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-rw-r--r--.gitignore163
-rw-r--r--.mailmap39
-rw-r--r--COPYING361
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore7
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt54
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt256
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/using-topic-branches.txt296
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GIT-VERSION-FILE
-git-citool
-git-gui
+git
+git-add
+git-add--interactive
+git-am
+git-annotate
+git-apply
+git-applymbox
+git-applypatch
+git-archimport
+git-archive
+git-bisect
+git-blame
+git-branch
+git-cat-file
+git-check-ref-format
+git-checkout
+git-checkout-index
+git-cherry
+git-cherry-pick
+git-clean
+git-clone
+git-commit
+git-commit-tree
+git-config
+git-convert-objects
+git-count-objects
+git-cvsexportcommit
+git-cvsimport
+git-cvsserver
+git-daemon
+git-diff
+git-diff-files
+git-diff-index
+git-diff-stages
+git-diff-tree
+git-describe
+git-fast-import
+git-fetch
+git-fetch-pack
+git-findtags
+git-fmt-merge-msg
+git-for-each-ref
+git-format-patch
+git-fsck
+git-fsck-objects
+git-gc
+git-get-tar-commit-id
+git-grep
+git-hash-object
+git-http-fetch
+git-http-push
+git-imap-send
+git-index-pack
+git-init
+git-init-db
+git-instaweb
+git-local-fetch
+git-log
+git-lost-found
+git-ls-files
+git-ls-remote
+git-ls-tree
+git-mailinfo
+git-mailsplit
+git-merge
+git-merge-base
+git-merge-index
+git-merge-file
+git-merge-tree
+git-merge-octopus
+git-merge-one-file
+git-merge-ours
+git-merge-recursive
+git-merge-resolve
+git-merge-stupid
+git-mktag
+git-mktree
+git-name-rev
+git-mv
+git-pack-redundant
+git-pack-objects
+git-pack-refs
+git-parse-remote
+git-patch-id
+git-peek-remote
+git-prune
+git-prune-packed
+git-pull
+git-push
+git-quiltimport
+git-read-tree
+git-rebase
+git-receive-pack
+git-reflog
+git-relink
+git-remote
+git-repack
+git-repo-config
+git-request-pull
+git-rerere
+git-reset
+git-resolve
+git-rev-list
+git-rev-parse
+git-revert
+git-rm
+git-runstatus
+git-send-email
+git-send-pack
+git-sh-setup
+git-shell
+git-shortlog
+git-show
+git-show-branch
+git-show-index
+git-show-ref
+git-ssh-fetch
+git-ssh-pull
+git-ssh-push
+git-ssh-upload
+git-status
+git-stripspace
+git-svn
+git-svnimport
+git-symbolic-ref
+git-tag
+git-tar-tree
+git-unpack-file
+git-unpack-objects
+git-update-index
+git-update-ref
+git-update-server-info
+git-upload-archive
+git-upload-pack
+git-var
+git-verify-pack
+git-verify-tag
+git-whatchanged
+git-write-tree
+git-core-*/?*
+gitweb/gitweb.cgi
+test-date
+test-delta
+test-dump-cache-tree
+common-cmds.h
+*.tar.gz
+*.dsc
+*.deb
+git-core.spec
+*.exe
+*.[ao]
+*.py[co]
+config.mak
+autom4te.cache
+config.cache
+config.log
+config.status
+config.mak.autogen
+config.mak.append
+configure
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c7a3a75
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+#
+# This list is used by git-shortlog to fix a few botched name translations
+# in the git archive, either because the author's full name was messed up
+# and/or not always written the same way, making contributions from the
+# same person appearing not to be so.
+#
+
+Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@gmail.com>
+Chris Shoemaker <c.shoemaker@cox.net>
+Daniel Barkalow <barkalow@iabervon.org>
+David Kågedal <davidk@lysator.liu.se>
+Fredrik Kuivinen <freku045@student.liu.se>
+H. Peter Anvin <hpa@bonde.sc.orionmulti.com>
+H. Peter Anvin <hpa@tazenda.sc.orionmulti.com>
+H. Peter Anvin <hpa@trantor.hos.anvin.org>
+Horst H. von Brand <vonbrand@inf.utfsm.cl>
+Joachim Berdal Haga <cjhaga@fys.uio.no>
+Jon Loeliger <jdl@freescale.com>
+Jon Seymour <jon@blackcubes.dyndns.org>
+Karl Hasselström <kha@treskal.com>
+Kent Engstrom <kent@lysator.liu.se>
+Lars Doelle <lars.doelle@on-line.de>
+Lars Doelle <lars.doelle@on-line ! de>
+Lukas Sandström <lukass@etek.chalmers.se>
+Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>
+Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
+Ramsay Allan Jones <ramsay@ramsay1.demon.co.uk>
+René Scharfe <rene.scharfe@lsrfire.ath.cx>
+Robert Fitzsimons <robfitz@273k.net>
+Santi Béjar <sbejar@gmail.com>
+Sean Estabrooks <seanlkml@sympatico.ca>
+Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>
+Theodore Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
+Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
+Uwe Kleine-König <zeisberg@informatik.uni-freiburg.de>
+Ville Skyttä <scop@xemacs.org>
+YOSHIFUJI Hideaki <yoshfuji@linux-ipv6.org>
+anonymous <linux@horizon.com>
+anonymous <linux@horizon.net>
diff --git a/COPYING b/COPYING
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6ff87c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/COPYING
@@ -0,0 +1,361 @@
+
+ Note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as this project
+ is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not
+ v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.
+
+ HOWEVER, in order to allow a migration to GPLv3 if that seems like
+ a good idea, I also ask that people involved with the project make
+ their preferences known. In particular, if you trust me to make that
+ decision, you might note so in your copyright message, ie something
+ like
+
+ This file is licensed under the GPL v2, or a later version
+ at the discretion of Linus.
+
+ might avoid issues. But we can also just decide to synchronize and
+ contact all copyright holders on record if/when the occasion arises.
+
+ Linus Torvalds
+
+----------------------------------------
+
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ Version 2, June 1991
+
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+ 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
+ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
+ of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
+
+ Preamble
+
+ The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
+freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
+License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
+software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
+General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
+Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
+using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
+the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
+your programs, too.
+
+ When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
+price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
+have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
+this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
+if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
+in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
+
+ To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
+anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
+These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
+distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
+
+ For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
+gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
+you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
+source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
+rights.
+
+ We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
+(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
+distribute and/or modify the software.
+
+ Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
+that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
+software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
+want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
+that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
+authors' reputations.
+
+ Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
+patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
+program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
+program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
+patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
+
+ The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
+modification follow.
+
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
+
+ 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
+a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
+under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
+refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
+means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
+that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
+either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
+language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
+the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
+
+Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
+covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
+running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
+is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
+Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
+Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
+
+ 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
+source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
+conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
+copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
+notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
+and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
+along with the Program.
+
+You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
+you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
+
+ 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
+of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
+distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
+above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
+
+ a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
+ stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
+
+ b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
+ whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
+ part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
+ parties under the terms of this License.
+
+ c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
+ when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
+ interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
+ announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
+ notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
+ a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
+ these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
+ License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
+ does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
+ the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
+
+These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
+identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
+and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
+themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
+sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
+distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
+on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
+this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
+entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
+
+Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
+your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
+exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
+collective works based on the Program.
+
+In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
+with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
+a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
+the scope of this License.
+
+ 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
+under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
+Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
+
+ a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
+ source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
+ 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
+ years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
+ cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
+ machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
+ distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
+ customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
+ to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
+ allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
+ received the program in object code or executable form with such
+ an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
+
+The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
+making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
+code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
+associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
+control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
+special exception, the source code distributed need not include
+anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
+form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
+operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
+itself accompanies the executable.
+
+If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
+access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
+access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
+distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
+compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
+
+ 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
+except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
+otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
+void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
+However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
+this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
+parties remain in full compliance.
+
+ 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
+signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
+distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
+prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
+modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
+all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
+the Program or works based on it.
+
+ 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
+original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
+these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
+restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
+You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
+this License.
+
+ 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
+infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
+conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
+otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
+excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
+distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
+License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
+may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
+license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
+all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
+the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
+refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
+
+If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
+any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
+apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
+circumstances.
+
+It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
+patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
+such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
+integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
+implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
+generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
+through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
+system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
+to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
+impose that choice.
+
+This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
+be a consequence of the rest of this License.
+
+ 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
+certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
+original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
+may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
+those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
+countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
+the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
+
+ 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
+of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
+be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
+address new problems or concerns.
+
+Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
+specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
+later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
+either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
+Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
+this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
+Foundation.
+
+ 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
+programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
+to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
+Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
+make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
+of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
+of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
+
+ NO WARRANTY
+
+ 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
+FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
+OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
+PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
+OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
+MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
+TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
+PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
+REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
+
+ 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
+WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
+REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
+INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
+OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
+YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
+PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
+POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
+
+ END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
+
+ How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+
+ If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+
+ To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+
+ <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+ Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+
+ This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
+
+
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+
+If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
+when it starts in an interactive mode:
+
+ Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
+ Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
+ This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
+ under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
+
+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
+parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
+be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
+mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
+
+You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
+school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
+necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
+
+ Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
+ `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
+
+ <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
+ Ty Coon, President of Vice
+
+This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
+proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
+consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
+library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
+Public License instead of this License.
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6a51331
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+*.xml
+*.html
+*.1
+*.7
+howto-index.txt
+doc.dep
+cmds-*.txt
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aaf9591
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+MAN1_TXT= \
+ $(filter-out $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
+ $(wildcard git-*.txt)) \
+ gitk.txt
+MAN7_TXT=git.txt
+
+DOC_HTML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT))
+
+ARTICLES = tutorial
+ARTICLES += tutorial-2
+ARTICLES += core-tutorial
+ARTICLES += cvs-migration
+ARTICLES += diffcore
+ARTICLES += howto-index
+ARTICLES += repository-layout
+ARTICLES += hooks
+ARTICLES += everyday
+ARTICLES += git-tools
+# with their own formatting rules.
+SP_ARTICLES = glossary howto/revert-branch-rebase user-manual
+
+DOC_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
+
+DOC_MAN1=$(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
+DOC_MAN7=$(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
+
+prefix?=$(HOME)
+bindir?=$(prefix)/bin
+mandir?=$(prefix)/man
+man1dir=$(mandir)/man1
+man7dir=$(mandir)/man7
+# DESTDIR=
+
+ASCIIDOC=asciidoc
+INSTALL?=install
+DOC_REF = origin/man
+
+-include ../config.mak.autogen
+
+#
+# Please note that there is a minor bug in asciidoc.
+# The version after 6.0.3 _will_ include the patch found here:
+# http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=111558757202243&w=2
+#
+# Until that version is released you may have to apply the patch
+# yourself - yes, all 6 characters of it!
+#
+
+all: html man
+
+html: $(DOC_HTML)
+
+$(DOC_HTML) $(DOC_MAN1) $(DOC_MAN7): asciidoc.conf
+
+man: man1 man7
+man1: $(DOC_MAN1)
+man7: $(DOC_MAN7)
+
+install: man
+ $(INSTALL) -d -m755 $(DESTDIR)$(man1dir) $(DESTDIR)$(man7dir)
+ $(INSTALL) -m644 $(DOC_MAN1) $(DESTDIR)$(man1dir)
+ $(INSTALL) -m644 $(DOC_MAN7) $(DESTDIR)$(man7dir)
+
+
+#
+# Determine "include::" file references in asciidoc files.
+#
+doc.dep : $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
+ rm -f $@+ $@
+ perl ./build-docdep.perl >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+-include doc.dep
+
+cmds_txt = cmds-ancillaryinterrogators.txt \
+ cmds-ancillarymanipulators.txt \
+ cmds-mainporcelain.txt \
+ cmds-plumbinginterrogators.txt \
+ cmds-plumbingmanipulators.txt \
+ cmds-synchingrepositories.txt \
+ cmds-synchelpers.txt \
+ cmds-purehelpers.txt \
+ cmds-foreignscminterface.txt
+
+$(cmds_txt): cmd-list.perl $(MAN1_TXT)
+ perl ./cmd-list.perl
+
+git.7 git.html: git.txt core-intro.txt
+
+clean:
+ rm -f *.xml *.html *.1 *.7 howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
+ rm -f $(cmds_txt)
+
+%.html : %.txt
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf $<
+
+%.1 %.7 : %.xml
+ xmlto -m callouts.xsl man $<
+
+%.xml : %.txt
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b docbook -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf $<
+
+user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b docbook -d book $<
+
+user-manual.html: user-manual.xml
+ xmlto html-nochunks $<
+
+glossary.html : glossary.txt sort_glossary.pl
+ cat $< | \
+ perl sort_glossary.pl | \
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 - > glossary.html
+
+howto-index.txt: howto-index.sh $(wildcard howto/*.txt)
+ rm -f $@+ $@
+ sh ./howto-index.sh $(wildcard howto/*.txt) >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+$(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES)) : %.html : %.txt
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 $*.txt
+
+WEBDOC_DEST = /pub/software/scm/git/docs
+
+$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
+ rm -f $@+ $@
+ sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $< | $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 - >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+install-webdoc : html
+ sh ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
+
+quick-install:
+ sh ./install-doc-quick.sh $(DOC_REF) $(mandir)
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..285781d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -0,0 +1,349 @@
+I started reading over the SubmittingPatches document for Linux
+kernel, primarily because I wanted to have a document similar to
+it for the core GIT to make sure people understand what they are
+doing when they write "Signed-off-by" line.
+
+But the patch submission requirements are a lot more relaxed
+here on the technical/contents front, because the core GIT is
+thousand times smaller ;-). So here is only the relevant bits.
+
+
+(1) Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
+
+Unless your patch is really trivial, you should not be sending
+out a patch that was generated between your working tree and
+your commit head. Instead, always make a commit with complete
+commit message and generate a series of patches from your
+repository. It is a good discipline.
+
+Describe the technical detail of the change(s).
+
+If your description starts to get too long, that's a sign that you
+probably need to split up your commit to finer grained pieces.
+
+Oh, another thing. I am picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
+changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
+in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
+run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
+
+
+(2) Generate your patch using git tools out of your commits.
+
+git based diff tools (git, Cogito, and StGIT included) generate
+unidiff which is the preferred format.
+
+You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
+"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
+receiving end can handle them just fine.
+
+Please make sure your patch does not include any extra files
+which do not belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review
+your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
+sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
+branch head. If you are preparing a work based on "next" branch,
+that is fine, but please mark it as such.
+
+
+(3) Sending your patches.
+
+People on the git mailing list need to be able to read and
+comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
+a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
+e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
+your code. For this reason, all patches should be submitted
+"inline". WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
+corrupting your patch. Do not cut-n-paste your patch; you can
+lose tabs that way if you are not careful.
+
+It is a common convention to prefix your subject line with
+[PATCH]. This lets people easily distinguish patches from other
+e-mail discussions.
+
+"git format-patch" command follows the best current practice to
+format the body of an e-mail message. At the beginning of the
+patch should come your commit message, ending with the
+Signed-off-by: lines, and a line that consists of three dashes,
+followed by the diffstat information and the patch itself. If
+you are forwarding a patch from somebody else, optionally, at
+the beginning of the e-mail message just before the commit
+message starts, you can put a "From: " line to name that person.
+
+You often want to add additional explanation about the patch,
+other than the commit message itself. Place such "cover letter"
+material between the three dash lines and the diffstat.
+
+Do not attach the patch as a MIME attachment, compressed or not.
+Do not let your e-mail client send quoted-printable. Do not let
+your e-mail client send format=flowed which would destroy
+whitespaces in your patches. Many
+popular e-mail applications will not always transmit a MIME
+attachment as plain text, making it impossible to comment on
+your code. A MIME attachment also takes a bit more time to
+process. This does not decrease the likelihood of your
+MIME-attached change being accepted, but it makes it more likely
+that it will be postponed.
+
+Exception: If your mailer is mangling patches then someone may ask
+you to re-send them using MIME, that is OK.
+
+Do not PGP sign your patch, at least for now. Most likely, your
+maintainer or other people on the list would not have your PGP
+key and would not bother obtaining it anyway. Your patch is not
+judged by who you are; a good patch from an unknown origin has a
+far better chance of being accepted than a patch from a known,
+respected origin that is done poorly or does incorrect things.
+
+If you really really really really want to do a PGP signed
+patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
+that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
+not a text/plain, it's something else.
+
+Note that your maintainer does not necessarily read everything
+on the git mailing list. If your patch is for discussion first,
+send it "To:" the mailing list, and optionally "cc:" him. If it
+is trivially correct or after the list reached a consensus, send
+it "To:" the maintainer and optionally "cc:" the list.
+
+Also note that your maintainer does not actively involve himself in
+maintaining what are in contrib/ hierarchy. When you send fixes and
+enhancements to them, do not forget to "cc: " the person who primarily
+worked on that hierarchy in contrib/.
+
+
+(4) Sign your work
+
+To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
+"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
+that are being emailed around. Although core GIT is a lot
+smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
+
+The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
+the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
+the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
+pretty simple: if you can certify the below:
+
+ Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
+
+ By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
+
+ (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
+ have the right to submit it under the open source license
+ indicated in the file; or
+
+ (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
+ of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
+ license and I have the right under that license to submit that
+ work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
+ by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
+ permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
+ in the file; or
+
+ (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
+ person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
+ it.
+
+ (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
+ are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
+ personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
+ maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
+ this project or the open source license(s) involved.
+
+then you just add a line saying
+
+ Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
+
+This line can be automatically added by git if you run the git-commit
+command with the -s option.
+
+Some people also put extra tags at the end. They'll just be ignored for
+now, but you can do this to mark internal company procedures or just
+point out some special detail about the sign-off.
+
+
+------------------------------------------------
+MUA specific hints
+
+Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
+patterns of breakage. Please make sure your MUA is set up
+properly not to corrupt whitespaces. Here are two common ones
+I have seen:
+
+* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
+
+* Non empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
+ beginning.
+
+One test you could do yourself if your MUA is set up correctly is:
+
+* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
+ To: and Cc: lines, which would not contain the list and
+ maintainer address.
+
+* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it say
+ a.patch.
+
+* Try to apply to the tip of the "master" branch from the
+ git.git public repository:
+
+ $ git fetch http://kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master:test-apply
+ $ git checkout test-apply
+ $ git reset --hard
+ $ git applymbox a.patch
+
+If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
+
+* Your patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
+ does not have much to do with your MUA. Please rebase the
+ patch appropriately.
+
+* Your MUA corrupted your patch; applymbox would complain that
+ the patch does not apply. Look at .dotest/ subdirectory and
+ see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
+ corruption patterns mentioned above.
+
+* While you are at it, check what are in 'info' and
+ 'final-commit' files as well. If what is in 'final-commit' is
+ not exactly what you would want to see in the commit log
+ message, it is very likely that your maintainer would end up
+ hand editing the log message when he applies your patch.
+ Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n", if you really
+ want to put in the patch e-mail, should come after the
+ three-dash line that signals the end of the commit message.
+
+
+Pine
+----
+
+(Johannes Schindelin)
+
+I don't know how many people still use pine, but for those poor
+souls it may be good to mention that the quell-flowed-text is
+needed for recent versions.
+
+... the "no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, too. AFAIK it
+was introduced in 4.60.
+
+(Linus Torvalds)
+
+And 4.58 needs at least this.
+
+---
+diff-tree 8326dd8350be64ac7fc805f6563a1d61ad10d32c (from e886a61f76edf5410573e92e38ce22974f9c40f1)
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@g5.osdl.org>
+Date: Mon Aug 15 17:23:51 2005 -0700
+
+ Fix pine whitespace-corruption bug
+
+ There's no excuse for unconditionally removing whitespace from
+ the pico buffers on close.
+
+diff --git a/pico/pico.c b/pico/pico.c
+--- a/pico/pico.c
++++ b/pico/pico.c
+@@ -219,7 +219,9 @@ PICO *pm;
+ switch(pico_all_done){ /* prepare for/handle final events */
+ case COMP_EXIT : /* already confirmed */
+ packheader();
++#if 0
+ stripwhitespace();
++#endif
+ c |= COMP_EXIT;
+ break;
+
+
+(Daniel Barkalow)
+
+> A patch to SubmittingPatches, MUA specific help section for
+> users of Pine 4.63 would be very much appreciated.
+
+Ah, it looks like a recent version changed the default behavior to do the
+right thing, and inverted the sense of the configuration option. (Either
+that or Gentoo did it.) So you need to set the
+"no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, unless the option you have is
+"strip-whitespace-before-send", in which case you should avoid checking
+it.
+
+
+Thunderbird
+-----------
+
+(A Large Angry SCM)
+
+Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
+Thunderbird.
+
+This recipe appears to work with the current [*1*] Thunderbird from Suse.
+
+The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
+ AboutConfig 0.5
+ http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/
+ External Editor 0.7.2
+ http://globs.org/articles.php?lng=en&pg=8
+
+1) Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
+
+2) Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
+uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
+"Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to send the
+patch. [*2*]
+
+3) In the main Thunderbird window, _before_ you open the compose window
+for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the following to the
+indicated values:
+ mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
+ mailnews.wraplength => 0
+
+4) Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
+
+5) In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit the
+editor normally.
+
+6) Back in the compose window: Add whatever other text you wish to the
+message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
+
+7) Optionally, undo the about:config/account settings changes made in
+steps 2 & 3.
+
+
+[Footnotes]
+*1* Version 1.0 (20041207) from the MozillaThunderbird-1.0-5 rpm of Suse
+9.3 professional updates.
+
+*2* It may be possible to do this with about:config and the following
+settings but I haven't tried, yet.
+ mail.html_compose => false
+ mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
+ mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
+
+
+Gnus
+----
+
+'|' in the *Summary* buffer can be used to pipe the current
+message to an external program, and this is a handy way to drive
+"git am". However, if the message is MIME encoded, what is
+piped into the program is the representation you see in your
+*Article* buffer after unwrapping MIME. This is often not what
+you would want for two reasons. It tends to screw up non ASCII
+characters (most notably in people's names), and also
+whitespaces (fatal in patches). Running 'C-u g' to display the
+message in raw form before using '|' to run the pipe can work
+this problem around.
+
+
+KMail
+-----
+
+This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
+
+1) Prepare the patch as a text file.
+
+2) Click on New Mail.
+
+3) Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that
+"Word wrap" is not set.
+
+4) Use Message -> Insert file... and insert the patch.
+
+5) Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
+message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..44b1ce4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+## gitlink: macro
+#
+# Usage: gitlink:command[manpage-section]
+#
+# Note, {0} is the manpage section, while {target} is the command.
+#
+# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
+# the command.
+
+[attributes]
+caret=^
+startsb=&#91;
+endsb=&#93;
+tilde=&#126;
+
+ifdef::backend-docbook[]
+[gitlink-inlinemacro]
+{0%{target}}
+{0#<citerefentry>}
+{0#<refentrytitle>{target}</refentrytitle><manvolnum>{0}</manvolnum>}
+{0#</citerefentry>}
+endif::backend-docbook[]
+
+ifdef::backend-docbook[]
+# "unbreak" docbook-xsl v1.68 for manpages. v1.69 works with or without this.
+[listingblock]
+<example><title>{title}</title>
+<literallayout>
+|
+</literallayout>
+{title#}</example>
+endif::backend-docbook[]
+
+ifdef::backend-xhtml11[]
+[gitlink-inlinemacro]
+<a href="{target}.html">{target}{0?({0})}</a>
+endif::backend-xhtml11[]
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/build-docdep.perl b/Documentation/build-docdep.perl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..489389c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/build-docdep.perl
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+#!/usr/bin/perl
+
+my %include = ();
+my %included = ();
+
+for my $text (<*.txt>) {
+ open I, '<', $text || die "cannot read: $text";
+ while (<I>) {
+ if (/^include::/) {
+ chomp;
+ s/^include::\s*//;
+ s/\[\]//;
+ $include{$text}{$_} = 1;
+ $included{$_} = 1;
+ }
+ }
+ close I;
+}
+
+# Do we care about chained includes???
+my $changed = 1;
+while ($changed) {
+ $changed = 0;
+ while (my ($text, $included) = each %include) {
+ for my $i (keys %$included) {
+ # $text has include::$i; if $i includes $j
+ # $text indirectly includes $j.
+ if (exists $include{$i}) {
+ for my $j (keys %{$include{$i}}) {
+ if (!exists $include{$text}{$j}) {
+ $include{$text}{$j} = 1;
+ $included{$j} = 1;
+ $changed = 1;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+while (my ($text, $included) = each %include) {
+ if (! exists $included{$text} &&
+ (my $base = $text) =~ s/\.txt$//) {
+ my ($suffix) = '1';
+ if ($base eq 'git') {
+ $suffix = '7'; # yuck...
+ }
+ print "$base.html $base.$suffix : ", join(" ", keys %$included), "\n";
+ }
+}
diff --git a/Documentation/callouts.xsl b/Documentation/callouts.xsl
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6a361a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/callouts.xsl
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+<!-- callout.xsl: converts asciidoc callouts to man page format -->
+<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" version="1.0">
+<xsl:template match="co">
+ <xsl:value-of select="concat('\fB(',substring-after(@id,'-'),')\fR')"/>
+</xsl:template>
+<xsl:template match="calloutlist">
+ <xsl:text>.sp&#10;</xsl:text>
+ <xsl:apply-templates/>
+ <xsl:text>&#10;</xsl:text>
+</xsl:template>
+<xsl:template match="callout">
+ <xsl:value-of select="concat('\fB',substring-after(@arearefs,'-'),'. \fR')"/>
+ <xsl:apply-templates/>
+ <xsl:text>.br&#10;</xsl:text>
+</xsl:template>
+
+<!-- sorry, this is not about callouts, but attempts to work around
+ spurious .sp at the tail of the line docbook stylesheets seem to add -->
+<xsl:template match="simpara">
+ <xsl:variable name="content">
+ <xsl:apply-templates/>
+ </xsl:variable>
+ <xsl:value-of select="normalize-space($content)"/>
+ <xsl:if test="not(ancestor::authorblurb) and
+ not(ancestor::personblurb)">
+ <xsl:text>&#10;&#10;</xsl:text>
+ </xsl:if>
+</xsl:template>
+
+</xsl:stylesheet>
diff --git a/Documentation/cmd-list.perl b/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..69003e9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cmd-list.perl
@@ -0,0 +1,187 @@
+#
+
+sub format_one {
+ my ($out, $name) = @_;
+ my ($state, $description);
+ open I, '<', "$name.txt" or die "No such file $name.txt";
+ while (<I>) {
+ if (/^NAME$/) {
+ $state = 1;
+ next;
+ }
+ if ($state == 1 && /^----$/) {
+ $state = 2;
+ next;
+ }
+ next if ($state != 2);
+ chomp;
+ $description = $_;
+ last;
+ }
+ close I;
+ if (!defined $description) {
+ die "No description found in $name.txt";
+ }
+ if (my ($verify_name, $text) = ($description =~ /^($name) - (.*)/)) {
+ print $out "gitlink:$name\[1\]::\n";
+ print $out "\t$text.\n\n";
+ }
+ else {
+ die "Description does not match $name: $description";
+ }
+}
+
+my %cmds = ();
+while (<DATA>) {
+ next if /^#/;
+
+ chomp;
+ my ($name, $cat) = /^(\S+)\s+(.*)$/;
+ push @{$cmds{$cat}}, $name;
+}
+
+for my $cat (qw(ancillaryinterrogators
+ ancillarymanipulators
+ mainporcelain
+ plumbinginterrogators
+ plumbingmanipulators
+ synchingrepositories
+ foreignscminterface
+ purehelpers
+ synchelpers)) {
+ my $out = "cmds-$cat.txt";
+ open O, '>', "$out+" or die "Cannot open output file $out+";
+ for (@{$cmds{$cat}}) {
+ format_one(\*O, $_);
+ }
+ close O;
+ rename "$out+", "$out";
+}
+
+__DATA__
+git-add mainporcelain
+git-am mainporcelain
+git-annotate ancillaryinterrogators
+git-applymbox ancillaryinterrogators
+git-applypatch purehelpers
+git-apply plumbingmanipulators
+git-archimport foreignscminterface
+git-archive mainporcelain
+git-bisect mainporcelain
+git-blame ancillaryinterrogators
+git-branch mainporcelain
+git-cat-file plumbinginterrogators
+git-checkout-index plumbingmanipulators
+git-checkout mainporcelain
+git-check-ref-format purehelpers
+git-cherry ancillaryinterrogators
+git-cherry-pick mainporcelain
+git-clean mainporcelain
+git-clone mainporcelain
+git-commit mainporcelain
+git-commit-tree plumbingmanipulators
+git-convert-objects ancillarymanipulators
+git-count-objects ancillaryinterrogators
+git-cvsexportcommit foreignscminterface
+git-cvsimport foreignscminterface
+git-cvsserver foreignscminterface
+git-daemon synchingrepositories
+git-describe mainporcelain
+git-diff-files plumbinginterrogators
+git-diff-index plumbinginterrogators
+git-diff mainporcelain
+git-diff-stages plumbinginterrogators
+git-diff-tree plumbinginterrogators
+git-fast-import ancillarymanipulators
+git-fetch mainporcelain
+git-fetch-pack synchingrepositories
+git-fmt-merge-msg purehelpers
+git-for-each-ref plumbinginterrogators
+git-format-patch mainporcelain
+git-fsck ancillaryinterrogators
+git-gc mainporcelain
+git-get-tar-commit-id ancillaryinterrogators
+git-grep mainporcelain
+git-hash-object plumbingmanipulators
+git-http-fetch synchelpers
+git-http-push synchelpers
+git-imap-send foreignscminterface
+git-index-pack plumbingmanipulators
+git-init mainporcelain
+git-instaweb ancillaryinterrogators
+gitk mainporcelain
+git-local-fetch synchingrepositories
+git-log mainporcelain
+git-lost-found ancillarymanipulators
+git-ls-files plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-remote plumbinginterrogators
+git-ls-tree plumbinginterrogators
+git-mailinfo purehelpers
+git-mailsplit purehelpers
+git-merge-base plumbinginterrogators
+git-merge-file plumbingmanipulators
+git-merge-index plumbingmanipulators
+git-merge mainporcelain
+git-merge-one-file purehelpers
+git-merge-tree ancillaryinterrogators
+git-mktag plumbingmanipulators
+git-mktree plumbingmanipulators
+git-mv mainporcelain
+git-name-rev plumbinginterrogators
+git-pack-objects plumbingmanipulators
+git-pack-redundant plumbinginterrogators
+git-pack-refs ancillarymanipulators
+git-parse-remote synchelpers
+git-patch-id purehelpers
+git-peek-remote purehelpers
+git-prune ancillarymanipulators
+git-prune-packed plumbingmanipulators
+git-pull mainporcelain
+git-push mainporcelain
+git-quiltimport foreignscminterface
+git-read-tree plumbingmanipulators
+git-rebase mainporcelain
+git-receive-pack synchelpers
+git-reflog ancillarymanipulators
+git-relink ancillarymanipulators
+git-repack ancillarymanipulators
+git-config ancillarymanipulators
+git-request-pull foreignscminterface
+git-rerere ancillaryinterrogators
+git-reset mainporcelain
+git-resolve mainporcelain
+git-revert mainporcelain
+git-rev-list plumbinginterrogators
+git-rev-parse ancillaryinterrogators
+git-rm mainporcelain
+git-runstatus ancillaryinterrogators
+git-send-email foreignscminterface
+git-send-pack synchingrepositories
+git-shell synchelpers
+git-shortlog mainporcelain
+git-show mainporcelain
+git-show-branch ancillaryinterrogators
+git-show-index plumbinginterrogators
+git-show-ref plumbinginterrogators
+git-sh-setup purehelpers
+git-ssh-fetch synchingrepositories
+git-ssh-upload synchingrepositories
+git-status mainporcelain
+git-stripspace purehelpers
+git-svn foreignscminterface
+git-svnimport foreignscminterface
+git-symbolic-ref plumbingmanipulators
+git-tag mainporcelain
+git-tar-tree plumbinginterrogators
+git-unpack-file plumbinginterrogators
+git-unpack-objects plumbingmanipulators
+git-update-index plumbingmanipulators
+git-update-ref plumbingmanipulators
+git-update-server-info synchingrepositories
+git-upload-archive synchelpers
+git-upload-pack synchelpers
+git-var plumbinginterrogators
+git-verify-pack plumbinginterrogators
+git-verify-tag ancillaryinterrogators
+git-whatchanged ancillaryinterrogators
+git-write-tree plumbingmanipulators
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3865535
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,529 @@
+CONFIGURATION FILE
+------------------
+
+The git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
+the git command's behavior. `.git/config` file for each repository
+is used to store the information for that repository, and
+`$HOME/.gitconfig` is used to store per user information to give
+fallback values for `.git/config` file.
+
+They can be used by both the git plumbing
+and the porcelains. The variables are divided into sections, where
+in the fully qualified variable name the variable itself is the last
+dot-separated segment and the section name is everything before the last
+dot. The variable names are case-insensitive and only alphanumeric
+characters are allowed. Some variables may appear multiple times.
+
+Syntax
+~~~~~~
+
+The syntax is fairly flexible and permissive; whitespaces are mostly
+ignored. The '#' and ';' characters begin comments to the end of line,
+blank lines are ignored.
+
+The file consists of sections and variables. A section begins with
+the name of the section in square brackets and continues until the next
+section begins. Section names are not case sensitive. Only alphanumeric
+characters, '`-`' and '`.`' are allowed in section names. Each variable
+must belong to some section, which means that there must be section
+header before first setting of a variable.
+
+Sections can be further divided into subsections. To begin a subsection
+put its name in double quotes, separated by space from the section name,
+in the section header, like in example below:
+
+--------
+ [section "subsection"]
+
+--------
+
+Subsection names can contain any characters except newline (doublequote
+'`"`' and backslash have to be escaped as '`\"`' and '`\\`',
+respectively) and are case sensitive. Section header cannot span multiple
+lines. Variables may belong directly to a section or to a given subsection.
+You can have `[section]` if you have `[section "subsection"]`, but you
+don't need to.
+
+There is also (case insensitive) alternative `[section.subsection]` syntax.
+In this syntax subsection names follow the same restrictions as for section
+name.
+
+All the other lines are recognized as setting variables, in the form
+'name = value'. If there is no equal sign on the line, the entire line
+is taken as 'name' and the variable is recognized as boolean "true".
+The variable names are case-insensitive and only alphanumeric
+characters and '`-`' are allowed. There can be more than one value
+for a given variable; we say then that variable is multivalued.
+
+Leading and trailing whitespace in a variable value is discarded.
+Internal whitespace within a variable value is retained verbatim.
+
+The values following the equals sign in variable assign are all either
+a string, an integer, or a boolean. Boolean values may be given as yes/no,
+0/1 or true/false. Case is not significant in boolean values, when
+converting value to the canonical form using '--bool' type specifier;
+`git-config` will ensure that the output is "true" or "false".
+
+String values may be entirely or partially enclosed in double quotes.
+You need to enclose variable value in double quotes if you want to
+preserve leading or trailing whitespace, or if variable value contains
+beginning of comment characters (if it contains '#' or ';').
+Double quote '`"`' and backslash '`\`' characters in variable value must
+be escaped: use '`\"`' for '`"`' and '`\\`' for '`\`'.
+
+The following escape sequences (beside '`\"`' and '`\\`') are recognized:
+'`\n`' for newline character (NL), '`\t`' for horizontal tabulation (HT, TAB)
+and '`\b`' for backspace (BS). No other char escape sequence, nor octal
+char sequences are valid.
+
+Variable value ending in a '`\`' is continued on the next line in the
+customary UNIX fashion.
+
+Some variables may require special value format.
+
+Example
+~~~~~~~
+
+ # Core variables
+ [core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+ # Our diff algorithm
+ [diff]
+ external = "/usr/local/bin/gnu-diff -u"
+ renames = true
+
+ [branch "devel"]
+ remote = origin
+ merge = refs/heads/devel
+
+ # Proxy settings
+ [core]
+ gitProxy="ssh" for "ssh://kernel.org/"
+ gitProxy=default-proxy ; for the rest
+
+Variables
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+Note that this list is non-comprehensive and not necessarily complete.
+For command-specific variables, you will find a more detailed description
+in the appropriate manual page. You will find a description of non-core
+porcelain configuration variables in the respective porcelain documentation.
+
+core.fileMode::
+ If false, the executable bit differences between the index and
+ the working copy are ignored; useful on broken filesystems like FAT.
+ See gitlink:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+
+core.gitProxy::
+ A "proxy command" to execute (as 'command host port') instead
+ of establishing direct connection to the remote server when
+ using the git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
+ in the "COMMAND for DOMAIN" format, the command is applied only
+ on hostnames ending with the specified domain string. This variable
+ may be set multiple times and is matched in the given order;
+ the first match wins.
++
+Can be overridden by the 'GIT_PROXY_COMMAND' environment variable
+(which always applies universally, without the special "for"
+handling).
