecessary in-body
+ from line, i.e. when <whom> is the same as the real author.
+ (merge 662cc30 jk/format-patch-from later to maint).
+
+ * "git shortlog" used to choke and die when there is a malformed
+ commit (e.g. missing authors); it now simply ignores such a commit
+ and keeps going.
+ (merge cd4f09e jk/shortlog-tolerate-broken-commit later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-recursive" did not parse its "--diff-algorithm=" command
+ line option correctly.
+ (merge 6562928 jk/diff-algo later to maint).
+
+ * When running "fetch -q", a long silence while the sender side
+ computes the set of objects to send can be mistaken by proxies as
+ dropped connection. The server side has been taught to send a
+ small empty messages to keep the connection alive.
+ (merge 115dedd jk/upload-pack-keepalive later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" had a portability regression in v1.8.4 that triggered a
+ bug in some BSD shell implementations.
+ (merge 99855dd mm/rebase-continue-freebsd-WB later to maint).
+
+ * "git branch --track" had a minor regression in v1.8.3.2 and later
+ that made it impossible to base your local work on anything but a
+ local branch of the upstream repository you are tracking.
+ (merge b0f49ff jh/checkout-auto-tracking later to maint).
+
+ * When the web server responds with "405 Method Not Allowed", "git
+ http-backend" should tell the client what methods are allowed with
+ the "Allow" header.
+ (merge 9247be0 bc/http-backend-allow-405 later to maint).
+
+ * When there is no sufficient overlap between old and new history
+ during a "git fetch" into a shallow repository, objects that the
+ sending side knows the receiving end has were unnecessarily sent.
+ (merge f21d2a7 nd/fetch-into-shallow later to maint).
+
+ * "git cvsserver" computed the permission mode bits incorrectly for
+ executable files.
+ (merge 1b48d56 jc/cvsserver-perm-bit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When send-email obtains an error message to die with upon
+ failure to start an SSL session, it tried to read the error string
+ from a wrong place.
+ (merge 6cb0c88 bc/send-email-ssl-die-message-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The implementation of "add -i" has some crippling code to work around an
+ ActiveState Perl limitation but it by mistake also triggered on Git
+ for Windows where MSYS perl is used.
+ (merge df17e77 js/add-i-mingw later to maint).
+
+ * We made sure that we notice when the user-supplied GIT_DIR is actually a
+ gitfile, but did not do the same when the default ".git" is a
+ gitfile.
+ (merge 487a2b7 nd/git-dir-pointing-at-gitfile later to maint).
+
+ * When an object is not found after checking the packfiles and the
+ loose object directory, read_sha1_file() re-checks the packfiles to
+ prevent racing with a concurrent repacker; teach the same logic to
+ has_sha1_file().
+ (merge 45e8a74 jk/has-sha1-file-retry-packed later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit --author=$name", when $name is not in the canonical
+ "A. U. Thor <au.thor@example.xz>" format, looks for a matching name
+ from existing history, but did not consult mailmap to grab the
+ preferred author name.
+ (merge ea16794 ap/commit-author-mailmap later to maint).
+
+ * "git ls-files -k" needs to crawl only the part of the working tree
+ that may overlap the paths in the index to find killed files, but
+ shared code with the logic to find all the untracked files, which
+ made it unnecessarily inefficient.
+ (merge 680be04 jc/ls-files-killed-optim later to maint).
+
+ * The shortened commit object names in the insn sheet that is prepared at the
+ beginning of a "rebase -i" session can become ambiguous as the
+ rebasing progresses and the repository gains more commits. Make
+ sure the internal record is kept with full 40-hex object names.
+ (merge 75c6976 es/rebase-i-no-abbrev later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" internally used the merge machinery
+ and as a side effect left the merge summary message in the log, but
+ when rebasing there is no need for the merge summary.
+ (merge a9f739c rt/rebase-p-no-merge-summary later to maint).
+
+ * A call to xread() was used without a loop around it to cope with short
+ reads in the codepath to stream new contents to a pack.
+ (merge e92527c js/xread-in-full later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" forgot that the comment character is
+ configurable while reading its insn sheet.
+ (merge 7bca7af es/rebase-i-respect-core-commentchar later to maint).
+
+ * The mailmap support code read past the allocated buffer when the
+ mailmap file ended with an incomplete line.
+ (merge f972a16 jk/mailmap-incomplete-line later to maint).
+
+ * We used to send a large request to read(2)/write(2) as a single
+ system call, which was bad from the latency point of view when
+ the operation needs to be killed, and also triggered an error on
+ broken 64-bit systems that refuse to read or write more than 2GB
+ in one go.
+ (merge a487916 sp/clip-read-write-to-8mb later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" that auto-followed tags incorrectly reused the
+ connection with Git-aware transport helper (like the sample "ext::"
+ helper shipped with Git).
+ (merge 0f73f8b jc/transport-do-not-use-connect-twice-in-fetch later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --full-diff -- <pathspec>" showed a huge diff for paths
+ outside the given <pathspec> for each commit, instead of showing
+ the change relative to the parent of the commit. "git reflog -p"
+ had a similar problem.
+ (merge 838f9a1 tr/log-full-diff-keep-true-parents later to maint).
+
+ * Setting a submodule.*.path configuration variable to true (without
+ giving "= value") caused Git to segfault.
+ (merge 4b05440 jl/some-submodule-config-are-not-boolean later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" (there could be others, as the root cause is pretty
+ generic) fed a random, data dependent string to 'echo' and
+ expected it to come out literally, corrupting its error message.
+ (merge 89b0230 mm/no-shell-escape-in-die-message later to maint).
+
+ * Some people still use rather old versions of bash, which cannot
+ grok some constructs like 'printf -v varname' which the prompt and
+ completion code started to use recently.
+ (merge a44aa69 bc/completion-for-bash-3.0 later to maint).
+
+ * Code to read configuration from a blob object did not compile on
+ platforms with fgetc() etc. implemented as macros.
+ (merge 49d6cfa hv/config-from-blob later to maint-1.8.3).
+
+ * The recent "short-cut clone connectivity check" topic broke a
+ shallow repository when a fetch operation tries to auto-follow tags.
+ (merge 6da8bdc nd/fetch-pack-shallow-fix later to maint-1.8.3).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..752d791
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,345 @@
+Git v1.9.0 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+"git submodule foreach $cmd $args" used to treat "$cmd $args" the same
+way "ssh" did, concatenating them into a single string and letting the
+shell unquote. Careless users who forget to sufficiently quote $args
+get their argument split at $IFS whitespaces by the shell, and got
+unexpected results due to this. Starting from this release, the
+command line is passed directly to the shell, if it has an argument.
+
+Read-only support for experimental loose-object format, in which users
+could optionally choose to write their loose objects for a short
+while between v1.4.3 and v1.5.3 era, has been dropped.
+
+The meanings of the "--tags" option to "git fetch" has changed; the
+command fetches tags _in addition to_ what is fetched by the same
+command line without the option.
+
+The way "git push $there $what" interprets the $what part given on the
+command line, when it does not have a colon that explicitly tells us
+what ref at the $there repository is to be updated, has been enhanced.
+
+A handful of ancient commands that have long been deprecated are
+finally gone (repo-config, tar-tree, lost-found, and peek-remote).
+
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0.0)
+--------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics, which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.5
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * The HTTP transport, when talking GSS-Negotiate, uses "100
+ Continue" response to avoid having to rewind and resend a large
+ payload, which may not be always doable.
+
+ * Various bugfixes to remote-bzr and remote-hg (in contrib/).
+
+ * The build procedure is aware of MirBSD now.
+
+ * Various "git p4", "git svn" and "gitk" updates.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Fetching from a shallowly-cloned repository used to be forbidden,
+ primarily because the codepaths involved were not carefully vetted
+ and we did not bother supporting such usage. This release attempts
+ to allow object transfer out of a shallowly-cloned repository in a
+ more controlled way (i.e. the receiver becomes a shallow repository
+ with a truncated history).
+
+ * Just like we give a reasonable default for "less" via the LESS
+ environment variable, we now specify a reasonable default for "lv"
+ via the "LV" environment variable when spawning the pager.
+
+ * Two-level configuration variable names in "branch.*" and "remote.*"
+ hierarchies, whose variables are predominantly three-level, were
+ not completed by hitting a <TAB> in bash and zsh completions.
+
+ * Fetching a 'frotz' branch with "git fetch", while a 'frotz/nitfol'
+ remote-tracking branch from an earlier fetch was still there, would
+ error out, primarily because the command was not told that it is
+ allowed to lose any information on our side. "git fetch --prune"
+ now can be used to remove 'frotz/nitfol' to make room for fetching and
+ storing the 'frotz' remote-tracking branch.
+
+ * "diff.orderfile=<file>" configuration variable can be used to
+ pretend as if the "-O<file>" option were given from the command
+ line of "git diff", etc.
+
+ * The negative pathspec syntax allows "git log -- . ':!dir'" to tell
+ us "I am interested in everything but 'dir' directory".
+
+ * "git difftool" shows how many different paths there are in total,
+ and how many of them have been shown so far, to indicate progress.
+
+ * "git push origin master" used to push our 'master' branch to update
+ the 'master' branch at the 'origin' repository. This has been
+ enhanced to use the same ref mapping "git push origin" would use to
+ determine what ref at the 'origin' to be updated with our 'master'.
+ For example, with this configuration
+
+ [remote "origin"]
+ push = refs/heads/*:refs/review/*
+
+ that would cause "git push origin" to push out our local branches
+ to corresponding refs under refs/review/ hierarchy at 'origin',
+ "git push origin master" would update 'refs/review/master' over
+ there. Alternatively, if push.default is set to 'upstream' and our
+ 'master' is set to integrate with 'topic' from the 'origin' branch,
+ running "git push origin" while on our 'master' would update their
+ 'topic' branch, and running "git push origin master" while on any
+ of our branches does the same.
+
+ * "gitweb" learned to treat ref hierarchies other than refs/heads as
+ if they are additional branch namespaces (e.g. refs/changes/ in
+ Gerrit).
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." learned a few formatting directives;
+ e.g. "%(color:red)%(HEAD)%(color:reset) %(refname:short) %(subject)".
+
+ * The command string given to "git submodule foreach" is passed
+ directly to the shell, without being eval'ed. This is a backward
+ incompatible change that may break existing users.
+
+ * "git log" and friends learned the "--exclude=<glob>" option, to
+ allow people to say "list history of all branches except those that
+ match this pattern" with "git log --exclude='*/*' --branches".
+
+ * "git rev-parse --parseopt" learned a new "--stuck-long" option to
+ help scripts parse options with an optional parameter.
+
+ * The "--tags" option to "git fetch" no longer tells the command to
+ fetch _only_ the tags. It instead fetches tags _in addition to_
+ what are fetched by the same command line without the option.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * When parsing a 40-hex string into the object name, the string is
+ checked to see if it can be interpreted as a ref so that a warning
+ can be given for ambiguity. The code kicked in even when the
+ core.warnambiguousrefs is set to false to squelch this warning, in
+ which case the cycles spent to look at the ref namespace were an
+ expensive no-op, as the result was discarded without being used.
+
+ * The naming convention of the packfiles has been updated; it used to
+ be based on the enumeration of names of the objects that are
+ contained in the pack, but now it also depends on how the packed
+ result is represented---packing the same set of objects using
+ different settings (or delta order) would produce a pack with
+ different name.
+
+ * "git diff --no-index" mode used to unnecessarily attempt to read
+ the index when there is one.
+
+ * The deprecated parse-options macro OPT_BOOLEAN has been removed;
+ use OPT_BOOL or OPT_COUNTUP in new code.
+
+ * A few duplicate implementations of prefix/suffix string comparison
+ functions have been unified to starts_with() and ends_with().
+
+ * The new PERLLIB_EXTRA makefile variable can be used to specify
+ additional directories Perl modules (e.g. the ones necessary to run
+ git-svn) are installed on the platform when building.
+
+ * "git merge-base" learned the "--fork-point" mode, that implements
+ the same logic used in "git pull --rebase" to find a suitable fork
+ point out of the reflog entries for the remote-tracking branch the
+ work has been based on. "git rebase" has the same logic that can be
+ triggered with the "--fork-point" option.
+
+ * A third-party "receive-pack" (the responder to "git push") can
+ advertise the "no-thin" capability to tell "git push" not to use
+ the thin-pack optimization. Our receive-pack has always been
+ capable of accepting and fattening a thin-pack, and will continue
+ not to ask "git push" to use a non-thin pack.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.5 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes
+for details).
+
+ * The pathspec matching code, while comparing two trees (e.g. "git
+ diff A B -- path1 path2") was too aggressive and failed to match
+ some paths when multiple pathspecs were involved.
+
+ * "git repack --max-pack-size=8g" stopped being parsed correctly when
+ the command was reimplemented in C.
+
+ * An earlier update in v1.8.4.x to "git rev-list --objects" with
+ negative ref had a performance regression.
+ (merge 200abe7 jk/mark-edges-uninteresting later to maint).
+
+ * A recent update to "git send-email" broke platforms where
+ /etc/ssl/certs/ directory exists but cannot be used as SSL_ca_path
+ (e.g. Fedora rawhide).
+
+ * A handful of bugs around interpreting $branch@{upstream} notation
+ and its lookalike, when $branch part has interesting characters,
+ e.g. "@", and ":", have been fixed.
+
+ * "git clone" would fail to clone from a repository that has a ref
+ directly under "refs/", e.g. "refs/stash", because different
+ validation paths do different things on such a refname. Loosen the
+ client side's validation to allow such a ref.
+
+ * "git log --left-right A...B" lost the "leftness" of commits
+ reachable from A when A is a tag as a side effect of a recent
+ bugfix. This is a regression in 1.8.4.x series.
+
+ * documentations to "git pull" hinted there is an "-m" option because
+ it incorrectly shared the documentation with "git merge".
+
+ * "git diff A B submod" and "git diff A B submod/" ought to have done
+ the same for a submodule "submod", but didn't.
+
+ * "git clone $origin foo\bar\baz" on Windows failed to create the
+ leading directories (i.e. a moral-equivalent of "mkdir -p").
+
+ * "submodule.*.update=checkout", when propagated from .gitmodules to
+ .git/config, turned into a "submodule.*.update=none", which did not
+ make much sense.
+ (merge efa8fd7 fp/submodule-checkout-mode later to maint).
+
+ * The implementation of 'git stash $cmd "stash@{...}"' did not quote
+ the stash argument properly and left it split at IFS whitespace.
+
+ * The "--[no-]informative-errors" options to "git daemon" were parsed
+ a bit too loosely, allowing any other string after these option
+ names.
+
+ * There is no reason to have a hardcoded upper limit for the number of
+ parents of an octopus merge, created via the graft mechanism, but
+ there was.
+
+ * The basic test used to leave unnecessary trash directories in the
+ t/ directory.
+ (merge 738a8be jk/test-framework-updates later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-base --octopus" used to leave cleaning up suboptimal
+ result to the caller, but now it does the clean-up itself.
+
+ * A "gc" process running as a different user should be able to stop a
+ new "gc" process from starting, but it didn't.
+
+ * An earlier "clean-up" introduced an unnecessary memory leak.
+
+ * "git add -A" (no other arguments) in a totally empty working tree
+ used to emit an error.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" did not handle a tag pointed by another tag
+ nicely.
+
+ * When we figure out how many file descriptors to allocate for
+ keeping packfiles open, a system with non-working getrlimit() could
+ cause us to die(), but because we make this call only to get a
+ rough estimate of how many are available and we do not even attempt
+ to use up all available file descriptors ourselves, it is nicer to
+ fall back to a reasonable low value rather than dying.
+
+ * read_sha1_file(), that is the workhorse to read the contents given
+ an object name, honoured object replacements, but there was no
+ corresponding mechanism to sha1_object_info() that was used to
+ obtain the metainfo (e.g. type & size) about the object. This led
+ callers to weird inconsistencies.
+ (merge 663a856 cc/replace-object-info later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch=", an admittedly useless command, did not
+ behave very well.
+
+ * "git rev-parse <revs> -- <paths>" did not implement the usual
+ disambiguation rules the commands in the "git log" family used in
+ the same way.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * A workaround to an old bug in glibc prior to glibc 2.17 has been
+ retired; this would remove a side effect of the workaround that
+ corrupts system error messages in non-C locales.
+
+ * SSL-related options were not passed correctly to underlying socket
+ layer in "git send-email".
+
+ * "git commit -v" appends the patch to the log message before
+ editing, and then removes the patch when the editor returned
+ control. However, the patch was not stripped correctly when the
+ first modified path was a submodule.
+
+ * "git fetch --depth=0" was a no-op, and was silently ignored.
+ Diagnose it as an error.
+
+ * Remote repository URLs expressed in scp-style host:path notation are
+ parsed more carefully (e.g. "foo/bar:baz" is local, "[::1]:/~user" asks
+ to connect to user's home directory on host at address ::1.
+
+ * "git diff -- ':(icase)makefile'" was unnecessarily rejected at the
+ command line parser.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=ok" did not check the existence of
+ the named object.
+
+ * "git am --abort" sometimes complained about not being able to write
+ a tree with an 0{40} object in it.
+
+ * Two processes creating loose objects at the same time could have
+ failed unnecessarily when the name of their new objects started
+ with the same byte value, due to a race condition.
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 75935d5..e6d46ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -1,73 +1,5 @@
-Checklist (and a short version for the impatient):
-
- Commits:
-
- - make commits of logical units
- - check for unnecessary whitespace with "git diff --check"
- before committing
- - do not check in commented out code or unneeded files
- - the first line of the commit message should be a short
- description (50 characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION
- in git-commit(1)), and should skip the full stop
- - it is also conventional in most cases to prefix the
- first line with "area: " where the area is a filename
- or identifier for the general area of the code being
- modified, e.g.
- . archive: ustar header checksum is computed unsigned
- . git-cherry-pick.txt: clarify the use of revision range notation
- (if in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges"
- on the files you are modifying to see the current conventions)
- - the body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
- . explains the problem the change tries to solve, iow, what
- is wrong with the current code without the change.
- . justifies the way the change solves the problem, iow, why
- the result with the change is better.
- . alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
- - describe changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
- instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed
- xyzzy to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase
- to change its behaviour.
- - try to make sure your explanation can be understood without
- external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
- archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
- - add a "Signed-off-by: Your Name <you@example.com>" line to the
- commit message (or just use the option "-s" when committing)
- to confirm that you agree to the Developer's Certificate of Origin
- - make sure that you have tests for the bug you are fixing
- - make sure that the test suite passes after your commit
-
- Patch:
-
- - use "git format-patch -M" to create the patch
- - do not PGP sign your patch
- - do not attach your patch, but read in the mail
- body, unless you cannot teach your mailer to
- leave the formatting of the patch alone.
- - be careful doing cut & paste into your mailer, not to
- corrupt whitespaces.
- - provide additional information (which is unsuitable for
- the commit message) between the "---" and the diffstat
- - if you change, add, or remove a command line option or
- make some other user interface change, the associated
- documentation should be updated as well.
- - if your name is not writable in ASCII, make sure that
- you send off a message in the correct encoding.
- - send the patch to the list (git@vger.kernel.org) and the
- maintainer (gitster@pobox.com) if (and only if) the patch
- is ready for inclusion. If you use git-send-email(1),
- please test it first by sending email to yourself.
- - see below for instructions specific to your mailer
-
-Long version:
-
-I started reading over the SubmittingPatches document for Linux
-kernel, primarily because I wanted to have a document similar to
-it for the core GIT to make sure people understand what they are
-doing when they write "Signed-off-by" line.
-
-But the patch submission requirements are a lot more relaxed
-here on the technical/contents front, because the core GIT is
-thousand times smaller ;-). So here is only the relevant bits.
+Here are some guidelines for people who want to contribute their code
+to this software.
(0) Decide what to base your work on.
@@ -94,6 +26,10 @@ change is relevant to.
wait until some of the dependent topics graduate to 'master', and
rebase your work.
+ - Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
+ repositories (see the section "Subsystems" below). Changes to
+ these parts should be based on their trees.
+
To find the tip of a topic branch, run "git log --first-parent
master..pu" and look for the merge commit. The second parent of this
commit is the tip of the topic branch.
@@ -121,36 +57,101 @@ change, the approach taken by the change, and if relevant how this
differs substantially from the prior version, are all good things
to have.
-Oh, another thing. I am picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
+Make sure that you have tests for the bug you are fixing.
+
+When adding a new feature, make sure that you have new tests to show
+the feature triggers the new behaviour when it should, and to show the
+feature does not trigger when it shouldn't. Also make sure that the
+test suite passes after your commit. Do not forget to update the
+documentation to describe the updated behaviour.
+
+Speaking of the documentation, it is currently a liberal mixture of US
+and UK English norms for spelling and grammar, which is somewhat
+unfortunate. A huge patch that touches the files all over the place
+only to correct the inconsistency is not welcome, though. Potential
+clashes with other changes that can result from such a patch are not
+worth it. We prefer to gradually reconcile the inconsistencies in
+favor of US English, with small and easily digestible patches, as a
+side effect of doing some other real work in the vicinity (e.g.
+rewriting a paragraph for clarity, while turning en_UK spelling to
+en_US). Obvious typographical fixes are much more welcomed ("teh ->
+"the"), preferably submitted as independent patches separate from
+other documentation changes.
+
+Oh, another thing. We are picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
-(2) Generate your patch using git tools out of your commits.
+(2) Describe your changes well.
+
+The first line of the commit message should be a short description (50
+characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION in git-commit(1)), and
+should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
+prefix the first line with "area: " where the area is a filename or
+identifier for the general area of the code being modified, e.g.
+
+ . archive: ustar header checksum is computed unsigned
+ . git-cherry-pick.txt: clarify the use of revision range notation
+
+If in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges" on the
+files you are modifying to see the current conventions.
+
+The body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
+
+ . explains the problem the change tries to solve, iow, what is wrong
+ with the current code without the change.
+
+ . justifies the way the change solves the problem, iow, why the
+ result with the change is better.
-git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
+ . alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
+
+Describe your changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
+instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed xyzzy
+to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase to change
+its behaviour. Try to make sure your explanation can be understood
+without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
+archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
+
+
+(3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
+
+Git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
receiving end can handle them just fine.
-Please make sure your patch does not include any extra files
-which do not belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review
+Please make sure your patch does not add commented out debugging code,
+or include any extra files which do not relate to what your patch
+is trying to achieve. Make sure to review
your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
branch head. If you are preparing a work based on "next" branch,
that is fine, but please mark it as such.
-(3) Sending your patches.
+(4) Sending your patches.
-People on the git mailing list need to be able to read and
+People on the Git mailing list need to be able to read and
comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
-your code. For this reason, all patches should be submitted
-"inline". WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
+your code. For this reason, each patch should be submitted
+"inline" in a separate message.
+
+Multiple related patches should be grouped into their own e-mail
+thread to help readers find all parts of the series. To that end,
+send them as replies to either an additional "cover letter" message
+(see below), the first patch, or the respective preceding patch.
+
+If your log message (including your name on the
+Signed-off-by line) is not writable in ASCII, make sure that
+you send off a message in the correct encoding.
+
+WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
corrupting your patch. Do not cut-n-paste your patch; you can
lose tabs that way if you are not careful.
@@ -203,23 +204,29 @@ patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
not a text/plain, it's something else.
-Unless your patch is a very trivial and an obviously correct one,
-first send it with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
+Send your patch with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
people who are involved in the area you are touching (the output from
"git blame $path" and "git shortlog --no-merges $path" would help to
-identify them), to solicit comments and reviews. After the list
-reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the patch, re-send
-it with "To:" set to the maintainer and optionally "cc:" the list for
-inclusion. Do not forget to add trailers such as "Acked-by:",
-"Reviewed-by:" and "Tested-by:" after your "Signed-off-by:" line as
-necessary.
+identify them), to solicit comments and reviews.
+After the list reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the
+patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer [*1*] and "cc:" the
+list [*2*] for inclusion.
-(4) Sign your work
+Do not forget to add trailers such as "Acked-by:", "Reviewed-by:" and
+"Tested-by:" lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
+patch.
+
+ [Addresses]
+ *1* The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com
+ *2* The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org
+
+
+(5) Sign your work
To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
-that are being emailed around. Although core GIT is a lot
+that are being emailed around. Although core Git is a lot
smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
@@ -257,7 +264,7 @@ then you just add a line saying
Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
-This line can be automatically added by git if you run the git-commit
+This line can be automatically added by Git if you run the git-commit
command with the -s option.
Notice that you can place your own Signed-off-by: line when
@@ -286,6 +293,26 @@ You can also create your own tag or use one that's in common usage
such as "Thanks-to:", "Based-on-patch-by:", or "Mentored-by:".
------------------------------------------------
+Subsystems with dedicated maintainers
+
+Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
+repositories.
+
+ - git-gui/ comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
+
+ git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
+
+ - gitk-git/ comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
+
+ git://ozlabs.org/~paulus/gitk
+
+ - po/ comes from the localization coordinator, Jiang Xin:
+
+ https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po/
+
+Patches to these parts should be based on their trees.
+
+------------------------------------------------
An ideal patch flow
Here is an ideal patch flow for this project the current maintainer
@@ -330,7 +357,7 @@ Know the status of your patch after submission
tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
master).
-* Read the git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
+* Read the Git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
the status of various proposed changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 1273a85..2c16c53 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
#
# Note, {0} is the manpage section, while {target} is the command.
#
-# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
+# Show Git link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
# the command.
[macros]
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index d4a51da..0cebc4f 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -10,27 +10,14 @@
Include additional statistics at the end of blame output.
-L <start>,<end>::
- Annotate only the given line range. <start> and <end> can take
- one of these forms:
-
- - number
-+
-If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an
-absolute line number (lines count from 1).
-+
-
-- /regex/
-+
-This form will use the first line matching the given
-POSIX regex. If <end> is a regex, it will search
-starting at the line given by <start>.
-+
-
-- +offset or -offset
+-L :<regex>::
+ Annotate only the given line range. May be specified multiple times.
+ Overlapping ranges are allowed.
+
-This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number
-of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
+<start> and <end> are optional. ``-L <start>'' or ``-L <start>,'' spans from
+<start> to end of file. ``-L ,<end>'' spans from start of file to <end>.
+
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
-l::
Show long rev (Default: off).
@@ -95,7 +82,7 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
running extra passes of inspection.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
-alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving/copying
+alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
within a file for it to associate those lines with the parent
commit. The default value is 20.
@@ -110,7 +97,7 @@ commit. The default value is 20.
looks for copies from other files in any commit.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
-alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving/copying
+alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
between files for it to associate those lines with the parent
commit. And the default value is 40. If there are more than one
`-C` options given, the <num> argument of the last `-C` will
diff --git a/Documentation/cat-texi.perl b/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
index 828ec62..87437f8 100755
--- a/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
+++ b/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@ while (<STDIN>) {
push @menu, $1;
}
s/\(\@pxref{\[(URLS|REMOTES)\]}\)//;
+ s/\@anchor\{[^{}]*\}//g;
print TMP;
}
close TMP;
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 2fe88f0..73904bc 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -1,14 +1,14 @@
CONFIGURATION FILE
------------------
-The git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
-the git command's behavior. The `.git/config` file in each repository
+The Git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
+the Git commands' behavior. The `.git/config` file in each repository
is used to store the configuration for that repository, and
`$HOME/.gitconfig` is used to store a per-user configuration as
fallback values for the `.git/config` file. The file `/etc/gitconfig`
can be used to store a system-wide default configuration.
-The configuration variables are used by both the git plumbing
+The configuration variables are used by both the Git plumbing
and the porcelains. The variables are divided into sections, wherein
the fully qualified variable name of the variable itself is the last
dot-separated segment and the section name is everything before the last
@@ -140,10 +140,12 @@ advice.*::
can tell Git that you do not need help by setting these to 'false':
+
--
- pushNonFastForward::
+ pushUpdateRejected::
Set this variable to 'false' if you want to disable
- 'pushNonFFCurrent', and
- 'pushNonFFMatching' simultaneously.
+ 'pushNonFFCurrent',
+ 'pushNonFFMatching', 'pushAlreadyExists',
+ 'pushFetchFirst', and 'pushNeedsForce'
+ simultaneously.
pushNonFFCurrent::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-push[1] fails due to a
non-fast-forward update to the current branch.
@@ -152,17 +154,33 @@ advice.*::
'matching refs' explicitly (i.e. you used ':', or
specified a refspec that isn't your current branch) and
it resulted in a non-fast-forward error.
+ pushAlreadyExists::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ does not qualify for fast-forwarding (e.g., a tag.)
+ pushFetchFirst::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
+ object we do not have.
+ pushNeedsForce::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
+ object that is not a commit-ish, or make the remote
+ ref point at an object that is not a commit-ish.
statusHints::
Show directions on how to proceed from the current
state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1], in
the template shown when writing commit messages in
linkgit:git-commit[1], and in the help message shown
by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when switching branch.
+ statusUoption::
+ Advise to consider using the `-u` option to linkgit:git-status[1]
+ when the command takes more than 2 seconds to enumerate untracked
+ files.
commitBeforeMerge::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-merge[1] refuses to
merge to avoid overwriting local changes.
resolveConflict::
- Advices shown by various commands when conflicts
+ Advice shown by various commands when conflicts
prevent the operation from being performed.
implicitIdentity::
Advice on how to set your identity configuration when
@@ -175,6 +193,9 @@ advice.*::
amWorkDir::
Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
+ rmHints::
+ In case of failure in the output of linkgit:git-rm[1],
+ show directions on how to proceed from the current state.
--
core.fileMode::
@@ -186,22 +207,11 @@ The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
will probe and set core.fileMode false if appropriate when the
repository is created.
-core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
- This option is only used by Cygwin implementation of Git. If false,
- the Cygwin stat() and lstat() functions are used. This may be useful
- if your repository consists of a few separate directories joined in
- one hierarchy using Cygwin mount. If true, Git uses native Win32 API
- whenever it is possible and falls back to Cygwin functions only to
- handle symbol links. The native mode is more than twice faster than
- normal Cygwin l/stat() functions. True by default, unless core.filemode
- is true, in which case ignoreCygwinFSTricks is ignored as Cygwin's
- POSIX emulation is required to support core.filemode.
-
core.ignorecase::
If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
- git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
+ Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
- "makefile" when git expects "Makefile", git will assume
+ "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
"Makefile".
+
@@ -210,13 +220,13 @@ will probe and set core.ignorecase true if appropriate when the repository
is created.
core.precomposeunicode::
- This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of git.
- When core.precomposeunicode=true, git reverts the unicode decomposition
+ This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of Git.
+ When core.precomposeunicode=true, Git reverts the unicode decomposition
of filenames done by Mac OS. This is useful when sharing a repository
between Mac OS and Linux or Windows.
- (Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or git under cygwin 1.7).
- When false, file names are handled fully transparent by git,
- which is backward compatible with older versions of git.
+ (Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or Git under cygwin 1.7).
+ When false, file names are handled fully transparent by Git,
+ which is backward compatible with older versions of Git.
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
@@ -225,6 +235,12 @@ core.trustctime::
crawlers and some backup systems).
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+core.checkstat::
+ Determines which stat fields to match between the index
+ and work tree. The user can set this to 'default' or
+ 'minimal'. Default (or explicitly 'default'), is to check
+ all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
+
core.quotepath::
The commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files',
'diff'), when not given the `-z` option, will quote
@@ -246,20 +262,20 @@ core.eol::
conversion.
core.safecrlf::
- If true, makes git check if converting `CRLF` is reversible when
+ If true, makes Git check if converting `CRLF` is reversible when
end-of-line conversion is active. Git will verify if a command
modifies a file in the work tree either directly or indirectly.
For example, committing a file followed by checking out the
same file should yield the original file in the work tree. If
this is not the case for the current setting of
- `core.autocrlf`, git will reject the file. The variable can
- be set to "warn", in which case git will only warn about an
+ `core.autocrlf`, Git will reject the file. The variable can
+ be set to "warn", in which case Git will only warn about an
irreversible conversion but continue the operation.
+
CRLF conversion bears a slight chance of corrupting data.
-When it is enabled, git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to
+When it is enabled, Git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to
CRLF during checkout. A file that contains a mixture of LF and
-CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by git. For text
+CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by Git. For text
files this is the right thing to do: it corrects line endings
such that we have only LF line endings in the repository.
But for binary files that are accidentally classified as text the
@@ -269,7 +285,7 @@ If you recognize such corruption early you can easily fix it by
setting the conversion type explicitly in .gitattributes. Right
after committing you still have the original file in your work
tree and this file is not yet corrupted. You can explicitly tell
-git that this file is binary and git will handle the file
+Git that this file is binary and Git will handle the file
appropriately.
+
Unfortunately, the desired effect of cleaning up text files with
@@ -314,7 +330,7 @@ is created.
core.gitProxy::
A "proxy command" to execute (as 'command host port') instead
of establishing direct connection to the remote server when
- using the git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
+ using the Git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
in the "COMMAND for DOMAIN" format, the command is applied only
on hostnames ending with the specified domain string. This variable
may be set multiple times and is matched in the given order;
@@ -373,7 +389,7 @@ Note that this variable is honored even when set in a configuration
file in a ".git" subdirectory of a directory and its value differs
from the latter directory (e.g. "/path/to/.git/config" has
core.worktree set to "/different/path"), which is most likely a
-misconfiguration. Running git commands in the "/path/to" directory will
+misconfiguration. Running Git commands in the "/path/to" directory will
still use "/different/path" as the root of the work tree and can cause
confusion unless you know what you are doing (e.g. you are creating a
read-only snapshot of the same index to a location different from the
@@ -382,7 +398,7 @@ repository's usual working tree).
core.logAllRefUpdates::
Enable the reflog. Updates to a ref <ref> is logged to the file
"$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>", by appending the new and old
- SHA1, the date/time and the reason of the update, but
+ SHA-1, the date/time and the reason of the update, but
only when the file exists. If this configuration
variable is set to true, missing "$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>"
file is automatically created for branch heads (i.e. under
@@ -405,7 +421,7 @@ core.sharedRepository::
several users in a group (making sure all the files and objects are
group-writable). When 'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody'), the
repository will be readable by all users, additionally to being
- group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), git will use permissions
+ group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), Git will use permissions
reported by umask(2). When '0xxx', where '0xxx' is an octal number,
files in the repository will have this mode value. '0xxx' will override
user's umask value (whereas the other options will only override
@@ -416,8 +432,8 @@ core.sharedRepository::
See linkgit:git-init[1]. False by default.
core.warnAmbiguousRefs::
- If true, git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
- and might match multiple refs in the .git/refs/ tree. True by default.
