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+Git 2.18 Release Notes
+Updates since v2.17
+UI, Workflows & Features
+ * Rename detection logic that is used in "merge" and "cherry-pick" has
+ learned to guess when all of x/a, x/b and x/c have moved to z/a,
+ z/b and z/c, it is likely that x/d added in the meantime would also
+ want to move to z/d by taking the hint that the entire directory
+ 'x' moved to 'z'. A bug causing dirty files involved in a rename
+ to be overwritten during merge has also been fixed as part of this
+ work. Incidentally, this also avoids updating a file in the
+ working tree after a (non-trivial) merge whose result matches what
+ our side originally had.
+ * "git filter-branch" learned to use a different exit code to allow
+ the callers to tell the case where there was no new commits to
+ rewrite from other error cases.
+ * When built with more recent cURL, GIT_SSL_VERSION can now specify
+ "tlsv1.3" as its value.
+ * "git gui" learned that "~/.ssh/" and
+ "~/.ssh/" are also possible SSH key files.
+ (merge 2e2f0288ef bb/git-gui-ssh-key-files later to maint).
+ * "git gui" performs commit upon CTRL/CMD+ENTER but the
+ CTRL/CMD+KP_ENTER (i.e. enter key on the numpad) did not have the
+ same key binding. It now does.
+ (merge 28a1d94a06 bp/git-gui-bind-kp-enter later to maint).
+ * "git gui" has been taught to work with old versions of tk (like
+ 8.5.7) that do not support "ttk::style theme use" as a way to query
+ the current theme.
+ (merge 4891961105 cb/git-gui-ttk-style later to maint).
+ * "git rebase" has learned to honor "--signoff" option when using
+ backends other than "am" (but not "--preserve-merges").
+ * "git branch --list" during an interrupted "rebase -i" now lets
+ users distinguish the case where a detached HEAD is being rebased
+ and a normal branch is being rebased.
+ * "git mergetools" learned talking to guiffy.
+ * The scripts in contrib/emacs/ have outlived their usefulness and
+ have been replaced with a stub that errors out and tells the user
+ there are replacements.
+ * The new "working-tree-encoding" attribute can ask Git to convert the
+ contents to the specified encoding when checking out to the working
+ tree (and the other way around when checking in).
+ * The "git config" command uses separate options e.g. "--int",
+ "--bool", etc. to specify what type the caller wants the value to
+ be interpreted as. A new "--type=<typename>" option has been
+ introduced, which would make it cleaner to define new types.
+ * "git config --get" learned the "--default" option, to help the
+ calling script. Building on top of the above changes, the
+ "git config" learns "--type=color" type. Taken together, you can
+ do things like "git config --get foo.color --default blue" and get
+ the ANSI color sequence for the color given to foo.color variable,
+ or "blue" if the variable does not exist.
+ * "git ls-remote" learned an option to allow sorting its output based
+ on the refnames being shown.
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught that "git
+ stash save" has been deprecated ("git stash push" is the preferred
+ spelling in the new world) and does not offer it as a possible
+ completion candidate when "git stash push" can be.
+ * "git gc --prune=nonsense" spent long time repacking and then
+ silently failed when underlying "git prune --expire=nonsense"
+ failed to parse its command line. This has been corrected.
+ * Error messages from "git push" can be painted for more visibility.
+ * "git http-fetch" (deprecated) had an optional and experimental
+ "feature" to fetch only commits and/or trees, which nobody used.
+ This has been removed.
+ * The functionality of "$GIT_DIR/info/grafts" has been superseded by
+ the "refs/replace/" mechanism for some time now, but the internal
+ code had support for it in many places, which has been cleaned up
+ in order to drop support of the "grafts" mechanism.
+ * "git worktree add" learned to check out an existing branch.
+ * "git --no-pager cmd" did not have short-and-sweet single letter
+ option. Now it does as "-P".
+ (merge 7213c28818 js/no-pager-shorthand later to maint).
+ * "git rebase" learned "--rebase-merges" to transplant the whole
+ topology of commit graph elsewhere.
