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-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.30.1.txt55
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.31.0.txt319
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blame-options.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/diff.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/init.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/lsrefs.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/maintenance.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/mergetool.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/pack.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/rebase.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/date-formats.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-blame.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-difftool.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-index-pack.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-maintenance.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mktag.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-range-diff.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt93
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-worktree.txt74
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt41
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmailmap.txt123
-rw-r--r--Documentation/i18n.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/mailmap.txt75
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/chunk-format.txt116
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt293
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/reftable.txt42
59 files changed, 1488 insertions, 394 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index b980407..81d1bf7 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@ MAN1_TXT += gitweb.txt
MAN5_TXT += gitattributes.txt
MAN5_TXT += githooks.txt
MAN5_TXT += gitignore.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitmailmap.txt
MAN5_TXT += gitmodules.txt
MAN5_TXT += gitrepository-layout.txt
MAN5_TXT += gitweb.conf.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
index 7c9a037..af0a9da 100644
--- a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
@@ -664,7 +664,7 @@ mention the right animal somewhere:
----
test_expect_success 'runs correctly with no args and good output' '
git psuh >actual &&
- test_i18ngrep Pony actual
+ grep Pony actual
'
----
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.30.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.30.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..249ef14
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.30.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+Git v2.30.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release is primarily to merge fixes accumulated on the 'master'
+front to prepare for 2.31 release that are still relevant to 2.30.x
+maintenance track.
+
+Fixes since v2.30
+-----------------
+
+ * "git fetch --recurse-submodules" failed to update a submodule
+ when it has an uninitialized (hence of no interest to the user)
+ sub-submodule, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Command line error of "git rebase" are diagnosed earlier.
+
+ * "git stash" did not work well in a sparsely checked out working
+ tree.
+
+ * Some tests expect that "ls -l" output has either '-' or 'x' for
+ group executable bit, but setgid bit can be inherited from parent
+ directory and make these fields 'S' or 's' instead, causing test
+ failures.
+
+ * "git for-each-repo --config=<var> <cmd>" should not run <cmd> for
+ any repository when the configuration variable <var> is not defined
+ even once.
+
+ * "git mergetool --tool-help" was broken in 2.29 and failed to list
+ all the available tools.
+
+ * Fix for procedure to building CI test environment for mac.
+
+ * Newline characters in the host and path part of git:// URL are
+ now forbidden.
+
+ * When more than one commit with the same patch ID appears on one
+ side, "git log --cherry-pick A...B" did not exclude them all when a
+ commit with the same patch ID appears on the other side. Now it
+ does.
+
+ * Documentation for "git fsck" lost stale bits that has become
+ incorrect.
+
+ * Doc for packfile URI feature has been clarified.
+
+ * The implementation of "git branch --sort" wrt the detached HEAD
+ display has always been hacky, which has been cleaned up.
+
+ * Our setting of GitHub CI test jobs were a bit too eager to give up
+ once there is even one failure found. Tweak the knob to allow
+ other jobs keep running even when we see a failure, so that we can
+ find more failures in a single run.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.31.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.31.0.txt
index 60232a5..04bd5b7 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.31.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.31.0.txt
@@ -4,6 +4,19 @@ Git 2.31 Release Notes
Updates since v2.30
-------------------
+Backward incompatible and other important changes
+
+ * The "pack-redundant" command, which has been left stale with almost
+ unusable performance issues, now warns loudly when it gets used, as
+ we no longer want to recommend its use (instead just "repack -d"
+ instead).
+
+ * The development community has adopted Contributor Covenant v2.0 to
+ update from v1.4 that we have been using.
+
+ * The support for deprecated PCRE1 library has been dropped.
+
+
UI, Workflows & Features
* The "--format=%(trailers)" mechanism gets enhanced to make it
@@ -26,6 +39,72 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
* Bash completion (in contrib/) update to make it easier for
end-users to add completion for their custom "git" subcommands.
+ * "git maintenance" learned to drive scheduled maintenance on
+ platforms whose native scheduling methods are not 'cron'.
+
+ * After expiring a reflog and making a single commit, the reflog for
+ the branch would record a single entry that knows both @{0} and
+ @{1}, but we failed to answer "what commit were we on?", i.e. @{1}
+
+ * "git bundle" learns "--stdin" option to read its refs from the
+ standard input. Also, it now does not lose refs whey they point
+ at the same object.
+
+ * "git log" learned a new "--diff-merges=<how>" option.
+
+ * "git ls-files" can and does show multiple entries when the index is
+ unmerged, which is a source for confusion unless -s/-u option is in
+ use. A new option --deduplicate has been introduced.
+
+ * `git worktree list` now annotates worktrees as prunable, shows
+ locked and prunable attributes in --porcelain mode, and gained
+ a --verbose option.
+
+ * "git clone" tries to locally check out the branch pointed at by
+ HEAD of the remote repository after it is done, but the protocol
+ did not convey the information necessary to do so when copying an
+ empty repository. The protocol v2 learned how to do so.
+
+ * There are other ways than ".." for a single token to denote a
+ "commit range", namely "<rev>^!" and "<rev>^-<n>", but "git
+ range-diff" did not understand them.
+
+ * The "git range-diff" command learned "--(left|right)-only" option
+ to show only one side of the compared range.
+
+ * "git mergetool" feeds three versions (base, local and remote) of
+ a conflicted path unmodified. The command learned to optionally
+ prepare these files with unconflicted parts already resolved.
+
+ * The .mailmap is documented to be read only from the root level of a
+ working tree, but a stray file in a bare repository also was read
+ by accident, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git maintenance" tool learned a new "pack-refs" maintenance task.
+
+ * The error message given when a configuration variable that is
+ expected to have a boolean value has been improved.
+
+ * Signed commits and tags now allow verification of objects, whose
+ two object names (one in SHA-1, the other in SHA-256) are both
+ signed.
+
+ * "git rev-list" command learned "--disk-usage" option.
+
+ * "git {diff,log} --{skip,rotate}-to=<path>" allows the user to
+ discard diff output for early paths or move them to the end of the
+ output.
+
+ * "git difftool" learned "--skip-to=<path>" option to restart an
+ interrupted session from an arbitrary path.
+
+ * "git grep" has been tweaked to be limited to the sparse checkout
+ paths.
+
+ * "git rebase --[no-]fork-point" gained a configuration variable
+ rebase.forkPoint so that users do not have to keep specifying a
+ non-default setting.
+
Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
@@ -36,26 +115,244 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* The topological walk codepath is covered by new trace2 stats.
+ * Update the Code-of-conduct to version 2.0 from the upstream (we've
+ been using version 1.4).
+
+ * "git mktag" validates its input using its own rules before writing
+ a tag object---it has been updated to share the logic with "git
+ fsck".
+
+ * Two new ways to feed configuration variable-value pairs via
+ environment variables have been introduced, and the way
+ GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS encodes variable/value pairs has been tweaked
+ to make it more robust.
+
+ * Tests have been updated so that they do not to get affected by the
+ name of the default branch "git init" creates.
+
+ * "git fetch" learns to treat ref updates atomically in all-or-none
+ fashion, just like "git push" does, with the new "--atomic" option.
+
+ * The peel_ref() API has been replaced with peel_iterated_oid().
+
+ * The .use_shell flag in struct child_process that is passed to
+ run_command() API has been clarified with a bit more documentation.
+
+ * Document, clean-up and optimize the code around the cache-tree
+ extension in the index.
+
+ * The ls-refs protocol operation has been optimized to narrow the
+ sub-hierarchy of refs/ it walks to produce response.
+
+ * When removing many branches and tags, the code used to do so one
+ ref at a time. There is another API it can use to delete multiple
+ refs, and it makes quite a lot of performance difference when the
+ refs are packed.
+
+ * The "pack-objects" command needs to iterate over all the tags when
+ automatic tag following is enabled, but it actually iterated over
+ all refs and then discarded everything outside "refs/tags/"
+ hierarchy, which was quite wasteful.
+
+ * A perf script was made more portable.
+
+ * Our setting of GitHub CI test jobs were a bit too eager to give up
+ once there is even one failure found. Tweak the knob to allow
+ other jobs keep running even when we see a failure, so that we can
+ find more failures in a single run.
+
+ * We've carried compatibility codepaths for compilers without
+ variadic macros for quite some time, but the world may be ready for
+ them to be removed. Force compilation failure on exotic platforms
+ where variadic macros are not available to find out who screams in
+ such a way that we can easily revert if it turns out that the world
+ is not yet ready.
+
+ * Code clean-up to ensure our use of hashtables using object names as
+ keys use the "struct object_id" objects, not the raw hash values.
+
+ * Lose the debugging aid that may have been useful in the past, but
+ no longer is, in the "grep" codepaths.
+
+ * Some pretty-format specifiers do not need the data in commit object
+ (e.g. "%H"), but we were over-eager to load and parse it, which has
+ been made even lazier.
+
+ * Get rid of "GETTEXT_POISON" support altogether, which may or may
+ not be controversial.
+
+ * Introduce an on-disk file to record revindex for packdata, which
+ traditionally was always created on the fly and only in-core.
+
+ * The commit-graph learned to use corrected commit dates instead of
+ the generation number to help topological revision traversal.
+
+ * Piecemeal of rewrite of "git bisect" in C continues.
+
+ * When a pager spawned by us exited, the trace log did not record its
+ exit status correctly, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Removal of GIT_TEST_GETTEXT_POISON continues.
+
+ * The code to implement "git merge-base --independent" was poorly
+ done and was kept from the very beginning of the feature.
+
+ * Preliminary changes to fsmonitor integration.
+
+ * Performance optimization work on the rename detection continues.
+
+ * The common code to deal with "chunked file format" that is shared
+ by the multi-pack-index and commit-graph files have been factored
+ out, to help codepaths for both filetypes to become more robust.
+
+ * The approach to "fsck" the incoming objects in "index-pack" is
+ attractive for performance reasons (we have them already in core,
+ inflated and ready to be inspected), but fundamentally cannot be
+ applied fully when we receive more than one pack stream, as a tree
+ object in one pack may refer to a blob object in another pack as
+ ".gitmodules", when we want to inspect blobs that are used as
+ ".gitmodules" file, for example. Teach "index-pack" to emit
+ objects that must be inspected later and check them in the calling
+ "fetch-pack" process.
+
+ * The logic to handle "trailer" related placeholders in the
+ "--format=" mechanisms in the "log" family and "for-each-ref"
+ family is getting unified.
+
+ * Raise the buffer size used when writing the index file out from
+ (obviously too small) 8kB to (clearly sufficiently large) 128kB.
+
Fixes since v2.30
-----------------
* Diagnose command line error of "git rebase" early.
- (merge ca5120c339 rs/rebase-commit-validation later to maint).
* Clean up option descriptions in "git cmd --help".
- (merge e73fe3dd02 zh/arg-help-format later to maint).
* "git stash" did not work well in a sparsely checked out working
tree.
- (merge ba359fd507 en/stash-apply-sparse-checkout later to maint).
+
+ * Some tests expect that "ls -l" output has either '-' or 'x' for
+ group executable bit, but setgid bit can be inherited from parent
+ directory and make these fields 'S' or 's' instead, causing test
+ failures.
+
+ * "git for-each-repo --config=<var> <cmd>" should not run <cmd> for
+ any repository when the configuration variable <var> is not defined
+ even once.
+
+ * Fix 2.29 regression where "git mergetool --tool-help" fails to list
+ all the available tools.
+
+ * Fix for procedure to building CI test environment for mac.
+
+ * The implementation of "git branch --sort" wrt the detached HEAD
+ display has always been hacky, which has been cleaned up.
+
+ * Newline characters in the host and path part of git:// URL are
+ now forbidden.
+
+ * "git diff" showed a submodule working tree with untracked cruft as
+ "Submodule commit <objectname>-dirty", but a natural expectation is
+ that the "-dirty" indicator would align with "git describe --dirty",
+ which does not consider having untracked files in the working tree
+ as source of dirtiness. The inconsistency has been fixed.
+
+ * When more than one commit with the same patch ID appears on one
+ side, "git log --cherry-pick A...B" did not exclude them all when a
+ commit with the same patch ID appears on the other side. Now it
+ does.
+
+ * Documentation for "git fsck" lost stale bits that has become
+ incorrect.
+
+ * Doc fix for packfile URI feature.
+
+ * When "git rebase -i" processes "fixup" insn, there is no reason to
+ clean up the commit log message, but we did the usual stripspace
+ processing. This has been corrected.
+ (merge f7d42ceec5 js/rebase-i-commit-cleanup-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Fix in passing custom args from "git clone" to "upload-pack" on the
+ other side.
+ (merge ad6b5fefbd jv/upload-pack-filter-spec-quotefix later to maint).
+
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) completed "git branch -d"
+ with branch names, but "git branch -D" offered tagnames in addition,
+ which has been corrected. "git branch -M" had the same problem.
+ (merge 27dc071b9a jk/complete-branch-force-delete later to maint).