+ If true, Git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
+ and might match multiple refs in the repository. True by default.
core.compression::
An integer -1..9, indicating a default compression level.
@@ -488,7 +504,7 @@ Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
core.excludesfile::
In addition to '.gitignore' (per-directory) and
- '.git/info/exclude', git looks into this file for patterns
+ '.git/info/exclude', Git looks into this file for patterns
of files which are not meant to be tracked. "`~/`" is expanded
to the value of `$HOME` and "`~user/`" to the specified user's
home directory. Its default value is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore.
@@ -506,7 +522,7 @@ core.askpass::
core.attributesfile::
In addition to '.gitattributes' (per-directory) and
- '.git/info/attributes', git looks into this file for attributes
+ '.git/info/attributes', Git looks into this file for attributes
(see linkgit:gitattributes[5]). Path expansions are made the same
way as for `core.excludesfile`. Its default value is
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not
@@ -518,29 +534,37 @@ core.editor::
variable when it is set, and the environment variable
`GIT_EDITOR` is not set. See linkgit:git-var[1].
+core.commentchar::
+ Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
+ messages consider a line that begins with this character
+ commented, and removes them after the editor returns
+ (default '#').
+
sequence.editor::
- Text editor used by `git rebase -i` for editing the rebase insn file.
+ Text editor used by `git rebase -i` for editing the rebase instruction file.
The value is meant to be interpreted by the shell when it is used.
It can be overridden by the `GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR` environment variable.
When not configured the default commit message editor is used instead.
core.pager::
- The command that git will use to paginate output. Can
- be overridden with the `GIT_PAGER` environment
- variable. Note that git sets the `LESS` environment
- variable to `FRSX` if it is unset when it runs the
- pager. One can change these settings by setting the
- `LESS` variable to some other value. Alternately,
- these settings can be overridden on a project or
- global basis by setting the `core.pager` option.
- Setting `core.pager` has no effect on the `LESS`
- environment variable behaviour above, so if you want
- to override git's default settings this way, you need
- to be explicit. For example, to disable the S option
- in a backward compatible manner, set `core.pager`
- to `less -+S`. This will be passed to the shell by
- git, which will translate the final command to
- `LESS=FRSX less -+S`.
+ Text viewer for use by Git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
+ is meant to be interpreted by the shell. The order of preference
+ is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
+ configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then the default chosen at
+ compile time (usually 'less').
++
+When the `LESS` environment variable is unset, Git sets it to `FRSX`
+(if `LESS` environment variable is set, Git does not change it at
+all). If you want to selectively override Git's default setting
+for `LESS`, you can set `core.pager` to e.g. `less -+S`. This will
+be passed to the shell by Git, which will translate the final
+command to `LESS=FRSX less -+S`. The environment tells the command
+to set the `S` option to chop long lines but the command line
+resets it to the default to fold long lines.
++
+Likewise, when the `LV` environment variable is unset, Git sets it
+to `-c`. You can override this setting by exporting `LV` with
+another value or setting `core.pager` to `lv +c`.
core.whitespace::
A comma separated list of common whitespace problems to
@@ -568,7 +592,7 @@ core.whitespace::
does not trigger if the character before such a carriage-return
is not a whitespace (not enabled by default).
* `tabwidth=<n>` tells how many character positions a tab occupies; this
- is relevant for `indent-with-non-tab` and when git fixes `tab-in-indent`
+ is relevant for `indent-with-non-tab` and when Git fixes `tab-in-indent`
errors. The default tab width is 8. Allowed values are 1 to 63.
core.fsyncobjectfiles::
@@ -584,7 +608,7 @@ core.preloadindex::
+
This can speed up operations like 'git diff' and 'git status' especially
on filesystems like NFS that have weak caching semantics and thus
-relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', git will do the
+relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', Git will do the
index comparison to the filesystem data in parallel, allowing
overlapping IO's.
@@ -620,9 +644,9 @@ add.ignore-errors::
add.ignoreErrors::
Tells 'git add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
- option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of git accept only
+ option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of Git accept only
`add.ignore-errors`, which does not follow the usual naming
- convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of git
+ convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of Git
honor `add.ignoreErrors` as well.
alias.*::
@@ -630,7 +654,7 @@ alias.*::
after defining "alias.last = cat-file commit HEAD", the invocation
"git last" is equivalent to "git cat-file commit HEAD". To avoid
confusion and troubles with script usage, aliases that
- hide existing git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
+ hide existing Git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
spaces, the usual shell quoting and escaping is supported.
quote pair and a backslash can be used to quote them.
+
@@ -677,7 +701,7 @@ branch.autosetupmerge::
branch.autosetuprebase::
When a new branch is created with 'git branch' or 'git checkout'
- that tracks another branch, this variable tells git to set
+ that tracks another branch, this variable tells Git to set
up pull to rebase instead of merge (see "branch.<name>.rebase").
When `never`, rebase is never automatically set to true.
When `local`, rebase is set to true for tracked branches of
@@ -691,9 +715,24 @@ branch.autosetuprebase::
This option defaults to never.
branch.<name>.remote::
- When in branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push' which
- remote to fetch from/push to. It defaults to `origin` if no remote is
- configured. `origin` is also used if you are not on any branch.
+ When on branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push'
+ which remote to fetch from/push to. The remote to push to
+ may be overridden with `remote.pushdefault` (for all branches).
+ The remote to push to, for the current branch, may be further
+ overridden by `branch.<name>.pushremote`. If no remote is
+ configured, or if you are not on any branch, it defaults to
+ `origin` for fetching and `remote.pushdefault` for pushing.
+ Additionally, `.` (a period) is the current local repository
+ (a dot-repository), see `branch.<name>.merge`'s final note below.
+
+branch.<name>.pushremote::
+ When on branch <name>, it overrides `branch.<name>.remote` for
+ pushing. It also overrides `remote.pushdefault` for pushing
+ from branch <name>. When you pull from one place (e.g. your
+ upstream) and push to another place (e.g. your own publishing
+ repository), you would want to set `remote.pushdefault` to
+ specify the remote to push to for all branches, and use this
+ option to override it for a specific branch.
branch.<name>.merge::
Defines, together with branch.<name>.remote, the upstream branch
@@ -710,8 +749,8 @@ branch.<name>.merge::
Specify multiple values to get an octopus merge.
If you wish to setup 'git pull' so that it merges into <name> from
another branch in the local repository, you can point
- branch.<name>.merge to the desired branch, and use the special setting
- `.` (a period) for branch.<name>.remote.
+ branch.<name>.merge to the desired branch, and use the relative path
+ setting `.` (a period) for branch.<name>.remote.
branch.<name>.mergeoptions::
Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and
@@ -725,10 +764,20 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
"git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
branch-specific manner.
+
+ When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
+ so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
+ by running 'git pull'.
++
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
for details).
+branch.<name>.description::
+ Branch description, can be edited with
+ `git branch --edit-description`. Branch description is
+ automatically added in the format-patch cover letter or
+ request-pull summary.
+
browser.<tool>.cmd::
Specify the command to invoke the specified browser. The
specified command is evaluated in shell with the URLs passed
@@ -740,8 +789,8 @@ browser.<tool>.path::
working repository in gitweb (see linkgit:git-instaweb[1]).
clean.requireForce::
- A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f
- or -n. Defaults to true.
+ A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f,
+ -i or -n. Defaults to true.
color.branch::
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
@@ -752,7 +801,8 @@ color.branch::
color.branch.<slot>::
Use customized color for branch coloration. `<slot>` is one of
`current` (the current branch), `local` (a local branch),
- `remote` (a remote-tracking branch in refs/remotes/), `plain` (other
+ `remote` (a remote-tracking branch in refs/remotes/),
+ `upstream` (upstream tracking branch), `plain` (other
refs).
+
The value for these configuration variables is a list of colors (at most
@@ -820,16 +870,17 @@ The values of these variables may be specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
color.interactive::
When set to `always`, always use colors for interactive prompts
- and displays (such as those used by "git-add --interactive").
- When false (or `never`), never. When set to `true` or `auto`, use
- colors only when the output is to the terminal. Defaults to false.
+ and displays (such as those used by "git-add --interactive" and
+ "git-clean --interactive"). When false (or `never`), never.
+ When set to `true` or `auto`, use colors only when the output is
+ to the terminal. Defaults to false.
color.interactive.<slot>::
- Use customized color for 'git add --interactive'
- output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, `help` or `error`, for
- four distinct types of normal output from interactive
- commands. The values of these variables may be specified as
- in color.branch.<slot>.
+ Use customized color for 'git add --interactive' and 'git clean
+ --interactive' output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, `help`
+ or `error`, for four distinct types of normal output from
+ interactive commands. The values of these variables may be
+ specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
color.pager::
A boolean to enable/disable colored output when the pager is in
@@ -852,7 +903,7 @@ color.status.<slot>::
one of `header` (the header text of the status message),
`added` or `updated` (files which are added but not committed),
`changed` (files which are changed but not added in the index),
- `untracked` (files which are not tracked by git),
+ `untracked` (files which are not tracked by Git),
`branch` (the current branch), or
`nobranch` (the color the 'no branch' warning is shown in, defaulting
to red). The values of these variables may be specified as in
@@ -863,17 +914,21 @@ color.ui::
as `color.diff` and `color.grep` that control the use of color
per command family. Its scope will expand as more commands learn
configuration to set a default for the `--color` option. Set it
- to `always` if you want all output not intended for machine
- consumption to use color, to `true` or `auto` if you want such
- output to use color when written to the terminal, or to `false` or
- `never` if you prefer git commands not to use color unless enabled
- explicitly with some other configuration or the `--color` option.
+ to `false` or `never` if you prefer Git commands not to use
+ color unless enabled explicitly with some other configuration
+ or the `--color` option. Set it to `always` if you want all
+ output not intended for machine consumption to use color, to
+ `true` or `auto` (this is the default since Git 1.8.4) if you
+ want such output to use color when written to the terminal.
column.ui::
Specify whether supported commands should output in columns.
This variable consists of a list of tokens separated by spaces
or commas:
+
+These options control when the feature should be enabled
+(defaults to 'never'):
++
--
`always`;;
always show in columns
@@ -881,24 +936,39 @@ column.ui::
never show in columns
`auto`;;
show in columns if the output is to the terminal
+--
++
+These options control layout (defaults to 'column'). Setting any
+of these implies 'always' if none of 'always', 'never', or 'auto' are
+specified.
++
+--
`column`;;
- fill columns before rows (default)
+ fill columns before rows
`row`;;
fill rows before columns
`plain`;;
show in one column
+--
++
+Finally, these options can be combined with a layout option (defaults
+to 'nodense'):
++
+--
`dense`;;
make unequal size columns to utilize more space
`nodense`;;
make equal size columns
--
-+
-This option defaults to 'never'.
column.branch::
Specify whether to output branch listing in `git branch` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
+column.clean::
+ Specify the layout when list items in `git clean -i`, which always
+ shows files and directories in columns. See `column.ui` for details.
+
column.status::
Specify whether to output untracked files in `git status` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
@@ -907,6 +977,23 @@ column.tag::
Specify whether to output tag listing in `git tag` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
+commit.cleanup::
+ This setting overrides the default of the `--cleanup` option in
+ `git commit`. See linkgit:git-commit[1] for details. Changing the
+ default can be useful when you always want to keep lines that begin
+ with comment character `#` in your log message, in which case you
+ would do `git config commit.cleanup whitespace` (note that you will
+ have to remove the help lines that begin with `#` in the commit log
+ template yourself, if you do this).
+
+commit.gpgsign::
+
+ A boolean to specify whether all commits should be GPG signed.
+ Use of this option when doing operations such as rebase can
+ result in a large number of commits being signed. It may be
+ convenient to use an agent to avoid typing your GPG passphrase
+ several times.
+
commit.status::
A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
@@ -974,7 +1061,7 @@ fetch.fsckObjects::
is used instead.
fetch.unpackLimit::
- If the number of objects fetched over the git native
+ If the number of objects fetched over the Git native
transfer is below this
limit, then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
files. However if the number of received objects equals or
@@ -984,6 +1071,10 @@ fetch.unpackLimit::
especially on slow filesystems. If not set, the value of
`transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
+fetch.prune::
+ If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the `--prune`
+ option was given on the command line. See also `remote.<name>.prune`.
+
format.attach::
Enable multipart/mixed attachments as the default for
'format-patch'. The value can also be a double quoted string
@@ -1014,7 +1105,7 @@ format.subjectprefix::
format.signature::
The default for format-patch is to output a signature containing
- the git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
+ the Git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
Set this variable to the empty string ("") to suppress
signature generation.
@@ -1039,11 +1130,16 @@ format.thread::
value disables threading.
format.signoff::
- A boolean value which lets you enable the `-s/--signoff` option of
- format-patch by default. *Note:* Adding the Signed-off-by: line to a
- patch should be a conscious act and means that you certify you have
- the rights to submit this work under the same open source license.
- Please see the 'SubmittingPatches' document for further discussion.
+ A boolean value which lets you enable the `-s/--signoff` option of
+ format-patch by default. *Note:* Adding the Signed-off-by: line to a
+ patch should be a conscious act and means that you certify you have
+ the rights to submit this work under the same open source license.
+ Please see the 'SubmittingPatches' document for further discussion.
+
+format.coverLetter::
+ A boolean that controls whether to generate a cover-letter when
+ format-patch is invoked, but in addition can be set to "auto", to
+ generate a cover-letter only when there's more than one patch.
filter.<driver>.clean::
The command which is used to convert the content of a worktree
@@ -1073,6 +1169,10 @@ gc.autopacklimit::
--auto` consolidates them into one larger pack. The
default value is 50. Setting this to 0 disables it.
+gc.autodetach::
+ Make `git gc --auto` return immediately andrun in background
+ if the system supports it. Default is true.
+
gc.packrefs::
Running `git pack-refs` in a repository renders it
unclonable by Git versions prior to 1.5.1.2 over dumb
@@ -1127,7 +1227,7 @@ gitcvs.logfile::
gitcvs.usecrlfattr::
If true, the server will look up the end-of-line conversion
attributes for files to determine the '-k' modes to use. If
- the attributes force git to treat a file as text,
+ the attributes force Git to treat a file as text,
the '-k' mode will be left blank so CVS clients will
treat it as text. If they suppress text conversion, the file
will be set with '-kb' mode, which suppresses any newline munging
@@ -1147,7 +1247,7 @@ gitcvs.allbinary::
gitcvs.dbname::
Database used by git-cvsserver to cache revision information
- derived from the git repository. The exact meaning depends on the
+ derived from the Git repository. The exact meaning depends on the
used database driver, for SQLite (which is the default driver) this
is a filename. Supports variable substitution (see
linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for details). May not contain semicolons (`;`).
@@ -1155,7 +1255,7 @@ gitcvs.dbname::
gitcvs.dbdriver::
Used Perl DBI driver. You can specify any available driver
- for this here, but it might not work. git-cvsserver is tested
+ for this here, but it might not work. git-cvsserver is tested
with 'DBD::SQLite', reported to work with 'DBD::Pg', and
reported *not* to work with 'DBD::mysql'. Experimental feature.
May not contain double colons (`:`). Default: 'SQLite'.
@@ -1345,6 +1445,12 @@ help.autocorrect::
value is 0 - the command will be just shown but not executed.
This is the default.
+help.htmlpath::
+ Specify the path where the HTML documentation resides. File system paths
+ and URLs are supported. HTML pages will be prefixed with this path when
+ help is displayed in the 'web' format. This defaults to the documentation
+ path of your Git installation.
+
http.proxy::
Override the HTTP proxy, normally configured using the 'http_proxy',
'https_proxy', and 'all_proxy' environment variables (see
@@ -1353,11 +1459,15 @@ http.proxy::
http.cookiefile::
File containing previously stored cookie lines which should be used
- in the git http session, if they match the server. The file format
+ in the Git http session, if they match the server. The file format
of the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format (see linkgit:curl[1]).
NOTE that the file specified with http.cookiefile is only used as
- input. No cookies will be stored in the file.
+ input unless http.saveCookies is set.
+
+http.savecookies::
+ If set, store cookies received during requests to the file specified by
+ http.cookiefile. Has no effect if http.cookiefile is unset.
http.sslVerify::
Whether to verify the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
@@ -1375,7 +1485,7 @@ http.sslKey::
variable.
http.sslCertPasswordProtected::
- Enable git's password prompt for the SSL certificate. Otherwise
+ Enable Git's password prompt for the SSL certificate. Otherwise
OpenSSL will prompt the user, possibly many times, if the
certificate or private key is encrypted. Can be overridden by the
'GIT_SSL_CERT_PASSWORD_PROTECTED' environment variable.
@@ -1390,6 +1500,14 @@ http.sslCAPath::
with when fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_SSL_CAPATH' environment variable.
+http.sslTry::
+ Attempt to use AUTH SSL/TLS and encrypted data transfers
+ when connecting via regular FTP protocol. This might be needed
+ if the FTP server requires it for security reasons or you wish
+ to connect securely whenever remote FTP server supports it.
+ Default is false since it might trigger certificate verification
+ errors on misconfigured servers.
+
http.maxRequests::
How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
@@ -1422,15 +1540,60 @@ http.noEPSV::
http.useragent::
The HTTP USER_AGENT string presented to an HTTP server. The default
- value represents the version of the client git such as git/1.7.1.
+ value represents the version of the client Git such as git/1.7.1.
This option allows you to override this value to a more common value
such as Mozilla/4.0. This may be necessary, for instance, if
connecting through a firewall that restricts HTTP connections to a set
of common USER_AGENT strings (but not including those like git/1.7.1).
Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT' environment variable.
+http.<url>.*::
+ Any of the http.* options above can be applied selectively to some urls.
+ For a config key to match a URL, each element of the config key is
+ compared to that of the URL, in the following order:
++
+--
+. Scheme (e.g., `https` in `https://example.com/`). This field
+ must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+
+. Host/domain name (e.g., `example.com` in `https://example.com/`).
+ This field must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+
+. Port number (e.g., `8080` in `http://example.com:8080/`).
+ This field must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+ Omitted port numbers are automatically converted to the correct
+ default for the scheme before matching.
+
+. Path (e.g., `repo.git` in `https://example.com/repo.git`). The
+ path field of the config key must match the path field of the URL
+ either exactly or as a prefix of slash-delimited path elements. This means
+ a config key with path `foo/` matches URL path `foo/bar`. A prefix can only
+ match on a slash (`/`) boundary. Longer matches take precedence (so a config
+ key with path `foo/bar` is a better match to URL path `foo/bar` than a config
+ key with just path `foo/`).
+
+. User name (e.g., `user` in `https://user@example.com/repo.git`). If
+ the config key has a user name it must match the user name in the
+ URL exactly. If the config key does not have a user name, that
+ config key will match a URL with any user name (including none),
+ but at a lower precedence than a config key with a user name.
+--
++
+The list above is ordered by decreasing precedence; a URL that matches
+a config key's path is preferred to one that matches its user name. For example,
+if the URL is `https://user@example.com/foo/bar` a config key match of
+`https://example.com/foo` will be preferred over a config key match of
+`https://user@example.com`.
++
+All URLs are normalized before attempting any matching (the password part,
+if embedded in the URL, is always ignored for matching purposes) so that
+equivalent urls that are simply spelled differently will match properly.
+Environment variable settings always override any matches. The urls that are
+matched against are those given directly to Git commands. This means any URLs
+visited as a result of a redirection do not participate in matching.
+
i18n.commitEncoding::
- Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; git itself
+ Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; Git itself
does not care per se, but this information is necessary e.g. when
importing commits from emails or in the gitk graphical history
browser (and possibly at other places in the future or in other
@@ -1503,6 +1666,10 @@ log.showroot::
Tools like linkgit:git-log[1] or linkgit:git-whatchanged[1], which
normally hide the root commit will now show it. True by default.
+log.mailmap::
+ If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
+ linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`.
+
mailmap.file::
The location of an augmenting mailmap file. The default
mailmap, located in the root of the repository, is loaded
@@ -1511,6 +1678,14 @@ mailmap.file::
subdirectory, or somewhere outside of the repository itself.
See linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1].
+mailmap.blob::
+ Like `mailmap.file`, but consider the value as a reference to a
+ blob in the repository. If both `mailmap.file` and
+ `mailmap.blob` are given, both are parsed, with entries from
+ `mailmap.file` taking precedence. In a bare repository, this
+ defaults to `HEAD:.mailmap`. In a non-bare repository, it
+ defaults to empty.
+
man.viewer::
Specify the programs that may be used to display help in the
'man' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
@@ -1556,7 +1731,7 @@ mergetool.keepBackup::
`true` (i.e. keep the backup files).
mergetool.keepTemporaries::
- When invoking a custom merge tool, git uses a set of temporary
+ When invoking a custom merge tool, Git uses a set of temporary
files to pass to the tool. If the tool returns an error and this
variable is set to `true`, then these temporary files will be
preserved, otherwise they will be removed after the tool has
@@ -1584,7 +1759,7 @@ displayed.
notes.rewrite.<command>::
When rewriting commits with <command> (currently `amend` or
- `rebase`) and this variable is set to `true`, git
+ `rebase`) and this variable is set to `true`, Git
automatically copies your notes from the original to the
rewritten commit. Defaults to `true`, but see
"notes.rewriteRef" below.
@@ -1664,7 +1839,7 @@ pack.threads::
warning. This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search window
is however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and set the number of threads accordingly.
pack.indexVersion::
@@ -1676,11 +1851,11 @@ pack.indexVersion::
and this config option ignored whenever the corresponding pack is
larger than 2 GB.
+
-If you have an old git that does not understand the version 2 `*.idx` file,
+If you have an old Git that does not understand the version 2 `*.idx` file,
cloning or fetching over a non native protocol (e.g. "http" and "rsync")
that will copy both `*.pack` file and corresponding `*.idx` file from the
other side may give you a repository that cannot be accessed with your
-older version of git. If the `*.pack` file is smaller than 2 GB, however,
+older version of Git. If the `*.pack` file is smaller than 2 GB, however,
you can use linkgit:git-index-pack[1] on the *.pack file to regenerate
the `*.idx` file.
@@ -1693,9 +1868,34 @@ pack.packSizeLimit::
Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are
supported.
+pack.useBitmaps::
+ When true, git will use pack bitmaps (if available) when packing
+ to stdout (e.g., during the server side of a fetch). Defaults to
+ true. You should not generally need to turn this off unless
+ you are debugging pack bitmaps.
+
+pack.writebitmaps::
+ When true, git will write a bitmap index when packing all
+ objects to disk (e.g., when `git repack -a` is run). This
+ index can speed up the "counting objects" phase of subsequent
+ packs created for clones and fetches, at the cost of some disk
+ space and extra time spent on the initial repack. Defaults to
+ false.
+
+pack.writeBitmapHashCache::
+ When true, git will include a "hash cache" section in the bitmap
+ index (if one is written). This cache can be used to feed git's
+ delta heuristics, potentially leading to better deltas between
+ bitmapped and non-bitmapped objects (e.g., when serving a fetch
+ between an older, bitmapped pack and objects that have been
+ pushed since the last gc). The downside is that it consumes 4
+ bytes per object of disk space, and that JGit's bitmap
+ implementation does not understand it, causing it to complain if
+ Git and JGit are used on the same repository. Defaults to false.
+
pager.<cmd>::
If the value is boolean, turns on or off pagination of the
- output of a particular git subcommand when writing to a tty.
+ output of a particular Git subcommand when writing to a tty.
Otherwise, turns on pagination for the subcommand using the
pager specified by the value of `pager.<cmd>`. If `--paginate`
or `--no-pager` is specified on the command line, it takes
@@ -1712,12 +1912,26 @@ pretty.<name>::
Note that an alias with the same name as a built-in format
will be silently ignored.
+pull.ff::
+ By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
+ a commit that is a descendant of the current commit. Instead, the
+ tip of the current branch is fast-forwarded. When set to `false`,
+ this variable tells Git to create an extra merge commit in such
+ a case (equivalent to giving the `--no-ff` option from the command
+ line). When set to `only`, only such fast-forward merges are
+ allowed (equivalent to giving the `--ff-only` option from the
+ command line).
+
pull.rebase::
When true, rebase branches on top of the fetched branch, instead
of merging the default branch from the default remote when "git
pull" is run. See "branch.<name>.rebase" for setting this on a
per-branch basis.
+
+ When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
+ so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
+ by running 'git pull'.
++
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
for details).
@@ -1730,38 +1944,59 @@ pull.twohead::
The default merge strategy to use when pulling a single branch.
push.default::
- Defines the action git push should take if no refspec is given
- on the command line, no refspec is configured in the remote, and
- no refspec is implied by any of the options given on the command
- line. Possible values are:
+ Defines the action `git push` should take if no refspec is
+ explicitly given. Different values are well-suited for
+ specific workflows; for instance, in a purely central workflow
+ (i.e. the fetch source is equal to the push destination),
+ `upstream` is probably what you want. Possible values are:
+
--
-* `nothing` - do not push anything.
-* `matching` - push all branches having the same name in both ends.
- This is for those who prepare all the branches into a publishable
- shape and then push them out with a single command. It is not
- appropriate for pushing into a repository shared by multiple users,
- since locally stalled branches will attempt a non-fast forward push
- if other users updated the branch.
- +
- This used to be the default, and stale web sites may still say so,
- but Git 2.0 has changed the default to `simple`.
-* `upstream` - push the current branch to its upstream branch.
- With this, `git push` will update the same remote ref as the one which
- is merged by `git pull`, making `push` and `pull` symmetrical.
- See "branch.<name>.merge" for how to configure the upstream branch.
-* `simple` - like `upstream`, but refuses to push if the upstream
- branch's name is different from the local one. This is the safest
- option and is well-suited for beginners. It has become the default
- in Git 2.0.
-* `current` - push the current branch to a branch of the same name.
---
+
+* `nothing` - do not push anything (error out) unless a refspec is
+ explicitly given. This is primarily meant for people who want to
+ avoid mistakes by always being explicit.
+
+* `current` - push the current branch to update a branch with the same
+ name on the receiving end. Works in both central and non-central
+ workflows.
+
+* `upstream` - push the current branch back to the branch whose
+ changes are usually integrated into the current branch (which is
+ called `@{upstream}`). This mode only makes sense if you are
+ pushing to the same repository you would normally pull from
+ (i.e. central workflow).
+
+* `simple` - in centralized workflow, work like `upstream` with an
+ added safety to refuse to push if the upstream branch's name is
+ different from the local one.
++
+When pushing to a remote that is different from the remote you normally
+pull from, work as `current`. This is the safest option and is suited
+for beginners.
++
+This mode has become the default in Git 2.0.
+
+* `matching` - push all branches having the same name on both ends.
+ This makes the repository you are pushing to remember the set of
+ branches that will be pushed out (e.g. if you always push 'maint'
+ and 'master' there and no other branches, the repository you push
+ to will have these two branches, and your local 'maint' and
+ 'master' will be pushed there).
++
+To use this mode effectively, you have to make sure _all_ the
+branches you would push out are ready to be pushed out before
+running 'git push', as the whole point of this mode is to allow you
+to push all of the branches in one go. If you usually finish work
+on only one branch and push out the result, while other branches are
+unfinished, this mode is not for you. Also this mode is not
+suitable for pushing into a shared central repository, as other
+people may add new branches there, or update the tip of existing
+branches outside your control.
+
-The `simple`, `current` and `upstream` modes are for those who want to
-push out a single branch after finishing work, even when the other
-branches are not yet ready to be pushed out. If you are working with
-other people to push into the same shared repository, you would want
-to use one of these.
+This used to be the default, but not since Git 2.0 (`simple` is the
+new default).
+
+--
rebase.stat::
Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
@@ -1770,6 +2005,14 @@ rebase.stat::
rebase.autosquash::
If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+rebase.autostash::
+ When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash
+ before the operation begins, and apply it after the operation
+ ends. This means that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.
+ However, use with care: the final stash application after a
+ successful rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+ Defaults to false.
+
receive.autogc::
By default, git-receive-pack will run "git-gc --auto" after
receiving data from git-push and updating refs. You can stop
@@ -1815,10 +2058,28 @@ receive.denyNonFastForwards::
even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
set when initializing a shared repository.
+receive.hiderefs::
+ String(s) `receive-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
+ from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
+ definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
+ are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
+ variable is excluded, and is hidden when responding to `git
+ push`, and an attempt to update or delete a hidden ref by
+ `git push` is rejected.
+
receive.updateserverinfo::
If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
after receiving data from git-push and updating refs.
+receive.shallowupdate::
+ If set to true, .git/shallow can be updated when new refs
+ require new shallow roots. Otherwise those refs are rejected.
+
+remote.pushdefault::
+ The remote to push to by default. Overrides
+ `branch.<name>.remote` for all branches, and is overridden by
+ `branch.<name>.pushremote` for specific branches.
+
remote.<name>.url::
The URL of a remote repository. See linkgit:git-fetch[1] or
linkgit:git-push[1].
@@ -1870,9 +2131,15 @@ remote.<name>.tagopt::
linkgit:git-fetch[1].
remote.<name>.vcs::
- Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause git to interact with
+ Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause Git to interact with
the remote with the git-remote-<vcs> helper.
+remote.<name>.prune::
+ When set to true, fetching from this remote by default will also
+ remove any remote-tracking references that no longer exist on the
+ remote (as if the `--prune` option was given on the command line).
+ Overrides `fetch.prune` settings, if any.
+
remotes.<group>::
The list of remotes which are fetched by "git remote update
<group>". See linkgit:git-remote[1].
@@ -1880,9 +2147,9 @@ remotes.<group>::
repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
By default, linkgit:git-repack[1] creates packs that use
delta-base offset. If you need to share your repository with
- git older than version 1.4.4, either directly or via a dumb
+ Git older than version 1.4.4, either directly or via a dumb
protocol such as http, then you need to set this option to
- "false" and repack. Access from old git versions over the
+ "false" and repack. Access from old Git versions over the
native protocol are unaffected by this option.
rerere.autoupdate::
@@ -1911,6 +2178,10 @@ sendemail.smtpencryption::
sendemail.smtpssl::
Deprecated alias for 'sendemail.smtpencryption = ssl'.
+sendemail.smtpsslcertpath::
+ Path to ca-certificates (either a directory or a single file).
+ Set it to an empty string to disable certificate verification.
+
sendemail.<identity>.*::
Identity-specific versions of the 'sendemail.*' parameters
found below, taking precedence over those when the this
@@ -1919,6 +2190,7 @@ sendemail.<identity>.*::
sendemail.aliasesfile::
sendemail.aliasfiletype::
+sendemail.annotate::
sendemail.bcc::
sendemail.cc::
sendemail.cccmd::
@@ -1951,9 +2223,24 @@ showbranch.default::
status.relativePaths::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] shows paths relative to the
current directory. Setting this variable to `false` shows paths
- relative to the repository root (this was the default for git
+ relative to the repository root (this was the default for Git
prior to v1.5.4).
+status.short::
+ Set to true to enable --short by default in linkgit:git-status[1].
+ The option --no-short takes precedence over this variable.
+
+status.branch::
+ Set to true to enable --branch by default in linkgit:git-status[1].
+ The option --no-branch takes precedence over this variable.
+
+status.displayCommentPrefix::
+ If set to true, linkgit:git-status[1] will insert a comment
+ prefix before each output line (starting with
+ `core.commentChar`, i.e. `#` by default). This was the
+ behavior of linkgit:git-status[1] in Git 1.8.4 and previous.
+ Defaults to false.
+
status.showUntrackedFiles::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-commit[1] show
files which are not currently tracked by Git. Directories which
@@ -1978,7 +2265,14 @@ status.submodulesummary::
If this is set to a non zero number or true (identical to -1 or an
unlimited number), the submodule summary will be enabled and a
summary of commits for modified submodules will be shown (see
- --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]).
+ --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]). Please note
+ that the summary output command will be suppressed for all
+ submodules when `diff.ignoreSubmodules` is set to 'all' or only
+ for those submodules where `submodule.<name>.ignore=all`. To
+ also view the summary for ignored submodules you can either use
+ the --ignore-submodules=dirty command line option or the 'git
+ submodule summary' command, which shows a similar output but does
+ not honor these settings.
submodule.<name>.path::
submodule.<name>.url::
@@ -1989,6 +2283,12 @@ submodule.<name>.update::
URL and other values found in the `.gitmodules` file. See
linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+submodule.<name>.branch::
+ The remote branch name for a submodule, used by `git submodule
+ update --remote`. Set this option to override the value found in
+ the `.gitmodules` file. See linkgit:git-submodule[1] and
+ linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+
submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
This option can be used to control recursive fetching of this
submodule. It can be overridden by using the --[no-]recurse-submodules
@@ -2007,7 +2307,8 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
submodules that have untracked files in their work tree as changed.
This setting overrides any setting made in .gitmodules for this submodule,
both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
- "--ignore-submodules" option.
+ "--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
+ affected by this setting.
tar.umask::
This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
@@ -2021,18 +2322,49 @@ transfer.fsckObjects::
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
Defaults to false.
+transfer.hiderefs::
+ This variable can be used to set both `receive.hiderefs`
+ and `uploadpack.hiderefs` at the same time to the same
+ values. See entries for these other variables.
+
transfer.unpackLimit::
When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
The default value is 100.
+uploadpack.hiderefs::
+ String(s) `upload-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
+ from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
+ definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
+ are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
+ variable is excluded, and is hidden from `git ls-remote`,
+ `git fetch`, etc. An attempt to fetch a hidden ref by `git
+ fetch` will fail. See also `uploadpack.allowtipsha1inwant`.
+
+uploadpack.allowtipsha1inwant::
+ When `uploadpack.hiderefs` is in effect, allow `upload-pack`
+ to accept a fetch request that asks for an object at the tip
+ of a hidden ref (by default, such a request is rejected).
+ see also `uploadpack.hiderefs`.
+
+uploadpack.keepalive::
+ When `upload-pack` has started `pack-objects`, there may be a
+ quiet period while `pack-objects` prepares the pack. Normally
+ it would output progress information, but if `--quiet` was used
+ for the fetch, `pack-objects` will output nothing at all until
+ the pack data begins. Some clients and networks may consider
+ the server to be hung and give up. Setting this option instructs
+ `upload-pack` to send an empty keepalive packet every
+ `uploadpack.keepalive` seconds. Setting this option to 0
+ disables keepalive packets entirely. The default is 5 seconds.
+
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
large number of repositories, and serves them with multiple
access methods, and some users need to use different access
methods, this feature allows people to specify any of the
- equivalent URLs and have git automatically rewrite the URL to
+ equivalent URLs and have Git automatically rewrite the URL to
the best alternative for the particular user, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
insteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is used.