+ * "git status" learned to pay attention to UI related diff
+ configuration variables such as diff.renames.
+ * The command line completion mechanism (in contrib/) learned to load
+ custom completion file for "git $command" where $command is a
+ custom "git-$command" that the end user has on the $PATH when using
+ newer version of bash-completion.
+ * "git send-email" can sometimes offer confirmation dialog "Send this
+ email?" with choices 'Yes', 'No', 'Quit', and 'All'. A new action
+ 'Edit' has been added to this dialog's choice.
+ * With merge.renames configuration set to false, the recursive merge
+ strategy can be told not to spend cycles trying to find renamed
+ paths and merge them accordingly.
+ * "git status" learned to honor a new status.renames configuration to
+ skip rename detection, which could be useful for those who want to
+ do so without disabling the default rename detection done by the
+ "git diff" command.
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) learned to complete pathnames
+ for various commands better.
+ * "git blame" learns to unhighlight uninteresting metadata from the
+ originating commit on lines that are the same as the previous one,
+ and also paint lines in different colors depending on the age of
+ the commit.
+ * Transfer protocol v2 learned to support the partial clone.
+ * When a short hexadecimal string is used to name an object but there
+ are multiple objects that share the string as the prefix of their
+ names, the code lists these ambiguous candidates in a help message.
+ These object names are now sorted according to their types for
+ easier eyeballing.
+ * "git fetch $there $refspec" that talks over protocol v2 can take
+ advantage of server-side ref filtering; the code has been extended
+ so that this mechanism triggers also when fetching with configured
+ refspec.
+ * Our HTTP client code used to advertise that we accept gzip encoding
+ from the other side; instead, just let cURL library to advertise
+ and negotiate the best one.
+ * "git p4" learned to "unshelve" shelved commit from P4.
+ (merge 123f631761 ld/p4-unshelve later to maint).
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+ * A "git fetch" from a repository with insane number of refs into a
+ repository that is already up-to-date still wasted too many cycles
+ making many lstat(2) calls to see if these objects at the tips
+ exist as loose objects locally. These lstat(2) calls are optimized
+ away by enumerating all loose objects beforehand.
+ It is unknown if the new strategy negatively affects existing use
+ cases, fetching into a repository with many loose objects from a
+ repository with small number of refs.
+ * Git can be built to use either v1 or v2 of the PCRE library, and so
+ far, the build-time configuration USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease instructed
+ the build procedure to use v1, but now it means v2. USE_LIBPCRE1
+ and USE_LIBPCRE2 can be used to explicitly choose which version to
+ use, as before.
+ * The build procedure learned to optionally use symbolic links
+ (instead of hardlinks and copies) to install "git-foo" for built-in
+ commands, whose binaries are all identical.
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+ * The way "git worktree prune" worked internally has been simplified,
+ by assuming how "git worktree move" moves an existing worktree to a
+ different place.
+ * Code clean-up for the "repository" abstraction.
+ (merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
+ * Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ optimized to use the same fan-out table.
+ * The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
+ completion continues to get extended and polished.
+ * Copies of old scripted Porcelain commands in contrib/examples/ have
+ been removed.
+ * Some tests that rely on the exact hardcoded values of object names
+ have been updated in preparation for hash function migration.
+ * Perf-test update.
+ * Test helper update.
+ * The effort continues to refactor the internal global data structure
+ to make it possible to open multiple repositories, work with and
+ then close them,
+ * Small test-helper programs have been consolidated into a single
+ binary.
+ * API clean-up around ref-filter code.
+ * Shell completion (in contrib) that gives list of paths have been
+ optimized somewhat.
+ * The index file is updated to record the fsmonitor section after a
+ full scan was made, to avoid wasting the effort that has already
+ spent.
+ * Performance measuring framework in t/perf learned to help bisecting
+ performance regressions.
+ * Some multi-word source filenames are being renamed to separate
+ words with dashes instead of underscores.
+ * An reusable "memory pool" implementation has been extracted from
+ fast-import.c, which in turn has become the first user of the
+ mem-pool API.