+
+core.ignoreStat::
+ The working copy files are assumed to stay unchanged until you
+ mark them otherwise manually - Git will not detect the file changes
+ by lstat() calls. This is useful on systems where those are very
+ slow, such as Microsoft Windows. See gitlink:git-update-index[1].
+ False by default.
+
+core.preferSymlinkRefs::
+ Instead of the default "symref" format for HEAD
+ and other symbolic reference files, use symbolic links.
+ This is sometimes needed to work with old scripts that
+ expect HEAD to be a symbolic link.
+
+core.logAllRefUpdates::
+ Updates to a ref <ref> is logged to the file
+ "$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>", by appending the new and old
+ SHA1, the date/time and the reason of the update, but
+ only when the file exists. If this configuration
+ variable is set to true, missing "$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>"
+ file is automatically created for branch heads.
++
+This information can be used to determine what commit
+was the tip of a branch "2 days ago".
++
+This value is true by default in a repository that has
+a working directory associated with it, and false by
+default in a bare repository.
+
+core.repositoryFormatVersion::
+ Internal variable identifying the repository format and layout
+ version.
+
+core.sharedRepository::
+ When 'group' (or 'true'), the repository is made shareable between
+ several users in a group (making sure all the files and objects are
+ group-writable). When 'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody'), the
+ repository will be readable by all users, additionally to being
+ group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), git will use permissions
+ reported by umask(2). See gitlink:git-init[1]. False by default.
+
+core.warnAmbiguousRefs::
+ If true, git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
+ and might match multiple refs in the .git/refs/ tree. True by default.
+
+core.compression::
+ An integer -1..9, indicating the compression level for objects that
+ are not in a pack file. -1 is the zlib and git default. 0 means no
+ compression, and 1..9 are various speed/size tradeoffs, 9 being
+ slowest.
+
+core.legacyheaders::
+ A boolean which enables the legacy object header format in case
+ you want to interoperate with old clients accessing the object
+ database directly (where the "http://" and "rsync://" protocols
+ count as direct access).
+
+core.packedGitWindowSize::
+ Number of bytes of a pack file to map into memory in a
+ single mapping operation. Larger window sizes may allow
+ your system to process a smaller number of large pack files
+ more quickly. Smaller window sizes will negatively affect
+ performance due to increased calls to the operating system's
+ memory manager, but may improve performance when accessing
+ a large number of large pack files.
++
+Default is 1 MiB if NO_MMAP was set at compile time, otherwise 32
+MiB on 32 bit platforms and 1 GiB on 64 bit platforms. This should
+be reasonable for all users/operating systems. You probably do
+not need to adjust this value.
++
+Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
+
+core.packedGitLimit::
+ Maximum number of bytes to map simultaneously into memory
+ from pack files. If Git needs to access more than this many
+ bytes at once to complete an operation it will unmap existing
+ regions to reclaim virtual address space within the process.
++
+Default is 256 MiB on 32 bit platforms and 8 GiB on 64 bit platforms.
+This should be reasonable for all users/operating systems, except on
+the largest projects. You probably do not need to adjust this value.
++
+Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
+
+alias.*::
+ Command aliases for the gitlink:git[1] command wrapper - e.g.
+ after defining "alias.last = cat-file commit HEAD", the invocation
+ "git last" is equivalent to "git cat-file commit HEAD". To avoid
+ confusion and troubles with script usage, aliases that
+ hide existing git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
+ spaces, the usual shell quoting and escaping is supported.
+ quote pair and a backslash can be used to quote them.
+
+ If the alias expansion is prefixed with an exclamation point,
+ it will be treated as a shell command. For example, defining
+ "alias.new = !gitk --all --not ORIG_HEAD", the invocation
+ "git new" is equivalent to running the shell command
+ "gitk --all --not ORIG_HEAD".
+
+apply.whitespace::
+ Tells `git-apply` how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
+ as the '--whitespace' option. See gitlink:git-apply[1].
+
+branch.<name>.remote::
+ When in branch <name>, it tells `git fetch` which remote to fetch.
+ If this option is not given, `git fetch` defaults to remote "origin".
+
+branch.<name>.merge::
+ When in branch <name>, it tells `git fetch` the default refspec to
+ be marked for merging in FETCH_HEAD. The value has exactly to match
+ a remote part of one of the refspecs which are fetched from the remote
+ given by "branch.<name>.remote".
+ The merge information is used by `git pull` (which at first calls
+ `git fetch`) to lookup the default branch for merging. Without
+ this option, `git pull` defaults to merge the first refspec fetched.
+ Specify multiple values to get an octopus merge.
+
+color.branch::
+ A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
+ gitlink:git-branch[1]. May be set to `true` (or `always`),
+ `false` (or `never`) or `auto`, in which case colors are used
+ only when the output is to a terminal. Defaults to false.
+
+color.branch.<slot>::
+ Use customized color for branch coloration. `<slot>` is one of
+ `current` (the current branch), `local` (a local branch),
+ `remote` (a tracking branch in refs/remotes/), `plain` (other
+ refs).
++
+The value for these configuration variables is a list of colors (at most
+two) and attributes (at most one), separated by spaces. The colors
+accepted are `normal`, `black`, `red`, `green`, `yellow`, `blue`,
+`magenta`, `cyan` and `white`; the attributes are `bold`, `dim`, `ul`,
+`blink` and `reverse`. The first color given is the foreground; the
+second is the background. The position of the attribute, if any,
+doesn't matter.
+
+color.diff::
+ When true (or `always`), always use colors in patch.
+ When false (or `never`), never. When set to `auto`, use
+ colors only when the output is to the terminal.
+
+color.diff.<slot>::
+ Use customized color for diff colorization. `<slot>` specifies
+ which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
+ of `plain` (context text), `meta` (metainformation), `frag`
+ (hunk header), `old` (removed lines), `new` (added lines),
+ `commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace` (highlighting dubious
+ whitespace). The values of these variables may be specified as
+ in color.branch.<slot>.
+
+color.pager::
+ A boolean to enable/disable colored output when the pager is in
+ use (default is true).
+
+color.status::
+ A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
+ gitlink:git-status[1]. May be set to `true` (or `always`),
+ `false` (or `never`) or `auto`, in which case colors are used
+ only when the output is to a terminal. Defaults to false.
+
+color.status.<slot>::
+ Use customized color for status colorization. `<slot>` is
+ one of `header` (the header text of the status message),
+ `added` or `updated` (files which are added but not committed),
+ `changed` (files which are changed but not added in the index),
+ or `untracked` (files which are not tracked by git). The values of
+ these variables may be specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
+
+diff.renameLimit::
+ The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
+ detection; equivalent to the git diff option '-l'.
+
+diff.renames::
+ Tells git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
+ will enable basic rename detection. If set to "copies" or
+ "copy", it will detect copies, as well.
+
+fetch.unpackLimit::
+ If the number of objects fetched over the git native
+ transfer is below this
+ limit, then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
+ files. However if the number of received objects equals or
+ exceeds this limit then the received pack will be stored as
+ a pack, after adding any missing delta bases. Storing the
+ pack from a push can make the push operation complete faster,
+ especially on slow filesystems.
+
+format.headers::
+ Additional email headers to include in a patch to be submitted
+ by mail. See gitlink:git-format-patch[1].
+
+gc.packrefs::
+ `git gc` does not run `git pack-refs` in a bare repository by
+ default so that older dumb-transport clients can still fetch
+ from the repository. Setting this to `true` lets `git
+ gc` to run `git pack-refs`. Setting this to `false` tells
+ `git gc` never to run `git pack-refs`. The default setting is
+ `notbare`. Enable it only when you know you do not have to
+ support such clients. The default setting will change to `true`
+ at some stage, and setting this to `false` will continue to
+ prevent `git pack-refs` from being run from `git gc`.
+
+gc.reflogexpire::
+ `git reflog expire` removes reflog entries older than
+ this time; defaults to 90 days.
+
+gc.reflogexpireunreachable::
+ `git reflog expire` removes reflog entries older than
+ this time and are not reachable from the current tip;
+ defaults to 30 days.
+
+gc.rerereresolved::
+ Records of conflicted merge you resolved earlier are
+ kept for this many days when `git rerere gc` is run.
+ The default is 60 days. See gitlink:git-rerere[1].
+
+gc.rerereunresolved::
+ Records of conflicted merge you have not resolved are
+ kept for this many days when `git rerere gc` is run.
+ The default is 15 days. See gitlink:git-rerere[1].
+
+gitcvs.enabled::
+ Whether the cvs pserver interface is enabled for this repository.
+ See gitlink:git-cvsserver[1].
+
+gitcvs.logfile::
+ Path to a log file where the cvs pserver interface well... logs
+ various stuff. See gitlink:git-cvsserver[1].
+
+http.sslVerify::
+ Whether to verify the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
+ over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_NO_VERIFY' environment
+ variable.
+
+http.sslCert::
+ File containing the SSL certificate when fetching or pushing
+ over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_CERT' environment
+ variable.
+
+http.sslKey::
+ File containing the SSL private key when fetching or pushing
+ over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_KEY' environment
+ variable.
+
+http.sslCAInfo::
+ File containing the certificates to verify the peer with when
+ fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden by the
+ 'GIT_SSL_CAINFO' environment variable.
+
+http.sslCAPath::
+ Path containing files with the CA certificates to verify the peer
+ with when fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden
+ by the 'GIT_SSL_CAPATH' environment variable.
+
+http.maxRequests::
+ How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
+ by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
+
+http.lowSpeedLimit, http.lowSpeedTime::
+ If the HTTP transfer speed is less than 'http.lowSpeedLimit'
+ for longer than 'http.lowSpeedTime' seconds, the transfer is aborted.
+ Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_LOW_SPEED_LIMIT' and
+ 'GIT_HTTP_LOW_SPEED_TIME' environment variables.
+
+http.noEPSV::
+ A boolean which disables using of EPSV ftp command by curl.
+ This can helpful with some "poor" ftp servers which doesn't
+ support EPSV mode. Can be overridden by the 'GIT_CURL_FTP_NO_EPSV'
+ environment variable. Default is false (curl will use EPSV).
+
+i18n.commitEncoding::
+ Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; git itself
+ does not care per se, but this information is necessary e.g. when
+ importing commits from emails or in the gitk graphical history
+ browser (and possibly at other places in the future or in other
+ porcelains). See e.g. gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]. Defaults to 'utf-8'.
+
+i18n.logOutputEncoding::
+ Character encoding the commit messages are converted to when
+ running `git-log` and friends.
+
+log.showroot::
+ If true, the initial commit will be shown as a big creation event.
+ This is equivalent to a diff against an empty tree.
+ Tools like gitlink:git-log[1] or gitlink:git-whatchanged[1], which
+ normally hide the root commit will now show it. True by default.
+
+merge.summary::
+ Whether to include summaries of merged commits in newly created
+ merge commit messages. False by default.
+
+merge.verbosity::
+ Controls the amount of output shown by the recursive merge
+ strategy. Level 0 outputs nothing except a final error
+ message if conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only
+ conflicts, 2 outputs conflicts and file changes. Level 5 and
+ above outputs debugging information. The default is level 2.
+
+pack.window::
+ The size of the window used by gitlink:git-pack-objects[1] when no
+ window size is given on the command line. Defaults to 10.
+
+pull.octopus::
+ The default merge strategy to use when pulling multiple branches
+ at once.
+
+pull.twohead::
+ The default merge strategy to use when pulling a single branch.
+
+remote.<name>.url::
+ The URL of a remote repository. See gitlink:git-fetch[1] or
+ gitlink:git-push[1].
+
+remote.<name>.fetch::
+ The default set of "refspec" for gitlink:git-fetch[1]. See
+ gitlink:git-fetch[1].
+
+remote.<name>.push::
+ The default set of "refspec" for gitlink:git-push[1]. See
+ gitlink:git-push[1].
+
+remote.<name>.receivepack::
+ The default program to execute on the remote side when pushing. See
+ option \--exec of gitlink:git-push[1].
+
+remote.<name>.uploadpack::
+ The default program to execute on the remote side when fetching. See
+ option \--exec of gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1].
+
+repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
+ Allow gitlink:git-repack[1] to create packs that uses
+ delta-base offset. Defaults to false.
+
+show.difftree::
+ The default gitlink:git-diff-tree[1] arguments to be used
+ for gitlink:git-show[1].
+
+showbranch.default::
+ The default set of branches for gitlink:git-show-branch[1].
+ See gitlink:git-show-branch[1].
+
+tar.umask::
+ By default, gitlink:git-tar-tree[1] sets file and directories modes
+ to 0666 or 0777. While this is both useful and acceptable for projects
+ such as the Linux Kernel, it might be excessive for other projects.
+ With this variable, it becomes possible to tell
+ gitlink:git-tar-tree[1] to apply a specific umask to the modes above.
+ The special value "user" indicates that the user's current umask will
+ be used. This should be enough for most projects, as it will lead to
+ the same permissions as gitlink:git-checkout[1] would use. The default
+ value remains 0, which means world read-write.
+
+user.email::
+ Your email address to be recorded in any newly created commits.
+ Can be overridden by the 'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL' and 'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'
+ environment variables. See gitlink:git-commit-tree[1].
+
+user.name::
+ Your full name to be recorded in any newly created commits.
+ Can be overridden by the 'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME' and 'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'
+ environment variables. See gitlink:git-commit-tree[1].
+
+user.signingkey::
+ If gitlink:git-tag[1] is not selecting the key you want it to
+ automatically when creating a signed tag, you can override the
+ default selection with this variable. This option is passed
+ unchanged to gpg's --local-user parameter, so you may specify a key
+ using any method that gpg supports.
+
+whatchanged.difftree::
+ The default gitlink:git-diff-tree[1] arguments to be used
+ for gitlink:git-whatchanged[1].
+
+imap::
+ The configuration variables in the 'imap' section are described
+ in gitlink:git-imap-send[1].
+
+receive.unpackLimit::
+ If the number of objects received in a push is below this
+ limit then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
+ files. However if the number of received objects equals or
+ exceeds this limit then the received pack will be stored as
+ a pack, after adding any missing delta bases. Storing the
+ pack from a push can make the push operation complete faster,
+ especially on slow filesystems.
+
+receive.denyNonFastForwards::
+ If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
+ not a fast forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
+ even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
+ set when initializing a shared repository.
+
+transfer.unpackLimit::
+ When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
+ not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/core-intro.txt b/Documentation/core-intro.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..abafefc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/core-intro.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,590 @@
+////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+ GIT - the stupid content tracker
+
+////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+"git" can mean anything, depending on your mood.
+
+ - random three-letter combination that is pronounceable, and not
+ actually used by any common UNIX command. The fact that it is a
+ mispronunciation of "get" may or may not be relevant.
+ - stupid. contemptible and despicable. simple. Take your pick from the
+ dictionary of slang.
+ - "global information tracker": you're in a good mood, and it actually
+ works for you. Angels sing, and a light suddenly fills the room.
+ - "goddamn idiotic truckload of sh*t": when it breaks
+
+This is a (not so) stupid but extremely fast directory content manager.
+It doesn't do a whole lot at its core, but what it 'does' do is track
+directory contents efficiently.
+
+There are two object abstractions: the "object database", and the
+"current directory cache" aka "index".
+
+The Object Database
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The object database is literally just a content-addressable collection
+of objects. All objects are named by their content, which is
+approximated by the SHA1 hash of the object itself. Objects may refer
+to other objects (by referencing their SHA1 hash), and so you can
+build up a hierarchy of objects.
+
+All objects have a statically determined "type" aka "tag", which is
+determined at object creation time, and which identifies the format of
+the object (i.e. how it is used, and how it can refer to other
+objects). There are currently four different object types: "blob",
+"tree", "commit" and "tag".
+
+A "blob" object cannot refer to any other object, and is, like the type
+implies, a pure storage object containing some user data. It is used to
+actually store the file data, i.e. a blob object is associated with some
+particular version of some file.
+
+A "tree" object is an object that ties one or more "blob" objects into a
+directory structure. In addition, a tree object can refer to other tree
+objects, thus creating a directory hierarchy.
+
+A "commit" object ties such directory hierarchies together into
+a DAG of revisions - each "commit" is associated with exactly one tree
+(the directory hierarchy at the time of the commit). In addition, a
+"commit" refers to one or more "parent" commit objects that describe the
+history of how we arrived at that directory hierarchy.
+
+As a special case, a commit object with no parents is called the "root"
+object, and is the point of an initial project commit. Each project
+must have at least one root, and while you can tie several different
+root objects together into one project by creating a commit object which
+has two or more separate roots as its ultimate parents, that's probably
+just going to confuse people. So aim for the notion of "one root object
+per project", even if git itself does not enforce that.
+
+A "tag" object symbolically identifies and can be used to sign other
+objects. It contains the identifier and type of another object, a
+symbolic name (of course!) and, optionally, a signature.
+
+Regardless of object type, all objects share the following
+characteristics: they are all deflated with zlib, and have a header
+that not only specifies their type, but also provides size information
+about the data in the object. It's worth noting that the SHA1 hash
+that is used to name the object is the hash of the original data
+plus this header, so `sha1sum` 'file' does not match the object name
+for 'file'.
+(Historical note: in the dawn of the age of git the hash
+was the sha1 of the 'compressed' object.)
+
+As a result, the general consistency of an object can always be tested
+independently of the contents or the type of the object: all objects can
+be validated by verifying that (a) their hashes match the content of the
+file and (b) the object successfully inflates to a stream of bytes that
+forms a sequence of <ascii type without space> + <space> + <ascii decimal
+size> + <byte\0> + <binary object data>.
+
+The structured objects can further have their structure and
+connectivity to other objects verified. This is generally done with
+the `git-fsck` program, which generates a full dependency graph
+of all objects, and verifies their internal consistency (in addition
+to just verifying their superficial consistency through the hash).
+
+The object types in some more detail:
+
+Blob Object
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+A "blob" object is nothing but a binary blob of data, and doesn't
+refer to anything else. There is no signature or any other
+verification of the data, so while the object is consistent (it 'is'
+indexed by its sha1 hash, so the data itself is certainly correct), it
+has absolutely no other attributes. No name associations, no
+permissions. It is purely a blob of data (i.e. normally "file
+contents").
+
+In particular, since the blob is entirely defined by its data, if two
+files in a directory tree (or in multiple different versions of the
+repository) have the same contents, they will share the same blob
+object. The object is totally independent of its location in the
+directory tree, and renaming a file does not change the object that
+file is associated with in any way.
+
+A blob is typically created when gitlink:git-update-index[1]
+is run, and its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1].
+
+Tree Object
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+The next hierarchical object type is the "tree" object. A tree object
+is a list of mode/name/blob data, sorted by name. Alternatively, the
+mode data may specify a directory mode, in which case instead of
+naming a blob, that name is associated with another TREE object.
+
+Like the "blob" object, a tree object is uniquely determined by the
+set contents, and so two separate but identical trees will always
+share the exact same object. This is true at all levels, i.e. it's
+true for a "leaf" tree (which does not refer to any other trees, only
+blobs) as well as for a whole subdirectory.
+
+For that reason a "tree" object is just a pure data abstraction: it
+has no history, no signatures, no verification of validity, except
+that since the contents are again protected by the hash itself, we can
+trust that the tree is immutable and its contents never change.
+
+So you can trust the contents of a tree to be valid, the same way you
+can trust the contents of a blob, but you don't know where those
+contents 'came' from.
+
+Side note on trees: since a "tree" object is a sorted list of
+"filename+content", you can create a diff between two trees without
+actually having to unpack two trees. Just ignore all common parts,
+and your diff will look right. In other words, you can effectively
+(and efficiently) tell the difference between any two random trees by
+O(n) where "n" is the size of the difference, rather than the size of
+the tree.
+
+Side note 2 on trees: since the name of a "blob" depends entirely and
+exclusively on its contents (i.e. there are no names or permissions
+involved), you can see trivial renames or permission changes by
+noticing that the blob stayed the same. However, renames with data
+changes need a smarter "diff" implementation.
+
+A tree is created with gitlink:git-write-tree[1] and
+its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-ls-tree[1].
+Two trees can be compared with gitlink:git-diff-tree[1].
+
+Commit Object
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The "commit" object is an object that introduces the notion of
+history into the picture. In contrast to the other objects, it
+doesn't just describe the physical state of a tree, it describes how
+we got there, and why.
+
+A "commit" is defined by the tree-object that it results in, the
+parent commits (zero, one or more) that led up to that point, and a
+comment on what happened. Again, a commit is not trusted per se:
+the contents are well-defined and "safe" due to the cryptographically
+strong signatures at all levels, but there is no reason to believe
+that the tree is "good" or that the merge information makes sense.
+The parents do not have to actually have any relationship with the
+result, for example.
+
+Note on commits: unlike real SCM's, commits do not contain
+rename information or file mode change information. All of that is
+implicit in the trees involved (the result tree, and the result trees
+of the parents), and describing that makes no sense in this idiotic
+file manager.
+
+A commit is created with gitlink:git-commit-tree[1] and
+its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1].
+
+Trust
+~~~~~
+An aside on the notion of "trust". Trust is really outside the scope
+of "git", but it's worth noting a few things. First off, since
+everything is hashed with SHA1, you 'can' trust that an object is
+intact and has not been messed with by external sources. So the name
+of an object uniquely identifies a known state - just not a state that
+you may want to trust.
+
+Furthermore, since the SHA1 signature of a commit refers to the
+SHA1 signatures of the tree it is associated with and the signatures
+of the parent, a single named commit specifies uniquely a whole set
+of history, with full contents. You can't later fake any step of the
+way once you have the name of a commit.
+
+So to introduce some real trust in the system, the only thing you need
+to do is to digitally sign just 'one' special note, which includes the
+name of a top-level commit. Your digital signature shows others
+that you trust that commit, and the immutability of the history of
+commits tells others that they can trust the whole history.
+
+In other words, you can easily validate a whole archive by just
+sending out a single email that tells the people the name (SHA1 hash)
+of the top commit, and digitally sign that email using something
+like GPG/PGP.
+
+To assist in this, git also provides the tag object...
+
+Tag Object
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Git provides the "tag" object to simplify creating, managing and
+exchanging symbolic and signed tokens. The "tag" object at its
+simplest simply symbolically identifies another object by containing
+the sha1, type and symbolic name.
+
+However it can optionally contain additional signature information
+(which git doesn't care about as long as there's less than 8k of
+it). This can then be verified externally to git.
+
+Note that despite the tag features, "git" itself only handles content
+integrity; the trust framework (and signature provision and
+verification) has to come from outside.
+
+A tag is created with gitlink:git-mktag[1],
+its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1],
+and the signature can be verified by
+gitlink:git-verify-tag[1].
+
+
+The "index" aka "Current Directory Cache"
+-----------------------------------------
+The index is a simple binary file, which contains an efficient
+representation of a virtual directory content at some random time. It
+does so by a simple array that associates a set of names, dates,
+permissions and content (aka "blob") objects together. The cache is
+always kept ordered by name, and names are unique (with a few very
+specific rules) at any point in time, but the cache has no long-term
+meaning, and can be partially updated at any time.
+
+In particular, the index certainly does not need to be consistent with
+the current directory contents (in fact, most operations will depend on
+different ways to make the index 'not' be consistent with the directory
+hierarchy), but it has three very important attributes:
+
+'(a) it can re-generate the full state it caches (not just the
+directory structure: it contains pointers to the "blob" objects so
+that it can regenerate the data too)'
+
+As a special case, there is a clear and unambiguous one-way mapping
+from a current directory cache to a "tree object", which can be
+efficiently created from just the current directory cache without
+actually looking at any other data. So a directory cache at any one
+time uniquely specifies one and only one "tree" object (but has
+additional data to make it easy to match up that tree object with what
+has happened in the directory)
+
+'(b) it has efficient methods for finding inconsistencies between that
+cached state ("tree object waiting to be instantiated") and the
+current state.'
+
+'(c) it can additionally efficiently represent information about merge
+conflicts between different tree objects, allowing each pathname to be
+associated with sufficient information about the trees involved that
+you can create a three-way merge between them.'
+
+Those are the three ONLY things that the directory cache does. It's a
+cache, and the normal operation is to re-generate it completely from a
+known tree object, or update/compare it with a live tree that is being
+developed. If you blow the directory cache away entirely, you generally
+haven't lost any information as long as you have the name of the tree
+that it described.
+
+At the same time, the index is at the same time also the
+staging area for creating new trees, and creating a new tree always
+involves a controlled modification of the index file. In particular,
+the index file can have the representation of an intermediate tree that
+has not yet been instantiated. So the index can be thought of as a
+write-back cache, which can contain dirty information that has not yet
+been written back to the backing store.
+
+
+
+The Workflow
+------------
+Generally, all "git" operations work on the index file. Some operations
+work *purely* on the index file (showing the current state of the
+index), but most operations move data to and from the index file. Either
+from the database or from the working directory. Thus there are four
+main combinations:
+
+1) working directory -> index
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You update the index with information from the working directory with
+the gitlink:git-update-index[1] command. You
+generally update the index information by just specifying the filename
+you want to update, like so:
+
+ git-update-index filename
+
+but to avoid common mistakes with filename globbing etc, the command
+will not normally add totally new entries or remove old entries,
+i.e. it will normally just update existing cache entries.
+
+To tell git that yes, you really do realize that certain files no
+longer exist, or that new files should be added, you
+should use the `--remove` and `--add` flags respectively.
+
+NOTE! A `--remove` flag does 'not' mean that subsequent filenames will
+necessarily be removed: if the files still exist in your directory
+structure, the index will be updated with their new status, not
+removed. The only thing `--remove` means is that update-cache will be
+considering a removed file to be a valid thing, and if the file really
+does not exist any more, it will update the index accordingly.
+
+As a special case, you can also do `git-update-index --refresh`, which
+will refresh the "stat" information of each index to match the current
+stat information. It will 'not' update the object status itself, and
+it will only update the fields that are used to quickly test whether
+an object still matches its old backing store object.
+
+2) index -> object database
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You write your current index file to a "tree" object with the program
+
+ git-write-tree
+
+that doesn't come with any options - it will just write out the
+current index into the set of tree objects that describe that state,
+and it will return the name of the resulting top-level tree. You can
+use that tree to re-generate the index at any time by going in the
+other direction:
+
+3) object database -> index
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You read a "tree" file from the object database, and use that to
+populate (and overwrite - don't do this if your index contains any
+unsaved state that you might want to restore later!) your current
+index. Normal operation is just
+
+ git-read-tree <sha1 of tree>
+
+and your index file will now be equivalent to the tree that you saved
+earlier. However, that is only your 'index' file: your working
+directory contents have not been modified.
+
+4) index -> working directory
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You update your working directory from the index by "checking out"
+files. This is not a very common operation, since normally you'd just
+keep your files updated, and rather than write to your working
+directory, you'd tell the index files about the changes in your
+working directory (i.e. `git-update-index`).
+
+However, if you decide to jump to a new version, or check out somebody
+else's version, or just restore a previous tree, you'd populate your
+index file with read-tree, and then you need to check out the result
+with
+
+ git-checkout-index filename
+
+or, if you want to check out all of the index, use `-a`.
+
+NOTE! git-checkout-index normally refuses to overwrite old files, so
+if you have an old version of the tree already checked out, you will
+need to use the "-f" flag ('before' the "-a" flag or the filename) to
+'force' the checkout.
+
+
+Finally, there are a few odds and ends which are not purely moving
+from one representation to the other:
+
+5) Tying it all together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+To commit a tree you have instantiated with "git-write-tree", you'd
+create a "commit" object that refers to that tree and the history
+behind it - most notably the "parent" commits that preceded it in
+history.
+
+Normally a "commit" has one parent: the previous state of the tree
+before a certain change was made. However, sometimes it can have two
+or more parent commits, in which case we call it a "merge", due to the
+fact that such a commit brings together ("merges") two or more
+previous states represented by other commits.
+
+In other words, while a "tree" represents a particular directory state
+of a working directory, a "commit" represents that state in "time",
+and explains how we got there.
+
+You create a commit object by giving it the tree that describes the
+state at the time of the commit, and a list of parents:
+
+ git-commit-tree <tree> -p <parent> [-p <parent2> ..]
+
+and then giving the reason for the commit on stdin (either through
+redirection from a pipe or file, or by just typing it at the tty).
+
+git-commit-tree will return the name of the object that represents
+that commit, and you should save it away for later use. Normally,
+you'd commit a new `HEAD` state, and while git doesn't care where you
+save the note about that state, in practice we tend to just write the
+result to the file pointed at by `.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see
+what the last committed state was.
+
+Here is an ASCII art by Jon Loeliger that illustrates how
+various pieces fit together.
+
+------------
+
+ commit-tree
+ commit obj
+ +----+
+ | |
+ | |
+ V V
+ +-----------+
+ | Object DB |
+ | Backing |
+ | Store |
+ +-----------+
+ ^
+ write-tree | |
+ tree obj | |
+ | | read-tree
+ | | tree obj
+ V
+ +-----------+
+ | Index |
+ | "cache" |
+ +-----------+
+ update-index ^
+ blob obj | |
+ | |
+ checkout-index -u | | checkout-index
+ stat | | blob obj
+ V
+ +-----------+
+ | Working |
+ | Directory |
+ +-----------+
+
+------------
+
+
+6) Examining the data
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You can examine the data represented in the object database and the
+index with various helper tools. For every object, you can use
+gitlink:git-cat-file[1] to examine details about the
+object:
+
+ git-cat-file -t <objectname>
+
+shows the type of the object, and once you have the type (which is
+usually implicit in where you find the object), you can use
+
+ git-cat-file blob|tree|commit|tag <objectname>
+
+to show its contents. NOTE! Trees have binary content, and as a result
+there is a special helper for showing that content, called
+`git-ls-tree`, which turns the binary content into a more easily
+readable form.
+
+It's especially instructive to look at "commit" objects, since those
+tend to be small and fairly self-explanatory. In particular, if you
+follow the convention of having the top commit name in `.git/HEAD`,
+you can do
+
+ git-cat-file commit HEAD
+
+to see what the top commit was.
+
+7) Merging multiple trees
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Git helps you do a three-way merge, which you can expand to n-way by
+repeating the merge procedure arbitrary times until you finally
+"commit" the state. The normal situation is that you'd only do one
+three-way merge (two parents), and commit it, but if you like to, you
+can do multiple parents in one go.
+
+To do a three-way merge, you need the two sets of "commit" objects
+that you want to merge, use those to find the closest common parent (a
+third "commit" object), and then use those commit objects to find the
+state of the directory ("tree" object) at these points.
+
+To get the "base" for the merge, you first look up the common parent
+of two commits with
+
+ git-merge-base <commit1> <commit2>
+
+which will return you the commit they are both based on. You should
+now look up the "tree" objects of those commits, which you can easily
+do with (for example)
+
+ git-cat-file commit <commitname> | head -1
+
+since the tree object information is always the first line in a commit
+object.
+
+Once you know the three trees you are going to merge (the one
+"original" tree, aka the common case, and the two "result" trees, aka
+the branches you want to merge), you do a "merge" read into the
+index. This will complain if it has to throw away your old index contents, so you should
+make sure that you've committed those - in fact you would normally
+always do a merge against your last commit (which should thus match
+what you have in your current index anyway).
+
+To do the merge, do
+
+ git-read-tree -m -u <origtree> <yourtree> <targettree>
+
+which will do all trivial merge operations for you directly in the
+index file, and you can just write the result out with
+`git-write-tree`.
+
+Historical note. We did not have `-u` facility when this
+section was first written, so we used to warn that
+the merge is done in the index file, not in your
+working tree, and your working tree will not match your
+index after this step.
+This is no longer true. The above command, thanks to `-u`
+option, updates your working tree with the merge results for
+paths that have been trivially merged.
+
+
+8) Merging multiple trees, continued
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sadly, many merges aren't trivial. If there are files that have
+been added.moved or removed, or if both branches have modified the
+same file, you will be left with an index tree that contains "merge
+entries" in it. Such an index tree can 'NOT' be written out to a tree
+object, and you will have to resolve any such merge clashes using
+other tools before you can write out the result.
+
+You can examine such index state with `git-ls-files --unmerged`
+command. An example:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-read-tree -m $orig HEAD $target
+$ git-ls-files --unmerged
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello.c
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello.c
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello.c
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Each line of the `git-ls-files --unmerged` output begins with
+the blob mode bits, blob SHA1, 'stage number', and the
+filename. The 'stage number' is git's way to say which tree it
+came from: stage 1 corresponds to `$orig` tree, stage 2 `HEAD`
+tree, and stage3 `$target` tree.
+
+Earlier we said that trivial merges are done inside
+`git-read-tree -m`. For example, if the file did not change
+from `$orig` to `HEAD` nor `$target`, or if the file changed
+from `$orig` to `HEAD` and `$orig` to `$target` the same way,
+obviously the final outcome is what is in `HEAD`. What the
+above example shows is that file `hello.c` was changed from
+`$orig` to `HEAD` and `$orig` to `$target` in a different way.
+You could resolve this by running your favorite 3-way merge
+program, e.g. `diff3` or `merge`, on the blob objects from
+these three stages yourself, like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-cat-file blob 263414f... >hello.c~1
+$ git-cat-file blob 06fa6a2... >hello.c~2
+$ git-cat-file blob cc44c73... >hello.c~3
+$ merge hello.c~2 hello.c~1 hello.c~3
+------------------------------------------------
+
+This would leave the merge result in `hello.c~2` file, along
+with conflict markers if there are conflicts. After verifying
+the merge result makes sense, you can tell git what the final
+merge result for this file is by:
+
+ mv -f hello.c~2 hello.c
+ git-update-index hello.c
+
+When a path is in unmerged state, running `git-update-index` for
+that path tells git to mark the path resolved.
+
+The above is the description of a git merge at the lowest level,
+to help you understand what conceptually happens under the hood.
+In practice, nobody, not even git itself, uses three `git-cat-file`
+for this. There is `git-merge-index` program that extracts the
+stages to temporary files and calls a "merge" script on it:
+
+ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file hello.c
+
+and that is what higher level `git resolve` is implemented with.
diff --git a/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9c28bea
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1691 @@
+A git core tutorial for developers
+==================================
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+This is trying to be a short tutorial on setting up and using a git
+repository, mainly because being hands-on and using explicit examples is
+often the best way of explaining what is going on.
+
+In normal life, most people wouldn't use the "core" git programs
+directly, but rather script around them to make them more palatable.
+Understanding the core git stuff may help some people get those scripts
+done, though, and it may also be instructive in helping people
+understand what it is that the higher-level helper scripts are actually
+doing.
+
+The core git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
+interfaces on top of it called "porcelain". You may not want to use the
+plumbing directly very often, but it can be good to know what the
+plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing.
+
+The material presented here often goes deep describing how things
+work internally. If you are mostly interested in using git as a
+SCM, you can skip them during your first pass.
+
+[NOTE]
+And those "too deep" descriptions are often marked as Note.
+
+[NOTE]
+If you are already familiar with another version control system,
+like CVS, you may want to take a look at
+link:everyday.html[Everyday GIT in 20 commands or so] first
+before reading this.
+
+
+Creating a git repository
+-------------------------
+
+Creating a new git repository couldn't be easier: all git repositories start
+out empty, and the only thing you need to do is find yourself a
+subdirectory that you want to use as a working tree - either an empty
+one for a totally new project, or an existing working tree that you want
+to import into git.
+
+For our first example, we're going to start a totally new repository from
+scratch, with no pre-existing files, and we'll call it `git-tutorial`.
+To start up, create a subdirectory for it, change into that
+subdirectory, and initialize the git infrastructure with `git-init`:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ mkdir git-tutorial
+$ cd git-tutorial
+$ git-init
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to which git will reply
+
+----------------
+Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
+----------------
+
+which is just git's way of saying that you haven't been doing anything
+strange, and that it will have created a local `.git` directory setup for
+your new project. You will now have a `.git` directory, and you can
+inspect that with `ls`. For your new empty project, it should show you
+three entries, among other things:
+
+ - a file called `HEAD`, that has `ref: refs/heads/master` in it.
+ This is similar to a symbolic link and points at
+ `refs/heads/master` relative to the `HEAD` file.
++
+Don't worry about the fact that the file that the `HEAD` link points to
+doesn't even exist yet -- you haven't created the commit that will
+start your `HEAD` development branch yet.
+
+ - a subdirectory called `objects`, which will contain all the
+ objects of your project. You should never have any real reason to
+ look at the objects directly, but you might want to know that these
+ objects are what contains all the real 'data' in your repository.
+
+ - a subdirectory called `refs`, which contains references to objects.
+
+In particular, the `refs` subdirectory will contain two other
+subdirectories, named `heads` and `tags` respectively. They do
+exactly what their names imply: they contain references to any number
+of different 'heads' of development (aka 'branches'), and to any
+'tags' that you have created to name specific versions in your
+repository.
+
+One note: the special `master` head is the default branch, which is
+why the `.git/HEAD` file was created points to it even if it
+doesn't yet exist. Basically, the `HEAD` link is supposed to always
+point to the branch you are working on right now, and you always
+start out expecting to work on the `master` branch.