@@ -2043,11 +2375,11 @@ url.<base>.pushInsteadOf::
resulting URL will be pushed to. In cases where some site serves
a large number of repositories, and serves them with multiple
access methods, some of which do not allow push, this feature
- allows people to specify a pull-only URL and have git
+ allows people to specify a pull-only URL and have Git
automatically use an appropriate URL to push, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
pushInsteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is
- used. If a remote has an explicit pushurl, git will ignore this
+ used. If a remote has an explicit pushurl, Git will ignore this
setting for that remote.
user.email::
@@ -2061,11 +2393,11 @@ user.name::
environment variables. See linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
user.signingkey::
- If linkgit:git-tag[1] is not selecting the key you want it to
- automatically when creating a signed tag, you can override the
- default selection with this variable. This option is passed
- unchanged to gpg's --local-user parameter, so you may specify a key
- using any method that gpg supports.
+ If linkgit:git-tag[1] or linkgit:git-commit[1] is not selecting the
+ key you want it to automatically when creating a signed tag or
+ commit, you can override the default selection with this variable.
+ This option is passed unchanged to gpg's --local-user parameter,
+ so you may specify a key using any method that gpg supports.
web.browser::
Specify a web browser that may be used by some commands.
diff --git a/Documentation/date-formats.txt b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
index c000f08..ccd1fc8 100644
--- a/Documentation/date-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@ endif::git-commit[]
support the following date formats:
Git internal format::
- It is `<unix timestamp> <timezone offset>`, where `<unix
+ It is `<unix timestamp> <time zone offset>`, where `<unix
timestamp>` is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.
- `<timezone offset>` is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
+ `<time zone offset>` is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
For example CET (which is 2 hours ahead UTC) is `+0200`.
RFC 2822::
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 4314ad0..f07b451 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -73,7 +73,11 @@ diff.ignoreSubmodules::
Sets the default value of --ignore-submodules. Note that this
affects only 'git diff' Porcelain, and not lower level 'diff'
commands such as 'git diff-files'. 'git checkout' also honors
- this setting when reporting uncommitted changes.
+ this setting when reporting uncommitted changes. Setting it to
+ 'all' disables the submodule summary normally shown by 'git commit'
+ and 'git status' when 'status.submodulesummary' is set unless it is
+ overridden by using the --ignore-submodules command line option.
+ The 'git submodule' commands are not affected by this setting.
diff.mnemonicprefix::
If set, 'git diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
@@ -94,12 +98,17 @@ diff.mnemonicprefix::
diff.noprefix::
If set, 'git diff' does not show any source or destination prefix.
+diff.orderfile::
+ File indicating how to order files within a diff, using
+ one shell glob pattern per line.
+ Can be overridden by the '-O' option to linkgit:git-diff[1].
+
diff.renameLimit::
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
diff.renames::
- Tells git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
+ Tells Git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
will enable basic rename detection. If set to "copies" or
"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
@@ -149,9 +158,27 @@ diff.<driver>.cachetextconv::
conversion outputs. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff.tool::
- The diff tool to be used by linkgit:git-difftool[1]. This
- option overrides `merge.tool`, and has the same valid built-in
- values as `merge.tool` minus "tortoisemerge" and plus
- "kompare". Any other value is treated as a custom diff tool,
- and there must be a corresponding `difftool.<tool>.cmd`
- option.
+ Controls which diff tool is used by linkgit:git-difftool[1].
+ This variable overrides the value configured in `merge.tool`.
+ The list below shows the valid built-in values.
+ Any other value is treated as a custom diff tool and requires
+ that a corresponding difftool.<tool>.cmd variable is defined.
+
+include::mergetools-diff.txt[]
+
+diff.algorithm::
+ Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
++
+--
+`default`, `myers`;;
+ The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
+`minimal`;;
+ Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
+ produced.
+`patience`;;
+ Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
+`histogram`;;
+ This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
+ low-occurrence common elements".
+--
++
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 39f2c50..9b37b2a 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,11 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
{git-diff? This is the default.}
endif::git-format-patch[]
+-s::
+--no-patch::
+ Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like `git show` that
+ show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of `--patch`.
+
-U<n>::
--unified=<n>::
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
@@ -55,6 +60,26 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--histogram::
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
+--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}::
+ Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
++
+--
+`default`, `myers`;;
+ The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
+`minimal`;;
+ Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
+ produced.
+`patience`;;
+ Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
+`histogram`;;
+ This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
+ low-occurrence common elements".
+--
++
+For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
+non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
+have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
+
--stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]::
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
@@ -175,8 +200,8 @@ any of those replacements occurred.
--color[=<when>]::
Show colored diff.
- The value must be `always` (the default for `<when>`), `never`, or `auto`.
- The default value is `never`.
+ `--color` (i.e. without '=<when>') is the same as `--color=always`.
+ '<when>' can be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto`.
ifdef::git-diff[]
It can be changed by the `color.ui` and `color.diff`
configuration settings.
@@ -283,7 +308,7 @@ few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number `m` controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). `-B/70%` specifies that less than 30% of the
-original should remain in the result for git to consider it a total
+original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).
+
@@ -307,13 +332,13 @@ ifdef::git-log[]
endif::git-log[]
If `n` is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
- file's size). For example, `-M90%` means git should consider a
+ file's size). For example, `-M90%` means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn't changed. Without a `%` sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., `-M5` becomes
0.5, and is thus the same as `-M50%`. Similarly, `-M05` is
the same as `-M5%`. To limit detection to exact renames, use
- `-M100%`.
+ `-M100%`. The default similarity index is 50%.
-C[<n>]::
--find-copies[=<n>]::
@@ -363,14 +388,36 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
-S<string>::
- Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
- <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
- appearing in diff output; see the 'pickaxe' entry in
- linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more details.
+ Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
+ the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
+ Intended for the scripter's use.
++
+It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
+struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
+came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
+block in the preimage back into `-S`, and keep going until you get the
+very first version of the block.
-G<regex>::
- Look for differences whose added or removed line matches
- the given <regex>.
+ Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
+ lines that match <regex>.
++
+To illustrate the difference between `-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex` and
+`-G<regex>`, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
+file:
++
+----
++ return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+...
+- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+----
++
+While `git log -G"regexec\(regexp"` will show this commit, `git log
+-S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
+occurrences of that string did not change).
++
+See the 'pickaxe' entry in linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more
+information.
--pickaxe-all::
When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
@@ -378,13 +425,16 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
in <string>.
--pickaxe-regex::
- Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX
- regex to match.
+ Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
+ expression to match.
endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
Output the patch in the order specified in the
<orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+ This overrides the `diff.orderfile` configuration variable
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). To cancel `diff.orderfile`,
+ use `-O/dev/null`.
ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-R::
@@ -419,6 +469,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
+--ignore-blank-lines::
+ Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.
+
--inter-hunk-context=<lines>::
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
@@ -460,7 +513,7 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--ignore-submodules[=<when>]::
Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
- either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default
+ either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
index 048337b..2a18c1f 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
+Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
===================================
<<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential for
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ commands in addition to the above.
<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
-of git repositories.
+of Git repositories.
Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ $ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+
<1> create a new topic branch.
<2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
-<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
+<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
<4> to see what changes you are committing.
<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@ commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
-My typical GIT day.::
+My typical Git day.::
+
------------
$ git status <1>
@@ -304,7 +304,7 @@ and maintain access to the repository by developers.
* linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
for shared central repository users.
-link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a good
+link:howto/update-hook-example.html[update hook howto] has a good
example of managing a shared central repository.
@@ -332,7 +332,7 @@ Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
------------
$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
# default: off
-# description: The git server offers access to git repositories
+# description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
service git
{
disable = no
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 6e98bdf..92c68c3 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -8,11 +8,25 @@
option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
--depth=<depth>::
- Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
`git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote
branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
+--unshallow::
+ If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
+ repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations
+ imposed by shallow repositories.
++
+If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that
+the current repository has the same history as the source repository.
+
+--update-shallow::
+ By default when fetching from a shallow repository,
+ `git fetch` refuses refs that require updating
+ .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such
+ refs.
+
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
Show what would be done, without making any changes.
@@ -37,17 +51,20 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
-p::
--prune::
- After fetching, remove any remote-tracking branches which
- no longer exist on the remote.
+ After fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
+ longer exist on the remote. Tags are not subject to pruning
+ if they are fetched only because of the default tag
+ auto-following or due to a --tags option. However, if tags
+ are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command
+ line or in the remote configuration, for example if the remote
+ was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are also
+ subject to pruning.
endif::git-pull[]
-ifdef::git-pull[]
---no-tags::
-endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
-n::
---no-tags::
endif::git-pull[]
+--no-tags::
By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded
from the remote repository are fetched and stored locally.
This option disables this automatic tag following. The default
@@ -57,11 +74,12 @@ endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
-t::
--tags::
- This is a short-hand for giving "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"
- refspec from the command line, to ask all tags to be fetched
- and stored locally. Because this acts as an explicit
- refspec, the default refspecs (configured with the
- remote.$name.fetch variable) are overridden and not used.
+ Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags
+ `refs/tags/*` into local tags with the same name), in addition
+ to whatever else would otherwise be fetched. Using this
+ option alone does not subject tags to pruning, even if --prune
+ is used (though tags may be pruned anyway if they are also the
+ destination of an explicit refspec; see '--prune').
--recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index fd9e36b..48754cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
- [--edit | -e] [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
- [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--]
- [<filepattern>...]
+ [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
+ [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ commit.
OPTIONS
-------
-<filepattern>...::
+<pathspec>...::
Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
be given to add all matching files. Also a
leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
@@ -100,23 +100,40 @@ apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
-u::
--update::
- Only match <filepattern> against already tracked files in
- the index rather than the working tree. That means that it
- will never stage new files, but that it will stage modified
- new contents of tracked files and that it will remove files
- from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree
- have been removed.
+ Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
+ <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
+ match the working tree, but adds no new files.
+
-If no <filepattern> is given, default to "."; in other words,
-update all tracked files in the current directory and its
-subdirectories.
+If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
+"."; in other words, update all tracked files in the current directory
+and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
+of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
-A::
--all::
- Like `-u`, but match <filepattern> against files in the
- working tree in addition to the index. That means that it
- will find new files as well as staging modified content and
- removing files that are no longer in the working tree.
+--no-ignore-removal::
+ Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
+ matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
+ entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
+ match the working tree.
++
+If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
+"."; in other words, update all files in the current directory
+and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
+of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
+
+--no-all::
+--ignore-removal::
+ Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the
+ index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore
+ files that have been removed from the working tree. This
+ option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.
++
+This option is primarily to help the current users of Git, whose
+"git add <pathspec>..." ignores removed files. In future versions
+of Git, "git add <pathspec>..." will be a synonym to "git add -A
+<pathspec>..." and "git add --ignore-removal <pathspec>..." will behave like
+today's "git add <pathspec>...", ignoring removed files.
-N::
--intent-to-add::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 19d57a8..17924d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -9,12 +9,12 @@ git-am - Apply a series of patches from a mailbox
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--keep-cr | --no-keep-cr] [--utf8 | --no-utf8]
+'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--[no-]keep-cr] [--[no-]utf8]
[--3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
[--ignore-date] [--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace]
[--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
- [--scissors | --no-scissors]
+ [--[no-]scissors] [-S[<keyid>]]
[(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
@@ -43,8 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
--keep-non-patch::
Pass `-b` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
---keep-cr::
---no-keep-cr::
+--[no-]keep-cr::
With `--keep-cr`, call 'git mailsplit' (see linkgit:git-mailsplit[1])
with the same option, to prevent it from stripping CR at the end of
lines. `am.keepcr` configuration variable can be used to specify the
@@ -120,6 +119,10 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
restarting an aborted patch.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
--continue::
-r::
--resolved::
@@ -133,7 +136,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--resolvemsg=<msg>::
When a patch failure occurs, <msg> will be printed
to the screen before exiting. This overrides the
- standard message informing you to use `--resolved`
+ standard message informing you to use `--continue`
or `--skip` to handle the failure. This is solely
for internal use between 'git rebase' and 'git am'.
@@ -177,7 +180,7 @@ aborts in the middle. You can recover from this in one of two ways:
. hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
the index file to bring it into a state that the patch should
- have produced. Then run the command with the '--resolved' option.
+ have produced. Then run the command with the '--continue' option.
The command refuses to process new mailboxes until the current
operation is finished, so if you decide to start over from scratch,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 634b84e..f605327 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ Reads the supplied diff output (i.e. "a patch") and applies it to files.
With the `--index` option the patch is also applied to the index, and
with the `--cached` option the patch is only applied to the index.
Without these options, the command applies the patch only to files,
-and does not require them to be in a git repository.
+and does not require them to be in a Git repository.
This command applies the patch but does not create a commit. Use
linkgit:git-am[1] to create commits from patches generated by
@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ behavior:
* `fix` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and applies the
patch after fixing them (`strip` is a synonym --- the tool
used to consider only trailing whitespace characters as errors, and the
- fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern gits do more).
+ fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern Gits do more).
* `error` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and refuses
to apply the patch.
* `error-all` is similar to `error` but shows all errors.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
index f4504ba..163b9f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-archimport(1)
NAME
----
-git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into git
+git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into Git
SYNOPSIS
@@ -40,13 +40,13 @@ directory. To follow the development of a project that uses Arch, rerun
incremental imports.
While 'git archimport' will try to create sensible branch names for the
-archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify git branch names
-manually. To do so, write a git branch name after each <archive/branch>
+archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify Git branch names
+manually. To do so, write a Git branch name after each <archive/branch>
parameter, separated by a colon. This way, you can shorten the Arch
-branch names and convert Arch jargon to git jargon, for example mapping a
+branch names and convert Arch jargon to Git jargon, for example mapping a
"PROJECT{litdd}devo{litdd}VERSION" branch to "master".
-Associating multiple Arch branches to one git branch is possible; the
+Associating multiple Arch branches to one Git branch is possible; the
result will make the most sense only if no commits are made to the first
branch, after the second branch is created. Still, this is useful to
convert Arch repositories that had been rotated periodically.
@@ -54,14 +54,14 @@ convert Arch repositories that had been rotated periodically.
MERGES
------
-Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in git as well. git
+Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in Git as well. Git
does not care much about tracking patches, and only considers a merge when a
branch incorporates all the commits since the point they forked. The end result
-is that git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
+is that Git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
import process does lose some patch-trading metadata.
Fortunately, when you try and merge branches imported from Arch,
-git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
+Git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
patches that have been traded out-of-sequence between the branches.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index 59d73e5..b97aaab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git archive' [--format=<fmt>] [--list] [--prefix=<prefix>/] [<extra>]
- [-o | --output=<file>] [--worktree-attributes]
+ [-o <file> | --output=<file>] [--worktree-attributes]
[--remote=<repo> [--exec=<git-upload-archive>]] <tree-ish>
[<path>...]
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ OPTIONS
Write the archive to <file> instead of stdout.
--worktree-attributes::
- Look for attributes in .gitattributes in working directory too.
+ Look for attributes in .gitattributes files in the working tree
+ as well (see <<ATTRIBUTES>>).
<extra>::
This can be any options that the archiver backend understands.
@@ -120,6 +121,7 @@ tar.<format>.remote::
user-defined formats, but true for the "tar.gz" and "tgz"
formats.
+[[ATTRIBUTES]]
ATTRIBUTES
----------
@@ -128,7 +130,7 @@ export-ignore::
added to archive files. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
export-subst::
- If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then git will
+ If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then Git will
expand several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.
See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index ec4497e..afeb86c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ Note that the example that we will use is really a toy example, we
will be looking for the first commit that has a version like
"2.6.26-something", that is the commit that has a "SUBLEVEL = 26" line
in the top level Makefile. This is a toy example because there are
-better ways to find this commit with git than using "git bisect" (for
+better ways to find this commit with Git than using "git bisect" (for
example "git blame" or "git log -S<string>").
Driving a bisection manually
@@ -455,7 +455,7 @@ So only the W and B commits will be kept. Because commits X and Y will
have been removed by rules a) and b) respectively, and because commits
G are removed by rule b) too.
-Note for git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
+Note for Git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
given by:
-------------
@@ -710,8 +710,8 @@ Skip algorithm discussed
After step 7) (in the skip algorithm), we could check if the second
commit has been skipped and return it if it is not the case. And in
fact that was the algorithm we used from when "git bisect skip" was
-developed in git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
-git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
+developed in Git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
+Git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
But Ingo Molnar and H. Peter Anvin (another well known linux kernel
developer) both complained that sometimes the best bisection points
@@ -1025,10 +1025,10 @@ And here is what Andreas said about this work-flow <<5>>:
_____________
To give some hard figures, we used to have an average report-to-fix
cycle of 142.6 hours (according to our somewhat weird bug-tracker
-which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to git, we've
+which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to Git, we've
lowered that to 16.2 hours. Primarily because we can stay on top of
the bug fixing now, and because everyone's jockeying to get to fix
-bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let git find the bugs
+bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let Git find the bugs
for us). Each new release results in ~40% fewer bugs (almost certainly
due to how we now feel about writing tests).
_____________
@@ -1228,9 +1228,9 @@ commits in already released history, for example to change the commit
message or the author. And it can also be used instead of git "grafts"
to link a repository with another old repository.
-In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the git community, so
-it is now in the "master" branch of git's git repository and it should
-be released in git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
+In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the Git community, so
+it is now in the "master" branch of Git's Git repository and it should
+be released in Git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
One problem with "git replace" is that currently it stores all the
replacements refs in "refs/replace/", but it would be perhaps better
@@ -1320,11 +1320,11 @@ So git bisect is unconditional goodness - and feel free to quote that
;-)
_____________
-Acknowledgements
+Acknowledgments
----------------
Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
-reviewing the patches I sent to the git mailing list, for discussing
+reviewing the patches I sent to the Git mailing list, for discussing
some ideas and helping me improve them, for improving "git bisect" a
lot and for his awesome work in maintaining and developing Git.
@@ -1337,7 +1337,7 @@ Many thanks to Linus Torvalds for inventing, developing and
evangelizing "git bisect", Git and Linux.
Many thanks to the many other great people who helped one way or
-another when I worked on git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
+another when I worked on Git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
Schindelin, H. Peter Anvin, Daniel Barkalow, Bill Lear, John Hawley,
Shawn O. Pierce, Jeff King, Sam Vilain, Jon Seymour.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index e4f46bc..f986c5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ Bisect reset
~~~~~~~~~~~~
After a bisect session, to clean up the bisection state and return to
-the original HEAD, issue the following command:
+the original HEAD (i.e., to quit bisecting), issue the following command:
------------------------------------------------
$ git bisect reset
@@ -169,14 +169,14 @@ the revision as good or bad in the usual manner.
Bisect skip
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask git
+Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask Git
to do it for you by issuing the command:
------------
$ git bisect skip # Current version cannot be tested
------------
-But git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
+But Git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
a bad commit and one or more skipped commits.
You can even skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
@@ -284,6 +284,7 @@ EXAMPLES
------------
$ git bisect start HEAD v1.2 -- # HEAD is bad, v1.2 is good
$ git bisect run make # "make" builds the app
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
* Automatically bisect a test failure between origin and HEAD:
@@ -291,6 +292,7 @@ $ git bisect run make # "make" builds the app
------------
$ git bisect start HEAD origin -- # HEAD is bad, origin is good
$ git bisect run make test # "make test" builds and tests
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
* Automatically bisect a broken test case:
@@ -302,6 +304,7 @@ make || exit 125 # this skips broken builds
~/check_test_case.sh # does the test case pass?
$ git bisect start HEAD HEAD~10 -- # culprit is among the last 10
$ git bisect run ~/test.sh
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
+
Here we use a "test.sh" custom script. In this script, if "make"
@@ -351,6 +354,7 @@ use `git cherry-pick` instead of `git merge`.)
------------
$ git bisect start HEAD HEAD~10 -- # culprit is among the last 10
$ git bisect run sh -c "make || exit 125; ~/check_test_case.sh"
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
+
This shows that you can do without a run script if you write the test
@@ -368,6 +372,7 @@ $ git bisect run sh -c '
rm -f tmp.$$
test $rc = 0'
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
+
In this case, when 'git bisect run' finishes, bisect/bad will refer to a commit that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index e44173f..9f23a86 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@ git-blame - Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
- [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>] [--abbrev=<n>]
- [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
+'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental]
+ [-L <range>] [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
+ [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -18,7 +18,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
Annotates each line in the given file with information from the revision which
last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating from the given revision.
-The command can also limit the range of lines annotated.
+When specified one or more times, `-L` restricts annotation to the requested
+lines.
The origin of lines is automatically followed across whole-file
renames (currently there is no option to turn the rename-following
@@ -30,11 +31,12 @@ The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git diff' or the "pickaxe"
interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
-Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
+Apart from supporting file annotation, Git also supports searching the
development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This makes it
possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
-a text string in the diff. A small example:
+a text string in the diff. A small example of the pickaxe interface
+that searches for `blame_usage`:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ git log --pretty=oneline -S'blame_usage'
@@ -102,7 +104,7 @@ This header line is followed by the following information
at least once for each commit:
- the author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
- ("author-time"), and timezone ("author-tz"); similarly
+ ("author-time"), and time zone ("author-tz"); similarly
for committer.
- the filename in the commit that the line is attributed to.
- the first line of the commit log message ("summary").
@@ -130,7 +132,10 @@ SPECIFYING RANGES
Unlike 'git blame' and 'git annotate' in older versions of git, the extent
of the annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
-ranges. When you are interested in finding the origin for
+ranges. The `-L` option, which limits annotation to a range of lines, may be
+specified multiple times.
+
+When you are interested in finding the origin for
lines 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use the `-L` option like so
(they mean the same thing -- both ask for 21 lines starting at
line 40):
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 45a225e..311b336 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -22,13 +22,15 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no arguments, existing branches are listed and the current branch will
-be highlighted with an asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking
-branches to be listed, and option `-a` shows both. This list mode is also
-activated by the `--list` option (see below).
-<pattern> restricts the output to matching branches, the pattern is a shell
-wildcard (i.e., matched using fnmatch(3)).
-Multiple patterns may be given; if any of them matches, the branch is shown.
+If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
+branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
+asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
+and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
+is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
+matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
+it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
+`<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
+as branch creation.
With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
(in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
@@ -45,8 +47,9 @@ Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
new branch.
-When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, git sets up the
-branch so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
+When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
+branch (specifically the `branch.<name>.remote` and `branch.<name>.merge`
+configuration entries) so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
`branch.autosetupmerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options, and
@@ -154,7 +157,8 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
-t::
--track::
- When creating a new branch, set up configuration to mark the
+ When creating a new branch, set up `branch.<name>.remote` and
+ `branch.<name>.merge` configuration entries to mark the
start-point branch as "upstream" from the new branch. This
configuration will tell git to show the relationship between the
two branches in `git status` and `git branch -v`. Furthermore,
@@ -193,15 +197,15 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
--contains [<commit>]::
Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
- if not specified).
+ if not specified). Implies `--list`.
--merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
--no-merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
<branchname>::
The name of the branch to create or delete.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 16a6b0a..0417562 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
-be directly connected, and therefore the interactive git protocols (git,
+be directly connected, and therefore the interactive Git protocols (git,
ssh, rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
@@ -112,13 +112,12 @@ machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
----------------
-Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. If you are creating
-the repository on machine B, then you can clone from the bundle as if it
-were a remote repository instead of creating an empty repository and then
-pulling or fetching objects from the bundle:
+Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. Because this
+bundle does not require any existing object to be extracted, you can
+create a new repository on machine B by cloning from it:
----------------
-machineB$ git clone /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
+machineB$ git clone -b master /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
----------------
This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 2fb95bb..f6a16f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ object type, or '-s' is used to find the object size, or '--textconv' is used
(which implies type "blob").
In the second form, a list of objects (separated by linefeeds) is provided on
-stdin, and the SHA1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
+stdin, and the SHA-1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -54,16 +54,20 @@ OPTIONS
--textconv::
Show the content as transformed by a textconv filter. In this case,
- <object> has be of the form <treeish>:<path>, or :<path> in order
+ <object> has be of the form <tree-ish>:<path>, or :<path> in order
to apply the filter to the content recorded in the index at <path>.
--batch::
- Print the SHA1, type, size, and contents of each object provided on
- stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
+--batch=<format>::
+ Print object information and contents for each object provided
+ on stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
+ See the section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
--batch-check::
- Print the SHA1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
- be combined with any other options or arguments.
+--batch-check=<format>::
+ Print object information for each object provided on stdin. May
+ not be combined with any other options or arguments. See the
+ section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
OUTPUT
------
@@ -78,28 +82,87 @@ If '-p' is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
If <type> is specified, the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object>
will be returned.
-If '--batch' is specified, output of the following form is printed for each
-object specified on stdin:
+BATCH OUTPUT
+------------
+
+If `--batch` or `--batch-check` is given, `cat-file` will read objects
+from stdin, one per line, and print information about them. By default,
+the whole line is considered as an object, as if it were fed to
+linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
+
+You can specify the information shown for each object by using a custom
+`<format>`. The `<format>` is copied literally to stdout for each
+object, with placeholders of the form `%(atom)` expanded, followed by a
+newline. The available atoms are:
+
+`objectname`::
+ The 40-hex object name of the object.
+
+`objecttype`::
+ The type of of the object (the same as `cat-file -t` reports).
+
+`objectsize`::
+ The size, in bytes, of the object (the same as `cat-file -s`
+ reports).
+
+`objectsize:disk`::
+ The size, in bytes, that the object takes up on disk. See the
+ note about on-disk sizes in the `CAVEATS` section below.
+
+`deltabase`::
+ If the object is stored as a delta on-disk, this expands to the
+ 40-hex sha1 of the delta base object. Otherwise, expands to the
+ null sha1 (40 zeroes). See `CAVEATS` below.
+
+`rest`::
+ If this atom is used in the output string, input lines are split
+ at the first whitespace boundary. All characters before that
+ whitespace are considered to be the object name; characters
+ after that first run of whitespace (i.e., the "rest" of the
+ line) are output in place of the `%(rest)` atom.
+
+If no format is specified, the default format is `%(objectname)
+%(objecttype) %(objectsize)`.
+
+If `--batch` is specified, the object information is followed by the
+object contents (consisting of `%(objectsize)` bytes), followed by a
+newline.
+
+For example, `--batch` without a custom format would produce:
------------
<sha1> SP <type> SP <size> LF
<contents> LF
------------
-If '--batch-check' is specified, output of the following form is printed for
-each object specified on stdin:
+Whereas `--batch-check='%(objectname) %(objecttype)'` would produce:
------------
-<sha1> SP <type> SP <size> LF
+<sha1> SP <type> LF
------------
-For both '--batch' and '--batch-check', output of the following form is printed
-for each object specified on stdin that does not exist in the repository:
+If a name is specified on stdin that cannot be resolved to an object in
+the repository, then `cat-file` will ignore any custom format and print:
------------
<object> SP missing LF
------------
+
+CAVEATS
+-------
+
+Note that the sizes of objects on disk are reported accurately, but care
+should be taken in drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are
+responsible for disk usage. The size of a packed non-delta object may be
+much larger than the size of objects which delta against it, but the
+choice of which object is the base and which is the delta is arbitrary
+and is subject to change during a repack.
+
+Note also that multiple copies of an object may be present in the object
+database; in this case, it is undefined which copy's size or delta base
+will be reported.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 5abdbaa..00e2aa2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -31,8 +31,9 @@ OPTIONS
Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
-z::
- Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with a
- NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parseable.
+ If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
+ with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
\--::
Interpret all preceding arguments as attributes and all following
@@ -48,6 +49,10 @@ OUTPUT
The output is of the form:
<path> COLON SP <attribute> COLON SP <info> LF
+unless `-z` is in effect, in which case NUL is used as delimiter:
+<path> NUL <attribute> NUL <info> NUL
+
+
<path> is the path of a file being queried, <attribute> is an attribute
being queried and <info> can be either:
@@ -56,6 +61,11 @@ being queried and <info> can be either:
'set';; when the attribute is defined as true.
<value>;; when a value has been assigned to the attribute.
+Buffering happens as documented under the `GIT_FLUSH` option in
+linkgit:git[1]. The caller is responsible for avoiding deadlocks
+caused by overfilling an input buffer or reading from an empty output
+buffer.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ee2e091
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,116 @@
+git-check-ignore(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-ignore - Debug gitignore / exclude files
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git check-ignore' [options] pathname...
+'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin < <list-of-paths>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+For each pathname given via the command-line or from a file via
+`--stdin`, show the pattern from .gitignore (or other input files to
+the exclude mechanism) that decides if the pathname is excluded or
+included. Later patterns within a file take precedence over earlier
+ones.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q, --quiet::
+ Don't output anything, just set exit status. This is only
+ valid with a single pathname.
+
+-v, --verbose::
+ Also output details about the matching pattern (if any)
+ for each given pathname.
+
+--stdin::
+ Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+
+-z::
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
+ below). If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
+ with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+
+-n, --non-matching::
+ Show given paths which don't match any pattern. This only
+ makes sense when `--verbose` is enabled, otherwise it would
+ not be possible to distinguish between paths which match a
+ pattern and those which don't.
+
+--no-index::
+ Don't look in the index when undertaking the checks. This can
+ be used to debug why a path became tracked by e.g. `git add .`
+ and was not ignored by the rules as expected by the user or when
+ developing patterns including negation to match a path previously
+ added with `git add -f`.
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+By default, any of the given pathnames which match an ignore pattern
+will be output, one per line. If no pattern matches a given path,
+nothing will be output for that path; this means that path will not be
+ignored.
+
+If `--verbose` is specified, the output is a series of lines of the form:
+
+<source> <COLON> <linenum> <COLON> <pattern> <HT> <pathname>
+
+<pathname> is the path of a file being queried, <pattern> is the
+matching pattern, <source> is the pattern's source file, and <linenum>
+is the line number of the pattern within that source. If the pattern
+contained a `!` prefix or `/` suffix, it will be preserved in the
+output. <source> will be an absolute path when referring to the file
+configured by `core.excludesfile`, or relative to the repository root
+when referring to `.git/info/exclude` or a per-directory exclude file.
+
+If `-z` is specified, the pathnames in the output are delimited by the
+null character; if `--verbose` is also specified then null characters
+are also used instead of colons and hard tabs:
+
+<source> <NULL> <linenum> <NULL> <pattern> <NULL> <pathname> <NULL>
+
+If `-n` or `--non-matching` are specified, non-matching pathnames will
+also be output, in which case all fields in each output record except
+for <pathname> will be empty. This can be useful when running
+non-interactively, so that files can be incrementally streamed to
+STDIN of a long-running check-ignore process, and for each of these
+files, STDOUT will indicate whether that file matched a pattern or
+not. (Without this option, it would be impossible to tell whether the
+absence of output for a given file meant that it didn't match any
+pattern, or that the output hadn't been generated yet.)
+
+Buffering happens as documented under the `GIT_FLUSH` option in
+linkgit:git[1]. The caller is responsible for avoiding deadlocks
+caused by overfilling an input buffer or reading from an empty output
+buffer.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+0::
+ One or more of the provided paths is ignored.
+
+1::
+ None of the provided paths are ignored.
+
+128::
+ A fatal error was encountered.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gitignore[5]
+linkgit:gitconfig[5]
+linkgit:git-ls-files[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..39028ee
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+git-check-mailmap(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-mailmap - Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git check-mailmap' [options] <contact>...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+For each ``Name $$<user@host>$$'' or ``$$<user@host>$$'' from the command-line
+or standard input (when using `--stdin`), look up the person's canonical name
+and email address (see "Mapping Authors" below). If found, print them;
+otherwise print the input as-is.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--stdin::
+ Read contacts, one per line, from the standard input after exhausting
+ contacts provided on the command-line.
+
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+For each contact, a single line is output, terminated by a newline. If the
+name is provided or known to the 'mailmap', ``Name $$<user@host>$$'' is
+printed; otherwise only ``$$<user@host>$$'' is printed.
+
+
+MAPPING AUTHORS
+---------------
+
+include::mailmap.txt[]
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 98009d1..fc02959 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -18,14 +18,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits with a non-zero
status if it is not.
-A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
+A reference is used in Git to specify branches and tags. A
branch head is stored in the `refs/heads` hierarchy, while
a tag is stored in the `refs/tags` hierarchy of the ref namespace
(typically in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` and `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags`
directories or, as entries in file `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs`
if refs are packed by `git gc`).
-git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
+Git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
@@ -54,6 +54,8 @@ git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They cannot contain a sequence `@{`.
+. They cannot be the single character `@`.
+
. They cannot contain a `\`.
These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
@@ -83,8 +85,7 @@ typed the branch name.
OPTIONS
-------
---allow-onelevel::
---no-allow-onelevel::
+--[no-]allow-onelevel::
Controls whether one-level refnames are accepted (i.e.,
refnames that do not contain multiple `/`-separated
components). The default is `--no-allow-onelevel`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 6f04d22..33ad2ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [<branch>]
-'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] [<commit>]
+'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
+'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
'git checkout' [-p|--patch] [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
@@ -62,7 +63,7 @@ that is to say, the branch is not reset/created unless "git checkout" is
successful.
'git checkout' --detach [<branch>]::
-'git checkout' <commit>::
+'git checkout' [--detach] <commit>::
Prepare to work on top of <commit>, by detaching HEAD at it
(see "DETACHED HEAD" section), and updating the index and the
@@ -71,10 +72,11 @@ successful.
tree will be the state recorded in the commit plus the local
modifications.
+
-Passing `--detach` forces this behavior in the case of a <branch> (without
-the option, giving a branch name to the command would check out the branch,
-instead of detaching HEAD at it), or the current commit,
-if no <branch> is specified.
+When the <commit> argument is a branch name, the `--detach` option can
+be used to detach HEAD at the tip of the branch (`git checkout
+<branch>` would check out that branch without detaching HEAD).
++
+Omitting <branch> detaches HEAD at the tip of the current branch.
'git checkout' [-p|--patch] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
@@ -131,9 +133,9 @@ entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
"--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
+
If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
-derived from the remote-tracking branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
-is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
-next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
+derived from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part of
+the refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping
+the initial part up to the "*".
This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
@@ -180,6 +182,12 @@ branch by running "git rm -rf ." from the top level of the working tree.
Afterwards you will be ready to prepare your new files, repopulating the
working tree, by copying them from elsewhere, extracting a tarball, etc.
+--ignore-skip-worktree-bits::
+ In sparse checkout mode, `git checkout -- <paths>` would
+ update only entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns
+ in $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores
+ the sparse patterns and adds back any files in <paths>.