+ * A build-time option has been added to allow Git to be told to refer
+ to its associated files relative to the main binary, in the same
+ way that has been possible on Windows for quite some time, for
+ Linux, BSDs and Darwin.
+ * Precompute and store information necessary for ancestry traversal
+ in a separate file to optimize graph walking.
+ * The effort to pass the repository in-core structure throughout the
+ API continues. This round deals with the code that implements the
+ refs/replace/ mechanism.
+ * The build procedure "make DEVELOPER=YesPlease" learned to enable a
+ bit more warning options depending on the compiler used to help
+ developers more. There also is "make DEVOPTS=tokens" knob
+ available now, for those who want to help fixing warnings we
+ usually ignore, for example.
+ * A new version of the transport protocol is being worked on.
+ * The code to interface to GPG has been restructured somewhat to make
+ it cleaner to integrate with other types of signature systems later.
+ * The code has been taught to use the duplicated information stored
+ in the commit-graph file to learn the tree object name for a commit
+ to avoid opening and parsing the commit object when it makes sense
+ to do so.
+ * "git gc" in a large repository takes a lot of time as it considers
+ to repack all objects into one pack by default. The command has
+ been taught to pretend as if the largest existing packfile is
+ marked with ".keep" so that it is left untouched while objects in
+ other packs and loose ones are repacked.
+ * The transport protocol v2 is getting updated further.
+ * The codepath around object-info API has been taught to take the
+ repository object (which in turn tells the API which object store
+ the objects are to be located).
+ * "git pack-objects" needs to allocate tons of "struct object_entry"
+ while doing its work, and shrinking its size helps the performance
+ quite a bit.
+ * The implementation of "git rebase -i --root" has been updated to use
+ the sequencer machinery more.
+ * Developer support update, by using BUG() macro instead of die() to
+ mark codepaths that should not happen more clearly.
+ * Developer support. Use newer GCC on one of the builds done at
+ to get more warnings and errors diagnosed.
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+ * By code restructuring of submodule merge in merge-recursive,
+ informational messages from the codepath are now given using the
+ same mechanism as other output, and honor the merge.verbosity
+ configuration. The code also learned to give a few new messages
+ when a submodule three-way merge resolves cleanly when one side
+ records a descendant of the commit chosen by the other side.
+ * Avoid unchecked snprintf() to make future code auditing easier.
+ (merge ac4896f007 jk/snprintf-truncation later to maint).
+ * Many tests hardcode the raw object names, which would change once
+ we migrate away from SHA-1. While some of them must test against
+ exact object names, most of them do not have to use hardcoded
+ constants in the test. The latter kind of tests have been updated
+ to test the moral equivalent of the original without hardcoding the
+ actual object names.
+ * The list of commands with their various attributes were spread
+ across a few places in the build procedure, but it now is getting a
+ bit more consolidated to allow more automation.
+ * Quite a many tests assumed that newly created refs are made as
+ loose refs using the files backend, which have been updated to use
+ proper plumbing like rev-parse and update-ref, to avoid breakage
+ once we start using different ref backends.
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+Fixes since v2.17
+ * "git shortlog cruft" aborted with a BUG message when run outside a
+ Git repository. The command has been taught to complain about
+ extra and unwanted arguments on its command line instead in such a
+ case.
+ (merge 4aa0161e83 ma/shortlog-revparse later to maint).
+ * "git stash push -u -- <pathspec>" gave an unnecessary and confusing
+ error message when there was no tracked files that match the
+ <pathspec>, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 353278687e tg/stash-untracked-with-pathspec-fix later to maint).
+ * "git tag --contains no-such-commit" gave a full list of options
+ after giving an error message.
+ (merge 3bb0923f06 ps/contains-id-error-message later to maint).
+ * "diff-highlight" filter (in contrib/) learned to undertand "git log
+ --graph" output better.
+ (merge 4551fbba14 jk/diff-highlight-graph-fix later to maint).
+ * when refs that do not point at committish are given, "git
+ filter-branch" gave a misleading error messages. This has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge f78ab355e7 yk/filter-branch-non-committish-refs later to maint).