+
+However, this is only a convention, and you can name your branches
+anything you want, and don't have to ever even 'have' a `master`
+branch. A number of the git tools will assume that `.git/HEAD` is
+valid, though.
+
+[NOTE]
+An 'object' is identified by its 160-bit SHA1 hash, aka 'object name',
+and a reference to an object is always the 40-byte hex
+representation of that SHA1 name. The files in the `refs`
+subdirectory are expected to contain these hex references
+(usually with a final `\'\n\'` at the end), and you should thus
+expect to see a number of 41-byte files containing these
+references in these `refs` subdirectories when you actually start
+populating your tree.
+
+[NOTE]
+An advanced user may want to take a look at the
+link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document
+after finishing this tutorial.
+
+You have now created your first git repository. Of course, since it's
+empty, that's not very useful, so let's start populating it with data.
+
+
+Populating a git repository
+---------------------------
+
+We'll keep this simple and stupid, so we'll start off with populating a
+few trivial files just to get a feel for it.
+
+Start off with just creating any random files that you want to maintain
+in your git repository. We'll start off with a few bad examples, just to
+get a feel for how this works:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ echo "Hello World" >hello
+$ echo "Silly example" >example
+------------------------------------------------
+
+you have now created two files in your working tree (aka 'working directory'),
+but to actually check in your hard work, you will have to go through two steps:
+
+ - fill in the 'index' file (aka 'cache') with the information about your
+ working tree state.
+
+ - commit that index file as an object.
+
+The first step is trivial: when you want to tell git about any changes
+to your working tree, you use the `git-update-index` program. That
+program normally just takes a list of filenames you want to update, but
+to avoid trivial mistakes, it refuses to add new entries to the index
+(or remove existing ones) unless you explicitly tell it that you're
+adding a new entry with the `\--add` flag (or removing an entry with the
+`\--remove`) flag.
+
+So to populate the index with the two files you just created, you can do
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-update-index --add hello example
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and you have now told git to track those two files.
+
+In fact, as you did that, if you now look into your object directory,
+you'll notice that git will have added two new objects to the object
+database. If you did exactly the steps above, you should now be able to do
+
+
+----------------
+$ ls .git/objects/??/*
+----------------
+
+and see two files:
+
+----------------
+.git/objects/55/7db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238
+.git/objects/f2/4c74a2e500f5ee1332c86b94199f52b1d1d962
+----------------
+
+which correspond with the objects with names of `557db...` and
+`f24c7...` respectively.
+
+If you want to, you can use `git-cat-file` to look at those objects, but
+you'll have to use the object name, not the filename of the object:
+
+----------------
+$ git-cat-file -t 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238
+----------------
+
+where the `-t` tells `git-cat-file` to tell you what the "type" of the
+object is. git will tell you that you have a "blob" object (i.e., just a
+regular file), and you can see the contents with
+
+----------------
+$ git-cat-file "blob" 557db03
+----------------
+
+which will print out "Hello World". The object `557db03` is nothing
+more than the contents of your file `hello`.
+
+[NOTE]
+Don't confuse that object with the file `hello` itself. The
+object is literally just those specific *contents* of the file, and
+however much you later change the contents in file `hello`, the object
+we just looked at will never change. Objects are immutable.
+
+[NOTE]
+The second example demonstrates that you can
+abbreviate the object name to only the first several
+hexadecimal digits in most places.
+
+Anyway, as we mentioned previously, you normally never actually take a
+look at the objects themselves, and typing long 40-character hex
+names is not something you'd normally want to do. The above digression
+was just to show that `git-update-index` did something magical, and
+actually saved away the contents of your files into the git object
+database.
+
+Updating the index did something else too: it created a `.git/index`
+file. This is the index that describes your current working tree, and
+something you should be very aware of. Again, you normally never worry
+about the index file itself, but you should be aware of the fact that
+you have not actually really "checked in" your files into git so far,
+you've only *told* git about them.
+
+However, since git knows about them, you can now start using some of the
+most basic git commands to manipulate the files or look at their status.
+
+In particular, let's not even check in the two files into git yet, we'll
+start off by adding another line to `hello` first:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ echo "It's a new day for git" >>hello
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and you can now, since you told git about the previous state of `hello`, ask
+git what has changed in the tree compared to your old index, using the
+`git-diff-files` command:
+
+------------
+$ git-diff-files
+------------
+
+Oops. That wasn't very readable. It just spit out its own internal
+version of a `diff`, but that internal version really just tells you
+that it has noticed that "hello" has been modified, and that the old object
+contents it had have been replaced with something else.
+
+To make it readable, we can tell git-diff-files to output the
+differences as a patch, using the `-p` flag:
+
+------------
+$ git-diff-files -p
+diff --git a/hello b/hello
+index 557db03..263414f 100644
+--- a/hello
++++ b/hello
+@@ -1 +1,2 @@
+ Hello World
++It's a new day for git
+----
+
+i.e. the diff of the change we caused by adding another line to `hello`.
+
+In other words, `git-diff-files` always shows us the difference between
+what is recorded in the index, and what is currently in the working
+tree. That's very useful.
+
+A common shorthand for `git-diff-files -p` is to just write `git
+diff`, which will do the same thing.
+
+------------
+$ git diff
+diff --git a/hello b/hello
+index 557db03..263414f 100644
+--- a/hello
++++ b/hello
+@@ -1 +1,2 @@
+ Hello World
++It's a new day for git
+------------
+
+
+Committing git state
+--------------------
+
+Now, we want to go to the next stage in git, which is to take the files
+that git knows about in the index, and commit them as a real tree. We do
+that in two phases: creating a 'tree' object, and committing that 'tree'
+object as a 'commit' object together with an explanation of what the
+tree was all about, along with information of how we came to that state.
+
+Creating a tree object is trivial, and is done with `git-write-tree`.
+There are no options or other input: git-write-tree will take the
+current index state, and write an object that describes that whole
+index. In other words, we're now tying together all the different
+filenames with their contents (and their permissions), and we're
+creating the equivalent of a git "directory" object:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-write-tree
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and this will just output the name of the resulting tree, in this case
+(if you have done exactly as I've described) it should be
+
+----------------
+8988da15d077d4829fc51d8544c097def6644dbb
+----------------
+
+which is another incomprehensible object name. Again, if you want to,
+you can use `git-cat-file -t 8988d\...` to see that this time the object
+is not a "blob" object, but a "tree" object (you can also use
+`git-cat-file` to actually output the raw object contents, but you'll see
+mainly a binary mess, so that's less interesting).
+
+However -- normally you'd never use `git-write-tree` on its own, because
+normally you always commit a tree into a commit object using the
+`git-commit-tree` command. In fact, it's easier to not actually use
+`git-write-tree` on its own at all, but to just pass its result in as an
+argument to `git-commit-tree`.
+
+`git-commit-tree` normally takes several arguments -- it wants to know
+what the 'parent' of a commit was, but since this is the first commit
+ever in this new repository, and it has no parents, we only need to pass in
+the object name of the tree. However, `git-commit-tree`
+also wants to get a commit message
+on its standard input, and it will write out the resulting object name for the
+commit to its standard output.
+
+And this is where we create the `.git/refs/heads/master` file
+which is pointed at by `HEAD`. This file is supposed to contain
+the reference to the top-of-tree of the master branch, and since
+that's exactly what `git-commit-tree` spits out, we can do this
+all with a sequence of simple shell commands:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ tree=$(git-write-tree)
+$ commit=$(echo 'Initial commit' | git-commit-tree $tree)
+$ git-update-ref HEAD $commit
+------------------------------------------------
+
+In this case this creates a totally new commit that is not related to
+anything else. Normally you do this only *once* for a project ever, and
+all later commits will be parented on top of an earlier commit.
+
+Again, normally you'd never actually do this by hand. There is a
+helpful script called `git commit` that will do all of this for you. So
+you could have just written `git commit`
+instead, and it would have done the above magic scripting for you.
+
+
+Making a change
+---------------
+
+Remember how we did the `git-update-index` on file `hello` and then we
+changed `hello` afterward, and could compare the new state of `hello` with the
+state we saved in the index file?
+
+Further, remember how I said that `git-write-tree` writes the contents
+of the *index* file to the tree, and thus what we just committed was in
+fact the *original* contents of the file `hello`, not the new ones. We did
+that on purpose, to show the difference between the index state, and the
+state in the working tree, and how they don't have to match, even
+when we commit things.
+
+As before, if we do `git-diff-files -p` in our git-tutorial project,
+we'll still see the same difference we saw last time: the index file
+hasn't changed by the act of committing anything. However, now that we
+have committed something, we can also learn to use a new command:
+`git-diff-index`.
+
+Unlike `git-diff-files`, which showed the difference between the index
+file and the working tree, `git-diff-index` shows the differences
+between a committed *tree* and either the index file or the working
+tree. In other words, `git-diff-index` wants a tree to be diffed
+against, and before we did the commit, we couldn't do that, because we
+didn't have anything to diff against.
+
+But now we can do
+
+----------------
+$ git-diff-index -p HEAD
+----------------
+
+(where `-p` has the same meaning as it did in `git-diff-files`), and it
+will show us the same difference, but for a totally different reason.
+Now we're comparing the working tree not against the index file,
+but against the tree we just wrote. It just so happens that those two
+are obviously the same, so we get the same result.
+
+Again, because this is a common operation, you can also just shorthand
+it with
+
+----------------
+$ git diff HEAD
+----------------
+
+which ends up doing the above for you.
+
+In other words, `git-diff-index` normally compares a tree against the
+working tree, but when given the `\--cached` flag, it is told to
+instead compare against just the index cache contents, and ignore the
+current working tree state entirely. Since we just wrote the index
+file to HEAD, doing `git-diff-index \--cached -p HEAD` should thus return
+an empty set of differences, and that's exactly what it does.
+
+[NOTE]
+================
+`git-diff-index` really always uses the index for its
+comparisons, and saying that it compares a tree against the working
+tree is thus not strictly accurate. In particular, the list of
+files to compare (the "meta-data") *always* comes from the index file,
+regardless of whether the `\--cached` flag is used or not. The `\--cached`
+flag really only determines whether the file *contents* to be compared
+come from the working tree or not.
+
+This is not hard to understand, as soon as you realize that git simply
+never knows (or cares) about files that it is not told about
+explicitly. git will never go *looking* for files to compare, it
+expects you to tell it what the files are, and that's what the index
+is there for.
+================
+
+However, our next step is to commit the *change* we did, and again, to
+understand what's going on, keep in mind the difference between "working
+tree contents", "index file" and "committed tree". We have changes
+in the working tree that we want to commit, and we always have to
+work through the index file, so the first thing we need to do is to
+update the index cache:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-update-index hello
+------------------------------------------------
+
+(note how we didn't need the `\--add` flag this time, since git knew
+about the file already).
+
+Note what happens to the different `git-diff-\*` versions here. After
+we've updated `hello` in the index, `git-diff-files -p` now shows no
+differences, but `git-diff-index -p HEAD` still *does* show that the
+current state is different from the state we committed. In fact, now
+`git-diff-index` shows the same difference whether we use the `--cached`
+flag or not, since now the index is coherent with the working tree.
+
+Now, since we've updated `hello` in the index, we can commit the new
+version. We could do it by writing the tree by hand again, and
+committing the tree (this time we'd have to use the `-p HEAD` flag to
+tell commit that the HEAD was the *parent* of the new commit, and that
+this wasn't an initial commit any more), but you've done that once
+already, so let's just use the helpful script this time:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which starts an editor for you to write the commit message and tells you
+a bit about what you have done.
+
+Write whatever message you want, and all the lines that start with '#'
+will be pruned out, and the rest will be used as the commit message for
+the change. If you decide you don't want to commit anything after all at
+this point (you can continue to edit things and update the index), you
+can just leave an empty message. Otherwise `git commit` will commit
+the change for you.
+
+You've now made your first real git commit. And if you're interested in
+looking at what `git commit` really does, feel free to investigate:
+it's a few very simple shell scripts to generate the helpful (?) commit
+message headers, and a few one-liners that actually do the
+commit itself (`git-commit`).
+
+
+Inspecting Changes
+------------------
+
+While creating changes is useful, it's even more useful if you can tell
+later what changed. The most useful command for this is another of the
+`diff` family, namely `git-diff-tree`.
+
+`git-diff-tree` can be given two arbitrary trees, and it will tell you the
+differences between them. Perhaps even more commonly, though, you can
+give it just a single commit object, and it will figure out the parent
+of that commit itself, and show the difference directly. Thus, to get
+the same diff that we've already seen several times, we can now do
+
+----------------
+$ git-diff-tree -p HEAD
+----------------
+
+(again, `-p` means to show the difference as a human-readable patch),
+and it will show what the last commit (in `HEAD`) actually changed.
+
+[NOTE]
+============
+Here is an ASCII art by Jon Loeliger that illustrates how
+various diff-\* commands compare things.
+
+ diff-tree
+ +----+
+ | |
+ | |
+ V V
+ +-----------+
+ | Object DB |
+ | Backing |
+ | Store |
+ +-----------+
+ ^ ^
+ | |
+ | | diff-index --cached
+ | |
+ diff-index | V
+ | +-----------+
+ | | Index |
+ | | "cache" |
+ | +-----------+
+ | ^
+ | |
+ | | diff-files
+ | |
+ V V
+ +-----------+
+ | Working |
+ | Directory |
+ +-----------+
+============
+
+More interestingly, you can also give `git-diff-tree` the `--pretty` flag,
+which tells it to also show the commit message and author and date of the
+commit, and you can tell it to show a whole series of diffs.
+Alternatively, you can tell it to be "silent", and not show the diffs at
+all, but just show the actual commit message.
+
+In fact, together with the `git-rev-list` program (which generates a
+list of revisions), `git-diff-tree` ends up being a veritable fount of
+changes. A trivial (but very useful) script called `git-whatchanged` is
+included with git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
+activities.
+
+To see the whole history of our pitiful little git-tutorial project, you
+can do
+
+----------------
+$ git log
+----------------
+
+which shows just the log messages, or if we want to see the log together
+with the associated patches use the more complex (and much more
+powerful)
+
+----------------
+$ git-whatchanged -p --root
+----------------
+
+and you will see exactly what has changed in the repository over its
+short history.
+
+[NOTE]
+The `\--root` flag is a flag to `git-diff-tree` to tell it to
+show the initial aka 'root' commit too. Normally you'd probably not
+want to see the initial import diff, but since the tutorial project
+was started from scratch and is so small, we use it to make the result
+a bit more interesting.
+
+With that, you should now be having some inkling of what git does, and
+can explore on your own.
+
+[NOTE]
+Most likely, you are not directly using the core
+git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain like Cogito on top
+of it. Cogito works a bit differently and you usually do not
+have to run `git-update-index` yourself for changed files (you
+do tell underlying git about additions and removals via
+`cg-add` and `cg-rm` commands). Just before you make a commit
+with `cg-commit`, Cogito figures out which files you modified,
+and runs `git-update-index` on them for you.
+
+
+Tagging a version
+-----------------
+
+In git, there are two kinds of tags, a "light" one, and an "annotated tag".
+
+A "light" tag is technically nothing more than a branch, except we put
+it in the `.git/refs/tags/` subdirectory instead of calling it a `head`.
+So the simplest form of tag involves nothing more than
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git tag my-first-tag
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which just writes the current `HEAD` into the `.git/refs/tags/my-first-tag`
+file, after which point you can then use this symbolic name for that
+particular state. You can, for example, do
+
+----------------
+$ git diff my-first-tag
+----------------
+
+to diff your current state against that tag (which at this point will
+obviously be an empty diff, but if you continue to develop and commit
+stuff, you can use your tag as an "anchor-point" to see what has changed
+since you tagged it.
+
+An "annotated tag" is actually a real git object, and contains not only a
+pointer to the state you want to tag, but also a small tag name and
+message, along with optionally a PGP signature that says that yes,
+you really did
+that tag. You create these annotated tags with either the `-a` or
+`-s` flag to `git tag`:
+
+----------------
+$ git tag -s <tagname>
+----------------
+
+which will sign the current `HEAD` (but you can also give it another
+argument that specifies the thing to tag, i.e., you could have tagged the
+current `mybranch` point by using `git tag <tagname> mybranch`).
+
+You normally only do signed tags for major releases or things
+like that, while the light-weight tags are useful for any marking you
+want to do -- any time you decide that you want to remember a certain
+point, just create a private tag for it, and you have a nice symbolic
+name for the state at that point.
+
+
+Copying repositories
+--------------------
+
+git repositories are normally totally self-sufficient and relocatable.
+Unlike CVS, for example, there is no separate notion of
+"repository" and "working tree". A git repository normally *is* the
+working tree, with the local git information hidden in the `.git`
+subdirectory. There is nothing else. What you see is what you got.
+
+[NOTE]
+You can tell git to split the git internal information from
+the directory that it tracks, but we'll ignore that for now: it's not
+how normal projects work, and it's really only meant for special uses.
+So the mental model of "the git information is always tied directly to
+the working tree that it describes" may not be technically 100%
+accurate, but it's a good model for all normal use.
+
+This has two implications:
+
+ - if you grow bored with the tutorial repository you created (or you've
+ made a mistake and want to start all over), you can just do simple
++
+----------------
+$ rm -rf git-tutorial
+----------------
++
+and it will be gone. There's no external repository, and there's no
+history outside the project you created.
+
+ - if you want to move or duplicate a git repository, you can do so. There
+ is `git clone` command, but if all you want to do is just to
+ create a copy of your repository (with all the full history that
+ went along with it), you can do so with a regular
+ `cp -a git-tutorial new-git-tutorial`.
++
+Note that when you've moved or copied a git repository, your git index
+file (which caches various information, notably some of the "stat"
+information for the files involved) will likely need to be refreshed.
+So after you do a `cp -a` to create a new copy, you'll want to do
++
+----------------
+$ git-update-index --refresh
+----------------
++
+in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up-to-date.
+
+Note that the second point is true even across machines. You can
+duplicate a remote git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
+`scp`, `rsync` or `wget`.
+
+When copying a remote repository, you'll want to at a minimum update the
+index cache when you do this, and especially with other peoples'
+repositories you often want to make sure that the index cache is in some
+known state (you don't know *what* they've done and not yet checked in),
+so usually you'll precede the `git-update-index` with a
+
+----------------
+$ git-read-tree --reset HEAD
+$ git-update-index --refresh
+----------------
+
+which will force a total index re-build from the tree pointed to by `HEAD`.
+It resets the index contents to `HEAD`, and then the `git-update-index`
+makes sure to match up all index entries with the checked-out files.
+If the original repository had uncommitted changes in its
+working tree, `git-update-index --refresh` notices them and
+tells you they need to be updated.
+
+The above can also be written as simply
+
+----------------
+$ git reset
+----------------
+
+and in fact a lot of the common git command combinations can be scripted
+with the `git xyz` interfaces. You can learn things by just looking
+at what the various git scripts do. For example, `git reset` is the
+above two lines implemented in `git-reset`, but some things like
+`git status` and `git commit` are slightly more complex scripts around
+the basic git commands.
+
+Many (most?) public remote repositories will not contain any of
+the checked out files or even an index file, and will *only* contain the
+actual core git files. Such a repository usually doesn't even have the
+`.git` subdirectory, but has all the git files directly in the
+repository.
+
+To create your own local live copy of such a "raw" git repository, you'd
+first create your own subdirectory for the project, and then copy the
+raw repository contents into the `.git` directory. For example, to
+create your own copy of the git repository, you'd do the following
+
+----------------
+$ mkdir my-git
+$ cd my-git
+$ rsync -rL rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ .git
+----------------
+
+followed by
+
+----------------
+$ git-read-tree HEAD
+----------------
+
+to populate the index. However, now you have populated the index, and
+you have all the git internal files, but you will notice that you don't
+actually have any of the working tree files to work on. To get
+those, you'd check them out with
+
+----------------
+$ git-checkout-index -u -a
+----------------
+
+where the `-u` flag means that you want the checkout to keep the index
+up-to-date (so that you don't have to refresh it afterward), and the
+`-a` flag means "check out all files" (if you have a stale copy or an
+older version of a checked out tree you may also need to add the `-f`
+flag first, to tell git-checkout-index to *force* overwriting of any old
+files).
+
+Again, this can all be simplified with
+
+----------------
+$ git clone rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ my-git
+$ cd my-git
+$ git checkout
+----------------
+
+which will end up doing all of the above for you.
+
+You have now successfully copied somebody else's (mine) remote
+repository, and checked it out.
+
+
+Creating a new branch
+---------------------
+
+Branches in git are really nothing more than pointers into the git
+object database from within the `.git/refs/` subdirectory, and as we
+already discussed, the `HEAD` branch is nothing but a symlink to one of
+these object pointers.
+
+You can at any time create a new branch by just picking an arbitrary
+point in the project history, and just writing the SHA1 name of that
+object into a file under `.git/refs/heads/`. You can use any filename you
+want (and indeed, subdirectories), but the convention is that the
+"normal" branch is called `master`. That's just a convention, though,
+and nothing enforces it.
+
+To show that as an example, let's go back to the git-tutorial repository we
+used earlier, and create a branch in it. You do that by simply just
+saying that you want to check out a new branch:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -b mybranch
+------------
+
+will create a new branch based at the current `HEAD` position, and switch
+to it.
+
+[NOTE]
+================================================
+If you make the decision to start your new branch at some
+other point in the history than the current `HEAD`, you can do so by
+just telling `git checkout` what the base of the checkout would be.
+In other words, if you have an earlier tag or branch, you'd just do
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -b mybranch earlier-commit
+------------
+
+and it would create the new branch `mybranch` at the earlier commit,
+and check out the state at that time.
+================================================
+
+You can always just jump back to your original `master` branch by doing
+
+------------
+$ git checkout master
+------------
+
+(or any other branch-name, for that matter) and if you forget which
+branch you happen to be on, a simple
+
+------------
+$ cat .git/HEAD
+------------
+
+will tell you where it's pointing. To get the list of branches
+you have, you can say
+
+------------
+$ git branch
+------------
+
+which is nothing more than a simple script around `ls .git/refs/heads`.
+There will be asterisk in front of the branch you are currently on.
+
+Sometimes you may wish to create a new branch _without_ actually
+checking it out and switching to it. If so, just use the command
+
+------------
+$ git branch <branchname> [startingpoint]
+------------
+
+which will simply _create_ the branch, but will not do anything further.
+You can then later -- once you decide that you want to actually develop
+on that branch -- switch to that branch with a regular `git checkout`
+with the branchname as the argument.
+
+
+Merging two branches
+--------------------
+
+One of the ideas of having a branch is that you do some (possibly
+experimental) work in it, and eventually merge it back to the main
+branch. So assuming you created the above `mybranch` that started out
+being the same as the original `master` branch, let's make sure we're in
+that branch, and do some work there.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git checkout mybranch
+$ echo "Work, work, work" >>hello
+$ git commit -m 'Some work.' -i hello
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Here, we just added another line to `hello`, and we used a shorthand for
+doing both `git-update-index hello` and `git commit` by just giving the
+filename directly to `git commit`, with an `-i` flag (it tells
+git to 'include' that file in addition to what you have done to
+the index file so far when making the commit). The `-m` flag is to give the
+commit log message from the command line.
+
+Now, to make it a bit more interesting, let's assume that somebody else
+does some work in the original branch, and simulate that by going back
+to the master branch, and editing the same file differently there:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout master
+------------
+
+Here, take a moment to look at the contents of `hello`, and notice how they
+don't contain the work we just did in `mybranch` -- because that work
+hasn't happened in the `master` branch at all. Then do
+
+------------
+$ echo "Play, play, play" >>hello
+$ echo "Lots of fun" >>example
+$ git commit -m 'Some fun.' -i hello example
+------------
+
+since the master branch is obviously in a much better mood.
+
+Now, you've got two branches, and you decide that you want to merge the
+work done. Before we do that, let's introduce a cool graphical tool that
+helps you view what's going on:
+
+----------------
+$ gitk --all
+----------------
+
+will show you graphically both of your branches (that's what the `\--all`
+means: normally it will just show you your current `HEAD`) and their
+histories. You can also see exactly how they came to be from a common
+source.
+
+Anyway, let's exit `gitk` (`^Q` or the File menu), and decide that we want
+to merge the work we did on the `mybranch` branch into the `master`
+branch (which is currently our `HEAD` too). To do that, there's a nice
+script called `git merge`, which wants to know which branches you want
+to resolve and what the merge is all about:
+
+------------
+$ git merge "Merge work in mybranch" HEAD mybranch
+------------
+
+where the first argument is going to be used as the commit message if
+the merge can be resolved automatically.
+
+Now, in this case we've intentionally created a situation where the
+merge will need to be fixed up by hand, though, so git will do as much
+of it as it can automatically (which in this case is just merge the `example`
+file, which had no differences in the `mybranch` branch), and say:
+
+----------------
+ Auto-merging hello
+ CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in hello
+ Automatic merge failed; fix up by hand
+----------------
+
+It tells you that it did an "Automatic merge", which
+failed due to conflicts in `hello`.
+
+Not to worry. It left the (trivial) conflict in `hello` in the same form you
+should already be well used to if you've ever used CVS, so let's just
+open `hello` in our editor (whatever that may be), and fix it up somehow.
+I'd suggest just making it so that `hello` contains all four lines:
+
+------------
+Hello World
+It's a new day for git
+Play, play, play
+Work, work, work
+------------
+
+and once you're happy with your manual merge, just do a
+
+------------
+$ git commit -i hello
+------------
+
+which will very loudly warn you that you're now committing a merge
+(which is correct, so never mind), and you can write a small merge
+message about your adventures in git-merge-land.
+
+After you're done, start up `gitk \--all` to see graphically what the
+history looks like. Notice that `mybranch` still exists, and you can
+switch to it, and continue to work with it if you want to. The
+`mybranch` branch will not contain the merge, but next time you merge it
+from the `master` branch, git will know how you merged it, so you'll not
+have to do _that_ merge again.
+
+Another useful tool, especially if you do not always work in X-Window
+environment, is `git show-branch`.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch --topo-order master mybranch
+* [master] Merge work in mybranch
+ ! [mybranch] Some work.
+--
+- [master] Merge work in mybranch
+*+ [mybranch] Some work.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The first two lines indicate that it is showing the two branches
+and the first line of the commit log message from their
+top-of-the-tree commits, you are currently on `master` branch
+(notice the asterisk `\*` character), and the first column for
+the later output lines is used to show commits contained in the
+`master` branch, and the second column for the `mybranch`
+branch. Three commits are shown along with their log messages.
+All of them have non blank characters in the first column (`*`
+shows an ordinary commit on the current branch, `.` is a merge commit), which
+means they are now part of the `master` branch. Only the "Some
+work" commit has the plus `+` character in the second column,
+because `mybranch` has not been merged to incorporate these
+commits from the master branch. The string inside brackets
+before the commit log message is a short name you can use to
+name the commit. In the above example, 'master' and 'mybranch'
+are branch heads. 'master~1' is the first parent of 'master'
+branch head. Please see 'git-rev-parse' documentation if you
+see more complex cases.
+
+Now, let's pretend you are the one who did all the work in
+`mybranch`, and the fruit of your hard work has finally been merged
+to the `master` branch. Let's go back to `mybranch`, and run
+resolve to get the "upstream changes" back to your branch.
+
+------------
+$ git checkout mybranch
+$ git merge "Merge upstream changes." HEAD master
+------------
+
+This outputs something like this (the actual commit object names
+would be different)
+
+----------------
+Updating from ae3a2da... to a80b4aa....
+Fast forward
+ example | 1 +
+ hello | 1 +
+ 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
+----------------
+
+Because your branch did not contain anything more than what are
+already merged into the `master` branch, the resolve operation did
+not actually do a merge. Instead, it just updated the top of
+the tree of your branch to that of the `master` branch. This is
+often called 'fast forward' merge.
+
+You can run `gitk \--all` again to see how the commit ancestry
+looks like, or run `show-branch`, which tells you this.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch master mybranch
+! [master] Merge work in mybranch
+ * [mybranch] Merge work in mybranch
+--
+-- [master] Merge work in mybranch
+------------------------------------------------
+
+
+Merging external work
+---------------------
+
+It's usually much more common that you merge with somebody else than
+merging with your own branches, so it's worth pointing out that git
+makes that very easy too, and in fact, it's not that different from
+doing a `git merge`. In fact, a remote merge ends up being nothing
+more than "fetch the work from a remote repository into a temporary tag"
+followed by a `git merge`.
+
+Fetching from a remote repository is done by, unsurprisingly,
+`git fetch`:
+
+----------------
+$ git fetch <remote-repository>
+----------------
+
+One of the following transports can be used to name the
+repository to download from:
+
+Rsync::
+ `rsync://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+Rsync transport is usable for both uploading and downloading,
+but is completely unaware of what git does, and can produce
+unexpected results when you download from the public repository
+while the repository owner is uploading into it via `rsync`
+transport. Most notably, it could update the files under
+`refs/` which holds the object name of the topmost commits
+before uploading the files in `objects/` -- the downloader would
+obtain head commit object name while that object itself is still
+not available in the repository. For this reason, it is
+considered deprecated.
+
+SSH::
+ `remote.machine:/path/to/repo.git/` or
++
+`ssh://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+This transport can be used for both uploading and downloading,
+and requires you to have a log-in privilege over `ssh` to the
+remote machine. It finds out the set of objects the other side
+lacks by exchanging the head commits both ends have and
+transfers (close to) minimum set of objects. It is by far the
+most efficient way to exchange git objects between repositories.
+
+Local directory::
+ `/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+This transport is the same as SSH transport but uses `sh` to run
+both ends on the local machine instead of running other end on
+the remote machine via `ssh`.
+
+git Native::
+ `git://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+This transport was designed for anonymous downloading. Like SSH
+transport, it finds out the set of objects the downstream side
+lacks and transfers (close to) minimum set of objects.
+
+HTTP(S)::
+ `http://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+Downloader from http and https URL
+first obtains the topmost commit object name from the remote site
+by looking at the specified refname under `repo.git/refs/` directory,
+and then tries to obtain the
+commit object by downloading from `repo.git/objects/xx/xxx\...`
+using the object name of that commit object. Then it reads the
+commit object to find out its parent commits and the associate
+tree object; it repeats this process until it gets all the
+necessary objects. Because of this behavior, they are
+sometimes also called 'commit walkers'.
++
+The 'commit walkers' are sometimes also called 'dumb
+transports', because they do not require any git aware smart
+server like git Native transport does. Any stock HTTP server
+that does not even support directory index would suffice. But
+you must prepare your repository with `git-update-server-info`
+to help dumb transport downloaders.
++
+There are (confusingly enough) `git-ssh-fetch` and `git-ssh-upload`
+programs, which are 'commit walkers'; they outlived their
+usefulness when git Native and SSH transports were introduced,
+and not used by `git pull` or `git push` scripts.
+
+Once you fetch from the remote repository, you `resolve` that
+with your current branch.
+
+However -- it's such a common thing to `fetch` and then
+immediately `resolve`, that it's called `git pull`, and you can
+simply do
+
+----------------
+$ git pull <remote-repository>
+----------------
+
+and optionally give a branch-name for the remote end as a second
+argument.
+
+[NOTE]
+You could do without using any branches at all, by
+keeping as many local repositories as you would like to have
+branches, and merging between them with `git pull`, just like
+you merge between branches. The advantage of this approach is
+that it lets you keep a set of files for each `branch` checked
+out and you may find it easier to switch back and forth if you
+juggle multiple lines of development simultaneously. Of
+course, you will pay the price of more disk usage to hold
+multiple working trees, but disk space is cheap these days.
+
+It is likely that you will be pulling from the same remote
+repository from time to time. As a short hand, you can store
+the remote repository URL in the local repository's config file
+like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git config remote.linus.url http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and use the "linus" keyword with `git pull` instead of the full URL.
+
+Examples.
+
+. `git pull linus`
+. `git pull linus tag v0.99.1`
+
+the above are equivalent to:
+
+. `git pull http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ HEAD`
+. `git pull http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ tag v0.99.1`
+
+
+How does the merge work?
+------------------------
+
+We said this tutorial shows what plumbing does to help you cope
+with the porcelain that isn't flushing, but we so far did not
+talk about how the merge really works. If you are following
+this tutorial the first time, I'd suggest to skip to "Publishing
+your work" section and come back here later.
+
+OK, still with me? To give us an example to look at, let's go
+back to the earlier repository with "hello" and "example" file,
+and bring ourselves back to the pre-merge state:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch --more=3 master mybranch
+! [master] Merge work in mybranch
+ * [mybranch] Merge work in mybranch
+--
+-- [master] Merge work in mybranch
++* [master^2] Some work.
++* [master^] Some fun.
+------------
+
+Remember, before running `git merge`, our `master` head was at
+"Some fun." commit, while our `mybranch` head was at "Some
+work." commit.
+
+------------
+$ git checkout mybranch
+$ git reset --hard master^2
+$ git checkout master
+$ git reset --hard master^
+------------
+
+After rewinding, the commit structure should look like this:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch
+* [master] Some fun.
+ ! [mybranch] Some work.
+--
+ + [mybranch] Some work.
+* [master] Some fun.
+*+ [mybranch^] New day.
+------------
+
+Now we are ready to experiment with the merge by hand.
+
+`git merge` command, when merging two branches, uses 3-way merge
+algorithm. First, it finds the common ancestor between them.
+The command it uses is `git-merge-base`:
+
+------------
+$ mb=$(git-merge-base HEAD mybranch)
+------------
+
+The command writes the commit object name of the common ancestor
+to the standard output, so we captured its output to a variable,
+because we will be using it in the next step. BTW, the common
+ancestor commit is the "New day." commit in this case. You can
+tell it by:
+
+------------
+$ git-name-rev $mb
+my-first-tag
+------------
+
+After finding out a common ancestor commit, the second step is
+this:
+
+------------
+$ git-read-tree -m -u $mb HEAD mybranch
+------------
+
+This is the same `git-read-tree` command we have already seen,
+but it takes three trees, unlike previous examples. This reads
+the contents of each tree into different 'stage' in the index
+file (the first tree goes to stage 1, the second stage 2,
+etc.). After reading three trees into three stages, the paths
+that are the same in all three stages are 'collapsed' into stage
+0. Also paths that are the same in two of three stages are
+collapsed into stage 0, taking the SHA1 from either stage 2 or
+stage 3, whichever is different from stage 1 (i.e. only one side
+changed from the common ancestor).
+
+After 'collapsing' operation, paths that are different in three
+trees are left in non-zero stages. At this point, you can
+inspect the index file with this command:
+
+------------
+$ git-ls-files --stage
+100644 7f8b141b65fdcee47321e399a2598a235a032422 0 example
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello
+------------
+
+In our example of only two files, we did not have unchanged
+files so only 'example' resulted in collapsing, but in real-life
+large projects, only small number of files change in one commit,
+and this 'collapsing' tends to trivially merge most of the paths
+fairly quickly, leaving only a handful the real changes in non-zero
+stages.
+
+To look at only non-zero stages, use `\--unmerged` flag:
+
+------------
+$ git-ls-files --unmerged
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello
+------------
+
+The next step of merging is to merge these three versions of the
+file, using 3-way merge. This is done by giving
+`git-merge-one-file` command as one of the arguments to
+`git-merge-index` command:
+
+------------
+$ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file hello
+Auto-merging hello.
+merge: warning: conflicts during merge
+ERROR: Merge conflict in hello.
+fatal: merge program failed
+------------
+
+`git-merge-one-file` script is called with parameters to
+describe those three versions, and is responsible to leave the
+merge results in the working tree.
+It is a fairly straightforward shell script, and
+eventually calls `merge` program from RCS suite to perform a
+file-level 3-way merge. In this case, `merge` detects
+conflicts, and the merge result with conflict marks is left in
+the working tree.. This can be seen if you run `ls-files
+--stage` again at this point:
+
+------------
+$ git-ls-files --stage
+100644 7f8b141b65fdcee47321e399a2598a235a032422 0 example
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello
+------------
+
+This is the state of the index file and the working file after
+`git merge` returns control back to you, leaving the conflicting
+merge for you to resolve. Notice that the path `hello` is still
+unmerged, and what you see with `git diff` at this point is
+differences since stage 2 (i.e. your version).
+
+
+Publishing your work
+--------------------
+
+So, we can use somebody else's work from a remote repository, but
+how can *you* prepare a repository to let other people pull from
+it?
+
+Your do your real work in your working tree that has your
+primary repository hanging under it as its `.git` subdirectory.
+You *could* make that repository accessible remotely and ask
+people to pull from it, but in practice that is not the way
+things are usually done. A recommended way is to have a public
+repository, make it reachable by other people, and when the
+changes you made in your primary working tree are in good shape,
+update the public repository from it. This is often called
+'pushing'.
+
+[NOTE]
+This public repository could further be mirrored, and that is
+how git repositories at `kernel.org` are managed.