+
-m::
--merge::
When switching branches,
@@ -224,8 +232,8 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
any branch (see below for details).
+
-As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
-checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
+As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch/commit
+checks out branches (instead of detaching). You may also specify
`-` which is synonymous with `"@{-1}"`.
+
As a further special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
@@ -333,7 +341,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')
------------
-In fact, we can perform all the normal git operations. But, let's look
+In fact, we can perform all the normal Git operations. But, let's look
at what happens when we then checkout master:
------------
@@ -350,7 +358,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
It is important to realize that at this point nothing refers to commit
'f'. Eventually commit 'f' (and by extension commit 'e') will be deleted
-by the routine git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
+by the routine Git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
before that happens. If we have not yet moved away from commit 'f',
any of these will create a reference to it:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index c205d23..f1e6b2f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,8 @@ git-cherry-pick - Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff] <commit>...
+'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff]
+ [-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
'git cherry-pick' --continue
'git cherry-pick' --quit
'git cherry-pick' --abort
@@ -100,6 +101,10 @@ effect to your index in a row.
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
--ff::
If the current HEAD is the same as the parent of the
cherry-pick'ed commit, then a fast forward to this commit will
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
index f6c19c7..0ea921a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-cherry(1)
NAME
----
-git-cherry - Find commits not merged upstream
+git-cherry - Find commits yet to be applied to upstream
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,47 +12,26 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-The changeset (or "diff") of each commit between the fork-point and <head>
-is compared against each commit between the fork-point and <upstream>.
-The commits are compared with their 'patch id', obtained from
-the 'git patch-id' program.
+Determine whether there are commits in `<head>..<upstream>` that are
+equivalent to those in the range `<limit>..<head>`.
-Every commit that doesn't exist in the <upstream> branch
-has its id (sha1) reported, prefixed by a symbol. The ones that have
-equivalent change already
-in the <upstream> branch are prefixed with a minus (-) sign, and those
-that only exist in the <head> branch are prefixed with a plus (+) symbol:
-
- __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
- /
- fork-point
- \__+__+__-__+__+__-__+__> <head>
-
-
-If a <limit> has been given then the commits along the <head> branch up
-to and including <limit> are not reported:
-
- __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
- /
- fork-point
- \__*__*__<limit>__-__+__> <head>
-
-
-Because 'git cherry' compares the changeset rather than the commit id
-(sha1), you can use 'git cherry' to find out if a commit you made locally
-has been applied <upstream> under a different commit id. For example,
-this will happen if you're feeding patches <upstream> via email rather
-than pushing or pulling commits directly.
+The equivalence test is based on the diff, after removing whitespace
+and line numbers. git-cherry therefore detects when commits have been
+"copied" by means of linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1], linkgit:git-am[1] or
+linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+Outputs the SHA1 of every commit in `<limit>..<head>`, prefixed with
+`-` for commits that have an equivalent in <upstream>, and `+` for
+commits that do not.
OPTIONS
-------
-v::
- Verbose.
+ Show the commit subjects next to the SHA1s.
<upstream>::
- Upstream branch to compare against.
- Defaults to the first tracked remote branch, if available.
+ Upstream branch to search for equivalent commits.
+ Defaults to the upstream branch of HEAD.
<head>::
Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
@@ -60,6 +39,103 @@ OPTIONS
<limit>::
Do not report commits up to (and including) limit.
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+Patch workflows
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+git-cherry is frequently used in patch-based workflows (see
+linkgit:gitworkflows[7]) to determine if a series of patches has been
+applied by the upstream maintainer. In such a workflow you might
+create and send a topic branch like this:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -b topic origin/master
+# work and create some commits
+$ git format-patch origin/master
+$ git send-email ... 00*
+------------
+
+Later, you can see whether your changes have been applied by saying
+(still on `topic`):
+
+------------
+$ git fetch # update your notion of origin/master
+$ git cherry -v
+------------
+
+Concrete example
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In a situation where topic consisted of three commits, and the
+maintainer applied two of them, the situation might look like:
+
+------------
+$ git log --graph --oneline --decorate --boundary origin/master...topic
+* 7654321 (origin/master) upstream tip commit
+[... snip some other commits ...]
+* cccc111 cherry-pick of C
+* aaaa111 cherry-pick of A
+[... snip a lot more that has happened ...]
+| * cccc000 (topic) commit C
+| * bbbb000 commit B
+| * aaaa000 commit A
+|/
+o 1234567 branch point
+------------
+
+In such cases, git-cherry shows a concise summary of what has yet to
+be applied:
+
+------------
+$ git cherry origin/master topic
+- cccc000... commit C
++ bbbb000... commit B
+- aaaa000... commit A
+------------
+
+Here, we see that the commits A and C (marked with `-`) can be
+dropped from your `topic` branch when you rebase it on top of
+`origin/master`, while the commit B (marked with `+`) still needs to
+be kept so that it will be sent to be applied to `origin/master`.
+
+
+Using a limit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The optional <limit> is useful in cases where your topic is based on
+other work that is not in upstream. Expanding on the previous
+example, this might look like:
+
+------------
+$ git log --graph --oneline --decorate --boundary origin/master...topic
+* 7654321 (origin/master) upstream tip commit
+[... snip some other commits ...]
+* cccc111 cherry-pick of C
+* aaaa111 cherry-pick of A
+[... snip a lot more that has happened ...]
+| * cccc000 (topic) commit C
+| * bbbb000 commit B
+| * aaaa000 commit A
+| * 0000fff (base) unpublished stuff F
+[... snip ...]
+| * 0000aaa unpublished stuff A
+|/
+o 1234567 merge-base between upstream and topic
+------------
+
+By specifying `base` as the limit, you can avoid listing commits
+between `base` and `topic`:
+
+------------
+$ git cherry origin/master topic base
+- cccc000... commit C
++ bbbb000... commit B
+- aaaa000... commit A
+------------
+
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-patch-id[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 9f42c0d..8997922 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-clean - Remove untracked files from the working tree
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git clean' [-d] [-f] [-n] [-q] [-e <pattern>] [-x | -X] [--] <path>...
+'git clean' [-d] [-f] [-i] [-n] [-q] [-e <pattern>] [-x | -X] [--] <path>...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not
under version control, starting from the current directory.
-Normally, only files unknown to git are removed, but if the '-x'
+Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the '-x'
option is specified, ignored files are also removed. This can, for
example, be useful to remove all build products.
@@ -27,14 +27,20 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-d::
Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
- If an untracked directory is managed by a different git
+ If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git
repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice
if you really want to remove such a directory.
-f::
--force::
- If the git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
- to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f or -n.
+ If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
+ to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f, -n or
+ -i.
+
+-i::
+--interactive::
+ Show what would be done and clean files interactively. See
+ ``Interactive mode'' for details.
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -60,9 +66,70 @@ OPTIONS
working directory to test a clean build.
-X::
- Remove only files ignored by git. This may be useful to rebuild
+ Remove only files ignored by Git. This may be useful to rebuild
everything from scratch, but keep manually created files.
+Interactive mode
+----------------
+When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
+files and directories to be cleaned, and goes into its
+interactive command loop.
+
+The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
+gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
+with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
+and type return, like this:
+
+------------
+ *** Commands ***
+ 1: clean 2: filter by pattern 3: select by numbers
+ 4: ask each 5: quit 6: help
+ What now> 1
+------------
+
+You also could say `c` or `clean` above as long as the choice is unique.
+
+The main command loop has 6 subcommands.
+
+clean::
+
+ Start cleaning files and directories, and then quit.
+
+filter by pattern::
+
+ This shows the files and directories to be deleted and issues an
+ "Input ignore patterns>>" prompt. You can input space-seperated
+ patterns to exclude files and directories from deletion.
+ E.g. "*.c *.h" will excludes files end with ".c" and ".h" from
+ deletion. When you are satisfied with the filtered result, press
+ ENTER (empty) back to the main menu.
+
+select by numbers::
+
+ This shows the files and directories to be deleted and issues an
+ "Select items to delete>>" prompt. When the prompt ends with double
+ '>>' like this, you can make more than one selection, concatenated
+ with whitespace or comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9"
+ to choose 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a
+ range is omitted, all remaining items are selected. E.g. "7-" to
+ choose 7,8,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose everything.
+ Also when you are satisfied with the filtered result, press ENTER
+ (empty) back to the main menu.
+
+ask each::
+
+ This will start to clean, and you must confirm one by one in order
+ to delete items. Please note that this action is not as efficient
+ as the above two actions.
+
+quit::
+
+ This lets you quit without do cleaning.
+
+help::
+
+ Show brief usage of interactive git-clean.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitignore[5]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 7fefdb0..0363d00 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
[--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
[--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch]
- [--recursive|--recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
+ [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
[<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
--local::
-l::
When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
- this flag bypasses the normal "git aware" transport
+ this flag bypasses the normal "Git aware" transport
mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
The files under `.git/objects/` directory are hardlinked
@@ -54,16 +54,13 @@ this is the default, and --local is essentially a no-op. If the
repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
never use the local optimizations). Specifying `--no-local` will
override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
-git transport instead.
-+
-To force copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable if you
-are trying to make a back-up of your repository), but still avoid the
-usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
+Git transport instead.
--no-hardlinks::
- Optimize the cloning process from a repository on a
- local filesystem by copying files under `.git/objects`
- directory.
+ Force the cloning process from a repository on a local
+ filesystem to copy the files under the `.git/objects`
+ directory instead of using hardlinks. This may be desirable
+ if you are trying to make a back-up of your repository.
--shared::
-s::
@@ -76,9 +73,9 @@ usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand what it does. If you clone your
repository using this option and then delete branches (or use any
-other git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
+other Git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
source repository, some objects may become unreferenced (or dangling).
-These objects may be removed by normal git operations (such as `git commit`)
+These objects may be removed by normal Git operations (such as `git commit`)
which automatically call `git gc --auto`. (See linkgit:git-gc[1].)
If these objects are removed and were referenced by the cloned repository,
then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
@@ -125,7 +122,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
--bare::
- Make a 'bare' GIT repository. That is, instead of
+ Make a 'bare' Git repository. That is, instead of
creating `<directory>` and placing the administrative
files in `<directory>/.git`, make the `<directory>`
itself the `$GIT_DIR`. This obviously implies the `-n`
@@ -181,14 +178,9 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--depth <depth>::
Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
- specified number of revisions. A shallow repository has a
- number of limitations (you cannot clone or fetch from
- it, nor push from nor into it), but is adequate if you
- are only interested in the recent history of a large project
- with a long history, and would want to send in fixes
- as patches.
-
---single-branch::
+ specified number of revisions.
+
+--[no-]single-branch::
Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
either specified by the `--branch` option or the primary
branch remote's `HEAD` points at. When creating a shallow
@@ -213,8 +205,8 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
- then make a filesytem-agnostic git symbolic link to there.
- The result is git repository can be separated from working
+ then make a filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
+ The result is Git repository can be separated from working
tree.
@@ -239,8 +231,8 @@ Examples
* Clone from upstream:
+
------------
-$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
-$ cd my2.6
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git my-linux
+$ cd my-linux
$ make
------------
@@ -257,10 +249,10 @@ $ git show-branch
* Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing local directory:
+
------------
-$ git clone --reference my2.6 \
- git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.7 \
- my2.7
-$ cd my2.7
+$ git clone --reference /git/linux.git \
+ git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux.git \
+ my-linux
+$ cd my-linux
------------
@@ -271,13 +263,6 @@ $ git clone --bare -l /home/proj/.git /pub/scm/proj.git
------------
-* Create a repository on the kernel.org machine that borrows from Linus:
-+
-------------
-$ git clone --bare -l -s /pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6.git \
- /pub/scm/.../me/subsys-2.6.git
-------------
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-column.txt b/Documentation/git-column.txt
index 5d6f1cc..03d1846 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-column.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-column.txt
@@ -43,11 +43,6 @@ OPTIONS
--padding=<N>::
The number of spaces between columns. One space by default.
-
-Author
-------
-Written by Nguyen Thai Ngoc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 6d5a04c..a469eab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
-'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [(-m <message>)...] [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
+'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
+ [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -30,7 +32,7 @@ While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
to get there.
-Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git
+Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
`.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see what the last committed
@@ -52,6 +54,14 @@ OPTIONS
Read the commit log message from the given file. Use `-` to read
from the standard input.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commit.
+
+--no-gpg-sign::
+ Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
+ set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+
Commit Information
------------------
@@ -72,13 +82,13 @@ if set:
GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
GIT_COMMITTER_DATE
- EMAIL
(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information
is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
-present, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
+present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set,
+system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
from `/etc/mailname` and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when
that file does not exist).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 7bdb039..7c42e9c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
[-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
- [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
+ [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
[-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
record the current content of the listed files (which must already
- be known to git);
+ be known to Git);
4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
"add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ OPTIONS
--all::
Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
- told git about are not affected.
+ told Git about are not affected.
-p::
--patch::
@@ -137,6 +137,8 @@ OPTIONS
-m <msg>::
--message=<msg>::
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
+ If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
+ concatenated as separate paragraphs.
-t <file>::
--template=<file>::
@@ -172,20 +174,31 @@ OPTIONS
linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
--cleanup=<mode>::
- This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
- The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
- and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
- trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
- only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
- removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
- 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
- and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
+ This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
+ cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
+ `whitespace`, `verbatim`, or `default`.
++
+--
+strip::
+ Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, and
+ #commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
+whitespace::
+ Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
+verbatim::
+ Do not change the message at all.
+default::
+ Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
+ Otherwise `whitespace`.
+--
++
+The default can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration
+variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
-e::
--edit::
The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
- `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
- commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
+ `-m`, and from commit object with `-C` are usually used as
+ the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
further edit the message taken from these sources.
--no-edit::
@@ -194,14 +207,15 @@ OPTIONS
without changing its commit message.
--amend::
- Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
- object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
- (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
- commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
- tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
- current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
- the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
- discarded.
+ Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new
+ commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including
+ the effect of the `-i` and `-o` options and explicit
+ pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used
+ as the starting point, instead of an empty message, when no
+ other message is specified from the command line via options
+ such as `-m`, `-F`, `-c`, etc. The new commit has the same
+ parents and author as the current one (the `--reset-author`
+ option can countermand this).
+
--
It is a rough equivalent for:
@@ -288,6 +302,10 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
GPG-sign commit.
+--no-gpg-sign::
+ Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
+ set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
@@ -402,7 +420,7 @@ Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
-as the commit title, and that title is used throughout git.
+as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index eaea079..e9917b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --rename-section old_name new_name
@@ -82,7 +83,7 @@ OPTIONS
--get::
Get the value for a given key (optionally filtered by a regex
matching the value). Returns error code 1 if the key was not
- found and error code 2 if multiple key values were found.
+ found and the last value if multiple key values were found.
--get-all::
Like get, but does not fail if the number of values for the key
@@ -95,29 +96,55 @@ OPTIONS
in which section and variable names are lowercased, but subsection
names are not.
+--get-urlmatch name URL::
+ When given a two-part name section.key, the value for
+ section.<url>.key whose <url> part matches the best to the
+ given URL is returned (if no such key exists, the value for
+ section.key is used as a fallback). When given just the
+ section as name, do so for all the keys in the section and
+ list them.
+
--global::
- For writing options: write to global ~/.gitconfig file rather than
- the repository .git/config, write to $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config file
- if this file exists and the ~/.gitconfig file doesn't.
+ For writing options: write to global `~/.gitconfig` file
+ rather than the repository `.git/config`, write to
+ `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config` file if this file exists and the
+ `~/.gitconfig` file doesn't.
+
-For reading options: read only from global ~/.gitconfig and from
-$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config rather than from all available files.
+For reading options: read only from global `~/.gitconfig` and from
+`$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config` rather than from all available files.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
--system::
- For writing options: write to system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig
- rather than the repository .git/config.
+ For writing options: write to system-wide
+ `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` rather than the repository
+ `.git/config`.
+
-For reading options: read only from system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig
+For reading options: read only from system-wide `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig`
rather than from all available files.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
+--local::
+ For writing options: write to the repository `.git/config` file.
+ This is the default behavior.
++
+For reading options: read only from the repository `.git/config` rather than
+from all available files.
++
+See also <<FILES>>.
+
-f config-file::
--file config-file::
Use the given config file instead of the one specified by GIT_CONFIG.
+--blob blob::
+ Similar to '--file' but use the given blob instead of a file. E.g.
+ you can use 'master:.gitmodules' to read values from the file
+ '.gitmodules' in the master branch. See "SPECIFYING REVISIONS"
+ section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for a more complete list of
+ ways to spell blob names.
+
--remove-section::
Remove the given section from the configuration file.
@@ -186,8 +213,7 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
Opens an editor to modify the specified config file; either
'--system', '--global', or repository (default).
---includes::
---no-includes::
+--[no-]includes::
Respect `include.*` directives in config files when looking up
values. Defaults to on.
@@ -198,23 +224,23 @@ FILES
If not set explicitly with '--file', there are four files where
'git config' will search for configuration options:
-$GIT_DIR/config::
- Repository specific configuration file.
-
-~/.gitconfig::
- User-specific configuration file. Also called "global"
- configuration file.
+$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
+ System-wide configuration file.
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config::
Second user-specific configuration file. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not set
- or empty, $HOME/.config/git/config will be used. Any single-valued
+ or empty, `$HOME/.config/git/config` will be used. Any single-valued
variable set in this file will be overwritten by whatever is in
- ~/.gitconfig. It is a good idea not to create this file if
+ `~/.gitconfig`. It is a good idea not to create this file if
you sometimes use older versions of Git, as support for this
file was added fairly recently.
-$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
- System-wide configuration file.
+~/.gitconfig::
+ User-specific configuration file. Also called "global"
+ configuration file.
+
+$GIT_DIR/config::
+ Repository specific configuration file.
If no further options are given, all reading options will read all of these
files that are available. If the global or the system-wide configuration
@@ -222,6 +248,10 @@ file are not available they will be ignored. If the repository configuration
file is not available or readable, 'git config' will exit with a non-zero
error code. However, in neither case will an error message be issued.
+The files are read in the order given above, with last value found taking
+precedence over values read earlier. When multiple values are taken then all
+values of a key from all files will be used.
+
All writing options will per default write to the repository specific
configuration file. Note that this also affects options like '--replace-all'
and '--unset'. *'git config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
@@ -240,6 +270,10 @@ GIT_CONFIG::
Using the "--global" option forces this to ~/.gitconfig. Using the
"--system" option forces this to $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig.
+GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM::
+ Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
+ $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. See linkgit:git[1] for details.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
@@ -270,6 +304,13 @@ Given a .git/config like this:
gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
+ ; HTTP
+ [http]
+ sslVerify
+ [http "https://weak.example.com"]
+ sslVerify = false
+ cookieFile = /tmp/cookie.txt
+
you can set the filemode to true with
------------
@@ -355,6 +396,19 @@ RESET=$(git config --get-color "" "reset")
echo "${WS}your whitespace color or blue reverse${RESET}"
------------
+For URLs in `https://weak.example.com`, `http.sslVerify` is set to
+false, while it is set to `true` for all others:
+
+------------
+% git config --bool --get-urlmatch http.sslverify https://good.example.com
+true
+% git config --bool --get-urlmatch http.sslverify https://weak.example.com
+false
+% git config --get-urlmatch http https://weak.example.com
+http.cookiefile /tmp/cookie.txt
+http.sslverify false
+------------
+
include::config.txt[]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index 23c80ce..b300e84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-count-objects - Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git count-objects' [-v]
+'git count-objects' [-v] [-H | --human-readable]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -20,11 +20,29 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-v::
--verbose::
- In addition to the number of loose objects and disk
- space consumed, it reports the number of in-pack
- objects, number of packs, disk space consumed by those packs,
- and number of objects that can be removed by running
- `git prune-packed`.
+ Report in more detail:
++
+count: the number of loose objects
++
+size: disk space consumed by loose objects, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
++
+in-pack: the number of in-pack objects
++
+size-pack: disk space consumed by the packs, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
++
+prune-packable: the number of loose objects that are also present in
+the packs. These objects could be pruned using `git prune-packed`.
++
+garbage: the number of files in object database that are not valid
+loose objects nor valid packs
++
+size-garbage: disk space consumed by garbage files, in KiB (unless -H is
+specified)
+
+-H::
+--human-readable::
+
+Print sizes in human readable format
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
index eeff5fa..89b7306 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,13 @@ git config credential.helper 'cache [options]'
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command caches credentials in memory for use by future git
+This command caches credentials in memory for use by future Git
programs. The stored credentials never touch the disk, and are forgotten
after a configurable timeout. The cache is accessible over a Unix
domain socket, restricted to the current user by filesystem permissions.
You probably don't want to invoke this command directly; it is meant to
-be used as a credential helper by other parts of git. See
+be used as a credential helper by other parts of Git. See
linkgit:gitcredentials[7] or `EXAMPLES` below.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
index b27c03c..8481cae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ security tradeoff, try linkgit:git-credential-cache[1], or find a helper
that integrates with secure storage provided by your operating system.
This command stores credentials indefinitely on disk for use by future
-git programs.
+Git programs.
You probably don't want to invoke this command directly; it is meant to
be used as a credential helper by other parts of git. See
@@ -63,11 +63,11 @@ stored on its own line as a URL like:
https://user:pass@example.com
------------------------------
-When git needs authentication for a particular URL context,
+When Git needs authentication for a particular URL context,
credential-store will consider that context a pattern to match against
each entry in the credentials file. If the protocol, hostname, and
username (if we already have one) match, then the password is returned
-to git. See the discussion of configuration in linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
+to Git. See the discussion of configuration in linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
for more information.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
index 810e957..b211440 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ Git has an internal interface for storing and retrieving credentials
from system-specific helpers, as well as prompting the user for
usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
-credentials in the same manner as git. The design of this scriptable
+credentials in the same manner as Git. The design of this scriptable
interface models the internal C API; see
-link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the git credential API] for more
+link:technical/api-credentials.html[the Git credential API] for more
background on the concepts.
git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ For example, if we want a password for
`https://example.com/foo.git`, we might generate the following
credential description (don't forget the blank line at the end; it
tells `git credential` that the application finished feeding all the
-infomation it has):
+information it has):
protocol=https
host=example.com
@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ infomation it has):
password=secr3t
+
In most cases, this means the attributes given in the input will be
-repeated in the output, but git may also modify the credential
+repeated in the output, but Git may also modify the credential
description, for example by removing the `path` attribute when the
protocol is HTTP(s) and `credential.useHttpPath` is false.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
index 7f79cec..00154b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Exports a commit from GIT to a CVS checkout, making it easier
-to merge patches from a git repository into a CVS repository.
+Exports a commit from Git to a CVS checkout, making it easier
+to merge patches from a Git repository into a CVS repository.
Specify the name of a CVS checkout using the -w switch or execute it
from the root of the CVS working copy. In the latter case GIT_DIR must
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ OPTIONS
-w::
Specify the location of the CVS checkout to use for the export. This
option does not require GIT_DIR to be set before execution if the
- current directory is within a git repository. The default is the
+ current directory is within a Git repository. The default is the
value of 'cvsexportcommit.cvsdir'.
-W::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index 98d9881..2df9953 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Imports a CVS repository into git. It will either create a new
+*WARNING:* `git cvsimport` uses cvsps version 2, which is considered
+deprecated; it does not work with cvsps version 3 and later. If you are
+performing a one-shot import of a CVS repository consider using
+link:http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
+link:https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
+
+Imports a CVS repository into Git. It will either create a new
repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
Splitting the CVS log into patch sets is done by 'cvsps'.
@@ -59,18 +65,18 @@ OPTIONS
`CVS/Repository`.
-C <target-dir>::
- The git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
+ The Git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
exist, it will be created. Default is the current directory.
-r <remote>::
- The git remote to import this CVS repository into.
+ The Git remote to import this CVS repository into.
Moves all CVS branches into remotes/<remote>/<branch>
akin to the way 'git clone' uses 'origin' by default.
-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
When no remote is specified (via -r) the 'HEAD' branch
- from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the git
- repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for git.
+ from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the Git
+ repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for Git.
When a remote is specified the 'HEAD' branch is named
remotes/<remote>/master mirroring 'git clone' behaviour.
Use this option if you want to import into a different
@@ -138,7 +144,7 @@ This option can be used several times to provide several detection regexes.
CVS by default uses the Unix username when writing its
commit logs. Using this option and an author-conv-file
maps the name recorded in CVS to author name, e-mail and
- optional timezone:
+ optional time zone:
+
---------
exon=Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>
@@ -148,7 +154,7 @@ This option can be used several times to provide several detection regexes.
+
'git cvsimport' will make it appear as those authors had
their GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL set properly
-all along. If a timezone is specified, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE will
+all along. If a time zone is specified, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE will
have the corresponding offset applied.
+
For convenience, this data is saved to `$GIT_DIR/cvs-authors`
@@ -213,11 +219,9 @@ Problems related to tags:
* Multiple tags on the same revision are not imported.
If you suspect that any of these issues may apply to the repository you
-want to import consider using these alternative tools which proved to be
-more stable in practice:
+want to imort, consider using cvs2git:
-* cvs2git (part of cvs2svn), `http://cvs2svn.tigris.org`
-* parsecvs, `http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~keithp/parsecvs`
+* cvs2git (part of cvs2svn), `http://subversion.apache.org/`
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index 88d814a..472f5cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-cvsserver(1)
NAME
----
-git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for git
+git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ unless '--export-all' was given, too.
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This application is a CVS emulation layer for git.
+This application is a CVS emulation layer for Git.
It is highly functional. However, not all methods are implemented,
and for those methods that are implemented,
@@ -72,9 +72,9 @@ plugin. Most functionality works fine with both of these clients.
LIMITATIONS
-----------
-CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform GIT merges.
+CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform Git merges.
-'git-cvsserver' maps GIT branches to CVS modules. This is very different
+'git-cvsserver' maps Git branches to CVS modules. This is very different
from what most CVS users would expect since in CVS modules usually represent
one or more directories.
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ Then provide your password via the pserver method, for example:
------
cvs -d:pserver:someuser:somepassword <at> server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
------
-No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having GIT tools
+No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having Git tools
in the PATH. If you have clients that do not accept the CVS_SERVER
environment variable, you can rename 'git-cvsserver' to `cvs`.
@@ -160,9 +160,9 @@ with CVS_SERVER (and shouldn't) as 'git-shell' understands `cvs` to mean
Note: you need to ensure each user that is going to invoke 'git-cvsserver' has
write access to the log file and to the database (see
<<dbbackend,Database Backend>>. If you want to offer write access over
-SSH, the users of course also need write access to the git repository itself.
+SSH, the users of course also need write access to the Git repository itself.
-You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a git index
+You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a Git index
file) for `cvs commit` to work. See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
[[configaccessmethod]]
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
3. If you didn't specify the CVSROOT/CVS_SERVER directly in the checkout command,
automatically saving it in your 'CVS/Root' files, then you need to set them
explicitly in your environment. CVSROOT should be set as per normal, but the
- directory should point at the appropriate git repo. As above, for SSH clients
+ directory should point at the appropriate Git repo. As above, for SSH clients
_not_ restricted to 'git-shell', CVS_SERVER should be set to 'git-cvsserver'.
+
--
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
shell is bash, .bashrc may be a reasonable alternative.
5. Clients should now be able to check out the project. Use the CVS 'module'
- name to indicate what GIT 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
+ name to indicate what Git 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
name of your newly checked-out directory, unless you tell it otherwise with
`-d <dir_name>`. For example, this checks out 'master' branch to the
`project-master` directory:
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
Database Backend
----------------
-'git-cvsserver' uses one database per git head (i.e. CVS module) to
+'git-cvsserver' uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to
store information about the repository to maintain consistent
CVS revision numbers. The database needs to be
updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@ the pserver method), 'git-cvsserver' should have write access to
the database to work reliably (otherwise you need to make sure
that the database is up-to-date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
-By default it uses SQLite databases in the git directory, named
+By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
`gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite`. Note that the SQLite backend creates
temporary files in the same directory as the database file on
write so it might not be enough to grant the users using
@@ -291,14 +291,14 @@ Variable substitution
In `dbdriver` and `dbuser` you can use the following variables:
%G::
- git directory name
+ Git directory name
%g::
- git directory name, where all characters except for
+ Git directory name, where all characters except for
alpha-numeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
`_` (this should make it easier to use the directory
name in a filename if wanted)
%m::
- CVS module/git head name
+ CVS module/Git head name
%a::
access method (one of "ext" or "pserver")
%u::
@@ -359,6 +359,43 @@ Operations supported
All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
checkout, diff, status, update, log, add, remove, commit.
+
+Most CVS command arguments that read CVS tags or revision numbers
+(typically -r) work, and also support any git refspec
+(tag, branch, commit ID, etc).
+However, CVS revision numbers for non-default branches are not well
+emulated, and cvs log does not show tags or branches at
+all. (Non-main-branch CVS revision numbers superficially resemble CVS
+revision numbers, but they actually encode a git commit ID directly,
+rather than represent the number of revisions since the branch point.)
+
+Note that there are two ways to checkout a particular branch.
+As described elsewhere on this page, the "module" parameter
+of cvs checkout is interpreted as a branch name, and it becomes
+the main branch. It remains the main branch for a given sandbox
+even if you temporarily make another branch sticky with
+cvs update -r. Alternatively, the -r argument can indicate
+some other branch to actually checkout, even though the module
+is still the "main" branch. Tradeoffs (as currently
+implemented): Each new "module" creates a new database on disk with
+a history for the given module, and after the database is created,
+operations against that main branch are fast. Or alternatively,
+-r doesn't take any extra disk space, but may be significantly slower for
+many operations, like cvs update.
+
+If you want to refer to a git refspec that has characters that are
+not allowed by CVS, you have two options. First, it may just work
+to supply the git refspec directly to the appropriate CVS -r argument;
+some CVS clients don't seem to do much sanity checking of the argument.
+Second, if that fails, you can use a special character escape mechanism
+that only uses characters that are valid in CVS tags. A sequence
+of 4 or 5 characters of the form (underscore (`"_"`), dash (`"-"`),
+one or two characters, and dash (`"-"`)) can encode various characters based
+on the one or two letters: `"s"` for slash (`"/"`), `"p"` for
+period (`"."`), `"u"` for underscore (`"_"`), or two hexadecimal digits
+for any byte value at all (typically an ASCII number, or perhaps a part
+of a UTF-8 encoded character).
+
Legacy monitoring operations are not supported (edit, watch and related).
Exports and tagging (tags and branches) are not supported at this stage.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 7e5098a..223f731 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-daemon(1)
NAME
----
-git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
+git-daemon - A really simple server for Git repositories
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -16,18 +16,20 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--reuseaddr] [--detach] [--pid-file=<file>]
[--enable=<service>] [--disable=<service>]
[--allow-override=<service>] [--forbid-override=<service>]
- [--access-hook=<path>]
- [--inetd | [--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>] [--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]
+ [--access-hook=<path>] [--[no-]informative-errors]
+ [--inetd |
+ [--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>]
+ [--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]]
[<directory>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A really simple TCP git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
+A really simple TCP Git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
aka 9418. It waits for a connection asking for a service, and will serve
that service if it is enabled.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
-it will refuse to export any git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
+it will refuse to export any Git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
pass some directory paths as 'git daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
@@ -37,7 +39,7 @@ By default, only `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
from 'git fetch', 'git pull', and 'git clone'.
This is ideally suited for read-only updates, i.e., pulling from
-git repositories.
+Git repositories.
An `upload-archive` also exists to serve 'git archive'.
@@ -51,7 +53,7 @@ OPTIONS
--base-path=<path>::
Remap all the path requests as relative to the given path.
- This is sort of "GIT root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
+ This is sort of "Git root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
'--base-path=/srv/git' on example.com, then if you later try to pull
'git://example.com/hello.git', 'git daemon' will interpret the path
as '/srv/git/hello.git'.
@@ -73,7 +75,7 @@ OPTIONS
whitelist.
--export-all::
- Allow pulling from all directories that look like GIT repositories
+ Allow pulling from all directories that look like Git repositories
(have the 'objects' and 'refs' subdirectories), even if they
do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
@@ -147,6 +149,13 @@ OPTIONS
Giving these options is an error when used with `--inetd`; use
the facility of inet daemon to achieve the same before spawning
'git daemon' if needed.
++
+Like many programs that switch user id, the daemon does not reset
+environment variables such as `$HOME` when it runs git programs,
+e.g. `upload-pack` and `receive-pack`. When using this option, you
+may also want to set and export `HOME` to point at the home
+directory of `<user>` before starting the daemon, and make sure any
+Git configuration files in that directory are readable by `<user>`.
--enable=<service>::
--disable=<service>::
@@ -162,8 +171,7 @@ the facility of inet daemon to achieve the same before spawning
repository configuration. By default, all the services
are overridable.
---informative-errors::
---no-informative-errors::
+--[no-]informative-errors::
When informative errors are turned on, git-daemon will report
more verbose errors to the client, differentiating conditions
like "no such repository" from "repository not exported". This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 72d6bb6..d20ca40 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-describe - Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <committish>...
+'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <commit-ish>...
'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] --dirty[=<mark>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -26,8 +26,8 @@ see the -a and -s options to linkgit:git-tag[1].
OPTIONS
-------
-<committish>...::
- Committish object names to describe.
+<commit-ish>...::
+ Commit-ish object names to describe.
--dirty[=<mark>]::
Describe the working tree.
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ OPTIONS
--candidates=<n>::
Instead of considering only the 10 most recent tags as
- candidates to describe the input committish consider
+ candidates to describe the input commit-ish consider
up to <n> candidates. Increasing <n> above 10 will take
slightly longer but may produce a more accurate result.
An <n> of 0 will cause only exact matches to be output.
@@ -81,12 +81,18 @@ OPTIONS
that points at object deadbee....).
--match <pattern>::
- Only consider tags matching the given pattern (can be used to avoid
- leaking private tags made from the repository).
+ Only consider tags matching the given `glob(7)` pattern,
+ excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix. This can be used to avoid
+ leaking private tags from the repository.
--always::
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
+--first-parent::
+ Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
+ This is useful when you wish to not match tags on branches merged
+ in the history of the target commit.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -131,7 +137,7 @@ closest tagname without any suffix:
Note that the suffix you get if you type these commands today may be
longer than what Linus saw above when he ran these commands, as your
-git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
+Git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
975b that did not exist back then, and "-g975b" suffix alone may not
be sufficient to disambiguate these commits.
@@ -139,7 +145,7 @@ be sufficient to disambiguate these commits.