+
+ * When commands are started from a subdirectory, they may have to
+ compare the path to the subdirectory (called prefix and found out
+ from $(pwd)) with the tracked paths. On macOS, $(pwd) and
+ readdir() yield decomposed path, while the tracked paths are
+ usually normalized to the precomposed form, causing mismatch. This
+ has been fixed by taking the same approach used to normalize the
+ command line arguments.
+ (merge 5c327502db tb/precompose-prefix-too later to maint).
+
+ * Even though invocations of "die()" were logged to the trace2
+ system, "BUG()"s were not, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0a9dde4a04 jt/trace2-BUG later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep --untracked" is meant to be "let's ALSO find in these
+ files on the filesystem" when looking for matches in the working
+ tree files, and does not make any sense if the primary search is
+ done against the index, or the tree objects. The "--cached" and
+ "--untracked" options have been marked as mutually incompatible.
+ (merge 0c5d83b248 mt/grep-cached-untracked later to maint).
+
+ * Fix "git fsck --name-objects" which apparently has not been used by
+ anybody who is motivated enough to report breakage.
+ (merge e89f89361c js/fsck-name-objects-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Avoid individual tests in t5411 from getting affected by each other
+ by forcing them to use separate output files during the test.
+ (merge 822ee894f6 jx/t5411-unique-filenames later to maint).
+
+ * Test to make sure "git rev-parse one-thing one-thing" gives
+ the same thing twice (when one-thing is --since=X).
+ (merge a5cdca4520 ew/rev-parse-since-test later to maint).
+
+ * When certain features (e.g. grafts) used in the repository are
+ incompatible with the use of the commit-graph, we used to silently
+ turned commit-graph off; we now tell the user what we are doing.
+ (merge c85eec7fc3 js/commit-graph-warning later to maint).
+
+ * Objects that lost references can be pruned away, even when they
+ have notes attached to it (and these notes will become dangling,
+ which in turn can be pruned with "git notes prune"). This has been
+ clarified in the documentation.
+ (merge fa9ab027ba mz/doc-notes-are-not-anchors later to maint).
+
+ * The error codepath around the "--temp/--prefix" feature of "git
+ checkout-index" has been improved.
+ (merge 3f7ba60350 mt/checkout-index-corner-cases later to maint).
+
+ * The "git maintenance register" command had trouble registering bare
+ repositories, which had been corrected.
+
+ * A handful of multi-word configuration variable names in
+ documentation that are spelled in all lowercase have been corrected
+ to use the more canonical camelCase.
+ (merge 7dd0eaa39c dl/doc-config-camelcase later to maint).
+
+ * "git push $there --delete ''" should have been diagnosed as an
+ error, but instead turned into a matching push, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 20e416409f jc/push-delete-nothing later to maint).
+
+ * Test script modernization.
+ (merge 488acf15df sv/t7001-modernize later to maint).
+
+ * An under-allocation for the untracked cache data has been corrected.
+ (merge 6347d649bc jh/untracked-cache-fix later to maint).
* Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
- (merge 505a276596 pk/subsub-fetch-fix-take-2 later to maint).
- (merge 33fc56253b fc/t6030-bisect-reset-removes-auxiliary-files later to maint).
- (merge 7efc378205 ta/doc-typofix later to maint).
- (merge 1f4e9319c7 pb/doc-modules-git-work-tree-typofix later to maint).
- (merge 04f6b0a192 ma/t1300-cleanup later to maint).
- (merge 7b77f5a13e ma/doc-pack-format-varint-for-sizes later to maint).
- (merge cc2d43be2b nk/perf-fsmonitor-cleanup later to maint).
- (merge c8302c6c00 ar/t6016-modernise later to maint).
+ (merge e3f5da7e60 sg/t7800-difftool-robustify later to maint).
+ (merge 9d336655ba js/doc-proto-v2-response-end later to maint).
+ (merge 1b5b8cf072 jc/maint-column-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 3a837b58e3 cw/pack-config-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 01168a9d89 ug/doc-commit-approxidate later to maint).
+ (merge b865734760 js/params-vs-args later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index dc3bceb..117f4cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
-b::
Show blank SHA-1 for boundary commits. This can also
- be controlled via the `blame.blankboundary` config option.
+ be controlled via the `blame.blankBoundary` config option.
--root::
Do not treat root commits as boundaries. This can also be
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 6ba50b1..d08e83a 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -398,6 +398,8 @@ include::config/interactive.txt[]
include::config/log.txt[]
+include::config/lsrefs.txt[]
+
include::config/mailinfo.txt[]
include::config/mailmap.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/config/diff.txt b/Documentation/config/diff.txt
index c3ae136..2d3331f 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/diff.txt
@@ -85,6 +85,8 @@ diff.ignoreSubmodules::
and 'git status' when `status.submoduleSummary` is set unless it is
overridden by using the --ignore-submodules command-line option.
The 'git submodule' commands are not affected by this setting.
+ By default this is set to untracked so that any untracked
+ submodules are ignored.
diff.mnemonicPrefix::
If set, 'git diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
diff --git a/Documentation/config/init.txt b/Documentation/config/init.txt
index dc77f8c..79c79d6 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/init.txt
@@ -4,4 +4,4 @@ init.templateDir::
init.defaultBranch::
Allows overriding the default branch name e.g. when initializing
- a new repository or when cloning an empty repository.
+ a new repository.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/lsrefs.txt b/Documentation/config/lsrefs.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..adeda0f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/config/lsrefs.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+lsrefs.unborn::
+ May be "advertise" (the default), "allow", or "ignore". If "advertise",
+ the server will respond to the client sending "unborn" (as described in
+ protocol-v2.txt) and will advertise support for this feature during the
+ protocol v2 capability advertisement. "allow" is the same as
+ "advertise" except that the server will not advertise support for this
+ feature; this is useful for load-balanced servers that cannot be
+ updated atomically (for example), since the administrator could
+ configure "allow", then after a delay, configure "advertise".
diff --git a/Documentation/config/maintenance.txt b/Documentation/config/maintenance.txt
index a5ead09..18f0562 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/maintenance.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/maintenance.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,9 @@ maintenance.strategy::
* `none`: This default setting implies no task are run at any schedule.
* `incremental`: This setting optimizes for performing small maintenance
activities that do not delete any data. This does not schedule the `gc`
- task, but runs the `prefetch` and `commit-graph` tasks hourly and the
- `loose-objects` and `incremental-repack` tasks daily.
+ task, but runs the `prefetch` and `commit-graph` tasks hourly, the
+ `loose-objects` and `incremental-repack` tasks daily, and the `pack-refs`
+ task weekly.
maintenance.<task>.enabled::
This boolean config option controls whether the maintenance task
diff --git a/Documentation/config/mergetool.txt b/Documentation/config/mergetool.txt
index 16a2744..90f76f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/mergetool.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,11 @@ mergetool.<tool>.cmd::
merged; 'MERGED' contains the name of the file to which the merge
tool should write the results of a successful merge.
+mergetool.<tool>.hideResolved::
+ Allows the user to override the global `mergetool.hideResolved` value
+ for a specific tool. See `mergetool.hideResolved` for the full
+ description.
+
mergetool.<tool>.trustExitCode::
For a custom merge command, specify whether the exit code of
the merge command can be used to determine whether the merge was
@@ -40,6 +45,16 @@ mergetool.meld.useAutoMerge::
value of `false` avoids using `--auto-merge` altogether, and is the
default value.
+mergetool.hideResolved::
+ During a merge Git will automatically resolve as many conflicts as
+ possible and write the 'MERGED' file containing conflict markers around
+ any conflicts that it cannot resolve; 'LOCAL' and 'REMOTE' normally
+ represent the versions of the file from before Git's conflict
+ resolution. This flag causes 'LOCAL' and 'REMOTE' to be overwriten so
+ that only the unresolved conflicts are presented to the merge tool. Can
+ be configured per-tool via the `mergetool.<tool>.hideResolved`
+ configuration variable. Defaults to `true`.
+
mergetool.keepBackup::
After performing a merge, the original file with conflict markers
can be saved as a file with a `.orig` extension. If this variable
diff --git a/Documentation/config/pack.txt b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
index 837f1b1..3da4ea9 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
@@ -133,3 +133,10 @@ pack.writeBitmapHashCache::
between an older, bitmapped pack and objects that have been
pushed since the last gc). The downside is that it consumes 4
bytes per object of disk space. Defaults to true.
+
+pack.writeReverseIndex::
+ When true, git will write a corresponding .rev file (see:
+ link:../technical/pack-format.html[Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt])
+ for each new packfile that it writes in all places except for
+ linkgit:git-fast-import[1] and in the bulk checkin mechanism.
+ Defaults to false.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/rebase.txt b/Documentation/config/rebase.txt
index 7f7a07d..214f31b 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/rebase.txt
@@ -68,3 +68,6 @@ rebase.rescheduleFailedExec::
Automatically reschedule `exec` commands that failed. This only makes
sense in interactive mode (or when an `--exec` option was provided).
This is the same as specifying the `--reschedule-failed-exec` option.
+
+rebase.forkPoint::
+ If set to false set `--no-fork-point` option by default.
diff --git a/Documentation/date-formats.txt b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
index f1097fa..99c455f 100644
--- a/Documentation/date-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
@@ -1,10 +1,7 @@
DATE FORMATS
------------
-The `GIT_AUTHOR_DATE`, `GIT_COMMITTER_DATE` environment variables
-ifdef::git-commit[]
-and the `--date` option
-endif::git-commit[]
+The `GIT_AUTHOR_DATE` and `GIT_COMMITTER_DATE` environment variables
support the following date formats:
Git internal format::
@@ -26,3 +23,9 @@ ISO 8601::
+
NOTE: In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats:
`YYYY.MM.DD`, `MM/DD/YYYY` and `DD.MM.YYYY`.
+
+ifdef::git-commit[]
+In addition to recognizing all date formats above, the `--date` option
+will also try to make sense of other, more human-centric date formats,
+such as relative dates like "yesterday" or "last Friday at noon".
+endif::git-commit[]
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index b10ff4c..2db8eac 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -81,9 +81,9 @@ Combined diff format
Any diff-generating command can take the `-c` or `--cc` option to
produce a 'combined diff' when showing a merge. This is the default
format when showing merges with linkgit:git-diff[1] or
-linkgit:git-show[1]. Note also that you can give the `-m` option to any
-of these commands to force generation of diffs with individual parents
-of a merge.
+linkgit:git-show[1]. Note also that you can give suitable
+`--diff-merges` option to any of these commands to force generation of
+diffs in specific format.
A "combined diff" format looks like this:
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 746b144..aa2b5c1 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -33,6 +33,57 @@ endif::git-diff[]
show the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of `--patch`.
endif::git-format-patch[]
+ifdef::git-log[]
+--diff-merges=(off|none|first-parent|1|separate|m|combined|c|dense-combined|cc)::
+--no-diff-merges::
+ Specify diff format to be used for merge commits. Default is
+ {diff-merges-default} unless `--first-parent` is in use, in which case
+ `first-parent` is the default.
++
+--diff-merges=(off|none):::
+--no-diff-merges:::
+ Disable output of diffs for merge commits. Useful to override
+ implied value.
++
+--diff-merges=first-parent:::
+--diff-merges=1:::
+ This option makes merge commits show the full diff with
+ respect to the first parent only.
++
+--diff-merges=separate:::
+--diff-merges=m:::
+-m:::
+ This makes merge commits show the full diff with respect to
+ each of the parents. Separate log entry and diff is generated
+ for each parent. `-m` doesn't produce any output without `-p`.
++
+--diff-merges=combined:::
+--diff-merges=c:::
+-c:::
+ With this option, diff output for a merge commit shows the
+ differences from each of the parents to the merge result
+ simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a
+ parent and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists
+ only files which were modified from all parents. `-c` implies
+ `-p`.
++
+--diff-merges=dense-combined:::
+--diff-merges=cc:::
+--cc:::
+ With this option the output produced by
+ `--diff-merges=combined` is further compressed by omitting
+ uninteresting hunks whose contents in the parents have only
+ two variants and the merge result picks one of them without
+ modification. `--cc` implies `-p`.
+
+--combined-all-paths::
+ This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to
+ list the name of the file from all parents. It thus only has
+ effect when `--diff-merges=[dense-]combined` is in use, and
+ is likely only useful if filename changes are detected (i.e.
+ when either rename or copy detection have been requested).
+endif::git-log[]
+
-U<n>::
--unified=<n>::
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
@@ -649,6 +700,14 @@ matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "`foo*bar`"
matches "`fooasdfbar`" and "`foo/bar/baz/asdf`" but not "`foobarx`".
+--skip-to=<file>::
+--rotate-to=<file>::
+ Discard the files before the named <file> from the output
+ (i.e. 'skip to'), or move them to the end of the output
+ (i.e. 'rotate to'). These were invented primarily for use
+ of the `git difftool` command, and may not be very useful
+ otherwise.
