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+Git v1.9.0 Release Notes
+Backward compatibility notes
+"git submodule foreach $cmd $args" used to treat "$cmd $args" the same
+way "ssh" did, concatenating them into a single string and letting the
+shell unquote. Careless users who forget to sufficiently quote $args
+get their argument split at $IFS whitespaces by the shell, and got
+unexpected results due to this. Starting from this release, the
+command line is passed directly to the shell, if it has an argument.
+Read-only support for experimental loose-object format, in which users
+could optionally choose to write their loose objects for a short
+while between v1.4.3 and v1.5.3 era, has been dropped.
+The meanings of the "--tags" option to "git fetch" has changed; the
+command fetches tags _in addition to_ what is fetched by the same
+command line without the option.
+The way "git push $there $what" interprets the $what part given on the
+command line, when it does not have a colon that explicitly tells us
+what ref at the $there repository is to be updated, has been enhanced.
+A handful of ancient commands that have long been deprecated are
+finally gone (repo-config, tar-tree, lost-found, and peek-remote).
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0.0)
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics, which pushes:
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
+Updates since v1.8.5
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+ * The HTTP transport, when talking GSS-Negotiate, uses "100
+ Continue" response to avoid having to rewind and resend a large
+ payload, which may not be always doable.
+ * Various bugfixes to remote-bzr and remote-hg (in contrib/).
+ * The build procedure is aware of MirBSD now.
+ * Various "git p4", "git svn" and "gitk" updates.
+UI, Workflows & Features
+ * Fetching from a shallowly-cloned repository used to be forbidden,
+ primarily because the codepaths involved were not carefully vetted
+ and we did not bother supporting such usage. This release attempts
+ to allow object transfer out of a shallowly-cloned repository in a
+ more controlled way (i.e. the receiver becomes a shallow repository
+ with a truncated history).
+ * Just like we give a reasonable default for "less" via the LESS
+ environment variable, we now specify a reasonable default for "lv"
+ via the "LV" environment variable when spawning the pager.
+ * Two-level configuration variable names in "branch.*" and "remote.*"
+ hierarchies, whose variables are predominantly three-level, were
+ not completed by hitting a <TAB> in bash and zsh completions.
+ * Fetching a 'frotz' branch with "git fetch", while a 'frotz/nitfol'
+ remote-tracking branch from an earlier fetch was still there, would
+ error out, primarily because the command was not told that it is
+ allowed to lose any information on our side. "git fetch --prune"
+ now can be used to remove 'frotz/nitfol' to make room for fetching and
+ storing the 'frotz' remote-tracking branch.
+ * "diff.orderfile=<file>" configuration variable can be used to
+ pretend as if the "-O<file>" option were given from the command
+ line of "git diff", etc.
+ * The negative pathspec syntax allows "git log -- . ':!dir'" to tell
+ us "I am interested in everything but 'dir' directory".
+ * "git difftool" shows how many different paths there are in total,
+ and how many of them have been shown so far, to indicate progress.
+ * "git push origin master" used to push our 'master' branch to update
+ the 'master' branch at the 'origin' repository. This has been
+ enhanced to use the same ref mapping "git push origin" would use to
+ determine what ref at the 'origin' to be updated with our 'master'.
+ For example, with this configuration
+ [remote "origin"]
+ push = refs/heads/*:refs/review/*
+ that would cause "git push origin" to push out our local branches
+ to corresponding refs under refs/review/ hierarchy at 'origin',
+ "git push origin master" would update 'refs/review/master' over
+ there. Alternatively, if push.default is set to 'upstream' and our
+ 'master' is set to integrate with 'topic' from the 'origin' branch,
+ running "git push origin" while on our 'master' would update their
+ 'topic' branch, and running "git push origin master" while on any
+ of our branches does the same.
+ * "gitweb" learned to treat ref hierarchies other than refs/heads as
+ if they are additional branch namespaces (e.g. refs/changes/ in
+ Gerrit).
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." learned a few formatting directives;
+ e.g. "%(color:red)%(HEAD)%(color:reset) %(refname:short) %(subject)".
+ * The command string given to "git submodule foreach" is passed
+ directly to the shell, without being eval'ed. This is a backward
+ incompatible change that may break existing users.
+ * "git log" and friends learned the "--exclude=<glob>" option, to
+ allow people to say "list history of all branches except those that
+ match this pattern" with "git log --exclude='*/*' --branches".
+ * "git rev-parse --parseopt" learned a new "--stuck-long" option to
+ help scripts parse options with an optional parameter.
+ * The "--tags" option to "git fetch" no longer tells the command to
+ fetch _only_ the tags. It instead fetches tags _in addition to_
+ what are fetched by the same command line without the option.
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+ * When parsing a 40-hex string into the object name, the string is
+ checked to see if it can be interpreted as a ref so that a warning
+ can be given for ambiguity. The code kicked in even when the
+ core.warnambiguousrefs is set to false to squelch this warning, in
+ which case the cycles spent to look at the ref namespace were an
+ expensive no-op, as the result was discarded without being used.
+ * The naming convention of the packfiles has been updated; it used to
+ be based on the enumeration of names of the objects that are
+ contained in the pack, but now it also depends on how the packed
+ result is represented---packing the same set of objects using
+ different settings (or delta order) would produce a pack with
+ different name.
+ * "git diff --no-index" mode used to unnecessarily attempt to read
+ the index when there is one.
+ * The deprecated parse-options macro OPT_BOOLEAN has been removed;
+ use OPT_BOOL or OPT_COUNTUP in new code.
+ * A few duplicate implementations of prefix/suffix string comparison
+ functions have been unified to starts_with() and ends_with().