SEARCH STRATEGY
---------------
-For each committish supplied, 'git describe' will first look for
+For each commit-ish supplied, 'git describe' will first look for
a tag which tags exactly that commit. Annotated tags will always
be preferred over lightweight tags, and tags with newer dates will
always be preferred over tags with older dates. If an exact match
@@ -148,10 +154,12 @@ is found, its name will be output and searching will stop.
If an exact match was not found, 'git describe' will walk back
through the commit history to locate an ancestor commit which
has been tagged. The ancestor's tag will be output along with an
-abbreviation of the input committish's SHA1.
+abbreviation of the input commit-ish's SHA-1. If '--first-parent' was
+specified then the walk will only consider the first parent of each
+commit.
If multiple tags were found during the walk then the tag which
-has the fewest commits different from the input committish will be
+has the fewest commits different from the input commit-ish will be
selected and output. Here fewest commits different is defined as
the number of commits which would be shown by `git log tag..input`
will be the smallest number of commits possible.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index c0b7c58..a86cf62 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-diff-index(1)
NAME
----
-git-diff-index - Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository
+git-diff-index - Compare a tree to the working tree or index
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree
-object with the content of the current index and, optionally
-ignoring the stat state of the file on disk. When paths are
-specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
-entries in the index are compared.
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found in a tree object
+with the corresponding tracked files in the working tree, or with the
+corresponding paths in the index. When <path> arguments are present,
+compares only paths matching those patterns. Otherwise all tracked
+files are compared.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index f8c0601..56fb7e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -18,20 +18,25 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Show changes between the working tree and the index or a tree, changes
-between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, or changes
-between two files on disk.
+between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, changes between
+two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
'git diff' [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
This form is to view the changes you made relative to
the index (staging area for the next commit). In other
- words, the differences are what you _could_ tell git to
+ words, the differences are what you _could_ tell Git to
further add to the index but you still haven't. You can
stage these changes by using linkgit:git-add[1].
-+
-If exactly two paths are given and at least one points outside
-the current repository, 'git diff' will compare the two files /
-directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
+
+'git diff' --no-index [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
+
+ This form is to compare the given two paths on the
+ filesystem. You can omit the `--no-index` option when
+ running the command in a working tree controlled by Git and
+ at least one of the paths points outside the working tree,
+ or when running the command outside a working tree
+ controlled by Git.
'git diff' [--options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
@@ -39,7 +44,7 @@ directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
would want comparison with the latest commit, so if you
do not give <commit>, it defaults to HEAD.
- If HEAD does not exist (e.g. unborned branches) and
+ If HEAD does not exist (e.g. unborn branches) and
<commit> is not given, it shows all staged changes.
--staged is a synonym of --cached.
@@ -56,11 +61,6 @@ directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
This is to view the changes between two arbitrary
<commit>.
-'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
-
- This form is to view the differences between the raw
- contents of two blob objects.
-
'git diff' [--options] <commit>..<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This is synonymous to the previous form. If <commit> on
@@ -87,6 +87,11 @@ and the range notations ("<commit>..<commit>" and
"<commit>\...<commit>") do not mean a range as defined in the
"SPECIFYING RANGES" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
+
+ This form is to view the differences between the raw
+ contents of two blob objects.
+
OPTIONS
-------
:git-diff: 1
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 73ca702..11887e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git difftool' is a git command that allows you to compare and edit files
+'git difftool' is a Git command that allows you to compare and edit files
between revisions using common diff tools. 'git difftool' is a frontend
to 'git diff' and accepts the same options and arguments. See
linkgit:git-diff[1].
@@ -69,13 +69,14 @@ with custom merge tool commands and has the same value as `$MERGED`.
--tool-help::
Print a list of diff tools that may be used with `--tool`.
---symlinks::
---no-symlinks::
+--[no-]symlinks::
'git difftool''s default behavior is create symlinks to the
- working tree when run in `--dir-diff` mode.
+ working tree when run in `--dir-diff` mode and the right-hand
+ side of the comparison yields the same content as the file in
+ the working tree.
+
- Specifying `--no-symlinks` instructs 'git difftool' to create
- copies instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
+Specifying `--no-symlinks` instructs 'git difftool' to create copies
+instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
-x <command>::
--extcmd=<command>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index d6487e1..85f1f30 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -27,15 +27,17 @@ OPTIONS
Insert 'progress' statements every <n> objects, to be shown by
'git fast-import' during import.
---signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|strip|abort)::
+--signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|warn-strip|strip|abort)::
Specify how to handle signed tags. Since any transformation
after the export can change the tag names (which can also happen
when excluding revisions) the signatures will not match.
+
When asking to 'abort' (which is the default), this program will die
-when encountering a signed tag. With 'strip', the tags will be made
-unsigned, with 'verbatim', they will be silently exported
-and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a warning.
+when encountering a signed tag. With 'strip', the tags will silently
+be made unsigned, with 'warn-strip' they will be made unsigned but a
+warning will be displayed, with 'verbatim', they will be silently
+exported and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a
+warning.
--tag-of-filtered-object=(abort|drop|rewrite)::
Specify how to handle tags whose tagged object is filtered out.
@@ -66,6 +68,8 @@ produced incorrect results if you gave these options.
incremental runs. As <file> is only opened and truncated
at completion, the same path can also be safely given to
\--import-marks.
+ The file will not be written if no new object has been
+ marked/exported.
--import-marks=<file>::
Before processing any input, load the marks specified in
@@ -102,11 +106,11 @@ marks the same across runs.
different from the commit's first parent).
[<git-rev-list-args>...]::
- A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
- 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
- to export. For example, `master~10..master` causes the
- current master reference to be exported along with all objects
- added since its 10th ancestor commit.
+ A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
+ 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
+ to export. For example, `master~10..master` causes the
+ current master reference to be exported along with all objects
+ added since its 10th ancestor commit.
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -137,7 +141,7 @@ Limitations
-----------
Since 'git fast-import' cannot tag trees, you will not be
-able to export the linux-2.6.git repository completely, as it contains
+able to export the linux.git repository completely, as it contains
a tag referencing a tree instead of a commit.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 68bca1a..fd22a9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -33,38 +33,46 @@ the frontend program in use.
OPTIONS
-------
---date-format=<fmt>::
- Specify the type of dates the frontend will supply to
- fast-import within `author`, `committer` and `tagger` commands.
- See ``Date Formats'' below for details about which formats
- are supported, and their syntax.
-
--- done::
- Terminate with error if there is no 'done' command at the
- end of the stream.
--force::
Force updating modified existing branches, even if doing
so would cause commits to be lost (as the new commit does
not contain the old commit).
---max-pack-size=<n>::
- Maximum size of each output packfile.
- The default is unlimited.
+--quiet::
+ Disable all non-fatal output, making fast-import silent when it
+ is successful. This option disables the output shown by
+ \--stats.
---big-file-threshold=<n>::
- Maximum size of a blob that fast-import will attempt to
- create a delta for, expressed in bytes. The default is 512m
- (512 MiB). Some importers may wish to lower this on systems
- with constrained memory.
+--stats::
+ Display some basic statistics about the objects fast-import has
+ created, the packfiles they were stored into, and the
+ memory used by fast-import during this run. Showing this output
+ is currently the default, but can be disabled with \--quiet.
---depth=<n>::
- Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
- Default is 10.
+Options for Frontends
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
---active-branches=<n>::
- Maximum number of branches to maintain active at once.
- See ``Memory Utilization'' below for details. Default is 5.
+--cat-blob-fd=<fd>::
+ Write responses to `cat-blob` and `ls` queries to the
+ file descriptor <fd> instead of `stdout`. Allows `progress`
+ output intended for the end-user to be separated from other
+ output.
+
+--date-format=<fmt>::
+ Specify the type of dates the frontend will supply to
+ fast-import within `author`, `committer` and `tagger` commands.
+ See ``Date Formats'' below for details about which formats
+ are supported, and their syntax.
+
+--done::
+ Terminate with error if there is no `done` command at the end of
+ the stream. This option might be useful for detecting errors
+ that cause the frontend to terminate before it has started to
+ write a stream.
+
+Locations of Marks Files
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--export-marks=<file>::
Dumps the internal marks table to <file> when complete.
@@ -87,31 +95,33 @@ OPTIONS
Like --import-marks but instead of erroring out, silently
skips the file if it does not exist.
---relative-marks::
+--[no-]relative-marks::
After specifying --relative-marks the paths specified
with --import-marks= and --export-marks= are relative
to an internal directory in the current repository.
In git-fast-import this means that the paths are relative
to the .git/info/fast-import directory. However, other
importers may use a different location.
++
+Relative and non-relative marks may be combined by interweaving
+--(no-)-relative-marks with the --(import|export)-marks= options.
---no-relative-marks::
- Negates a previous --relative-marks. Allows for combining
- relative and non-relative marks by interweaving
- --(no-)-relative-marks with the --(import|export)-marks=
- options.
+Performance and Compression Tuning
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
---cat-blob-fd=<fd>::
- Write responses to `cat-blob` and `ls` queries to the
- file descriptor <fd> instead of `stdout`. Allows `progress`
- output intended for the end-user to be separated from other
- output.
+--active-branches=<n>::
+ Maximum number of branches to maintain active at once.
+ See ``Memory Utilization'' below for details. Default is 5.
---done::
- Require a `done` command at the end of the stream.
- This option might be useful for detecting errors that
- cause the frontend to terminate before it has started to
- write a stream.
+--big-file-threshold=<n>::
+ Maximum size of a blob that fast-import will attempt to
+ create a delta for, expressed in bytes. The default is 512m
+ (512 MiB). Some importers may wish to lower this on systems
+ with constrained memory.
+
+--depth=<n>::
+ Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
+ Default is 10.
--export-pack-edges=<file>::
After creating a packfile, print a line of data to
@@ -122,16 +132,9 @@ OPTIONS
as these commits can be used as edge points during calls
to 'git pack-objects'.
---quiet::
- Disable all non-fatal output, making fast-import silent when it
- is successful. This option disables the output shown by
- \--stats.
-
---stats::
- Display some basic statistics about the objects fast-import has
- created, the packfiles they were stored into, and the
- memory used by fast-import during this run. Showing this output
- is currently the default, but can be disabled with \--quiet.
+--max-pack-size=<n>::
+ Maximum size of each output packfile.
+ The default is unlimited.
Performance
@@ -248,7 +251,7 @@ advisement to help formatting routines display the timestamp.
If the local offset is not available in the source material, use
``+0000'', or the most common local offset. For example many
organizations have a CVS repository which has only ever been accessed
-by users who are located in the same location and timezone. In this
+by users who are located in the same location and time zone. In this
case a reasonable offset from UTC could be assumed.
+
Unlike the `rfc2822` format, this format is very strict. Any
@@ -268,7 +271,7 @@ the malformed string. There are also some types of malformed
strings which Git will parse wrong, and yet consider valid.
Seriously malformed strings will be rejected.
+
-Unlike the `raw` format above, the timezone/UTC offset information
+Unlike the `raw` format above, the time zone/UTC offset information
contained in an RFC 2822 date string is used to adjust the date
value to UTC prior to storage. Therefore it is important that
this information be as accurate as possible.
@@ -284,13 +287,13 @@ format, or its format is easily convertible to it, as there is no
ambiguity in parsing.
`now`::
- Always use the current time and timezone. The literal
+ Always use the current time and time zone. The literal
`now` must always be supplied for `<when>`.
+
-This is a toy format. The current time and timezone of this system
+This is a toy format. The current time and time zone of this system
is always copied into the identity string at the time it is being
created by fast-import. There is no way to specify a different time or
-timezone.
+time zone.
+
This particular format is supplied as it's short to implement and
may be useful to a process that wants to create a new commit
@@ -358,8 +361,8 @@ and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
`--cat-blob-fd` or `stdout` if unspecified.
`feature`::
- Require that fast-import supports the specified feature, or
- abort if it does not.
+ Enable the specified feature. This requires that fast-import
+ supports the specified feature, and aborts if it does not.
`option`::
Specify any of the options listed under OPTIONS that do not
@@ -377,8 +380,8 @@ change to the project.
('author' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
'committer' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
data
- ('from' SP <committish> LF)?
- ('merge' SP <committish> LF)?
+ ('from' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
+ ('merge' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
(filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)*
LF?
....
@@ -457,9 +460,9 @@ as the current commit on that branch is automatically assumed to
be the first ancestor of the new commit.
As `LF` is not valid in a Git refname or SHA-1 expression, no
-quoting or escaping syntax is supported within `<committish>`.
+quoting or escaping syntax is supported within `<commit-ish>`.
-Here `<committish>` is any of the following:
+Here `<commit-ish>` is any of the following:
* The name of an existing branch already in fast-import's internal branch
table. If fast-import doesn't know the name, it's treated as a SHA-1
@@ -506,7 +509,7 @@ additional ancestors (forming a 16-way merge). For this reason
it is suggested that frontends do not use more than 15 `merge`
commands per commit; 16, if starting a new, empty branch.
-Here `<committish>` is any of the commit specification expressions
+Here `<commit-ish>` is any of the commit specification expressions
also accepted by `from` (see above).
`filemodify`
@@ -674,8 +677,8 @@ paths for a commit are encouraged to do so.
`notemodify`
^^^^^^^^^^^^
Included in a `commit` `<notes_ref>` command to add a new note
-annotating a `<committish>` or change this annotation contents.
-Internally it is similar to filemodify 100644 on `<committish>`
+annotating a `<commit-ish>` or change this annotation contents.
+Internally it is similar to filemodify 100644 on `<commit-ish>`
path (maybe split into subdirectories). It's not advised to
use any other commands to write to the `<notes_ref>` tree except
`filedeleteall` to delete all existing notes in this tree.
@@ -688,7 +691,7 @@ External data format::
commit that is to be annotated.
+
....
- 'N' SP <dataref> SP <committish> LF
+ 'N' SP <dataref> SP <commit-ish> LF
....
+
Here `<dataref>` can be either a mark reference (`:<idnum>`)
@@ -701,13 +704,13 @@ Inline data format::
command.
+
....
- 'N' SP 'inline' SP <committish> LF
+ 'N' SP 'inline' SP <commit-ish> LF
data
....
+
See below for a detailed description of the `data` command.
-In both formats `<committish>` is any of the commit specification
+In both formats `<commit-ish>` is any of the commit specification
expressions also accepted by `from` (see above).
`mark`
@@ -738,7 +741,7 @@ lightweight (non-annotated) tags see the `reset` command below.
....
'tag' SP <name> LF
- 'from' SP <committish> LF
+ 'from' SP <commit-ish> LF
'tagger' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
data
....
@@ -783,11 +786,11 @@ branch from an existing commit without creating a new commit.
....
'reset' SP <ref> LF
- ('from' SP <committish> LF)?
+ ('from' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
LF?
....
-For a detailed description of `<ref>` and `<committish>` see above
+For a detailed description of `<ref>` and `<commit-ish>` see above
under `commit` and `from`.
The `LF` after the command is optional (it used to be required).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index 8c75120..93b5067 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -10,9 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git fetch-pack' [--all] [--quiet|-q] [--keep|-k] [--thin] [--include-tag]
- [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>]
- [--depth=<n>] [--no-progress]
- [-v] [<host>:]<directory> [<refs>...]
+ [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>]
+ [--depth=<n>] [--no-progress]
+ [-v] <repository> [<refs>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -84,26 +84,31 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
--depth=<n>::
Limit fetching to ancestor-chains not longer than n.
+ 'git-upload-pack' treats the special depth 2147483647 as
+ infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
--no-progress::
Do not show the progress.
+--check-self-contained-and-connected::
+ Output "connectivity-ok" if the received pack is
+ self-contained and connected.
+
-v::
Run verbosely.
-<host>::
- A remote host that houses the repository. When this
- part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
- ssh.
-
-<directory>::
- The repository to sync from.
+<repository>::
+ The URL to the remote repository.
<refs>...::
The remote heads to update from. This is relative to
$GIT_DIR (e.g. "HEAD", "refs/heads/master"). When
unspecified, update from all heads the remote side has.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-fetch[1]
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index b41d7c1..5809aa4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -24,19 +24,22 @@ The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information is left for a later merge
operation done by 'git merge'.
-When <refspec> stores the fetched result in remote-tracking branches,
-the tags that point at these branches are automatically
-followed. This is done by first fetching from the remote using
-the given <refspec>s, and if the repository has objects that are
-pointed by remote tags that it does not yet have, then fetch
-those missing tags. If the other end has tags that point at
-branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.
+By default, tags are auto-followed. This means that when fetching
+from a remote, any tags on the remote that point to objects that exist
+in the local repository are fetched. The effect is to fetch tags that
+point at branches that you are interested in. This default behavior
+can be changed by using the --tags or --no-tags options, by
+configuring remote.<name>.tagopt, or by using a refspec that fetches
+tags explicitly.
'git fetch' can fetch from either a single named repository,
or from several repositories at once if <group> is given and
there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file.
(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+When no remote is specified, by default the `origin` remote will be used,
+unless there's an upstream branch configured for the current branch.
+
OPTIONS
-------
include::fetch-options.txt[]
@@ -80,7 +83,7 @@ Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
-having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future git
+having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index e2301f5..2eba627 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Lets you rewrite git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
+Lets you rewrite Git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
in the <rev-list options>, applying custom filters on each revision.
Those filters can modify each tree (e.g. removing a file or running
a perl rewrite on all files) or information about each commit.
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ The command will only rewrite the _positive_ refs mentioned in the
command line (e.g. if you pass 'a..b', only 'b' will be rewritten).
If you specify no filters, the commits will be recommitted without any
changes, which would normally have no effect. Nevertheless, this may be
-useful in the future for compensating for some git bugs or such,
+useful in the future for compensating for some Git bugs or such,
therefore such a usage is permitted.
*NOTE*: This command honors `.git/info/grafts` file and refs in
@@ -64,8 +64,11 @@ argument is always evaluated in the shell context using the 'eval' command
Prior to that, the $GIT_COMMIT environment variable will be set to contain
the id of the commit being rewritten. Also, GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL,
-and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE are set according to the current commit. The values
-of these variables after the filters have run, are used for the new commit.
+and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE are taken from the current commit and exported to
+the environment, in order to affect the author and committer identities of
+the replacement commit created by linkgit:git-commit-tree[1] after the
+filters have run.
+
If any evaluation of <command> returns a non-zero exit status, the whole
operation will be aborted.
@@ -329,6 +332,26 @@ git filter-branch --msg-filter '
' HEAD~10..HEAD
--------------------------------------------------------
+The `--env-filter` option can be used to modify committer and/or author
+identity. For example, if you found out that your commits have the wrong
+identity due to a misconfigured user.email, you can make a correction,
+before publishing the project, like this:
+
+--------------------------------------------------------
+git filter-branch --env-filter '
+ if test "$GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL" = "root@localhost"
+ then
+ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL=john@example.com
+ export GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
+ fi
+ if test "$GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL" = "root@localhost"
+ then
+ GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL=john@example.com
+ export GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
+ fi
+' -- --all
+--------------------------------------------------------
+
To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision
range in addition to the new branch name. The new branch name will
point to the top-most revision that a 'git rev-list' of this range
@@ -370,11 +393,11 @@ git filter-branch --index-filter \
Checklist for Shrinking a Repository
------------------------------------
-git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
+git-filter-branch can be used to get rid of a subset of files,
usually with some combination of `--index-filter` and
`--subdirectory-filter`. People expect the resulting repository to
be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to
-actually make it smaller, because git tries hard not to lose your
+actually make it smaller, because Git tries hard not to lose your
objects until you tell it to. First make sure that:
* You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved
@@ -406,6 +429,37 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
+Notes
+-----
+
+git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
+of your Git history, but you probably don't need this flexibility if
+you're simply _removing unwanted data_ like large files or passwords.
+For those operations you may want to consider
+link:http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/[The BFG Repo-Cleaner],
+a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least
+10-50x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different
+characteristics:
+
+* Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly _once_. The BFG,
+ unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to
+ handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed
+ within your history. This constraint gives the core performance
+ benefit of The BFG, and is well-suited to the task of cleansing bad
+ data - you don't care _where_ the bad data is, you just want it
+ _gone_.
+
+* By default The BFG takes full advantage of multi-core machines,
+ cleansing commit file-trees in parallel. git-filter-branch cleans
+ commits sequentially (ie in a single-threaded manner), though it
+ _is_ possible to write filters that include their own parallellism,
+ in the scripts executed against each commit.
+
+* The link:http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/#examples[command options]
+ are much more restrictive than git-filter branch, and dedicated just
+ to the tasks of removing unwanted data- e.g:
+ `--strip-blobs-bigger-than 1M`.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 3a0f55e..bb1232a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -35,8 +35,7 @@ OPTIONS
Do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being
merged.
---summary::
---no-summary::
+--[no-]summary::
Synonyms to --log and --no-log; these are deprecated and will be
removed in the future.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index db55a4e..4240875 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -91,7 +91,19 @@ objectname::
upstream::
The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
from the displayed ref. Respects `:short` in the same way as
- `refname` above.
+ `refname` above. Additionally respects `:track` to show
+ "[ahead N, behind M]" and `:trackshort` to show the terse
+ version: ">" (ahead), "<" (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind),
+ or "=" (in sync). Has no effect if the ref does not have
+ tracking information associated with it.
+
+HEAD::
+ '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
+ otherwise.
+
+color::
+ Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
+ are described in `color.branch.*`.
In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
@@ -117,7 +129,7 @@ returns an empty string instead.
As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
the date by adding one of `:default`, `:relative`, `:short`, `:local`,
-`:iso8601` or `:rfc2822` to the end of the fieldname; e.g.
+`:iso8601`, `:rfc2822` or `:raw` to the end of the fieldname; e.g.
`%(taggerdate:relative)`.
@@ -207,13 +219,9 @@ eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
eval "$eval"
------------
-Author
-------
-Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
-
-Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 259dce4..5c0a4ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
[--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
[--ignore-if-in-upstream]
- [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
+ [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
- [--cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -166,6 +166,15 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
combined with the `--numbered` option.
+-v <n>::
+--reroll-count=<n>::
+ Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
+ output filenames have `v<n>` pretended to them, and the
+ subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
+ `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
+ `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
+ file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
+
--to=<email>::
Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
@@ -178,6 +187,21 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
The negated form `--no-cc` discards all `Cc:` headers added so
far (from config or command line).
+--from::
+--from=<ident>::
+ Use `ident` in the `From:` header of each commit email. If the
+ author ident of the commit is not textually identical to the
+ provided `ident`, place a `From:` header in the body of the
+ message with the original author. If no `ident` is given, use
+ the committer ident.
++
+Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending the
+emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain the
+original author (and `git am` will correctly pick up the in-body
+header). Note also that `git send-email` already handles this
+transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you are
+feeding the result to `git send-email`.
+
--add-header=<header>::
Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
@@ -186,7 +210,7 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
`Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
line.
---cover-letter::
+--[no-]cover-letter::
In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
@@ -199,14 +223,14 @@ The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
-keeping them as git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
+keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
--[no]-signature=<signature>::
Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
- signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the git version
+ signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
number.
--suffix=.<sfx>::
@@ -218,6 +242,7 @@ configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for example,
you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
+-q::
--quiet::
Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.
@@ -251,6 +276,7 @@ attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
cc = <email>
attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
signoff = true
+ coverletter = auto
------------
@@ -380,7 +406,7 @@ Thunderbird
~~~~~~~~~~~
By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
-resulting email unusable by git.
+resulting email unusable by Git.
There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
@@ -412,7 +438,8 @@ Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
In Thunderbird 3:
Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
"mail.wrap_long_lines".
-Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`.
+Toggle it to make sure it is set to `false`. Also, search for
+"mailnews.wraplength" and set the value to 0.
3. Disable the use of format=flowed:
Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
@@ -516,8 +543,8 @@ $ git format-patch -M -B origin
Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
-Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
-use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
+Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
+use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
as e-mailable patches:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index da348fc..25c431d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -23,15 +23,14 @@ OPTIONS
An object to treat as the head of an unreachability trace.
+
If no objects are given, 'git fsck' defaults to using the
-index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
+index file, all SHA-1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
(unless --no-reflogs is given) as heads.
--unreachable::
Print out objects that exist but that aren't reachable from any
of the reference nodes.
---dangling::
---no-dangling::
+--[no-]dangling::
Print objects that exist but that are never 'directly' used (default).
`--no-dangling` can be used to omit this information from the output.
@@ -56,7 +55,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
($GIT_DIR/objects), but also the ones found in alternate
object pools listed in GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
or $GIT_DIR/objects/info/alternates,
- and in packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
+ and in packed Git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
and corresponding pack subdirectories in alternate
object pools. This is now default; you can turn it off
with --no-full.
@@ -64,8 +63,8 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
--strict::
Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
recorded with g+w bit set, which was created by older
- versions of git. Existing repositories, including the
- Linux kernel, git itself, and sparse repository have old
+ versions of Git. Existing repositories, including the
+ Linux kernel, Git itself, and sparse repository have old
objects that triggers this check, but it is recommended
to check new projects with this flag.
@@ -78,8 +77,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
a blob, the contents are written into the file, rather than
its object name.
---progress::
---no-progress::
+--[no-]progress::
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
default when it is attached to a terminal, unless
--no-progress or --verbose is specified. --progress forces
@@ -89,7 +87,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
DISCUSSION
----------
-git-fsck tests SHA1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking
+git-fsck tests SHA-1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking
of the resulting reachability and everything else. It prints out any
corruption it finds (missing or bad objects), and if you use the
'--unreachable' flag it will also print out objects that exist but that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index b370b02..e158a3b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-gc - Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune]
+'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune] [--force]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -62,8 +62,9 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
--prune=<date>::
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
- overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`). This
- option is on by default.
+ overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`).
+ --prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age.
+ --prune is on by default.
--no-prune::
Do not prune any loose objects.
@@ -71,6 +72,10 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
--quiet::
Suppress all progress reports.
+--force::
+ Force `git gc` to run even if there may be another `git gc`
+ instance running on this repository.
+
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index cfecf84..f837334 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-grep - Print lines matching a pattern
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git grep' [-a | --text] [-I] [-i | --ignore-case] [-w | --word-regexp]
+'git grep' [-a | --text] [-I] [--textconv] [-i | --ignore-case] [-w | --word-regexp]
[-v | --invert-match] [-h|-H] [--full-name]
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-P | --perl-regexp]
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-W | --function-context]
[-f <file>] [-e] <pattern>
[--and|--or|--not|(|)|-e <pattern>...]
- [ [--exclude-standard] [--cached | --no-index | --untracked] | <tree>...]
+ [ [--[no-]exclude-standard] [--cached | --no-index | --untracked] | <tree>...]
[--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ OPTIONS
blobs registered in the index file.
--no-index::
- Search files in the current directory that is not managed by git.
+ Search files in the current directory that is not managed by Git.
--untracked::
In addition to searching in the tracked files in the working
@@ -80,6 +80,13 @@ OPTIONS
--text::
Process binary files as if they were text.
+--textconv::
+ Honor textconv filter settings.
+
+--no-textconv::
+ Do not honor textconv filter settings.
+ This is the default.
+
-i::
--ignore-case::
Ignore case differences between the patterns and the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 0041994..8144527 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ Examples
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitk[1]::
- The git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
+ The Git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
and file differences. gitk is the utility started by
'git gui''s Repository Visualize actions.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index 4b0a502..02c1f12 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ OPTIONS
--path::
Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
file does not directly influence on the hash value, but path is
- used to determine what git filters should be applied to the object
+ used to determine what Git filters should be applied to the object
before it can be placed to the object database, and, as result of
applying filters, the actual blob put into the object database may
differ from the given file. This option is mainly useful for hashing
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index 9e0b3f6..b21e9d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -3,36 +3,50 @@ git-help(1)
NAME
----
-git-help - display help information about git
+git-help - Display help information about Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git help' [-a|--all|-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND]
+'git help' [-a|--all] [-g|--guide]
+ [-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND|GUIDE]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no options and no COMMAND given, the synopsis of the 'git'
-command and a list of the most commonly used git commands are printed
+With no options and no COMMAND or GUIDE given, the synopsis of the 'git'
+command and a list of the most commonly used Git commands are printed
on the standard output.
-If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, then all available commands are
+If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, all available commands are
printed on the standard output.
-If a git command is named, a manual page for that command is brought
-up. The 'man' program is used by default for this purpose, but this
-can be overridden by other options or configuration variables.
+If the option '--guide' or '-g' is given, a list of the useful
+Git guides is also printed on the standard output.
+
+If a command, or a guide, is given, a manual page for that command or
+guide is brought up. The 'man' program is used by default for this
+purpose, but this can be overridden by other options or configuration
+variables.
Note that `git --help ...` is identical to `git help ...` because the
former is internally converted into the latter.
+To display the linkgit:git[1] man page, use `git help git`.
+
+This page can be displayed with 'git help help' or `git help --help`
+
OPTIONS
-------
-a::
--all::
Prints all the available commands on the standard output. This
- option supersedes any other option.
+ option overrides any given command or guide name.
+
+-g::
+--guides::
+ Prints a list of useful guides on the standard output. This
+ option overrides any given command or guide name.
-i::
--info::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
index f4e0741..e8c13f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as well as clients
pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file
-"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any git directory
+"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any Git directory
that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way (unless the
GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).
@@ -80,7 +80,30 @@ ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access,
-require authorization with a LocationMatch directive:
+require authorization for both the initial ref advertisement (which we
+detect as a push via the service parameter in the query string), and the
+receive-pack invocation itself:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} service=git-receive-pack [OR]
+RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /git-receive-pack$
+RewriteRule ^/git/ - [E=AUTHREQUIRED:yes]
+
+<LocationMatch "^/git/">
+ Order Deny,Allow
+ Deny from env=AUTHREQUIRED
+
+ AuthType Basic
+ AuthName "Git Access"
+ Require group committers
+ Satisfy Any
+ ...
+</LocationMatch>
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+If you do not have `mod_rewrite` available to match against the query
+string, it is sufficient to just protect `git-receive-pack` itself,
+like:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
<LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
@@ -91,6 +114,15 @@ require authorization with a LocationMatch directive:
</LocationMatch>
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+In this mode, the server will not request authentication until the
+client actually starts the object negotiation phase of the push, rather
+than during the initial contact. For this reason, you must also enable
+the `http.receivepack` config option in any repositories that should
+accept a push. The default behavior, if `http.receivepack` is not set,
+is to reject any pushes by unauthenticated users; the initial request
+will therefore report `403 Forbidden` to the client, without even giving
+an opportunity for authentication.
++
To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location
directive around the repository, or one of its parent directories:
+
@@ -158,6 +190,54 @@ ScriptAliasMatch \
ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
----------------------------------------------------------------
+Lighttpd::
+ Ensure that `mod_cgi`, `mod_alias, `mod_auth`, `mod_setenv` are
+ loaded, then set `GIT_PROJECT_ROOT` appropriately and redirect
+ all requests to the CGI:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+alias.url += ( "/git" => "/usr/lib/git-core/git-http-backend" )
+$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git" {
+ cgi.assign = ("" => "")
+ setenv.add-environment = (
+ "GIT_PROJECT_ROOT" => "/var/www/git",
+ "GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL" => ""
+ )
+}
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+$HTTP["querystring"] =~ "service=git-receive-pack" {
+ include "git-auth.conf"
+}
+$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$" {
+ include "git-auth.conf"
+}
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+where `git-auth.conf` looks something like:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+auth.require = (
+ "/" => (
+ "method" => "basic",
+ "realm" => "Git Access",
+ "require" => "valid-user"
+ )
+)
+# ...and set up auth.backend here
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To require authentication for both reads and writes:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/private" {
+ include "git-auth.conf"
+}
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
ENVIRONMENT
-----------
@@ -183,14 +263,6 @@ identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.
All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks
invoked by the 'git-receive-pack'.
-Author
-------
-Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
-
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index 070cd1e..21a33d2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-http-fetch(1)
NAME
----
-git-http-fetch - Download from a remote git repository via HTTP
+git-http-fetch - Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP.
+Downloads a remote Git repository via HTTP.
*NOTE*: use of this command without -a is deprecated. The -a
behaviour will become the default in a future release.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 39e6d0d..7a4e055 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Reads a packed archive (.pack) from the specified file, and
builds a pack index file (.idx) for it. The packed archive
together with the pack index can then be placed in the
-objects/pack/ directory of a git repository.
+objects/pack/ directory of a Git repository.
OPTIONS
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ OPTIONS
When this flag is provided, the pack is read from stdin
instead and a copy is then written to <pack-file>. If
<pack-file> is not specified, the pack is written to
- objects/pack/ directory of the current git repository with
+ objects/pack/ directory of the current Git repository with
a default name determined from the pack content. If
<pack-file> is not specified consider using --keep to
prevent a race condition between this process and
@@ -74,6 +74,9 @@ OPTIONS
--strict::
Die, if the pack contains broken objects or links.
+--check-self-contained-and-connected::
+ Die if the pack contains broken links. For internal use only.
+
--threads=<n>::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
deltas. This requires that index-pack be compiled with
@@ -81,7 +84,7 @@ OPTIONS
This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search
window is however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and use maximum 3 threads.
@@ -89,7 +92,7 @@ Note
----
Once the index has been created, the list of object names is sorted
-and the SHA1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
+and the SHA-1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
also used then this is prefixed by either "pack\t", or "keep\t" if a
new .keep file was successfully created. This is useful to remove a
.keep file used as a lock to prevent the race with 'git repack'
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
index a21e346..648a6cd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-init-db(1)
NAME
----
-git-init-db - Creates an empty git repository
+git-init-db - Creates an empty Git repository
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index 9ac2bba..afd721e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-init(1)
NAME
----
-git-init - Create an empty git repository or reinitialize an existing one
+git-init - Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one
SYNOPSIS
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command creates an empty git repository - basically a `.git`
+This command creates an empty Git repository - basically a `.git`
directory with subdirectories for `objects`, `refs/heads`,
`refs/tags`, and template files. An initial `HEAD` file that
references the HEAD of the master branch is also created.
@@ -58,19 +58,19 @@ DIRECTORY" section below.)
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of initializing the repository where it is supposed to be,
-place a filesytem-agnostic git symbolic link there, pointing to the
-specified git path, and initialize a git repository at the path. The
-result is git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
+place a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link there, pointing to the
+specified path, and initialize a Git repository at the path. The
+result is Git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified
path.
--shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody|0xxx)]::
-Specify that the git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
+Specify that the Git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
allows users belonging to the same group to push into that
repository. When specified, the config variable "core.sharedRepository" is
set so that files and directories under `$GIT_DIR` are created with the
-requested permissions. When not specified, git will use permissions reported
+requested permissions. When not specified, Git will use permissions reported
by umask(2).