+ * "git submodule status" misbehaved on a submodule that has been
+ removed from the working tree.
+ (merge 74b6bda32f rs/status-with-removed-submodule later to maint).
+ * When credential helper exits very quickly without reading its
+ input, it used to cause Git to die with SIGPIPE, which has been
+ fixed.
+ (merge a0d51e8d0e eb/cred-helper-ignore-sigpipe later to maint).
+ * "git rebase --keep-empty" still removed an empty commit if the
+ other side contained an empty commit (due to the "does an
+ equivalent patch exist already?" check), which has been corrected.
+ (merge 3d946165e1 pw/rebase-keep-empty-fixes later to maint).
+ * Some codepaths, including the refs API, get and keep relative
+ paths, that go out of sync when the process does chdir(2). The
+ chdir-notify API is introduced to let these codepaths adjust these
+ cached paths to the new current directory.
+ (merge fb9c2d2703 jk/relative-directory-fix later to maint).
+ * "cd sub/dir && git commit ../path" ought to record the changes to
+ the file "sub/path", but this regressed long time ago.
+ (merge 86238e07ef bw/commit-partial-from-subdirectory-fix later to maint).
+ * Recent introduction of "--log-destination" option to "git daemon"
+ did not work well when the daemon was run under "--inetd" mode.
+ (merge e67d906d73 lw/daemon-log-destination later to maint).
+ * Small fix to the autoconf build procedure.
+ (merge 249482daf0 es/fread-reads-dir-autoconf-fix later to maint).
+ * Fix an unexploitable (because the oversized contents are not under
+ attacker's control) buffer overflow.
+ (merge d8579accfa bp/fsmonitor-bufsize-fix later to maint).
+ * Recent simplification of build procedure forgot a bit of tweak to
+ the build procedure of contrib/mw-to-git/
+ (merge d8698987f3 ab/simplify-perl-makefile later to maint).
+ * Moving a submodule that itself has submodule in it with "git mv"
+ forgot to make necessary adjustment to the nested sub-submodules;
+ now the codepath learned to recurse into the submodules.
+ * "git config --unset a.b", when "a.b" is the last variable in an
+ otherwise empty section "a", left an empty section "a" behind, and
+ worse yet, a subsequent "git config a.c value" did not reuse that
+ empty shell and instead created a new one. These have been
+ (partially) corrected.
+ (merge c71d8bb38a js/empty-config-section-fix later to maint).
+ * "git worktree remove" learned that "-f" is a shorthand for
+ "--force" option, just like for "git worktree add".
+ (merge d228eea514 sb/worktree-remove-opt-force later to maint).
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to clear cached list of
+ command line options upon dot-sourcing it again in a more efficient
+ way.
+ (merge 94408dc71c sg/completion-clear-cached later to maint).
+ * "git svn" had a minor thinko/typo which has been fixed.
+ (merge 51db271587 ab/git-svn-get-record-typofix later to maint).
+ * During a "rebase -i" session, the code could give older timestamp
+ to commits created by later "pick" than an earlier "reword", which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 12f7babd6b js/ident-date-fix later to maint).
+ * "git submodule status" did not check the symbolic revision name it
+ computed for the submodule HEAD is not the NULL, and threw it at
+ printf routines, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0b5e2ea7cf nd/submodule-status-fix later to maint).
+ * When fed input that already has In-Reply-To: and/or References:
+ headers and told to add the same information, "git send-email"
+ added these headers separately, instead of appending to an existing
+ one, which is a violation of the RFC. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 256be1d3f0 sa/send-email-dedup-some-headers later to maint).
+ * "git fast-export" had a regression in v2.15.0 era where it skipped
+ some merge commits in certain cases, which has been corrected.
+ (merge be011bbe00 ma/fast-export-skip-merge-fix later to maint).
+ * The code did not propagate the terminal width to subprocesses via
+ COLUMNS environment variable, which it now does. This caused
+ trouble to "git column" helper subprocess when "git tag --column=row"
+ tried to list the existing tags on a display with non-default width.