+ * The new PERLLIB_EXTRA makefile variable can be used to specify
+ additional directories Perl modules (e.g. the ones necessary to run
+ git-svn) are installed on the platform when building.
+ * "git merge-base" learned the "--fork-point" mode, that implements
+ the same logic used in "git pull --rebase" to find a suitable fork
+ point out of the reflog entries for the remote-tracking branch the
+ work has been based on. "git rebase" has the same logic that can be
+ triggered with the "--fork-point" option.
+ * A third-party "receive-pack" (the responder to "git push") can
+ advertise the "no-thin" capability to tell "git push" not to use
+ the thin-pack optimization. Our receive-pack has always been
+ capable of accepting and fattening a thin-pack, and will continue
+ not to ask "git push" to use a non-thin pack.
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+Fixes since v1.8.5
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.5 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes
+for details).
+ * The pathspec matching code, while comparing two trees (e.g. "git
+ diff A B -- path1 path2") was too aggressive and failed to match
+ some paths when multiple pathspecs were involved.
+ * "git repack --max-pack-size=8g" stopped being parsed correctly when
+ the command was reimplemented in C.
+ * An earlier update in v1.8.4.x to "git rev-list --objects" with
+ negative ref had a performance regression.
+ (merge 200abe7 jk/mark-edges-uninteresting later to maint).
+ * A recent update to "git send-email" broke platforms where
+ /etc/ssl/certs/ directory exists but cannot be used as SSL_ca_path
+ (e.g. Fedora rawhide).
+ * A handful of bugs around interpreting $branch@{upstream} notation
+ and its lookalike, when $branch part has interesting characters,
+ e.g. "@", and ":", have been fixed.
+ * "git clone" would fail to clone from a repository that has a ref
+ directly under "refs/", e.g. "refs/stash", because different
+ validation paths do different things on such a refname. Loosen the
+ client side's validation to allow such a ref.
+ * "git log --left-right A...B" lost the "leftness" of commits
+ reachable from A when A is a tag as a side effect of a recent
+ bugfix. This is a regression in 1.8.4.x series.
+ * documentations to "git pull" hinted there is an "-m" option because
+ it incorrectly shared the documentation with "git merge".
+ * "git diff A B submod" and "git diff A B submod/" ought to have done
+ the same for a submodule "submod", but didn't.
+ * "git clone $origin foo\bar\baz" on Windows failed to create the
+ leading directories (i.e. a moral-equivalent of "mkdir -p").
+ * "submodule.*.update=checkout", when propagated from .gitmodules to
+ .git/config, turned into a "submodule.*.update=none", which did not
+ make much sense.
+ (merge efa8fd7 fp/submodule-checkout-mode later to maint).
+ * The implementation of 'git stash $cmd "stash@{...}"' did not quote
+ the stash argument properly and left it split at IFS whitespace.
+ * The "--[no-]informative-errors" options to "git daemon" were parsed
+ a bit too loosely, allowing any other string after these option
+ names.
+ * There is no reason to have a hardcoded upper limit for the number of
+ parents of an octopus merge, created via the graft mechanism, but
+ there was.
+ * The basic test used to leave unnecessary trash directories in the
+ t/ directory.
+ (merge 738a8be jk/test-framework-updates later to maint).
+ * "git merge-base --octopus" used to leave cleaning up suboptimal
+ result to the caller, but now it does the clean-up itself.
+ * A "gc" process running as a different user should be able to stop a
+ new "gc" process from starting, but it didn't.
+ * An earlier "clean-up" introduced an unnecessary memory leak.
+ * "git add -A" (no other arguments) in a totally empty working tree
+ used to emit an error.
+ * "git log --decorate" did not handle a tag pointed by another tag
+ nicely.
+ * When we figure out how many file descriptors to allocate for
+ keeping packfiles open, a system with non-working getrlimit() could
+ cause us to die(), but because we make this call only to get a
+ rough estimate of how many are available and we do not even attempt
+ to use up all available file descriptors ourselves, it is nicer to
+ fall back to a reasonable low value rather than dying.
+ * read_sha1_file(), that is the workhorse to read the contents given
+ an object name, honoured object replacements, but there was no
+ corresponding mechanism to sha1_object_info() that was used to
+ obtain the metainfo (e.g. type & size) about the object. This led
+ callers to weird inconsistencies.
+ (merge 663a856 cc/replace-object-info later to maint).
+ * "git cat-file --batch=", an admittedly useless command, did not
+ behave very well.
+ * "git rev-parse <revs> -- <paths>" did not implement the usual
+ disambiguation rules the commands in the "git log" family used in
+ the same way.
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+ * A workaround to an old bug in glibc prior to glibc 2.17 has been
+ retired; this would remove a side effect of the workaround that
+ corrupts system error messages in non-C locales.
+ * SSL-related options were not passed correctly to underlying socket
+ layer in "git send-email".
+ * "git commit -v" appends the patch to the log message before
+ editing, and then removes the patch when the editor returned
+ control. However, the patch was not stripped correctly when the
+ first modified path was a submodule.
+ * "git fetch --depth=0" was a no-op, and was silently ignored.
+ Diagnose it as an error.
+ * Remote repository URLs expressed in scp-style host:path notation are
+ parsed more carefully (e.g. "foo/bar:baz" is local, "[::1]:/~user" asks
+ to connect to user's home directory on host at address ::1.
+ * "git diff -- ':(icase)makefile'" was unnecessarily rejected at the
+ command line parser.
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=ok" did not check the existence of
+ the named object.
+ * "git am --abort" sometimes complained about not being able to write
+ a tree with an 0{40} object in it.
+ * Two processes creating loose objects at the same time could have
+ failed unnecessarily when the name of their new objects started
+ with the same byte value, due to a race condition.