The option can have the following values, defaulting to 'group' if no value
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ The suggested patterns and hook files are all modifiable and extensible.
EXAMPLES
--------
-Start a new git repository for an existing code base::
+Start a new Git repository for an existing code base::
+
----------------
$ cd /path/to/my/codebase
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 585dac4..1f7bc67 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -9,28 +9,21 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git log' [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[\--] <path>...]
+'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Shows the commit logs.
-The command takes options applicable to the 'git rev-list'
+The command takes options applicable to the `git rev-list`
command to control what is shown and how, and options applicable to
-the 'git diff-*' commands to control how the changes
+the `git diff-*` commands to control how the changes
each commit introduces are shown.
OPTIONS
-------
-<since>..<until>::
- Show only commits between the named two commits. When
- either <since> or <until> is omitted, it defaults to
- `HEAD`, i.e. the tip of the current branch.
- For a more complete list of ways to spell <since>
- and <until>, see linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-
--follow::
Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames
(works only for a single file).
@@ -47,37 +40,61 @@ OPTIONS
Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
commit was reached.
+--use-mailmap::
+ Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
+ addresses to canonical real names and email addresses. See
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
+
--full-diff::
- Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that
+ Without this flag, `git log -p <path>...` shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
paths. With this, the full diff is shown for commits that touch
the specified paths; this means that "<path>..." limits only
commits, and doesn't limit diff for those commits.
+
Note that this affects all diff-based output types, e.g. those
-produced by --stat etc.
+produced by `--stat`, etc.
--log-size::
- Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended
- mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If git is unable to
- produce a valid value size is set to zero.
- Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown
- its size is not included.
+ Include a line ``log size <number>'' in the output for each commit,
+ where <number> is the length of that commit's message in bytes.
+ Intended to speed up tools that read log messages from `git log`
+ output by allowing them to allocate space in advance.
+
+-L <start>,<end>:<file>::
+-L :<regex>:<file>::
+ Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>"
+ (or the funcname regex <regex>) within the <file>. You may
+ not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
+ a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments.
+ You can specify this option more than once.
++
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
+
+<revision range>::
+ Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
+ <revision range> is specified, it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the
+ whole history leading to the current commit). `origin..HEAD`
+ specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
+ (i.e. `HEAD`), but not from `origin`. For a complete list of
+ ways to spell <revision range>, see the 'Specifying Ranges'
+ section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
[\--] <path>...::
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
- that match the specified paths came to be. See "History
- Simplification" below for details and other simplification
+ that match the specified paths came to be. See 'History
+ Simplification' below for details and other simplification
modes.
+
-To prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need to
-be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from options or refnames.
+Paths may need to be prefixed with ``\-- '' to separate them from
+options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
include::rev-list-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
-Common diff options
+COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
-------------------
:git-log: 1
@@ -85,7 +102,7 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
include::diff-generate-patch.txt[]
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
`git log --no-merges`::
@@ -94,12 +111,12 @@ Examples
`git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi`::
Show all commits since version 'v2.6.12' that changed any file
- in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
+ in the `include/scsi` or `drivers/scsi` subdirectories
`git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk`::
Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
- The "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ The ``--'' is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
'gitk'
`git log --name-status release..test`::
@@ -108,9 +125,9 @@ Examples
in the "release" branch, along with the list of paths
each commit modifies.
-`git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c`::
+`git log --follow builtin/rev-list.c`::
- Shows the commits that changed builtin-rev-list.c, including
+ Shows the commits that changed `builtin/rev-list.c`, including
those commits that occurred before the file was given its
present name.
@@ -128,32 +145,38 @@ Examples
`git log -p -m --first-parent`::
Shows the history including change diffs, but only from the
- "main branch" perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
+ ``main branch'' perspective, skipping commits that come from merged
branches, and showing full diffs of changes introduced by the merges.
This makes sense only when following a strict policy of merging all
topic branches when staying on a single integration branch.
+`git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c`::
+
+ Shows how the function `main()` in the file `main.c` evolved
+ over time.
+
`git log -3`::
+
Limits the number of commits to show to 3.
-Discussion
+DISCUSSION
----------
include::i18n.txt[]
-Configuration
+CONFIGURATION
-------------
See linkgit:git-config[1] for core variables and linkgit:git-diff[1]
for settings related to diff generation.
format.pretty::
- Default for the `--format` option. (See "PRETTY FORMATS" above.)
- Defaults to "medium".
+ Default for the `--format` option. (See 'Pretty Formats' above.)
+ Defaults to `medium`.
i18n.logOutputEncoding::
- Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See "Discussion", above.)
- Defaults to the value of `i18n.commitEncoding` if set, UTF-8
+ Encoding to use when displaying logs. (See 'Discussion' above.)
+ Defaults to the value of `i18n.commitEncoding` if set, and UTF-8
otherwise.
log.date::
@@ -162,18 +185,18 @@ log.date::
dates like `Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500`.
log.showroot::
- If `false`, 'git log' and related commands will not treat the
+ If `false`, `git log` and related commands will not treat the
initial commit as a big creation event. Any root commits in
`git log -p` output would be shown without a diff attached.
The default is `true`.
-mailmap.file::
+mailmap.*::
See linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
notes.displayRef::
Which refs, in addition to the default set by `core.notesRef`
or 'GIT_NOTES_REF', to read notes from when showing commit
- messages with the 'log' family of commands. See
+ messages with the `log` family of commands. See
linkgit:git-notes[1].
+
May be an unabbreviated ref name or a glob and may be specified
diff --git a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index d549328..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,74 +0,0 @@
-git-lost-found(1)
-=================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-lost-found - Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git lost-found'
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-*NOTE*: this command is deprecated. Use linkgit:git-fsck[1] with
-the option '--lost-found' instead.
-
-Finds dangling commits and tags from the object database, and
-creates refs to them in the .git/lost-found/ directory. Commits and
-tags that dereference to commits are stored in .git/lost-found/commit,
-and other objects are stored in .git/lost-found/other.
-
-
-OUTPUT
-------
-Prints to standard output the object names and one-line descriptions
-of any commits or tags found.
-
-EXAMPLE
--------
-
-Suppose you run 'git tag -f' and mistype the tag to overwrite.
-The ref to your tag is overwritten, but until you run 'git
-prune', the tag itself is still there.
-
-------------
-$ git lost-found
-[1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6] GIT 0.99.9c
-...
-------------
-
-Also you can use gitk to browse how any tags found relate to each
-other.
-
-------------
-$ gitk $(cd .git/lost-found/commit && echo ??*)
-------------
-
-After making sure you know which the object is the tag you are looking
-for, you can reconnect it to your regular `refs` hierarchy by using
-the `update-ref` command.
-
-------------
-$ git cat-file -t 1ef2b196
-tag
-$ git cat-file tag 1ef2b196
-object fa41bbce8e38c67a218415de6cfa510c7e50032a
-type commit
-tag v0.99.9c
-tagger Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> 1131059594 -0800
-
-GIT 0.99.9c
-
-This contains the following changes from the "master" branch, since
-...
-$ git update-ref refs/tags/not-lost-anymore 1ef2b196
-$ git rev-parse not-lost-anymore
-1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6
-------------
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 4b28292..c0856a6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ OPTIONS
directory and its subdirectories in <file>.
--exclude-standard::
- Add the standard git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
+ Add the standard Git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
in each directory, and the user's global exclusion file.
--error-unmatch::
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ which case it outputs:
'git ls-files --unmerged' and 'git ls-files --stage' can be used to examine
detailed information on unmerged paths.
-For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA1 pair,
+For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA-1 pair,
the index records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage
1, A in stage 2, and B in stage 3. This information can be used by
the user (or the porcelain) to see what should eventually be recorded at the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 774de5e..2e22915 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -48,9 +48,9 @@ OPTIONS
exit without talking to the remote.
<repository>::
- Location of the repository. The shorthand defined in
- $GIT_DIR/branches/ can be used. Use "." (dot) to list references in
- the local repository.
+ The "remote" repository to query. This parameter can be
+ either a URL or the name of a remote (see the GIT URLS and
+ REMOTES sections of linkgit:git-fetch[1]).
<refs>...::
When unspecified, all references, after filtering done
@@ -70,9 +70,8 @@ EXAMPLES
$ git ls-remote http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master pu rc
5fe978a5381f1fbad26a80e682ddd2a401966740 refs/heads/master
c781a84b5204fb294c9ccc79f8b3baceeb32c061 refs/heads/pu
- b1d096f2926c4e37c9c0b6a7bf2119bedaa277cb refs/heads/rc
- $ echo http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git >.git/branches/public
- $ git ls-remote --tags public v\*
+ $ git remote add korg http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
+ $ git ls-remote --tags korg v\*
d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 97e7a8e..164a3c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-mailinfo - Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
+'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--[no-]scissors] <msg> <patch>
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 87842e3..808426f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git merge-base' [-a|--all] --octopus <commit>...
'git merge-base' --is-ancestor <commit> <commit>
'git merge-base' --independent <commit>...
+'git merge-base' --fork-point <ref> [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -24,8 +25,8 @@ that does not have any better common ancestor is a 'best common
ancestor', i.e. a 'merge base'. Note that there can be more than one
merge base for a pair of commits.
-OPERATION MODE
---------------
+OPERATION MODES
+---------------
As the most common special case, specifying only two commits on the
command line means computing the merge base between the given two commits.
@@ -56,6 +57,14 @@ from linkgit:git-show-branch[1] when used with the `--merge-base` option.
and exit with status 0 if true, or with status 1 if not.
Errors are signaled by a non-zero status that is not 1.
+--fork-point::
+ Find the point at which a branch (or any history that leads
+ to <commit>) forked from another branch (or any reference)
+ <ref>. This does not just look for the common ancestor of
+ the two commits, but also takes into account the reflog of
+ <ref> to see if the history leading to <commit> forked from
+ an earlier incarnation of the branch <ref> (see discussion
+ on this mode below).
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -137,6 +146,31 @@ In modern git, you can say this in a more direct way:
instead.
+Discussion on fork-point mode
+-----------------------------
+
+After working on the `topic` branch created with `git checkout -b
+topic origin/master`, the history of remote-tracking branch
+`origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
+history of this shape:
+
+ o---B1
+ /
+ ---o---o---B2--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \
+ B3
+ \
+ Derived (topic)
+
+where `origin/master` used to point at commits B3, B2, B1 and now it
+points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
+when `origin/master` was at B3. This mode uses the reflog of
+`origin/master` to find B3 as the fork point, so that the `topic`
+can be rebased on top of the updated `origin/master` by:
+
+ $ fork_point=$(git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic)
+ $ git rebase --onto origin/master $fork_point topic
+
See also
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
index d7db2a3..d2fc12e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git merge-file' [-L <current-name> [-L <base-name> [-L <other-name>]]]
[--ours|--theirs|--union] [-p|--stdout] [-q|--quiet] [--marker-size=<n>]
- <current-file> <base-file> <other-file>
+ [--[no-]diff3] <current-file> <base-file> <other-file>
DESCRIPTION
@@ -66,6 +66,9 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
+--diff3::
+ Show conflicts in "diff3" style.
+
--ours::
--theirs::
--union::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index e0df1b3..02676fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This looks up the <file>(s) in the index and, if there are any merge
-entries, passes the SHA1 hash for those files as arguments 1, 2, 3 (empty
+entries, passes the SHA-1 hash for those files as arguments 1, 2, 3 (empty
argument if no file), and <file> as argument 4. File modes for the three
files are passed as arguments 5, 6 and 7.
@@ -41,13 +41,13 @@ If 'git merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
processes them in turn only stopping if merge returns a non-zero exit
code.
-Typically this is run with a script calling git's imitation of
+Typically this is run with a script calling Git's imitation of
the 'merge' command from the RCS package.
A sample script called 'git merge-one-file' is included in the
distribution.
-ALERT ALERT ALERT! The git "merge object order" is different from the
+ALERT ALERT ALERT! The Git "merge object order" is different from the
RCS 'merge' program merge object order. In the above ordering, the
original is first. But the argument order to the 3-way merge program
'merge' is to have the original in the middle. Don't ask me why.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
index c5f84b6..58731c1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads three treeish, and output trivial merge results and
+Reads three tree-ish, and output trivial merge results and
conflicting stages to the standard output. This is similar to
what three-way 'git read-tree -m' does, but instead of storing the
results in the index, the command outputs the entries to the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index d34ea3c..4395459 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
- [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>]
+ [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
'git merge' --abort
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ especially if those changes were further modified after the merge
was started), 'git merge --abort' will in some cases be unable to
reconstruct the original (pre-merge) changes. Therefore:
-*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with uncommitted changes is
-discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a state that is hard to
+*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with non-trivial uncommitted changes is
+discouraged: while possible, it may leave you in a state that is hard to
back out of in the case of a conflict.
@@ -65,6 +65,10 @@ OPTIONS
-------
include::merge-options.txt[]
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign the resulting merge commit.
+
-m <msg>::
Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
case one is created).
@@ -76,8 +80,7 @@ The 'git fmt-merge-msg' command can be
used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
invocations.
---rerere-autoupdate::
---no-rerere-autoupdate::
+--[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
@@ -170,6 +173,30 @@ happens:
If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts and
want to start over, you can recover with `git merge --abort`.
+MERGING TAG
+-----------
+
+When merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag, Git always
+creates a merge commit even if a fast-forward merge is possible, and
+the commit message template is prepared with the tag message.
+Additionally, if the tag is signed, the signature check is reported
+as a comment in the message template. See also linkgit:git-tag[1].
+
+When you want to just integrate with the work leading to the commit
+that happens to be tagged, e.g. synchronizing with an upstream
+release point, you may not want to make an unnecessary merge commit.
+
+In such a case, you can "unwrap" the tag yourself before feeding it
+to `git merge`, or pass `--ff-only` when you do not have any work on
+your own. e.g.
+
+----
+git fetch origin
+git merge v1.2.3^0
+git merge --ff-only v1.2.3
+----
+
+
HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED
---------------------------
@@ -178,10 +205,10 @@ of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor's version,
non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the file while the
other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are incorporated in the
final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same area,
-however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
+however, Git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.
-By default, git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
+By default, Git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
index f98a41b..055550b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-mergetool{litdd}lib(1)
NAME
----
-git-mergetool--lib - Common git merge tool shell scriptlets
+git-mergetool--lib - Common Git merge tool shell scriptlets
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
The 'git-mergetool{litdd}lib' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up functions for working
-with git merge tools.
+with Git merge tools.
Before sourcing 'git-mergetool{litdd}lib', your script must set `TOOL_MODE`
to define the operation mode for the functions listed below.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 6b563c5..07137f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-mergetool - Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y|--no-prompt|--prompt] [<file>...]
+'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y | --[no-]prompt] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
index 65e167a..3ca158b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -28,9 +28,9 @@ A tag signature file has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
tagger <tagger>
followed by some 'optional' free-form message (some tags created
-by older git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
+by older Git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
exists, is separated by a blank line from the header. The
-message part may contain a signature that git itself doesn't
+message part may contain a signature that Git itself doesn't
care about, but that can be verified with gpg.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
index e3c8448..e453132 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This script is used to move or rename a file, directory or symlink.
+Move or rename a file, directory or symlink.
git mv [-v] [-f] [-n] [-k] <source> <destination>
git mv [-v] [-f] [-n] [-k] <source> ... <destination directory>
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ OPTIONS
-k::
Skip move or rename actions which would lead to an error
condition. An error happens when a source is neither existing nor
- controlled by GIT, or when it would overwrite an existing
+ controlled by Git, or when it would overwrite an existing
file unless '-f' is given.
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -44,6 +44,26 @@ OPTIONS
--verbose::
Report the names of files as they are moved.
+SUBMODULES
+----------
+Moving a submodule using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
+with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will update the gitfile and
+core.worktree setting to make the submodule work in the new location.
+It also will attempt to update the submodule.<name>.path setting in
+the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file and stage that file (unless -n is used).
+
+BUGS
+----
+Each time a superproject update moves a populated submodule (e.g. when
+switching between commits before and after the move) a stale submodule
+checkout will remain in the old location and an empty directory will
+appear in the new location. To populate the submodule again in the new
+location the user will have to run "git submodule update"
+afterwards. Removing the old directory is only safe when it uses a
+gitfile, as otherwise the history of the submodule will be deleted
+too. Both steps will be obsolete when recursive submodule update has
+been implemented.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index ad1d146..ca28fb8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git name-rev' [--tags] [--refs=<pattern>]
- ( --all | --stdin | <committish>... )
+ ( --all | --stdin | <commit-ish>... )
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -25,14 +25,17 @@ OPTIONS
Do not use branch names, but only tags to name the commits
--refs=<pattern>::
- Only use refs whose names match a given shell pattern.
+ Only use refs whose names match a given shell pattern. The pattern
+ can be one of branch name, tag name or fully qualified ref name.
--all::
List all commits reachable from all refs
--stdin::
- Read from stdin, append "(<rev_name>)" to all sha1's of nameable
- commits, and pass to stdout
+ Transform stdin by substituting all the 40-character SHA-1
+ hexes (say $hex) with "$hex ($rev_name)". When used with
+ --name-only, substitute with "$rev_name", omitting $hex
+ altogether. Intended for the scripter's use.
--name-only::
Instead of printing both the SHA-1 and the name, print only
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index 46ef046..84bb0fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -375,16 +375,6 @@ does not match any refs is silently ignored.
If not set in the environment, the list of notes to copy depends
on the `notes.rewrite.<command>` and `notes.rewriteRef` settings.
-
-Author
-------
-Written by Johannes Schindelin <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de> and
-Johan Herland <johan@herland.net>
-
-Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Johannes Schindelin and Johan Herland
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index beff622..6ab5f94 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -18,13 +18,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
-using git.
+using Git.
-Create a new git repository from an existing p4 repository using
+Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
-Submit git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
+Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
the updated p4 remote branch.
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ EXAMPLE
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
------------
-* Do some work in the newly created git repository:
+* Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
+
------------
$ cd project
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ $ vi foo.h
$ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
------------
-* Update the git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
+* Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
work on top:
+
------------
@@ -64,21 +64,21 @@ COMMANDS
Clone
~~~~~
-Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new git directory
+Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
from an existing p4 repository:
------------
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
------------
This:
-1. Creates an empty git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
+1. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
+
2. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
-depot path into a single commit in the git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
+depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
+
3. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
-To reproduce the entire p4 history in git, use the '@all' modifier on
+To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
the depot path:
------------
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
@@ -88,13 +88,13 @@ $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
Sync
~~~~
As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
-be included in the git repository using:
+be included in the Git repository using:
------------
$ git p4 sync
------------
-This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as git commits.
+This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
-P4 repositories can be added to an existing git repository using
+P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
'git p4 sync' too:
------------
$ mkdir repo-git
@@ -103,14 +103,19 @@ $ git init
$ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
------------
This imports the specified depot into
-'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing git repository. The
+'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
'--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
be used for the p4 content.
-If a git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
+If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
-from a git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
+from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
+
+If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
+use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
+into the right branch. This can be overridden with the '--branch'
+option to specify just a single branch to update.
Rebase
@@ -127,13 +132,13 @@ $ git p4 rebase
Submit
~~~~~~
-Submitting changes from a git repository back to the p4 repository
+Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
-using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the git configuration
+using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
-To submit all changes that are in the current git branch but not in
+To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
the 'p4/master' branch, use:
------------
$ git p4 submit
@@ -149,7 +154,7 @@ be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
'--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
-according to the author of the git commit. This option requires admin
+according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
@@ -163,7 +168,8 @@ All commands except clone accept these options.
--git-dir <dir>::
Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
---verbose, -v::
+-v::
+--verbose::
Provide more progress information.
Sync options
@@ -171,14 +177,19 @@ Sync options
These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
subsequent 'sync' operations.
---branch <branch>::
- Import changes into given branch. If the branch starts with
- 'refs/', it will be used as is, otherwise the path 'refs/heads/'
- will be prepended. The default branch is 'master'. If used
- with an initial clone, no HEAD will be checked out.
+--branch <ref>::
+ Import changes into <ref> instead of refs/remotes/p4/master.
+ If <ref> starts with refs/, it is used as is. Otherwise, if
+ it does not start with p4/, that prefix is added.
++
+By default a <ref> not starting with refs/ is treated as the
+name of a remote-tracking branch (under refs/remotes/). This
+behavior can be modified using the --import-local option.
++
+The default <ref> is "master".
+
This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
-git repository:
+Git repository:
+
----
$ git init
@@ -199,11 +210,11 @@ git repository:
--detect-labels::
Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
- them as tags in git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
+ them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
--import-labels::
- Import labels from p4 into git.
+ Import labels from p4 into Git.
--import-local::
By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
@@ -219,12 +230,12 @@ git repository:
specifier.
--keep-path::
- The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to git, by
+ The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
- option, the full p4 depot path is retained in git. For example,
+ option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
'//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With '--keep-path', the
- git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
+ Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
--use-client-spec::
Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
@@ -236,7 +247,7 @@ These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
options described above.
--destination <directory>::
- Where to create the git repository. If not provided, the last
+ Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
directory.
@@ -266,12 +277,13 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
requires p4 admin privileges.
--export-labels::
- Export tags from git as p4 labels. Tags found in git are applied
+ Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
to the perforce working directory.
---dry-run, -n::
+-n::
+--dry-run::
Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
- state in git or p4.
+ state in Git or p4.
--prepare-p4-only::
Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
@@ -287,6 +299,11 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
+--branch <branch>::
+ After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
+ p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
+ information.
+
Rebase options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
@@ -312,12 +329,12 @@ p4 revision specifier on the end:
"//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
repository. Only files below these directories are included.
- There is not a subdirectory in git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
+ There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
- updated version of the file is the one that appears in git.
+ updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
@@ -334,11 +351,11 @@ configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
not have a command-line option.
-The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'Git p4'
+The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
-'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'Git p4' will complain
+'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
@@ -354,7 +371,7 @@ variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
BRANCH DETECTION
----------------
-P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as git. Instead,
+P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
@@ -364,7 +381,7 @@ can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
-subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in git.
+subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
----
@@ -386,7 +403,7 @@ called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
-relationships automatically, a git configuration setting
+relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
@@ -394,15 +411,17 @@ the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
occur with:
----
+git init depot
+cd depot
git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
-git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
+git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
----
PERFORMANCE
-----------
The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
-each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, git garbage compression
+each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
(linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
@@ -440,9 +459,9 @@ git-p4.client::
Clone and sync variables
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
- Because importing commits from other git repositories is much faster
+ Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
- first in git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
+ first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
@@ -494,7 +513,7 @@ git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
git-p4.preserveUser::
- On submit, re-author changes to reflect the git author,
+ On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
@@ -531,7 +550,7 @@ git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
present.
git-p4.exportLabels::
- Export git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
+ Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
@@ -543,11 +562,11 @@ git-p4.conflict::
IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
----------------------
-* Changesets from p4 are imported using git fast-import.
+* Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
* Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
collected using 'p4 print'.
* Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
- as the git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
+ as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
this p4 client and submitted from there.
* Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 20c8551..cdab9ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the packed
archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES)
-enables git to read from the pack archive.
+enables Git to read from the pack archive.
The 'git unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
expand the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
@@ -50,9 +50,8 @@ base-name::
Write into a pair of files (.pack and .idx), using
<base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
When this option is used, the two files are written in
- <base-name>-<SHA1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA1> is a hash
- of the sorted object names to make the resulting filename
- based on the pack content, and written to the standard
+ <base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA-1> is a hash
+ based on the pack content and is written to the standard
output of the command.
--stdout::
@@ -80,7 +79,7 @@ base-name::
--include-tag::
Include unasked-for annotated tags if the object they
reference was included in the resulting packfile. This
- can be useful to send new tags to native git clients.
+ can be useful to send new tags to native Git clients.
--window=<n>::
--depth=<n>::
@@ -185,14 +184,14 @@ base-name::
option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.
+
Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
-required objects and is thus unusable by git without making it
+required objects and is thus unusable by Git without making it
self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
(see linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) to restore the self-contained property.
--delta-base-offset::
A packed archive can express the base object of a delta as
either a 20-byte object name or as an offset in the
- stream, but ancient versions of git don't understand the
+ stream, but ancient versions of Git don't understand the
latter. By default, 'git pack-objects' only uses the
former format for better compatibility. This option
allows the command to use the latter format for
@@ -202,7 +201,7 @@ self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
+
Note: Porcelain commands such as `git gc` (see linkgit:git-gc[1]),
`git repack` (see linkgit:git-repack[1]) pass this option by default
-in modern git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
+in modern Git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
--threads=<n>::
@@ -212,7 +211,7 @@ So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor machines.
The required amount of memory for the delta search window is
however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and set the number of threads accordingly.
--index-version=<version>[,<offset>]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
index f131677..154081f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
@@ -33,8 +33,8 @@ Subsequent updates to branches always create new files under
`$GIT_DIR/refs` directory hierarchy.
A recommended practice to deal with a repository with too many
-refs is to pack its refs with `--all --prune` once, and
-occasionally run `git pack-refs --prune`. Tags are by
+refs is to pack its refs with `--all` once, and
+occasionally run `git pack-refs`. Tags are by
definition stationary and are not expected to change. Branch
heads will be packed with the initial `pack-refs --all`, but
only the currently active branch heads will become unpacked,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 90268f0..312c3b1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A "patch ID" is nothing but a SHA1 of the diff associated with a patch, with
+A "patch ID" is nothing but a SHA-1 of the diff associated with a patch, with
whitespace and line numbers ignored. As such, it's "reasonably stable", but at
the same time also reasonably unique, i.e., two patches that have the same "patch
ID" are almost guaranteed to be the same thing.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 87ea3fb..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,43 +0,0 @@
-git-peek-remote(1)
-==================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-peek-remote - List the references in a remote repository
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git peek-remote' [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>] [<host>:]<directory>
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-This command is deprecated; use 'git ls-remote' instead.
-
-OPTIONS
--------
---upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>::
- Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
- remote side, if it is not found on your $PATH. Some
- installations of sshd ignores the user's environment
- setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
- your privately installed git may not be found on the system
- default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
- up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
- who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
- shells, but prefer having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
- the things up in .bash_profile).
-
-<host>::
- A remote host that houses the repository. When this
- part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
- ssh.
-
-<directory>::
- The repository to sync from.
-
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
index 80dc022..6738055 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This program searches the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIR` for all objects that currently
+This program searches the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY` for all objects that currently
exist in a pack file as well as the independent object directories.
All such extra objects are removed.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index 80d01b0..058ac0d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -24,6 +24,8 @@ objects unreachable from any of these head objects from the object database.
In addition, it
prunes the unpacked objects that are also found in packs by
running 'git prune-packed'.
+It also removes entries from .git/shallow that are not reachable by
+any ref.
Note that unreachable, packed objects will remain. If this is
not desired, see linkgit:git-repack[1].
@@ -59,7 +61,7 @@ borrows from your repository via its
`.git/objects/info/alternates`:
------------
-$ git prune $(cd ../another && $(git rev-parse --all))
+$ git prune $(cd ../another && git rev-parse --all)
------------
Notes
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index 67fa5ee..200eb22 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-pull(1)
NAME
----
-git-pull - Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch
+git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
SYNOPSIS
@@ -42,6 +42,8 @@ Assume the following history exists and the current branch is
A---B---C master on origin
/
D---E---F---G master
+ ^
+ origin/master in your repository
------------
Then "`git pull`" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
@@ -51,7 +53,7 @@ result in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits
and a log message from the user describing the changes.
------------
- A---B---C remotes/origin/master
+ A---B---C origin/master
/ \
D---E---F---G---H master
------------
@@ -59,8 +61,8 @@ and a log message from the user describing the changes.
See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts
are presented and handled.
-In git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
-`git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of git, running 'git pull'
+In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
+`git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of Git, running 'git pull'
with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
@@ -89,7 +91,7 @@ must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
be fetched too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
That might be necessary to get the data needed for merging submodule
- commits, a feature git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
+ commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
merge will not be checked out in the submodule, "git submodule update"
has to be called afterwards to bring the work tree up to date with the
merge result.
@@ -97,17 +99,23 @@ must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
Options related to merging
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-include::merge-options.txt[]
-
:git-pull: 1
+include::merge-options.txt[]
+
-r::
---rebase::
- Rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after
- fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to
- the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since last
- fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing
- non-local changes.
+--rebase[=false|true|preserve]::
+ When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
+ branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
+ corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
+ was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
+ to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
++
+When preserve, also rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
+branch, but pass `--preserve-merges` along to `git rebase` so that
+locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
++
+When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.
+
See `pull.rebase`, `branch.<name>.rebase` and `branch.autosetuprebase` in
linkgit:git-config[1] if you want to make `git pull` always use
@@ -218,7 +226,7 @@ $ git merge origin/next
------------------------------------------------
-If you tried a pull which resulted in a complex conflicts and
+If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and
would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
@@ -228,7 +236,7 @@ Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
-having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future git
+having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 2d8498a..14862fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,10 @@ git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
+'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
- [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
+ [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
+ [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -23,6 +24,17 @@ You can make interesting things happen to a repository
every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
+When the command line does not specify where to push with the
+`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
+current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
+configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
+
+When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
+arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
+the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
+and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
+what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
+
OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
------------------
@@ -33,17 +45,10 @@ OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
<refspec>...::
+ Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
- `+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+ `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
- It is used to specify what <src> object the <dst> ref
- in the remote repository is to be updated to. If no
- <refspec> is specified on the command line, and if no
- <refspec> is configured for the <repository>,
- the behavior of the command is controlled by the `push.default`
- configuration variable, and if it is unset, the `simple`
- behaviour is used (see lingit:git-config[1] and look
- for `push.default`).
+
The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
@@ -51,14 +56,20 @@ it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
+
The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
-be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
-updated.
+be named.
+If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
+update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
+`remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
+be omitted---such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
+without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
+`:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
-on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
-update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`,
-you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
-fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
+on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
+a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
+<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
+the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
+fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
EXAMPLES below for details.
+
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
@@ -67,7 +78,7 @@ Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
+
The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
-directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
+directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side.
@@ -112,6 +123,12 @@ already exists on the remote side.
addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
line.
+--follow-tags::
+ Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
+ and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
+ from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
+ reachable from the refs being pushed.
+
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
@@ -119,12 +136,75 @@ already exists on the remote side.
repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
a directory on the default $PATH.
+--[no-]force-with-lease::
+--force-with-lease=<refname>::
+--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>::
+ Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is
+ not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
++
+This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
+current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push"
+fails otherwise.
++
+Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
+You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
+replace the history you originally published with the rebased history.
+If somebody else built on top of your original history while you are
+rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may advance with her
+commit, and blindly pushing with `--force` will lose her work.
++
+This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
+updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
+still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
+other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease" on
+the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref while
+making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
++
+`--force-with-lease` alone, without specifying the details, will protect
+all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring their
+current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we have
+for them, unless specified with a `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
+option that explicitly states what the expected value is.
++
+`--force-with-lease=<refname>`, without specifying the expected value, will
+protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be updated, by
+requiring its current value to be the same as the remote-tracking
+branch we have for it.
++
+`--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>` will protect the named ref (alone),
+if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current value to be
+the same as the specified value <expect> (which is allowed to be
+different from the remote-tracking branch we have for the refname,
+or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking branch when
+this form is used).
++
+Note that all forms other than `--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect>`
+that specifies the expected current value of the ref explicitly are
+still experimental and their semantics may change as we gain experience
+with this feature.
++
+"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
+command line.
+
-f::
--force::
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
- This flag disables the check. This can cause the
- remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
+ Also, when `--force-with-lease` option is used, the command refuses
+ to update a remote ref whose current value does not match
+ what is expected.
++
+This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote repository
+to lose commits; use it with care.
++
+Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
+using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with multiple push
+destinations configured with `remote.*.push` may overwrite refs
+other than the current branch (including local refs that are
+strictly behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only
+one branch, use a `+` in front of the refspec to push (e.g `git push
+origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
+`<refspec>...` section above for details.
--repo=<repository>::
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
@@ -151,8 +231,7 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
---thin::
---no-thin::
+--[no-]thin::
These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
@@ -177,7 +256,7 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
- used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
+ used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
@@ -185,6 +264,11 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
+--[no-]verify::
+ Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
+ default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
+ push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
+
include::urls-remotes.txt[]
@@ -192,7 +276,7 @@ OUTPUT
------
The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
-section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
+section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
locally or via ssh).
The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
diff --git a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
index 7f112f3..a356196 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Applies a quilt patchset onto the current git branch, preserving
+Applies a quilt patchset onto the current Git branch, preserving
the patch boundaries, patch order, and patch descriptions present
in the quilt patchset.
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ the patch description is displayed and the user is asked to
interactively enter the author of the patch.
If a subject is not found in the patch description the patch name is
-preserved as the 1 line subject in the git description.
+preserved as the 1 line subject in the Git description.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index da067ec..2a93c64 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
In case of conflict, 'git rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git diff' to locate
the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
-file you edit, you need to tell git that the conflict has been resolved,
+file you edit, you need to tell Git that the conflict has been resolved,
typically this would be done with
@@ -208,6 +208,9 @@ rebase.stat::
rebase.autosquash::
If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+rebase.autostash::
+ If set to true enable '--autostash' option by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
--onto <newbase>::
@@ -278,6 +281,10 @@ which makes little sense.
specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
-q::
--quiet::
Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
@@ -319,7 +326,17 @@ You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+
+--fork-point::
+--no-fork-point::
+ Use 'git merge-base --fork-point' to find a better common ancestor
+ between `upstream` and `branch` when calculating which commits have
+ have been introduced by `branch` (see linkgit:git-merge-base[1]).
++
+If no non-option arguments are given on the command line, then the default is
+`--fork-point @{u}` otherwise the `upstream` argument is interpreted literally
+unless the `--fork-point` option is specified.
--ignore-whitespace::
--whitespace=<option>::
@@ -386,7 +403,9 @@ squash/fixup series.
the same ..., automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i
so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved
- commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`).
+ commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). Ignores subsequent
+ "fixup! " or "squash! " after the first, in case you referred to an
+ earlier fixup/squash with `git commit --fixup/--squash`.
+
This option is only valid when the '--interactive' option is used.
+
@@ -394,6 +413,13 @@ If the '--autosquash' option is enabled by default using the
configuration variable `rebase.autosquash`, this option can be
used to override and disable this setting.
+--[no-]autostash::
+ Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation
+ begins, and apply it after the operation ends. This means
+ that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use
+ with care: the final stash application after a successful
+ rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+
--no-ff::
With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
@@ -404,7 +430,7 @@ Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.
You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
include::merge-strategies.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 7fe2d22..70791b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ The reflog will cover all recent actions (HEAD reflog records branch switching
as well). It is an alias for `git log -g --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline`;
see linkgit:git-log[1].