+
ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-R::
Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 2bf77b4..07783de 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -7,6 +7,10 @@
existing contents of `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. Without this
option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
+--atomic::
+ Use an atomic transaction to update local refs. Either all refs are
+ updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
+
--depth=<depth>::
Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
each remote branch history. If fetching to a 'shallow' repository
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 06bc063..decd8ae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ OPTIONS
Pass `-u` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
The proposed commit log message taken from the e-mail
is re-coded into UTF-8 encoding (configuration variable
- `i18n.commitencoding` can be used to specify project's
+ `i18n.commitEncoding` can be used to specify project's
preferred encoding if it is not UTF-8).
+
This was optional in prior versions of git, but now it is the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 34b496d..3bf5d5d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -226,7 +226,7 @@ commit commentary), a blame viewer will not care.
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
-include::mailmap.txt[]
+See linkgit:gitmailmap[5].
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index adaa178..94dc9a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -78,8 +78,8 @@ renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
to happen.
The `-c` and `-C` options have the exact same semantics as `-m` and
-`-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its
-config and reflog will be copied to a new name.
+`-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed, it will be copied to a
+new name, along with its config and reflog.
With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@ OPTIONS
--column[=<options>]::
--no-column::
Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
- column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
+ `column.branch` for option syntax. `--column` and `--no-column`
without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
+
This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
index aa2055d..02f4418 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
@@ -36,10 +36,17 @@ name is provided or known to the 'mailmap', ``Name $$<user@host>$$'' is
printed; otherwise only ``$$<user@host>$$'' is printed.
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+
+See `mailmap.file` and `mailmap.blob` in linkgit:git-config[1] for how
+to specify a custom `.mailmap` target file or object.
+
+
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
-include::mailmap.txt[]
+See linkgit:gitmailmap[5].
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 0e9351d..4b4cc5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -346,6 +346,22 @@ GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM::
See also <<FILES>>.
+GIT_CONFIG_COUNT::
+GIT_CONFIG_KEY_<n>::
+GIT_CONFIG_VALUE_<n>::
+ If GIT_CONFIG_COUNT is set to a positive number, all environment pairs
+ GIT_CONFIG_KEY_<n> and GIT_CONFIG_VALUE_<n> up to that number will be
+ added to the process's runtime configuration. The config pairs are
+ zero-indexed. Any missing key or value is treated as an error. An empty
+ GIT_CONFIG_COUNT is treated the same as GIT_CONFIG_COUNT=0, namely no
+ pairs are processed. These environment variables will override values
+ in configuration files, but will be overridden by any explicit options
+ passed via `git -c`.
++
+This is useful for cases where you want to spawn multiple git commands
+with a common configuration but cannot depend on a configuration file,
+for example when writing scripts.
+
[[EXAMPLES]]
EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 484c485..143b0c4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -34,6 +34,14 @@ OPTIONS
This is the default behaviour; the option is provided to
override any configuration settings.
+--rotate-to=<file>::
+ Start showing the diff for the given path,
+ the paths before it will move to end and output.
+
+--skip-to=<file>::
+ Start showing the diff for the given path, skipping all
+ the paths before it.
+
-t <tool>::
--tool=<tool>::
Use the diff tool specified by <tool>. Valid values include
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 2962f85..2ae2478 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -260,11 +260,9 @@ contents:lines=N::
The first `N` lines of the message.
Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
-are obtained as `trailers` (or by using the historical alias
-`contents:trailers`). Non-trailer lines from the trailer block can be omitted
-with `trailers:only`. Whitespace-continuations can be removed from trailers so
-that each trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content with
-`trailers:unfold`. Both can be used together as `trailers:unfold,only`.
+are obtained as `trailers[:options]` (or by using the historical alias
+`contents:trailers[:options]`). For valid [:option] values see `trailers`
+section of linkgit:git-log[1].
For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
(`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index d72d15b..bd59661 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -129,14 +129,6 @@ using 'git commit-graph verify'. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1].
Extracted Diagnostics
---------------------
-expect dangling commits - potential heads - due to lack of head information::
- You haven't specified any nodes as heads so it won't be
- possible to differentiate between un-parented commits and
- root nodes.
-
-missing sha1 directory '<dir>'::
- The directory holding the sha1 objects is missing.
-
unreachable <type> <object>::
The <type> object <object>, isn't actually referred to directly
or indirectly in any of the trees or commits seen. This can
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 0c114ad..853967d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -117,12 +117,14 @@ NOTES
'git gc' tries very hard not to delete objects that are referenced
anywhere in your repository. In particular, it will keep not only
objects referenced by your current set of branches and tags, but also
-objects referenced by the index, remote-tracking branches, notes saved
-by 'git notes' under refs/notes/, reflogs (which may reference commits
-in branches that were later amended or rewound), and anything else in
-the refs/* namespace. If you are expecting some objects to be deleted
-and they aren't, check all of those locations and decide whether it
-makes sense in your case to remove those references.
+objects referenced by the index, remote-tracking branches, reflogs
+(which may reference commits in branches that were later amended or
+rewound), and anything else in the refs/* namespace. Note that a note
+(of the kind created by 'git notes') attached to an object does not
+contribute in keeping the object alive. If you are expecting some
+objects to be deleted and they aren't, check all of those locations
+and decide whether it makes sense in your case to remove those
+references.
On the other hand, when 'git gc' runs concurrently with another process,
there is a risk of it deleting an object that the other process is using
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index 4deb489..9fa17b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -41,11 +41,17 @@ commit-id::
<commit-id>['\t'<filename-as-in--w>]
--packfile=<hash>::
- Instead of a commit id on the command line (which is not expected in
+ For internal use only. Instead of a commit id on the command
+ line (which is not expected in
this case), 'git http-fetch' fetches the packfile directly at the given
URL and uses index-pack to generate corresponding .idx and .keep files.
The hash is used to determine the name of the temporary file and is
- arbitrary. The output of index-pack is printed to stdout.
+ arbitrary. The output of index-pack is printed to stdout. Requires
+ --index-pack-args.
+
+--index-pack-args=<args>::
+ For internal use only. The command to run on the contents of the
+ downloaded pack. Arguments are URL-encoded separated by spaces.
--recover::
Verify that everything reachable from target is fetched. Used after
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index af0c262..7fa74b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -9,17 +9,18 @@ git-index-pack - Build pack index file for an existing packed archive
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git index-pack' [-v] [-o <index-file>] <pack-file>
+'git index-pack' [-v] [-o <index-file>] [--[no-]rev-index] <pack-file>
'git index-pack' --stdin [--fix-thin] [--keep] [-v] [-o <index-file>]
- [<pack-file>]
+ [--[no-]rev-index] [<pack-file>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads a packed archive (.pack) from the specified file, and
-builds a pack index file (.idx) for it. The packed archive
-together with the pack index can then be placed in the
-objects/pack/ directory of a Git repository.
+builds a pack index file (.idx) for it. Optionally writes a
+reverse-index (.rev) for the specified pack. The packed
+archive together with the pack index can then be placed in
+the objects/pack/ directory of a Git repository.
OPTIONS
@@ -35,6 +36,13 @@ OPTIONS
fails if the name of packed archive does not end
with .pack).
+--[no-]rev-index::
+ When this flag is provided, generate a reverse index
+ (a `.rev` file) corresponding to the given pack. If
+ `--verify` is given, ensure that the existing
+ reverse index is correct. Takes precedence over
+ `pack.writeReverseIndex`.
+
--stdin::
When this flag is provided, the pack is read from stdin
instead and a copy is then written to <pack-file>. If
@@ -78,7 +86,12 @@ OPTIONS
Die if the pack contains broken links. For internal use only.
--fsck-objects::
- Die if the pack contains broken objects. For internal use only.
+ For internal use only.
++
+Die if the pack contains broken objects. If the pack contains a tree
+pointing to a .gitmodules blob that does not exist, prints the hash of
+that blob (for the caller to check) after the hash that goes into the
+name of the pack/idx file (see "Notes").
--threads=<n>::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index dd189a3..1bbf865 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -107,47 +107,15 @@ DIFF FORMATTING
By default, `git log` does not generate any diff output. The options
below can be used to show the changes made by each commit.
-Note that unless one of `-c`, `--cc`, or `-m` is given, merge commits
-will never show a diff, even if a diff format like `--patch` is
-selected, nor will they match search options like `-S`. The exception is
-when `--first-parent` is in use, in which merges are treated like normal
-single-parent commits (this can be overridden by providing a
-combined-diff option or with `--no-diff-merges`).
-
--c::
- With this option, diff output for a merge commit
- shows the differences from each of the parents to the merge result
- simultaneously instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent
- and the result one at a time. Furthermore, it lists only files
- which were modified from all parents.
-
---cc::
- This flag implies the `-c` option and further compresses the
- patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
- the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
- one of them without modification.
-
---combined-all-paths::
- This flag causes combined diffs (used for merge commits) to
- list the name of the file from all parents. It thus only has
- effect when -c or --cc are specified, and is likely only
- useful if filename changes are detected (i.e. when either
- rename or copy detection have been requested).
-
--m::
- This flag makes the merge commits show the full diff like
- regular commits; for each merge parent, a separate log entry
- and diff is generated. An exception is that only diff against
- the first parent is shown when `--first-parent` option is given;
- in that case, the output represents the changes the merge
- brought _into_ the then-current branch.
-
---diff-merges=off::
---no-diff-merges::
- Disable output of diffs for merge commits (default). Useful to
- override `-m`, `-c`, or `--cc`.
+Note that unless one of `--diff-merges` variants (including short
+`-m`, `-c`, and `--cc` options) is explicitly given, merge commits
+will not show a diff, even if a diff format like `--patch` is
+selected, nor will they match search options like `-S`. The exception
+is when `--first-parent` is in use, in which case `first-parent` is
+the default format.
:git-log: 1
+:diff-merges-default: `off`
include::diff-options.txt[]
include::diff-generate-patch.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 0a3b526..6d11ab5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
(--[cached|deleted|others|ignored|stage|unmerged|killed|modified])*
(-[c|d|o|i|s|u|k|m])*
[--eol]
+ [--deduplicate]
[-x <pattern>|--exclude=<pattern>]
[-X <file>|--exclude-from=<file>]
[--exclude-per-directory=<file>]
@@ -80,6 +81,13 @@ OPTIONS
\0 line termination on output and do not quote filenames.
See OUTPUT below for more information.
+--deduplicate::
+ When only filenames are shown, suppress duplicates that may
+ come from having multiple stages during a merge, or giving
+ `--deleted` and `--modified` option at the same time.
+ When any of the `-t`, `--unmerged`, or `--stage` option is
+ in use, this option has no effect.
+
-x <pattern>::
--exclude=<pattern>::
Skip untracked files matching pattern.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 7a6aed0..d343f04 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ character.
The commit log message, author name and author email are
taken from the e-mail, and after minimally decoding MIME
transfer encoding, re-coded in the charset specified by
- i18n.commitencoding (defaulting to UTF-8) by transliterating
+ `i18n.commitEncoding` (defaulting to UTF-8) by transliterating
them. This used to be optional but now it is the default.
+
Note that the patch is always used as-is without charset
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ conversion, even with this flag.
--encoding=<encoding>::
Similar to -u. But when re-coding, the charset specified here is
- used instead of the one specified by i18n.commitencoding or UTF-8.
+ used instead of the one specified by `i18n.commitEncoding` or UTF-8.
-n::
Disable all charset re-coding of the metadata.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-maintenance.txt b/Documentation/git-maintenance.txt
index 3b43217..80ddd33 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-maintenance.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-maintenance.txt
@@ -145,6 +145,12 @@ incremental-repack::
which is a special case that attempts to repack all pack-files
into a single pack-file.
+pack-refs::
+ The `pack-refs` task collects the loose reference files and
+ collects them into a single file. This speeds up operations that
+ need to iterate across many references. See linkgit:git-pack-refs[1]
+ for more information.
+
OPTIONS
-------
--auto::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
index 4da9d24..3e8f59a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
@@ -38,6 +38,10 @@ get_merge_tool_cmd::
get_merge_tool_path::
returns the custom path for a merge tool.
+initialize_merge_tool::
+ bring merge tool specific functions into scope so they can be used or
+ overridden.
+
run_merge_tool::
launches a merge tool given the tool name and a true/false
flag to indicate whether a merge base is present.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
index fa6a756..17a2603 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-mktag(1)
NAME
----
-git-mktag - Creates a tag object
+git-mktag - Creates a tag object with extra validation
SYNOPSIS
@@ -11,25 +11,52 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git mktag'
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--strict::
+ By default mktag turns on the equivalent of
+ linkgit:git-fsck[1] `--strict` mode. Use `--no-strict` to
+ disable it.
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads a tag contents on standard input and creates a tag object
-that can also be used to sign other objects.
-The output is the new tag's <object> identifier.
+Reads a tag contents on standard input and creates a tag object. The
+output is the new tag's <object> identifier.
+
+This command is mostly equivalent to linkgit:git-hash-object[1]
+invoked with `-t tag -w --stdin`. I.e. both of these will create and
+write a tag found in `my-tag`:
+
+ git mktag <my-tag
+ git hash-object -t tag -w --stdin <my-tag
+
+The difference is that mktag will die before writing the tag if the
+tag doesn't pass a linkgit:git-fsck[1] check.