+ (merge b5d5a567fb nd/term-columns later to maint).
+ * We learned that our source files with ".pl" and ".py" extensions
+ are Perl and Python files respectively and changes to them are
+ better viewed as such with appropriate diff drivers.
+ (merge 7818b619e2 ab/perl-python-attrs later to maint).
+ * "git rebase -i" sometimes left intermediate "# This is a
+ combination of N commits" message meant for the human consumption
+ inside an editor in the final result in certain corner cases, which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge 15ef69314d js/rebase-i-clean-msg-after-fixup-continue later to maint).
+ * A test to see if the filesystem normalizes UTF-8 filename has been
+ updated to check what we need to know in a more direct way, i.e. a
+ path created in NFC form can be accessed with NFD form (or vice
+ versa) to cope with APFS as well as HFS.
+ (merge 742ae10e35 tb/test-apfs-utf8-normalization later to maint).
+ * "git format-patch --cover --attach" created a broken MIME multipart
+ message for the cover letter, which has been fixed by keeping the
+ cover letter as plain text file.
+ (merge 50cd54ef4e bc/format-patch-cover-no-attach later to maint).
+ * The split-index feature had a long-standing and dormant bug in
+ certain use of the in-core merge machinery, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 7db118303a en/unpack-trees-split-index-fix later to maint).
+ * Asciidoctor gives a reasonable imitation for AsciiDoc, but does not
+ render illustration in a literal block correctly when indented with
+ HT by default. The problem is fixed by forcing 8-space tabs.
+ (merge 379805051d bc/asciidoctor-tab-width later to maint).
+ * Code clean-up to adjust to a more recent lockfile API convention that
+ allows lockfile instances kept on the stack.
+ (merge 0fa5a2ed8d ma/lockfile-cleanup later to maint).
+ * the_repository->index is not a allocated piece of memory but
+ repo_clear() indiscriminately attempted to free(3) it, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 74373b5f10 nd/repo-clear-keep-the-index later to maint).
+ * Code clean-up to avoid non-standard-conformant pointer arithmetic.
+ (merge c112084af9 rs/no-null-ptr-arith-in-fast-export later to maint).
+ * Code clean-up to turn history traversal more robust in a
+ semi-corrupt repository.
+ (merge 8702b30fd7 jk/unavailable-can-be-missing later to maint).
+ * "git update-ref A B" is supposed to ensure that ref A does not yet
+ exist when B is a NULL OID, but this check was not done correctly
+ for pseudo-refs outside refs/ hierarchy, e.g. MERGE_HEAD.
+ * "git submodule update" and "git submodule add" supported the
+ "--reference" option to borrow objects from a neighbouring local
+ repository like "git clone" does, but lacked the more recent
+ invention "--dissociate". Also "git submodule add" has been taught
+ to take the "--progress" option.
+ (merge a0ef29341a cf/submodule-progress-dissociate later to maint).
+ * Update credential-netrc helper (in contrib/) to allow customizing
+ the GPG used to decrypt the encrypted .netrc file.
+ (merge 786ef50a23 lm/credential-netrc later to maint).
+ * "git submodule update" attempts two different kinds of "git fetch"
+ against the upstream repository to grab a commit bound at the
+ submodule's path, but it incorrectly gave up if the first kind
+ (i.e. a normal fetch) failed, making the second "last resort" one
+ (i.e. fetching an exact commit object by object name) ineffective.
+ This has been corrected.
+ (merge e30d833671 sb/submodule-update-try-harder later to maint).
+ * Error behaviour of "git grep" when it cannot read the index was
+ inconsistent with other commands that uses the index, which has
+ been corrected to error out early.
+ (merge b2aa84c789 sb/grep-die-on-unreadable-index later to maint).
+ * We used to call regfree() after regcomp() failed in some codepaths,
+ which have been corrected.
+ (merge 17154b1576 ma/regex-no-regfree-after-comp-fail later to maint).