-The reflog is useful in various git commands, to specify the old value
+The reflog is useful in various Git commands, to specify the old value
of a reference. For example, `HEAD@{2}` means "where HEAD used to be
two moves ago", `master@{one.week.ago}` means "where master used to
point to one week ago", and so on. See linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for
@@ -67,14 +67,19 @@ them.
--expire=<time>::
Entries older than this time are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration `gc.reflogExpire`,
- which in turn defaults to 90 days.
+ which in turn defaults to 90 days. --expire=all prunes
+ entries regardless of their age; --expire=never turns off
+ pruning of reachable entries (but see --expire-unreachable).
--expire-unreachable=<time>::
Entries older than this time and not reachable from
the current tip of the branch are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration
`gc.reflogExpireUnreachable`, which in turn defaults to
- 30 days.
+ 30 days. --expire-unreachable=all prunes unreachable
+ entries regardless of their age; --expire-unreachable=never
+ turns off early pruning of unreachable entries (but see
+ --expire).
--all::
Instead of listing <refs> explicitly, prune all refs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index 8a8e1d7..cd0bb77 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ git remote add <nick> "ext::<command>[ <arguments>...]"
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This remote helper uses the specified '<command>' to connect
-to a remote git server.
+to a remote Git server.
Data written to stdin of the specified '<command>' is assumed
to be sent to a git:// server, git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack
@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ The following sequences have a special meaning:
'%s'::
Replaced with name (receive-pack, upload-pack, or
- upload-archive) of the service git wants to invoke.
+ upload-archive) of the service Git wants to invoke.
'%S'::
Replaced with long name (git-receive-pack,
git-upload-pack, or git-upload-archive) of the service
- git wants to invoke.
+ Git wants to invoke.
'%G' (must be the first characters in an argument)::
This argument will not be passed to '<command>'. Instead, it
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ GIT_EXT_SERVICE_NOPREFIX::
EXAMPLES:
---------
-This remote helper is transparently used by git when
+This remote helper is transparently used by Git when
you use commands such as "git fetch <URL>", "git clone <URL>",
, "git push <URL>" or "git remote add <nick> <URL>", where <URL>
begins with `ext::`. Examples:
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
edit .ssh/config.
"ext::socat -t3600 - ABSTRACT-CONNECT:/git-server %G/somerepo"::
- Represents repository with path /somerepo accessable over
+ Represents repository with path /somerepo accessible over
git protocol at abstract namespace address /git-server.
"ext::git-server-alias foo %G/repo"::
@@ -100,14 +100,14 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
Represents a repository with path /repo accessed using the
helper program "git-server-alias foo". The hostname for the
remote server passed in the protocol stream will be "foo"
- (this allows multiple virtual git servers to share a
+ (this allows multiple virtual Git servers to share a
link-level address).
"ext::git-server-alias foo %G/repo% with% spaces %Vfoo"::
Represents a repository with path '/repo with spaces' accessed
using the helper program "git-server-alias foo". The hostname for
the remote server passed in the protocol stream will be "foo"
- (this allows multiple virtual git servers to share a
+ (this allows multiple virtual Git servers to share a
link-level address).
"ext::git-ssl foo.example /bar"::
@@ -116,11 +116,6 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
determined by the helper using environment variables (see
above).
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the git list
-<git@vger.kernel.org>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
index f095d57..bcd3766 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
@@ -11,14 +11,14 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This helper uses specified file descriptors to connect to a remote git server.
+This helper uses specified file descriptors to connect to a remote Git server.
This is not meant for end users but for programs and scripts calling git
fetch, push or archive.
If only <infd> is given, it is assumed to be a bidirectional socket connected
-to remote git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
+to remote Git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
git-upload-achive). If both <infd> and <outfd> are given, they are assumed
-to be pipes connected to a remote git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
+to be pipes connected to a remote Git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
and <outfd> being the outbound pipe.
It is assumed that any handshaking procedures have already been completed
@@ -50,10 +50,6 @@ EXAMPLES
`git push fd::7,8/bar master`::
Same as above.
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..49233f5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+git-remote-helpers
+==================
+
+This document has been moved to linkgit:gitremote-helpers[1].
+
+Please let the owners of the referring site know so that they can update the
+link you clicked to get here.
+
+Thanks.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
index 2a67d45..f791d73 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
@@ -19,11 +19,11 @@ testcase for the remote-helper functionality, and as an example to
show remote-helper authors one possible implementation.
The best way to learn more is to read the comments and source code in
-'git-remote-testgit.py'.
+'git-remote-testgit'.
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:git-remote-helpers[1]
+linkgit:gitremote-helpers[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index e8c396b..cb103c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -3,23 +3,23 @@ git-remote(1)
NAME
----
-git-remote - manage set of tracked repositories
+git-remote - Manage set of tracked repositories
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git remote' [-v | --verbose]
-'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--tags|--no-tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
+'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--[no-]tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
'git remote rename' <old> <new>
'git remote remove' <name>
-'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | -d | <branch>)
+'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | --auto | -d | --delete | <branch>)
'git remote set-branches' [--add] <name> <branch>...
'git remote set-url' [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]
'git remote set-url --add' [--push] <name> <newurl>
'git remote set-url --delete' [--push] <name> <url>
-'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'show' [-n] <name>
-'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>
+'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'show' [-n] <name>...
+'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>...
'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'update' [-p | --prune] [(<group> | <remote>)...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -101,9 +101,9 @@ branch. For example, if the default branch for `origin` is set to
`master`, then `origin` may be specified wherever you would normally
specify `origin/master`.
+
-With `-d`, the symbolic ref `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is deleted.
+With `-d` or `--delete`, the symbolic ref `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is deleted.
+
-With `-a`, the remote is queried to determine its `HEAD`, then the
+With `-a` or `--auto`, the remote is queried to determine its `HEAD`, then the
symbolic-ref `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is set to the same branch. e.g., if the remote
`HEAD` is pointed at `next`, "`git remote set-head origin -a`" will set
the symbolic-ref `refs/remotes/origin/HEAD` to `refs/remotes/origin/next`. This will
@@ -187,18 +187,25 @@ Examples
$ git remote
origin
$ git branch -r
-origin/master
-$ git remote add linux-nfs git://linux-nfs.org/pub/linux/nfs-2.6.git
+ origin/HEAD -> origin/master
+ origin/master
+$ git remote add staging git://git.kernel.org/.../gregkh/staging.git
$ git remote
-linux-nfs
origin
-$ git fetch
-* refs/remotes/linux-nfs/master: storing branch 'master' ...
- commit: bf81b46
+staging
+$ git fetch staging
+...
+From git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/gregkh/staging
+ * [new branch] master -> staging/master
+ * [new branch] staging-linus -> staging/staging-linus
+ * [new branch] staging-next -> staging/staging-next
$ git branch -r
-origin/master
-linux-nfs/master
-$ git checkout -b nfs linux-nfs/master
+ origin/HEAD -> origin/master
+ origin/master
+ staging/master
+ staging/staging-linus
+ staging/staging-next
+$ git checkout -b staging staging/master
...
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index 4c1aff6..002cfd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -9,12 +9,12 @@ git-repack - Pack unpacked objects in a repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
+'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This script is used to combine all objects that do not currently
+This command is used to combine all objects that do not currently
reside in a "pack", into a pack. It can also be used to re-organize
existing packs into a single, more efficient pack.
@@ -110,6 +110,13 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
+-b::
+--write-bitmap-index::
+ Write a reachability bitmap index as part of the repack. This
+ only makes sense when used with `-a` or `-A`, as the bitmaps
+ must be able to refer to all reachable objects. This option
+ overrides the setting of `pack.writebitmaps`.
+
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 51131d0..0a02f70 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -10,19 +10,25 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git replace' [-f] <object> <replacement>
'git replace' -d <object>...
-'git replace' -l [<pattern>]
+'git replace' [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Adds a 'replace' reference in `refs/replace/` namespace.
-The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the object that is
-replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the
+The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA-1 of the object that is
+replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA-1 of the
replacement object.
+The replaced object and the replacement object must be of the same type.
+This restriction can be bypassed using `-f`.
+
Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist.
-Replacement references will be used by default by all git commands
+There is no other restriction on the replaced and replacement objects.
+Merge commits can be replaced by non-merge commits and vice versa.
+
+Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands
except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
fsck).
@@ -49,18 +55,51 @@ achieve the same effect as the `--no-replace-objects` option.
OPTIONS
-------
-f::
+--force::
If an existing replace ref for the same object exists, it will
be overwritten (instead of failing).
-d::
+--delete::
Delete existing replace refs for the given objects.
-l <pattern>::
+--list <pattern>::
List replace refs for objects that match the given pattern (or
all if no pattern is given).
Typing "git replace" without arguments, also lists all replace
refs.
+--format=<format>::
+ When listing, use the specified <format>, which can be one of
+ 'short', 'medium' and 'long'. When omitted, the format
+ defaults to 'short'.
+
+FORMATS
+-------
+
+The following format are available:
+
+* 'short':
+ <replaced sha1>
+* 'medium':
+ <replaced sha1> -> <replacement sha1>
+* 'long':
+ <replaced sha1> (<replaced type>) -> <replacement sha1> (<replacement type>)
+
+CREATING REPLACEMENT OBJECTS
+----------------------------
+
+linkgit:git-filter-branch[1], linkgit:git-hash-object[1] and
+linkgit:git-rebase[1], among other git commands, can be used to create
+replacement objects from existing objects.
+
+If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part of a
+string of commits, you may just want to create a replacement string of
+commits and then only replace the commit at the tip of the target
+string of commits with the commit at the tip of the replacement string
+of commits.
+
BUGS
----
Comparing blobs or trees that have been replaced with those that
@@ -69,12 +108,13 @@ go back to a replaced commit will move the branch to the replacement
commit instead of the replaced commit.
There may be other problems when using 'git rev-list' related to
-pending objects. And of course things may break if an object of one
-type is replaced by an object of another type (for example a blob
-replaced by a commit).
+pending objects.
SEE ALSO
--------
+linkgit:git-hash-object[1]
+linkgit:git-filter-branch[1]
+linkgit:git-rebase[1]
linkgit:git-tag[1]
linkgit:git-branch[1]
linkgit:git[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt b/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 9ec115b..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,23 +0,0 @@
-git-repo-config(1)
-==================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-repo-config - Get and set repository or global options
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git repo-config' ...
-
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-This is a synonym for linkgit:git-config[1]. Please refer to the
-documentation of that command.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 978d8da..a077ba0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -8,20 +8,20 @@ git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]
-'git reset' [--soft | --mixed | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git reset' [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-In the first and second form, copy entries from <commit> to the index.
+In the first and second form, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index.
In the third form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>, optionally
-modifying index and working tree to match. The <commit> defaults to HEAD
-in all forms.
+modifying index and working tree to match. The <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults
+to HEAD in all forms.
-'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...::
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...::
This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their
- state at <commit>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
+ state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
the current branch.)
+
This means that `git reset <paths>` is the opposite of `git add
@@ -34,9 +34,9 @@ Alternatively, using linkgit:git-checkout[1] and specifying a commit, you
can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the index and to the
working tree in one go.
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]::
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]::
Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index
- and <commit> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
+ and <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
in reverse to the index.
+
This means that `git reset -p` is the opposite of `git add -p`, i.e.
@@ -60,6 +60,9 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files
are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not
been updated. This is the default action.
++
+If `-N` is specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add (see
+linkgit:git-add[1]).
--hard::
Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked files in the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 38fafca..7a1585d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--right-only ]
[ \--cherry-mark ]
[ \--cherry-pick ]
- [ \--encoding[=<encoding>] ]
+ [ \--encoding=<encoding> ]
[ \--(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
[ \--regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
[ \--extended-regexp | -E ]
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--reverse ]
[ \--walk-reflogs ]
[ \--no-walk ] [ \--do-walk ]
+ [ \--use-bitmap-index ]
<commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -99,7 +100,7 @@ between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
$ git rev-list A...B
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-'rev-list' is a very essential git command, since it
+'rev-list' is a very essential Git command, since it
provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
used by commands as different as 'git bisect' and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 3c63561..0d2cdcd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
+Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
meant for the underlying 'git rev-list' command they use internally
and flags and parameters for the other commands they use
@@ -24,9 +24,23 @@ distinguish between them.
OPTIONS
-------
+
+Operation Modes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Each of these options must appear first on the command line.
+
--parseopt::
Use 'git rev-parse' in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).
+--sq-quote::
+ Use 'git rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
+ section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
+ mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
+
+Options for --parseopt
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
--keep-dashdash::
Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Tells the option parser to echo
out the first `--` met instead of skipping it.
@@ -36,10 +50,12 @@ OPTIONS
the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands
that take options themselves.
---sq-quote::
- Use 'git rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
- section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
- mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
+--stuck-long::
+ Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Output the options in their
+ long form if available, and with their arguments stuck.
+
+Options for Filtering
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--revs-only::
Do not output flags and parameters not meant for
@@ -55,13 +71,43 @@ OPTIONS
--no-flags::
Do not output flag parameters.
+Options for Output
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
--default <arg>::
If there is no parameter given by the user, use `<arg>`
instead.
+--prefix <arg>::
+ Behave as if 'git rev-parse' was invoked from the `<arg>`
+ subdirectory of the working tree. Any relative filenames are
+ resolved as if they are prefixed by `<arg>` and will be printed
+ in that form.
++
+This can be used to convert arguments to a command run in a subdirectory
+so that they can still be used after moving to the top-level of the
+repository. For example:
++
+----
+prefix=$(git rev-parse --show-prefix)
+cd "$(git rev-parse --show-toplevel)"
+eval "set -- $(git rev-parse --sq --prefix "$prefix" "$@")"
+----
+
--verify::
- The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid
- object name. Otherwise barf and abort.
+ Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it
+ can be turned into a raw 20-byte SHA-1 that can be used to
+ access the object database. If so, emit it to the standard
+ output; otherwise, error out.
++
+If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object in
+your object database and/or can be used as a specific type of object
+you require, you can add "^{type}" peeling operator to the parameter.
+For example, `git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}"` will make sure `$VAR`
+names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a commit, or an
+annotated tag that points at a commit). To make sure that `$VAR`
+names an existing object of any type, `git rev-parse "$VAR^{object}"`
+can be used.
-q::
--quiet::
@@ -83,8 +129,19 @@ OPTIONS
strip '{caret}' prefix from the object names that already have
one.
+--abbrev-ref[=(strict|loose)]::
+ A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name.
+ The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
+ abbreviation mode.
+
+--short::
+--short=number::
+ Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to
+ abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
+ 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
+
--symbolic::
- Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with
+ Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with
possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
form as close to the original input as possible.
@@ -96,16 +153,8 @@ OPTIONS
unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as full
refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").
---abbrev-ref[=(strict|loose)]::
- A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name.
- The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
- abbreviation mode.
-
---disambiguate=<prefix>::
- Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix.
- The <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to
- avoid listing each and every object in the repository by
- mistake.
+Options for Objects
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--all::
Show all refs found in `refs/`.
@@ -128,18 +177,34 @@ shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
character (`?`, `*`, or `[`), it is turned into a prefix
match by appending `/*`.
---show-toplevel::
- Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
+ Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
+ `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
+ consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
+ up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
+ `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
+ accumlated patterns).
++
+The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
+`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
+respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
+or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
+explicitly.
---show-prefix::
- When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
- path of the current directory relative to the top-level
- directory.
+--disambiguate=<prefix>::
+ Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix.
+ The <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to
+ avoid listing each and every object in the repository by
+ mistake.
---show-cdup::
- When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
- path of the top-level directory relative to the current
- directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
+Options for Files
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+--local-env-vars::
+ List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
+ repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
+ Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value,
+ even if they are set.
--git-dir::
Show `$GIT_DIR` if defined. Otherwise show the path to
@@ -147,7 +212,7 @@ shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
relative to the current working directory.
+
If `$GIT_DIR` is not defined and the current directory
-is not detected to lie in a git repository or work tree
+is not detected to lie in a Git repository or work tree
print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-inside-git-dir::
@@ -161,17 +226,27 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-bare-repository::
When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
---local-env-vars::
- List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
- repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
- Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value,
- even if they are set.
+--resolve-git-dir <path>::
+ Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
+ points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
+ repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path
+ to the real repository is printed.
---short::
---short=number::
- Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to
- abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
- 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
+--show-cdup::
+ When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
+ path of the top-level directory relative to the current
+ directory (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).
+
+--show-prefix::
+ When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
+ path of the current directory relative to the top-level
+ directory.
+
+--show-toplevel::
+ Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+
+Other Options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--since=datestring::
--after=datestring::
@@ -186,10 +261,6 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
<args>...::
Flags and parameters to be parsed.
---resolve-git-dir <path>::
- Check if <path> is a valid git-dir or a git-file pointing to a valid
- git-dir. If <path> is a valid git-dir the resolved path to git-dir will
- be printed.
include::revisions.txt[]
@@ -232,7 +303,9 @@ Each line of options has this format:
`<flags>` are of `*`, `=`, `?` or `!`.
* Use `=` if the option takes an argument.
- * Use `?` to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).
+ * Use `?` to mean that the option takes an optional argument. You
+ probably want to use the `--stuck-long` mode to be able to
+ unambiguously parse the optional argument.
* Use `*` to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage
generated for the `-h` argument. It's shown for `--help-all` as
@@ -306,12 +379,12 @@ $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD
* Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:
+
------------
-$ git rev-parse --verify $REV
+$ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}
------------
+
This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.
-* Same as above:
+* Similar to above:
+
------------
$ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 70152e8..9eb83f0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-revert - Revert some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git revert' [--edit | --no-edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] <commit>...
+'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
'git revert' --continue
'git revert' --quit
'git revert' --abort
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ brought in by the merge. As a result, later merges will only bring in tree
changes introduced by commits that are not ancestors of the previously
reverted merge. This may or may not be what you want.
+
-See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
more details.
--no-edit::
@@ -80,6 +80,10 @@ more details.
This is useful when reverting more than one commits'
effect to your index in a row.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
-s::
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 262436b..f1efc11 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
<file>...::
Files to remove. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can be given to
- remove all matching files. If you want git to expand
+ remove all matching files. If you want Git to expand
file glob characters, you may need to shell-escape them.
A leading directory name
(e.g. `dir` to remove `dir/file1` and `dir/file2`) can be
@@ -74,8 +74,8 @@ DISCUSSION
The <file> list given to the command can be exact pathnames,
file glob patterns, or leading directory names. The command
-removes only the paths that are known to git. Giving the name of
-a file that you have not told git about does not remove that file.
+removes only the paths that are known to Git. Giving the name of
+a file that you have not told Git about does not remove that file.
File globbing matches across directory boundaries. Thus, given
two directories `d` and `d2`, there is a difference between
@@ -134,14 +134,16 @@ use the following command:
git diff --name-only --diff-filter=D -z | xargs -0 git rm --cached
----------------
-Submodules
-~~~~~~~~~~
+SUBMODULES
+----------
Only submodules using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
-with a git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
+with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
tree, as their repository lives inside the .git directory of the
superproject. If a submodule (or one of those nested inside it)
still uses a .git directory, `git rm` will fail - no matter if forced
-or not - to protect the submodule's history.
+or not - to protect the submodule's history. If it exists the
+submodule.<name> section in the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file will also
+be removed and that file will be staged (unless --cached or -n are used).
A submodule is considered up-to-date when the HEAD is the same as
recorded in the index, no tracked files are modified and no untracked
@@ -149,6 +151,10 @@ files that aren't ignored are present in the submodules work tree.
Ignored files are deemed expendable and won't stop a submodule's work
tree from being removed.
+If you only want to remove the local checkout of a submodule from your
+work tree without committing the removal,
+use linkgit:git-submodule[1] `deinit` instead.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
`git rm Documentation/\*.txt`::
@@ -156,7 +162,7 @@ EXAMPLES
`Documentation` directory and any of its subdirectories.
+
Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
-example; this lets git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames
+example; this lets Git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames
of files and subdirectories under the `Documentation/` directory.
`git rm -f git-*.sh`::
@@ -164,6 +170,15 @@ of files and subdirectories under the `Documentation/` directory.
(i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it
does not remove `subdir/git-foo.sh`.
+BUGS
+----
+Each time a superproject update removes a populated submodule
+(e.g. when switching between commits before and after the removal) a
+stale submodule checkout will remain in the old location. Removing the
+old directory is only safe when it uses a gitfile, as otherwise the
+history of the submodule will be deleted too. This step will be
+obsolete when recursive submodule update has been implemented.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-add[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index eeb561c..f0e57a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -45,8 +45,9 @@ Composing
~~~~~~~~~
--annotate::
- Review and edit each patch you're about to send. See the
- CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiedit'.
+ Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
+ of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
+ 'sendemail.multiedit'.
--bcc=<address>::
Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
@@ -67,7 +68,7 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
(what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
-(or GIT: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
+(or Git: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
+
Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
@@ -164,8 +165,8 @@ Sending
Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
'--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpuser'), but no password has been
-specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then the
-user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
+specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then
+a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
--smtp-server=<host>::
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
@@ -197,6 +198,12 @@ must be used for each option.
--smtp-ssl::
Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
+--smtp-ssl-cert-path::
+ Path to ca-certificates (either a directory or a single file).
+ Set it to an empty string to disable certificate verification.
+ Defaults to the value set to the 'sendemail.smtpsslcertpath'
+ configuration variable, if set, or `/etc/ssl/certs` otherwise.
+
--smtp-user=<user>::
Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpuser';
if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpuser'),
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index bd3eaa6..dc3a568 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-send-pack(1)
NAME
----
-git-send-pack - Push objects over git protocol to another repository
+git-send-pack - Push objects over Git protocol to another repository
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
index 5e5f1c8..4f67c4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-sh-setup(1)
NAME
----
-git-sh-setup - Common git shell script setup code
+git-sh-setup - Common Git shell script setup code
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
The 'git sh-setup' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up some variables pointing at
-the normal git directories and a few helper shell functions.
+the normal Git directories and a few helper shell functions.
Before sourcing it, your script should set up a few variables;
`USAGE` (and `LONG_USAGE`, if any) is used to define message
@@ -41,9 +41,11 @@ usage::
die with the usage message.
set_reflog_action::
- set the message that will be recorded to describe the
- end-user action in the reflog, when the script updates a
- ref.
+ Set GIT_REFLOG_ACTION environment to a given string (typically
+ the name of the program) unless it is already set. Whenever
+ the script runs a `git` command that updates refs, a reflog
+ entry is created using the value of this string to leave the
+ record of what command updated the ref.
git_editor::
runs an editor of user's choice (GIT_EDITOR, core.editor, VISUAL or
@@ -82,6 +84,12 @@ get_author_ident_from_commit::
outputs code for use with eval to set the GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL and GIT_AUTHOR_DATE variables for a given commit.
+create_virtual_base::
+ modifies the first file so only lines in common with the
+ second file remain. If there is insufficient common material,
+ then the first file is left empty. The result is suitable
+ as a virtual base input for a 3-way merge.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index 9b92506..c35051b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -9,25 +9,81 @@ git-shell - Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git shell' [-c <command> <argument>]
+'chsh' -s $(command -v git-shell) <user>
+'git clone' <user>`@localhost:/path/to/repo.git`
+'ssh' <user>`@localhost`
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A login shell for SSH accounts to provide restricted Git access. When
-'-c' is given, the program executes <command> non-interactively;
-<command> can be one of 'git receive-pack', 'git upload-pack', 'git
-upload-archive', 'cvs server', or a command in COMMAND_DIR. The shell
-is started in interactive mode when no arguments are given; in this
-case, COMMAND_DIR must exist, and any of the executables in it can be
-invoked.
+This is a login shell for SSH accounts to provide restricted Git access.
+It permits execution only of server-side Git commands implementing the
+pull/push functionality, plus custom commands present in a subdirectory
+named `git-shell-commands` in the user's home directory.
-'cvs server' is a special command which executes git-cvsserver.
+COMMANDS
+--------
+
+'git shell' accepts the following commands after the '-c' option:
+
+'git receive-pack <argument>'::
+'git upload-pack <argument>'::
+'git upload-archive <argument>'::
+ Call the corresponding server-side command to support
+ the client's 'git push', 'git fetch', or 'git archive --remote'
+ request.
+'cvs server'::
+ Imitate a CVS server. See linkgit:git-cvsserver[1].
+
+If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell' will
+also handle other, custom commands by running
+"`git-shell-commands/<command> <arguments>`" from the user's home
+directory.
+
+INTERACTIVE USE
+---------------
+
+By default, the commands above can be executed only with the '-c'
+option; the shell is not interactive.
-COMMAND_DIR is the path "$HOME/git-shell-commands". The user must have
-read and execute permissions to the directory in order to execute the
-programs in it. The programs are executed with a cwd of $HOME, and
-<argument> is parsed as a command-line string.
+If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell'
+can also be run interactively (with no arguments). If a `help`
+command is present in the `git-shell-commands` directory, it is
+run to provide the user with an overview of allowed actions. Then a
+"git> " prompt is presented at which one can enter any of the
+commands from the `git-shell-commands` directory, or `exit` to close
+the connection.
+
+Generally this mode is used as an administrative interface to allow
+users to list repositories they have access to, create, delete, or
+rename repositories, or change repository descriptions and
+permissions.
+
+If a `no-interactive-login` command exists, then it is run and the
+interactive shell is aborted.
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+To disable interactive logins, displaying a greeting instead:
++
+----------------
+$ chsh -s /usr/bin/git-shell
+$ mkdir $HOME/git-shell-commands
+$ cat >$HOME/git-shell-commands/no-interactive-login <<\EOF
+#!/bin/sh
+printf '%s\n' "Hi $USER! You've successfully authenticated, but I do not"
+printf '%s\n' "provide interactive shell access."
+exit 128
+EOF
+$ chmod +x $HOME/git-shell-commands/no-interactive-login
+----------------
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+ssh(1),
+linkgit:git-daemon[1],
+contrib/git-shell-commands/README
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index afeb4cd..31af7f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [-h] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-w]
-'git shortlog' [-n|--numbered] [-s|--summary] [-e|--email] [-w[<width>[,<indent1>[,<indent2>]]]] <commit>...
+git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [<options>]
+'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -26,10 +26,6 @@ reference to the current repository.
OPTIONS
-------
--h::
---help::
- Print a short usage message and exit.
-
-n::
--numbered::
Sort output according to the number of commits per author instead
@@ -56,7 +52,25 @@ OPTIONS
line of each entry is indented by `indent1` spaces, and the second
and subsequent lines are indented by `indent2` spaces. `width`,
`indent1`, and `indent2` default to 76, 6 and 9 respectively.
-
++
+If width is `0` (zero) then indent the lines of the output without wrapping
+them.
+
+<revision range>::
+ Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
+ <revision range> is specified, it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the
+ whole history leading to the current commit). `origin..HEAD`
+ specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
+ (i.e. `HEAD`), but not from `origin`. For a complete list of
+ ways to spell <revision range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
+ section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+
+[\--] <path>...::
+ Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files
+ that match the specified paths came to be.
++
+Paths may need to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from
+options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index a8e77b5..a515648 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ no <rev> nor <glob> is given on the command line.
OPTIONS
-------
<rev>::
- Arbitrary extended SHA1 expression (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7])
+ Arbitrary extended SHA-1 expression (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7])
that typically names a branch head or a tag.
<glob>::
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ displayed, indented N places. If a commit is on the I-th
branch, the I-th indentation character shows a `+` sign;
otherwise it shows a space. Merge commits are denoted by
a `-` sign. Each commit shows a short name that
-can be used as an extended SHA1 to name that commit.
+can be used as an extended SHA-1 to name that commit.
The following example shows three branches, "master", "fixes"
and "mhf":
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index 2dcbbb2..fbdc8ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -14,12 +14,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with
+Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with
'git pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
-offset and SHA1 of each object.
+offset and SHA-1 of each object.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index 5dbcd47..ffd1b03 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -21,6 +21,8 @@ commit IDs. Results can be filtered using a pattern and tags can be
dereferenced into object IDs. Additionally, it can be used to test whether a
particular ref exists.
+By default, shows the tags, heads, and remote refs.
+
The --exclude-existing form is a filter that does the inverse, it shows the
refs from stdin that don't exist in the local repository.
@@ -32,14 +34,14 @@ OPTIONS
--head::
- Show the HEAD reference.
+ Show the HEAD reference, even if it would normally be filtered out.
--tags::
--heads::
- Limit to only "refs/heads" and "refs/tags", respectively. These
- options are not mutually exclusive; when given both, references stored
- in "refs/heads" and "refs/tags" are displayed.
+ Limit to "refs/heads" and "refs/tags", respectively. These options
+ are not mutually exclusive; when given both, references stored in
+ "refs/heads" and "refs/tags" are displayed.
-d::
--dereference::
@@ -50,8 +52,8 @@ OPTIONS
-s::
--hash[=<n>]::
- Only show the SHA1 hash, not the reference name. When combined with
- --dereference the dereferenced tag will still be shown after the SHA1.
+ Only show the SHA-1 hash, not the reference name. When combined with
+ --dereference the dereferenced tag will still be shown after the SHA-1.
--verify::
@@ -173,6 +175,7 @@ FILES
SEE ALSO
--------
+linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1],
linkgit:git-ls-remote[1],
linkgit:git-update-ref[1],
linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show.txt b/Documentation/git-show.txt
index ae4edcc..4e617e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show.txt
@@ -45,6 +45,15 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
+COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
+-------------------
+
+:git-log: 1
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+include::diff-generate-patch.txt[]
+
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 711ffe1..db7e803 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -13,10 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
-'git stash' [save [--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
+'git stash' [save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
[-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]]
'git stash' clear
-'git stash' create
+'git stash' create [<message>]
+'git stash' store [-m|--message <message>] [-q|--quiet] <commit>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -151,7 +152,15 @@ create::
Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
+ This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is probably not
+ the command you want to use; see "save" above.
+store::
+
+ Store a given stash created via 'git stash create' (which is a
+ dangling merge commit) in the stash ref, updating the stash
+ reflog. This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is
+ probably not the command you want to use; see "save" above.
DISCUSSION
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 9f1ef9a..a4acaa0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Displays paths that have differences between the index file and the
current HEAD commit, paths that have differences between the working
tree and the index file, and paths in the working tree that are not
-tracked by git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
+tracked by Git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
are what you _would_ commit by running `git commit`; the second and
third are what you _could_ commit by running 'git add' before running
`git commit`.
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ OPTIONS
--porcelain::
Give the output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
This is similar to the short output, but will remain stable
- across git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
+ across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
below for details.
--long::
@@ -46,15 +46,21 @@ OPTIONS
Show untracked files.
+
The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
-specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
-default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
+specify the handling of untracked files.
+
The possible options are:
+
- - 'no' - Show no untracked files
- - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
+ - 'no' - Show no untracked files.
+ - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories.
- 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
+
+When `-u` option is not used, untracked files and directories are
+shown (i.e. the same as specifying `normal`), to help you avoid
+forgetting to add newly created files. Because it takes extra work
+to find untracked files in the filesystem, this mode may take some
+time in a large working tree. You can use `no` to have `git status`
+return more quickly without showing untracked files.
++
The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
@@ -96,7 +102,7 @@ The default, long format, is designed to be human readable,
verbose and descriptive. Its contents and format are subject to change
at any time.
-The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other git commands, are
+The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other Git commands, are
made relative to the current directory if you are working in a
subdirectory (this is on purpose, to help cutting and pasting). See
the status.relativePaths config option below.
@@ -168,7 +174,7 @@ Porcelain Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The porcelain format is similar to the short format, but is guaranteed
-not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between git versions or
+not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between Git versions or
based on user configuration. This makes it ideal for parsing by scripts.
The description of the short format above also describes the porcelain
format, with a few exceptions:
@@ -204,7 +210,13 @@ directory.
If `status.submodulesummary` is set to a non zero number or true (identical
to -1 or an unlimited number), the submodule summary will be enabled for
the long format and a summary of commits for modified submodules will be
-shown (see --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]).
+shown (see --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]). Please note
+that the summary output from the status command will be suppressed for all
+submodules when `diff.ignoreSubmodules` is set to 'all' or only for those
+submodules where `submodule.<name>.ignore=all`. To also view the summary for
+ignored submodules you can either use the --ignore-submodules=dirty command
+line option or the 'git submodule summary' command, which shows a similar
+output but does not honor these settings.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
index a80d946..c87bfcb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Clean the input in the manner used by 'git' for text such as commit
+Clean the input in the manner used by Git for text such as commit
messages, notes, tags and branch descriptions.
With no arguments, this will:
@@ -35,7 +35,13 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-s::
--strip-comments::
- Skip and remove all lines starting with '#'.
+ Skip and remove all lines starting with comment character (default '#').
+
+-c::
+--comment-lines::
+ Prepend comment character and blank to each line. Lines will automatically
+ be terminated with a newline. On empty lines, only the comment character
+ will be prepended.
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index b1de3ba..21cb59a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -10,11 +10,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force] [--name <name>]
- [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
+ [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
-'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [-N|--no-fetch] [--rebase]
- [--reference <repository>] [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] [--] <path>...
+'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
+ [-f|--force] [--rebase|--merge|--checkout] [--reference <repository>]
+ [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
[commit] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
@@ -75,6 +77,8 @@ argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
"humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
+The <path> is also used as the submodule's logical name in its
+configuration entries unless `--name` is used to specify a logical name.
+
<repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
@@ -91,7 +95,7 @@ working directory is used instead.
<path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule to
exist in the superproject. If <path> does not exist, then the
submodule is created by cloning from the named URL. If <path> does
-exist and is already a valid git repository, then this is added
+exist and is already a valid Git repository, then this is added
to the changeset without cloning. This second form is provided
to ease creating a new submodule from scratch, and presumes
the user will later push the submodule to the given URL.
@@ -122,8 +126,10 @@ linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-diff[1] will provide that information
too (and can also report changes to a submodule's work tree).
init::
- Initialize the submodules, i.e. register each submodule name
- and url found in .gitmodules into .git/config.
+ Initialize the submodules recorded in the index (which were
+ added and committed elsewhere) by copying submodule
+ names and urls from .gitmodules to .git/config.
+ Optional <path> arguments limit which submodules will be initialized.
It will also copy the value of `submodule.$name.update` into
.git/config.
The key used in .git/config is `submodule.$name.url`.
@@ -134,13 +140,46 @@ init::
the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
any submodule locations.