+
+The "fsck" check done mktag is stricter than what linkgit:git-fsck[1]
+would run by default in that all `fsck.<msg-id>` messages are promoted
+from warnings to errors (so e.g. a missing "tagger" line is an error).
+
+Extra headers in the object are also an error under mktag, but ignored
+by linkgit:git-fsck[1]. This extra check can be turned off by setting
+the appropriate `fsck.<msg-id>` varible:
+
+ git -c fsck.extraHeaderEntry=ignore mktag <my-tag-with-headers
Tag Format
----------
A tag signature file, to be fed to this command's standard input,
has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
- object <sha1>
+ object <hash>
type <typename>
tag <tagname>
tagger <tagger>
followed by some 'optional' free-form message (some tags created
-by older Git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
+by older Git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when it
exists, is separated by a blank line from the header. The
message part may contain a signature that Git itself doesn't
care about, but that can be verified with gpg.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 54d715e..f85cb7e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -400,6 +400,17 @@ Note that we pick a single island for each regex to go into, using "last
one wins" ordering (which allows repo-specific config to take precedence
over user-wide config, and so forth).
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+
+Various configuration variables affect packing, see
+linkgit:git-config[1] (search for "pack" and "delta").
+
+Notably, delta compression is not used on objects larger than the
+`core.bigFileThreshold` configuration variable and on files with the
+attribute `delta` set to false.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-rev-list[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
index 9701c1e..fe350d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git range-diff' [--color=[<when>]] [--no-color] [<diff-options>]
[--no-dual-color] [--creation-factor=<factor>]
+ [--left-only | --right-only]
( <range1> <range2> | <rev1>...<rev2> | <base> <rev1> <rev2> )
DESCRIPTION
@@ -28,6 +29,17 @@ Finally, the list of matching commits is shown in the order of the
second commit range, with unmatched commits being inserted just after
all of their ancestors have been shown.
+There are three ways to specify the commit ranges:
+
+- `<range1> <range2>`: Either commit range can be of the form
+ `<base>..<rev>`, `<rev>^!` or `<rev>^-<n>`. See `SPECIFYING RANGES`
+ in linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for more details.
+
+- `<rev1>...<rev2>`. This is equivalent to
+ `<rev2>..<rev1> <rev1>..<rev2>`.
+
+- `<base> <rev1> <rev2>`: This is equivalent to `<base>..<rev1>
+ <base>..<rev2>`.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -57,6 +69,14 @@ to revert to color all lines according to the outer diff markers
See the ``Algorithm`` section below for an explanation why this is
needed.
+--left-only::
+ Suppress commits that are missing from the first specified range
+ (or the "left range" when using the `<rev1>...<rev2>` format).
+
+--right-only::
+ Suppress commits that are missing from the second specified range
+ (or the "right range" when using the `<rev1>...<rev2>` format).
+
--[no-]notes[=<ref>]::
This flag is passed to the `git log` program
(see linkgit:git-log[1]) that generates the patches.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index 92f146d..fbd4b4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -165,9 +165,12 @@ depth is 4095.
Pass the `--delta-islands` option to `git-pack-objects`, see
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
-Configuration
+CONFIGURATION
-------------
+Various configuration variables affect packing, see
+linkgit:git-config[1] (search for "pack" and "delta").
+
By default, the command passes `--delta-base-offset` option to
'git pack-objects'; this typically results in slightly smaller packs,
but the generated packs are incompatible with versions of Git older than
@@ -178,6 +181,10 @@ need to set the configuration variable `repack.UseDeltaBaseOffset` to
is unaffected by this option as the conversion is performed on the fly
as needed in that case.
+Delta compression is not used on objects larger than the
+`core.bigFileThreshold` configuration variable and on files with the
+attribute `delta` set to false.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 5da6623..20bb8e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -31,6 +31,99 @@ include::rev-list-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Print the list of commits reachable from the current branch.
++
+----------
+git rev-list HEAD
+----------
+
+* Print the list of commits on this branch, but not present in the
+ upstream branch.
++
+----------
+git rev-list @{upstream}..HEAD
+----------
+
+* Format commits with their author and commit message (see also the
+ porcelain linkgit:git-log[1]).
++
+----------
+git rev-list --format=medium HEAD
+----------
+
+* Format commits along with their diffs (see also the porcelain
+ linkgit:git-log[1], which can do this in a single process).
++
+----------
+git rev-list HEAD |
+git diff-tree --stdin --format=medium -p
+----------
+
+* Print the list of commits on the current branch that touched any
+ file in the `Documentation` directory.
++
+----------
+git rev-list HEAD -- Documentation/
+----------
+
+* Print the list of commits authored by you in the past year, on
+ any branch, tag, or other ref.
++
+----------
+git rev-list --author=you@example.com --since=1.year.ago --all
+----------
+
+* Print the list of objects reachable from the current branch (i.e., all
+ commits and the blobs and trees they contain).
++
+----------
+git rev-list --objects HEAD
+----------
+
+* Compare the disk size of all reachable objects, versus those
+ reachable from reflogs, versus the total packed size. This can tell
+ you whether running `git repack -ad` might reduce the repository size
+ (by dropping unreachable objects), and whether expiring reflogs might
+ help.
++
+----------
+# reachable objects
+git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all
+# plus reflogs
+git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --all --reflog
+# total disk size used
+du -c .git/objects/pack/*.pack .git/objects/??/*
+# alternative to du: add up "size" and "size-pack" fields
+git count-objects -v
+----------
+
+* Report the disk size of each branch, not including objects used by the
+ current branch. This can find outliers that are contributing to a
+ bloated repository size (e.g., because somebody accidentally committed
+ large build artifacts).
++
+----------
+git for-each-ref --format='%(refname)' |
+while read branch
+do
+ size=$(git rev-list --disk-usage --objects HEAD..$branch)
+ echo "$size $branch"
+done |
+sort -n
+----------
+
+* Compare the on-disk size of branches in one group of refs, excluding
+ another. If you co-mingle objects from multiple remotes in a single
+ repository, this can show which remotes are contributing to the
+ repository size (taking the size of `origin` as a baseline).
++
+----------
+git rev-list --disk-usage --objects --remotes=$suspect --not --remotes=origin
+----------
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index fd93cd4..c9c7f30 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -111,11 +111,11 @@ include::rev-list-options.txt[]
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
-The `.mailmap` feature is used to coalesce together commits by the same
-person in the shortlog, where their name and/or email address was
-spelled differently.
+See linkgit:gitmailmap[5].
-include::mailmap.txt[]
+Note that if `git shortlog` is run outside of a repository (to process
+log contents on standard input), it will look for a `.mailmap` file in
+the current directory.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show.txt b/Documentation/git-show.txt
index fcf528c..2b1bc72 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show.txt
@@ -45,10 +45,13 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
-COMMON DIFF OPTIONS
--------------------
+DIFF FORMATTING
+---------------
+The options below can be used to change the way `git show` generates
+diff output.
:git-log: 1
+:diff-merges-default: `dense-combined`
include::diff-options.txt[]
include::diff-generate-patch.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 31f1beb..f1197d6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-stash - Stash the changes in a dirty working directory away
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git stash' list [<options>]
-'git stash' show [<options>] [<stash>]
+'git stash' list [<log-options>]
+'git stash' show [<diff-options>] [<stash>]
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q
Instead, all non-option arguments are concatenated to form the stash
message.
-list [<options>]::
+list [<log-options>]::
List the stash entries that you currently have. Each 'stash entry' is
listed with its name (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the latest entry, `stash@{1}` is
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
-show [<options>] [<stash>]::
+show [<diff-options>] [<stash>]::
Show the changes recorded in the stash entry as a diff between the
stashed contents and the commit back when the stash entry was first
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index c0764e8..83f38e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ ignored, then the directory is not shown, but all contents are shown.
--column[=<options>]::
--no-column::
Display untracked files in columns. See configuration variable
- column.status for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
+ `column.status` for option syntax. `--column` and `--no-column`
without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never'
respectively.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 56656d1..31a97a1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@ options for details.
--column[=<options>]::
--no-column::
Display tag listing in columns. See configuration variable
- column.tag for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
+ `column.tag` for option syntax. `--column` and `--no-column`
without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
+
This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index 02a706c..f1bb1fa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -97,8 +97,9 @@ list::
List details of each working tree. The main working tree is listed first,
followed by each of the linked working trees. The output details include
whether the working tree is bare, the revision currently checked out, the
-branch currently checked out (or "detached HEAD" if none), and "locked" if
-the worktree is locked.
+branch currently checked out (or "detached HEAD" if none), "locked" if
+the worktree is locked, "prunable" if the worktree can be pruned by `prune`
+command.
lock::
@@ -231,9 +232,14 @@ This can also be set up as the default behaviour by using the
-v::
--verbose::
With `prune`, report all removals.
++
+With `list`, output additional information about worktrees (see below).
--expire <time>::
With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than `<time>`.
++
+With `list`, annotate missing working trees as prunable if they are
+older than `<time>`.
--reason <string>::
With `lock`, an explanation why the working tree is locked.
@@ -372,13 +378,46 @@ $ git worktree list
/path/to/other-linked-worktree 1234abc (detached HEAD)
------------
+The command also shows annotations for each working tree, according to its state.
+These annotations are:
+
+ * `locked`, if the working tree is locked.
+ * `prunable`, if the working tree can be pruned via `git worktree prune`.
+
+------------
+$ git worktree list
+/path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
+/path/to/locked-worktreee acbd5678 (brancha) locked
+/path/to/prunable-worktree 5678abc (detached HEAD) prunable
+------------
+
+For these annotations, a reason might also be available and this can be
+seen using the verbose mode. The annotation is then moved to the next line
+indented followed by the additional information.
+
+------------
+$ git worktree list --verbose
+/path/to/linked-worktree abcd1234 [master]
+/path/to/locked-worktree-no-reason abcd5678 (detached HEAD) locked
+/path/to/locked-worktree-with-reason 1234abcd (brancha)
+ locked: working tree path is mounted on a portable device
+/path/to/prunable-worktree 5678abc1 (detached HEAD)
+ prunable: gitdir file points to non-existent location
+------------
+
+Note that the annotation is moved to the next line if the additional
+information is available, otherwise it stays on the same line as the
+working tree itself.
+
Porcelain Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The porcelain format has a line per attribute. Attributes are listed with a
label and value separated by a single space. Boolean attributes (like `bare`
and `detached`) are listed as a label only, and are present only
-if the value is true. The first attribute of a working tree is always
-`worktree`, an empty line indicates the end of the record. For example:
+if the value is true. Some attributes (like `locked`) can be listed as a label
+only or with a value depending upon whether a reason is available. The first
+attribute of a working tree is always `worktree`, an empty line indicates the
+end of the record. For example:
------------
$ git worktree list --porcelain
@@ -393,6 +432,33 @@ worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
detached
+worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-no-reason
+HEAD 5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678abc5678c
+branch refs/heads/locked-no-reason
+locked
+
+worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-locked-with-reason
+HEAD 3456def3456def3456def3456def3456def3456b
+branch refs/heads/locked-with-reason
+locked reason why is locked
+
+worktree /path/to/linked-worktree-prunable
+HEAD 1233def1234def1234def1234def1234def1234b
+detached
+prunable gitdir file points to non-existent location
+
+------------
+
+If the lock reason contains "unusual" characters such as newline, they
+are escaped and the entire reason is quoted as explained for the
+configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+For Example:
+
+------------
+$ git worktree list --porcelain
+...
+locked "reason\nwhy is locked"
+...
------------
EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index a6d4ad0..3a9c449 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|-P|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
- [--super-prefix=<path>]
+ [--super-prefix=<path>] [--config-env <name>=<envvar>]
<command> [<args>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -80,6 +80,28 @@ config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string which `git config
--type=bool` will convert to `false`.
+--config-env=<name>=<envvar>::
+ Like `-c <name>=<value>`, give configuration variable
+ '<name>' a value, where <envvar> is the name of an
+ environment variable from which to retrieve the value. Unlike
+ `-c` there is no shortcut for directly setting the value to an
+ empty string, instead the environment variable itself must be
+ set to the empty string. It is an error if the `<envvar>` does not exist
+ in the environment. `<envvar>` may not contain an equals sign
+ to avoid ambiguity with `<name>` containing one.
++
+This is useful for cases where you want to pass transitory
+configuration options to git, but are doing so on OS's where
+other processes might be able to read your cmdline
+(e.g. `/proc/self/cmdline`), but not your environ
+(e.g. `/proc/self/environ`). That behavior is the default on
+Linux, but may not be on your system.
++
+Note that this might add security for variables such as
+`http.extraHeader` where the sensitive information is part of
+the value, but not e.g. `url.<base>.insteadOf` where the
+sensitive information can be part of the key.
+
--exec-path[=<path>]::
Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index c970d9f..1c72696 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -74,6 +74,7 @@ into another list. There are currently 5 such transformations:
- diffcore-merge-broken
- diffcore-pickaxe
- diffcore-order
+- diffcore-rotate
These are applied in sequence. The set of filepairs 'git diff-{asterisk}'
commands find are used as the input to diffcore-break, and
@@ -168,6 +169,26 @@ a similarity score different from the default of 50% by giving a
number after the "-M" or "-C" option (e.g. "-M8" to tell it to use
8/10 = 80%).