+
+Publishing the changes from your local (private) repository to
+your remote (public) repository requires a write privilege on
+the remote machine. You need to have an SSH account there to
+run a single command, `git-receive-pack`.
+
+First, you need to create an empty repository on the remote
+machine that will house your public repository. This empty
+repository will be populated and be kept up-to-date by pushing
+into it later. Obviously, this repository creation needs to be
+done only once.
+
+[NOTE]
+`git push` uses a pair of programs,
+`git-send-pack` on your local machine, and `git-receive-pack`
+on the remote machine. The communication between the two over
+the network internally uses an SSH connection.
+
+Your private repository's git directory is usually `.git`, but
+your public repository is often named after the project name,
+i.e. `<project>.git`. Let's create such a public repository for
+project `my-git`. After logging into the remote machine, create
+an empty directory:
+
+------------
+$ mkdir my-git.git
+------------
+
+Then, make that directory into a git repository by running
+`git init`, but this time, since its name is not the usual
+`.git`, we do things slightly differently:
+
+------------
+$ GIT_DIR=my-git.git git-init
+------------
+
+Make sure this directory is available for others you want your
+changes to be pulled by via the transport of your choice. Also
+you need to make sure that you have the `git-receive-pack`
+program on the `$PATH`.
+
+[NOTE]
+Many installations of sshd do not invoke your shell as the login
+shell when you directly run programs; what this means is that if
+your login shell is `bash`, only `.bashrc` is read and not
+`.bash_profile`. As a workaround, make sure `.bashrc` sets up
+`$PATH` so that you can run `git-receive-pack` program.
+
+[NOTE]
+If you plan to publish this repository to be accessed over http,
+you should do `chmod +x my-git.git/hooks/post-update` at this
+point. This makes sure that every time you push into this
+repository, `git-update-server-info` is run.
+
+Your "public repository" is now ready to accept your changes.
+Come back to the machine you have your private repository. From
+there, run this command:
+
+------------
+$ git push <public-host>:/path/to/my-git.git master
+------------
+
+This synchronizes your public repository to match the named
+branch head (i.e. `master` in this case) and objects reachable
+from them in your current repository.
+
+As a real example, this is how I update my public git
+repository. Kernel.org mirror network takes care of the
+propagation to other publicly visible machines:
+
+------------
+$ git push master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git/
+------------
+
+
+Packing your repository
+-----------------------
+
+Earlier, we saw that one file under `.git/objects/??/` directory
+is stored for each git object you create. This representation
+is efficient to create atomically and safely, but
+not so convenient to transport over the network. Since git objects are
+immutable once they are created, there is a way to optimize the
+storage by "packing them together". The command
+
+------------
+$ git repack
+------------
+
+will do it for you. If you followed the tutorial examples, you
+would have accumulated about 17 objects in `.git/objects/??/`
+directories by now. `git repack` tells you how many objects it
+packed, and stores the packed file in `.git/objects/pack`
+directory.
+
+[NOTE]
+You will see two files, `pack-\*.pack` and `pack-\*.idx`,
+in `.git/objects/pack` directory. They are closely related to
+each other, and if you ever copy them by hand to a different
+repository for whatever reason, you should make sure you copy
+them together. The former holds all the data from the objects
+in the pack, and the latter holds the index for random
+access.
+
+If you are paranoid, running `git-verify-pack` command would
+detect if you have a corrupt pack, but do not worry too much.
+Our programs are always perfect ;-).
+
+Once you have packed objects, you do not need to leave the
+unpacked objects that are contained in the pack file anymore.
+
+------------
+$ git prune-packed
+------------
+
+would remove them for you.
+
+You can try running `find .git/objects -type f` before and after
+you run `git prune-packed` if you are curious. Also `git
+count-objects` would tell you how many unpacked objects are in
+your repository and how much space they are consuming.
+
+[NOTE]
+`git pull` is slightly cumbersome for HTTP transport, as a
+packed repository may contain relatively few objects in a
+relatively large pack. If you expect many HTTP pulls from your
+public repository you might want to repack & prune often, or
+never.
+
+If you run `git repack` again at this point, it will say
+"Nothing to pack". Once you continue your development and
+accumulate the changes, running `git repack` again will create a
+new pack, that contains objects created since you packed your
+repository the last time. We recommend that you pack your project
+soon after the initial import (unless you are starting your
+project from scratch), and then run `git repack` every once in a
+while, depending on how active your project is.
+
+When a repository is synchronized via `git push` and `git pull`
+objects packed in the source repository are usually stored
+unpacked in the destination, unless rsync transport is used.
+While this allows you to use different packing strategies on
+both ends, it also means you may need to repack both
+repositories every once in a while.
+
+
+Working with Others
+-------------------
+
+Although git is a truly distributed system, it is often
+convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
+of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
+is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in
+link:http://tinyurl.com/a2jdg[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
+
+It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
+There is nothing fundamental in git that enforces the "chain of
+patch flow" this hierarchy implies. You do not have to pull
+from only one remote repository.
+
+A recommended workflow for a "project lead" goes like this:
+
+1. Prepare your primary repository on your local machine. Your
+ work is done there.
+
+2. Prepare a public repository accessible to others.
++
+If other people are pulling from your repository over dumb
+transport protocols (HTTP), you need to keep this repository
+'dumb transport friendly'. After `git init`,
+`$GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update` copied from the standard templates
+would contain a call to `git-update-server-info` but the
+`post-update` hook itself is disabled by default -- enable it
+with `chmod +x post-update`. This makes sure `git-update-server-info`
+keeps the necessary files up-to-date.
+
+3. Push into the public repository from your primary
+ repository.
+
+4. `git repack` the public repository. This establishes a big
+ pack that contains the initial set of objects as the
+ baseline, and possibly `git prune` if the transport
+ used for pulling from your repository supports packed
+ repositories.
+
+5. Keep working in your primary repository. Your changes
+ include modifications of your own, patches you receive via
+ e-mails, and merges resulting from pulling the "public"
+ repositories of your "subsystem maintainers".
++
+You can repack this private repository whenever you feel like.
+
+6. Push your changes to the public repository, and announce it
+ to the public.
+
+7. Every once in a while, "git repack" the public repository.
+ Go back to step 5. and continue working.
+
+
+A recommended work cycle for a "subsystem maintainer" who works
+on that project and has an own "public repository" goes like this:
+
+1. Prepare your work repository, by `git clone` the public
+ repository of the "project lead". The URL used for the
+ initial cloning is stored in the remote.origin.url
+ configuration variable.
+
+2. Prepare a public repository accessible to others, just like
+ the "project lead" person does.
+
+3. Copy over the packed files from "project lead" public
+ repository to your public repository, unless the "project
+ lead" repository lives on the same machine as yours. In the
+ latter case, you can use `objects/info/alternates` file to
+ point at the repository you are borrowing from.
+
+4. Push into the public repository from your primary
+ repository. Run `git repack`, and possibly `git prune` if the
+ transport used for pulling from your repository supports
+ packed repositories.
+
+5. Keep working in your primary repository. Your changes
+ include modifications of your own, patches you receive via
+ e-mails, and merges resulting from pulling the "public"
+ repositories of your "project lead" and possibly your
+ "sub-subsystem maintainers".
++
+You can repack this private repository whenever you feel
+like.
+
+6. Push your changes to your public repository, and ask your
+ "project lead" and possibly your "sub-subsystem
+ maintainers" to pull from it.
+
+7. Every once in a while, `git repack` the public repository.
+ Go back to step 5. and continue working.
+
+
+A recommended work cycle for an "individual developer" who does
+not have a "public" repository is somewhat different. It goes
+like this:
+
+1. Prepare your work repository, by `git clone` the public
+ repository of the "project lead" (or a "subsystem
+ maintainer", if you work on a subsystem). The URL used for
+ the initial cloning is stored in the remote.origin.url
+ configuration variable.
+
+2. Do your work in your repository on 'master' branch.
+
+3. Run `git fetch origin` from the public repository of your
+ upstream every once in a while. This does only the first
+ half of `git pull` but does not merge. The head of the
+ public repository is stored in `.git/refs/remotes/origin/master`.
+
+4. Use `git cherry origin` to see which ones of your patches
+ were accepted, and/or use `git rebase origin` to port your
+ unmerged changes forward to the updated upstream.
+
+5. Use `git format-patch origin` to prepare patches for e-mail
+ submission to your upstream and send it out. Go back to
+ step 2. and continue.
+
+
+Working with Others, Shared Repository Style
+--------------------------------------------
+
+If you are coming from CVS background, the style of cooperation
+suggested in the previous section may be new to you. You do not
+have to worry. git supports "shared public repository" style of
+cooperation you are probably more familiar with as well.
+
+See link:cvs-migration.html[git for CVS users] for the details.
+
+Bundling your work together
+---------------------------
+
+It is likely that you will be working on more than one thing at
+a time. It is easy to manage those more-or-less independent tasks
+using branches with git.
+
+We have already seen how branches work previously,
+with "fun and work" example using two branches. The idea is the
+same if there are more than two branches. Let's say you started
+out from "master" head, and have some new code in the "master"
+branch, and two independent fixes in the "commit-fix" and
+"diff-fix" branches:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch
+! [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ! [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ * [master] Release candidate #1
+---
+ + [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ + [diff-fix~1] Better common substring algorithm.
++ [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ * [master] Release candidate #1
+++* [diff-fix~2] Pretty-print messages.
+------------
+
+Both fixes are tested well, and at this point, you want to merge
+in both of them. You could merge in 'diff-fix' first and then
+'commit-fix' next, like this:
+
+------------
+$ git merge 'Merge fix in diff-fix' master diff-fix
+$ git merge 'Merge fix in commit-fix' master commit-fix
+------------
+
+Which would result in:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch
+! [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ! [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ * [master] Merge fix in commit-fix
+---
+ - [master] Merge fix in commit-fix
++ * [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ - [master~1] Merge fix in diff-fix
+ +* [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ +* [diff-fix~1] Better common substring algorithm.
+ * [master~2] Release candidate #1
+++* [master~3] Pretty-print messages.
+------------
+
+However, there is no particular reason to merge in one branch
+first and the other next, when what you have are a set of truly
+independent changes (if the order mattered, then they are not
+independent by definition). You could instead merge those two
+branches into the current branch at once. First let's undo what
+we just did and start over. We would want to get the master
+branch before these two merges by resetting it to 'master~2':
+
+------------
+$ git reset --hard master~2
+------------
+
+You can make sure 'git show-branch' matches the state before
+those two 'git merge' you just did. Then, instead of running
+two 'git merge' commands in a row, you would merge these two
+branch heads (this is known as 'making an Octopus'):
+
+------------
+$ git merge commit-fix diff-fix
+$ git show-branch
+! [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ! [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ * [master] Octopus merge of branches 'diff-fix' and 'commit-fix'
+---
+ - [master] Octopus merge of branches 'diff-fix' and 'commit-fix'
++ * [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ +* [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ +* [diff-fix~1] Better common substring algorithm.
+ * [master~1] Release candidate #1
+++* [master~2] Pretty-print messages.
+------------
+
+Note that you should not do Octopus because you can. An octopus
+is a valid thing to do and often makes it easier to view the
+commit history if you are merging more than two independent
+changes at the same time. However, if you have merge conflicts
+with any of the branches you are merging in and need to hand
+resolve, that is an indication that the development happened in
+those branches were not independent after all, and you should
+merge two at a time, documenting how you resolved the conflicts,
+and the reason why you preferred changes made in one side over
+the other. Otherwise it would make the project history harder
+to follow, not easier.
+
+[ to be continued.. cvsimports ]
diff --git a/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..764cc56
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,171 @@
+git for CVS users
+=================
+
+Git differs from CVS in that every working tree contains a repository with
+a full copy of the project history, and no repository is inherently more
+important than any other. However, you can emulate the CVS model by
+designating a single shared repository which people can synchronize with;
+this document explains how to do that.
+
+Some basic familiarity with git is required. This
+link:tutorial.html[tutorial introduction to git] should be sufficient.
+
+Developing against a shared repository
+--------------------------------------
+
+Suppose a shared repository is set up in /pub/repo.git on the host
+foo.com. Then as an individual committer you can clone the shared
+repository over ssh with:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git clone foo.com:/pub/repo.git/ my-project
+$ cd my-project
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and hack away. The equivalent of `cvs update` is
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git pull origin
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which merges in any work that others might have done since the clone
+operation. If there are uncommitted changes in your working tree, commit
+them first before running git pull.
+
+[NOTE]
+================================
+The `pull` command knows where to get updates from because of certain
+configuration variables that were set by the first `git clone`
+command; see `git config -l` and the gitlink:git-config[1] man
+page for details.
+================================
+
+You can update the shared repository with your changes by first committing
+your changes, and then using the gitlink:git-push[1] command:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git push origin master
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to "push" those commits to the shared repository. If someone else has
+updated the repository more recently, `git push`, like `cvs commit`, will
+complain, in which case you must pull any changes before attempting the
+push again.
+
+In the `git push` command above we specify the name of the remote branch
+to update (`master`). If we leave that out, `git push` tries to update
+any branches in the remote repository that have the same name as a branch
+in the local repository. So the last `push` can be done with either of:
+
+------------
+$ git push origin
+$ git push foo.com:/pub/project.git/
+------------
+
+as long as the shared repository does not have any branches
+other than `master`.
+
+Setting Up a Shared Repository
+------------------------------
+
+We assume you have already created a git repository for your project,
+possibly created from scratch or from a tarball (see the
+link:tutorial.html[tutorial]), or imported from an already existing CVS
+repository (see the next section).
+
+Assume your existing repo is at /home/alice/myproject. Create a new "bare"
+repository (a repository without a working tree) and fetch your project into
+it:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ mkdir /pub/my-repo.git
+$ cd /pub/my-repo.git
+$ git --bare init --shared
+$ git --bare fetch /home/alice/myproject master:master
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Next, give every team member read/write access to this repository. One
+easy way to do this is to give all the team members ssh access to the
+machine where the repository is hosted. If you don't want to give them a
+full shell on the machine, there is a restricted shell which only allows
+users to do git pushes and pulls; see gitlink:git-shell[1].
+
+Put all the committers in the same group, and make the repository
+writable by that group:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ chgrp -R $group /pub/my-repo.git
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Make sure committers have a umask of at most 027, so that the directories
+they create are writable and searchable by other group members.
+
+Importing a CVS archive
+-----------------------
+
+First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
+link:http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
+sure it is in your path. Then cd to a checked out CVS working directory
+of the project you are interested in and run gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]:
+
+-------------------------------------------
+$ git cvsimport -C <destination>
+-------------------------------------------
+
+This puts a git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
+<destination>, which will be created if necessary.
+
+The import checks out from CVS every revision of every file. Reportedly
+cvsimport can average some twenty revisions per second, so for a
+medium-sized project this should not take more than a couple of minutes.
+Larger projects or remote repositories may take longer.
+
+The main trunk is stored in the git branch named `origin`, and additional
+CVS branches are stored in git branches with the same names. The most
+recent version of the main trunk is also left checked out on the `master`
+branch, so you can start adding your own changes right away.
+
+The import is incremental, so if you call it again next month it will
+fetch any CVS updates that have been made in the meantime. For this to
+work, you must not modify the imported branches; instead, create new
+branches for your own changes, and merge in the imported branches as
+necessary.
+
+Advanced Shared Repository Management
+-------------------------------------
+
+Git allows you to specify scripts called "hooks" to be run at certain
+points. You can use these, for example, to send all commits to the shared
+repository to a mailing list. See link:hooks.html[Hooks used by git].
+
+You can enforce finer grained permissions using update hooks. See
+link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[Controlling access to branches using
+update hooks].
+
+Providing CVS Access to a git Repository
+----------------------------------------
+
+It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a git repository, so
+that developers can still use CVS; see gitlink:git-cvsserver[1] for
+details.
+
+Alternative Development Models
+------------------------------
+
+CVS users are accustomed to giving a group of developers commit access to
+a common repository. As we've seen, this is also possible with git.
+However, the distributed nature of git allows other development models,
+and you may want to first consider whether one of them might be a better
+fit for your project.
+
+For example, you can choose a single person to maintain the project's
+primary public repository. Other developers then clone this repository
+and each work in their own clone. When they have a series of changes that
+they're happy with, they ask the maintainer to pull from the branch
+containing the changes. The maintainer reviews their changes and pulls
+them into the primary repository, which other developers pull from as
+necessary to stay coordinated. The Linux kernel and other projects use
+variants of this model.
+
+With a small group, developers may just pull changes from each other's
+repositories without the need for a central maintainer.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..378e72f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,214 @@
+The output format from "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree" and
+"git-diff-files" are very similar.
+
+These commands all compare two sets of things; what is
+compared differs:
+
+git-diff-index <tree-ish>::
+ compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.
+
+git-diff-index --cached <tree-ish>::
+ compares the <tree-ish> and the index.
+
+git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]::
+ compares the trees named by the two arguments.
+
+git-diff-files [<pattern>...]::
+ compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
+
+
+An output line is formatted this way:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
+copy-edit :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... C68 file1 file2
+rename-edit :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... R86 file1 file3
+create :000000 100644 0000000... 1234567... A file4
+delete :100644 000000 1234567... 0000000... D file5
+unmerged :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6
+------------------------------------------------
+
+That is, from the left to the right:
+
+. a colon.
+. mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.
+. a space.
+. mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.
+. a space.
+. sha1 for "src"; 0\{40\} if creation or unmerged.
+. a space.
+. sha1 for "dst"; 0\{40\} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
+. a space.
+. status, followed by optional "score" number.
+. a tab or a NUL when '-z' option is used.
+. path for "src"
+. a tab or a NUL when '-z' option is used; only exists for C or R.
+. path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.
+. an LF or a NUL when '-z' option is used, to terminate the record.
+
+<sha1> is shown as all 0's if a file is new on the filesystem
+and it is out of sync with the index.
+
+Example:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 5be4a4...... 000000...... M file.c
+------------------------------------------------
+
+When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
+in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
+respectively.
+
+
+Generating patches with -p
+--------------------------
+
+When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
+with a '-p' option, they do not produce the output described above;
+instead they produce a patch file. You can customize the creation
+of such patches via the GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and the GIT_DIFF_OPTS
+environment variables.
+
+What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
+diff format.
+
+1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
+ this:
+
+ diff --git a/file1 b/file2
++
+The `a/` and `b/` filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
+involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
+`/dev/null` is _not_ used in place of `a/` or `b/` filenames.
++
+When rename/copy is involved, `file1` and `file2` show the
+name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name of
+the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.
+
+2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
+
+ old mode <mode>
+ new mode <mode>
+ deleted file mode <mode>
+ new file mode <mode>
+ copy from <path>
+ copy to <path>
+ rename from <path>
+ rename to <path>
+ similarity index <number>
+ dissimilarity index <number>
+ index <hash>..<hash> <mode>
+
+3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames
+ are represented as `\t`, `\n`, `\"` and `\\`, respectively.
+ If there is need for such substitution then the whole
+ pathname is put in double quotes.
+
+
+combined diff format
+--------------------
+
+git-diff-tree and git-diff-files can take '-c' or '--cc' option
+to produce 'combined diff', which looks like this:
+
+------------
+diff --combined describe.c
+index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
+--- a/describe.c
++++ b/describe.c
+@@@ -98,20 -98,12 +98,20 @@@
+ return (a_date > b_date) ? -1 : (a_date == b_date) ? 0 : 1;
+ }
+
+- static void describe(char *arg)
+ -static void describe(struct commit *cmit, int last_one)
+++static void describe(char *arg, int last_one)
+ {
+ + unsigned char sha1[20];
+ + struct commit *cmit;
+ struct commit_list *list;
+ static int initialized = 0;
+ struct commit_name *n;
+
+ + if (get_sha1(arg, sha1) < 0)
+ + usage(describe_usage);
+ + cmit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
+ + if (!cmit)
+ + usage(describe_usage);
+ +
+ if (!initialized) {
+ initialized = 1;
+ for_each_ref(get_name);
+------------
+
+1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
+ this (when '-c' option is used):
+
+ diff --combined file
++
+or like this (when '--cc' option is used):
+
+ diff --c file
+
+2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines
+ (this example shows a merge with two parents):
+
+ index <hash>,<hash>..<hash>
+ mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>
+ new file mode <mode>
+ deleted file mode <mode>,<mode>
++
+The `mode <mode>,<mode>..<mode>` line appears only if at least one of
+the <mode> is different from the rest. Extended headers with
+information about detected contents movement (renames and
+copying detection) are designed to work with diff of two
+<tree-ish> and are not used by combined diff format.
+
+3. It is followed by two-line from-file/to-file header
+
+ --- a/file
+ +++ b/file
++
+Similar to two-line header for traditional 'unified' diff
+format, `/dev/null` is used to signal created or deleted
+files.
+
+4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
+ accidentally feeding it to `patch -p1`. Combined diff format
+ was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
+ meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the
+ extended 'index' header:
+
+ @@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
++
+There are (number of parents + 1) `@` characters in the chunk
+header for combined diff format.
+
+Unlike the traditional 'unified' diff format, which shows two
+files A and B with a single column that has `-` (minus --
+appears in A but removed in B), `+` (plus -- missing in A but
+added to B), or `" "` (space -- unchanged) prefix, this format
+compares two or more files file1, file2,... with one file X, and
+shows how X differs from each of fileN. One column for each of
+fileN is prepended to the output line to note how X's line is
+different from it.
+
+A `-` character in the column N means that the line appears in
+fileN but it does not appear in the result. A `+` character
+in the column N means that the line appears in the last file,
+and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
+added, from the point of view of that parent).
+
+In the above example output, the function signature was changed
+from both files (hence two `-` removals from both file1 and
+file2, plus `++` to mean one line that was added does not appear
+in either file1 nor file2). Also two other lines are the same
+from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with ` +`).
+
+When shown by `git diff-tree -c`, it compares the parents of a
+merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the
+parents). When shown by `git diff-files -c`, it compares the
+two unresolved merge parents with the working tree file
+(i.e. file1 is stage 2 aka "our version", file2 is stage 3 aka
+"their version").
+
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..019a39f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,160 @@
+-p::
+ Generate patch (see section on generating patches)
+
+-u::
+ Synonym for "-p".
+
+--raw::
+ Generate the raw format.
+
+--patch-with-raw::
+ Synonym for "-p --raw".
+
+--stat[=width[,name-width]]::
+ Generate a diffstat. You can override the default
+ output width for 80-column terminal by "--stat=width".
+ The width of the filename part can be controlled by
+ giving another width to it separated by a comma.
+
+--numstat::
+ Similar to \--stat, but shows number of added and
+ deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
+ abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
+ binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
+ `0 0`.
+
+--shortstat::
+ Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
+ number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
+ lines.
+
+--summary::
+ Output a condensed summary of extended header information
+ such as creations, renames and mode changes.
+
+--patch-with-stat::
+ Synonym for "-p --stat".
+
+-z::
+ \0 line termination on output
+
+--name-only::
+ Show only names of changed files.
+
+--name-status::
+ Show only names and status of changed files.
+
+--color::
+ Show colored diff.
+
+--no-color::
+ Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file
+ gives the default to color output.
+
+--color-words::
+ Show colored word diff, i.e. color words which have changed.
+
+--no-renames::
+ Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
+ file gives the default to do so.
+
+--check::
+ Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace
+ or an indent that uses a space before a tab.
+
+--full-index::
+ Instead of the first handful characters, show full
+ object name of pre- and post-image blob on the "index"
+ line when generating a patch format output.
+
+--binary::
+ In addition to --full-index, output "binary diff" that
+ can be applied with "git apply".
+
+--abbrev[=<n>]::
+ Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
+ name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
+ lines, show only handful hexdigits prefix. This is
+ independent of --full-index option above, which controls
+ the diff-patch output format. Non default number of
+ digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
+
+-B::
+ Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
+
+-M::
+ Detect renames.
+
+-C::
+ Detect copies as well as renames.
+
+--diff-filter=[ACDMRTUXB*]::
+ Select only files that are Added (`A`), Copied (`C`),
+ Deleted (`D`), Modified (`M`), Renamed (`R`), have their
+ type (mode) changed (`T`), are Unmerged (`U`), are
+ Unknown (`X`), or have had their pairing Broken (`B`).
+ Any combination of the filter characters may be used.
+ When `*` (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
+ paths are selected if there is any file that matches
+ other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
+ that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
+
+--find-copies-harder::
+ For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only
+ if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
+ changeset. This flag makes the command
+ inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
+ copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
+ projects, so use it with caution.
+
+-l<num>::
+ -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n
+ is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This
+ option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
+ the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
+ number.
+
+-S<string>::
+ Look for differences that contain the change in <string>.
+
+--pickaxe-all::
+ When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that
+ changeset, not just the files that contain the change
+ in <string>.
+
+--pickaxe-regex::
+ Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX
+ regex to match.
+
+-O<orderfile>::
+ Output the patch in the order specified in the
+ <orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+
+-R::
+ Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
+ on-disk file to tree contents.
+
+--text::
+ Treat all files as text.
+
+-a::
+ Shorthand for "--text".
+
+--ignore-space-change::
+ Ignore changes in amount of white space. This ignores white
+ space at line end, and consider all other sequences of one or
+ more white space characters to be equivalent.
+
+-b::
+ Shorthand for "--ignore-space-change".
+
+--ignore-all-space::
+ Ignore white space when comparing lines. This ignores
+ difference even if one line has white space where the other
+ line has none.
+
+-w::
+ Shorthand for "--ignore-all-space".
+
+For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
+link:diffcore.html[diffcore documentation].
diff --git a/Documentation/diffcore.txt b/Documentation/diffcore.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cb4e562
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diffcore.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,275 @@
+Tweaking diff output
+====================
+June 2005
+
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+The diff commands git-diff-index, git-diff-files, git-diff-tree, and
+git-diff-stages can be told to manipulate differences they find in
+unconventional ways before showing diff(1) output. The manipulation
+is collectively called "diffcore transformation". This short note
+describes what they are and how to use them to produce diff outputs
+that are easier to understand than the conventional kind.
+
+
+The chain of operation
+----------------------
+
+The git-diff-* family works by first comparing two sets of
+files:
+
+ - git-diff-index compares contents of a "tree" object and the
+ working directory (when '\--cached' flag is not used) or a
+ "tree" object and the index file (when '\--cached' flag is
+ used);
+
+ - git-diff-files compares contents of the index file and the
+ working directory;
+
+ - git-diff-tree compares contents of two "tree" objects;
+
+ - git-diff-stages compares contents of blobs at two stages in an
+ unmerged index file.
+
+In all of these cases, the commands themselves compare
+corresponding paths in the two sets of files. The result of
+comparison is passed from these commands to what is internally
+called "diffcore", in a format similar to what is output when
+the -p option is not used. E.g.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
+create :000000 100644 0000000... 1234567... A file4
+delete :100644 000000 1234567... 0000000... D file5
+unmerged :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The diffcore mechanism is fed a list of such comparison results
+(each of which is called "filepair", although at this point each
+of them talks about a single file), and transforms such a list
+into another list. There are currently 6 such transformations:
+
+- diffcore-pathspec
+- diffcore-break
+- diffcore-rename
+- diffcore-merge-broken
+- diffcore-pickaxe
+- diffcore-order
+
+These are applied in sequence. The set of filepairs git-diff-\*
+commands find are used as the input to diffcore-pathspec, and
+the output from diffcore-pathspec is used as the input to the
+next transformation. The final result is then passed to the
+output routine and generates either diff-raw format (see Output
+format sections of the manual for git-diff-\* commands) or
+diff-patch format.
+
+
+diffcore-pathspec: For Ignoring Files Outside Our Consideration
+---------------------------------------------------------------
+
+The first transformation in the chain is diffcore-pathspec, and
+is controlled by giving the pathname parameters to the
+git-diff-* commands on the command line. The pathspec is used
+to limit the world diff operates in. It removes the filepairs
+outside the specified set of pathnames. E.g. If the input set
+of filepairs included:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M junkfile
+------------------------------------------------
+
+but the command invocation was "git-diff-files myfile", then the
+junkfile entry would be removed from the list because only "myfile"
+is under consideration.
+
+Implementation note. For performance reasons, git-diff-tree
+uses the pathname parameters on the command line to cull set of
+filepairs it feeds the diffcore mechanism itself, and does not
+use diffcore-pathspec, but the end result is the same.
+
+
+diffcore-break: For Splitting Up "Complete Rewrites"
+----------------------------------------------------
+
+The second transformation in the chain is diffcore-break, and is
+controlled by the -B option to the git-diff-* commands. This is
+used to detect a filepair that represents "complete rewrite" and
+break such filepair into two filepairs that represent delete and
+create. E.g. If the input contained this filepair:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and if it detects that the file "file0" is completely rewritten,
+it changes it to:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 000000 bcd1234... 0000000... D file0
+:000000 100644 0000000... 0123456... A file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+For the purpose of breaking a filepair, diffcore-break examines
+the extent of changes between the contents of the files before
+and after modification (i.e. the contents that have "bcd1234..."
+and "0123456..." as their SHA1 content ID, in the above
+example). The amount of deletion of original contents and
+insertion of new material are added together, and if it exceeds
+the "break score", the filepair is broken into two. The break
+score defaults to 50% of the size of the smaller of the original
+and the result (i.e. if the edit shrinks the file, the size of
+the result is used; if the edit lengthens the file, the size of
+the original is used), and can be customized by giving a number
+after "-B" option (e.g. "-B75" to tell it to use 75%).
+
+
+diffcore-rename: For Detection Renames and Copies
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation is used to detect renames and copies, and is
+controlled by the -M option (to detect renames) and the -C option
+(to detect copies as well) to the git-diff-* commands. If the
+input contained these filepairs:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 000000 0123456... 0000000... D fileX
+:000000 100644 0000000... 0123456... A file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and the contents of the deleted file fileX is similar enough to
+the contents of the created file file0, then rename detection
+merges these filepairs and creates:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 0123456... 0123456... R100 fileX file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+When the "-C" option is used, the original contents of modified files,
+and deleted files (and also unmodified files, if the
+"\--find-copies-harder" option is used) are considered as candidates
+of the source files in rename/copy operation. If the input were like
+these filepairs, that talk about a modified file fileY and a newly
+created file file0:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 0123456... 1234567... M fileY
+:000000 100644 0000000... bcd3456... A file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+the original contents of fileY and the resulting contents of
+file0 are compared, and if they are similar enough, they are
+changed to:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 0123456... 1234567... M fileY
+:100644 100644 0123456... bcd3456... C100 fileY file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+In both rename and copy detection, the same "extent of changes"
+algorithm used in diffcore-break is used to determine if two
+files are "similar enough", and can be customized to use
+a similarity score different from the default of 50% by giving a
+number after the "-M" or "-C" option (e.g. "-M8" to tell it to use
+8/10 = 80%).
+
+Note. When the "-C" option is used with `\--find-copies-harder`
+option, git-diff-\* commands feed unmodified filepairs to
+diffcore mechanism as well as modified ones. This lets the copy
+detector consider unmodified files as copy source candidates at
+the expense of making it slower. Without `\--find-copies-harder`,
+git-diff-\* commands can detect copies only if the file that was
+copied happened to have been modified in the same changeset.
+
+
+diffcore-merge-broken: For Putting "Complete Rewrites" Back Together
+--------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation is used to merge filepairs broken by
+diffcore-break, and not transformed into rename/copy by
+diffcore-rename, back into a single modification. This always
+runs when diffcore-break is used.
+
+For the purpose of merging broken filepairs back, it uses a
+different "extent of changes" computation from the ones used by
+diffcore-break and diffcore-rename. It counts only the deletion
+from the original, and does not count insertion. If you removed
+only 10 lines from a 100-line document, even if you added 910
+new lines to make a new 1000-line document, you did not do a
+complete rewrite. diffcore-break breaks such a case in order to
+help diffcore-rename to consider such filepairs as candidate of
+rename/copy detection, but if filepairs broken that way were not
+matched with other filepairs to create rename/copy, then this
+transformation merges them back into the original
+"modification".
+
+The "extent of changes" parameter can be tweaked from the
+default 80% (that is, unless more than 80% of the original
+material is deleted, the broken pairs are merged back into a
+single modification) by giving a second number to -B option,
+like these:
+
+* -B50/60 (give 50% "break score" to diffcore-break, use 60%
+ for diffcore-merge-broken).
+
+* -B/60 (the same as above, since diffcore-break defaults to 50%).
+
+Note that earlier implementation left a broken pair as a separate
+creation and deletion patches. This was an unnecessary hack and
+the latest implementation always merges all the broken pairs
+back into modifications, but the resulting patch output is
+formatted differently for easier review in case of such
+a complete rewrite by showing the entire contents of old version
+prefixed with '-', followed by the entire contents of new
+version prefixed with '+'.
+
+
+diffcore-pickaxe: For Detecting Addition/Deletion of Specified String
+---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation is used to find filepairs that represent
+changes that touch a specified string, and is controlled by the
+-S option and the `\--pickaxe-all` option to the git-diff-*
+commands.
+
+When diffcore-pickaxe is in use, it checks if there are
+filepairs whose "original" side has the specified string and
+whose "result" side does not. Such a filepair represents "the
+string appeared in this changeset". It also checks for the
+opposite case that loses the specified string.
+
+When `\--pickaxe-all` is not in effect, diffcore-pickaxe leaves
+only such filepairs that touch the specified string in its
+output. When `\--pickaxe-all` is used, diffcore-pickaxe leaves all
+filepairs intact if there is such a filepair, or makes the
+output empty otherwise. The latter behaviour is designed to
+make reviewing of the changes in the context of the whole
+changeset easier.
+
+
+diffcore-order: For Sorting the Output Based on Filenames
+---------------------------------------------------------
+
+This is used to reorder the filepairs according to the user's
+(or project's) taste, and is controlled by the -O option to the
+git-diff-* commands.
+
+This takes a text file each of whose lines is a shell glob
+pattern. Filepairs that match a glob pattern on an earlier line
+in the file are output before ones that match a later line, and
+filepairs that do not match any glob pattern are output last.
+
+As an example, a typical orderfile for the core git probably
+would look like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+README
+Makefile
+Documentation
+*.h
+*.c
+t
+------------------------------------------------
+
diff --git a/Documentation/docbook-xsl.css b/Documentation/docbook-xsl.css
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8821e30
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/docbook-xsl.css
@@ -0,0 +1,286 @@
+/*
+ CSS stylesheet for XHTML produced by DocBook XSL stylesheets.
+ Tested with XSL stylesheets 1.61.2, 1.67.2
+*/
+
+span.strong {
+ font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+body blockquote {
+ margin-top: .75em;
+ line-height: 1.5;
+ margin-bottom: .75em;
+}
+
+html body {
+ margin: 1em 5% 1em 5%;
+ line-height: 1.2;
+}
+
+body div {
+ margin: 0;
+}
+
+h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6,
+div.toc p b,
+div.list-of-figures p b,
+div.list-of-tables p b,
+div.abstract p.title
+{
+ color: #527bbd;
+ font-family: tahoma, verdana, sans-serif;
+}
+
+div.toc p:first-child,
+div.list-of-figures p:first-child,
+div.list-of-tables p:first-child,
+div.example p.title
+{
+ margin-bottom: 0.2em;
+}
+
+body h1 {
+ margin: .0em 0 0 -4%;
+ line-height: 1.3;
+ border-bottom: 2px solid silver;
+}
+
+body h2 {
+ margin: 0.5em 0 0 -4%;
+ line-height: 1.3;
+ border-bottom: 2px solid silver;
+}
+
+body h3 {
+ margin: .8em 0 0 -3%;
+ line-height: 1.3;
+}
+
+body h4 {
+ margin: .8em 0 0 -3%;
+ line-height: 1.3;
+}
+
+body h5 {
+ margin: .8em 0 0 -2%;
+ line-height: 1.3;
+}
+
+body h6 {
+ margin: .8em 0 0 -1%;
+ line-height: 1.3;
+}
+
+body hr {
+ border: none; /* Broken on IE6 */
+}
+div.footnotes hr {
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+}
+
+div.navheader th, div.navheader td, div.navfooter td {
+ font-family: sans-serif;
+ font-size: 0.9em;
+ font-weight: bold;
+ color: #527bbd;
+}
+div.navheader img, div.navfooter img {
+ border-style: none;
+}
+div.navheader a, div.navfooter a {
+ font-weight: normal;
+}
+div.navfooter hr {
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+}
+
+body td {
+ line-height: 1.2
+}
+
+body th {
+ line-height: 1.2;
+}
+
+ol {
+ line-height: 1.2;
+}
+
+ul, body dir, body menu {
+ line-height: 1.2;
+}
+
+html {
+ margin: 0;
+ padding: 0;
+}
+
+body h1, body h2, body h3, body h4, body h5, body h6 {
+ margin-left: 0
+}
+
+body pre {
+ margin: 0.5em 10% 0.5em 1em;
+ line-height: 1.0;
+ color: navy;
+}
+
+tt.literal, code.literal {
+ color: navy;
+}
+
+div.literallayout p {
+ padding: 0em;
+ margin: 0em;
+}
+
+div.literallayout {
+ font-family: monospace;
+# margin: 0.5em 10% 0.5em 1em;
+ margin: 0em;
+ color: navy;
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+ background: #f4f4f4;
+ padding: 0.5em;
+}
+
+.programlisting, .screen {
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+ background: #f4f4f4;
+ margin: 0.5em 10% 0.5em 0;
+ padding: 0.5em 1em;
+}
+
+div.sidebar {
+ background: #ffffee;
+ margin: 1.0em 10% 0.5em 0;
+ padding: 0.5em 1em;
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+}
+div.sidebar * { padding: 0; }
+div.sidebar div { margin: 0; }
+div.sidebar p.title {
+ font-family: sans-serif;
+ margin-top: 0.5em;
+ margin-bottom: 0.2em;
+}
+
+div.bibliomixed {
+ margin: 0.5em 5% 0.5em 1em;
+}
+
+div.glossary dt {
+ font-weight: bold;
+}
+div.glossary dd p {
+ margin-top: 0.2em;
+}
+
+dl {
+ margin: .8em 0;
+ line-height: 1.2;
+}
+
+dt {
+ margin-top: 0.5em;
+}
+
+dt span.term {
+ font-style: italic;
+}
+
+div.variablelist dd p {
+ margin-top: 0;
+}
+
+div.itemizedlist li, div.orderedlist li {
+ margin-left: -0.8em;
+ margin-top: 0.5em;
+}
+
+ul, ol {
+ list-style-position: outside;
+}
+
+div.sidebar ul, div.sidebar ol {
+ margin-left: 2.8em;
+}
+
+div.itemizedlist p.title,
+div.orderedlist p.title,
+div.variablelist p.title
+{
+ margin-bottom: -0.8em;
+}
+
+div.revhistory table {
+ border-collapse: collapse;
+ border: none;
+}
+div.revhistory th {
+ border: none;
+ color: #527bbd;
+ font-family: tahoma, verdana, sans-serif;
+}
+div.revhistory td {
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+}
+
+/* Keep TOC and index lines close together. */
+div.toc dl, div.toc dt,
+div.list-of-figures dl, div.list-of-figures dt,
+div.list-of-tables dl, div.list-of-tables dt,
+div.indexdiv dl, div.indexdiv dt
+{
+ line-height: normal;
+ margin-top: 0;
+ margin-bottom: 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ Table styling does not work because of overriding attributes in
+ generated HTML.