+ * The import-tars script (in contrib/) has been taught to handle
+ tarballs with overly long paths that use PAX extended headers.
+ (merge 12ecea46e3 pa/import-tars-long-names later to maint).
+ * "git rev-parse Y..." etc. misbehaved when given endpoints were
+ not committishes.
+ (merge 0ed556d38f en/rev-parse-invalid-range later to maint).
+ * "git pull --recurse-submodules --rebase", when the submodule
+ repository's history did not have anything common between ours and
+ the upstream's, failed to execute. We need to fetch from them to
+ continue even in such a case.
+ (merge 4d36f88be7 jt/submodule-pull-recurse-rebase later to maint).
+ * "git remote update" can take both a single remote nickname and a
+ nickname for remote groups, but only one of them was documented.
+ (merge a97447a42a nd/remote-update-doc later to maint).
+ * "index-pack --strict" has been taught to make sure that it runs the
+ final object integrity checks after making the freshly indexed
+ packfile available to itself.
+ (merge 3737746120 jk/index-pack-maint later to maint).
+ * Make zlib inflate codepath more robust against versions of zlib
+ that clobber unused portion of outbuf.
+ (merge b611396e97 jl/zlib-restore-nul-termination later to maint).
+ * Fix old merge glitch in Documentation during v2.13-rc0 era.
+ (merge 28cb06020b mw/doc-merge-enumfix later to maint).
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 248f66ed8e nd/trace-with-env later to maint).
+ (merge 14ced5562c ys/bisect-object-id-missing-conversion-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5988eb631a ab/doc-hash-brokenness later to maint).
+ (merge a4d4e32a70 pk/test-avoid-pipe-hiding-exit-status later to maint).
+ (merge 05e293c1ac jk/flockfile-stdio later to maint).
+ (merge e9184b0789 jk/t5561-missing-curl later to maint).
+ (merge b1801b85a3 nd/worktree-move later to maint).
+ (merge bbd374dd20 ak/bisect-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 4855f06fb3 mn/send-email-credential-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 8523b1e355 en/doc-typoes later to maint).
+ (merge 43b44ccfe7 js/t5404-path-fix later to maint).
+ (merge decf711fc1 ps/test-chmtime-get later to maint).
+ (merge 22d11a6e8e es/worktree-docs later to maint).
+ (merge 92a5dbbc22 tg/use-git-contacts later to maint).
+ (merge adc887221f tq/t1510 later to maint).
+ (merge bed21a8ad6 sg/doc-gc-quote-mismatch-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 73364e4f10 tz/doc-git-urls-reference later to maint).
+ (merge cd1e606bad bc/mailmap-self later to maint).
+ (merge f7997e3682 ao/config-api-doc later to maint).
+ (merge ee930754d8 jk/apply-p-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 011b648646 nd/pack-format-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 87a6bb701a sg/t5310-jgit-bitmap-test later to maint).
+ (merge f6b82970aa sg/t5516-fixes later to maint).
+ (merge 4362da078e sg/t7005-spaces-in-filenames-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 7d0ee47c11 js/test-unset-prereq later to maint).
+ (merge 5356a3c354 ah/misc-doc-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 92c4a7a129 nd/completion-aliasfiletype-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 58bd77b66a nd/pack-unreachable-objects-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 4ed79d5203 sg/t6500-no-redirect-of-stdin later to maint).
+ (merge 17b8a2d6cd jk/config-blob-sans-repo later to maint).
+ (merge 590551ca2c rd/tag-doc-lightweight later to maint).
+ (merge 44f560fc16 rd/init-typo later to maint).
+ (merge f156a0934a rd/p4-doc-markup-env later to maint).
+ (merge 2a00502b14 tg/doc-sec-list later to maint).
+ (merge 47cc91310a jk/submodule-fsck-loose-fixup later to maint).
+ (merge efde7b725c rd/comment-typofix-in-sha1-file later to maint).
+ (merge 7eedad15df rd/diff-options-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 58ebd936cc km/doc-workflows-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 30aa96cdf8 rd/doc-remote-tracking-with-hyphen later to maint).