+Note that when rename detection is on but both copy and break
+detection are off, rename detection adds a preliminary step that first
+checks if files are moved across directories while keeping their
+filename the same. If there is a file added to a directory whose
+contents is sufficiently similar to a file with the same name that got
+deleted from a different directory, it will mark them as renames and
+exclude them from the later quadratic step (the one that pairwise
+compares all unmatched files to find the "best" matches, determined by
+the highest content similarity). So, for example, if a deleted
+docs/ext.txt and an added docs/config/ext.txt are similar enough, they
+will be marked as a rename and prevent an added docs/ext.md that may
+be even more similar to the deleted docs/ext.txt from being considered
+as the rename destination in the later step. For this reason, the
+preliminary "match same filename" step uses a bit higher threshold to
+mark a file pair as a rename and stop considering other candidates for
+better matches. At most, one comparison is done per file in this
+preliminary pass; so if there are several remaining ext.txt files
+throughout the directory hierarchy after exact rename detection, this
+preliminary step will be skipped for those files.
+
Note. When the "-C" option is used with `--find-copies-harder`
option, 'git diff-{asterisk}' commands feed unmodified filepairs to
diffcore mechanism as well as modified ones. This lets the copy
@@ -276,6 +297,26 @@ Documentation
t
------------------------------------------------
+diffcore-rotate: For Changing At Which Path Output Starts
+---------------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation takes one pathname, and rotates the set of
+filepairs so that the filepair for the given pathname comes first,
+optionally discarding the paths that come before it. This is used
+to implement the `--skip-to` and the `--rotate-to` options. It is
+an error when the specified pathname is not in the set of filepairs,
+but it is not useful to error out when used with "git log" family of
+commands, because it is unreasonable to expect that a given path
+would be modified by each and every commit shown by the "git log"
+command. For this reason, when used with "git log", the filepair
+that sorts the same as, or the first one that sorts after, the given
+pathname is where the output starts.
+
+Use of this transformation combined with diffcore-order will produce
+unexpected results, as the input to this transformation is likely
+not sorted when diffcore-order is in effect.
+
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-diff[1],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmailmap.txt b/Documentation/gitmailmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3fb39f8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/gitmailmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,123 @@
+gitmailmap(5)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+gitmailmap - Map author/committer names and/or E-Mail addresses
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+$GIT_WORK_TREE/.mailmap
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+If the file `.mailmap` exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
+the location pointed to by the `mailmap.file` or `mailmap.blob`
+configuration options (see linkgit:git-config[1]), it
+is used to map author and committer names and email addresses to
+canonical real names and email addresses.
+
+
+SYNTAX
+------
+
+The '#' character begins a comment to the end of line, blank lines
+are ignored.
+
+In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical
+real name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the
+commit (enclosed by '<' and '>') to map to the name. For example:
+--
+ Proper Name <commit@email.xx>
+--
+
+The more complex forms are:
+--
+ <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
+--
+which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:
+--
+ Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
+--
+which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
+commit matching the specified commit email address, and:
+--
+ Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>
+--
+which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
+commit matching both the specified commit name and email address.
+
+Both E-Mails and names are matched case-insensitively. For example
+this would also match the 'Commit Name <commit&#64;email.xx>' above:
+--
+ Proper Name <proper@email.xx> CoMmIt NaMe <CoMmIt@EmAiL.xX>
+--
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane
+and Joe, whose names appear in the repository under several forms:
+
+------------
+Joe Developer <joe@example.com>
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
+Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>
+------------
+
+Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane
+prefers her family name fully spelled out. A `.mailmap` file to
+correct the names would look like:
+
+------------
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@desktop.(none)>
+------------
+
+Note that there's no need to map the name for '<jane&#64;laptop.(none)>' to
+only correct the names. However, leaving the obviously broken
+'<jane&#64;laptop.(none)>' and '<jane&#64;desktop.(none)>' E-Mails as-is is
+usually not what you want. A `.mailmap` file which also corrects those
+is:
+
+------------
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com> <jane@laptop.(none)>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com> <jane@desktop.(none)>
+------------
+
+Finally, let's say that Joe and Jane shared an E-Mail address, but not
+a name, e.g. by having these two commits in the history generated by a
+bug reporting system. I.e. names appearing in history as:
+
+------------
+Joe <bugs@example.com>
+Jane <bugs@example.com>
+------------
+
+A full `.mailmap` file which also handles those cases (an addition of
+two lines to the above example) would be:
+
+------------
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com> <jane@laptop.(none)>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com> <jane@desktop.(none)>
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com> Joe <bugs@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com> Jane <bugs@example.com>
+------------
+
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-check-mailmap[1]
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/i18n.txt b/Documentation/i18n.txt
index 7e36e5b..6c6baee 100644
--- a/Documentation/i18n.txt
+++ b/Documentation/i18n.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ mind.
a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look
like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to
- have i18n.commitencoding in `.git/config` file, like this:
+ have `i18n.commitEncoding` in `.git/config` file, like this:
+
------------
[i18n]
diff --git a/Documentation/mailmap.txt b/Documentation/mailmap.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 4a8c276..0000000
--- a/Documentation/mailmap.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,75 +0,0 @@
-If the file `.mailmap` exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
-the location pointed to by the mailmap.file or mailmap.blob
-configuration options, it
-is used to map author and committer names and email addresses to
-canonical real names and email addresses.
-
-In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical
-real name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the
-commit (enclosed by '<' and '>') to map to the name. For example:
---
- Proper Name <commit@email.xx>
---
-
-The more complex forms are:
---
- <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
---
-which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:
---
- Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
---
-which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
-commit matching the specified commit email address, and:
---
- Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>
---
-which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
-commit matching both the specified commit name and email address.
-
-Example 1: Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane
-and Joe, whose names appear in the repository under several forms:
-
-------------
-Joe Developer <joe@example.com>
-Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
-Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
-Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
-Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>
-------------
-
-Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane
-prefers her family name fully spelled out. A proper `.mailmap` file
-would look like:
-
-------------
-Jane Doe <jane@desktop.(none)>
-Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
-------------
-
-Note how there is no need for an entry for `<jane@laptop.(none)>`, because the
-real name of that author is already correct.
-
-Example 2: Your repository contains commits from the following
-authors:
-
-------------
-nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
-nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
-nick2 <nick2@company.xx>
-santa <me@company.xx>
-claus <me@company.xx>
-CTO <cto@coompany.xx>
-------------
-
-Then you might want a `.mailmap` file that looks like:
-------------
-<cto@company.xx> <cto@coompany.xx>
-Some Dude <some@dude.xx> nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
-Other Author <other@author.xx> nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
-Other Author <other@author.xx> <nick2@company.xx>
-Santa Claus <santa.claus@northpole.xx> <me@company.xx>
-------------
-
-Use hash '#' for comments that are either on their own line, or after
-the email address.
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 0023790..b1c8f86 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -129,6 +129,11 @@ parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and
this option allows you to ignore the individual commits
brought in to your history by such a merge.
+ifdef::git-log[]
++
+This option also changes default diff format for merge commits
+to `first-parent`, see `--diff-merges=first-parent` for details.
+endif::git-log[]
--not::
Reverses the meaning of the '{caret}' prefix (or lack thereof)
@@ -222,6 +227,15 @@ ifdef::git-rev-list[]
test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully
connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout
to `/dev/null` as the output does not have to be formatted.
+
+--disk-usage::
+ Suppress normal output; instead, print the sum of the bytes used
+ for on-disk storage by the selected commits or objects. This is
+ equivalent to piping the output into `git cat-file
+ --batch-check='%(objectsize:disk)'`, except that it runs much
+ faster (especially with `--use-bitmap-index`). See the `CAVEATS`
+ section in linkgit:git-cat-file[1] for the limitations of what
+ "on-disk storage" means.
endif::git-rev-list[]
--cherry-mark::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/chunk-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/chunk-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..593614f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/chunk-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,116 @@
+Chunk-based file formats
+========================
+
+Some file formats in Git use a common concept of "chunks" to describe
+sections of the file. This allows structured access to a large file by
+scanning a small "table of contents" for the remaining data. This common
+format is used by the `commit-graph` and `multi-pack-index` files. See
+link:technical/pack-format.html[the `multi-pack-index` format] and
+link:technical/commit-graph-format.html[the `commit-graph` format] for
+how they use the chunks to describe structured data.
+
+A chunk-based file format begins with some header information custom to
+that format. That header should include enough information to identify
+the file type, format version, and number of chunks in the file. From this
+information, that file can determine the start of the chunk-based region.
+
+The chunk-based region starts with a table of contents describing where
+each chunk starts and ends. This consists of (C+1) rows of 12 bytes each,
+where C is the number of chunks. Consider the following table:
+
+ | Chunk ID (4 bytes) | Chunk Offset (8 bytes) |
+ |--------------------|------------------------|
+ | ID[0] | OFFSET[0] |
+ | ... | ... |
+ | ID[C] | OFFSET[C] |
+ | 0x0000 | OFFSET[C+1] |
+
+Each row consists of a 4-byte chunk identifier (ID) and an 8-byte offset.
+Each integer is stored in network-byte order.
+
+The chunk identifier `ID[i]` is a label for the data stored within this
+fill from `OFFSET[i]` (inclusive) to `OFFSET[i+1]` (exclusive). Thus, the
+size of the `i`th chunk is equal to the difference between `OFFSET[i+1]`
+and `OFFSET[i]`. This requires that the chunk data appears contiguously
+in the same order as the table of contents.
+
+The final entry in the table of contents must be four zero bytes. This
+confirms that the table of contents is ending and provides the offset for
+the end of the chunk-based data.
+
+Note: The chunk-based format expects that the file contains _at least_ a
+trailing hash after `OFFSET[C+1]`.
+
+Functions for working with chunk-based file formats are declared in
+`chunk-format.h`. Using these methods provide extra checks that assist
+developers when creating new file formats.
+
+Writing chunk-based file formats
+--------------------------------
+
+To write a chunk-based file format, create a `struct chunkfile` by
+calling `init_chunkfile()` and pass a `struct hashfile` pointer. The
+caller is responsible for opening the `hashfile` and writing header
+information so the file format is identifiable before the chunk-based
+format begins.
+
+Then, call `add_chunk()` for each chunk that is intended for write. This
+populates the `chunkfile` with information about the order and size of
+each chunk to write. Provide a `chunk_write_fn` function pointer to
+perform the write of the chunk data upon request.
+
+Call `write_chunkfile()` to write the table of contents to the `hashfile`
+followed by each of the chunks. This will verify that each chunk wrote
+the expected amount of data so the table of contents is correct.
+
+Finally, call `free_chunkfile()` to clear the `struct chunkfile` data. The
+caller is responsible for finalizing the `hashfile` by writing the trailing
+hash and closing the file.
+
+Reading chunk-based file formats
+--------------------------------
+
+To read a chunk-based file format, the file must be opened as a
+memory-mapped region. The chunk-format API expects that the entire file
+is mapped as a contiguous memory region.
+
+Initialize a `struct chunkfile` pointer with `init_chunkfile(NULL)`.
+
+After reading the header information from the beginning of the file,
+including the chunk count, call `read_table_of_contents()` to populate
+the `struct chunkfile` with the list of chunks, their offsets, and their
+sizes.
+
+Extract the data information for each chunk using `pair_chunk()` or
+`read_chunk()`:
+
+* `pair_chunk()` assigns a given pointer with the location inside the
+ memory-mapped file corresponding to that chunk's offset. If the chunk
+ does not exist, then the pointer is not modified.
+
+* `read_chunk()` takes a `chunk_read_fn` function pointer and calls it
+ with the appropriate initial pointer and size information. The function
+ is not called if the chunk does not exist. Use this method to read chunks
+ if you need to perform immediate parsing or if you need to execute logic
+ based on the size of the chunk.
+
+After calling these methods, call `free_chunkfile()` to clear the
+`struct chunkfile` data. This will not close the memory-mapped region.
+Callers are expected to own that data for the timeframe the pointers into
+the region are needed.
+
+Examples
+--------
+
+These file formats use the chunk-format API, and can be used as examples
+for future formats:
+
+* *commit-graph:* see `write_commit_graph_file()` and `parse_commit_graph()`
+ in `commit-graph.c` for how the chunk-format API is used to write and
+ parse the commit-graph file format documented in
+ link:technical/commit-graph-format.html[the commit-graph file format].
+
+* *multi-pack-index:* see `write_midx_internal()` and `load_multi_pack_index()`
+ in `midx.c` for how the chunk-format API is used to write and
+ parse the multi-pack-index file format documented in
+ link:technical/pack-format.html[the multi-pack-index file format].
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
index b3b5888..87971c2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
@@ -4,11 +4,7 @@ Git commit graph format
The Git commit graph stores a list of commit OIDs and some associated
metadata, including:
-- The generation number of the commit. Commits with no parents have
- generation number 1; commits with parents have generation number
- one more than the maximum generation number of its parents. We
- reserve zero as special, and can be used to mark a generation
- number invalid or as "not computed".