+*/
+div.table table,
+div.informaltable table
+{
+ margin-left: 0;
+ margin-right: 5%;
+ margin-bottom: 0.8em;
+}
+div.informaltable table
+{
+ margin-top: 0.4em
+}
+div.table thead,
+div.table tfoot,
+div.table tbody,
+div.informaltable thead,
+div.informaltable tfoot,
+div.informaltable tbody
+{
+ /* No effect in IE6. */
+ border-top: 2px solid #527bbd;
+ border-bottom: 2px solid #527bbd;
+}
+div.table thead, div.table tfoot,
+div.informaltable thead, div.informaltable tfoot
+{
+ font-weight: bold;
+}
+
+div.mediaobject img {
+ border: 1px solid silver;
+ margin-bottom: 0.8em;
+}
+div.figure p.title,
+div.table p.title
+{
+ margin-top: 1em;
+ margin-bottom: 0.4em;
+}
+
+@media print {
+ div.navheader, div.navfooter { display: none; }
+}
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..08c61b1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,465 @@
+Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
+===================================
+
+<<Basic Repository>> commands are needed by people who have a
+repository --- that is everybody, because every working tree of
+git is a repository.
+
+In addition, <<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are
+essential for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who
+works alone.
+
+If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
+the <<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
+
+People who play the <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
+commands in addition to the above.
+
+<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
+administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
+of git repositories.
+
+
+Basic Repository[[Basic Repository]]
+------------------------------------
+
+Everybody uses these commands to maintain git repositories.
+
+ * gitlink:git-init[1] or gitlink:git-clone[1] to create a
+ new repository.
+
+ * gitlink:git-fsck[1] to check the repository for errors.
+
+ * gitlink:git-prune[1] to remove unused objects in the repository.
+
+ * gitlink:git-repack[1] to pack loose objects for efficiency.
+
+ * gitlink:git-gc[1] to do common housekeeping tasks such as
+ repack and prune.
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Check health and remove cruft.::
++
+------------
+$ git fsck <1>
+$ git count-objects <2>
+$ git repack <3>
+$ git gc <4>
+------------
++
+<1> running without `\--full` is usually cheap and assures the
+repository health reasonably well.
+<2> check how many loose objects there are and how much
+disk space is wasted by not repacking.
+<3> without `-a` repacks incrementally. repacking every 4-5MB
+of loose objects accumulation may be a good rule of thumb.
+<4> it is easier to use `git gc` than individual housekeeping commands
+such as `prune` and `repack`. This runs `repack -a -d`.
+
+Repack a small project into single pack.::
++
+------------
+$ git repack -a -d <1>
+$ git prune
+------------
++
+<1> pack all the objects reachable from the refs into one pack,
+then remove the other packs.
+
+
+Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
+----------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
+other people, and works alone in a single repository, using the
+following commands.
+
+ * gitlink:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
+
+ * gitlink:git-log[1] to see what happened.
+
+ * gitlink:git-checkout[1] and gitlink:git-branch[1] to switch
+ branches.
+
+ * gitlink:git-add[1] to manage the index file.
+
+ * gitlink:git-diff[1] and gitlink:git-status[1] to see what
+ you are in the middle of doing.
+
+ * gitlink:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
+
+ * gitlink:git-reset[1] and gitlink:git-checkout[1] (with
+ pathname parameters) to undo changes.
+
+ * gitlink:git-merge[1] to merge between local branches.
+
+ * gitlink:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
+
+ * gitlink:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.::
++
+------------
+$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
+$ cd frotz
+$ git-init
+$ git add . <1>
+$ git commit -m 'import of frotz source tree.'
+$ git tag v2.43 <2>
+------------
++
+<1> add everything under the current directory.
+<2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
+
+Create a topic branch and develop.::
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
+$ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git diff HEAD <4>
+$ git commit -a -s <5>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
+$ edit/compile/test
+$ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
+$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
+$ git checkout master <9>
+$ git merge alsa-audio <10>
+$ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
+$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+------------
++
+<1> create a new topic branch.
+<2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
+<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
+modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
+<4> to see what changes you are committing.
+<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
+<6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
+<7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
+<8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
+you originally wrote.
+<9> switch to the master branch.
+<10> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
+<11> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
+combined and include `\--max-count=10` (show 10 commits),
+`\--until=2005-12-10`, etc.
+<12> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
+directory, since `v2.43` tag.
+
+
+Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
+learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
+addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
+
+ * gitlink:git-clone[1] from the upstream to prime your local
+ repository.
+
+ * gitlink:git-pull[1] and gitlink:git-fetch[1] from "origin"
+ to keep up-to-date with the upstream.
+
+ * gitlink:git-push[1] to shared repository, if you adopt CVS
+ style shared repository workflow.
+
+ * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
+ you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
+$ cd my2.6
+$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
+$ git format-patch origin <2>
+$ git pull <3>
+$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
+$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
+$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
+$ git prune <7>
+$ git fetch --tags <8>
+------------
++
+<1> repeat as needed.
+<2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
+<3> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
+current branch.
+<4> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
+since last time we checked, only in the
+area we are interested in.
+<5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and merge.
+<6> revert the pull.
+<7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
+<8> from time to time, obtain official tags from the `origin`
+and store them under `.git/refs/tags/`.
+
+
+Push into another repository.::
++
+------------
+satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz frotz <1>
+satellite$ cd frotz
+satellite$ git config --get-regexp '^(remote|branch)\.' <2>
+remote.origin.url mothership:frotz
+remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
+branch.master.remote origin
+branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
+satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
+ master:refs/remotes/satellite/master <3>
+satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
+satellite$ git push origin <4>
+
+mothership$ cd frotz
+mothership$ git checkout master
+mothership$ git merge satellite/master <5>
+------------
++
+<1> mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
+directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
+machine.
+<2> clone sets these configuration variables by default.
+It arranges `git pull` to fetch and store the branches of mothership
+machine to local `remotes/origin/*` tracking branches.
+<3> arrange `git push` to push local `master` branch to
+`remotes/satellite/master` branch of the mothership machine.
+<4> push will stash our work away on `remotes/satellite/master`
+tracking branch on the mothership machine. You could use this as
+a back-up method.
+<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
+machine into the master branch.
+
+Branch off of a specific tag.::
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
+$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
+$ git checkout master
+$ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
+ git am -3 -k <2>
+------------
++
+<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
+tag.
+<2> forward port all changes in `private2.6.14` branch to `master` branch
+without a formal "merging".
+
+
+Integrator[[Integrator]]
+------------------------
+
+A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
+project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
+them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
+commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
+
+ * gitlink:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
+ contributors.
+
+ * gitlink:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
+
+ * gitlink:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
+ alternative to contributors.
+
+ * gitlink:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
+
+ * gitlink:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
+
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+My typical GIT day.::
++
+------------
+$ git status <1>
+$ git show-branch <2>
+$ mailx <3>
+& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
+& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
+& q
+$ git checkout -b topic/one master
+$ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
+$ compile/test
+$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
+$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
+$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next <7>
+$ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus <8>
+$ git checkout maint
+$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
+$ compile/test
+$ git tag -s -m 'GIT 0.99.9x' v0.99.9x <10>
+$ git fetch ko && git show-branch master maint 'tags/ko-*' <11>
+$ git push ko <12>
+$ git push ko v0.99.9x <13>
+------------
++
+<1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
+<2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
+they are.
+<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
+that are not quite ready.
+<4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
+<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
+sign-offs.
+<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
+master, nor exposed as a part of a stable branch.
+<7> restart `pu` every time from the next.
+<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
+<9> backport a critical fix.
+<10> create a signed tag.
+<11> make sure I did not accidentally rewind master beyond what I
+already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the repository I have
+at kernel.org, and looks like this:
++
+------------
+$ cat .git/remotes/ko
+URL: kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
+Pull: master:refs/tags/ko-master
+Pull: next:refs/tags/ko-next
+Pull: maint:refs/tags/ko-maint
+Push: master
+Push: next
+Push: +pu
+Push: maint
+------------
++
+In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
+everything `ko-master` has, and `next` should have
+everything `ko-next` has.
+
+<12> push out the bleeding edge.
+<13> push the tag out, too.
+
+
+Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
+------------------------------------------------------
+
+A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
+and maintain access to the repository by developers.
+
+ * gitlink:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
+ repository.
+
+ * gitlink:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
+ for shared central repository users.
+
+link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[update hook howto] has a good
+example of managing a shared central repository.
+
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+We assume the following in /etc/services::
++
+------------
+$ grep 9418 /etc/services
+git 9418/tcp # Git Version Control System
+------------
+
+Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.::
++
+------------
+$ grep git /etc/inetd.conf
+git stream tcp nowait nobody \
+ /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --export-all /pub/scm
+------------
++
+The actual configuration line should be on one line.
+
+Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
++
+------------
+$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
+# default: off
+# description: The git server offers access to git repositories
+service git
+{
+ disable = no
+ type = UNLISTED
+ port = 9418
+ socket_type = stream
+ wait = no
+ user = nobody
+ server = /usr/bin/git-daemon
+ server_args = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
+ log_on_failure += USERID
+}
+------------
++
+Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system.
+Others might be different.
+
+Give push/pull only access to developers.::
++
+------------
+$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
+alice:x:1000:1000::/home/alice:/usr/bin/git-shell
+bob:x:1001:1001::/home/bob:/usr/bin/git-shell
+cindy:x:1002:1002::/home/cindy:/usr/bin/git-shell
+david:x:1003:1003::/home/david:/usr/bin/git-shell
+$ grep git /etc/shells <2>
+/usr/bin/git-shell
+------------
++
+<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
+allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users should
+get an ssh access to the machine.
+<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
+as the login shell.
+
+CVS-style shared repository.::
++
+------------
+$ grep git /etc/group <1>
+git:x:9418:alice,bob,cindy,david
+$ cd /home/devo.git
+$ ls -l <2>
+ lrwxrwxrwx 1 david git 17 Dec 4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
+ drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 branches
+ -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 84 Dec 4 22:40 config
+ -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 58 Dec 4 22:40 description
+ drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 hooks
+ -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 37504 Dec 4 22:40 index
+ drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 info
+ drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 objects
+ drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Nov 7 14:58 refs
+ drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 remotes
+$ ls -l hooks/update <3>
+ -r-xr-xr-x 1 david git 3536 Dec 4 22:40 update
+$ cat info/allowed-users <4>
+refs/heads/master alice\|cindy
+refs/heads/doc-update bob
+refs/tags/v[0-9]* david
+------------
++
+<1> place the developers into the same git group.
+<2> and make the shared repository writable by the group.
+<3> use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/
+for branch policy control.
+<4> alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update.
+david is the release manager and is the only person who can
+create and push version tags.
+
+HTTP server to support dumb protocol transfer.::
++
+------------
+dev$ git update-server-info <1>
+dev$ ftp user@isp.example.com <2>
+ftp> cp -r .git /home/user/myproject.git
+------------
++
+<1> make sure your info/refs and objects/info/packs are up-to-date
+<2> upload to public HTTP server hosted by your ISP.
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5b4d184
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+-a, \--append::
+ Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the
+ existing contents of `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. Without this
+ option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
+
+\--upload-pack <upload-pack>::
+ When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled
+ by 'git-fetch-pack', '--exec=<upload-pack>' is passed to
+ the command to specify non-default path for the command
+ run on the other end.
+
+-f, \--force::
+ When `git-fetch` is used with `<rbranch>:<lbranch>`
+ refspec, it refuses to update the local branch
+ `<lbranch>` unless the remote branch `<rbranch>` it
+ fetches is a descendant of `<lbranch>`. This option
+ overrides that check.
+
+\--no-tags::
+ By default, `git-fetch` fetches tags that point at
+ objects that are downloaded from the remote repository
+ and stores them locally. This option disables this
+ automatic tag following.
+
+-t, \--tags::
+ Most of the tags are fetched automatically as branch
+ heads are downloaded, but tags that do not point at
+ objects reachable from the branch heads that are being
+ tracked will not be fetched by this mechanism. This
+ flag lets all tags and their associated objects be
+ downloaded.
+
+-k, \--keep::
+ Keep downloaded pack.
+
+-u, \--update-head-ok::
+ By default `git-fetch` refuses to update the head which
+ corresponds to the current branch. This flag disables the
+ check. This is purely for the internal use for `git-pull`
+ to communicate with `git-fetch`, and unless you are
+ implementing your own Porcelain you are not supposed to
+ use it.
+
+\--depth=<depth>::
+ Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
+ `git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see gitlink:git-clone[1])
+ by the specified number of commits.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b73a99d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,215 @@
+git-add(1)
+==========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-add - Add file contents to the changeset to be committed next
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-add' [-n] [-v] [-f] [--interactive | -i] [--] <file>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+All the changed file contents to be committed together in a single set
+of changes must be "added" with the 'add' command before using the
+'commit' command. This is not only for adding new files. Even modified
+files must be added to the set of changes about to be committed.
+
+This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. The added
+content corresponds to the state of specified file(s) at the time the
+'add' command is used. This means the 'commit' command will not consider
+subsequent changes to already added content if it is not added again before
+the commit.
+
+The 'git status' command can be used to obtain a summary of what is included
+for the next commit.
+
+This command can be used to add ignored files with `-f` (force)
+option, but they have to be
+explicitly and exactly specified from the command line. File globbing
+and recursive behaviour do not add ignored files.
+
+Please see gitlink:git-commit[1] for alternative ways to add content to a
+commit.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<file>...::
+ Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
+ be given to add all matching files. Also a
+ leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
+ and `dir/file2`) can be given to add all files in the
+ directory, recursively.
+
+-n::
+ Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist.
+
+-v::
+ Be verbose.
+
+-f::
+ Allow adding otherwise ignored files.
+
+\i, \--interactive::
+ Add modified contents in the working tree interactively to
+ the index.
+
+\--::
+ This option can be used to separate command-line options from
+ the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
+ for command-line options).
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+git-add Documentation/\\*.txt::
+
+ Adds content from all `\*.txt` files under `Documentation`
+ directory and its subdirectories.
++
+Note that the asterisk `\*` is quoted from the shell in this
+example; this lets the command to include the files from
+subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
+
+git-add git-*.sh::
+
+ Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts.
+ Because this example lets shell expand the asterisk
+ (i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it does not
+ consider `subdir/git-foo.sh`.
+
+Interactive mode
+----------------
+When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
+output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
+interactive command loop.
+
+The command loop shows the list of subcommands available, and
+gives a prompt "What now> ". In general, when the prompt ends
+with a single '>', you can pick only one of the choices given
+and type return, like this:
+
+------------
+ *** Commands ***
+ 1: status 2: update 3: revert 4: add untracked
+ 5: patch 6: diff 7: quit 8: help
+ What now> 1
+------------
+
+You also could say "s" or "sta" or "status" above as long as the
+choice is unique.
+
+The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
+
+status::
+
+ This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
+ committed if you say "git commit"), and between index and
+ working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before
+ "git commit" using "git-add") for each path. A sample output
+ looks like this:
++
+------------
+ staged unstaged path
+ 1: binary nothing foo.png
+ 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
+------------
++
+It shows that foo.png has differences from HEAD (but that is
+binary so line count cannot be shown) and there is no
+difference between indexed copy and the working tree
+version (if the working tree version were also different,
+'binary' would have been shown in place of 'nothing'). The
+other file, git-add--interactive.perl, has 403 lines added
+and 35 lines deleted if you commit what is in the index, but
+working tree file has further modifications (one addition and
+one deletion).
+
+update::
+
+ This shows the status information and gives prompt
+ "Update>>". When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
+ make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or
+ comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose
+ 2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. You can say '*' to choose
+ everything.
++
+What you chose are then highlighted with '*',
+like this:
++
+------------
+ staged unstaged path
+ 1: binary nothing foo.png
+* 2: +403/-35 +1/-1 git-add--interactive.perl
+------------
++
+To remove selection, prefix the input with `-`
+like this:
++
+------------
+Update>> -2
+------------
++
+After making the selection, answer with an empty line to stage the
+contents of working tree files for selected paths in the index.
+
+revert::
+
+ This has a very similar UI to 'update', and the staged
+ information for selected paths are reverted to that of the
+ HEAD version. Reverting new paths makes them untracked.
+
+add untracked::
+
+ This has a very similar UI to 'update' and
+ 'revert', and lets you add untracked paths to the index.
+
+patch::
+
+ This lets you choose one path out of 'status' like selection.
+ After choosing the path, it presents diff between the index
+ and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage
+ the change of each hunk. You can say:
+
+ y - add the change from that hunk to index
+ n - do not add the change from that hunk to index
+ a - add the change from that hunk and all the rest to index
+ d - do not the change from that hunk nor any of the rest to index
+ j - do not decide on this hunk now, and view the next
+ undecided hunk
+ J - do not decide on this hunk now, and view the next hunk
+ k - do not decide on this hunk now, and view the previous
+ undecided hunk
+ K - do not decide on this hunk now, and view the previous hunk
++
+After deciding the fate for all hunks, if there is any hunk
+that was chosen, the index is updated with the selected hunks.
+
+diff::
+
+ This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
+ HEAD and index).
+
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-status[1]
+gitlink:git-rm[1]
+gitlink:git-mv[1]
+gitlink:git-commit[1]
+gitlink:git-update-index[1]
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4fb1d84
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,124 @@
+git-am(1)
+=========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-am - Apply a series of patches from a mailbox
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-am' [--signoff] [--dotest=<dir>] [--utf8 | --no-utf8] [--binary] [--3way]
+ [--interactive] [--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>]
+ <mbox>...
+'git-am' [--skip | --resolved]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Splits mail messages in a mailbox into commit log message,
+authorship information and patches, and applies them to the
+current branch.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<mbox>...::
+ The list of mailbox files to read patches from. If you do not
+ supply this argument, reads from the standard input.
+
+--signoff::
+ Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
+ the committer identity of yourself.
+
+--dotest=<dir>::
+ Instead of `.dotest` directory, use <dir> as a working
+ area to store extracted patches.
+
+--keep::
+ Pass `-k` flag to `git-mailinfo` (see gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]).
+
+--utf8::
+ Pass `-u` flag to `git-mailinfo` (see gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]).
+ The proposed commit log message taken from the e-mail
+ are re-coded into UTF-8 encoding (configuration variable
+ `i18n.commitencoding` can be used to specify project's
+ preferred encoding if it is not UTF-8).
++
+This was optional in prior versions of git, but now it is the
+default. You could use `--no-utf8` to override this.
+
+--no-utf8::
+ Do not pass `-u` flag to `git-mailinfo` (see
+ gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]).
+
+--binary::
+ Pass `--allow-binary-replacement` flag to `git-apply`
+ (see gitlink:git-apply[1]).
+
+--3way::
+ When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on
+ 3-way merge, if the patch records the identity of blobs
+ it is supposed to apply to, and we have those blobs
+ locally.
+
+--skip::
+ Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
+ restarting an aborted patch.
+
+--whitespace=<option>::
+ This flag is passed to the `git-apply` program that applies
+ the patch.
+
+-C<n>, -p<n>::
+ These flag are passed to the `git-apply` program that applies
+ the patch.
+
+--interactive::
+ Run interactively, just like git-applymbox.
+
+--resolved::
+ After a patch failure (e.g. attempting to apply
+ conflicting patch), the user has applied it by hand and
+ the index file stores the result of the application.
+ Make a commit using the authorship and commit log
+ extracted from the e-mail message and the current index
+ file, and continue.
+
+DISCUSSION
+----------
+
+When initially invoking it, you give it names of the mailboxes
+to crunch. Upon seeing the first patch that does not apply, it
+aborts in the middle, just like 'git-applymbox' does. You can
+recover from this in one of two ways:
+
+. skip the current one by re-running the command with '--skip'
+ option.
+
+. hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
+ the index file to bring it in a state that the patch should
+ have produced. Then run the command with '--resolved' option.
+
+The command refuses to process new mailboxes while `.dotest`
+directory exists, so if you decide to start over from scratch,
+run `rm -f .dotest` before running the command with mailbox
+names.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-applymbox[1], gitlink:git-applypatch[1], gitlink:git-apply[1].
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Petr Baudis, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7baf731
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+git-annotate(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-annotate - Annotate file lines with commit info
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+git-annotate [options] file [revision]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Annotates each line in the given file with information from the commit
+which introduced the line. Optionally annotate from a given revision.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-l, --long::
+ Show long rev (Defaults off).
+
+-t, --time::
+ Show raw timestamp (Defaults off).
+
+-r, --rename::
+ Follow renames (Defaults on).
+
+-S, --rev-file <revs-file>::
+ Use revs from revs-file instead of calling git-rev-list.
+
+-h, --help::
+ Show help message.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-blame[1]
+
+AUTHOR
+------
+Written by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..065ba1b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+git-apply(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-apply - Apply a patch on a git index file and a working tree
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--apply]
+ [--no-add] [--index-info] [--allow-binary-replacement | --binary]
+ [-R | --reverse] [--reject] [-z] [-pNUM] [-CNUM] [--inaccurate-eof]
+ [--whitespace=<nowarn|warn|error|error-all|strip>] [--exclude=PATH]
+ [--cached] [--verbose] [<patch>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads supplied diff output and applies it on a git index file
+and a work tree.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<patch>...::
+ The files to read patch from. '-' can be used to read
+ from the standard input.
+
+--stat::
+ Instead of applying the patch, output diffstat for the
+ input. Turns off "apply".
+
+--numstat::
+ Similar to \--stat, but shows number of added and
+ deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
+ abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
+ binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
+ `0 0`. Turns off "apply".
+
+--summary::
+ Instead of applying the patch, output a condensed
+ summary of information obtained from git diff extended
+ headers, such as creations, renames and mode changes.
+ Turns off "apply".
+
+--check::
+ Instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is
+ applicable to the current work tree and/or the index
+ file and detects errors. Turns off "apply".
+
+--index::
+ When --check is in effect, or when applying the patch
+ (which is the default when none of the options that
+ disables it is in effect), make sure the patch is
+ applicable to what the current index file records. If
+ the file to be patched in the work tree is not
+ up-to-date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
+ causes the index file to be updated.
+
+--cached::
+ Apply a patch without touching the working tree. Instead, take the
+ cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index,
+ without using the working tree. This implies '--index'.
+
+--index-info::
+ Newer git-diff output has embedded 'index information'
+ for each blob to help identify the original version that
+ the patch applies to. When this flag is given, and if
+ the original version of the blob is available locally,
+ outputs information about them to the standard output.
+
+-R, --reverse::
+ Apply the patch in reverse.
+
+--reject::
+ For atomicity, gitlink:git-apply[1] by default fails the whole patch and
+ does not touch the working tree when some of the hunks
+ do not apply. This option makes it apply
+ the parts of the patch that are applicable, and leave the
+ rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files.
+
+-z::
+ When showing the index information, do not munge paths,
+ but use NUL terminated machine readable format. Without
+ this flag, the pathnames output will have TAB, LF, and
+ backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
+ respectively.
+
+-p<n>::
+ Remove <n> leading slashes from traditional diff paths. The
+ default is 1.
+
+-C<n>::
+ Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
+ and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
+ context exist they all must match. By default no context is
+ ever ignored.
+
+--unidiff-zero::
+ By default, gitlink:git-apply[1] expects that the patch being
+ applied is a unified diff with at least one line of context.
+ This provides good safety measures, but breaks down when
+ applying a diff generated with --unified=0. To bypass these
+ checks use '--unidiff-zero'.
++
+Note, for the reasons stated above usage of context-free patches are
+discouraged.
+
+--apply::
+ If you use any of the options marked "Turns off
+ 'apply'" above, gitlink:git-apply[1] reads and outputs the
+ information you asked without actually applying the
+ patch. Give this flag after those flags to also apply
+ the patch.
+
+--no-add::
+ When applying a patch, ignore additions made by the
+ patch. This can be used to extract common part between
+ two files by first running `diff` on them and applying
+ the result with this option, which would apply the
+ deletion part but not addition part.
+
+--allow-binary-replacement, --binary::
+ Historically we did not allow binary patch applied
+ without an explicit permission from the user, and this
+ flag was the way to do so. Currently we always allow binary
+ patch application, so this is a no-op.
+
+--exclude=<path-pattern>::
+ Don't apply changes to files matching the given path pattern. This can
+ be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to exclude certain
+ files or directories.
+
+--whitespace=<option>::
+ When applying a patch, detect a new or modified line
+ that ends with trailing whitespaces (this includes a
+ line that solely consists of whitespaces). By default,
+ the command outputs warning messages and applies the
+ patch.
+ When gitlink:git-apply[1] is used for statistics and not applying a
+ patch, it defaults to `nowarn`.
+ You can use different `<option>` to control this
+ behavior:
++
+* `nowarn` turns off the trailing whitespace warning.
+* `warn` outputs warnings for a few such errors, but applies the
+ patch (default).
+* `error` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and refuses
+ to apply the patch.
+* `error-all` is similar to `error` but shows all errors.
+* `strip` outputs warnings for a few such errors, strips out the
+ trailing whitespaces and applies the patch.
+
+--inaccurate-eof::
+ Under certain circumstances, some versions of diff do not correctly
+ detect a missing new-line at the end of the file. As a result, patches
+ created by such diff programs do not record incomplete lines
+ correctly. This option adds support for applying such patches by
+ working around this bug.
+
+--verbose::
+ Report progress to stderr. By default, only a message about the
+ current patch being applied will be printed. This option will cause
+ additional information to be reported.
+
+Configuration
+-------------
+
+apply.whitespace::
+ When no `--whitespace` flag is given from the command
+ line, this configuration item is used as the default.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-applymbox.txt b/Documentation/git-applymbox.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..95dc65a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-applymbox.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+git-applymbox(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-applymbox - Apply a series of patches in a mailbox
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-applymbox' [-u] [-k] [-q] [-m] ( -c .dotest/<num> | <mbox> ) [ <signoff> ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Splits mail messages in a mailbox into commit log message,
+authorship information and patches, and applies them to the
+current branch.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q::
+ Apply patches interactively. The user will be given
+ opportunity to edit the log message and the patch before
+ attempting to apply it.
+
+-k::
+ Usually the program 'cleans up' the Subject: header line
+ to extract the title line for the commit log message,
+ among which (1) remove 'Re:' or 're:', (2) leading
+ whitespaces, (3) '[' up to ']', typically '[PATCH]', and
+ then prepends "[PATCH] ". This flag forbids this
+ munging, and is most useful when used to read back 'git
+ format-patch --mbox' output.
+
+-m::
+ Patches are applied with `git-apply` command, and unless
+ it cleanly applies without fuzz, the processing fails.
+ With this flag, if a tree that the patch applies cleanly
+ is found in a repository, the patch is applied to the
+ tree and then a 3-way merge between the resulting tree
+ and the current tree.
+
+-u::
+ The commit log message, author name and author email are
+ taken from the e-mail, and after minimally decoding MIME
+ transfer encoding, re-coded in UTF-8 by transliterating
+ them. This used to be optional but now it is the default.
++
+Note that the patch is always used as-is without charset
+conversion, even with this flag.
+
+-c .dotest/<num>::
+ When the patch contained in an e-mail does not cleanly
+ apply, the command exits with an error message. The
+ patch and extracted message are found in .dotest/, and
+ you could re-run 'git applymbox' with '-c .dotest/<num>'
+ flag to restart the process after inspecting and fixing
+ them.
+
+<mbox>::
+ The name of the file that contains the e-mail messages
+ with patches. This file should be in the UNIX mailbox
+ format. See 'SubmittingPatches' document to learn about
+ the formatting convention for e-mail submission.
+
+<signoff>::
+ The name of the file that contains your "Signed-off-by"
+ line. See 'SubmittingPatches' document to learn what
+ "Signed-off-by" line means. You can also just say
+ 'yes', 'true', 'me', or 'please' to use an automatically
+ generated "Signed-off-by" line based on your committer
+ identity.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-am[1], gitlink:git-applypatch[1].
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-applypatch.txt b/Documentation/git-applypatch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..451434a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-applypatch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+git-applypatch(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-applypatch - Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-applypatch' <msg> <patch> <info> [<signoff>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
+gitlink:git-am[1] instead.
+
+Takes three files <msg>, <patch>, and <info> prepared from an
+e-mail message by 'git-mailinfo', and creates a commit. It is
+usually not necessary to use this command directly.
+
+This command can run `applypatch-msg`, `pre-applypatch`, and
+`post-applypatch` hooks. See link:hooks.html[hooks] for more
+information.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<msg>::
+ Commit log message (sans the first line, which comes
+ from e-mail Subject stored in <info>).
+
+<patch>::
+ The patch to apply.
+
+<info>::
+ Author and subject information extracted from e-mail,
+ used on "author" line and as the first line of the
+ commit log message.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5a13187
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,106 @@
+git-archimport(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into git
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-archimport' [-h] [-v] [-o] [-a] [-f] [-T] [-D depth] [-t tempdir]
+ <archive/branch> [ <archive/branch> ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Imports a project from one or more Arch repositories. It will follow branches
+and repositories within the namespaces defined by the <archive/branch>
+parameters supplied. If it cannot find the remote branch a merge comes from
+it will just import it as a regular commit. If it can find it, it will mark it
+as a merge whenever possible (see discussion below).
+
+The script expects you to provide the key roots where it can start the import
+from an 'initial import' or 'tag' type of Arch commit. It will follow and
+import new branches within the provided roots.
+
+It expects to be dealing with one project only. If it sees
+branches that have different roots, it will refuse to run. In that case,
+edit your <archive/branch> parameters to define clearly the scope of the
+import.
+
+`git-archimport` uses `tla` extensively in the background to access the
+Arch repository.
+Make sure you have a recent version of `tla` available in the path. `tla` must
+know about the repositories you pass to `git-archimport`.
+
+For the initial import `git-archimport` expects to find itself in an empty
+directory. To follow the development of a project that uses Arch, rerun
+`git-archimport` with the same parameters as the initial import to perform
+incremental imports.
+
+MERGES
+------
+Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in git as well. git
+does not care much about tracking patches, and only considers a merge when a
+branch incorporates all the commits since the point they forked. The end result
+is that git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
+import process does lose some patch-trading metadata.
+
+Fortunately, when you try and merge branches imported from Arch,
+git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
+patches that have been traded out-of-sequence between the branches.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-h::
+ Display usage.
+
+-v::
+ Verbose output.
+
+-T::
+ Many tags. Will create a tag for every commit, reflecting the commit
+ name in the Arch repository.
+
+-f::
+ Use the fast patchset import strategy. This can be significantly
+ faster for large trees, but cannot handle directory renames or
+ permissions changes. The default strategy is slow and safe.
+
+-o::
+ Use this for compatibility with old-style branch names used by
+ earlier versions of git-archimport. Old-style branch names
+ were category--branch, whereas new-style branch names are
+ archive,category--branch--version.
+
+-D <depth>::
+ Follow merge ancestry and attempt to import trees that have been
+ merged from. Specify a depth greater than 1 if patch logs have been
+ pruned.
+
+-a::
+ Attempt to auto-register archives at http://mirrors.sourcecontrol.net
+ This is particularly useful with the -D option.
+
+-t <tmpdir>::
+ Override the default tempdir.
+
+
+<archive/branch>::
+ Archive/branch identifier in a format that `tla log` understands.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano, Martin Langhoff and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..493474b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,113 @@
+git-archive(1)
+==============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-archive - Creates an archive of files from a named tree
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-archive' --format=<fmt> [--list] [--prefix=<prefix>/] [<extra>]
+ [--remote=<repo>] <tree-ish> [path...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Creates an archive of the specified format containing the tree
+structure for the named tree. If <prefix> is specified it is
+prepended to the filenames in the archive.
+
+'git-archive' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when
+given a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is
+used as modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter
+case the commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is
+used instead. Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global
+extended pax header if the tar format is used; it can be extracted
+using 'git-get-tar-commit-id'. In ZIP files it is stored as a file
+comment.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--format=<fmt>::
+ Format of the resulting archive: 'tar', 'zip'...
+
+--list::
+ Show all available formats.
+
+--prefix=<prefix>/::
+ Prepend <prefix>/ to each filename in the archive.
+
+<extra>::
+ This can be any options that the archiver backend understand.
+ See next section.
+
+--remote=<repo>::
+ Instead of making a tar archive from local repository,
+ retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
+
+<tree-ish>::
+ The tree or commit to produce an archive for.
+
+path::
+ If one or more paths are specified, include only these in the
+ archive, otherwise include all files and subdirectories.
+
+BACKEND EXTRA OPTIONS
+---------------------
+
+zip
+~~~
+-0::
+ Store the files instead of deflating them.
+-9::
+ Highest and slowest compression level. You can specify any
+ number from 1 to 9 to adjust compression speed and ratio.
+
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+By default, file and directories modes are set to 0666 or 0777 in tar
+archives. It is possible to change this by setting the "umask" variable
+in the repository configuration as follows :
+
+[tar]
+ umask = 002 ;# group friendly
+
+The special umask value "user" indicates that the user's current umask
+will be used instead. The default value remains 0, which means world
+readable/writable files and directories.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+git archive --format=tar --prefix=junk/ HEAD | (cd /var/tmp/ && tar xf -)::
+
+ Create a tar archive that contains the contents of the
+ latest commit on the current branch, and extracts it in
+ `/var/tmp/junk` directory.
+
+git archive --format=tar --prefix=git-1.4.0/ v1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz::
+
+ Create a compressed tarball for v1.4.0 release.
+
+git archive --format=tar --prefix=git-1.4.0/ v1.4.0{caret}\{tree\} | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz::
+
+ Create a compressed tarball for v1.4.0 release, but without a
+ global extended pax header.
+
+git archive --format=zip --prefix=git-docs/ HEAD:Documentation/ > git-1.4.0-docs.zip::
+
+ Put everything in the current head's Documentation/ directory
+ into 'git-1.4.0-docs.zip', with the prefix 'git-docs/'.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Franck Bui-Huu and Rene Scharfe.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..16ec726
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,136 @@
+git-bisect(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-bisect - Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git bisect' <subcommand> <options>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+The command takes various subcommands, and different options
+depending on the subcommand:
+
+ git bisect start [<paths>...]
+ git bisect bad <rev>
+ git bisect good <rev>
+ git bisect reset [<branch>]
+ git bisect visualize
+ git bisect replay <logfile>
+ git bisect log
+
+This command uses 'git-rev-list --bisect' option to help drive
+the binary search process to find which change introduced a bug,
+given an old "good" commit object name and a later "bad" commit
+object name.