+deinit::
+ Unregister the given submodules, i.e. remove the whole
+ `submodule.$name` section from .git/config together with their work
+ tree. Further calls to `git submodule update`, `git submodule foreach`
+ and `git submodule sync` will skip any unregistered submodules until
+ they are initialized again, so use this command if you don't want to
+ have a local checkout of the submodule in your work tree anymore. If
+ you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit
+ that use linkgit:git-rm[1] instead.
++
+If `--force` is specified, the submodule's work tree will be removed even if
+it contains local modifications.
+
update::
Update the registered submodules, i.e. clone missing submodules and
- checkout the commit specified in the index of the containing repository.
- This will make the submodules HEAD be detached unless `--rebase` or
- `--merge` is specified or the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to
- `rebase`, `merge` or `none`. `none` can be overridden by specifying
- `--checkout`.
+ checkout the commit specified in the index of the containing
+ repository. The update mode defaults to `checkout`, but can be
+ configured with the `submodule.<name>.update` setting or the
+ `--rebase`, `--merge`, or `--checkout` options.
++
+For updates that clone missing submodules, checkout-mode updates will
+create submodules with detached HEADs; all other modes will create
+submodules with a local branch named after `submodule.<path>.branch`.
++
+For updates that do not clone missing submodules, the submodule's HEAD
+is only touched when the remote reference does not match the
+submodule's HEAD (for none-mode updates, the submodule is never
+touched). The remote reference is usually the gitlinked commit from
+the superproject's tree, but with `--remote` it is the upstream
+subproject's `submodule.<name>.branch`. This remote reference is
+integrated with the submodule's HEAD using the specified update mode.
+For checkout-mode updates, that will result in a detached HEAD. For
+rebase- and merge-mode updates, the commit referenced by the
+submodule's HEAD may change, but the symbolic reference will remain
+unchanged (i.e. checked-out branches will still be checked-out
+branches, and detached HEADs will still be detached HEADs). If none
+of the builtin modes fit your needs, set `submodule.<name>.update` to
+`!command` to configure a custom integration command. `command` can
+be any arbitrary shell command that takes a single argument, namely
+the sha1 to update to.
+
If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the
setting as stored in .gitmodules, you can automatically initialize the
@@ -208,11 +247,15 @@ OPTIONS
-b::
--branch::
Branch of repository to add as submodule.
+ The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<path>.branch` in
+ `.gitmodules` for `update --remote`.
-f::
--force::
- This option is only valid for add and update commands.
+ This option is only valid for add, deinit and update commands.
When running add, allow adding an otherwise ignored submodule path.
+ When running deinit the submodule work trees will be removed even if
+ they contain local changes.
When running update, throw away local changes in submodules when
switching to a different commit; and always run a checkout operation
in the submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
@@ -236,6 +279,37 @@ OPTIONS
(the default). This limit only applies to modified submodules. The
size is always limited to 1 for added/deleted/typechanged submodules.
+--remote::
+ This option is only valid for the update command. Instead of using
+ the superproject's recorded SHA-1 to update the submodule, use the
+ status of the submodule's remote-tracking branch. The remote used
+ is branch's remote (`branch.<name>.remote`), defaulting to `origin`.
+ The remote branch used defaults to `master`, but the branch name may
+ be overridden by setting the `submodule.<name>.branch` option in
+ either `.gitmodules` or `.git/config` (with `.git/config` taking
+ precedence).
++
+This works for any of the supported update procedures (`--checkout`,
+`--rebase`, etc.). The only change is the source of the target SHA-1.
+For example, `submodule update --remote --merge` will merge upstream
+submodule changes into the submodules, while `submodule update
+--merge` will merge superproject gitlink changes into the submodules.
++
+In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, `update --remote`
+fetches the submodule's remote repository before calculating the
+SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use `submodule update
+--remote --no-fetch`.
++
+Use this option to integrate changes from the upstream subproject with
+your submodule's current HEAD. Alternatively, you can run `git pull`
+from the submodule, which is equivalent except for the remote branch
+name: `update --remote` uses the default upstream repository and
+`submodule.<name>.branch`, while `git pull` uses the submodule's
+`branch.<name>.merge`. Prefer `submodule.<name>.branch` if you want
+to distribute the default upstream branch with the superproject and
+`branch.<name>.merge` if you want a more native feel while working in
+the submodule itself.
+
-N::
--no-fetch::
This option is only valid for the update command.
@@ -284,6 +358,12 @@ for linkgit:git-clone[1]'s `--reference` and `--shared` options carefully.
only in the submodules of the current repo, but also
in any nested submodules inside those submodules (and so on).
+--depth::
+ This option is valid for add and update commands. Create a 'shallow'
+ clone with a history truncated to the specified number of revisions.
+ See linkgit:git-clone[1]
+
+
<path>...::
Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command
to only operate on the submodules found at the specified paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 69decb1..30c5ee2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-svn(1)
NAME
----
-git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and git
+git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,8 +12,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and git.
-It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a git
+'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git.
+It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git
repository.
'git svn' can track a standard Subversion repository,
@@ -21,15 +21,15 @@ following the common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option.
It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options
(see options to 'init' below, and also the 'clone' command).
-Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the git
+Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git
repository can be updated from Subversion by the 'fetch' command and
-Subversion updated from git by the 'dcommit' command.
+Subversion updated from Git by the 'dcommit' command.
COMMANDS
--------
'init'::
- Initializes an empty git repository with additional
+ Initializes an empty Git repository with additional
metadata directories for 'git svn'. The Subversion URL
may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full
URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target
@@ -79,12 +79,29 @@ COMMANDS
trailing slash, so be sure you include one in the
argument if that is what you want. If --branches/-b is
specified, the prefix must include a trailing slash.
- Setting a prefix is useful if you wish to track multiple
- projects that share a common repository.
+ Setting a prefix (with a trailing slash) is strongly
+ encouraged in any case, as your SVN-tracking refs will
+ then be located at "refs/remotes/$prefix/*", which is
+ compatible with Git's own remote-tracking ref layout
+ (refs/remotes/$remote/*). Setting a prefix is also useful
+ if you wish to track multiple projects that share a common
+ repository.
++
+NOTE: In Git v2.0, the default prefix will CHANGE from "" (no prefix)
+to "origin/". This is done to put SVN-tracking refs at
+"refs/remotes/origin/*" instead of "refs/remotes/*", and make them
+more compatible with how Git's own remote-tracking refs are organized
+(i.e. refs/remotes/$remote/*). You can enjoy the same benefits today,
+by using the --prefix option.
+
--ignore-paths=<regex>;;
When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
of '--ignore-paths'.
+--include-paths=<regex>;;
+ When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
+ be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
+ of '--include-paths'.
--no-minimize-url;;
When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
--branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
@@ -100,19 +117,22 @@ COMMANDS
'fetch'::
Fetch unfetched revisions from the Subversion remote we are
tracking. The name of the [svn-remote "..."] section in the
- .git/config file may be specified as an optional command-line
- argument.
+ $GIT_DIR/config file may be specified as an optional
+ command-line argument.
++
+This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
+'$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
--localtime;;
- Store Git commit times in the local timezone instead of UTC. This
+ Store Git commit times in the local time zone instead of UTC. This
makes 'git log' (even without --date=local) show the same times
- that `svn log` would in the local timezone.
+ that `svn log` would in the local time zone.
+
This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion
repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git
repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's local Git
repository, either don't use this option or you should both use it in
-the same local timezone.
+the same local time zone.
--parent;;
Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.
@@ -146,12 +166,20 @@ Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories;;
------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
+--include-paths=<regex>;;
+ This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
+ cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN.
+ The '--include-paths' option should match for every 'fetch'
+ (including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
+ 'rebase', etc) on a given repository. '--ignore-paths' takes
+ precedence over '--include-paths'.
+
--log-window-size=<n>;;
- Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history.
- The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger
- values may be needed for 'clone'/'fetch' to complete in reasonable
- time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and
- request timeouts.
+ Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history.
+ The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger
+ values may be needed for 'clone'/'fetch' to complete in reasonable
+ time. But overly large values may lead to higher memory usage and
+ request timeouts.
'clone'::
Runs 'init' and 'fetch'. It will automatically create a
@@ -189,6 +217,9 @@ accept. However, '--fetch-all' only fetches from the current
+
Like 'git rebase'; this requires that the working tree be clean
and have no uncommitted changes.
++
+This automatically updates the rev_map if needed (see
+'$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
-l;;
--local;;
@@ -199,9 +230,9 @@ and have no uncommitted changes.
Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create
- a revision in SVN for each commit in git.
+ a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.
+
-When an optional git branch name (or a git commit object name)
+When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name)
is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified
branch, not on the current branch.
+
@@ -244,8 +275,8 @@ first have already been pushed into SVN.
For each patch, one may answer "yes" (accept this patch), "no" (discard this
patch), "all" (accept all patches), or "quit".
+
- 'git svn dcommit' returns immediately if answer if "no" or "quit", without
- commiting anything to SVN.
+ 'git svn dcommit' returns immediately if answer is "no" or "quit", without
+ committing anything to SVN.
'branch'::
Create a branch in the SVN repository.
@@ -259,13 +290,15 @@ first have already been pushed into SVN.
Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
specified during git svn init.
--d;;
---destination;;
+-d<path>;;
+--destination=<path>;;
+
If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the 'init'
or 'clone' command, you must provide the location of the branch (or
- tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. The value of this
- option must match one of the paths specified by a --branches (or
- --tags) option. You can see these paths with the commands
+ tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. <path> specifies which
+ path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern
+ on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags
+ refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands
+
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags
@@ -286,6 +319,11 @@ where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
+
+--parents;;
+ Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter
+ --parents on svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository
+ layouts.
+
'tag'::
Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
'branch -t'.
@@ -316,7 +354,7 @@ New features:
+
--
--show-commit;;
- shows the git commit sha1, as well
+ shows the Git commit sha1, as well
--oneline;;
our version of --pretty=oneline
--
@@ -328,24 +366,34 @@ environment). This command has the same behaviour.
Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
'blame'::
- Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The
- output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
- `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command,
- local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored;
- the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown
- arguments are passed directly to 'git blame'.
+ Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file. The
+ output of this mode is format-compatible with the output of
+ `svn blame' by default. Like the SVN blame command,
+ local uncommitted changes in the working tree are ignored;
+ the version of the file in the HEAD revision is annotated. Unknown
+ arguments are passed directly to 'git blame'.
+
--git-format;;
Produce output in the same format as 'git blame', but with
- SVN revision numbers instead of git commit hashes. In this mode,
+ SVN revision numbers instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode,
changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.
'find-rev'::
When given an SVN revision number of the form 'rN', returns the
- corresponding git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
+ corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.
++
+--before;;
+ Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find
+ the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the
+ current branch) at the specified revision.
++
+--after;;
+ Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is
+ not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the
+ history.
'set-tree'::
You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
@@ -368,7 +416,7 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
'mkdirs'::
- Attempts to recreate empty directories that core git cannot track
+ Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track
based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
"git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
@@ -406,8 +454,8 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
specific revision.
'gc'::
- Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files in .git/svn
- and remove $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>index files in .git/svn.
+ Compress $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files and remove
+ $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/index files.
'reset'::
Undoes the effects of 'fetch' back to the specified revision.
@@ -420,9 +468,10 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
file cannot be ignored forever (with --ignore-paths) the only
way to repair the repo is to use 'reset'.
+
-Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed. Follow 'reset'
-with a 'fetch' and then 'git reset' or 'git rebase' to move local
-branches onto the new tree.
+Only the rev_map and refs/remotes/git-svn are changed (see
+'$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' in the FILES section below for details).
+Follow 'reset' with a 'fetch' and then 'git reset' or 'git rebase' to
+move local branches onto the new tree.
-r <n>;;
--revision=<n>;;
@@ -500,9 +549,9 @@ order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
+
Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
-removed by default if there are no files left in them. git
+removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git
cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
-the commit to SVN act like git.
+the commit to SVN act like Git.
+
[verse]
config key: svn.rmdir
@@ -589,7 +638,7 @@ Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and
'tag' commands.
+
-For 'dcommit', print out the series of git arguments that would show
+For 'dcommit', print out the series of Git arguments that would show
which diffs would be committed to SVN.
+
For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
@@ -600,14 +649,14 @@ For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
creating the branch or tag.
--use-log-author::
- When retrieving svn commits into git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
+ When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
'dcommit' operations), look for the first `From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line
in the log message and use that as the author string.
--add-author-from::
- When committing to svn from git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
+ When committing to svn from Git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
`From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line, append a `From:` line based on the
- git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
+ Git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.
@@ -632,7 +681,7 @@ ADVANCED OPTIONS
one of the repository layout options --trunk, --tags,
--branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find
out where its revision was copied from, and set
- a suitable parent in the first git commit for the branch.
+ a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch.
This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
that has been moved around within the repository. If this
feature is disabled, the branches created by 'git svn' will all
@@ -655,7 +704,7 @@ svn-remote.<name>.noMetadata::
+
This option can only be used for one-shot imports as 'git svn'
will not be able to fetch again without metadata. Additionally,
-if you lose your .git/svn/**/.rev_map.* files, 'git svn' will not
+if you lose your '$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*' files, 'git svn' will not
be able to rebuild them.
+
The 'git svn log' command will not work on repositories using
@@ -664,7 +713,7 @@ option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.
+
This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down
old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug
-reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to git
+reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git
and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
linkgit:git-filter-branch[1] instead. filter-branch also allows
reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship
@@ -704,7 +753,7 @@ svn-remote.<name>.rewriteUUID::
svn-remote.<name>.pushurl::
- Similar to git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
+ Similar to Git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
to be used in cases where 'url' points to an SVN repository
via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write
transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same
@@ -758,15 +807,15 @@ Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project
cd trunk
# You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
git branch
-# Do some work and commit locally to git:
+# Do some work and commit locally to Git:
git commit ...
# Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
# latest changes in SVN:
git svn rebase
-# Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using git) to SVN,
+# Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
# as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
git svn dcommit
-# Append svn:ignore settings to the default git exclude file:
+# Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -775,16 +824,16 @@ Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Clone a repo with standard SVN directory layout (like git clone):
- git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout
+ git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project --stdlayout --prefix svn/
# Or, if the repo uses a non-standard directory layout:
- git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag
+ git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T tr -b branch -t tag --prefix svn/
# View all branches and tags you have cloned:
git branch -r
# Create a new branch in SVN
- git svn branch waldo
+ git svn branch waldo
# Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
# with the appropriate name):
- git reset --hard remotes/trunk
+ git reset --hard svn/trunk
# You may only dcommit to one branch/tag/trunk at a time. The usage
# of dcommit/rebase/show-ignore should be the same as above.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -798,7 +847,7 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Do the initial import on a server
- ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project
+ ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project [options...]"
# Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
mkdir project
cd project
@@ -806,13 +855,14 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
git remote add origin server:/pub/project
git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
git fetch
-# Prevent fetch/pull from remote git server in the future,
+# Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
# we only want to use git svn for future updates
git config --remove-section remote.origin
# Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
-# Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and -T/-b/-t options as were used on server)
- git svn init http://svn.example.com/project
+# Initialize 'git svn' locally (be sure to use the same URL and
+# --stdlayout/-T/-b/-t/--prefix options as were used on server)
+ git svn init http://svn.example.com/project [options...]
# Pull the latest changes from Subversion
git svn rebase
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -839,14 +889,14 @@ While 'git svn' can track
copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories adopting a
standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened
inside git back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that
-users keep history as linear as possible inside git to ease
+users keep history as linear as possible inside Git to ease
compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).
HANDLING OF SVN BRANCHES
------------------------
If 'git svn' is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches
-is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple git branches for one
-SVN branch, where the addtional branches have names of the form
+is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one
+SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form
'branchname@nnn' (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional
branches are created if 'git svn' cannot find a parent commit for the
first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the history of
@@ -855,17 +905,17 @@ the other branches.
Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists
of a copy operation. 'git svn' will read this commit to get the SVN
revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the
-git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
+Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable
-git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
+Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by 'git
svn' (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
'--revision'), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
by 'git svn' (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, 'git svn' will still
-create a git branch, but instead of using an existing git commit as the
+create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the
-branch was copied from and create appropriate git commits. This is
+branch was copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is
indicated by the message "Initializing parent: <branchname>".
Additionally, it will create a special branch named
@@ -875,15 +925,15 @@ created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple
such branches with an '@'.
-Note that this may mean that multiple git commits are created for a
+Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a
single SVN revision.
An example: in an SVN repository with a standard
trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100.
In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. 'git svn
-clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new git
+clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new Git
commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch
-'sub'. Thus there will be two git commits for each revision from r.100
+'sub'. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100
to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally,
it will create a branch 'sub@200' pointing to the new parent commit of
branch 'sub' (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).
@@ -894,13 +944,13 @@ CAVEATS
For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion,
it is recommended that all 'git svn' users clone, fetch and dcommit
directly from the SVN server, and avoid all 'git clone'/'pull'/'merge'/'push'
-operations between git repositories and branches. The recommended
-method of exchanging code between git branches and users is
+operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended
+method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is
'git format-patch' and 'git am', or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.
Running 'git merge' or 'git pull' is NOT recommended on a branch you
plan to 'dcommit' from because Subversion users cannot see any
-merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a git branch
+merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch
that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
branch.
@@ -919,7 +969,7 @@ any 'git svn' metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with
using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
at all.
-Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any git branches you 'git push' to
+Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any Git branches you 'git push' to
before 'dcommit' on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref
on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice,
see the linkgit:git-push[1] documentation for details.
@@ -931,7 +981,7 @@ dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.
When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
the repository layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches,
---stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a git repository with
+--stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a Git repository with
completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
@@ -944,12 +994,22 @@ without giving any repository layout options. If the full history with
branches and tags is required, the options '--trunk' / '--branches' /
'--tags' must be used.
+When using the options for describing the repository layout (--trunk,
+--tags, --branches, --stdlayout), please also specify the --prefix
+option (e.g. '--prefix=origin/') to cause your SVN-tracking refs to be
+placed at refs/remotes/origin/* rather than the default refs/remotes/*.
+The former is more compatible with the layout of Git's "regular"
+remote-tracking refs (refs/remotes/$remote/*), and may potentially
+prevent similarly named SVN branches and Git remotes from clobbering
+each other. In Git v2.0 the default prefix used (i.e. when no --prefix
+is given) will change from "" (no prefix) to "origin/".
+
When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
-use 'init' to set up your git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
-the .git/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with
-different name spaces. For example:
+use 'init' to set up your Git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
+the $GIT_DIR/config file so that the branches and tags are associated
+with different name spaces. For example:
branches = stable/*:refs/remotes/svn/stable/*
branches = debug/*:refs/remotes/svn/debug/*
@@ -960,12 +1020,12 @@ BUGS
We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log
-Renamed and copied directories are not detected by git and hence not
+Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not
tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
-the possible corner cases (git doesn't do it, either). Committing
+the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it, either). Committing
renamed and copied files is fully supported if they're similar enough
-for git to detect them.
+for Git to detect them.
In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag
(because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a
@@ -977,7 +1037,7 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
'git svn' stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
-repository .git/config file. It is similar the core git
+repository $GIT_DIR/config file. It is similar the core Git
[remote] sections except 'fetch' keys do not accept glob
arguments; but they are instead handled by the 'branches'
and 'tags' keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly
@@ -1006,14 +1066,46 @@ comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:
[svn-remote "huge-project"]
url = http://server.org/svn
fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
- branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/branches/*
- tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/tags/*
+ branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
+ tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[svn-remote "messy-repo"]
+ url = http://server.org/svn
+ fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
+ fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
+ branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
+ branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
+ tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which
+location to use using the -d or --destination flag:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
-fetching, then .git/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or
-reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
+fetching, then $GIT_DIR/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove
+(or reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
+
+FILES
+-----
+$GIT_DIR/svn/\*\*/.rev_map.*::
+ Mapping between Subversion revision numbers and Git commit
+ names. In a repository where the noMetadata option is not set,
+ this can be rebuilt from the git-svn-id: lines that are at the
+ end of every commit (see the 'svn.noMetadata' section above for
+ details).
++
+'git svn fetch' and 'git svn rebase' automatically update the rev_map
+if it is missing or not up to date. 'git svn reset' automatically
+rewinds it.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 6470cff..404257d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ in the tag message.
If `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given and `-a`, `-s`, and `-u <key-id>`
are absent, `-a` is implied.
-Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA1 object name of the commit object is
+Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA-1 object name of the commit object is
created (i.e. a lightweight tag).
A GnuPG signed tag object will be created when `-s` or `-u
@@ -42,6 +42,17 @@ committer identity for the current user is used to find the
GnuPG key for signing. The configuration variable `gpg.program`
is used to specify custom GnuPG binary.
+Tag objects (created with `-a`, `s`, or `-u`) are called "annotated"
+tags; they contain a creation date, the tagger name and e-mail, a
+tagging message, and an optional GnuPG signature. Whereas a
+"lightweight" tag is simply a name for an object (usually a commit
+object).
+
+Annotated tags are meant for release while lightweight tags are meant
+for private or temporary object labels. For this reason, some git
+commands for naming objects (like `git describe`) will ignore
+lightweight tags by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -92,8 +103,9 @@ OPTIONS
+
This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
---contains <commit>::
- Only list tags which contain the specified commit.
+--contains [<commit>]::
+ Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
+ specified).
--points-at <object>::
Only list tags of the given object.
@@ -126,6 +138,12 @@ This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
may restrict the characters allowed in a tag name.
+<commit>::
+<object>::
+ The object that the new tag will refer to, usually a commit.
+ Defaults to HEAD.
+
+
CONFIGURATION
-------------
By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
@@ -242,7 +260,7 @@ $ git pull git://git..../proj.git master
In such a case, you do not want to automatically follow the other
person's tags.
-One important aspect of git is its distributed nature, which
+One important aspect of Git is its distributed nature, which
largely means there is no inherent "upstream" or
"downstream" in the system. On the face of it, the above
example might seem to indicate that the tag namespace is owned
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index f7362dc..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,82 +0,0 @@
-git-tar-tree(1)
-===============
-
-NAME
-----
-git-tar-tree - Create a tar archive of the files in the named tree object
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git tar-tree' [--remote=<repo>] <tree-ish> [ <base> ]
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-THIS COMMAND IS DEPRECATED. Use 'git archive' with `--format=tar`
-option instead (and move the <base> argument to `--prefix=base/`).
-
-Creates a tar archive containing the tree structure for the named tree.
-When <base> is specified it is added as a leading path to the files in the
-generated tar archive.
-
-'git tar-tree' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when given
-a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is used as
-modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter case the
-commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is used instead.
-Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global extended pax header.
-It can be extracted using 'git get-tar-commit-id'.
-
-OPTIONS
--------
-
-<tree-ish>::
- The tree or commit to produce tar archive for. If it is
- the object name of a commit object.
-
-<base>::
- Leading path to the files in the resulting tar archive.
-
---remote=<repo>::
- Instead of making a tar archive from local repository,
- retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
-
-CONFIGURATION
--------------
-
-tar.umask::
- This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
- tar archive entries. The default is 0002, which turns off the
- world write bit. The special value "user" indicates that the
- archiving user's umask will be used instead. See umask(2) for
- details.
-
-EXAMPLES
---------
-`git tar-tree HEAD junk | (cd /var/tmp/ && tar xf -)`::
-
- Create a tar archive that contains the contents of the
- latest commit on the current branch, and extracts it in
- `/var/tmp/junk` directory.
-
-`git tar-tree v1.4.0 git-1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz`::
-
- Create a tarball for v1.4.0 release.
-
-`git tar-tree v1.4.0^{tree} git-1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz`::
-
- Create a tarball for v1.4.0 release, but without a
- global extended pax header.
-
-`git tar-tree --remote=example.com:git.git v1.4.0 >git-1.4.0.tar`::
-
- Get a tarball v1.4.0 from example.com.
-
-`git tar-tree HEAD:Documentation/ git-docs > git-1.4.0-docs.tar`::
-
- Put everything in the current head's Documentation/ directory
- into 'git-1.4.0-docs.tar', with the prefix 'git-docs/'.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tools.txt b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
index a96403c..78a0d95 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tools.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,11 @@
-A short git tools survey
+A short Git tools survey
========================
Introduction
------------
-Apart from git contrib/ area there are some others third-party tools
+Apart from Git contrib/ area there are some others third-party tools
you may want to look.
This document presents a brief summary of each tool and the corresponding
@@ -17,26 +17,26 @@ Alternative/Augmentative Porcelains
- *Cogito* (http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/cogito/)
- Cogito is a version control system layered on top of the git tree history
+ Cogito is a version control system layered on top of the Git tree history
storage system. It aims at seamless user interface and ease of use,
- providing generally smoother user experience than the "raw" Core GIT
+ providing generally smoother user experience than the "raw" Core Git
itself and indeed many other version control systems.
Cogito is no longer maintained as most of its functionality
- is now in core GIT.
+ is now in core Git.
- *pg* (http://www.spearce.org/category/projects/scm/pg/)
- pg is a shell script wrapper around GIT to help the user manage a set of
- patches to files. pg is somewhat like quilt or StGIT, but it does have a
+ pg is a shell script wrapper around Git to help the user manage a set of
+ patches to files. pg is somewhat like quilt or StGit, but it does have a
slightly different feature set.
- *StGit* (http://www.procode.org/stgit/)
- Stacked GIT provides a quilt-like patch management functionality in the
- GIT environment. You can easily manage your patches in the scope of GIT
+ Stacked Git provides a quilt-like patch management functionality in the
+ Git environment. You can easily manage your patches in the scope of Git
until they get merged upstream.
@@ -45,33 +45,33 @@ History Viewers
- *gitk* (shipped with git-core)
- gitk is a simple Tk GUI for browsing history of GIT repositories easily.
+ gitk is a simple Tk GUI for browsing history of Git repositories easily.
- *gitview* (contrib/)
- gitview is a GTK based repository browser for git
+ gitview is a GTK based repository browser for Git
- *gitweb* (shipped with git-core)
- GITweb provides full-fledged web interface for GIT repositories.
+ Gitweb provides full-fledged web interface for Git repositories.
- *qgit* (http://digilander.libero.it/mcostalba/)
- QGit is a git/StGIT GUI viewer built on Qt/C++. QGit could be used
+ QGit is a git/StGit GUI viewer built on Qt/C++. QGit could be used
to browse history and directory tree, view annotated files, commit
changes cherry picking single files or applying patches.
- Currently it is the fastest and most feature rich among the git
+ Currently it is the fastest and most feature rich among the Git
viewers and commit tools.
- *tig* (http://jonas.nitro.dk/tig/)
- tig by Jonas Fonseca is a simple git repository browser
+ tig by Jonas Fonseca is a simple Git repository browser
written using ncurses. Basically, it just acts as a front-end
for git-log and git-show/git-diff. Additionally, you can also
- use it as a pager for git commands.
+ use it as a pager for Git commands.
Foreign SCM interface
@@ -80,20 +80,20 @@ Foreign SCM interface
- *git-svn* (shipped with git-core)
git-svn is a simple conduit for changesets between a single Subversion
- branch and git.
+ branch and Git.
- *quilt2git / git2quilt* (http://home-tj.org/wiki/index.php/Misc)
These utilities convert patch series in a quilt repository and commit
- series in git back and forth.
+ series in Git back and forth.
- *hg-to-git* (contrib/)
- hg-to-git converts a Mercurial repository into a git one, and
+ hg-to-git converts a Mercurial repository into a Git one, and
preserves the full branch history in the process. hg-to-git can
- also be used in an incremental way to keep the git repository
+ also be used in an incremental way to keep the Git repository
in sync with the master Mercurial repository.
@@ -102,14 +102,14 @@ Others
- *(h)gct* (http://www.cyd.liu.se/users/~freku045/gct/)
- Commit Tool or (h)gct is a GUI enabled commit tool for git and
+ Commit Tool or (h)gct is a GUI enabled commit tool for Git and
Mercurial (hg). It allows the user to view diffs, select which files
to committed (or ignored / reverted) write commit messages and
perform the commit itself.
- *git.el* (contrib/)
- This is an Emacs interface for git. The user interface is modeled on
+ This is an Emacs interface for Git. The user interface is modelled on
pcl-cvs. It has been developed on Emacs 21 and will probably need some
tweaking to work on XEmacs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
index ff23494..12cb108 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-unpack-objects - Unpack objects from a packed archive
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict] <pack-file
+'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict] < <pack-file>
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 9d0b151..e0a8702 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
[(--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>)...]
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
- [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
- [--skip-worktree | --no-skip-worktree]
+ [--[no-]assume-unchanged]
+ [--[no-]skip-worktree]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
[--info-only] [--index-info]
@@ -77,15 +77,14 @@ OPTIONS
--chmod=(+|-)x::
Set the execute permissions on the updated files.
---assume-unchanged::
---no-assume-unchanged::
+--[no-]assume-unchanged::
When these flags are specified, the object names recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "assume unchanged" bit for the
- paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
+ paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, Git stops
checking the working tree files for possible
modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
- tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
+ tell Git when you change the working tree file. This is
sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
(e.g. cifs).
@@ -102,8 +101,7 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.
---skip-worktree::
---no-skip-worktree::
+--[no-]skip-worktree::
When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
@@ -145,7 +143,15 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
--index-version <n>::
Write the resulting index out in the named on-disk format version.
- The current default version is 2.
+ Supported versions are 2, 3 and 4. The current default version is 2
+ or 3, depending on whether extra features are used, such as
+ `git add -N`.
++
+Version 4 performs a simple pathname compression that reduces index
+size by 30%-50% on large repositories, which results in faster load
+time. Version 4 is relatively young (first released in in 1.8.0 in
+October 2012). Other Git implementations such as JGit and libgit2
+may not support it yet.
-z::
Only meaningful with `--stdin` or `--index-info`; paths are
@@ -239,7 +245,7 @@ $ git update-index --index-info
------------
The first line of the input feeds 0 as the mode to remove the
-path; the SHA1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
+path; the SHA-1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
Then the second and third line feeds stage 1 and stage 2 entries
for that path. After the above, we would end up with this:
@@ -253,18 +259,18 @@ $ git ls-files -s
Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
------------------------------
-Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
+Many operations in Git depend on your filesystem to have an
efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
the index file. Unfortunately, some filesystems have
inefficient `lstat(2)`. If your filesystem is one of them, you
can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
-cause git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
-path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
-see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
+cause Git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
+path does not mean Git will check the contents of the file to
+see if it has changed -- it makes Git to omit any checking and
assume it has *not* changed. When you make changes to working
-tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
+tree files, you have to explicitly tell Git about it by dropping
"assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.
In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
@@ -274,7 +280,7 @@ have the "assume unchanged" bit set, use `git ls-files -v`
The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. When
this is true, paths updated with `git update-index paths...` and
-paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
+paths updated with other Git commands that update both index and
working tree (e.g. 'git apply --index', 'git checkout-index -u',
and 'git read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
unchanged". Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index d377a35..0a0a551 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-update-ref - Update the object name stored in a ref safely
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>])
+'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>] | --stdin [-z])
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -58,6 +58,58 @@ archive by creating a symlink tree).
With `-d` flag, it deletes the named <ref> after verifying it
still contains <oldvalue>.
+With `--stdin`, update-ref reads instructions from standard input and
+performs all modifications together. Specify commands of the form:
+
+ update SP <ref> SP <newvalue> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
+ create SP <ref> SP <newvalue> LF
+ delete SP <ref> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
+ verify SP <ref> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
+ option SP <opt> LF
+
+Quote fields containing whitespace as if they were strings in C source
+code. Alternatively, use `-z` to specify commands without quoting:
+
+ update SP <ref> NUL <newvalue> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
+ create SP <ref> NUL <newvalue> NUL
+ delete SP <ref> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
+ verify SP <ref> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
+ option SP <opt> NUL
+
+Lines of any other format or a repeated <ref> produce an error.
+Command meanings are:
+
+update::
+ Set <ref> to <newvalue> after verifying <oldvalue>, if given.
+ Specify a zero <newvalue> to ensure the ref does not exist
+ after the update and/or a zero <oldvalue> to make sure the
+ ref does not exist before the update.
+
+create::
+ Create <ref> with <newvalue> after verifying it does not
+ exist. The given <newvalue> may not be zero.
+
+delete::
+ Delete <ref> after verifying it exists with <oldvalue>, if
+ given. If given, <oldvalue> may not be zero.
+
+verify::
+ Verify <ref> against <oldvalue> but do not change it. If
+ <oldvalue> zero or missing, the ref must not exist.
+
+option::
+ Modify behavior of the next command naming a <ref>.
+ The only valid option is `no-deref` to avoid dereferencing
+ a symbolic ref.
+
+Use 40 "0" or the empty string to specify a zero value, except that
+with `-z` an empty <oldvalue> is considered missing.
+
+If all <ref>s can be locked with matching <oldvalue>s
+simultaneously, all modifications are performed. Otherwise, no
+modifications are performed. Note that while each individual
+<ref> is updated or deleted atomically, a concurrent reader may
+still see a subset of the modifications.
Logging Updates
---------------
@@ -73,7 +125,7 @@ in ref value. Log lines are formatted as:
Where "oldsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value previously
stored in <ref>, "newsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value of
<newvalue> and "committer" is the committer's name, email address
-and date in the standard GIT committer ident format.
+and date in the standard Git committer ident format.
Optionally with -m:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index 4d52d38..d09bbb5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Invoked by 'git archive --remote' and sends a generated archive to the
-other end over the git protocol.
+other end over the Git protocol.
This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user. The UI
for the protocol is on the 'git archive' side, and the program pair
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
index 71f1608..0abc806 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
--strict::
- Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no git directory.
+ Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no Git directory.
--timeout=<n>::
Interrupt transfer after <n> seconds of inactivity.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index 67edf58..44ff954 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-var(1)
NAME
----
-git-var - Show a git logical variable
+git-var - Show a Git logical variable
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,13 +13,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Prints a git logical variable.
+Prints a Git logical variable.
OPTIONS
-------
-l::
Cause the logical variables to be listed. In addition, all the
- variables of the git configuration file .git/config are listed
+ variables of the Git configuration file .git/config are listed
as well. (However, the configuration variables listing functionality
is deprecated in favor of `git config -l`.)
@@ -35,10 +35,10 @@ GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT::
The author of a piece of code.
GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT::
- The person who put a piece of code into git.
+ The person who put a piece of code into Git.
GIT_EDITOR::
- Text editor for use by git commands. The value is meant to be
+ Text editor for use by Git commands. The value is meant to be
interpreted by the shell when it is used. Examples: `~/bin/vi`,
`$SOME_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE`, `"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe"
--nofork`. The order of preference is the `$GIT_EDITOR`
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ ifdef::git-default-editor[]
endif::g