+- The generation number of the commit.
- The root tree OID.
@@ -65,6 +61,9 @@ CHUNK LOOKUP:
the length using the next chunk position if necessary.) Each chunk
ID appears at most once.
+ The CHUNK LOOKUP matches the table of contents from
+ link:technical/chunk-format.html[the chunk-based file format].
+
The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
otherwise specified.
@@ -86,13 +85,33 @@ CHUNK DATA:
position. If there are more than two parents, the second value
has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store an array
position into the Extra Edge List chunk.
- * The next 8 bytes store the generation number of the commit and
+ * The next 8 bytes store the topological level (generation number v1)
+ of the commit and
the commit time in seconds since EPOCH. The generation number
uses the higher 30 bits of the first 4 bytes, while the commit
time uses the 32 bits of the second 4 bytes, along with the lowest
2 bits of the lowest byte, storing the 33rd and 34th bit of the
commit time.
+ Generation Data (ID: {'G', 'D', 'A', 'T' }) (N * 4 bytes) [Optional]
+ * This list of 4-byte values store corrected commit date offsets for the
+ commits, arranged in the same order as commit data chunk.
+ * If the corrected commit date offset cannot be stored within 31 bits,
+ the value has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store
+ the position of corrected commit date into the Generation Data Overflow
+ chunk.
+ * Generation Data chunk is present only when commit-graph file is written
+ by compatible versions of Git and in case of split commit-graph chains,
+ the topmost layer also has Generation Data chunk.
+
+ Generation Data Overflow (ID: {'G', 'D', 'O', 'V' }) [Optional]
+ * This list of 8-byte values stores the corrected commit date offsets
+ for commits with corrected commit date offsets that cannot be
+ stored within 31 bits.
+ * Generation Data Overflow chunk is present only when Generation Data
+ chunk is present and atleast one corrected commit date offset cannot
+ be stored within 31 bits.
+
Extra Edge List (ID: {'E', 'D', 'G', 'E'}) [Optional]
This list of 4-byte values store the second through nth parents for
all octopus merges. The second parent value in the commit data stores
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
index f14a765..f05e7bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
@@ -38,14 +38,31 @@ A consumer may load the following info for a commit from the graph:
Values 1-4 satisfy the requirements of parse_commit_gently().
-Define the "generation number" of a commit recursively as follows:
+There are two definitions of generation number:
+1. Corrected committer dates (generation number v2)
+2. Topological levels (generation nummber v1)
- * A commit with no parents (a root commit) has generation number one.
+Define "corrected committer date" of a commit recursively as follows:
- * A commit with at least one parent has generation number one more than
- the largest generation number among its parents.
+ * A commit with no parents (a root commit) has corrected committer date
+ equal to its committer date.
-Equivalently, the generation number of a commit A is one more than the
+ * A commit with at least one parent has corrected committer date equal to
+ the maximum of its commiter date and one more than the largest corrected
+ committer date among its parents.
+
+ * As a special case, a root commit with timestamp zero has corrected commit
+ date of 1, to be able to distinguish it from GENERATION_NUMBER_ZERO
+ (that is, an uncomputed corrected commit date).
+
+Define the "topological level" of a commit recursively as follows:
+
+ * A commit with no parents (a root commit) has topological level of one.
+
+ * A commit with at least one parent has topological level one more than
+ the largest topological level among its parents.
+
+Equivalently, the topological level of a commit A is one more than the
length of a longest path from A to a root commit. The recursive definition
is easier to use for computation and observing the following property:
@@ -60,6 +77,9 @@ is easier to use for computation and observing the following property:
generation numbers, then we always expand the boundary commit with highest
generation number and can easily detect the stopping condition.
+The property applies to both versions of generation number, that is both
+corrected committer dates and topological levels.
+
This property can be used to significantly reduce the time it takes to
walk commits and determine topological relationships. Without generation
numbers, the general heuristic is the following:
@@ -67,7 +87,9 @@ numbers, the general heuristic is the following:
If A and B are commits with commit time X and Y, respectively, and
X < Y, then A _probably_ cannot reach B.
-This heuristic is currently used whenever the computation is allowed to
+In absence of corrected commit dates (for example, old versions of Git or
+mixed generation graph chains),
+this heuristic is currently used whenever the computation is allowed to
violate topological relationships due to clock skew (such as "git log"
with default order), but is not used when the topological order is
required (such as merge base calculations, "git log --graph").
@@ -77,7 +99,7 @@ in the commit graph. We can treat these commits as having "infinite"
generation number and walk until reaching commits with known generation
number.
-We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_INFINITY = 0xFFFFFFFF to mark commits not
+We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_INFINITY to mark commits not
in the commit-graph file. If a commit-graph file was written by a version
of Git that did not compute generation numbers, then those commits will
have generation number represented by the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_ZERO = 0.
@@ -93,12 +115,12 @@ fully-computed generation numbers. Using strict inequality may result in
walking a few extra commits, but the simplicity in dealing with commits
with generation number *_INFINITY or *_ZERO is valuable.
-We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_MAX = 0x3FFFFFFF to for commits whose
-generation numbers are computed to be at least this value. We limit at
-this value since it is the largest value that can be stored in the
-commit-graph file using the 30 bits available to generation numbers. This
-presents another case where a commit can have generation number equal to
-that of a parent.
+We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_V1_MAX = 0x3FFFFFFF for commits whose
+topological levels (generation number v1) are computed to be at least
+this value. We limit at this value since it is the largest value that
+can be stored in the commit-graph file using the 30 bits available
+to topological levels. This presents another case where a commit can
+have generation number equal to that of a parent.
Design Details
--------------
@@ -267,6 +289,35 @@ The merge strategy values (2 for the size multiple, 64,000 for the maximum
number of commits) could be extracted into config settings for full
flexibility.
+## Handling Mixed Generation Number Chains
+
+With the introduction of generation number v2 and generation data chunk, the
+following scenario is possible:
+
+1. "New" Git writes a commit-graph with the corrected commit dates.
+2. "Old" Git writes a split commit-graph on top without corrected commit dates.
+
+A naive approach of using the newest available generation number from
+each layer would lead to violated expectations: the lower layer would
+use corrected commit dates which are much larger than the topological
+levels of the higher layer. For this reason, Git inspects the topmost
+layer to see if the layer is missing corrected commit dates. In such a case
+Git only uses topological level for generation numbers.
+
+When writing a new layer in split commit-graph, we write corrected commit
+dates if the topmost layer has corrected commit dates written. This
+guarantees that if a layer has corrected commit dates, all lower layers
+must have corrected commit dates as well.
+
+When merging layers, we do not consider whether the merged layers had corrected
+commit dates. Instead, the new layer will have corrected commit dates if the
+layer below the new layer has corrected commit dates.
+
+While writing or merging layers, if the new layer is the only layer, it will
+have corrected commit dates when written by compatible versions of Git. Thus,
+rewriting split commit-graph as a single file (`--split=replace`) creates a
+single layer with corrected commit dates.
+
## Deleting graph-{hash} files
After a new tip file is written, some `graph-{hash}` files may no longer
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
index 6fd20eb..7c1630b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -33,16 +33,9 @@ researchers. On 23 February 2017 the SHAttered attack
Git v2.13.0 and later subsequently moved to a hardened SHA-1
implementation by default, which isn't vulnerable to the SHAttered
-attack.
+attack, but SHA-1 is still weak.
-Thus Git has in effect already migrated to a new hash that isn't SHA-1
-and doesn't share its vulnerabilities, its new hash function just
-happens to produce exactly the same output for all known inputs,
-except two PDFs published by the SHAttered researchers, and the new
-implementation (written by those researchers) claims to detect future
-cryptanalytic collision attacks.
-
-Regardless, it's considered prudent to move past any variant of SHA-1
+Thus it's considered prudent to move past any variant of SHA-1
to a new hash. There's no guarantee that future attacks on SHA-1 won't
be published in the future, and those attacks may not have viable
mitigations.
@@ -57,6 +50,38 @@ SHA-1 still possesses the other properties such as fast object lookup
and safe error checking, but other hash functions are equally suitable
that are believed to be cryptographically secure.
+Choice of Hash
+--------------
+The hash to replace the hardened SHA-1 should be stronger than SHA-1
+was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice for at
+least 10 years.
+
+Some other relevant properties:
+
+1. A 256-bit hash (long enough to match common security practice; not
+ excessively long to hurt performance and disk usage).
+
+2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g., in
+ OpenSSL and Apple CommonCrypto).
+
+3. The hash function's properties should match Git's needs (e.g. Git
+ requires collision and 2nd preimage resistance and does not require
+ length extension resistance).
+
+4. As a tiebreaker, the hash should be fast to compute (fortunately
+ many contenders are faster than SHA-1).
+
+There were several contenders for a successor hash to SHA-1, including
+SHA-256, SHA-512/256, SHA-256x16, K12, and BLAKE2bp-256.
+
+In late 2018 the project picked SHA-256 as its successor hash.
+
+See 0ed8d8da374 (doc hash-function-transition: pick SHA-256 as
+NewHash, 2018-08-04) and numerous mailing list threads at the time,
+particularly the one starting at
+https://lore.kernel.org/git/20180609224913.GC38834@genre.crustytoothpaste.net/
+for more information.
+
Goals
-----
1. The transition to SHA-256 can be done one local repository at a time.
@@ -94,7 +119,7 @@ Overview
--------
We introduce a new repository format extension. Repositories with this
extension enabled use SHA-256 instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
-This affects both object names and object content --- both the names
+This affects both object names and object content -- both the names
of objects and all references to other objects within an object are
switched to the new hash function.
@@ -107,7 +132,7 @@ mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and SHA-256 names
interchangeably.
"git cat-file" and "git hash-object" gain options to display an object
-in its sha1 form and write an object given its sha1 form. This
+in its SHA-1 form and write an object given its SHA-1 form. This
requires all objects referenced by that object to be present in the
object database so that they can be named using the appropriate name
(using the bidirectional hash mapping).
@@ -115,7 +140,7 @@ object database so that they can be named using the appropriate name
Fetches from a SHA-1 based server convert the fetched objects into
SHA-256 form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
(see below for details). Pushes to a SHA-1 based server convert the
-objects being pushed into sha1 form so the server does not have to be
+objects being pushed into SHA-1 form so the server does not have to be
aware of the hash function the client is using.
Detailed Design
@@ -151,38 +176,38 @@ repository extensions.
Object names
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Objects can be named by their 40 hexadecimal digit sha1-name or 64
-hexadecimal digit sha256-name, plus names derived from those (see
+Objects can be named by their 40 hexadecimal digit SHA-1 name or 64
+hexadecimal digit SHA-256 name, plus names derived from those (see
gitrevisions(7)).
-The sha1-name of an object is the SHA-1 of the concatenation of its
-type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha1-content. This is the
+The SHA-1 name of an object is the SHA-1 of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's SHA-1 content. This is the
traditional <sha1> used in Git to name objects.
-The sha256-name of an object is the SHA-256 of the concatenation of its
-type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha256-content.
+The SHA-256 name of an object is the SHA-256 of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's SHA-256 content.
Object format
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The content as a byte sequence of a tag, commit, or tree object named
-by sha1 and sha256 differ because an object named by sha256-name refers to
-other objects by their sha256-names and an object named by sha1-name
-refers to other objects by their sha1-names.
+by SHA-1 and SHA-256 differ because an object named by SHA-256 name refers to
+other objects by their SHA-256 names and an object named by SHA-1 name
+refers to other objects by their SHA-1 names.
-The sha256-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
-that objects referenced by the object are named using their sha256-names
-instead of sha1-names. Because a blob object does not refer to any
-other object, its sha1-content and sha256-content are the same.
+The SHA-256 content of an object is the same as its SHA-1 content, except
+that objects referenced by the object are named using their SHA-256 names
+instead of SHA-1 names. Because a blob object does not refer to any
+other object, its SHA-1 content and SHA-256 content are the same.
-The format allows round-trip conversion between sha256-content and
-sha1-content.
+The format allows round-trip conversion between SHA-256 content and
+SHA-1 content.
Object storage
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Loose objects use zlib compression and packed objects use the packed
format described in Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt, just like
-today. The content that is compressed and stored uses sha256-content
-instead of sha1-content.
+today. The content that is compressed and stored uses SHA-256 content
+instead of SHA-1 content.
Pack index
~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -191,21 +216,21 @@ hash functions. They have the following format (all integers are in
network byte order):
- A header appears at the beginning and consists of the following:
- - The 4-byte pack index signature: '\377t0c'
- - 4-byte version number: 3
- - 4-byte length of the header section, including the signature and
+ * The 4-byte pack index signature: '\377t0c'
+ * 4-byte version number: 3
+ * 4-byte length of the header section, including the signature and
version number
- - 4-byte number of objects contained in the pack
- - 4-byte number of object formats in this pack index: 2
- - For each object format:
- - 4-byte format identifier (e.g., 'sha1' for SHA-1)
- - 4-byte length in bytes of shortened object names. This is the
+ * 4-byte number of objects contained in the pack
+ * 4-byte number of object formats in this pack index: 2
+ * For each object format:
+ ** 4-byte format identifier (e.g., 'sha1' for SHA-1)
+ ** 4-byte length in bytes of shortened object names. This is the
shortest possible length needed to make names in the shortened
object name table unambiguous.