+
+The way you use it is:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git bisect start
+$ git bisect bad # Current version is bad
+$ git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2 # v2.6.13-rc2 was the last version
+ # tested that was good
+------------------------------------------------
+
+When you give at least one bad and one good versions, it will
+bisect the revision tree and say something like:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+Bisecting: 675 revisions left to test after this
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and check out the state in the middle. Now, compile that kernel, and boot
+it. Now, let's say that this booted kernel works fine, then just do
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git bisect good # this one is good
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which will now say
+
+------------------------------------------------
+Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and you continue along, compiling that one, testing it, and depending on
+whether it is good or bad, you say "git bisect good" or "git bisect bad",
+and ask for the next bisection.
+
+Until you have no more left, and you'll have been left with the first bad
+kernel rev in "refs/bisect/bad".
+
+Oh, and then after you want to reset to the original head, do a
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git bisect reset
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to get back to the master branch, instead of being in one of the bisection
+branches ("git bisect start" will do that for you too, actually: it will
+reset the bisection state, and before it does that it checks that you're
+not using some old bisection branch).
+
+During the bisection process, you can say
+
+------------
+$ git bisect visualize
+------------
+
+to see the currently remaining suspects in `gitk`.
+
+The good/bad input is logged, and `git bisect
+log` shows what you have done so far. You can truncate its
+output somewhere and save it in a file, and run
+
+------------
+$ git bisect replay that-file
+------------
+
+if you find later you made a mistake telling good/bad about a
+revision.
+
+If in a middle of bisect session, you know what the bisect
+suggested to try next is not a good one to test (e.g. the change
+the commit introduces is known not to work in your environment
+and you know it does not have anything to do with the bug you
+are chasing), you may want to find a near-by commit and try that
+instead. It goes something like this:
+
+------------
+$ git bisect good/bad # previous round was good/bad.
+Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
+$ git bisect visualize # oops, that is uninteresting.
+$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 # try 3 revs before what
+ # was suggested
+------------
+
+Then compile and test the one you chose to try. After that,
+tell bisect what the result was as usual.
+
+You can further cut down the number of trials if you know what
+part of the tree is involved in the problem you are tracking
+down, by giving paths parameters when you say `bisect start`,
+like this:
+
+------------
+$ git bisect start arch/i386 include/asm-i386
+------------
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5c9888d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,223 @@
+git-blame(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-blame - Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-blame' [-c] [-l] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-p] [--incremental] [-L n,m] [-S <revs-file>]
+ [-M] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>] [<rev> | --contents <file>] [--] <file>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Annotates each line in the given file with information from the revision which
+last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating from the given revision.
+
+Also it can limit the range of lines annotated.
+
+This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
+replaced; you need to use a tool such as gitlink:git-diff[1] or the "pickaxe"
+interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
+
+Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
+development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This makes it
+possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
+between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
+a text string in the diff. A small example:
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$ git log --pretty=oneline -S'blame_usage'
+5040f17eba15504bad66b14a645bddd9b015ebb7 blame -S <ancestry-file>
+ea4c7f9bf69e781dd0cd88d2bccb2bf5cc15c9a7 git-blame: Make the output
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-c, --compatibility::
+ Use the same output mode as gitlink:git-annotate[1] (Default: off).
+
+-L n,m::
+ Annotate only the specified line range (lines count from 1).
+
+-l, --long::
+ Show long rev (Default: off).
+
+-t, --time::
+ Show raw timestamp (Default: off).
+
+-S, --rev-file <revs-file>::
+ Use revs from revs-file instead of calling gitlink:git-rev-list[1].
+
+-f, --show-name::
+ Show filename in the original commit. By default
+ filename is shown if there is any line that came from a
+ file with different name, due to rename detection.
+
+-n, --show-number::
+ Show line number in the original commit (Default: off).
+
+-p, --porcelain::
+ Show in a format designed for machine consumption.
+
+--incremental::
+ Show the result incrementally in a format designed for
+ machine consumption.
+
+--contents <file>::
+ When <rev> is not specified, the command annotates the
+ changes starting backwards from the working tree copy.
+ This flag makes the command pretend as if the working
+ tree copy has the contents of he named file (specify
+ `-` to make the command read from the standard input).
+
+-M::
+ Detect moving lines in the file as well. When a commit
+ moves a block of lines in a file (e.g. the original file
+ has A and then B, and the commit changes it to B and
+ then A), traditional 'blame' algorithm typically blames
+ the lines that were moved up (i.e. B) to the parent and
+ assigns blame to the lines that were moved down (i.e. A)
+ to the child commit. With this option, both groups of
+ lines are blamed on the parent.
+
+-C::
+ In addition to `-M`, detect lines copied from other
+ files that were modified in the same commit. This is
+ useful when you reorganize your program and move code
+ around across files. When this option is given twice,
+ the command looks for copies from all other files in the
+ parent for the commit that creates the file in addition.
+
+-h, --help::
+ Show help message.
+
+
+THE PORCELAIN FORMAT
+--------------------
+
+In this format, each line is output after a header; the
+header at the minimum has the first line which has:
+
+- 40-byte SHA-1 of the commit the line is attributed to;
+- the line number of the line in the original file;
+- the line number of the line in the final file;
+- on a line that starts a group of line from a different
+ commit than the previous one, the number of lines in this
+ group. On subsequent lines this field is absent.
+
+This header line is followed by the following information
+at least once for each commit:
+
+- author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
+ ("author-time"), and timezone ("author-tz"); similarly
+ for committer.
+- filename in the commit the line is attributed to.
+- the first line of the commit log message ("summary").
+
+The contents of the actual line is output after the above
+header, prefixed by a TAB. This is to allow adding more
+header elements later.
+
+
+SPECIFYING RANGES
+-----------------
+
+Unlike `git-blame` and `git-annotate` in older git, the extent
+of annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
+ranges. When you are interested in finding the origin for
+ll. 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use `-L` option like these
+(they mean the same thing -- both ask for 21 lines starting at
+line 40):
+
+ git blame -L 40,60 foo
+ git blame -L 40,+21 foo
+
+Also you can use regular expression to specify the line range.
+
+ git blame -L '/^sub hello {/,/^}$/' foo
+
+would limit the annotation to the body of `hello` subroutine.
+
+When you are not interested in changes older than the version
+v2.6.18, or changes older than 3 weeks, you can use revision
+range specifiers similar to `git-rev-list`:
+
+ git blame v2.6.18.. -- foo
+ git blame --since=3.weeks -- foo
+
+When revision range specifiers are used to limit the annotation,
+lines that have not changed since the range boundary (either the
+commit v2.6.18 or the most recent commit that is more than 3
+weeks old in the above example) are blamed for that range
+boundary commit.
+
+A particularly useful way is to see if an added file have lines
+created by copy-and-paste from existing files. Sometimes this
+indicates that the developer was being sloppy and did not
+refactor the code properly. You can first find the commit that
+introduced the file with:
+
+ git log --diff-filter=A --pretty=short -- foo
+
+and then annotate the change between the commit and its
+parents, using `commit{caret}!` notation:
+
+ git blame -C -C -f $commit^! -- foo
+
+
+INCREMENTAL OUTPUT
+------------------
+
+When called with `--incremental` option, the command outputs the
+result as it is built. The output generally will talk about
+lines touched by more recent commits first (i.e. the lines will
+be annotated out of order) and is meant to be used by
+interactive viewers.
+
+The output format is similar to the Porcelain format, but it
+does not contain the actual lines from the file that is being
+annotated.
+
+. Each blame entry always starts with a line of:
+
+ <40-byte hex sha1> <sourceline> <resultline> <num_lines>
++
+Line numbers count from 1.
+
+. The first time that commit shows up in the stream, it has various
+ other information about it printed out with a one-word tag at the
+ beginning of each line about that "extended commit info" (author,
+ email, committer, dates, summary etc).
+
+. Unlike Porcelain format, the filename information is always
+ given and terminates the entry:
+
+ "filename" <whitespace-quoted-filename-goes-here>
++
+and thus it's really quite easy to parse for some line- and word-oriented
+parser (which should be quite natural for most scripting languages).
++
+[NOTE]
+For people who do parsing: to make it more robust, just ignore any
+lines in between the first and last one ("<sha1>" and "filename" lines)
+where you don't recognize the tag-words (or care about that particular
+one) at the beginning of the "extended information" lines. That way, if
+there is ever added information (like the commit encoding or extended
+commit commentary), a blame viewer won't ever care.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-annotate[1]
+
+AUTHOR
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa1fdd4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+git-branch(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-branch' [--color | --no-color] [-r | -a] [-v [--abbrev=<length>]]
+'git-branch' [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
+'git-branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
+'git-branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+With no arguments given a list of existing branches
+will be shown, the current branch will be highlighted with an asterisk.
+Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
+and option `-a` shows both.
+
+In its second form, a new branch named <branchname> will be created.
+It will start out with a head equal to the one given as <start-point>.
+If no <start-point> is given, the branch will be created with a head
+equal to that of the currently checked out branch.
+
+With a '-m' or '-M' option, <oldbranch> will be renamed to <newbranch>.
+If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
+<newbranch>, and a reflog entry is created to remember the branch
+renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
+to happen.
+
+With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
+specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
+has a ref log then the ref log will also be deleted. Use -r together with -d
+to delete remote-tracking branches.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-d::
+ Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged.
+
+-D::
+ Delete a branch irrespective of its index status.
+
+-l::
+ Create the branch's ref log. This activates recording of
+ all changes to made the branch ref, enabling use of date
+ based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@{yesterday}".
+
+-f::
+ Force the creation of a new branch even if it means deleting
+ a branch that already exists with the same name.
+
+-m::
+ Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
+
+-M::
+ Move/rename a branch even if the new branchname already exists.
+
+--color::
+ Color branches to highlight current, local, and remote branches.
+
+--no-color::
+ Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
+ default to color output.
+
+-r::
+ List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
+
+-a::
+ List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
+
+-v::
+ Show sha1 and commit subject line for each head.
+
+--abbrev=<length>::
+ Alter minimum display length for sha1 in output listing,
+ default value is 7.
+
+<branchname>::
+ The name of the branch to create or delete.
+ The new branch name must pass all checks defined by
+ gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
+ may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
+
+<start-point>::
+ The new branch will be created with a HEAD equal to this. It may
+ be given as a branch name, a commit-id, or a tag. If this option
+ is omitted, the current branch is assumed.
+
+<oldbranch>::
+ The name of an existing branch to rename.
+
+<newbranch>::
+ The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
+ <branchname> applies.
+
+
+Examples
+--------
+
+Start development off of a known tag::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
+$ cd my2.6
+$ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
+$ git checkout my2.6.14
+------------
++
+<1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
+"checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
+
+Delete unneeded branch::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
+$ cd my.git
+$ git branch -d -r todo html man <1>
+$ git branch -D test <2>
+------------
++
+<1> delete remote-tracking branches "todo", "html", "man"
+<2> delete "test" branch even if the "master" branch does not have all
+commits from todo branch.
+
+
+Notes
+-----
+
+If you are creating a branch that you want to immediately checkout, it's
+easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
+a branch and check it out with a single command.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..075c0d0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,74 @@
+git-cat-file(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cat-file - Provide content or type/size information for repository objects
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cat-file' [-t | -s | -e | -p | <type>] <object>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Provides content or type of objects in the repository. The type
+is required unless '-t' or '-p' is used to find the object type,
+or '-s' is used to find the object size.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<object>::
+ The name of the object to show.
+ For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
+ "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
+
+-t::
+ Instead of the content, show the object type identified by
+ <object>.
+
+-s::
+ Instead of the content, show the object size identified by
+ <object>.
+
+-e::
+ Suppress all output; instead exit with zero status if <object>
+ exists and is a valid object.
+
+-p::
+ Pretty-print the contents of <object> based on its type.
+
+<type>::
+ Typically this matches the real type of <object> but asking
+ for a type that can trivially be dereferenced from the given
+ <object> is also permitted. An example is to ask for a
+ "tree" with <object> being a commit object that contains it,
+ or to ask for a "blob" with <object> being a tag object that
+ points at it.
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+If '-t' is specified, one of the <type>.
+
+If '-s' is specified, the size of the <object> in bytes.
+
+If '-e' is specified, no output.
+
+If '-p' is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
+
+Otherwise the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object> will
+be returned.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..13a5f43
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+git-check-ref-format(1)
+=======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-ref-format - Make sure ref name is well formed
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-check-ref-format' <refname>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits non-zero if
+it is not.
+
+A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
+branch head is stored under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` directory, and
+a tag is stored under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` directory. git
+imposes the following rules on how refs are named:
+
+. It can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
+ grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
+ dot `.`;
+
+. It cannot have two consecutive dots `..` anywhere;
+
+. It cannot have ASCII control character (i.e. bytes whose
+ values are lower than \040, or \177 `DEL`), space, tilde `~`,
+ caret `{caret}`, colon `:`, question-mark `?`, asterisk `*`,
+ or open bracket `[` anywhere;
+
+. It cannot end with a slash `/`.
+
+These rules makes it easy for shell script based tools to parse
+refnames, pathname expansion by the shell when a refname is used
+unquoted (by mistake), and also avoids ambiguities in certain
+refname expressions (see gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]). Namely:
+
+. double-dot `..` are often used as in `ref1..ref2`, and in some
+ context this notation means `{caret}ref1 ref2` (i.e. not in
+ ref1 and in ref2).
+
+. tilde `~` and caret `{caret}` are used to introduce postfix
+ 'nth parent' and 'peel onion' operation.
+
+. colon `:` is used as in `srcref:dstref` to mean "use srcref\'s
+ value and store it in dstref" in fetch and push operations.
+ It may also be used to select a specific object such as with
+ gitlink:git-cat-file[1] "git-cat-file blob v1.3.3:refs.c".
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6dd6db0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+git-checkout-index(1)
+=====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-checkout-index - Copy files from the index to the working tree
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-checkout-index' [-u] [-q] [-a] [-f] [-n] [--prefix=<string>]
+ [--stage=<number>|all]
+ [--temp]
+ [-z] [--stdin]
+ [--] [<file>]\*
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Will copy all files listed from the index to the working directory
+(not overwriting existing files).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-u|--index::
+ update stat information for the checked out entries in
+ the index file.
+
+-q|--quiet::
+ be quiet if files exist or are not in the index
+
+-f|--force::
+ forces overwrite of existing files
+
+-a|--all::
+ checks out all files in the index. Cannot be used
+ together with explicit filenames.
+
+-n|--no-create::
+ Don't checkout new files, only refresh files already checked
+ out.
+
+--prefix=<string>::
+ When creating files, prepend <string> (usually a directory
+ including a trailing /)
+
+--stage=<number>|all::
+ Instead of checking out unmerged entries, copy out the
+ files from named stage. <number> must be between 1 and 3.
+ Note: --stage=all automatically implies --temp.
+
+--temp::
+ Instead of copying the files to the working directory
+ write the content to temporary files. The temporary name
+ associations will be written to stdout.
+
+--stdin::
+ Instead of taking list of paths from the command line,
+ read list of paths from the standard input. Paths are
+ separated by LF (i.e. one path per line) by default.
+
+-z::
+ Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
+ NUL character instead of LF.
+
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+The order of the flags used to matter, but not anymore.
+
+Just doing `git-checkout-index` does nothing. You probably meant
+`git-checkout-index -a`. And if you want to force it, you want
+`git-checkout-index -f -a`.
+
+Intuitiveness is not the goal here. Repeatability is. The reason for
+the "no arguments means no work" behavior is that from scripts you are
+supposed to be able to do:
+
+----------------
+$ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 git-checkout-index -f --
+----------------
+
+which will force all existing `*.h` files to be replaced with their
+cached copies. If an empty command line implied "all", then this would
+force-refresh everything in the index, which was not the point. But
+since git-checkout-index accepts --stdin it would be faster to use:
+
+----------------
+$ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | git-checkout-index -f -z --stdin
+----------------
+
+The `--` is just a good idea when you know the rest will be filenames;
+it will prevent problems with a filename of, for example, `-a`.
+Using `--` is probably a good policy in scripts.
+
+
+Using --temp or --stage=all
+---------------------------
+When `--temp` is used (or implied by `--stage=all`)
+`git-checkout-index` will create a temporary file for each index
+entry being checked out. The index will not be updated with stat
+information. These options can be useful if the caller needs all
+stages of all unmerged entries so that the unmerged files can be
+processed by an external merge tool.
+
+A listing will be written to stdout providing the association of
+temporary file names to tracked path names. The listing format
+has two variations:
+
+ . tempname TAB path RS
++
+The first format is what gets used when `--stage` is omitted or
+is not `--stage=all`. The field tempname is the temporary file
+name holding the file content and path is the tracked path name in
+the index. Only the requested entries are output.
+
+ . stage1temp SP stage2temp SP stage3tmp TAB path RS
++
+The second format is what gets used when `--stage=all`. The three
+stage temporary fields (stage1temp, stage2temp, stage3temp) list the
+name of the temporary file if there is a stage entry in the index
+or `.` if there is no stage entry. Paths which only have a stage 0
+entry will always be omitted from the output.
+
+In both formats RS (the record separator) is newline by default
+but will be the null byte if -z was passed on the command line.
+The temporary file names are always safe strings; they will never
+contain directory separators or whitespace characters. The path
+field is always relative to the current directory and the temporary
+file names are always relative to the top level directory.
+
+If the object being copied out to a temporary file is a symbolic
+link the content of the link will be written to a normal file. It is
+up to the end-user or the Porcelain to make use of this information.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+To update and refresh only the files already checked out::
++
+----------------
+$ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
+----------------
+
+Using `git-checkout-index` to "export an entire tree"::
+ The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use
+ `git-checkout-index` as an "export as tree" function.
+ Just read the desired tree into the index, and do:
++
+----------------
+$ git-checkout-index --prefix=git-export-dir/ -a
+----------------
++
+`git-checkout-index` will "export" the index into the specified
+directory.
++
+The final "/" is important. The exported name is literally just
+prefixed with the specified string. Contrast this with the
+following example.
+
+Export files with a prefix::
++
+----------------
+$ git-checkout-index --prefix=.merged- Makefile
+----------------
++
+This will check out the currently cached copy of `Makefile`
+into the file `.merged-Makefile`.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves,
+Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e4ffde4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,201 @@
+git-checkout(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-checkout - Checkout and switch to a branch
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-checkout' [-q] [-f] [-b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
+'git-checkout' [<tree-ish>] <paths>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches by
+updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
+branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
+specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
+be created.
+
+When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
+branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
+the index file (i.e. it runs `git-checkout-index -f -u`), or a
+named commit. In
+this case, `-f` and `-b` options are meaningless and giving
+either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
+used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
+to update the index for the given paths before updating the
+working tree.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q::
+ Quiet, supress feedback messages.
+
+-f::
+ Force a re-read of everything.
+
+-b::
+ Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
+ <branch>. The new branch name must pass all checks defined
+ by gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
+ may restrict the characters allowed in a branch name.
+
+-l::
+ Create the new branch's ref log. This activates recording of
+ all changes to made the branch ref, enabling use of date
+ based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@{yesterday}".
+
+-m::
+ If you have local modifications to one or more files that
+ are different between the current branch and the branch to
+ which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
+ branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
+ However, with this option, a three-way merge between the current
+ branch, your working tree contents, and the new branch
+ is done, and you will be on the new branch.
++
+When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
+paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
+and mark the resolved paths with `git update-index`.
+
+<new_branch>::
+ Name for the new branch.
+
+<branch>::
+ Branch to checkout; may be any object ID that resolves to a
+ commit. Defaults to HEAD.
++
+When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
+your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
+
+
+Detached HEAD
+-------------
+
+It is sometimes useful to be able to 'checkout' a commit that is
+not at the tip of one of your branches. The most obvious
+example is to check out the commit at a tagged official release
+point, like this:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout v2.6.18
+------------
+
+Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
+create a temporary branch using `-b` option, but starting from
+version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
+current branch and directly point at the commit named by the tag
+(`v2.6.18` in the above example).
+
+You can use usual git commands while in this state. You can use
+`git-reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
+example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
+a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
+merge $othercommit`.
+
+The state you are in while your HEAD is detached is not recorded
+by any branch (which is natural --- you are not on any branch).
+What this means is that you can discard your temporary commits
+and merges by switching back to an existing branch (e.g. `git
+checkout master`), and a later `git prune` or `git gc` would
+garbage-collect them. If you did this by mistake, you can ask
+the reflog for HEAD where you were, e.g.
+
+------------
+$ git log -g -2 HEAD
+------------
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
+the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
+mistake, and gets it back from the index.
++
+------------
+$ git checkout master <1>
+$ git checkout master~2 Makefile <2>
+$ rm -f hello.c
+$ git checkout hello.c <3>
+------------
++
+<1> switch branch
+<2> take out a file out of other commit
+<3> restore hello.c from HEAD of current branch
++
+If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
+step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
+You should instead write:
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -- hello.c
+------------
+
+. After working in a wrong branch, switching to the correct
+branch would be done using:
++
+------------
+$ git checkout mytopic
+------------
++
+However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
+differ in files that you have locally modified, in which case,
+the above checkout would fail like this:
++
+------------
+$ git checkout mytopic
+fatal: Entry 'frotz' not uptodate. Cannot merge.
+------------
++
+You can give the `-m` flag to the command, which would try a
+three-way merge:
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -m mytopic
+Auto-merging frotz
+------------
++
+After this three-way merge, the local modifications are _not_
+registered in your index file, so `git diff` would show you what
+changes you made since the tip of the new branch.
+
+. When a merge conflict happens during switching branches with
+the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -m mytopic
+Auto-merging frotz
+merge: warning: conflicts during merge
+ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
+fatal: merge program failed
+------------
++
+At this point, `git diff` shows the changes cleanly merged as in
+the previous example, as well as the changes in the conflicted
+files. Edit and resolve the conflict and mark it resolved with
+`git update-index` as usual:
++
+------------
+$ edit frotz
+$ git update-index frotz
+------------
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3149d08
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+git-cherry-pick(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cherry-pick - Apply the change introduced by an existing commit
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-x] <commit>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Given one existing commit, apply the change the patch introduces, and record a
+new commit that records it. This requires your working tree to be clean (no
+modifications from the HEAD commit).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<commit>::
+ Commit to cherry-pick.
+ For a more complete list of ways to spell commits, see
+ "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
+
+-e|--edit::
+ With this option, `git-cherry-pick` will let you edit the commit
+ message prior committing.
+
+-x::
+ Cause the command to append which commit was
+ cherry-picked after the original commit message when
+ making a commit. Do not use this option if you are
+ cherry-picking from your private branch because the
+ information is useless to the recipient. If on the
+ other hand you are cherry-picking between two publicly
+ visible branches (e.g. backporting a fix to a
+ maintenance branch for an older release from a
+ development branch), adding this information can be
+ useful.
+
+-r|--replay::
+ It used to be that the command defaulted to do `-x`
+ described above, and `-r` was to disable it. Now the
+ default is not to do `-x` so this option is a no-op.
+
+-n|--no-commit::
+ Usually the command automatically creates a commit with
+ a commit log message stating which commit was
+ cherry-picked. This flag applies the change necessary
+ to cherry-pick the named commit to your working tree,
+ but does not make the commit. In addition, when this
+ option is used, your working tree does not have to match
+ the HEAD commit. The cherry-pick is done against the
+ beginning state of your working tree.
++
+This is useful when cherry-picking more than one commits'
+effect to your working tree in a row.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..27b67b8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,67 @@
+git-cherry(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cherry - Find commits not merged upstream
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cherry' [-v] <upstream> [<head>] [<limit>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+The changeset (or "diff") of each commit between the fork-point and <head>
+is compared against each commit between the fork-point and <upstream>.
+
+Every commit that doesn't exist in the <upstream> branch
+has its id (sha1) reported, prefixed by a symbol. The ones that have
+equivalent change already
+in the <upstream> branch are prefixed with a minus (-) sign, and those
+that only exist in the <head> branch are prefixed with a plus (+) symbol:
+
+ __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
+ /
+ fork-point
+ \__+__+__-__+__+__-__+__> <head>
+
+
+If a <limit> has been given then the commits along the <head> branch up
+to and including <limit> are not reported:
+
+ __*__*__*__*__> <upstream>
+ /
+ fork-point
+ \__*__*__<limit>__-__+__> <head>
+
+
+Because git-cherry compares the changeset rather than the commit id
+(sha1), you can use git-cherry to find out if a commit you made locally
+has been applied <upstream> under a different commit id. For example,
+this will happen if you're feeding patches <upstream> via email rather
+than pushing or pulling commits directly.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-v::
+ Verbose.
+
+<upstream>::
+ Upstream branch to compare against.
+
+<head>::
+ Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c61afbc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+git-clean(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-clean - Remove untracked files from the working tree
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-clean' [-d] [-n] [-q] [-x | -X] [--] <paths>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Removes files unknown to git. This allows to clean the working tree
+from files that are not under version control. If the '-x' option is
+specified, ignored files are also removed, allowing to remove all
+build products.
+When optional `<paths>...` arguments are given, the paths
+affected are further limited to those that match them.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-d::
+ Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
+
+-n::
+ Don't actually remove anything, just show what would be done.
+
+-q::
+ Be quiet, only report errors, but not the files that are
+ successfully removed.
+
+-x::
+ Don't use the ignore rules. This allows removing all untracked
+ files, including build products. This can be used (possibly in
+ conjunction with gitlink:git-reset[1]) to create a pristine
+ working directory to test a clean build.
+
+-X::
+ Remove only files ignored by git. This may be useful to rebuild
+ everything from scratch, but keep manually created files.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Pavel Roskin <proski@gnu.org>
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..707376f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,178 @@
+git-clone(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-clone - Clones a repository into a new directory
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-clone' [--template=<template_directory>] [-l [-s]] [-q] [-n] [--bare]
+ [-o <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
+ [--depth=<depth>] <repository> [<directory>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Clones a repository into a newly created directory, creates
+remote-tracking branches for each branch in the cloned repository
+(visible using `git branch -r`), and creates and checks out an initial
+branch equal to the cloned repository's currently active branch.
+
+After the clone, a plain `git fetch` without arguments will update
+all the remote-tracking branches, and a `git pull` without
+arguments will in addition merge the remote master branch into the
+current master branch, if any.
+
+This default configuration is achieved by creating references to
+the remote branch heads under `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/origin` and
+by initializing `remote.origin.url` and `remote.origin.fetch`
+configuration variables.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--local::
+-l::
+ When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
+ this flag bypasses normal "git aware" transport
+ mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
+ HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
+ The files under .git/objects/ directory are hardlinked
+ to save space when possible.
+
+--shared::
+-s::
+ When the repository to clone is on the local machine,
+ instead of using hard links, automatically setup
+ .git/objects/info/alternates to share the objects
+ with the source repository. The resulting repository
+ starts out without any object of its own.
+
+--reference <repository>::
+ If the reference repository is on the local machine
+ automatically setup .git/objects/info/alternates to
+ obtain objects from the reference repository. Using
+ an already existing repository as an alternate will
+ require less objects to be copied from the repository
+ being cloned, reducing network and local storage costs.
+
+--quiet::
+-q::
+ Operate quietly. This flag is passed to "rsync" and
+ "git-fetch-pack" commands when given.
+
+-n::
+ No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
+
+--bare::
+ Make a 'bare' GIT repository. That is, instead of
+ creating `<directory>` and placing the administrative
+ files in `<directory>/.git`, make the `<directory>`
+ itself the `$GIT_DIR`. This obviously implies the `-n`
+ because there is nowhere to check out the working tree.
+ Also the branch heads at the remote are copied directly
+ to corresponding local branch heads, without mapping
+ them to `refs/remotes/origin/`. When this option is
+ used, neither remote-tracking branches nor the related
+ configuration variables are created.
+
+--origin <name>::
+-o <name>::
+ Instead of using the remote name 'origin' to keep track
+ of the upstream repository, use <name> instead.
+
+--upload-pack <upload-pack>::
+-u <upload-pack>::
+ When given, and the repository to clone from is handled
+ by 'git-fetch-pack', '--exec=<upload-pack>' is passed to
+ the command to specify non-default path for the command
+ run on the other end.
+
+--template=<template_directory>::
+ Specify the directory from which templates will be used;
+ if unset the templates are taken from the installation
+ defined default, typically `/usr/share/git-core/templates`.
+
+--depth=<depth>::
+ Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
+ specified number of revs. A shallow repository has
+ number of limitations (you cannot clone or fetch from
+ it, nor push from nor into it), but is adequate if you
+ want to only look at near the tip of a large project
+ with a long history, and would want to send in a fixes
+ as patches.
+
+<repository>::
+ The (possibly remote) repository to clone from. It can
+ be any URL git-fetch supports.
+
+<directory>::
+ The name of a new directory to clone into. The "humanish"
+ part of the source repository is used if no directory is
+ explicitly given ("repo" for "/path/to/repo.git" and "foo"
+ for "host.xz:foo/.git"). Cloning into an existing directory
+ is not allowed.
+
+Examples
+--------
+
+Clone from upstream::
++
+------------
+$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
+$ cd my2.6
+$ make
+------------
+
+
+Make a local clone that borrows from the current directory, without checking things out::
++
+------------
+$ git clone -l -s -n . ../copy
+$ cd copy
+$ git show-branch
+------------
+
+
+Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing local directory::
++
+------------
+$ git clone --reference my2.6 \
+ git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.7 \
+ my2.7
+$ cd my2.7
+------------
+
+
+Create a bare repository to publish your changes to the public::
++
+------------
+$ git clone --bare -l /home/proj/.git /pub/scm/proj.git
+------------
+
+
+Create a repository on the kernel.org machine that borrows from Linus::
++
+------------
+$ git clone --bare -l -s /pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6.git \
+ /pub/scm/.../me/subsys-2.6.git
+------------
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cf25507
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,108 @@
+git-commit-tree(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-commit-tree' <tree> [-p <parent commit>]\* < changelog
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
+gitlink:git-commit[1] instead.
+
+Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
+emits the new commit object id on stdout. If no parent is given then
+it is considered to be an initial tree.
+
+A commit object usually has 1 parent (a commit after a change) or up
+to 16 parents. More than one parent represents a merge of branches
+that led to them.
+
+While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
+directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
+to get there.
+
+Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git
+doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
+tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
+`.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see what the last committed
+state was.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<tree>::
+ An existing tree object
+
+-p <parent commit>::
+ Each '-p' indicates the id of a parent commit object.
+
+
+Commit Information
+------------------
+
+A commit encapsulates:
+
+- all parent object ids
+- author name, email and date
+- committer name and email and the commit time.
+
+If not provided, "git-commit-tree" uses your name, hostname and domain to
+provide author and committer info. This can be overridden by
+either `.git/config` file, or using the following environment variables.
+
+ GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
+ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
+ GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
+ GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
+ GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
+
+(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
+
+In `.git/config` file, the following items are used for GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and
+GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL:
+
+ [user]
+ name = "Your Name"
+ email = "your@email.address.xz"
+
+A commit comment is read from stdin (max 999 chars). If a changelog
+entry is not provided via "<" redirection, "git-commit-tree" will just wait
+for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.
+
+
+Diagnostics
+-----------
+You don't exist. Go away!::
+ The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
+Your parents must have hated you!::
+ The password(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+Your sysadmin must hate you!::
+ The password(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+
+Discussion
+----------
+
+include::i18n.txt[]
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-write-tree[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2187eee
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,257 @@
+git-commit(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-commit - Record changes to the repository
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-commit' [-a] [-s] [-v] [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg> |
+ --amend] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author <author>]
+ [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Use 'git commit' when you want to record your changes into the repository
+along with a log message describing what the commit is about. All changes
+to be committed must be explicitly identified using one of the following
+methods:
+
+1. by using gitlink:git-add[1] to incrementally "add" changes to the
+ next commit before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
+ files must be "added");
+
+2. by using gitlink:git-rm[1] to identify content removal for the next
+ commit, again before using the 'commit' command;
+
+3. by directly listing files containing changes to be committed as arguments
+ to the 'commit' command, in which cases only those files alone will be
+ considered for the commit;
+
+4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically "add"
+ changes from all known files i.e. files that have already been committed
+ before, and to automatically "rm" files that have been
+ removed from the working tree, and perform the actual commit.
+
+The gitlink:git-status[1] command can be used to obtain a
+summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
+commit by giving the same set of parameters you would give to
+this command.
+
+If you make a commit and then found a mistake immediately after
+that, you can recover from it with gitlink:git-reset[1].
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-a|--all::
+ Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
+ been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
+ told git about are not affected.
+
+-c or -C <commit>::
+ Take existing commit object, and reuse the log message
+ and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
+ when creating the commit. With '-C', the editor is not
+ invoked; with '-c' the user can further edit the commit
+ message.
+
+-F <file>::
+ Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
+ read the message from the standard input.
+
+--author <author>::
+ Override the author name used in the commit. Use
+ `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format.
+
+-m <msg>::
+ Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
+
+-s|--signoff::
+ Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+
+--no-verify::
+ This option bypasses the pre-commit hook.
+ See also link:hooks.html[hooks].
+
+-e|--edit::
+ The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
+ `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
+ commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
+ further edit the message taken from these sources.
+
+--amend::
+
+ Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
+ object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
+ (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
+ commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
+ tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
+ current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
+ the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
+ discarded.
++
+--
+It is a rough equivalent for:
+------
+ $ git reset --soft HEAD^
+ $ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
+ $ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
+
+------
+but can be used to amend a merge commit.
+--
+
+-i|--include::
+ Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
+ stage the contents of paths given on the command line
+ as well. This is usually not what you want unless you
+ are concluding a conflicted merge.
+
+-q|--quiet::
+ Suppress commit summary message.
+
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+<file>...::
+ When files are given on the command line, the command
+ commits the contents of the named files, without
+ recording the changes already staged. The contents of
+ these files are also staged for the next commit on top
+ of what have been staged before.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
+your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
+called the "index" with gitlink:git-add[1]. Removal
+of a file is staged with gitlink:git-rm[1]. After building the
+state to be committed incrementally with these commands, `git
+commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
+has been staged so far. This is the most basic form of the
+command. An example:
+
+------------
+$ edit hello.c
+$ git rm goodbye.c
+$ git add hello.c
+$ git commit
+------------
+
+Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
+tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
+contents are tracked in
+your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
+for you. That is, this example does the same as the earlier
+example if there is no other change in your working tree:
+
+------------
+$ edit hello.c
+$ rm goodbye.c
+$ git commit -a
+------------
+
+The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
+notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
+and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
+
+After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
+changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
+When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
+only records the changes made to the named paths:
+
+------------
+$ edit hello.c hello.h
+$ git add hello.c hello.h
+$ edit Makefile
+$ git commit Makefile
+------------
+
+This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
+The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
+in the resulting commit. However, their changes are not lost --
+they are still staged and merely held back. After the above
+sequence, if you do:
+
+------------
+$ git commit
+------------
+
+this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
+`hello.h` as expected.
+
+After a merge (initiated by either gitlink:git-merge[1] or
+gitlink:git-pull[1]) stops because of conflicts, cleanly merged
+paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
+conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
+check which paths are conflicting with gitlink:git-status[1]
+and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
+stage the result as usual with gitlink:git-add[1]:
+
+------------
+$ git status | grep unmerged
+unmerged: hello.c
+$ edit hello.c
+$ git add hello.c
+------------
+
+After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
+would stop mentioning the conflicted path. When you are done,
+run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
+
+------------
+$ git commit
+------------
+
+As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
+option to save typing. One difference is that during a merge
+resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
+alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
+should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
+refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
+
+
+DISCUSSION
+----------
+
+Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
+with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
+change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
+Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line
+on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.
+
+include::i18n.txt[]
+
+ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
+---------------------
+The command specified by either the VISUAL or EDITOR environment
+variables is used to edit the commit log message.
+
+HOOKS
+-----
+This command can run `commit-msg`, `pre-commit`, and
+`post-commit` hooks. See link:hooks.html[hooks] for more
+information.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-add[1],
+gitlink:git-rm[1],
+gitlink:git-mv[1],
+gitlink:git-merge[1],
+gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6624484
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,227 @@
+git-config(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-config - Get and set repository or global options
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-config' [--global] [type] name [value [value_regex]]
+'git-config' [--global] [type] --add name value
+'git-config' [--global] [type] --replace-all name [value [value_regex]]
+'git-config' [--global] [type] --get name [value_regex]
+'git-config' [--global] [type] --get-all name [value_regex]
+'git-config' [--global] [type] --unset name [value_regex]
+'git-config' [--global] [type] --unset-all name [value_regex]
+'git-config' [--global] -l | --list
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+You can query/set/replace/unset options with this command. The name is
+actually the section and the key separated by a dot, and the value will be
+escaped.
+
+Multiple lines can be added to an option by using the '--add' option.
+If you want to update or unset an option which can occur on multiple
+lines, a POSIX regexp `value_regex` needs to be given. Only the
+existing values that match the regexp are updated or unset. If
+you want to handle the lines that do *not* match the regex, just
+prepend a single exclamation mark in front (see EXAMPLES).
+
+The type specifier can be either '--int' or '--bool', which will make
+'git-config' ensure that the variable(s) are of the given type and
+convert the value to the canonical form (simple decimal number for int,
+a "true" or "false" string for bool). If no type specifier is passed,
+no checks or transformations are performed on the value.