- - 4-byte integer, recording where tables relating to this format
+ ** 4-byte integer, recording where tables relating to this format
are stored in this index file, as an offset from the beginning.
- - 4-byte offset to the trailer from the beginning of this file.
- - Zero or more additional key/value pairs (4-byte key, 4-byte
+ * 4-byte offset to the trailer from the beginning of this file.
+ * Zero or more additional key/value pairs (4-byte key, 4-byte
value). Only one key is supported: 'PSRC'. See the "Loose objects
and unreachable objects" section for supported values and how this
is used. All other keys are reserved. Readers must ignore
@@ -213,37 +238,36 @@ network byte order):
- Zero or more NUL bytes. This can optionally be used to improve the
alignment of the full object name table below.
- Tables for the first object format:
- - A sorted table of shortened object names. These are prefixes of
+ * A sorted table of shortened object names. These are prefixes of
the names of all objects in this pack file, packed together
without offset values to reduce the cache footprint of the binary
search for a specific object name.
- - A table of full object names in pack order. This allows resolving
+ * A table of full object names in pack order. This allows resolving
a reference to "the nth object in the pack file" (from a
reachability bitmap or from the next table of another object
format) to its object name.
- - A table of 4-byte values mapping object name order to pack order.
+ * A table of 4-byte values mapping object name order to pack order.
For an object in the table of sorted shortened object names, the
value at the corresponding index in this table is the index in the
previous table for that same object.
-
This can be used to look up the object in reachability bitmaps or
to look up its name in another object format.
- - A table of 4-byte CRC32 values of the packed object data, in the
+ * A table of 4-byte CRC32 values of the packed object data, in the
order that the objects appear in the pack file. This is to allow
compressed data to be copied directly from pack to pack during
repacking without undetected data corruption.
- - A table of 4-byte offset values. For an object in the table of
+ * A table of 4-byte offset values. For an object in the table of
sorted shortened object names, the value at the corresponding
index in this table indicates where that object can be found in
the pack file. These are usually 31-bit pack file offsets, but
large offsets are encoded as an index into the next table with the
most significant bit set.
- - A table of 8-byte offset entries (empty for pack files less than
+ * A table of 8-byte offset entries (empty for pack files less than
2 GiB). Pack files are organized with heavily used objects toward
the front, so most object references should not need to refer to
this table.
@@ -252,10 +276,10 @@ network byte order):
up to and not including the table of CRC32 values.
- Zero or more NUL bytes.
- The trailer consists of the following:
- - A copy of the 20-byte SHA-256 checksum at the end of the
+ * A copy of the 20-byte SHA-256 checksum at the end of the
corresponding packfile.
- - 20-byte SHA-256 checksum of all of the above.
+ * 20-byte SHA-256 checksum of all of the above.
Loose object index
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -288,18 +312,18 @@ To remove entries (e.g. in "git pack-refs" or "git-prune"):
Translation table
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The index files support a bidirectional mapping between sha1-names
-and sha256-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
-lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a sha256-name:
+The index files support a bidirectional mapping between SHA-1 names
+and SHA-256 names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
+lookups. For example, to convert a SHA-1 name to a SHA-256 name:
1. Look for the object in idx files. If a match is present in the
- idx's sorted list of truncated sha1-names, then:
- a. Read the corresponding entry in the sha1-name order to pack
+ idx's sorted list of truncated SHA-1 names, then:
+ a. Read the corresponding entry in the SHA-1 name order to pack
name order mapping.
- b. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha1-name table to
+ b. Read the corresponding entry in the full SHA-1 name table to
verify we found the right object. If it is, then
- c. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha256-name table.
- That is the object's sha256-name.
+ c. Read the corresponding entry in the full SHA-256 name table.
+ That is the object's SHA-256 name.
2. Check for a loose object. Read lines from loose-object-idx until
we find a match.
@@ -313,10 +337,10 @@ Since all operations that make new objects (e.g., "git commit") add
the new objects to the corresponding index, this mapping is possible
for all objects in the object store.
-Reading an object's sha1-content
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all sha256-names
-its sha256-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
+Reading an object's SHA-1 content
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The SHA-1 content of an object can be read by converting all SHA-256 names
+of its SHA-256 content references to SHA-1 names using the translation table.
Fetch
~~~~~
@@ -339,7 +363,7 @@ the following steps:
1. index-pack: inflate each object in the packfile and compute its
SHA-1. Objects can contain deltas in OBJ_REF_DELTA format against
objects the client has locally. These objects can be looked up
- using the translation table and their sha1-content read as
+ using the translation table and their SHA-1 content read as
described above to resolve the deltas.
2. topological sort: starting at the "want"s from the negotiation
phase, walk through objects in the pack and emit a list of them,
@@ -348,12 +372,12 @@ the following steps:
(This list only contains objects reachable from the "wants". If the
pack from the server contained additional extraneous objects, then
they will be discarded.)
-3. convert to sha256: open a new (sha256) packfile. Read the topologically
+3. convert to SHA-256: open a new SHA-256 packfile. Read the topologically
sorted list just generated. For each object, inflate its
- sha1-content, convert to sha256-content, and write it to the sha256
- pack. Record the new sha1<->sha256 mapping entry for use in the idx.
+ SHA-1 content, convert to SHA-256 content, and write it to the SHA-256
+ pack. Record the new SHA-1<-->SHA-256 mapping entry for use in the idx.
4. sort: reorder entries in the new pack to match the order of objects
- in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a sha256 idx
+ in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a SHA-256 idx
file
5. clean up: remove the SHA-1 based pack file, index, and
topologically sorted list obtained from the server in steps 1
@@ -378,19 +402,20 @@ experimenting to get this to perform well.
Push
~~~~
Push is simpler than fetch because the objects referenced by the
-pushed objects are already in the translation table. The sha1-content
+pushed objects are already in the translation table. The SHA-1 content
of each object being pushed can be read as described in the "Reading
-an object's sha1-content" section to generate the pack written by git
+an object's SHA-1 content" section to generate the pack written by git
send-pack.
Signed Commits
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
We add a new field "gpgsig-sha256" to the commit object format to allow
signing commits without relying on SHA-1. It is similar to the
-existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the sha256-content of the
+existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the SHA-256 content of the
commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-sha256" fields removed.
This means commits can be signed
+
1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed commit objects
2. using both SHA-1 and SHA-256, by using both gpgsig-sha256 and gpgsig
fields.
@@ -404,10 +429,11 @@ Signed Tags
~~~~~~~~~~~
We add a new field "gpgsig-sha256" to the tag object format to allow
signing tags without relying on SHA-1. Its signed payload is the
-sha256-content of the tag with its gpgsig-sha256 field and "-----BEGIN PGP
+SHA-256 content of the tag with its gpgsig-sha256 field and "-----BEGIN PGP
SIGNATURE-----" delimited in-body signature removed.
This means tags can be signed
+
1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed tag objects
2. using both SHA-1 and SHA-256, by using gpgsig-sha256 and an in-body
signature.
@@ -415,11 +441,11 @@ This means tags can be signed
Mergetag embedding
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The mergetag field in the sha1-content of a commit contains the
-sha1-content of a tag that was merged by that commit.
+The mergetag field in the SHA-1 content of a commit contains the
+SHA-1 content of a tag that was merged by that commit.
-The mergetag field in the sha256-content of the same commit contains the
-sha256-content of the same tag.
+The mergetag field in the SHA-256 content of the same commit contains the
+SHA-256 content of the same tag.
Submodules
~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -494,7 +520,7 @@ Caveats
-------
Invalid objects
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The conversion from sha1-content to sha256-content retains any
+The conversion from SHA-1 content to SHA-256 content retains any
brokenness in the original object (e.g., tree entry modes encoded with
leading 0, tree objects whose paths are not sorted correctly, and
commit objects without an author or committer). This is a deliberate
@@ -513,15 +539,15 @@ allow lifting this restriction.
Alternates
~~~~~~~~~~
-For the same reason, a sha256 repository cannot borrow objects from a
-sha1 repository using objects/info/alternates or
+For the same reason, a SHA-256 repository cannot borrow objects from a
+SHA-1 repository using objects/info/alternates or
$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_REPOSITORIES.
git notes
~~~~~~~~~
-The "git notes" tool annotates objects using their sha1-name as key.
+The "git notes" tool annotates objects using their SHA-1 name as key.
This design does not describe a way to migrate notes trees to use
-sha256-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
+SHA-256 names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
example using a file at the root of the notes tree to describe which
hash it uses).
@@ -555,7 +581,7 @@ unclear:
Git 2.12
-Does this mean Git v2.12.0 is the commit with sha1-name
+Does this mean Git v2.12.0 is the commit with SHA-1 name
e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7 or the commit with
new-40-digit-hash-name e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7?
@@ -598,44 +624,12 @@ The user can also explicitly specify which format to use for a
particular revision specifier and for output, overriding the mode. For
example:
-git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{sha256}
-
-Choice of Hash
---------------
-In early 2005, around the time that Git was written, Xiaoyun Wang,
-Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu announced an attack finding SHA-1
-collisions in 2^69 operations. In August they published details.
-Luckily, no practical demonstrations of a collision in full SHA-1 were
-published until 10 years later, in 2017.
-
-Git v2.13.0 and later subsequently moved to a hardened SHA-1
-implementation by default that mitigates the SHAttered attack, but
-SHA-1 is still believed to be weak.
-
-The hash to replace this hardened SHA-1 should be stronger than SHA-1
-was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice for at
-least 10 years.
-
-Some other relevant properties:
-
-1. A 256-bit hash (long enough to match common security practice; not
- excessively long to hurt performance and disk usage).
-
-2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g., in
- OpenSSL and Apple CommonCrypto).
-
-3. The hash function's properties should match Git's needs (e.g. Git
- requires collision and 2nd preimage resistance and does not require
- length extension resistance).
-
-4. As a tiebreaker, the hash should be fast to compute (fortunately
- many contenders are faster than SHA-1).
-
-We choose SHA-256.
+ git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{sha256}
Transition plan
---------------
Some initial steps can be implemented independently of one another:
+
- adding a hash function API (vtable)
- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-sha256 field
- excluding gpgsig-* from the fields copied by "git commit --amend"
@@ -647,9 +641,9 @@ Some initial steps can be implemented independently of one another:
- introducing index v3
- adding support for the PSRC field and safer object pruning
-
The first user-visible change is the introduction of the objectFormat
extension (without compatObjectFormat). This requires:
+
- teaching fsck about this mode of operation
- using the hash function API (vtable) when computing object names
- signing objects and verifying signatures
@@ -657,6 +651,7 @@ extension (without compatObjectFormat). This requires:
repository
Next comes introduction of compatObjectFormat:
+
- implementing the loose-object-idx
- translating object names between object formats
- translating object content between object formats
@@ -669,10 +664,11 @@ Next comes introduction of compatObjectFormat:
"Object names on the command line" above)
The next step is supporting fetches and pushes to SHA-1 repositories:
+
- allow pushes to a repository using the compat format
- generate a topologically sorted list of the SHA-1 names of fetched
objects
-- convert the fetched packfile to sha256 format and generate an idx
+- convert the fetched packfile to SHA-256 format and generate an idx
file
- re-sort to match the order of objects in the fetched packfile
@@ -734,6 +730,7 @@ Using hash functions in parallel
Objects newly created would be addressed by the new hash, but inside
such an object (e.g. commit) it is still possible to address objects
using the old hash function.
+
* You cannot trust its history (needed for bisectability) in the
future without further work
* Maintenance burden as the number of supported hash functions grows
@@ -743,36 +740,38 @@ using the old hash function.
Signed objects with multiple hashes
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Instead of introducing the gpgsig-sha256 field in commit and tag objects
-for sha256-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
-added "hash sha256 <sha256-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
-sha1-content based signatures.
+for SHA-256 content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
+added "hash sha256 <SHA-256 name>" fields to strengthen the existing
+SHA-1 content based signatures.
In other words, a single signature was used to attest to the object
content using both hash functions. This had some advantages:
+
* Using one signature instead of two speeds up the signing process.
* Having one signed payload with both hashes allows the signer to
- attest to the sha1-name and sha256-name referring to the same object.
+ attest to the SHA-1 name and SHA-256 name referring to the same object.
* All users consume the same signature. Broken signatures are likely
to be detected quickly using current versions of git.
However, it also came with disadvantages:
-* Verifying a signed object requires access to the sha1-names of all
+
+* Verifying a signed object requires access to the SHA-1 names of all
objects it references, even after the transition is complete and
translation table is no longer needed for anything else. To support
- this, the design added fields such as "hash sha1 tree <sha1-name>"
- and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the sha256-content of a signed
+ this, the design added fields such as "hash sha1 tree <SHA-1 name>"
+ and "hash sha1 parent <SHA-1 name>" to the SHA-256 content of a signed
commit, complicating the conversion process.