+
+This command will fail if:
+
+. The .git/config file is invalid,
+. Can not write to .git/config,
+. no section was provided,
+. the section or key is invalid,
+. you try to unset an option which does not exist,
+. you try to unset/set an option for which multiple lines match, or
+. you use --global option without $HOME being properly set.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--replace-all::
+ Default behavior is to replace at most one line. This replaces
+ all lines matching the key (and optionally the value_regex).
+
+--add::
+ Adds a new line to the option without altering any existing
+ values. This is the same as providing '^$' as the value_regex.
+
+--get::
+ Get the value for a given key (optionally filtered by a regex
+ matching the value). Returns error code 1 if the key was not
+ found and error code 2 if multiple key values were found.
+
+--get-all::
+ Like get, but does not fail if the number of values for the key
+ is not exactly one.
+
+--get-regexp::
+ Like --get-all, but interprets the name as a regular expression.
+
+--global::
+ Use global ~/.gitconfig file rather than the repository .git/config.
+
+--unset::
+ Remove the line matching the key from config file.
+
+--unset-all::
+ Remove all matching lines from config file.
+
+-l, --list::
+ List all variables set in config file.
+
+--bool::
+ git-config will ensure that the output is "true" or "false"
+
+--int::
+ git-config will ensure that the output is a simple
+ decimal number. An optional value suffix of 'k', 'm', or 'g'
+ in the config file will cause the value to be multiplied
+ by 1024, 1048576, or 1073741824 prior to output.
+
+
+ENVIRONMENT
+-----------
+
+GIT_CONFIG::
+ Take the configuration from the given file instead of .git/config.
+ Using the "--global" option forces this to ~/.gitconfig.
+
+GIT_CONFIG_LOCAL::
+ Currently the same as $GIT_CONFIG; when Git will support global
+ configuration files, this will cause it to take the configuration
+ from the global configuration file in addition to the given file.
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+Given a .git/config like this:
+
+ #
+ # This is the config file, and
+ # a '#' or ';' character indicates
+ # a comment
+ #
+
+ ; core variables
+ [core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+ ; Our diff algorithm
+ [diff]
+ external = "/usr/local/bin/gnu-diff -u"
+ renames = true
+
+ ; Proxy settings
+ [core]
+ gitproxy="ssh" for "ssh://kernel.org/"
+ gitproxy="proxy-command" for kernel.org
+ gitproxy="myprotocol-command" for "my://"
+ gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
+
+you can set the filemode to true with
+
+------------
+% git config core.filemode true
+------------
+
+The hypothetical proxy command entries actually have a postfix to discern
+what URL they apply to. Here is how to change the entry for kernel.org
+to "ssh".
+
+------------
+% git config core.gitproxy '"ssh" for kernel.org' 'for kernel.org$'
+------------
+
+This makes sure that only the key/value pair for kernel.org is replaced.
+
+To delete the entry for renames, do
+
+------------
+% git config --unset diff.renames
+------------
+
+If you want to delete an entry for a multivar (like core.gitproxy above),
+you have to provide a regex matching the value of exactly one line.
+
+To query the value for a given key, do
+
+------------
+% git config --get core.filemode
+------------
+
+or
+
+------------
+% git config core.filemode
+------------
+
+or, to query a multivar:
+
+------------
+% git config --get core.gitproxy "for kernel.org$"
+------------
+
+If you want to know all the values for a multivar, do:
+
+------------
+% git config --get-all core.gitproxy
+------------
+
+If you like to live dangerous, you can replace *all* core.gitproxy by a
+new one with
+
+------------
+% git config --replace-all core.gitproxy ssh
+------------
+
+However, if you really only want to replace the line for the default proxy,
+i.e. the one without a "for ..." postfix, do something like this:
+
+------------
+% git config core.gitproxy ssh '! for '
+------------
+
+To actually match only values with an exclamation mark, you have to
+
+------------
+% git config section.key value '[!]'
+------------
+
+To add a new proxy, without altering any of the existing ones, use
+
+------------
+% git config core.gitproxy '"proxy" for example.com'
+------------
+
+
+include::config.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Johannes Schindelin, Petr Baudis and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b1220c0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+git-convert-objects(1)
+======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-convert-objects - Converts old-style git repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-convert-objects'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Converts old-style git repository to the latest format
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..91c8c92
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+git-count-objects(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-count-objects - Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-count-objects' [-v]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This counts the number of unpacked object files and disk space consumed by
+them, to help you decide when it is a good time to repack.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-v::
+ In addition to the number of loose objects and disk
+ space consumed, it reports the number of in-pack
+ objects, number of packs, and number of objects that can be
+ removed by running `git-prune-packed`.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..27d531b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,90 @@
+git-cvsexportcommit(1)
+======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cvsexportcommit - Export a single commit to a CVS checkout
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cvsexportcommit' [-h] [-v] [-c] [-P] [-p] [-a] [-f] [-m msgprefix] [PARENTCOMMIT] COMMITID
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Exports a commit from GIT to a CVS checkout, making it easier
+to merge patches from a git repository into a CVS repository.
+
+Execute it from the root of the CVS working copy. GIT_DIR must be defined.
+See examples below.
+
+It does its best to do the safe thing, it will check that the files are
+unchanged and up to date in the CVS checkout, and it will not autocommit
+by default.
+
+Supports file additions, removals, and commits that affect binary files.
+
+If the commit is a merge commit, you must tell git-cvsapplycommit what parent
+should the changeset be done against.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-c::
+ Commit automatically if the patch applied cleanly. It will not
+ commit if any hunks fail to apply or there were other problems.
+
+-p::
+ Be pedantic (paranoid) when applying patches. Invokes patch with
+ --fuzz=0
+
+-a::
+ Add authorship information. Adds Author line, and Committer (if
+ different from Author) to the message.
+
+-f::
+ Force the merge even if the files are not up to date.
+
+-P::
+ Force the parent commit, even if it is not a direct parent.
+
+-m::
+ Prepend the commit message with the provided prefix.
+ Useful for patch series and the like.
+
+-v::
+ Verbose.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+Merge one patch into CVS::
++
+------------
+$ export GIT_DIR=~/project/.git
+$ cd ~/project_cvs_checkout
+$ git-cvsexportcommit -v <commit-sha1>
+$ cvs commit -F .mgs <files>
+------------
+
+Merge pending patches into CVS automatically -- only if you really know what you are doing ::
++
+------------
+$ export GIT_DIR=~/project/.git
+$ cd ~/project_cvs_checkout
+$ git-cherry cvshead myhead | sed -n 's/^+ //p' | xargs -l1 git-cvsexportcommit -c -p -v
+------------
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f5450de
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,154 @@
+git-cvsimport(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cvsimport - Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-cvsimport' [-o <branch-for-HEAD>] [-h] [-v] [-d <CVSROOT>] [-s <subst>]
+ [-p <options-for-cvsps>] [-C <git_repository>] [-i] [-P <file>]
+ [-m] [-M regex] [<CVS_module>]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Imports a CVS repository into git. It will either create a new
+repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
+
+Splitting the CVS log into patch sets is done by 'cvsps'.
+At least version 2.1 is required.
+
+You should *never* do any work of your own on the branches that are
+created by git-cvsimport. The initial import will create and populate a
+"master" branch from the CVS repository's main branch which you're free
+to work with; after that, you need to 'git merge' incremental imports, or
+any CVS branches, yourself.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-d <CVSROOT>::
+ The root of the CVS archive. May be local (a simple path) or remote;
+ currently, only the :local:, :ext: and :pserver: access methods
+ are supported.
+
+-C <target-dir>::
+ The git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
+ exist, it will be created. Default is the current directory.
+
+-i::
+ Import-only: don't perform a checkout after importing. This option
+ ensures the working directory and index remain untouched and will
+ not create them if they do not exist.
+
+-k::
+ Kill keywords: will extract files with -kk from the CVS archive
+ to avoid noisy changesets. Highly recommended, but off by default
+ to preserve compatibility with early imported trees.
+
+-u::
+ Convert underscores in tag and branch names to dots.
+
+-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
+ The 'HEAD' branch from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within
+ the git repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for git.
+ Use this option if you want to import into a different branch.
++
+Use '-o master' for continuing an import that was initially done by
+the old cvs2git tool.
+
+-p <options-for-cvsps>::
+ Additional options for cvsps.
+ The options '-u' and '-A' are implicit and should not be used here.
++
+If you need to pass multiple options, separate them with a comma.
+
+-P <cvsps-output-file>::
+ Instead of calling cvsps, read the provided cvsps output file. Useful
+ for debugging or when cvsps is being handled outside cvsimport.
+
+-m::
+ Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message. This option
+ will enable default regexes that try to capture the name source
+ branch name from the commit message.
+
+-M <regex>::
+ Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message with a custom
+ regex. It can be used with -m to also see the default regexes.
+ You must escape forward slashes.
+
+-v::
+ Verbosity: let 'cvsimport' report what it is doing.
+
+<CVS_module>::
+ The CVS module you want to import. Relative to <CVSROOT>.
+
+-h::
+ Print a short usage message and exit.
+
+-z <fuzz>::
+ Pass the timestamp fuzz factor to cvsps, in seconds. If unset,
+ cvsps defaults to 300s.
+
+-s <subst>::
+ Substitute the character "/" in branch names with <subst>
+
+-A <author-conv-file>::
+ CVS by default uses the Unix username when writing its
+ commit logs. Using this option and an author-conv-file
+ in this format
+
+-a::
+ Import all commits, including recent ones. cvsimport by default
+ skips commits that have a timestamp less than 10 minutes ago.
+
+-S <regex>::
+ Skip paths matching the regex.
+
+-L <limit>::
+ Limit the number of commits imported. Workaround for cases where
+ cvsimport leaks memory.
+
++
+---------
+ exon=Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>
+ spawn=Simon Pawn <spawn@frog-pond.org>
+
+---------
++
+git-cvsimport will make it appear as those authors had
+their GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL set properly
+all along.
++
+For convenience, this data is saved to $GIT_DIR/cvs-authors
+each time the -A option is provided and read from that same
+file each time git-cvsimport is run.
++
+It is not recommended to use this feature if you intend to
+export changes back to CVS again later with
+gitlink:git-cvsexportcommit[1].
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+If '-v' is specified, the script reports what it is doing.
+
+Otherwise, success is indicated the Unix way, i.e. by simply exiting with
+a zero exit status.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>, with help from
+various participants of the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e328db3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,161 @@
+git-cvsserver(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for git
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+export CVS_SERVER=git-cvsserver
+'cvs' -d :ext:user@server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This application is a CVS emulation layer for git.
+
+It is highly functional. However, not all methods are implemented,
+and for those methods that are implemented,
+not all switches are implemented.
+
+Testing has been done using both the CLI CVS client, and the Eclipse CVS
+plugin. Most functionality works fine with both of these clients.
+
+LIMITATIONS
+-----------
+
+Currently cvsserver works over SSH connections for read/write clients, and
+over pserver for anonymous CVS access.
+
+CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform GIT merges.
+
+INSTALLATION
+------------
+
+1. If you are going to offer anonymous CVS access via pserver, add a line in
+ /etc/inetd.conf like
++
+--
+------
+ cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody git-cvsserver pserver
+
+------
+Note: In some cases, you need to pass the 'pserver' argument twice for
+git-cvsserver to see it. So the line would look like
+
+------
+ cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody git-cvsserver pserver pserver
+
+------
+No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having GIT tools
+in the PATH. If you have clients that do not accept the CVS_SERVER
+env variable, you can rename git-cvsserver to cvs.
+--
+2. For each repo that you want accessible from CVS you need to edit config in
+ the repo and add the following section.
++
+--
+------
+ [gitcvs]
+ enabled=1
+ # optional for debugging
+ logfile=/path/to/logfile
+
+------
+Note: you need to ensure each user that is going to invoke git-cvsserver has
+write access to the log file and to the git repository. When offering anon
+access via pserver, this means that the nobody user should have write access
+to at least the sqlite database at the root of the repository.
+--
+3. On the client machine you need to set the following variables.
+ CVSROOT should be set as per normal, but the directory should point at the
+ appropriate git repo. For example:
++
+--
+For SSH access, CVS_SERVER should be set to git-cvsserver
+
+Example:
+
+------
+ export CVSROOT=:ext:user@server:/var/git/project.git
+ export CVS_SERVER=git-cvsserver
+------
+--
+4. For SSH clients that will make commits, make sure their .bashrc file
+ sets the GIT_AUTHOR and GIT_COMMITTER variables.
+
+5. Clients should now be able to check out the project. Use the CVS 'module'
+ name to indicate what GIT 'head' you want to check out. Example:
++
+------
+ cvs co -d project-master master
+------
+
+Eclipse CVS Client Notes
+------------------------
+
+To get a checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:
+
+1. Select "Create a new project -> From CVS checkout"
+2. Create a new location. See the notes below for details on how to choose the
+ right protocol.
+3. Browse the 'modules' available. It will give you a list of the heads in
+ the repository. You will not be able to browse the tree from there. Only
+ the heads.
+4. Pick 'HEAD' when it asks what branch/tag to check out. Untick the
+ "launch commit wizard" to avoid committing the .project file.
+
+Protocol notes: If you are using anonymous access via pserver, just select that.
+Those using SSH access should choose the 'ext' protocol, and configure 'ext'
+access on the Preferences->Team->CVS->ExtConnection pane. Set CVS_SERVER to
+'git-cvsserver'. Not that password support is not good when using 'ext',
+you will definitely want to have SSH keys setup.
+
+Alternatively, you can just use the non-standard extssh protocol that Eclipse
+offer. In that case CVS_SERVER is ignored, and you will have to replace
+the cvs utility on the server with git-cvsserver or manipulate your .bashrc
+so that calling 'cvs' effectively calls git-cvsserver.
+
+Clients known to work
+---------------------
+
+CVS 1.12.9 on Debian
+CVS 1.11.17 on MacOSX (from Fink package)
+Eclipse 3.0, 3.1.2 on MacOSX (see Eclipse CVS Client Notes)
+TortoiseCVS
+
+Operations supported
+--------------------
+
+All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
+checkout, diff, status, update, log, add, remove, commit.
+Legacy monitoring operations are not supported (edit, watch and related).
+Exports and tagging (tags and branches) are not supported at this stage.
+
+The server will set the -k mode to binary when relevant. In proper GIT
+tradition, the contents of the files are always respected.
+No keyword expansion or newline munging is supported.
+
+Dependencies
+------------
+
+git-cvsserver depends on DBD::SQLite.
+
+Copyright and Authors
+---------------------
+
+This program is copyright The Open University UK - 2006.
+
+Authors: Martyn Smith <martyn@catalyst.net.nz>
+ Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>
+ with ideas and patches from participants of the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Martyn Smith <martyn@catalyst.net.nz> and Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz> Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9ddab71
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,238 @@
+git-daemon(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-daemon' [--verbose] [--syslog] [--export-all]
+ [--timeout=n] [--init-timeout=n] [--strict-paths]
+ [--base-path=path] [--user-path | --user-path=path]
+ [--interpolated-path=pathtemplate]
+ [--reuseaddr] [--detach] [--pid-file=file]
+ [--enable=service] [--disable=service]
+ [--allow-override=service] [--forbid-override=service]
+ [--inetd | [--listen=host_or_ipaddr] [--port=n] [--user=user [--group=group]]
+ [directory...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A really simple TCP git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
+aka 9418. It waits for a connection asking for a service, and will serve
+that service if it is enabled.
+
+It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
+it will refuse to export any git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
+for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
+pass some directory paths as 'git-daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
+the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
+
+By default, only `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
+`git-fetch-pack` and `git-peek-remote` clients that are invoked
+from `git-fetch`, `git-ls-remote`, and `git-clone`.
+
+This is ideally suited for read-only updates, i.e., pulling from
+git repositories.
+
+An `upload-archive` also exists to serve `git-archive`.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--strict-paths::
+ Match paths exactly (i.e. don't allow "/foo/repo" when the real path is
+ "/foo/repo.git" or "/foo/repo/.git") and don't do user-relative paths.
+ git-daemon will refuse to start when this option is enabled and no
+ whitelist is specified.
+
+--base-path::
+ Remap all the path requests as relative to the given path.
+ This is sort of "GIT root" - if you run git-daemon with
+ '--base-path=/srv/git' on example.com, then if you later try to pull
+ 'git://example.com/hello.git', `git-daemon` will interpret the path
+ as '/srv/git/hello.git'.
+
+--interpolated-path=pathtemplate::
+ To support virtual hosting, an interpolated path template can be
+ used to dynamically construct alternate paths. The template
+ supports %H for the target hostname as supplied by the client but
+ converted to all lowercase, %CH for the canonical hostname,
+ %IP for the server's IP address, %P for the port number,
+ and %D for the absolute path of the named repository.
+ After interpolation, the path is validated against the directory
+ whitelist.
+
+--export-all::
+ Allow pulling from all directories that look like GIT repositories
+ (have the 'objects' and 'refs' subdirectories), even if they
+ do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
+
+--inetd::
+ Have the server run as an inetd service. Implies --syslog.
+ Incompatible with --port, --listen, --user and --group options.
+
+--listen=host_or_ipaddr::
+ Listen on an a specific IP address or hostname. IP addresses can
+ be either an IPv4 address or an IPV6 address if supported. If IPv6
+ is not supported, then --listen=hostname is also not supported and
+ --listen must be given an IPv4 address.
+ Incompatible with '--inetd' option.
+
+--port=n::
+ Listen on an alternative port. Incompatible with '--inetd' option.
+
+--init-timeout::
+ Timeout between the moment the connection is established and the
+ client request is received (typically a rather low value, since
+ that should be basically immediate).
+
+--timeout::
+ Timeout for specific client sub-requests. This includes the time
+ it takes for the server to process the sub-request and time spent
+ waiting for next client's request.
+
+--syslog::
+ Log to syslog instead of stderr. Note that this option does not imply
+ --verbose, thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
+
+--user-path, --user-path=path::
+ Allow ~user notation to be used in requests. When
+ specified with no parameter, requests to
+ git://host/~alice/foo is taken as a request to access
+ 'foo' repository in the home directory of user `alice`.
+ If `--user-path=path` is specified, the same request is
+ taken as a request to access `path/foo` repository in
+ the home directory of user `alice`.
+
+--verbose::
+ Log details about the incoming connections and requested files.
+
+--reuseaddr::
+ Use SO_REUSEADDR when binding the listening socket.
+ This allows the server to restart without waiting for
+ old connections to time out.
+
+--detach::
+ Detach from the shell. Implies --syslog.
+
+--pid-file=file::
+ Save the process id in 'file'.
+
+--user=user, --group=group::
+ Change daemon's uid and gid before entering the service loop.
+ When only `--user` is given without `--group`, the
+ primary group ID for the user is used. The values of
+ the option are given to `getpwnam(3)` and `getgrnam(3)`
+ and numeric IDs are not supported.
++
+Giving these options is an error when used with `--inetd`; use
+the facility of inet daemon to achieve the same before spawning
+`git-daemon` if needed.
+
+--enable=service, --disable=service::
+ Enable/disable the service site-wide per default. Note
+ that a service disabled site-wide can still be enabled
+ per repository if it is marked overridable and the
+ repository enables the service with an configuration
+ item.
+
+--allow-override=service, --forbid-override=service::
+ Allow/forbid overriding the site-wide default with per
+ repository configuration. By default, all the services
+ are overridable.
+
+<directory>::
+ A directory to add to the whitelist of allowed directories. Unless
+ --strict-paths is specified this will also include subdirectories
+ of each named directory.
+
+SERVICES
+--------
+
+upload-pack::
+ This serves `git-fetch-pack` and `git-peek-remote`
+ clients. It is enabled by default, but a repository can
+ disable it by setting `daemon.uploadpack` configuration
+ item to `false`.
+
+upload-archive::
+ This serves `git-archive --remote`.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+We assume the following in /etc/services::
++
+------------
+$ grep 9418 /etc/services
+git 9418/tcp # Git Version Control System
+------------
+
+git-daemon as inetd server::
+ To set up `git-daemon` as an inetd service that handles any
+ repository under the whitelisted set of directories, /pub/foo
+ and /pub/bar, place an entry like the following into
+ /etc/inetd all on one line:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+ git stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-daemon
+ git-daemon --inetd --verbose --export-all
+ /pub/foo /pub/bar
+------------------------------------------------
+
+
+git-daemon as inetd server for virtual hosts::
+ To set up `git-daemon` as an inetd service that handles
+ repositories for different virtual hosts, `www.example.com`
+ and `www.example.org`, place an entry like the following into
+ `/etc/inetd` all on one line:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+ git stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-daemon
+ git-daemon --inetd --verbose --export-all
+ --interpolated-path=/pub/%H%D
+ /pub/www.example.org/software
+ /pub/www.example.com/software
+ /software
+------------------------------------------------
++
+In this example, the root-level directory `/pub` will contain
+a subdirectory for each virtual host name supported.
+Further, both hosts advertise repositories simply as
+`git://www.example.com/software/repo.git`. For pre-1.4.0
+clients, a symlink from `/software` into the appropriate
+default repository could be made as well.
+
+
+git-daemon as regular daemon for virtual hosts::
+ To set up `git-daemon` as a regular, non-inetd service that
+ handles repositories for multiple virtual hosts based on
+ their IP addresses, start the daemon like this:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+ git-daemon --verbose --export-all
+ --interpolated-path=/pub/%IP/%D
+ /pub/192.168.1.200/software
+ /pub/10.10.220.23/software
+------------------------------------------------
++
+In this example, the root-level directory `/pub` will contain
+a subdirectory for each virtual host IP address supported.
+Repositories can still be accessed by hostname though, assuming
+they correspond to these IP addresses.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>, YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
+<yoshfuji@linux-ipv6.org> and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..47a583d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,122 @@
+git-describe(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-describe - Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-describe' [--all] [--tags] [--abbrev=<n>] <committish>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+The command finds the most recent tag that is reachable from a
+commit, and if the commit itself is pointed at by the tag, shows
+the tag. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of
+additional commits and the abbreviated object name of the commit.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<committish>::
+ The object name of the committish.
+
+--all::
+ Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
+ found in `.git/refs/`.
+
+--tags::
+ Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any tag
+ found in `.git/refs/tags`.
+
+--abbrev=<n>::
+ Instead of using the default 8 hexadecimal digits as the
+ abbreviated object name, use <n> digits.
+
+--candidates=<n>::
+ Instead of considering only the 10 most recent tags as
+ candidates to describe the input committish consider
+ up to <n> candidates. Increasing <n> above 10 will take
+ slightly longer but may produce a more accurate result.
+
+--debug::
+ Verbosely display information about the searching strategy
+ being employed to standard error. The tag name will still
+ be printed to standard out.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+With something like git.git current tree, I get:
+
+ [torvalds@g5 git]$ git-describe parent
+ v1.0.4-14-g2414721
+
+i.e. the current head of my "parent" branch is based on v1.0.4,
+but since it has a handful commits on top of that,
+describe has added the number of additional commits ("14") and
+an abbreviated object name for the commit itself ("2414721")
+at the end.
+
+The number of additional commits is the number
+of commits which would be displayed by "git log v1.0.4..parent".
+The hash suffix is "-g" + 7-char abbreviation for the tip commit
+of parent (which was `2414721b194453f058079d897d13c4e377f92dc6`).
+
+Doing a "git-describe" on a tag-name will just show the tag name:
+
+ [torvalds@g5 git]$ git-describe v1.0.4
+ v1.0.4
+
+With --all, the command can use branch heads as references, so
+the output shows the reference path as well:
+
+ [torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --all --abbrev=4 v1.0.5^2
+ tags/v1.0.0-21-g975b
+
+ [torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --all HEAD^
+ heads/lt/describe-7-g975b
+
+With --abbrev set to 0, the command can be used to find the
+closest tagname without any suffix:
+
+ [torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --abbrev=0 v1.0.5^2
+ tags/v1.0.0
+
+SEARCH STRATEGY
+---------------
+
+For each committish supplied "git describe" will first look for
+a tag which tags exactly that commit. Annotated tags will always
+be preferred over lightweight tags, and tags with newer dates will
+always be preferred over tags with older dates. If an exact match
+is found, its name will be output and searching will stop.
+
+If an exact match was not found "git describe" will walk back
+through the commit history to locate an ancestor commit which
+has been tagged. The ancestor's tag will be output along with an
+abbreviation of the input committish's SHA1.
+
+If multiple tags were found during the walk then the tag which
+has the fewest commits different from the input committish will be
+selected and output. Here fewest commits different is defined as
+the number of commits which would be shown by "git log tag..input"
+will be the smallest number of commits possible.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>, but somewhat
+butchered by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>. Later significantly
+updated by Shawn Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7248b35
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+git-diff-files(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-files - Compares files in the working tree and the index
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-files' [-q] [-0|-1|-2|-3|-c|--cc] [<common diff options>] [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the files in the working tree and the index. When paths
+are specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
+entries in the index are compared. The output format is the
+same as "git-diff-index" and "git-diff-tree".
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+-1 -2 -3 or --base --ours --theirs, and -0::
+ Diff against the "base" version, "our branch" or "their
+ branch" respectively. With these options, diffs for
+ merged entries are not shown.
++
+The default is to diff against our branch (-2) and the
+cleanly resolved paths. The option -0 can be given to
+omit diff output for unmerged entries and just show "Unmerged".
+
+-c,--cc::
+ This compares stage 2 (our branch), stage 3 (their
+ branch) and the working tree file and outputs a combined
+ diff, similar to the way 'diff-tree' shows a merge
+ commit with these flags.
+
+-q::
+ Remain silent even on nonexistent files
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2df581c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+git-diff-index(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-index - Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-index' [-m] [--cached] [<common diff options>] <tree-ish> [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree
+object with the content of the current index and, optionally
+ignoring the stat state of the file on disk. When paths are
+specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
+entries in the index are compared.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<tree-ish>::
+ The id of a tree object to diff against.
+
+--cached::
+ do not consider the on-disk file at all
+
+-m::
+ By default, files recorded in the index but not checked
+ out are reported as deleted. This flag makes
+ "git-diff-index" say that all non-checked-out files are up
+ to date.
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+Operating Modes
+---------------
+You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely
+(using the '--cached' flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
+that don't match the stat state as being "tentatively changed". Both
+of these operations are very useful indeed.
+
+Cached Mode
+-----------
+If '--cached' is specified, it allows you to ask:
+
+ show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
+ contents (the ones I'd write with a "git-write-tree")
+
+For example, let's say that you have worked on your working directory, updated
+some files in the index and are ready to commit. You want to see exactly
+*what* you are going to commit, without having to write a new tree
+object and compare it that way, and to do that, you just do
+
+ git-diff-index --cached HEAD
+
+Example: let's say I had renamed `commit.c` to `git-commit.c`, and I had
+done an "git-update-index" to make that effective in the index file.
+"git-diff-files" wouldn't show anything at all, since the index file
+matches my working directory. But doing a "git-diff-index" does:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git-diff-index --cached HEAD
+ -100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 commit.c
+ +100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 git-commit.c
+
+You can see easily that the above is a rename.
+
+In fact, "git-diff-index --cached" *should* always be entirely equivalent to
+actually doing a "git-write-tree" and comparing that. Except this one is much
+nicer for the case where you just want to check where you are.
+
+So doing a "git-diff-index --cached" is basically very useful when you are
+asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
+what's the difference to a previous tree".
+
+Non-cached Mode
+---------------
+The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
+the more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with
+a "git-write-tree" + "git-diff-tree". Thus that's the default mode.
+The non-cached version asks the question:
+
+ show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
+ tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up-to-date
+
+which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
+you *could* commit. Again, the output matches the "git-diff-tree -r"
+output to a tee, but with a twist.
+
+The twist is that if some file doesn't match the index, we don't have
+a backing store thing for it, and we use the magic "all-zero" sha1 to
+show that. So let's say that you have edited `kernel/sched.c`, but
+have not actually done a "git-update-index" on it yet - there is no
+"object" associated with the new state, and you get:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> git-diff-index HEAD
+ *100644->100664 blob 7476bb......->000000...... kernel/sched.c
+
+i.e., it shows that the tree has changed, and that `kernel/sched.c` has is
+not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
+get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
+directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
+
+NOTE: As with other commands of this type, "git-diff-index" does not
+actually look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe
+`kernel/sched.c` hasn't actually changed, and it's just that you
+touched it. In either case, it's a note that you need to
+"git-update-index" it to make the index be in sync.
+
+NOTE: You can have a mixture of files show up as "has been updated"
+and "is still dirty in the working directory" together. You can always
+tell which file is in which state, since the "has been updated" ones
+show a valid sha1, and the "not in sync with the index" ones will
+always have the special all-zero sha1.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b8f45b8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+git-diff-stages(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-stages - Compares two merge stages in the index
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-stages' [<common diff options>] <stage1> <stage2> [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+DEPRECATED and will be removed in 1.5.1.
+
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs in two stages in an
+unmerged index file.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<stage1>,<stage2>::
+ The stage number to be compared.
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5d6e9dc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,166 @@
+git-diff-tree(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-tree - Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-diff-tree' [--stdin] [-m] [-s] [-v] [--no-commit-id] [--pretty]
+ [-t] [-r] [-c | --cc] [--root] [<common diff options>]
+ <tree-ish> [<tree-ish>] [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two tree objects.
+
+If there is only one <tree-ish> given, the commit is compared with its parents
+(see --stdin below).
+
+Note that "git-diff-tree" can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<tree-ish>::
+ The id of a tree object.
+
+<path>...::
+ If provided, the results are limited to a subset of files
+ matching one of these prefix strings.
+ i.e., file matches `/^<pattern1>|<pattern2>|.../`
+ Note that this parameter does not provide any wildcard or regexp
+ features.
+
+-r::
+ recurse into sub-trees
+
+-t::
+ show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.
+
+--root::
+ When '--root' is specified the initial commit will be showed as a big
+ creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against the NULL tree.
+
+--stdin::
+ When '--stdin' is specified, the command does not take
+ <tree-ish> arguments from the command line. Instead, it
+ reads either one <commit> or a pair of <tree-ish>
+ separated with a single space from its standard input.
++
+When a single commit is given on one line of such input, it compares
+the commit with its parents. The following flags further affects its
+behavior. This does not apply to the case where two <tree-ish>
+separated with a single space are given.
+
+-m::
+ By default, "git-diff-tree --stdin" does not show
+ differences for merge commits. With this flag, it shows
+ differences to that commit from all of its parents. See
+ also '-c'.
+
+-s::
+ By default, "git-diff-tree --stdin" shows differences,
+ either in machine-readable form (without '-p') or in patch
+ form (with '-p'). This output can be suppressed. It is
+ only useful with '-v' flag.
+
+-v::
+ This flag causes "git-diff-tree --stdin" to also show
+ the commit message before the differences.
+
+include::pretty-formats.txt[]
+
+--no-commit-id::
+ git-diff-tree outputs a line with the commit ID when
+ applicable. This flag suppressed the commit ID output.
+
+-c::
+ This flag changes the way a merge commit is displayed
+ (which means it is useful only when the command is given
+ one <tree-ish>, or '--stdin'). It shows the differences
+ from each of the parents to the merge result simultaneously
+ instead of showing pairwise diff between a parent and the
+ result one at a time (which is what the '-m' option does).
+ Furthermore, it lists only files which were modified
+ from all parents.
+
+--cc::
+ This flag changes the way a merge commit patch is displayed,
+ in a similar way to the '-c' option. It implies the '-c'
+ and '-p' options and further compresses the patch output
+ by omitting hunks that show differences from only one
+ parent, or show the same change from all but one parent
+ for an Octopus merge. When this optimization makes all
+ hunks disappear, the commit itself and the commit log
+ message is not shown, just like in any other "empty diff" case.
+
+--always::
+ Show the commit itself and the commit log message even
+ if the diff itself is empty.
+
+
+Limiting Output
+---------------
+If you're only interested in differences in a subset of files, for
+example some architecture-specific files, you might do:
+
+ git-diff-tree -r <tree-ish> <tree-ish> arch/ia64 include/asm-ia64
+
+and it will only show you what changed in those two directories.
+
+Or if you are searching for what changed in just `kernel/sched.c`, just do
+
+ git-diff-tree -r <tree-ish> <tree-ish> kernel/sched.c
+
+and it will ignore all differences to other files.
+
+The pattern is always the prefix, and is matched exactly. There are no
+wildcards. Even stricter, it has to match a complete path component.
+I.e. "foo" does not pick up `foobar.h`. "foo" does match `foo/bar.h`
+so it can be used to name subdirectories.
+
+An example of normal usage is:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git-diff-tree 5319e4......
+ *100664->100664 blob ac348b.......->a01513....... git-fsck-objects.c
+
+which tells you that the last commit changed just one file (it's from
+this one:
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+commit 3c6f7ca19ad4043e9e72fa94106f352897e651a8
+tree 5319e4d609cdd282069cc4dce33c1db559539b03
+parent b4e628ea30d5ab3606119d2ea5caeab141d38df7
+author Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
+committer Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
+
+Make "git-fsck-objects" print out all the root commits it finds.
+
+Once I do the reference tracking, I'll also make it print out all the
+HEAD commits it finds, which is even more interesting.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+in case you care).
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6a098df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,137 @@
+git-diff(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff - Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff' [ --diff-options ] <commit>{0,2} [--] [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Show changes between two trees, a tree and the working tree, a
+tree and the index file, or the index file and the working tree.
+
+'git-diff' [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
+
+ This form is to view the changes you made relative to
+ the index (staging area for the next commit). In other
+ words, the differences are what you _could_ tell git to
+ further add to the index but you still haven't. You can
+ stage these changes by using gitlink:git-add[1].
+
+'git-diff' [--options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
+
+ This form is to view the changes you staged for the next
+ commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
+ would want comparison with the latest commit, so if you
+ do not give <commit>, it defaults to HEAD.
+
+'git-diff' [--options] <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
+
+ This form is to view the changes you have in your
+ working tree relative to the named <commit>. You can
+ use HEAD to compare it with the latest commit, or a
+ branch name to compare with the tip of a different
+ branch.
+
+'git-diff' [--options] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
+
+ This form is to view the changes between two <commit>,
+ for example, tips of two branches.
+
+Just in case if you are doing something exotic, it should be
+noted that all of the <commit> in the above description can be
+any <tree-ish>.
+
+For a more complete list of ways to spell <commit>, see
+"SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1].
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<path>...::
+ The <paths> parameters, when given, are used to limit
+ the diff to the named paths (you can give directory
+ names and get diff for all files under them).
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+Various ways to check your working tree::
++
+------------
+$ git diff <1>
+$ git diff --cached <2>
+$ git diff HEAD <3>
+------------
++
+<1> changes in the working tree not yet staged for the next commit.
+<2> changes between the index and your last commit; what you
+would be committing if you run "git commit" without "-a" option.
+<3> changes in the working tree since your last commit; what you
+would be committing if you run "git commit -a"
+
+Comparing with arbitrary commits::
++
+------------
+$ git diff test <1>
+$ git diff HEAD -- ./test <2>
+$ git diff HEAD^ HEAD <3>
+------------
++
+<1> instead of using the tip of the current branch, compare with the
+tip of "test" branch.
+<2> instead of comparing with the tip of "test" branch, compare with
+the tip of the current branch, but limit the comparison to the
+file "test".
+<3> compare the version before the last commit and the last commit.
+
+
+Limiting the diff output::
++
+------------
+$ git diff --diff-filter=MRC <1>
+$ git diff --name-status -r <2>
+$ git diff arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <3>
+------------
++
+<1> show only modification, rename and copy, but not addition
+nor deletion.
+<2> show only names and the nature of change, but not actual
+diff output. --name-status disables usual patch generation
+which in turn also disables recursive behavior, so without -r
+you would only see the directory name if there is a change in a
+file in a subdirectory.
+<3> limit diff output to named subtrees.
+
+Munging the diff output::
++
+------------
+$ git diff --find-copies-harder -B -C <1>
+$ git diff -R <2>
+------------
++
+<1> spend extra cycles to find renames, copies and complete
+rewrites (very expensive).
+<2> output diff in reverse.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..445f6b8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,901 @@
+git-fast-import(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fast-import - Backend for fast Git data importers.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+frontend | 'git-fast-import' [options]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This program is usually not what the end user wants to run directly.
+Most end users want to use one of the existing frontend programs,
+which parses a specific type of foreign source and feeds the contents
+stored there to git-fast-import.
+
+fast-import reads a mixed command/data stream from standard input and
+writes one or more packfiles directly into the current repository.
+When EOF is received on standard input, fast import writes out
+updated branch and tag refs, fully updating the current repository
+with the newly imported data.
+
+The fast-import backend itself can import into an empty repository (one that
+has already been initialized by gitlink:git-init[1]) or incrementally
+update an existing populated repository. Whether or not incremental
+imports are supported from a particular foreign source depends on
+the frontend program in use.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--date-format=<fmt>::
+ Specify the type of dates the frontend will supply to
+ fast-import within `author`, `committer` and `tagger` commands.