-* Allowing signed objects without a sha1 (for after the transition is
+* Allowing signed objects without a SHA-1 (for after the transition is
complete) complicated the design further, requiring a "nohash sha1"
- field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the sha256-content
+ field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the SHA-256 content
and signed payload.
Lazily populated translation table
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Some of the work of building the translation table could be deferred to
push time, but that would significantly complicate and slow down pushes.
-Calculating the sha1-name at object creation time at the same time it is
-being streamed to disk and having its sha256-name calculated should be
+Calculating the SHA-1 name at object creation time at the same time it is
+being streamed to disk and having its SHA-256 name calculated should be
an acceptable cost.
Document History
@@ -782,18 +781,19 @@ Document History
bmwill@google.com, jonathantanmy@google.com, jrnieder@gmail.com,
sbeller@google.com
-Initial version sent to
-http://lore.kernel.org/git/20170304011251.GA26789@aiede.mtv.corp.google.com
+* Initial version sent to https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170304011251.GA26789@aiede.mtv.corp.google.com
2017-03-03 jrnieder@gmail.com
Incorporated suggestions from jonathantanmy and sbeller:
-* describe purpose of signed objects with each hash type
-* redefine signed object verification using object content under the
+
+* Describe purpose of signed objects with each hash type
+* Redefine signed object verification using object content under the
first hash function
2017-03-06 jrnieder@gmail.com
+
* Use SHA3-256 instead of SHA2 (thanks, Linus and brian m. carlson).[1][2]
-* Make sha3-based signatures a separate field, avoiding the need for
+* Make SHA3-based signatures a separate field, avoiding the need for
"hash" and "nohash" fields (thanks to peff[3]).
* Add a sorting phase to fetch (thanks to Junio for noticing the need
for this).
@@ -805,23 +805,26 @@ Incorporated suggestions from jonathantanmy and sbeller:
especially Junio).
2017-09-27 jrnieder@gmail.com, sbeller@google.com
-* use placeholder NewHash instead of SHA3-256
-* describe criteria for picking a hash function.
-* include a transition plan (thanks especially to Brandon Williams
+
+* Use placeholder NewHash instead of SHA3-256
+* Describe criteria for picking a hash function.
+* Include a transition plan (thanks especially to Brandon Williams
for fleshing these ideas out)
-* define the translation table (thanks, Shawn Pearce[5], Jonathan
+* Define the translation table (thanks, Shawn Pearce[5], Jonathan
Tan, and Masaya Suzuki)
-* avoid loose object overhead by packing more aggressively in
+* Avoid loose object overhead by packing more aggressively in
"git gc --auto"
Later history:
- See the history of this file in git.git for the history of subsequent
- edits. This document history is no longer being maintained as it
- would now be superfluous to the commit log
+* See the history of this file in git.git for the history of subsequent
+ edits. This document history is no longer being maintained as it
+ would now be superfluous to the commit log
+
+References:
-[1] http://lore.kernel.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
-[2] http://lore.kernel.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
-[3] http://lore.kernel.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
-[4] http://lore.kernel.org/git/20170304224936.rqqtkdvfjgyezsht@genre.crustytoothpaste.net
-[5] https://lore.kernel.org/git/CAJo=hJtoX9=AyLHHpUJS7fueV9ciZ_MNpnEPHUz8Whui6g9F0A@mail.gmail.com/
+ [1] https://lore.kernel.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
+ [2] https://lore.kernel.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
+ [3] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+ [4] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170304224936.rqqtkdvfjgyezsht@genre.crustytoothpaste.net
+ [5] https://lore.kernel.org/git/CAJo=hJtoX9=AyLHHpUJS7fueV9ciZ_MNpnEPHUz8Whui6g9F0A@mail.gmail.com/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index 69edf46..d363a71 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ Git index format
Extensions are identified by signature. Optional extensions can
be ignored if Git does not understand them.
- Git currently supports cached tree and resolve undo extensions.
+ Git currently supports cache tree and resolve undo extensions.
4-byte extension signature. If the first byte is 'A'..'Z' the
extension is optional and can be ignored.
@@ -136,14 +136,35 @@ Git index format
== Extensions
-=== Cached tree
-
- Cached tree extension contains pre-computed hashes for trees that can
- be derived from the index. It helps speed up tree object generation
- from index for a new commit.
-
- When a path is updated in index, the path must be invalidated and
- removed from tree cache.
+=== Cache tree
+
+ Since the index does not record entries for directories, the cache
+ entries cannot describe tree objects that already exist in the object
+ database for regions of the index that are unchanged from an existing
+ commit. The cache tree extension stores a recursive tree structure that
+ describes the trees that already exist and completely match sections of
+ the cache entries. This speeds up tree object generation from the index
+ for a new commit by only computing the trees that are "new" to that
+ commit. It also assists when comparing the index to another tree, such
+ as `HEAD^{tree}`, since sections of the index can be skipped when a tree
+ comparison demonstrates equality.
+
+ The recursive tree structure uses nodes that store a number of cache
+ entries, a list of subnodes, and an object ID (OID). The OID references
+ the existing tree for that node, if it is known to exist. The subnodes
+ correspond to subdirectories that themselves have cache tree nodes. The
+ number of cache entries corresponds to the number of cache entries in
+ the index that describe paths within that tree's directory.
+
+ The extension tracks the full directory structure in the cache tree
+ extension, but this is generally smaller than the full cache entry list.
+
+ When a path is updated in index, Git invalidates all nodes of the
+ recursive cache tree corresponding to the parent directories of that
+ path. We store these tree nodes as being "invalid" by using "-1" as the
+ number of cache entries. Invalid nodes still store a span of index
+ entries, allowing Git to focus its efforts when reconstructing a full
+ cache tree.
The signature for this extension is { 'T', 'R', 'E', 'E' }.
@@ -174,7 +195,8 @@ Git index format
first entry represents the root level of the repository, followed by the
first subtree--let's call this A--of the root level (with its name
relative to the root level), followed by the first subtree of A (with
- its name relative to A), ...
+ its name relative to A), and so on. The specified number of subtrees
+ indicates when the current level of the recursive stack is complete.
=== Resolve undo
@@ -251,14 +273,14 @@ Git index format
- Stat data of $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. See "Index entry" section from
ctime field until "file size".
- - Stat data of core.excludesfile
+ - Stat data of core.excludesFile
- 32-bit dir_flags (see struct dir_struct)
- Hash of $GIT_DIR/info/exclude. A null hash means the file
does not exist.
- - Hash of core.excludesfile. A null hash means the file does
+ - Hash of core.excludesFile. A null hash means the file does
not exist.
- NUL-terminated string of per-dir exclude file name. This usually
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
index 96d2fc5..1faa949 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt
@@ -274,6 +274,26 @@ Pack file entry: <+
Index checksum of all of the above.
+== pack-*.rev files have the format:
+
+ - A 4-byte magic number '0x52494458' ('RIDX').
+
+ - A 4-byte version identifier (= 1).
+
+ - A 4-byte hash function identifier (= 1 for SHA-1, 2 for SHA-256).
+
+ - A table of index positions (one per packed object, num_objects in
+ total, each a 4-byte unsigned integer in network order), sorted by
+ their corresponding offsets in the packfile.
+
+ - A trailer, containing a:
+
+ checksum of the corresponding packfile, and
+
+ a checksum of all of the above.
+
+All 4-byte numbers are in network order.
+
== multi-pack-index (MIDX) files have the following format:
The multi-pack-index files refer to multiple pack-files and loose objects.
@@ -316,6 +336,9 @@ CHUNK LOOKUP:
(Chunks are provided in file-order, so you can infer the length
using the next chunk position if necessary.)
+ The CHUNK LOOKUP matches the table of contents from
+ link:technical/chunk-format.html[the chunk-based file format].
+
The remaining data in the body is described one chunk at a time, and
these chunks may be given in any order. Chunks are required unless
otherwise specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt b/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt
index 318713a..f7eabc6 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt
@@ -37,8 +37,11 @@ at least so that we can test the client.
This is the implementation: a feature, marked experimental, that allows the
server to be configured by one or more `uploadpack.blobPackfileUri=<sha1>
<uri>` entries. Whenever the list of objects to be sent is assembled, all such
-blobs are excluded, replaced with URIs. The client will download those URIs,
-expecting them to each point to packfiles containing single blobs.
+blobs are excluded, replaced with URIs. As noted in "Future work" below, the
+server can evolve in the future to support excluding other objects (or other
+implementations of servers could be made that support excluding other objects)
+without needing a protocol change, so clients should not expect that packfiles
+downloaded in this way only contain single blobs.
Client design
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
index 85daeb5..a7c806a 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -33,8 +33,8 @@ In protocol v2 these special packets will have the following semantics:
* '0000' Flush Packet (flush-pkt) - indicates the end of a message
* '0001' Delimiter Packet (delim-pkt) - separates sections of a message
- * '0002' Message Packet (response-end-pkt) - indicates the end of a response
- for stateless connections
+ * '0002' Response End Packet (response-end-pkt) - indicates the end of a
+ response for stateless connections
Initial Client Request
----------------------
@@ -192,11 +192,20 @@ ls-refs takes in the following arguments:
When specified, only references having a prefix matching one of
the provided prefixes are displayed.
+If the 'unborn' feature is advertised the following argument can be
+included in the client's request.
+
+ unborn
+ The server will send information about HEAD even if it is a symref
+ pointing to an unborn branch in the form "unborn HEAD
+ symref-target:<target>".
+
The output of ls-refs is as follows:
output = *ref
flush-pkt
- ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP refname *(SP ref-attribute) LF)
+ obj-id-or-unborn = (obj-id | "unborn")
+ ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id-or-unborn SP refname *(SP ref-attribute) LF)
ref-attribute = (symref | peeled)
symref = "symref-target:" symref-target
peeled = "peeled:" obj-id
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/reftable.txt b/Documentation/technical/reftable.txt
index 8095ab2..3ef169a 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/reftable.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/reftable.txt
@@ -872,17 +872,11 @@ A repository must set its `$GIT_DIR/config` to configure reftable:
Layout
^^^^^^
-A collection of reftable files are stored in the `$GIT_DIR/reftable/`
-directory:
-
-....
-00000001-00000001.log
-00000002-00000002.ref
-00000003-00000003.ref
-....
-
-where reftable files are named by a unique name such as produced by the
-function `${min_update_index}-${max_update_index}.ref`.
+A collection of reftable files are stored in the `$GIT_DIR/reftable/` directory.
+Their names should have a random element, such that each filename is globally
+unique; this helps avoid spurious failures on Windows, where open files cannot
+be removed or overwritten. It suggested to use
+`${min_update_index}-${max_update_index}-${random}.ref` as a naming convention.
Log-only files use the `.log` extension, while ref-only and mixed ref
and log files use `.ref`. extension.
@@ -893,9 +887,9 @@ current files, one per line, in order, from oldest (base) to newest
....
$ cat .git/reftable/tables.list
-00000001-00000001.log
-00000002-00000002.ref
-00000003-00000003.ref
+00000001-00000001-RANDOM1.log
+00000002-00000002-RANDOM2.ref
+00000003-00000003-RANDOM3.ref
....
Readers must read `$GIT_DIR/reftable/tables.list` to determine which
@@ -940,7 +934,7 @@ new reftable and atomically appending it to the stack:
3. Select `update_index` to be most recent file's
`max_update_index + 1`.
4. Prepare temp reftable `tmp_XXXXXX`, including log entries.
-5. Rename `tmp_XXXXXX` to `${update_index}-${update_index}.ref`.
+5. Rename `tmp_XXXXXX` to `${update_index}-${update_index}-${random}.ref`.
6. Copy `tables.list` to `tables.list.lock`, appending file from (5).
7. Rename `tables.list.lock` to `tables.list`.
@@ -993,7 +987,7 @@ prevents other processes from trying to compact these files.
should always be the case, assuming that other processes are adhering to
the locking protocol.
7. Rename `${min_update_index}-${max_update_index}_XXXXXX` to
-`${min_update_index}-${max_update_index}.ref`.
+`${min_update_index}-${max_update_index}-${random}.ref`.
8. Write the new stack to `tables.list.lock`, replacing `B` and `C`
with the file from (4).
9. Rename `tables.list.lock` to `tables.list`.
@@ -1005,6 +999,22 @@ This strategy permits compactions to proceed independently of updates.
Each reftable (compacted or not) is uniquely identified by its name, so
open reftables can be cached by their name.
+Windows
+^^^^^^^
+
+On windows, and other systems that do not allow deleting or renaming to open
+files, compaction may succeed, but other readers may prevent obsolete tables
+from being deleted.
+
+On these platforms, the following strategy can be followed: on closing a
+reftable stack, reload `tables.list`, and delete any tables no longer mentioned
+in `tables.list`.
+
+Irregular program exit may still leave about unused files. In this case, a
+cleanup operation can read `tables.list`, note its modification timestamp, and
+delete any unreferenced `*.ref` files that are older.
+
+
Alternatives considered
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~