+ See ``Date Formats'' below for details about which formats
+ are supported, and their syntax.
+
+--force::
+ Force updating modified existing branches, even if doing
+ so would cause commits to be lost (as the new commit does
+ not contain the old commit).
+
+--max-pack-size=<n>::
+ Maximum size of each output packfile, expressed in MiB.
+ The default is 4096 (4 GiB) as that is the maximum allowed
+ packfile size (due to file format limitations). Some
+ importers may wish to lower this, such as to ensure the
+ resulting packfiles fit on CDs.
+
+--depth=<n>::
+ Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
+ Default is 10.
+
+--active-branches=<n>::
+ Maximum number of branches to maintain active at once.
+ See ``Memory Utilization'' below for details. Default is 5.
+
+--export-marks=<file>::
+ Dumps the internal marks table to <file> when complete.
+ Marks are written one per line as `:markid SHA-1`.
+ Frontends can use this file to validate imports after they
+ have been completed.
+
+--export-pack-edges=<file>::
+ After creating a packfile, print a line of data to
+ <file> listing the filename of the packfile and the last
+ commit on each branch that was written to that packfile.
+ This information may be useful after importing projects
+ whose total object set exceeds the 4 GiB packfile limit,
+ as these commits can be used as edge points during calls
+ to gitlink:git-pack-objects[1].
+
+--quiet::
+ Disable all non-fatal output, making fast-import silent when it
+ is successful. This option disables the output shown by
+ \--stats.
+
+--stats::
+ Display some basic statistics about the objects fast-import has
+ created, the packfiles they were stored into, and the
+ memory used by fast-import during this run. Showing this output
+ is currently the default, but can be disabled with \--quiet.
+
+
+Performance
+-----------
+The design of fast-import allows it to import large projects in a minimum
+amount of memory usage and processing time. Assuming the frontend
+is able to keep up with fast-import and feed it a constant stream of data,
+import times for projects holding 10+ years of history and containing
+100,000+ individual commits are generally completed in just 1-2
+hours on quite modest (~$2,000 USD) hardware.
+
+Most bottlenecks appear to be in foreign source data access (the
+source just cannot extract revisions fast enough) or disk IO (fast-import
+writes as fast as the disk will take the data). Imports will run
+faster if the source data is stored on a different drive than the
+destination Git repository (due to less IO contention).
+
+
+Development Cost
+----------------
+A typical frontend for fast-import tends to weigh in at approximately 200
+lines of Perl/Python/Ruby code. Most developers have been able to
+create working importers in just a couple of hours, even though it
+is their first exposure to fast-import, and sometimes even to Git. This is
+an ideal situation, given that most conversion tools are throw-away
+(use once, and never look back).
+
+
+Parallel Operation
+------------------
+Like `git-push` or `git-fetch`, imports handled by fast-import are safe to
+run alongside parallel `git repack -a -d` or `git gc` invocations,
+or any other Git operation (including `git prune`, as loose objects
+are never used by fast-import).
+
+fast-import does not lock the branch or tag refs it is actively importing.
+After the import, during its ref update phase, fast-import tests each
+existing branch ref to verify the update will be a fast-forward
+update (the commit stored in the ref is contained in the new
+history of the commit to be written). If the update is not a
+fast-forward update, fast-import will skip updating that ref and instead
+prints a warning message. fast-import will always attempt to update all
+branch refs, and does not stop on the first failure.
+
+Branch updates can be forced with \--force, but its recommended that
+this only be used on an otherwise quiet repository. Using \--force
+is not necessary for an initial import into an empty repository.
+
+
+Technical Discussion
+--------------------
+fast-import tracks a set of branches in memory. Any branch can be created
+or modified at any point during the import process by sending a
+`commit` command on the input stream. This design allows a frontend
+program to process an unlimited number of branches simultaneously,
+generating commits in the order they are available from the source
+data. It also simplifies the frontend programs considerably.
+
+fast-import does not use or alter the current working directory, or any
+file within it. (It does however update the current Git repository,
+as referenced by `GIT_DIR`.) Therefore an import frontend may use
+the working directory for its own purposes, such as extracting file
+revisions from the foreign source. This ignorance of the working
+directory also allows fast-import to run very quickly, as it does not
+need to perform any costly file update operations when switching
+between branches.
+
+Input Format
+------------
+With the exception of raw file data (which Git does not interpret)
+the fast-import input format is text (ASCII) based. This text based
+format simplifies development and debugging of frontend programs,
+especially when a higher level language such as Perl, Python or
+Ruby is being used.
+
+fast-import is very strict about its input. Where we say SP below we mean
+*exactly* one space. Likewise LF means one (and only one) linefeed.
+Supplying additional whitespace characters will cause unexpected
+results, such as branch names or file names with leading or trailing
+spaces in their name, or early termination of fast-import when it encounters
+unexpected input.
+
+Date Formats
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The following date formats are supported. A frontend should select
+the format it will use for this import by passing the format name
+in the \--date-format=<fmt> command line option.
+
+`raw`::
+ This is the Git native format and is `<time> SP <offutc>`.
+ It is also fast-import's default format, if \--date-format was
+ not specified.
++
+The time of the event is specified by `<time>` as the number of
+seconds since the UNIX epoch (midnight, Jan 1, 1970, UTC) and is
+written as an ASCII decimal integer.
++
+The local offset is specified by `<offutc>` as a positive or negative
+offset from UTC. For example EST (which is 5 hours behind UTC)
+would be expressed in `<tz>` by ``-0500'' while UTC is ``+0000''.
+The local offset does not affect `<time>`; it is used only as an
+advisement to help formatting routines display the timestamp.
++
+If the local offset is not available in the source material, use
+``+0000'', or the most common local offset. For example many
+organizations have a CVS repository which has only ever been accessed
+by users who are located in the same location and timezone. In this
+case a reasonable offset from UTC could be assumed.
++
+Unlike the `rfc2822` format, this format is very strict. Any
+variation in formatting will cause fast-import to reject the value.
+
+`rfc2822`::
+ This is the standard email format as described by RFC 2822.
++
+An example value is ``Tue Feb 6 11:22:18 2007 -0500''. The Git
+parser is accurate, but a little on the lenient side. It is the
+same parser used by gitlink:git-am[1] when applying patches
+received from email.
++
+Some malformed strings may be accepted as valid dates. In some of
+these cases Git will still be able to obtain the correct date from
+the malformed string. There are also some types of malformed
+strings which Git will parse wrong, and yet consider valid.
+Seriously malformed strings will be rejected.
++
+Unlike the `raw` format above, the timezone/UTC offset information
+contained in an RFC 2822 date string is used to adjust the date
+value to UTC prior to storage. Therefore it is important that
+this information be as accurate as possible.
++
+If the source material uses RFC 2822 style dates,
+the frontend should let fast-import handle the parsing and conversion
+(rather than attempting to do it itself) as the Git parser has
+been well tested in the wild.
++
+Frontends should prefer the `raw` format if the source material
+already uses UNIX-epoch format, can be coaxed to give dates in that
+format, or its format is easiliy convertible to it, as there is no
+ambiguity in parsing.
+
+`now`::
+ Always use the current time and timezone. The literal
+ `now` must always be supplied for `<when>`.
++
+This is a toy format. The current time and timezone of this system
+is always copied into the identity string at the time it is being
+created by fast-import. There is no way to specify a different time or
+timezone.
++
+This particular format is supplied as its short to implement and
+may be useful to a process that wants to create a new commit
+right now, without needing to use a working directory or
+gitlink:git-update-index[1].
++
+If separate `author` and `committer` commands are used in a `commit`
+the timestamps may not match, as the system clock will be polled
+twice (once for each command). The only way to ensure that both
+author and committer identity information has the same timestamp
+is to omit `author` (thus copying from `committer`) or to use a
+date format other than `now`.
+
+Commands
+~~~~~~~~
+fast-import accepts several commands to update the current repository
+and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
+(with examples) of each command follows later.
+
+`commit`::
+ Creates a new branch or updates an existing branch by
+ creating a new commit and updating the branch to point at
+ the newly created commit.
+
+`tag`::
+ Creates an annotated tag object from an existing commit or
+ branch. Lightweight tags are not supported by this command,
+ as they are not recommended for recording meaningful points
+ in time.
+
+`reset`::
+ Reset an existing branch (or a new branch) to a specific
+ revision. This command must be used to change a branch to
+ a specific revision without making a commit on it.
+
+`blob`::
+ Convert raw file data into a blob, for future use in a
+ `commit` command. This command is optional and is not
+ needed to perform an import.
+
+`checkpoint`::
+ Forces fast-import to close the current packfile, generate its
+ unique SHA-1 checksum and index, and start a new packfile.
+ This command is optional and is not needed to perform
+ an import.
+
+`commit`
+~~~~~~~~
+Create or update a branch with a new commit, recording one logical
+change to the project.
+
+....
+ 'commit' SP <ref> LF
+ mark?
+ ('author' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
+ 'committer' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+ data
+ ('from' SP <committish> LF)?
+ ('merge' SP <committish> LF)?
+ (filemodify | filedelete | filedeleteall)*
+ LF
+....
+
+where `<ref>` is the name of the branch to make the commit on.
+Typically branch names are prefixed with `refs/heads/` in
+Git, so importing the CVS branch symbol `RELENG-1_0` would use
+`refs/heads/RELENG-1_0` for the value of `<ref>`. The value of
+`<ref>` must be a valid refname in Git. As `LF` is not valid in
+a Git refname, no quoting or escaping syntax is supported here.
+
+A `mark` command may optionally appear, requesting fast-import to save a
+reference to the newly created commit for future use by the frontend
+(see below for format). It is very common for frontends to mark
+every commit they create, thereby allowing future branch creation
+from any imported commit.
+
+The `data` command following `committer` must supply the commit
+message (see below for `data` command syntax). To import an empty
+commit message use a 0 length data. Commit messages are free-form
+and are not interpreted by Git. Currently they must be encoded in
+UTF-8, as fast-import does not permit other encodings to be specified.
+
+Zero or more `filemodify`, `filedelete` and `filedeleteall` commands
+may be included to update the contents of the branch prior to
+creating the commit. These commands may be supplied in any order.
+However it is recommended that a `filedeleteall` command preceed
+all `filemodify` commands in the same commit, as `filedeleteall`
+wipes the branch clean (see below).
+
+`author`
+^^^^^^^^
+An `author` command may optionally appear, if the author information
+might differ from the committer information. If `author` is omitted
+then fast-import will automatically use the committer's information for
+the author portion of the commit. See below for a description of
+the fields in `author`, as they are identical to `committer`.
+
+`committer`
+^^^^^^^^^^^
+The `committer` command indicates who made this commit, and when
+they made it.
+
+Here `<name>` is the person's display name (for example
+``Com M Itter'') and `<email>` is the person's email address
+(``cm@example.com''). `LT` and `GT` are the literal less-than (\x3c)
+and greater-than (\x3e) symbols. These are required to delimit
+the email address from the other fields in the line. Note that
+`<name>` is free-form and may contain any sequence of bytes, except
+`LT` and `LF`. It is typically UTF-8 encoded.
+
+The time of the change is specified by `<when>` using the date format
+that was selected by the \--date-format=<fmt> command line option.
+See ``Date Formats'' above for the set of supported formats, and
+their syntax.
+
+`from`
+^^^^^^
+The `from` command is used to specify the commit to initialize
+this branch from. This revision will be the first ancestor of the
+new commit.
+
+Omitting the `from` command in the first commit of a new branch
+will cause fast-import to create that commit with no ancestor. This
+tends to be desired only for the initial commit of a project.
+Omitting the `from` command on existing branches is usually desired,
+as the current commit on that branch is automatically assumed to
+be the first ancestor of the new commit.
+
+As `LF` is not valid in a Git refname or SHA-1 expression, no
+quoting or escaping syntax is supported within `<committish>`.
+
+Here `<committish>` is any of the following:
+
+* The name of an existing branch already in fast-import's internal branch
+ table. If fast-import doesn't know the name, its treated as a SHA-1
+ expression.
+
+* A mark reference, `:<idnum>`, where `<idnum>` is the mark number.
++
+The reason fast-import uses `:` to denote a mark reference is this character
+is not legal in a Git branch name. The leading `:` makes it easy
+to distingush between the mark 42 (`:42`) and the branch 42 (`42`
+or `refs/heads/42`), or an abbreviated SHA-1 which happened to
+consist only of base-10 digits.
++
+Marks must be declared (via `mark`) before they can be used.
+
+* A complete 40 byte or abbreviated commit SHA-1 in hex.
+
+* Any valid Git SHA-1 expression that resolves to a commit. See
+ ``SPECIFYING REVISIONS'' in gitlink:git-rev-parse[1] for details.
+
+The special case of restarting an incremental import from the
+current branch value should be written as:
+----
+ from refs/heads/branch^0
+----
+The `{caret}0` suffix is necessary as fast-import does not permit a branch to
+start from itself, and the branch is created in memory before the
+`from` command is even read from the input. Adding `{caret}0` will force
+fast-import to resolve the commit through Git's revision parsing library,
+rather than its internal branch table, thereby loading in the
+existing value of the branch.
+
+`merge`
+^^^^^^^
+Includes one additional ancestor commit, and makes the current
+commit a merge commit. An unlimited number of `merge` commands per
+commit are permitted by fast-import, thereby establishing an n-way merge.
+However Git's other tools never create commits with more than 15
+additional ancestors (forming a 16-way merge). For this reason
+it is suggested that frontends do not use more than 15 `merge`
+commands per commit.
+
+Here `<committish>` is any of the commit specification expressions
+also accepted by `from` (see above).
+
+`filemodify`
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Included in a `commit` command to add a new file or change the
+content of an existing file. This command has two different means
+of specifying the content of the file.
+
+External data format::
+ The data content for the file was already supplied by a prior
+ `blob` command. The frontend just needs to connect it.
++
+....
+ 'M' SP <mode> SP <dataref> SP <path> LF
+....
++
+Here `<dataref>` can be either a mark reference (`:<idnum>`)
+set by a prior `blob` command, or a full 40-byte SHA-1 of an
+existing Git blob object.
+
+Inline data format::
+ The data content for the file has not been supplied yet.
+ The frontend wants to supply it as part of this modify
+ command.
++
+....
+ 'M' SP <mode> SP 'inline' SP <path> LF
+ data
+....
++
+See below for a detailed description of the `data` command.
+
+In both formats `<mode>` is the type of file entry, specified
+in octal. Git only supports the following modes:
+
+* `100644` or `644`: A normal (not-executable) file. The majority
+ of files in most projects use this mode. If in doubt, this is
+ what you want.
+* `100755` or `755`: A normal, but executable, file.
+* `120000`: A symlink, the content of the file will be the link target.
+
+In both formats `<path>` is the complete path of the file to be added
+(if not already existing) or modified (if already existing).
+
+A `<path>` string must use UNIX-style directory seperators (forward
+slash `/`), may contain any byte other than `LF`, and must not
+start with double quote (`"`).
+
+If an `LF` or double quote must be encoded into `<path>` shell-style
+quoting should be used, e.g. `"path/with\n and \" in it"`.
+
+The value of `<path>` must be in canoncial form. That is it must not:
+
+* contain an empty directory component (e.g. `foo//bar` is invalid),
+* end with a directory seperator (e.g. `foo/` is invalid),
+* start with a directory seperator (e.g. `/foo` is invalid),
+* contain the special component `.` or `..` (e.g. `foo/./bar` and
+ `foo/../bar` are invalid).
+
+It is recommended that `<path>` always be encoded using UTF-8.
+
+`filedelete`
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Included in a `commit` command to remove a file from the branch.
+If the file removal makes its directory empty, the directory will
+be automatically removed too. This cascades up the tree until the
+first non-empty directory or the root is reached.
+
+....
+ 'D' SP <path> LF
+....
+
+here `<path>` is the complete path of the file to be removed.
+See `filemodify` above for a detailed description of `<path>`.
+
+`filedeleteall`
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Included in a `commit` command to remove all files (and also all
+directories) from the branch. This command resets the internal
+branch structure to have no files in it, allowing the frontend
+to subsequently add all interesting files from scratch.
+
+....
+ 'deleteall' LF
+....
+
+This command is extremely useful if the frontend does not know
+(or does not care to know) what files are currently on the branch,
+and therefore cannot generate the proper `filedelete` commands to
+update the content.
+
+Issuing a `filedeleteall` followed by the needed `filemodify`
+commands to set the correct content will produce the same results
+as sending only the needed `filemodify` and `filedelete` commands.
+The `filedeleteall` approach may however require fast-import to use slightly
+more memory per active branch (less than 1 MiB for even most large
+projects); so frontends that can easily obtain only the affected
+paths for a commit are encouraged to do so.
+
+`mark`
+~~~~~~
+Arranges for fast-import to save a reference to the current object, allowing
+the frontend to recall this object at a future point in time, without
+knowing its SHA-1. Here the current object is the object creation
+command the `mark` command appears within. This can be `commit`,
+`tag`, and `blob`, but `commit` is the most common usage.
+
+....
+ 'mark' SP ':' <idnum> LF
+....
+
+where `<idnum>` is the number assigned by the frontend to this mark.
+The value of `<idnum>` is expressed as an ASCII decimal integer.
+The value 0 is reserved and cannot be used as
+a mark. Only values greater than or equal to 1 may be used as marks.
+
+New marks are created automatically. Existing marks can be moved
+to another object simply by reusing the same `<idnum>` in another
+`mark` command.
+
+`tag`
+~~~~~
+Creates an annotated tag referring to a specific commit. To create
+lightweight (non-annotated) tags see the `reset` command below.
+
+....
+ 'tag' SP <name> LF
+ 'from' SP <committish> LF
+ 'tagger' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+ data
+ LF
+....
+
+where `<name>` is the name of the tag to create.
+
+Tag names are automatically prefixed with `refs/tags/` when stored
+in Git, so importing the CVS branch symbol `RELENG-1_0-FINAL` would
+use just `RELENG-1_0-FINAL` for `<name>`, and fast-import will write the
+corresponding ref as `refs/tags/RELENG-1_0-FINAL`.
+
+The value of `<name>` must be a valid refname in Git and therefore
+may contain forward slashes. As `LF` is not valid in a Git refname,
+no quoting or escaping syntax is supported here.
+
+The `from` command is the same as in the `commit` command; see
+above for details.
+
+The `tagger` command uses the same format as `committer` within
+`commit`; again see above for details.
+
+The `data` command following `tagger` must supply the annotated tag
+message (see below for `data` command syntax). To import an empty
+tag message use a 0 length data. Tag messages are free-form and are
+not interpreted by Git. Currently they must be encoded in UTF-8,
+as fast-import does not permit other encodings to be specified.
+
+Signing annotated tags during import from within fast-import is not
+supported. Trying to include your own PGP/GPG signature is not
+recommended, as the frontend does not (easily) have access to the
+complete set of bytes which normally goes into such a signature.
+If signing is required, create lightweight tags from within fast-import with
+`reset`, then create the annotated versions of those tags offline
+with the standard gitlink:git-tag[1] process.
+
+`reset`
+~~~~~~~
+Creates (or recreates) the named branch, optionally starting from
+a specific revision. The reset command allows a frontend to issue
+a new `from` command for an existing branch, or to create a new
+branch from an existing commit without creating a new commit.
+
+....
+ 'reset' SP <ref> LF
+ ('from' SP <committish> LF)?
+ LF
+....
+
+For a detailed description of `<ref>` and `<committish>` see above
+under `commit` and `from`.
+
+The `reset` command can also be used to create lightweight
+(non-annotated) tags. For example:
+
+====
+ reset refs/tags/938
+ from :938
+====
+
+would create the lightweight tag `refs/tags/938` referring to
+whatever commit mark `:938` references.
+
+`blob`
+~~~~~~
+Requests writing one file revision to the packfile. The revision
+is not connected to any commit; this connection must be formed in
+a subsequent `commit` command by referencing the blob through an
+assigned mark.
+
+....
+ 'blob' LF
+ mark?
+ data
+....
+
+The mark command is optional here as some frontends have chosen
+to generate the Git SHA-1 for the blob on their own, and feed that
+directly to `commit`. This is typically more work than its worth
+however, as marks are inexpensive to store and easy to use.
+
+`data`
+~~~~~~
+Supplies raw data (for use as blob/file content, commit messages, or
+annotated tag messages) to fast-import. Data can be supplied using an exact
+byte count or delimited with a terminating line. Real frontends
+intended for production-quality conversions should always use the
+exact byte count format, as it is more robust and performs better.
+The delimited format is intended primarily for testing fast-import.
+
+Exact byte count format::
+ The frontend must specify the number of bytes of data.
++
+....
+ 'data' SP <count> LF
+ <raw> LF
+....
++
+where `<count>` is the exact number of bytes appearing within
+`<raw>`. The value of `<count>` is expressed as an ASCII decimal
+integer. The `LF` on either side of `<raw>` is not
+included in `<count>` and will not be included in the imported data.
+
+Delimited format::
+ A delimiter string is used to mark the end of the data.
+ fast-import will compute the length by searching for the delimiter.
+ This format is primarly useful for testing and is not
+ recommended for real data.
++
+....
+ 'data' SP '<<' <delim> LF
+ <raw> LF
+ <delim> LF
+....
++
+where `<delim>` is the chosen delimiter string. The string `<delim>`
+must not appear on a line by itself within `<raw>`, as otherwise
+fast-import will think the data ends earlier than it really does. The `LF`
+immediately trailing `<raw>` is part of `<raw>`. This is one of
+the limitations of the delimited format, it is impossible to supply
+a data chunk which does not have an LF as its last byte.
+
+`checkpoint`
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Forces fast-import to close the current packfile, start a new one, and to
+save out all current branch refs, tags and marks.
+
+....
+ 'checkpoint' LF
+ LF
+....
+
+Note that fast-import automatically switches packfiles when the current
+packfile reaches \--max-pack-size, or 4 GiB, whichever limit is
+smaller. During an automatic packfile switch fast-import does not update
+the branch refs, tags or marks.
+
+As a `checkpoint` can require a significant amount of CPU time and
+disk IO (to compute the overall pack SHA-1 checksum, generate the
+corresponding index file, and update the refs) it can easily take
+several minutes for a single `checkpoint` command to complete.
+
+Frontends may choose to issue checkpoints during extremely large
+and long running imports, or when they need to allow another Git
+process access to a branch. However given that a 30 GiB Subversion
+repository can be loaded into Git through fast-import in about 3 hours,
+explicit checkpointing may not be necessary.
+
+
+Tips and Tricks
+---------------
+The following tips and tricks have been collected from various
+users of fast-import, and are offered here as suggestions.
+
+Use One Mark Per Commit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+When doing a repository conversion, use a unique mark per commit
+(`mark :<n>`) and supply the \--export-marks option on the command
+line. fast-import will dump a file which lists every mark and the Git
+object SHA-1 that corresponds to it. If the frontend can tie
+the marks back to the source repository, it is easy to verify the
+accuracy and completeness of the import by comparing each Git
+commit to the corresponding source revision.
+
+Coming from a system such as Perforce or Subversion this should be
+quite simple, as the fast-import mark can also be the Perforce changeset
+number or the Subversion revision number.
+
+Freely Skip Around Branches
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Don't bother trying to optimize the frontend to stick to one branch
+at a time during an import. Although doing so might be slightly
+faster for fast-import, it tends to increase the complexity of the frontend
+code considerably.
+
+The branch LRU builtin to fast-import tends to behave very well, and the
+cost of activating an inactive branch is so low that bouncing around
+between branches has virtually no impact on import performance.
+
+Handling Renames
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+When importing a renamed file or directory, simply delete the old
+name(s) and modify the new name(s) during the corresponding commit.
+Git performs rename detection after-the-fact, rather than explicitly
+during a commit.
+
+Use Tag Fixup Branches
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Some other SCM systems let the user create a tag from multiple
+files which are not from the same commit/changeset. Or to create
+tags which are a subset of the files available in the repository.
+
+Importing these tags as-is in Git is impossible without making at
+least one commit which ``fixes up'' the files to match the content
+of the tag. Use fast-import's `reset` command to reset a dummy branch
+outside of your normal branch space to the base commit for the tag,
+then commit one or more file fixup commits, and finally tag the
+dummy branch.
+
+For example since all normal branches are stored under `refs/heads/`
+name the tag fixup branch `TAG_FIXUP`. This way it is impossible for
+the fixup branch used by the importer to have namespace conflicts
+with real branches imported from the source (the name `TAG_FIXUP`
+is not `refs/heads/TAG_FIXUP`).
+
+When committing fixups, consider using `merge` to connect the
+commit(s) which are supplying file revisions to the fixup branch.
+Doing so will allow tools such as gitlink:git-blame[1] to track
+through the real commit history and properly annotate the source
+files.
+
+After fast-import terminates the frontend will need to do `rm .git/TAG_FIXUP`
+to remove the dummy branch.
+
+Import Now, Repack Later
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+As soon as fast-import completes the Git repository is completely valid
+and ready for use. Typicallly this takes only a very short time,
+even for considerably large projects (100,000+ commits).
+
+However repacking the repository is necessary to improve data
+locality and access performance. It can also take hours on extremely
+large projects (especially if -f and a large \--window parameter is
+used). Since repacking is safe to run alongside readers and writers,
+run the repack in the background and let it finish when it finishes.
+There is no reason to wait to explore your new Git project!
+
+If you choose to wait for the repack, don't try to run benchmarks
+or performance tests until repacking is completed. fast-import outputs
+suboptimal packfiles that are simply never seen in real use
+situations.
+
+Repacking Historical Data
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+If you are repacking very old imported data (e.g. older than the
+last year), consider expending some extra CPU time and supplying
+\--window=50 (or higher) when you run gitlink:git-repack[1].
+This will take longer, but will also produce a smaller packfile.
+You only need to expend the effort once, and everyone using your
+project will benefit from the smaller repository.
+
+
+Packfile Optimization
+---------------------
+When packing a blob fast-import always attempts to deltify against the last
+blob written. Unless specifically arranged for by the frontend,
+this will probably not be a prior version of the same file, so the
+generated delta will not be the smallest possible. The resulting
+packfile will be compressed, but will not be optimal.
+
+Frontends which have efficient access to all revisions of a
+single file (for example reading an RCS/CVS ,v file) can choose
+to supply all revisions of that file as a sequence of consecutive
+`blob` commands. This allows fast-import to deltify the different file
+revisions against each other, saving space in the final packfile.
+Marks can be used to later identify individual file revisions during
+a sequence of `commit` commands.
+
+The packfile(s) created by fast-import do not encourage good disk access
+patterns. This is caused by fast-import writing the data in the order
+it is received on standard input, while Git typically organizes
+data within packfiles to make the most recent (current tip) data
+appear before historical data. Git also clusters commits together,
+speeding up revision traversal through better cache locality.
+
+For this reason it is strongly recommended that users repack the
+repository with `git repack -a -d` after fast-import completes, allowing
+Git to reorganize the packfiles for faster data access. If blob
+deltas are suboptimal (see above) then also adding the `-f` option
+to force recomputation of all deltas can significantly reduce the
+final packfile size (30-50% smaller can be quite typical).
+
+
+Memory Utilization
+------------------
+There are a number of factors which affect how much memory fast-import
+requires to perform an import. Like critical sections of core
+Git, fast-import uses its own memory allocators to ammortize any overheads
+associated with malloc. In practice fast-import tends to ammoritize any
+malloc overheads to 0, due to its use of large block allocations.
+
+per object
+~~~~~~~~~~
+fast-import maintains an in-memory structure for every object written in
+this execution. On a 32 bit system the structure is 32 bytes,
+on a 64 bit system the structure is 40 bytes (due to the larger
+pointer sizes). Objects in the table are not deallocated until
+fast-import terminates. Importing 2 million objects on a 32 bit system
+will require approximately 64 MiB of memory.
+
+The object table is actually a hashtable keyed on the object name
+(the unique SHA-1). This storage configuration allows fast-import to reuse
+an existing or already written object and avoid writing duplicates
+to the output packfile. Duplicate blobs are surprisingly common
+in an import, typically due to branch merges in the source.
+
+per mark
+~~~~~~~~
+Marks are stored in a sparse array, using 1 pointer (4 bytes or 8
+bytes, depending on pointer size) per mark. Although the array
+is sparse, frontends are still strongly encouraged to use marks
+between 1 and n, where n is the total number of marks required for
+this import.
+
+per branch
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Branches are classified as active and inactive. The memory usage
+of the two classes is significantly different.
+
+Inactive branches are stored in a structure which uses 96 or 120
+bytes (32 bit or 64 bit systems, respectively), plus the length of
+the branch name (typically under 200 bytes), per branch. fast-import will
+easily handle as many as 10,000 inactive branches in under 2 MiB
+of memory.
+
+Active branches have the same overhead as inactive branches, but
+also contain copies of every tree that has been recently modified on
+that branch. If subtree `include` has not been modified since the
+branch became active, its contents will not be loaded into memory,
+but if subtree `src` has been modified by a commit since the branch
+became active, then its contents will be loaded in memory.
+
+As active branches store metadata about the files contained on that
+branch, their in-memory storage size can grow to a considerable size
+(see below).
+
+fast-import automatically moves active branches to inactive status based on
+a simple least-recently-used algorithm. The LRU chain is updated on
+each `commit` command. The maximum number of active branches can be
+increased or decreased on the command line with \--active-branches=.
+
+per active tree
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Trees (aka directories) use just 12 bytes of memory on top of the
+memory required for their entries (see ``per active file'' below).
+The cost of a tree is virtually 0, as its overhead ammortizes out
+over the individual file entries.
+
+per active file entry
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Files (and pointers to subtrees) within active trees require 52 or 64
+bytes (32/64 bit platforms) per entry. To conserve space, file and
+tree names are pooled in a common string table, allowing the filename
+``Makefile'' to use just 16 bytes (after including the string header
+overhead) no matter how many times it occurs within the project.
+
+The active branch LRU, when coupled with the filename string pool
+and lazy loading of subtrees, allows fast-import to efficiently import
+projects with 2,000+ branches and 45,114+ files in a very limited
+memory footprint (less than 2.7 MiB per active branch).
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..105d76b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+git-fetch-pack(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fetch-pack - Receive missing objects from another repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-fetch-pack' [--all] [--quiet|-q] [--keep|-k] [--thin] [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>] [--depth=<n>] [-v] [<host>:]<directory> [<refs>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Usually you would want to use gitlink:git-fetch[1] which is a
+higher level wrapper of this command instead.
+
+Invokes 'git-upload-pack' on a potentially remote repository,
+and asks it to send objects missing from this repository, to
+update the named heads. The list of commits available locally
+is found out by scanning local $GIT_DIR/refs/ and sent to
+'git-upload-pack' running on the other end.
+
+This command degenerates to download everything to complete the
+asked refs from the remote side when the local side does not
+have a common ancestor commit.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+\--all::
+ Fetch all remote refs.
+
+\--quiet, \-q::
+ Pass '-q' flag to 'git-unpack-objects'; this makes the
+ cloning process less verbose.
+
+\--keep, \-k::
+ Do not invoke 'git-unpack-objects' on received data, but
+ create a single packfile out of it instead, and store it
+ in the object database. If provided twice then the pack is
+ locked against repacking.
+
+\--thin::
+ Spend extra cycles to minimize the number of objects to be sent.
+ Use it on slower connection.
+
+\--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>::
+ Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
+ remote side, if is not found on your $PATH.
+ Installations of sshd ignores the user's environment
+ setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
+ your privately installed git may not be found on the system
+ default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
+ up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
+ who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
+ shells by having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
+ the things up in .bash_profile).
+
+\--exec=<git-upload-pack>::
+ Same as \--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>.
+
+\--depth=<n>::
+ Limit fetching to ancestor-chains not longer than n.
+
+\-v::
+ Run verbosely.
+
+<host>::
+ A remote host that houses the repository. When this
+ part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
+ ssh.
+
+<directory>::
+ The repository to sync from.
+
+<refs>...::
+ The remote heads to update from. This is relative to
+ $GIT_DIR (e.g. "HEAD", "refs/heads/master"). When
+ unspecified, update from all heads the remote side has.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5fbeab7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-fetch(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fetch - Download objects and refs from another repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-fetch' <options> <repository> <refspec>...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Fetches named heads or tags from another repository, along with
+the objects necessary to complete them.
+
+The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
+in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information is left for a later merge
+operation done by "git merge".
+
+When <refspec> stores the fetched result in tracking branches,
+the tags that point at these branches are automatically
+followed. This is done by first fetching from the remote using
+the given <refspec>s, and if the repository has objects that are
+pointed by remote tags that it does not yet have, then fetch
+those missing tags. If the other end has tags that point at
+branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::fetch-options.txt[]
+
+include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
+
+include::urls.txt[]
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-pull[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a70eb39
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fmt-merge-msg - Produce a merge commit message
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-fmt-merge-msg' <$GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Takes the list of merged objects on stdin and produces a suitable
+commit message to be used for the merge commit, usually to be
+passed as the '<merge-message>' argument of `git-merge`.
+
+This script is intended mostly for internal use by scripts
+automatically invoking `git-merge`.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-merge[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Petr Baudis, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f49b0d9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+git-for-each-ref(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-for-each-ref - Output information on each ref
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-for-each-ref' [--count=<count>]\* [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl] [--sort=<key>]\* [--format=<format>] [<pattern>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
+according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
+to the given set of `<key>`. If `<max>` is given, stop after
+showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
+can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
+host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<count>::
+ By default the command shows all refs that match
+ `<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
+ that many refs.
+
+<key>::
+ A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
+ descending order of the value. When unspecified,
+ `refname` is used. More than one sort keys can be
+ given.
+
+<format>::
+ A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the
+ object pointed at by a ref being shown. If `fieldname`
+ is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
+ at a tag object, the value for the field in the object
+ tag refers is used. When unspecified, defaults to
+ `%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
+ It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
+ are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
+ `xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
+ `%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
+
+<pattern>::
+ If given, the name of the ref is matched against this
+ using fnmatch(3). Refs that do not match the pattern
+ are not shown.
+
+--shell, --perl, --python, --tcl::
+ If given, strings that substitute `%(fieldname)`
+ placeholders are quoted as string literals suitable for
+ the specified host language. This is meant to produce
+ a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
+
+
+FIELD NAMES
+-----------
+
+Various values from structured fields in referenced objects can
+be used to interpolate into the resulting output, or as sort
+keys.
+
+For all objects, the following names can be used:
+
+refname::
+ The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
+
+objecttype::
+ The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
+
+objectsize::
+ The size of the object (the same as `git-cat-file -s` reports).
+
+objectname::
+ The object name (aka SHA-1).
+
+In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
+field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
+be used to specify the value in the header field.
+
+Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
+`committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
+and `date` to extract the named component.
+
+The first line of the message in a commit and tag object is
+`subject`, the remaining lines are `body`. The whole message
+is `contents`.
+
+For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric
+order (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `taggerdate`).
+All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
+
+In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
+the object referred by the ref does not cause an error. It
+returns an empty string instead.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+An example directly producing formatted text. Show the most recent
+3 tagged commits::
+
+------------
+#!/bin/sh
+
+git-for-each-ref --count=3 --sort='-*authordate' \
+--format='From: %(*authorname) %(*authoremail)
+Subject: %(*subject)
+Date: %(*authordate)
+Ref: %(*refname)
+
+%(*body)
+' 'refs/tags'
+------------
+
+
+A simple example showing the use of shell eval on the output,
+demonstrating the use of --shell. List the prefixes of all heads::
+------------
+#!/bin/sh
+
+git-for-each-ref --shell --format="ref=%(refname)" refs/heads | \
+while read entry
+do
+ eval "$entry"
+ echo `dirname $ref`
+done
+------------
+
+
+A bit more elaborate report on tags, demonstrating that the format
+may be an entire script::
+------------
+#!/bin/sh
+
+fmt='
+ r=%(refname)
+ t=%(*objecttype)
+ T=${r#refs/tags/}
+
+ o=%(*objectname)
+ n=%(*authorname)
+ e=%(*authoremail)
+ s=%(*subject)
+ d=%(*authordate)
+ b=%(*body)
+
+ kind=Tag
+ if test "z$t" = z
+ then
+ # could be a lightweight tag
+ t=%(objecttype)
+ kind="Lightweight tag"
+ o=%(objectname)
+ n=%(authorname)
+ e=%(authoremail)
+ s=%(subject)
+ d=%(authordate)
+ b=%(body)
+ fi
+ echo "$kind $T points at a $t object $o"
+ if test "z$t" = zcommit
+ then
+ echo "The commit was authored by $n $e
+at $d, and titled
+
+ $s
+
+Its message reads as:
+"
+ echo "$b" | sed -e "s/^/ /"
+ echo
+ fi
+'
+
+eval=`git-for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
+ --sort='*objecttype' \
+ --sort=-taggerdate \
+ refs/tags`
+eval "$eval"
+------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..59f34b9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -