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-rw-r--r--.cirrus.yml15
-rw-r--r--.editorconfig2
-rw-r--r--.gitattributes1
-rw-r--r--.gitignore20
-rw-r--r--.mailmap6
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt4
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-import.txt49
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt282
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt62
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gui.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt100
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-index.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pull.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-range-diff.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt213
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rerere.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-restore.txt207
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt53
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-revert.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-sparse-checkout.txt207
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-switch.txt273
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-server-info.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt80
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcredentials.txt94
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt8
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/manpage.xsl3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt34
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt38
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sequencer.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt319
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt271
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt130
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-merge.txt72
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt90
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-quote.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt78
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt127
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt72
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt264
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-sigchain.txt41
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t4117-apply-reject.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4124-apply-ws-rule.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4134-apply-submodule.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4138-apply-ws-expansion.sh16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4150-am.sh52
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4200-rerere.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4202-log.sh206
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4203-mailmap.sh147
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4204-patch-id.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4205-log-pretty-formats.sh81
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4210-log-i18n.sh41
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4211-line-log.sh85
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.beginning-of-file (renamed from t/t4211/expect.beginning-of-file)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.end-of-file (renamed from t/t4211/expect.end-of-file)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.move-support-f (renamed from t/t4211/expect.move-support-f)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.multiple (renamed from t/t4211/expect.multiple)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.multiple-overlapping (renamed from t/t4211/expect.multiple-overlapping)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.multiple-superset (renamed from t/t4211/expect.multiple-superset)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.parallel-change-f-to-main (renamed from t/t4211/expect.parallel-change-f-to-main)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.simple-f (renamed from t/t4211/expect.simple-f)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.simple-f-to-main (renamed from t/t4211/expect.simple-f-to-main)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.simple-main (renamed from t/t4211/expect.simple-main)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.simple-main-to-end (renamed from t/t4211/expect.simple-main-to-end)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.two-ranges (renamed from t/t4211/expect.two-ranges)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha1/expect.vanishes-early (renamed from t/t4211/expect.vanishes-early)0
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.beginning-of-file43
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.end-of-file62
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.move-support-f80
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.multiple104
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.multiple-overlapping187
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.multiple-superset187
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.parallel-change-f-to-main160
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.simple-f59
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.simple-f-to-main100
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.simple-main68
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.simple-main-to-end70
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.two-ranges102
-rw-r--r--t/t4211/sha256/expect.vanishes-early39
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4213-log-tabexpand.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4214-log-graph-octopus.sh339
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4215-log-skewed-merges.sh373
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4256-am-format-flowed.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4300-merge-tree.sh188
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5000-tar-tree.sh16
-rw-r--r--t/t5000/huge-object (renamed from t/t5000/19f9c8273ec45a8938e6999cb59b3ff66739902a)bin2048 -> 2048 bytes
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5004-archive-corner-cases.sh19
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5100-mailinfo.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5150-request-pull.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5200-update-server-info.sh41
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5302-pack-index.sh21
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5307-pack-missing-commit.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5309-pack-delta-cycles.sh18
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5310-pack-bitmaps.sh51
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5313-pack-bounds-checks.sh19
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5314-pack-cycle-detection.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5317-pack-objects-filter-objects.sh34
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5318-commit-graph.sh101
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5319-multi-pack-index.sh279
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5321-pack-large-objects.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5324-split-commit-graph.sh354
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5400-send-pack.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5407-post-rewrite-hook.sh16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5409-colorize-remote-messages.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5500-fetch-pack.sh77
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5504-fetch-receive-strict.sh31
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5505-remote.sh88
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5509-fetch-push-namespaces.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5510-fetch.sh89
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5512-ls-remote.sh30
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5514-fetch-multiple.sh18
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5515-fetch-merge-logic.sh63
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5516-fetch-push.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5517-push-mirror.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5520-pull.sh366
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5528-push-default.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5530-upload-pack-error.sh26
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5535-fetch-push-symref.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5537-fetch-shallow.sh21
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5539-fetch-http-shallow.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5540-http-push-webdav.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5541-http-push-smart.sh50
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5545-push-options.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5551-http-fetch-smart.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5552-skipping-fetch-negotiator.sh41
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5553-set-upstream.sh178
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5562-http-backend-content-length.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5573-pull-verify-signatures.sh64
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5580-unc-paths.sh (renamed from t/t5580-clone-push-unc.sh)14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5601-clone.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5604-clone-reference.sh134
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5607-clone-bundle.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5608-clone-2gb.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5616-partial-clone.sh219
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5617-clone-submodules-remote.sh65
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5618-alternate-refs.sh60
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5700-protocol-v1.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5702-protocol-v2.sh60
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5703-upload-pack-ref-in-want.sh252
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5801-remote-helpers.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6000-rev-list-misc.sh53
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6006-rev-list-format.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6011-rev-list-with-bad-commit.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6016-rev-list-graph-simplify-history.sh30
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6019-rev-list-ancestry-path.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6021-merge-criss-cross.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6024-recursive-merge.sh135
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6025-merge-symlinks.sh95
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6030-bisect-porcelain.sh33
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6040-tracking-info.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6042-merge-rename-corner-cases.sh111
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6043-merge-rename-directories.sh679
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6046-merge-skip-unneeded-updates.sh135
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6047-diff3-conflict-markers.sh211
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6102-rev-list-unexpected-objects.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6112-rev-list-filters-objects.sh194
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6113-rev-list-bitmap-filters.sh56
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6120-describe.sh138
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6200-fmt-merge-msg.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6300-for-each-ref.sh45
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6302-for-each-ref-filter.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6500-gc.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6501-freshen-objects.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7004-tag.sh30
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7008-filter-branch-null-sha1.sh (renamed from t/t7009-filter-branch-null-sha1.sh)0
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7012-skip-worktree-writing.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7030-verify-tag.sh38
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7060-wtstatus.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7061-wtstatus-ignore.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7064-wtstatus-pv2.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7105-reset-patch.sh21
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7107-reset-pathspec-file.sh173
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7201-co.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7300-clean.sh73
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7400-submodule-basic.sh64
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7405-submodule-merge.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7406-submodule-update.sh33
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7410-submodule-checkout-to.sh77
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7415-submodule-names.sh57
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7416-submodule-dash-url.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7417-submodule-path-url.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7419-submodule-set-branch.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7420-submodule-set-url.sh55
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7500-commit-template-squash-signoff.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7501-commit-basic-functionality.sh83
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7502-commit-porcelain.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7503-pre-commit-and-pre-merge-commit-hooks.sh281
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7503-pre-commit-hook.sh139
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7505-prepare-commit-msg-hook.sh8
-rw-r--r--t/t7505/expected-rebase-i3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7508-status.sh146
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7510-signed-commit.sh39
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7512-status-help.sh68
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7513-interpret-trailers.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519-status-fsmonitor.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-all1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-all-v221
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-env24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-watchman16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-watchman-v2173
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7526-commit-pathspec-file.sh164
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7600-merge.sh46
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7610-mergetool.sh309
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7612-merge-verify-signatures.sh22
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7700-repack.sh195
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7800-difftool.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7810-grep.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7811-grep-open.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7812-grep-icase-non-ascii.sh31
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7814-grep-recurse-submodules.sh50
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7815-grep-binary.sh (renamed from t/t7008-grep-binary.sh)101
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7816-grep-binary-pattern.sh127
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8003-blame-corner-cases.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8013-blame-ignore-revs.sh274
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8014-blame-ignore-fuzzy.sh437
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9001-send-email.sh108
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9010-svn-fe.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9106-git-svn-commit-diff-clobber.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9116-git-svn-log.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9300-fast-import.sh152
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9301-fast-import-notes.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9350-fast-export.sh149
-rw-r--r--t/t9350/broken-iso-8859-7-commit-message.txt1
-rw-r--r--t/t9350/simple-iso-8859-7-commit-message.txt1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9502-gitweb-standalone-parse-output.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9800-git-p4-basic.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9801-git-p4-branch.sh132
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9809-git-p4-client-view.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9810-git-p4-rcs.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9817-git-p4-exclude.sh51
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9902-completion.sh147
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9903-bash-prompt.sh28
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib-functions.sh278
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib.sh100
-rw-r--r--tag.c33
-rw-r--r--tag.h1
-rw-r--r--tar.h5
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--fsmonitor-watchman.sample167
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--pre-commit.sample2
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--pre-merge-commit.sample13
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--update.sample10
-rw-r--r--trace.c2
-rw-r--r--trace.h133
-rw-r--r--trace2.h124
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_dst.c120
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_dst.h1
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sid.c2
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sysenv.c3
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sysenv.h2
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt_event.c36
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt_normal.c37
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt_perf.c108
-rw-r--r--transport-helper.c58
-rw-r--r--transport-internal.h6
-rw-r--r--transport.c132
-rw-r--r--transport.h5
-rw-r--r--tree-diff.c4
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.c115
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.h150
-rw-r--r--tree.c23
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.c273
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.h9
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c26
-rw-r--r--url.c8
-rw-r--r--url.h8
-rw-r--r--urlmatch.c4
-rw-r--r--urlmatch.h9
-rw-r--r--usage.c20
-rw-r--r--userdiff.c37
-rw-r--r--utf8.c15
-rw-r--r--walker.c6
-rw-r--r--worktree.c21
-rw-r--r--worktree.h20
-rw-r--r--wrapper.c84
-rw-r--r--wt-status.c63
-rw-r--r--wt-status.h5
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.c12
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.h2
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiffi.c99
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xemit.c17
1091 files changed, 145097 insertions, 65433 deletions
diff --git a/.cirrus.yml b/.cirrus.yml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2f5fe3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.cirrus.yml
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+env:
+ CIRRUS_CLONE_DEPTH: 1
+
+freebsd_12_task:
+ freebsd_instance:
+ image: freebsd-12-1-release-amd64
+ install_script:
+ pkg install -y gettext gmake perl5
+ create_user_script:
+ - pw useradd git
+ - chown -R git:git .
+ build_script:
+ - su git -c gmake
+ test_script:
+ - su git -c 'gmake test'
diff --git a/.editorconfig b/.editorconfig
index 42cdc4b..f9d8196 100644
--- a/.editorconfig
+++ b/.editorconfig
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ insert_final_newline = true
# The settings for C (*.c and *.h) files are mirrored in .clang-format. Keep
# them in sync.
-[*.{c,h,sh,perl,pl,pm}]
+[*.{c,h,sh,perl,pl,pm,txt}]
indent_style = tab
tab_width = 8
diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 9fa72ad..b08a141 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
*.pl eof=lf diff=perl
*.pm eol=lf diff=perl
*.py eol=lf diff=python
+*.bat eol=crlf
/Documentation/**/*.txt eol=lf
/command-list.txt eol=lf
/GIT-VERSION-GEN eol=lf
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 2374f77..aebe7c0 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -58,6 +58,7 @@
/git-difftool
/git-difftool--helper
/git-describe
+/git-env--helper
/git-fast-export
/git-fast-import
/git-fetch
@@ -122,9 +123,6 @@
/git-range-diff
/git-read-tree
/git-rebase
-/git-rebase--am
-/git-rebase--common
-/git-rebase--interactive
/git-rebase--preserve-merges
/git-receive-pack
/git-reflog
@@ -142,6 +140,7 @@
/git-request-pull
/git-rerere
/git-reset
+/git-restore
/git-rev-list
/git-rev-parse
/git-revert
@@ -159,6 +158,7 @@
/git-show-branch
/git-show-index
/git-show-ref
+/git-sparse-checkout
/git-stage
/git-stash
/git-status
@@ -166,6 +166,7 @@
/git-submodule
/git-submodule--helper
/git-svn
+/git-switch
/git-symbolic-ref
/git-tag
/git-unpack-file
@@ -216,6 +217,7 @@
/tags
/TAGS
/cscope*
+*.hcc
*.obj
*.lib
*.res
@@ -226,6 +228,14 @@
*.user
*.idb
*.pdb
-/Debug/
-/Release/
+*.ilk
+*.iobj
+*.ipdb
+*.dll
+.vs/
+Debug/
+Release/
+/UpgradeLog*.htm
+/git.VC.VC.opendb
+/git.VC.db
*.dSYM
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index 9a5ff04..bde7aba 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@ Alexey Shumkin <alex.crezoff@gmail.com> <zapped@mail.ru>
Alexey Shumkin <alex.crezoff@gmail.com> <Alex.Crezoff@gmail.com>
Anders Kaseorg <andersk@MIT.EDU> <andersk@ksplice.com>
Anders Kaseorg <andersk@MIT.EDU> <andersk@mit.edu>
+Andrey Mazo <ahippo@yandex.com> Mazo, Andrey <amazo@checkvideo.com>
Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@gmail.com>
Amos Waterland <apw@debian.org> <apw@rossby.metr.ou.edu>
Amos Waterland <apw@debian.org> <apw@us.ibm.com>
@@ -30,6 +31,7 @@ Brandon Casey <drafnel@gmail.com> <casey@nrlssc.navy.mil>
Brandon Williams <bwilliams.eng@gmail.com> <bmwill@google.com>
brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net>
brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
+brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> <bk2204@github.com>
Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryan.larsen@gmail.com>
Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryanlarsen@yahoo.com>
Cheng Renquan <crquan@gmail.com>
@@ -58,7 +60,9 @@ David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twopensource.com>
David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twosigma.com>
Derrick Stolee <dstolee@microsoft.com> <stolee@gmail.com>
+Derrick Stolee <dstolee@microsoft.com> Derrick Stolee via GitGitGadget <gitgitgadget@gmail.com>
Deskin Miller <deskinm@umich.edu>
+Đoàn Trần Công Danh <congdanhqx@gmail.com> Doan Tran Cong Danh
Dirk Süsserott <newsletter@dirk.my1.cc>
Eric Blake <eblake@redhat.com> <ebb9@byu.net>
Eric Hanchrow <eric.hanchrow@gmail.com> <offby1@blarg.net>
@@ -107,6 +111,7 @@ Jim Meyering <jim@meyering.net> <meyering@redhat.com>
Joachim Berdal Haga <cjhaga@fys.uio.no>
Joachim Jablon <joachim.jablon@people-doc.com> <ewjoachim@gmail.com>
Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de> <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de>
+Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de> Johannes Schindelin via GitGitGadget <gitgitgadget@gmail.com>
Johannes Sixt <j6t@kdbg.org> <J.Sixt@eudaptics.com>
Johannes Sixt <j6t@kdbg.org> <j.sixt@viscovery.net>
Johannes Sixt <j6t@kdbg.org> <johannes.sixt@telecom.at>
@@ -285,6 +290,7 @@ William Pursell <bill.pursell@gmail.com>
YONETANI Tomokazu <y0n3t4n1@gmail.com> <qhwt+git@les.ath.cx>
YONETANI Tomokazu <y0n3t4n1@gmail.com> <y0netan1@dragonflybsd.org>
YOSHIFUJI Hideaki <yoshfuji@linux-ipv6.org>
+Yi-Jyun Pan <pan93412@gmail.com>
# the two anonymous contributors are different persons:
anonymous <linux@horizon.com>
anonymous <linux@horizon.net>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index ffb1bc4..fc5730b 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -21,6 +21,10 @@ matrix:
compiler:
addons:
before_install:
+ - env: jobname=linux-gcc-4.8
+ os: linux
+ dist: trusty
+ compiler:
- env: jobname=Linux32
os: linux
compiler:
diff --git a/.tsan-suppressions b/.tsan-suppressions
index 8c85014..5ba86d6 100644
--- a/.tsan-suppressions
+++ b/.tsan-suppressions
@@ -8,3 +8,9 @@
# in practice it (hopefully!) doesn't matter.
race:^want_color$
race:^transfer_debug$
+
+# A boolean value, which tells whether the replace_map has been initialized or
+# not, is read racily with an update. As this variable is written to only once,
+# and it's OK if the value change right after reading it, this shouldn't be a
+# problem.
+race:^lookup_replace_object$
diff --git a/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md b/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc4645d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+# Git Code of Conduct
+
+This code of conduct outlines our expectations for participants within
+the Git community, as well as steps for reporting unacceptable behavior.
+We are committed to providing a welcoming and inspiring community for
+all and expect our code of conduct to be honored. Anyone who violates
+this code of conduct may be banned from the community.
+
+## Our Pledge
+
+In the interest of fostering an open and welcoming environment, we as
+contributors and maintainers pledge to make participation in our project and
+our community a harassment-free experience for everyone, regardless of age,
+body size, disability, ethnicity, sex characteristics, gender identity and
+expression, level of experience, education, socio-economic status,
+nationality, personal appearance, race, religion, or sexual identity and
+orientation.
+
+## Our Standards
+
+Examples of behavior that contributes to creating a positive environment
+include:
+
+* Using welcoming and inclusive language
+* Being respectful of differing viewpoints and experiences
+* Gracefully accepting constructive criticism
+* Focusing on what is best for the community
+* Showing empathy towards other community members
+
+Examples of unacceptable behavior by participants include:
+
+* The use of sexualized language or imagery and unwelcome sexual attention or
+ advances
+* Trolling, insulting/derogatory comments, and personal or political attacks
+* Public or private harassment
+* Publishing others' private information, such as a physical or electronic
+ address, without explicit permission
+* Other conduct which could reasonably be considered inappropriate in a
+ professional setting
+
+## Our Responsibilities
+
+Project maintainers are responsible for clarifying the standards of acceptable
+behavior and are expected to take appropriate and fair corrective action in
+response to any instances of unacceptable behavior.
+
+Project maintainers have the right and responsibility to remove, edit, or
+reject comments, commits, code, wiki edits, issues, and other contributions
+that are not aligned to this Code of Conduct, or to ban temporarily or
+permanently any contributor for other behaviors that they deem inappropriate,
+threatening, offensive, or harmful.
+
+## Scope
+
+This Code of Conduct applies within all project spaces, and it also applies
+when an individual is representing the project or its community in public
+spaces. Examples of representing a project or community include using an
+official project e-mail address, posting via an official social media account,
+or acting as an appointed representative at an online or offline event.
+Representation of a project may be further defined and clarified by project
+maintainers.
+
+## Enforcement
+
+Instances of abusive, harassing, or otherwise unacceptable behavior may be
+reported by contacting the project team at git@sfconservancy.org. All
+complaints will be reviewed and investigated and will result in a response
+that is deemed necessary and appropriate to the circumstances. The project
+team is obligated to maintain confidentiality with regard to the reporter of
+an incident. Further details of specific enforcement policies may be posted
+separately.
+
+Project maintainers who do not follow or enforce the Code of Conduct in good
+faith may face temporary or permanent repercussions as determined by other
+members of the project's leadership.
+
+The project leadership team can be contacted by email as a whole at
+git@sfconservancy.org, or individually:
+
+ - Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>
+ - Christian Couder <christian.couder@gmail.com>
+ - Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
+ - Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
+
+## Attribution
+
+This Code of Conduct is adapted from the [Contributor Covenant][homepage],
+version 1.4, available at https://www.contributor-covenant.org/version/1/4/code-of-conduct.html
+
+[homepage]: https://www.contributor-covenant.org
+
+For answers to common questions about this code of conduct, see
+https://www.contributor-covenant.org/faq
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index f45db5b..ed4e443 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
- If you want to find out if a command is available on the user's
$PATH, you should use 'type <command>', instead of 'which <command>'.
- The output of 'which' is not machine parseable and its exit code
+ The output of 'which' is not machine parsable and its exit code
is not reliable across platforms.
- We use POSIX compliant parameter substitutions and avoid bashisms;
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@ For C programs:
. since early 2012 with e1327023ea, we have been using an enum
definition whose last element is followed by a comma. This, like
an array initializer that ends with a trailing comma, can be used
- to reduce the patch noise when adding a new identifer at the end.
+ to reduce the patch noise when adding a new identifier at the end.
. since mid 2017 with cbc0f81d, we have been using designated
initializers for struct (e.g. "struct t v = { .val = 'a' };").
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index dbf5a0f..8fe829c 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -76,6 +76,8 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
+TECH_DOCS += MyFirstContribution
+TECH_DOCS += MyFirstObjectWalk
TECH_DOCS += SubmittingPatches
TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
@@ -122,7 +124,8 @@ ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml11
ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook
ASCIIDOC_CONF = -f asciidoc.conf
ASCIIDOC_COMMON = $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) $(ASCIIDOC_CONF) \
- -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION)
+ -amanversion=$(GIT_VERSION) \
+ -amanmanual='Git Manual' -amansource='Git'
TXT_TO_HTML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_HTML)
TXT_TO_XML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK)
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
@@ -196,11 +199,13 @@ ifdef USE_ASCIIDOCTOR
ASCIIDOC = asciidoctor
ASCIIDOC_CONF =
ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml5
-ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook45
+ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook5
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode -atabsize=8
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
DBLATEX_COMMON =
+XMLTO_EXTRA += --skip-validation
+XMLTO_EXTRA += -x manpage.xsl
endif
SHELL_PATH ?= $(SHELL)
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..427274d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1217 @@
+My First Contribution to the Git Project
+========================================
+:sectanchors:
+
+[[summary]]
+== Summary
+
+This is a tutorial demonstrating the end-to-end workflow of creating a change to
+the Git tree, sending it for review, and making changes based on comments.
+
+[[prerequisites]]
+=== Prerequisites
+
+This tutorial assumes you're already fairly familiar with using Git to manage
+source code. The Git workflow steps will largely remain unexplained.
+
+[[related-reading]]
+=== Related Reading
+
+This tutorial aims to summarize the following documents, but the reader may find
+useful additional context:
+
+- `Documentation/SubmittingPatches`
+- `Documentation/howto/new-command.txt`
+
+[[getting-help]]
+=== Getting Help
+
+If you get stuck, you can seek help in the following places.
+
+==== git@vger.kernel.org
+
+This is the main Git project mailing list where code reviews, version
+announcements, design discussions, and more take place. Those interested in
+contributing are welcome to post questions here. The Git list requires
+plain-text-only emails and prefers inline and bottom-posting when replying to
+mail; you will be CC'd in all replies to you. Optionally, you can subscribe to
+the list by sending an email to majordomo@vger.kernel.org with "subscribe git"
+in the body. The https://lore.kernel.org/git[archive] of this mailing list is
+available to view in a browser.
+
+==== https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/git-mentoring[git-mentoring@googlegroups.com]
+
+This mailing list is targeted to new contributors and was created as a place to
+post questions and receive answers outside of the public eye of the main list.
+Veteran contributors who are especially interested in helping mentor newcomers
+are present on the list. In order to avoid search indexers, group membership is
+required to view messages; anyone can join and no approval is required.
+
+==== https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] on Freenode
+
+This IRC channel is for conversations between Git contributors. If someone is
+currently online and knows the answer to your question, you can receive help
+in real time. Otherwise, you can read the
+https://colabti.org/irclogger/irclogger_logs/git-devel[scrollback] to see
+whether someone answered you. IRC does not allow offline private messaging, so
+if you try to private message someone and then log out of IRC, they cannot
+respond to you. It's better to ask your questions in the channel so that you
+can be answered if you disconnect and so that others can learn from the
+conversation.
+
+[[getting-started]]
+== Getting Started
+
+[[cloning]]
+=== Clone the Git Repository
+
+Git is mirrored in a number of locations. Clone the repository from one of them;
+https://git-scm.com/downloads suggests one of the best places to clone from is
+the mirror on GitHub.
+
+----
+$ git clone https://github.com/git/git git
+$ cd git
+----
+
+[[dependencies]]
+=== Installing Dependencies
+
+To build Git from source, you need to have a handful of dependencies installed
+on your system. For a hint of what's needed, you can take a look at
+`INSTALL`, paying close attention to the section about Git's dependencies on
+external programs and libraries. That document mentions a way to "test-drive"
+our freshly built Git without installing; that's the method we'll be using in
+this tutorial.
+
+Make sure that your environment has everything you need by building your brand
+new clone of Git from the above step:
+
+----
+$ make
+----
+
+NOTE: The Git build is parallelizable. `-j#` is not included above but you can
+use it as you prefer, here and elsewhere.
+
+[[identify-problem]]
+=== Identify Problem to Solve
+
+////
+Use + to indicate fixed-width here; couldn't get ` to work nicely with the
+quotes around "Pony Saying 'Um, Hello'".
+////
+In this tutorial, we will add a new command, +git psuh+, short for ``Pony Saying
+`Um, Hello''' - a feature which has gone unimplemented despite a high frequency
+of invocation during users' typical daily workflow.
+
+(We've seen some other effort in this space with the implementation of popular
+commands such as `sl`.)
+
+[[setup-workspace]]
+=== Set Up Your Workspace
+
+Let's start by making a development branch to work on our changes. Per
+`Documentation/SubmittingPatches`, since a brand new command is a new feature,
+it's fine to base your work on `master`. However, in the future for bugfixes,
+etc., you should check that document and base it on the appropriate branch.
+
+For the purposes of this document, we will base all our work on the `master`
+branch of the upstream project. Create the `psuh` branch you will use for
+development like so:
+
+----
+$ git checkout -b psuh origin/master
+----
+
+We'll make a number of commits here in order to demonstrate how to send a topic
+with multiple patches up for review simultaneously.
+
+[[code-it-up]]
+== Code It Up!
+
+NOTE: A reference implementation can be found at
+https://github.com/nasamuffin/git/tree/psuh.
+
+[[add-new-command]]
+=== Adding a New Command
+
+Lots of the subcommands are written as builtins, which means they are
+implemented in C and compiled into the main `git` executable. Implementing the
+very simple `psuh` command as a built-in will demonstrate the structure of the
+codebase, the internal API, and the process of working together as a contributor
+with the reviewers and maintainer to integrate this change into the system.
+
+Built-in subcommands are typically implemented in a function named "cmd_"
+followed by the name of the subcommand, in a source file named after the
+subcommand and contained within `builtin/`. So it makes sense to implement your
+command in `builtin/psuh.c`. Create that file, and within it, write the entry
+point for your command in a function matching the style and signature:
+
+----
+int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+----
+
+We'll also need to add the declaration of psuh; open up `builtin.h`, find the
+declaration for `cmd_pull`, and add a new line for `psuh` immediately before it,
+in order to keep the declarations alphabetically sorted:
+
+----
+int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+----
+
+Be sure to `#include "builtin.h"` in your `psuh.c`.
+
+Go ahead and add some throwaway printf to that function. This is a decent
+starting point as we can now add build rules and register the command.
+
+NOTE: Your throwaway text, as well as much of the text you will be adding over
+the course of this tutorial, is user-facing. That means it needs to be
+localizable. Take a look at `po/README` under "Marking strings for translation".
+Throughout the tutorial, we will mark strings for translation as necessary; you
+should also do so when writing your user-facing commands in the future.
+
+----
+int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ printf(_("Pony saying hello goes here.\n"));
+ return 0;
+}
+----
+
+Let's try to build it. Open `Makefile`, find where `builtin/pull.o` is added
+to `BUILTIN_OBJS`, and add `builtin/psuh.o` in the same way next to it in
+alphabetical order. Once you've done so, move to the top-level directory and
+build simply with `make`. Also add the `DEVELOPER=1` variable to turn on
+some additional warnings:
+
+----
+$ echo DEVELOPER=1 >config.mak
+$ make
+----
+
+NOTE: When you are developing the Git project, it's preferred that you use the
+`DEVELOPER` flag; if there's some reason it doesn't work for you, you can turn
+it off, but it's a good idea to mention the problem to the mailing list.
+
+Great, now your new command builds happily on its own. But nobody invokes it.
+Let's change that.
+
+The list of commands lives in `git.c`. We can register a new command by adding
+a `cmd_struct` to the `commands[]` array. `struct cmd_struct` takes a string
+with the command name, a function pointer to the command implementation, and a
+setup option flag. For now, let's keep mimicking `push`. Find the line where
+`cmd_push` is registered, copy it, and modify it for `cmd_psuh`, placing the new
+line in alphabetical order (immediately before `cmd_pull`).
+
+The options are documented in `builtin.h` under "Adding a new built-in." Since
+we hope to print some data about the user's current workspace context later,
+we need a Git directory, so choose `RUN_SETUP` as your only option.
+
+Go ahead and build again. You should see a clean build, so let's kick the tires
+and see if it works. There's a binary you can use to test with in the
+`bin-wrappers` directory.
+
+----
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git psuh
+----
+
+Check it out! You've got a command! Nice work! Let's commit this.
+
+`git status` reveals modified `Makefile`, `builtin.h`, and `git.c` as well as
+untracked `builtin/psuh.c` and `git-psuh`. First, let's take care of the binary,
+which should be ignored. Open `.gitignore` in your editor, find `/git-pull`, and
+add an entry for your new command in alphabetical order:
+
+----
+...
+/git-prune-packed
+/git-psuh
+/git-pull
+/git-push
+/git-quiltimport
+/git-range-diff
+...
+----
+
+Checking `git status` again should show that `git-psuh` has been removed from
+the untracked list and `.gitignore` has been added to the modified list. Now we
+can stage and commit:
+
+----
+$ git add Makefile builtin.h builtin/psuh.c git.c .gitignore
+$ git commit -s
+----
+
+You will be presented with your editor in order to write a commit message. Start
+the commit with a 50-column or less subject line, including the name of the
+component you're working on, followed by a blank line (always required) and then
+the body of your commit message, which should provide the bulk of the context.
+Remember to be explicit and provide the "Why" of your change, especially if it
+couldn't easily be understood from your diff. When editing your commit message,
+don't remove the Signed-off-by line which was added by `-s` above.
+
+----
+psuh: add a built-in by popular demand
+
+Internal metrics indicate this is a command many users expect to be
+present. So here's an implementation to help drive customer
+satisfaction and engagement: a pony which doubtfully greets the user,
+or, a Pony Saying "Um, Hello" (PSUH).
+
+This commit message is intentionally formatted to 72 columns per line,
+starts with a single line as "commit message subject" that is written as
+if to command the codebase to do something (add this, teach a command
+that). The body of the message is designed to add information about the
+commit that is not readily deduced from reading the associated diff,
+such as answering the question "why?".
+
+Signed-off-by: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+----
+
+Go ahead and inspect your new commit with `git show`. "psuh:" indicates you
+have modified mainly the `psuh` command. The subject line gives readers an idea
+of what you've changed. The sign-off line (`-s`) indicates that you agree to
+the Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1 (see the
+`Documentation/SubmittingPatches` +++[[dco]]+++ header).
+
+For the remainder of the tutorial, the subject line only will be listed for the
+sake of brevity. However, fully-fleshed example commit messages are available
+on the reference implementation linked at the top of this document.
+
+[[implementation]]
+=== Implementation
+
+It's probably useful to do at least something besides printing out a string.
+Let's start by having a look at everything we get.
+
+Modify your `cmd_psuh` implementation to dump the args you're passed, keeping
+existing `printf()` calls in place:
+
+----
+ int i;
+
+ ...
+
+ printf(Q_("Your args (there is %d):\n",
+ "Your args (there are %d):\n",
+ argc),
+ argc);
+ for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
+ printf("%d: %s\n", i, argv[i]);
+
+ printf(_("Your current working directory:\n<top-level>%s%s\n"),
+ prefix ? "/" : "", prefix ? prefix : "");
+
+----
+
+Build and try it. As you may expect, there's pretty much just whatever we give
+on the command line, including the name of our command. (If `prefix` is empty
+for you, try `cd Documentation/ && ../bin-wrappers/git psuh`). That's not so
+helpful. So what other context can we get?
+
+Add a line to `#include "config.h"`. Then, add the following bits to the
+function body:
+
+----
+ const char *cfg_name;
+
+...
+
+ git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
+ if (git_config_get_string_const("user.name", &cfg_name) > 0)
+ printf(_("No name is found in config\n"));
+ else
+ printf(_("Your name: %s\n"), cfg_name);
+----
+
+`git_config()` will grab the configuration from config files known to Git and
+apply standard precedence rules. `git_config_get_string_const()` will look up
+a specific key ("user.name") and give you the value. There are a number of
+single-key lookup functions like this one; you can see them all (and more info
+about how to use `git_config()`) in `Documentation/technical/api-config.txt`.
+
+You should see that the name printed matches the one you see when you run:
+
+----
+$ git config --get user.name
+----
+
+Great! Now we know how to check for values in the Git config. Let's commit this
+too, so we don't lose our progress.
+
+----
+$ git add builtin/psuh.c
+$ git commit -sm "psuh: show parameters & config opts"
+----
+
+NOTE: Again, the above is for sake of brevity in this tutorial. In a real change
+you should not use `-m` but instead use the editor to write a meaningful
+message.
+
+Still, it'd be nice to know what the user's working context is like. Let's see
+if we can print the name of the user's current branch. We can mimic the
+`git status` implementation; the printer is located in `wt-status.c` and we can
+see that the branch is held in a `struct wt_status`.
+
+`wt_status_print()` gets invoked by `cmd_status()` in `builtin/commit.c`.
+Looking at that implementation we see the status config being populated like so:
+
+----
+status_init_config(&s, git_status_config);
+----
+
+But as we drill down, we can find that `status_init_config()` wraps a call
+to `git_config()`. Let's modify the code we wrote in the previous commit.
+
+Be sure to include the header to allow you to use `struct wt_status`:
+----
+#include "wt-status.h"
+----
+
+Then modify your `cmd_psuh` implementation to declare your `struct wt_status`,
+prepare it, and print its contents:
+
+----
+ struct wt_status status;
+
+...
+
+ wt_status_prepare(the_repository, &status);
+ git_config(git_default_config, &status);
+
+...
+
+ printf(_("Your current branch: %s\n"), status.branch);
+----
+
+Run it again. Check it out - here's the (verbose) name of your current branch!
+
+Let's commit this as well.
+
+----
+$ git add builtin/psuh.c
+$ git commit -sm "psuh: print the current branch"
+----
+
+Now let's see if we can get some info about a specific commit.
+
+Luckily, there are some helpers for us here. `commit.h` has a function called
+`lookup_commit_reference_by_name` to which we can simply provide a hardcoded
+string; `pretty.h` has an extremely handy `pp_commit_easy()` call which doesn't
+require a full format object to be passed.
+
+Add the following includes:
+
+----
+#include "commit.h"
+#include "pretty.h"
+----
+
+Then, add the following lines within your implementation of `cmd_psuh()` near
+the declarations and the logic, respectively.
+
+----
+ struct commit *c = NULL;
+ struct strbuf commitline = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+...
+
+ c = lookup_commit_reference_by_name("origin/master");
+
+ if (c != NULL) {
+ pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, c, &commitline);
+ printf(_("Current commit: %s\n"), commitline.buf);
+ }
+----
+
+The `struct strbuf` provides some safety belts to your basic `char*`, one of
+which is a length member to prevent buffer overruns. It needs to be initialized
+nicely with `STRBUF_INIT`. Keep it in mind when you need to pass around `char*`.
+
+`lookup_commit_reference_by_name` resolves the name you pass it, so you can play
+with the value there and see what kind of things you can come up with.
+
+`pp_commit_easy` is a convenience wrapper in `pretty.h` that takes a single
+format enum shorthand, rather than an entire format struct. It then
+pretty-prints the commit according to that shorthand. These are similar to the
+formats available with `--pretty=FOO` in many Git commands.
+
+Build it and run, and if you're using the same name in the example, you should
+see the subject line of the most recent commit in `origin/master` that you know
+about. Neat! Let's commit that as well.
+
+----
+$ git add builtin/psuh.c
+$ git commit -sm "psuh: display the top of origin/master"
+----
+
+[[add-documentation]]
+=== Adding Documentation
+
+Awesome! You've got a fantastic new command that you're ready to share with the
+community. But hang on just a minute - this isn't very user-friendly. Run the
+following:
+
+----
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git help psuh
+----
+
+Your new command is undocumented! Let's fix that.
+
+Take a look at `Documentation/git-*.txt`. These are the manpages for the
+subcommands that Git knows about. You can open these up and take a look to get
+acquainted with the format, but then go ahead and make a new file
+`Documentation/git-psuh.txt`. Like with most of the documentation in the Git
+project, help pages are written with AsciiDoc (see CodingGuidelines, "Writing
+Documentation" section). Use the following template to fill out your own
+manpage:
+
+// Surprisingly difficult to embed AsciiDoc source within AsciiDoc.
+[listing]
+....
+git-psuh(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-psuh - Delight users' typo with a shy horse
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-psuh [<arg>...]'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+...
+
+OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
+------------------
+...
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+...
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
+....
+
+The most important pieces of this to note are the file header, underlined by =,
+the NAME section, and the SYNOPSIS, which would normally contain the grammar if
+your command took arguments. Try to use well-established manpage headers so your
+documentation is consistent with other Git and UNIX manpages; this makes life
+easier for your user, who can skip to the section they know contains the
+information they need.
+
+Now that you've written your manpage, you'll need to build it explicitly. We
+convert your AsciiDoc to troff which is man-readable like so:
+
+----
+$ make all doc
+$ man Documentation/git-psuh.1
+----
+
+or
+
+----
+$ make -C Documentation/ git-psuh.1
+$ man Documentation/git-psuh.1
+----
+
+NOTE: You may need to install the package `asciidoc` to get this to work.
+
+While this isn't as satisfying as running through `git help`, you can at least
+check that your help page looks right.
+
+You can also check that the documentation coverage is good (that is, the project
+sees that your command has been implemented as well as documented) by running
+`make check-docs` from the top-level.
+
+Go ahead and commit your new documentation change.
+
+[[add-usage]]
+=== Adding Usage Text
+
+Try and run `./bin-wrappers/git psuh -h`. Your command should crash at the end.
+That's because `-h` is a special case which your command should handle by
+printing usage.
+
+Take a look at `Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt`. This is a handy
+tool for pulling out options you need to be able to handle, and it takes a
+usage string.
+
+In order to use it, we'll need to prepare a NULL-terminated array of usage
+strings and a `builtin_psuh_options` array.
+
+Add a line to `#include "parse-options.h"`.
+
+At global scope, add your array of usage strings:
+
+----
+static const char * const psuh_usage[] = {
+ N_("git psuh [<arg>...]"),
+ NULL,
+};
+----
+
+Then, within your `cmd_psuh()` implementation, we can declare and populate our
+`option` struct. Ours is pretty boring but you can add more to it if you want to
+explore `parse_options()` in more detail:
+
+----
+ struct option options[] = {
+ OPT_END()
+ };
+----
+
+Finally, before you print your args and prefix, add the call to
+`parse-options()`:
+
+----
+ argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, psuh_usage, 0);
+----
+
+This call will modify your `argv` parameter. It will strip the options you
+specified in `options` from `argv` and the locations pointed to from `options`
+entries will be updated. Be sure to replace your `argc` with the result from
+`parse_options()`, or you will be confused if you try to parse `argv` later.
+
+It's worth noting the special argument `--`. As you may be aware, many Unix
+commands use `--` to indicate "end of named parameters" - all parameters after
+the `--` are interpreted merely as positional arguments. (This can be handy if
+you want to pass as a parameter something which would usually be interpreted as
+a flag.) `parse_options()` will terminate parsing when it reaches `--` and give
+you the rest of the options afterwards, untouched.
+
+Now that you have a usage hint, you can teach Git how to show it in the general
+command list shown by `git help git` or `git help -a`, which is generated from
+`command-list.txt`. Find the line for 'git-pull' so you can add your 'git-psuh'
+line above it in alphabetical order. Now, we can add some attributes about the
+command which impacts where it shows up in the aforementioned help commands. The
+top of `command-list.txt` shares some information about what each attribute
+means; in those help pages, the commands are sorted according to these
+attributes. `git psuh` is user-facing, or porcelain - so we will mark it as
+"mainporcelain". For "mainporcelain" commands, the comments at the top of
+`command-list.txt` indicate we can also optionally add an attribute from another
+list; since `git psuh` shows some information about the user's workspace but
+doesn't modify anything, let's mark it as "info". Make sure to keep your
+attributes in the same style as the rest of `command-list.txt` using spaces to
+align and delineate them:
+
+----
+git-prune-packed plumbingmanipulators
+git-psuh mainporcelain info
+git-pull mainporcelain remote
+git-push mainporcelain remote
+----
+
+Build again. Now, when you run with `-h`, you should see your usage printed and
+your command terminated before anything else interesting happens. Great!
+
+Go ahead and commit this one, too.
+
+[[testing]]
+== Testing
+
+It's important to test your code - even for a little toy command like this one.
+Moreover, your patch won't be accepted into the Git tree without tests. Your
+tests should:
+
+* Illustrate the current behavior of the feature
+* Prove the current behavior matches the expected behavior
+* Ensure the externally-visible behavior isn't broken in later changes
+
+So let's write some tests.
+
+Related reading: `t/README`
+
+[[overview-test-structure]]
+=== Overview of Testing Structure
+
+The tests in Git live in `t/` and are named with a 4-digit decimal number using
+the schema shown in the Naming Tests section of `t/README`.
+
+[[write-new-test]]
+=== Writing Your Test
+
+Since this a toy command, let's go ahead and name the test with t9999. However,
+as many of the family/subcmd combinations are full, best practice seems to be
+to find a command close enough to the one you've added and share its naming
+space.
+
+Create a new file `t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh`. Begin with the header as so (see
+"Writing Tests" and "Source 'test-lib.sh'" in `t/README`):
+
+----
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='git-psuh test
+
+This test runs git-psuh and makes sure it does not crash.'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+----
+
+Tests are framed inside of a `test_expect_success` in order to output TAP
+formatted results. Let's make sure that `git psuh` doesn't exit poorly and does
+mention the right animal somewhere:
+
+----
+test_expect_success 'runs correctly with no args and good output' '
+ git psuh >actual &&
+ test_i18ngrep Pony actual
+'
+----
+
+Indicate that you've run everything you wanted by adding the following at the
+bottom of your script:
+
+----
+test_done
+----
+
+Make sure you mark your test script executable:
+
+----
+$ chmod +x t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh
+----
+
+You can get an idea of whether you created your new test script successfully
+by running `make -C t test-lint`, which will check for things like test number
+uniqueness, executable bit, and so on.
+
+[[local-test]]
+=== Running Locally
+
+Let's try and run locally:
+
+----
+$ make
+$ cd t/ && prove t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh
+----
+
+You can run the full test suite and ensure `git-psuh` didn't break anything:
+
+----
+$ cd t/
+$ prove -j$(nproc) --shuffle t[0-9]*.sh
+----
+
+NOTE: You can also do this with `make test` or use any testing harness which can
+speak TAP. `prove` can run concurrently. `shuffle` randomizes the order the
+tests are run in, which makes them resilient against unwanted inter-test
+dependencies. `prove` also makes the output nicer.
+
+Go ahead and commit this change, as well.
+
+[[ready-to-share]]
+== Getting Ready to Share
+
+You may have noticed already that the Git project performs its code reviews via
+emailed patches, which are then applied by the maintainer when they are ready
+and approved by the community. The Git project does not accept patches from
+pull requests, and the patches emailed for review need to be formatted a
+specific way. At this point the tutorial diverges, in order to demonstrate two
+different methods of formatting your patchset and getting it reviewed.
+
+The first method to be covered is GitGitGadget, which is useful for those
+already familiar with GitHub's common pull request workflow. This method
+requires a GitHub account.
+
+The second method to be covered is `git send-email`, which can give slightly
+more fine-grained control over the emails to be sent. This method requires some
+setup which can change depending on your system and will not be covered in this
+tutorial.
+
+Regardless of which method you choose, your engagement with reviewers will be
+the same; the review process will be covered after the sections on GitGitGadget
+and `git send-email`.
+
+[[howto-ggg]]
+== Sending Patches via GitGitGadget
+
+One option for sending patches is to follow a typical pull request workflow and
+send your patches out via GitGitGadget. GitGitGadget is a tool created by
+Johannes Schindelin to make life as a Git contributor easier for those used to
+the GitHub PR workflow. It allows contributors to open pull requests against its
+mirror of the Git project, and does some magic to turn the PR into a set of
+emails and send them out for you. It also runs the Git continuous integration
+suite for you. It's documented at http://gitgitgadget.github.io.
+
+[[create-fork]]
+=== Forking `git/git` on GitHub
+
+Before you can send your patch off to be reviewed using GitGitGadget, you will
+need to fork the Git project and upload your changes. First thing - make sure
+you have a GitHub account.
+
+Head to the https://github.com/git/git[GitHub mirror] and look for the Fork
+button. Place your fork wherever you deem appropriate and create it.
+
+[[upload-to-fork]]
+=== Uploading to Your Own Fork
+
+To upload your branch to your own fork, you'll need to add the new fork as a
+remote. You can use `git remote -v` to show the remotes you have added already.
+From your new fork's page on GitHub, you can press "Clone or download" to get
+the URL; then you need to run the following to add, replacing your own URL and
+remote name for the examples provided:
+
+----
+$ git remote add remotename git@github.com:remotename/git.git
+----
+
+or to use the HTTPS URL:
+
+----
+$ git remote add remotename https://github.com/remotename/git/.git
+----
+
+Run `git remote -v` again and you should see the new remote showing up.
+`git fetch remotename` (with the real name of your remote replaced) in order to
+get ready to push.
+
+Next, double-check that you've been doing all your development in a new branch
+by running `git branch`. If you didn't, now is a good time to move your new
+commits to their own branch.
+
+As mentioned briefly at the beginning of this document, we are basing our work
+on `master`, so go ahead and update as shown below, or using your preferred
+workflow.
+
+----
+$ git checkout master
+$ git pull -r
+$ git rebase master psuh
+----
+
+Finally, you're ready to push your new topic branch! (Due to our branch and
+command name choices, be careful when you type the command below.)
+
+----
+$ git push remotename psuh
+----
+
+Now you should be able to go and check out your newly created branch on GitHub.
+
+[[send-pr-ggg]]
+=== Sending a PR to GitGitGadget
+
+In order to have your code tested and formatted for review, you need to start by
+opening a Pull Request against `gitgitgadget/git`. Head to
+https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git and open a PR either with the "New pull
+request" button or the convenient "Compare & pull request" button that may
+appear with the name of your newly pushed branch.
+
+Review the PR's title and description, as it's used by GitGitGadget as the cover
+letter for your change. When you're happy, submit your pull request.
+
+[[run-ci-ggg]]
+=== Running CI and Getting Ready to Send
+
+If it's your first time using GitGitGadget (which is likely, as you're using
+this tutorial) then someone will need to give you permission to use the tool.
+As mentioned in the GitGitGadget documentation, you just need someone who
+already uses it to comment on your PR with `/allow <username>`. GitGitGadget
+will automatically run your PRs through the CI even without the permission given
+but you will not be able to `/submit` your changes until someone allows you to
+use the tool.
+
+NOTE: You can typically find someone who can `/allow` you on GitGitGadget by
+either examining recent pull requests where someone has been granted `/allow`
+(https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git/pulls?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=is%3Apr+is%3Aopen+%22%2Fallow%22[Search:
+is:pr is:open "/allow"]), in which case both the author and the person who
+granted the `/allow` can now `/allow` you, or by inquiring on the
+https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] IRC channel on Freenode
+linking your pull request and asking for someone to `/allow` you.
+
+If the CI fails, you can update your changes with `git rebase -i` and push your
+branch again:
+
+----
+$ git push -f remotename psuh
+----
+
+In fact, you should continue to make changes this way up until the point when
+your patch is accepted into `next`.
+
+////
+TODO https://github.com/gitgitgadget/gitgitgadget/issues/83
+It'd be nice to be able to verify that the patch looks good before sending it
+to everyone on Git mailing list.
+[[check-work-ggg]]
+=== Check Your Work
+////
+
+[[send-mail-ggg]]
+=== Sending Your Patches
+
+Now that your CI is passing and someone has granted you permission to use
+GitGitGadget with the `/allow` command, sending out for review is as simple as
+commenting on your PR with `/submit`.
+
+[[responding-ggg]]
+=== Updating With Comments
+
+Skip ahead to <<reviewing,Responding to Reviews>> for information on how to
+reply to review comments you will receive on the mailing list.
+
+Once you have your branch again in the shape you want following all review
+comments, you can submit again:
+
+----
+$ git push -f remotename psuh
+----
+
+Next, go look at your pull request against GitGitGadget; you should see the CI
+has been kicked off again. Now while the CI is running is a good time for you
+to modify your description at the top of the pull request thread; it will be
+used again as the cover letter. You should use this space to describe what
+has changed since your previous version, so that your reviewers have some idea
+of what they're looking at. When the CI is done running, you can comment once
+more with `/submit` - GitGitGadget will automatically add a v2 mark to your
+changes.
+
+[[howto-git-send-email]]
+== Sending Patches with `git send-email`
+
+If you don't want to use GitGitGadget, you can also use Git itself to mail your
+patches. Some benefits of using Git this way include finer grained control of
+subject line (for example, being able to use the tag [RFC PATCH] in the subject)
+and being able to send a ``dry run'' mail to yourself to ensure it all looks
+good before going out to the list.
+
+[[setup-git-send-email]]
+=== Prerequisite: Setting Up `git send-email`
+
+Configuration for `send-email` can vary based on your operating system and email
+provider, and so will not be covered in this tutorial, beyond stating that in
+many distributions of Linux, `git-send-email` is not packaged alongside the
+typical `git` install. You may need to install this additional package; there
+are a number of resources online to help you do so. You will also need to
+determine the right way to configure it to use your SMTP server; again, as this
+configuration can change significantly based on your system and email setup, it
+is out of scope for the context of this tutorial.
+
+[[format-patch]]
+=== Preparing Initial Patchset
+
+Sending emails with Git is a two-part process; before you can prepare the emails
+themselves, you'll need to prepare the patches. Luckily, this is pretty simple:
+
+----
+$ git format-patch --cover-letter -o psuh/ master..psuh
+----
+
+The `--cover-letter` parameter tells `format-patch` to create a cover letter
+template for you. You will need to fill in the template before you're ready
+to send - but for now, the template will be next to your other patches.
+
+The `-o psuh/` parameter tells `format-patch` to place the patch files into a
+directory. This is useful because `git send-email` can take a directory and
+send out all the patches from there.
+
+`master..psuh` tells `format-patch` to generate patches for the difference
+between `master` and `psuh`. It will make one patch file per commit. After you
+run, you can go have a look at each of the patches with your favorite text
+editor and make sure everything looks alright; however, it's not recommended to
+make code fixups via the patch file. It's a better idea to make the change the
+normal way using `git rebase -i` or by adding a new commit than by modifying a
+patch.
+
+NOTE: Optionally, you can also use the `--rfc` flag to prefix your patch subject
+with ``[RFC PATCH]'' instead of ``[PATCH]''. RFC stands for ``request for
+comments'' and indicates that while your code isn't quite ready for submission,
+you'd like to begin the code review process. This can also be used when your
+patch is a proposal, but you aren't sure whether the community wants to solve
+the problem with that approach or not - to conduct a sort of design review. You
+may also see on the list patches marked ``WIP'' - this means they are incomplete
+but want reviewers to look at what they have so far. You can add this flag with
+`--subject-prefix=WIP`.
+
+Check and make sure that your patches and cover letter template exist in the
+directory you specified - you're nearly ready to send out your review!
+
+[[cover-letter]]
+=== Preparing Email
+
+In addition to an email per patch, the Git community also expects your patches
+to come with a cover letter, typically with a subject line [PATCH 0/x] (where
+x is the number of patches you're sending). Since you invoked `format-patch`
+with `--cover-letter`, you've already got a template ready. Open it up in your
+favorite editor.
+
+You should see a number of headers present already. Check that your `From:`
+header is correct. Then modify your `Subject:` to something which succinctly
+covers the purpose of your entire topic branch, for example:
+
+----
+Subject: [PATCH 0/7] adding the 'psuh' command
+----
+
+Make sure you retain the ``[PATCH 0/X]'' part; that's what indicates to the Git
+community that this email is the beginning of a review, and many reviewers
+filter their email for this type of flag.
+
+You'll need to add some extra parameters when you invoke `git send-email` to add
+the cover letter.
+
+Next you'll have to fill out the body of your cover letter. This is an important
+component of change submission as it explains to the community from a high level
+what you're trying to do, and why, in a way that's more apparent than just
+looking at your diff. Be sure to explain anything your diff doesn't make clear
+on its own.
+
+Here's an example body for `psuh`:
+
+----
+Our internal metrics indicate widespread interest in the command
+git-psuh - that is, many users are trying to use it, but finding it is
+unavailable, using some unknown workaround instead.
+
+The following handful of patches add the psuh command and implement some
+handy features on top of it.
+
+This patchset is part of the MyFirstContribution tutorial and should not
+be merged.
+----
+
+The template created by `git format-patch --cover-letter` includes a diffstat.
+This gives reviewers a summary of what they're in for when reviewing your topic.
+The one generated for `psuh` from the sample implementation looks like this:
+
+----
+ Documentation/git-psuh.txt | 40 +++++++++++++++++++++
+ Makefile | 1 +
+ builtin.h | 1 +
+ builtin/psuh.c | 73 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ git.c | 1 +
+ t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh | 12 +++++++
+ 6 files changed, 128 insertions(+)
+ create mode 100644 Documentation/git-psuh.txt
+ create mode 100644 builtin/psuh.c
+ create mode 100755 t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh
+----
+
+Finally, the letter will include the version of Git used to generate the
+patches. You can leave that string alone.
+
+[[sending-git-send-email]]
+=== Sending Email
+
+At this point you should have a directory `psuh/` which is filled with your
+patches and a cover letter. Time to mail it out! You can send it like this:
+
+----
+$ git send-email --to=target@example.com psuh/*.patch
+----
+
+NOTE: Check `git help send-email` for some other options which you may find
+valuable, such as changing the Reply-to address or adding more CC and BCC lines.
+
+NOTE: When you are sending a real patch, it will go to git@vger.kernel.org - but
+please don't send your patchset from the tutorial to the real mailing list! For
+now, you can send it to yourself, to make sure you understand how it will look.
+
+After you run the command above, you will be presented with an interactive
+prompt for each patch that's about to go out. This gives you one last chance to
+edit or quit sending something (but again, don't edit code this way). Once you
+press `y` or `a` at these prompts your emails will be sent! Congratulations!
+
+Awesome, now the community will drop everything and review your changes. (Just
+kidding - be patient!)
+
+[[v2-git-send-email]]
+=== Sending v2
+
+Skip ahead to <<reviewing,Responding to Reviews>> for information on how to
+handle comments from reviewers. Continue this section when your topic branch is
+shaped the way you want it to look for your patchset v2.
+
+When you're ready with the next iteration of your patch, the process is fairly
+similar.
+
+First, generate your v2 patches again:
+
+----
+$ git format-patch -v2 --cover-letter -o psuh/ master..psuh
+----
+
+This will add your v2 patches, all named like `v2-000n-my-commit-subject.patch`,
+to the `psuh/` directory. You may notice that they are sitting alongside the v1
+patches; that's fine, but be careful when you are ready to send them.
+
+Edit your cover letter again. Now is a good time to mention what's different
+between your last version and now, if it's something significant. You do not
+need the exact same body in your second cover letter; focus on explaining to
+reviewers the changes you've made that may not be as visible.
+
+You will also need to go and find the Message-Id of your previous cover letter.
+You can either note it when you send the first series, from the output of `git
+send-email`, or you can look it up on the
+https://lore.kernel.org/git[mailing list]. Find your cover letter in the
+archives, click on it, then click "permalink" or "raw" to reveal the Message-Id
+header. It should match:
+
+----
+Message-Id: <foo.12345.author@example.com>
+----
+
+Your Message-Id is `<foo.12345.author@example.com>`. This example will be used
+below as well; make sure to replace it with the correct Message-Id for your
+**previous cover letter** - that is, if you're sending v2, use the Message-Id
+from v1; if you're sending v3, use the Message-Id from v2.
+
+While you're looking at the email, you should also note who is CC'd, as it's
+common practice in the mailing list to keep all CCs on a thread. You can add
+these CC lines directly to your cover letter with a line like so in the header
+(before the Subject line):
+
+----
+CC: author@example.com, Othe R <other@example.com>
+----
+
+Now send the emails again, paying close attention to which messages you pass in
+to the command:
+
+----
+$ git send-email --to=target@example.com
+ --in-reply-to="<foo.12345.author@example.com>"
+ psuh/v2*
+----
+
+[[single-patch]]
+=== Bonus Chapter: One-Patch Changes
+
+In some cases, your very small change may consist of only one patch. When that
+happens, you only need to send one email. Your commit message should already be
+meaningful and explain at a high level the purpose (what is happening and why)
+of your patch, but if you need to supply even more context, you can do so below
+the `---` in your patch. Take the example below, which was generated with `git
+format-patch` on a single commit, and then edited to add the content between
+the `---` and the diffstat.
+
+----
+From 1345bbb3f7ac74abde040c12e737204689a72723 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
+From: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+Date: Thu, 18 Apr 2019 15:11:02 -0700
+Subject: [PATCH] README: change the grammar
+
+I think it looks better this way. This part of the commit message will
+end up in the commit-log.
+
+Signed-off-by: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+---
+Let's have a wild discussion about grammar on the mailing list. This
+part of my email will never end up in the commit log. Here is where I
+can add additional context to the mailing list about my intent, outside
+of the context of the commit log. This section was added after `git
+format-patch` was run, by editing the patch file in a text editor.
+
+ README.md | 2 +-
+ 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
+
+diff --git a/README.md b/README.md
+index 88f126184c..38da593a60 100644
+--- a/README.md
++++ b/README.md
+@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
+ Git - fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
+ =========================================================
+
+-Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
++Git is a fast, scalable, and distributed revision control system with an
+ unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
+ and full access to internals.
+
+--
+2.21.0.392.gf8f6787159e-goog
+----
+
+[[now-what]]
+== My Patch Got Emailed - Now What?
+
+[[reviewing]]
+=== Responding to Reviews
+
+After a few days, you will hopefully receive a reply to your patchset with some
+comments. Woohoo! Now you can get back to work.
+
+It's good manners to reply to each comment, notifying the reviewer that you have
+made the change requested, feel the original is better, or that the comment
+inspired you to do something a new way which is superior to both the original
+and the suggested change. This way reviewers don't need to inspect your v2 to
+figure out whether you implemented their comment or not.
+
+If you are going to push back on a comment, be polite and explain why you feel
+your original is better; be prepared that the reviewer may still disagree with
+you, and the rest of the community may weigh in on one side or the other. As
+with all code reviews, it's important to keep an open mind to doing something a
+different way than you originally planned; other reviewers have a different
+perspective on the project than you do, and may be thinking of a valid side
+effect which had not occurred to you. It is always okay to ask for clarification
+if you aren't sure why a change was suggested, or what the reviewer is asking
+you to do.
+
+Make sure your email client has a plaintext email mode and it is turned on; the
+Git list rejects HTML email. Please also follow the mailing list etiquette
+outlined in the
+https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/git/git/+/todo/MaintNotes[Maintainer's
+Note], which are similar to etiquette rules in most open source communities
+surrounding bottom-posting and inline replies.
+
+When you're making changes to your code, it is cleanest - that is, the resulting
+commits are easiest to look at - if you use `git rebase -i` (interactive
+rebase). Take a look at this
+https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/git-pocket-guide/9781449327507/ch10.html[overview]
+from O'Reilly. The general idea is to modify each commit which requires changes;
+this way, instead of having a patch A with a mistake, a patch B which was fine
+and required no upstream reviews in v1, and a patch C which fixes patch A for
+v2, you can just ship a v2 with a correct patch A and correct patch B. This is
+changing history, but since it's local history which you haven't shared with
+anyone, that is okay for now! (Later, it may not make sense to do this; take a
+look at the section below this one for some context.)
+
+[[after-approval]]
+=== After Review Approval
+
+The Git project has four integration branches: `pu`, `next`, `master`, and
+`maint`. Your change will be placed into `pu` fairly early on by the maintainer
+while it is still in the review process; from there, when it is ready for wider
+testing, it will be merged into `next`. Plenty of early testers use `next` and
+may report issues. Eventually, changes in `next` will make it to `master`,
+which is typically considered stable. Finally, when a new release is cut,
+`maint` is used to base bugfixes onto. As mentioned at the beginning of this
+document, you can read `Documents/SubmittingPatches` for some more info about
+the use of the various integration branches.
+
+Back to now: your code has been lauded by the upstream reviewers. It is perfect.
+It is ready to be accepted. You don't need to do anything else; the maintainer
+will merge your topic branch to `next` and life is good.
+
+However, if you discover it isn't so perfect after this point, you may need to
+take some special steps depending on where you are in the process.
+
+If the maintainer has announced in the "What's cooking in git.git" email that
+your topic is marked for `next` - that is, that they plan to merge it to `next`
+but have not yet done so - you should send an email asking the maintainer to
+wait a little longer: "I've sent v4 of my series and you marked it for `next`,
+but I need to change this and that - please wait for v5 before you merge it."
+
+If the topic has already been merged to `next`, rather than modifying your
+patches with `git rebase -i`, you should make further changes incrementally -
+that is, with another commit, based on top of the maintainer's topic branch as
+detailed in https://github.com/gitster/git. Your work is still in the same topic
+but is now incremental, rather than a wholesale rewrite of the topic branch.
+
+The topic branches in the maintainer's GitHub are mirrored in GitGitGadget, so
+if you're sending your reviews out that way, you should be sure to open your PR
+against the appropriate GitGitGadget/Git branch.
+
+If you're using `git send-email`, you can use it the same way as before, but you
+should generate your diffs from `<topic>..<mybranch>` and base your work on
+`<topic>` instead of `master`.
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa828df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,905 @@
+= My First Object Walk
+
+== What's an Object Walk?
+
+The object walk is a key concept in Git - this is the process that underpins
+operations like object transfer and fsck. Beginning from a given commit, the
+list of objects is found by walking parent relationships between commits (commit
+X based on commit W) and containment relationships between objects (tree Y is
+contained within commit X, and blob Z is located within tree Y, giving our
+working tree for commit X something like `y/z.txt`).
+
+A related concept is the revision walk, which is focused on commit objects and
+their parent relationships and does not delve into other object types. The
+revision walk is used for operations like `git log`.
+
+=== Related Reading
+
+- `Documentation/user-manual.txt` under "Hacking Git" contains some coverage of
+ the revision walker in its various incarnations.
+- `revision.h`
+- https://eagain.net/articles/git-for-computer-scientists/[Git for Computer Scientists]
+ gives a good overview of the types of objects in Git and what your object
+ walk is really describing.
+
+== Setting Up
+
+Create a new branch from `master`.
+
+----
+git checkout -b revwalk origin/master
+----
+
+We'll put our fiddling into a new command. For fun, let's name it `git walken`.
+Open up a new file `builtin/walken.c` and set up the command handler:
+
+----
+/*
+ * "git walken"
+ *
+ * Part of the "My First Object Walk" tutorial.
+ */
+
+#include "builtin.h"
+
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ trace_printf(_("cmd_walken incoming...\n"));
+ return 0;
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `trace_printf()` differs from `printf()` in that it can be turned on or
+off at runtime. For the purposes of this tutorial, we will write `walken` as
+though it is intended for use as a "plumbing" command: that is, a command which
+is used primarily in scripts, rather than interactively by humans (a "porcelain"
+command). So we will send our debug output to `trace_printf()` instead. When
+running, enable trace output by setting the environment variable `GIT_TRACE`.
+
+Add usage text and `-h` handling, like all subcommands should consistently do
+(our test suite will notice and complain if you fail to do so).
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ const char * const walken_usage[] = {
+ N_("git walken"),
+ NULL,
+ }
+ struct option options[] = {
+ OPT_END()
+ };
+
+ argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, walken_usage, 0);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Also add the relevant line in `builtin.h` near `cmd_whatchanged()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+----
+
+Include the command in `git.c` in `commands[]` near the entry for `whatchanged`,
+maintaining alphabetical ordering:
+
+----
+{ "walken", cmd_walken, RUN_SETUP },
+----
+
+Add it to the `Makefile` near the line for `builtin/worktree.o`:
+
+----
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/walken.o
+----
+
+Build and test out your command, without forgetting to ensure the `DEVELOPER`
+flag is set, and with `GIT_TRACE` enabled so the debug output can be seen:
+
+----
+$ echo DEVELOPER=1 >>config.mak
+$ make
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers/git walken
+----
+
+NOTE: For a more exhaustive overview of the new command process, take a look at
+`Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt`.
+
+NOTE: A reference implementation can be found at
+https://github.com/nasamuffin/git/tree/revwalk.
+
+=== `struct rev_cmdline_info`
+
+The definition of `struct rev_cmdline_info` can be found in `revision.h`.
+
+This struct is contained within the `rev_info` struct and is used to reflect
+parameters provided by the user over the CLI.
+
+`nr` represents the number of `rev_cmdline_entry` present in the array.
+
+`alloc` is used by the `ALLOC_GROW` macro. Check `cache.h` - this variable is
+used to track the allocated size of the list.
+
+Per entry, we find:
+
+`item` is the object provided upon which to base the object walk. Items in Git
+can be blobs, trees, commits, or tags. (See `Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt`.)
+
+`name` is the object ID (OID) of the object - a hex string you may be familiar
+with from using Git to organize your source in the past. Check the tutorial
+mentioned above towards the top for a discussion of where the OID can come
+from.
+
+`whence` indicates some information about what to do with the parents of the
+specified object. We'll explore this flag more later on; take a look at
+`Documentation/revisions.txt` to get an idea of what could set the `whence`
+value.
+
+`flags` are used to hint the beginning of the revision walk and are the first
+block under the `#include`s in `revision.h`. The most likely ones to be set in
+the `rev_cmdline_info` are `UNINTERESTING` and `BOTTOM`, but these same flags
+can be used during the walk, as well.
+
+=== `struct rev_info`
+
+This one is quite a bit longer, and many fields are only used during the walk
+by `revision.c` - not configuration options. Most of the configurable flags in
+`struct rev_info` have a mirror in `Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`. It's a
+good idea to take some time and read through that document.
+
+== Basic Commit Walk
+
+First, let's see if we can replicate the output of `git log --oneline`. We'll
+refer back to the implementation frequently to discover norms when performing
+an object walk of our own.
+
+To do so, we'll first find all the commits, in order, which preceded the current
+commit. We'll extract the name and subject of the commit from each.
+
+Ideally, we will also be able to find out which ones are currently at the tip of
+various branches.
+
+=== Setting Up
+
+Preparing for your object walk has some distinct stages.
+
+1. Perform default setup for this mode, and others which may be invoked.
+2. Check configuration files for relevant settings.
+3. Set up the `rev_info` struct.
+4. Tweak the initialized `rev_info` to suit the current walk.
+5. Prepare the `rev_info` for the walk.
+6. Iterate over the objects, processing each one.
+
+==== Default Setups
+
+Before examining configuration files which may modify command behavior, set up
+default state for switches or options your command may have. If your command
+utilizes other Git components, ask them to set up their default states as well.
+For instance, `git log` takes advantage of `grep` and `diff` functionality, so
+its `init_log_defaults()` sets its own state (`decoration_style`) and asks
+`grep` and `diff` to initialize themselves by calling each of their
+initialization functions.
+
+For our first example within `git walken`, we don't intend to use any other
+components within Git, and we don't have any configuration to do. However, we
+may want to add some later, so for now, we can add an empty placeholder. Create
+a new function in `builtin/walken.c`:
+
+----
+static void init_walken_defaults(void)
+{
+ /*
+ * We don't actually need the same components `git log` does; leave this
+ * empty for now.
+ */
+}
+----
+
+Make sure to add a line invoking it inside of `cmd_walken()`.
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ init_walken_defaults();
+}
+----
+
+==== Configuring From `.gitconfig`
+
+Next, we should have a look at any relevant configuration settings (i.e.,
+settings readable and settable from `git config`). This is done by providing a
+callback to `git_config()`; within that callback, you can also invoke methods
+from other components you may need that need to intercept these options. Your
+callback will be invoked once per each configuration value which Git knows about
+(global, local, worktree, etc.).
+
+Similarly to the default values, we don't have anything to do here yet
+ourselves; however, we should call `git_default_config()` if we aren't calling
+any other existing config callbacks.
+
+Add a new function to `builtin/walken.c`:
+
+----
+static int git_walken_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+ /*
+ * For now, we don't have any custom configuration, so fall back to
+ * the default config.
+ */
+ return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+----
+
+Make sure to invoke `git_config()` with it in your `cmd_walken()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ ...
+
+ git_config(git_walken_config, NULL);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+==== Setting Up `rev_info`
+
+Now that we've gathered external configuration and options, it's time to
+initialize the `rev_info` object which we will use to perform the walk. This is
+typically done by calling `repo_init_revisions()` with the repository you intend
+to target, as well as the `prefix` argument of `cmd_walken` and your `rev_info`
+struct.
+
+Add the `struct rev_info` and the `repo_init_revisions()` call:
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ /* This can go wherever you like in your declarations.*/
+ struct rev_info rev;
+ ...
+
+ /* This should go after the git_config() call. */
+ repo_init_revisions(the_repository, &rev, prefix);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+==== Tweaking `rev_info` For the Walk
+
+We're getting close, but we're still not quite ready to go. Now that `rev` is
+initialized, we can modify it to fit our needs. This is usually done within a
+helper for clarity, so let's add one:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ /*
+ * We want to mimic the appearance of `git log --oneline`, so let's
+ * force oneline format.
+ */
+ get_commit_format("oneline", rev);
+
+ /* Start our object walk at HEAD. */
+ add_head_to_pending(rev);
+}
+----
+
+[NOTE]
+====
+Instead of using the shorthand `add_head_to_pending()`, you could do
+something like this:
+----
+ struct setup_revision_opt opt;
+
+ memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
+ opt.def = "HEAD";
+ opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
+ setup_revisions(argc, argv, rev, &opt);
+----
+Using a `setup_revision_opt` gives you finer control over your walk's starting
+point.
+====
+
+Then let's invoke `final_rev_info_setup()` after the call to
+`repo_init_revisions()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ ...
+
+ final_rev_info_setup(&rev);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Later, we may wish to add more arguments to `final_rev_info_setup()`. But for
+now, this is all we need.
+
+==== Preparing `rev_info` For the Walk
+
+Now that `rev` is all initialized and configured, we've got one more setup step
+before we get rolling. We can do this in a helper, which will both prepare the
+`rev_info` for the walk, and perform the walk itself. Let's start the helper
+with the call to `prepare_revision_walk()`, which can return an error without
+dying on its own:
+
+----
+static void walken_commit_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ if (prepare_revision_walk(rev))
+ die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `die()` prints to `stderr` and exits the program. Since it will print to
+`stderr` it's likely to be seen by a human, so we will localize it.
+
+==== Performing the Walk!
+
+Finally! We are ready to begin the walk itself. Now we can see that `rev_info`
+can also be used as an iterator; we move to the next item in the walk by using
+`get_revision()` repeatedly. Add the listed variable declarations at the top and
+the walk loop below the `prepare_revision_walk()` call within your
+`walken_commit_walk()`:
+
+----
+static void walken_commit_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ struct commit *commit;
+ struct strbuf prettybuf = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+ ...
+
+ while ((commit = get_revision(rev))) {
+ if (!commit)
+ continue;
+
+ strbuf_reset(&prettybuf);
+ pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &prettybuf);
+ puts(prettybuf.buf);
+ }
+ strbuf_release(&prettybuf);
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `puts()` prints a `char*` to `stdout`. Since this is the part of the
+command we expect to be machine-parsed, we're sending it directly to stdout.
+
+Give it a shot.
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken
+----
+
+You should see all of the subject lines of all the commits in
+your tree's history, in order, ending with the initial commit, "Initial revision
+of "git", the information manager from hell". Congratulations! You've written
+your first revision walk. You can play with printing some additional fields
+from each commit if you're curious; have a look at the functions available in
+`commit.h`.
+
+=== Adding a Filter
+
+Next, let's try to filter the commits we see based on their author. This is
+equivalent to running `git log --author=<pattern>`. We can add a filter by
+modifying `rev_info.grep_filter`, which is a `struct grep_opt`.
+
+First some setup. Add `init_grep_defaults()` to `init_walken_defaults()` and add
+`grep_config()` to `git_walken_config()`:
+
+----
+static void init_walken_defaults(void)
+{
+ init_grep_defaults(the_repository);
+}
+
+...
+
+static int git_walken_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+ grep_config(var, value, cb);
+ return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+----
+
+Next, we can modify the `grep_filter`. This is done with convenience functions
+found in `grep.h`. For fun, we're filtering to only commits from folks using a
+`gmail.com` email address - a not-very-precise guess at who may be working on
+Git as a hobby. Since we're checking the author, which is a specific line in the
+header, we'll use the `append_header_grep_pattern()` helper. We can use
+the `enum grep_header_field` to indicate which part of the commit header we want
+to search.
+
+In `final_rev_info_setup()`, add your filter line:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ append_header_grep_pattern(&rev->grep_filter, GREP_HEADER_AUTHOR,
+ "gmail");
+ compile_grep_patterns(&rev->grep_filter);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+`append_header_grep_pattern()` adds your new "gmail" pattern to `rev_info`, but
+it won't work unless we compile it with `compile_grep_patterns()`.
+
+NOTE: If you are using `setup_revisions()` (for example, if you are passing a
+`setup_revision_opt` instead of using `add_head_to_pending()`), you don't need
+to call `compile_grep_patterns()` because `setup_revisions()` calls it for you.
+
+NOTE: We could add the same filter via the `append_grep_pattern()` helper if we
+wanted to, but `append_header_grep_pattern()` adds the `enum grep_context` and
+`enum grep_pat_token` for us.
+
+=== Changing the Order
+
+There are a few ways that we can change the order of the commits during a
+revision walk. Firstly, we can use the `enum rev_sort_order` to choose from some
+typical orderings.
+
+`topo_order` is the same as `git log --topo-order`: we avoid showing a parent
+before all of its children have been shown, and we avoid mixing commits which
+are in different lines of history. (`git help log`'s section on `--topo-order`
+has a very nice diagram to illustrate this.)
+
+Let's see what happens when we run with `REV_SORT_BY_COMMIT_DATE` as opposed to
+`REV_SORT_BY_AUTHOR_DATE`. Add the following:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->topo_order = 1;
+ rev->sort_order = REV_SORT_BY_COMMIT_DATE;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Let's output this into a file so we can easily diff it with the walk sorted by
+author date.
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken > commit-date.txt
+----
+
+Then, let's sort by author date and run it again.
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->topo_order = 1;
+ rev->sort_order = REV_SORT_BY_AUTHOR_DATE;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken > author-date.txt
+----
+
+Finally, compare the two. This is a little less helpful without object names or
+dates, but hopefully we get the idea.
+
+----
+$ diff -u commit-date.txt author-date.txt
+----
+
+This display indicates that commits can be reordered after they're written, for
+example with `git rebase`.
+
+Let's try one more reordering of commits. `rev_info` exposes a `reverse` flag.
+Set that flag somewhere inside of `final_rev_info_setup()`:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
+ struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->reverse = 1;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Run your walk again and note the difference in order. (If you remove the grep
+pattern, you should see the last commit this call gives you as your current
+HEAD.)
+
+== Basic Object Walk
+
+So far we've been walking only commits. But Git has more types of objects than
+that! Let's see if we can walk _all_ objects, and find out some information
+about each one.
+
+We can base our work on an example. `git pack-objects` prepares all kinds of
+objects for packing into a bitmap or packfile. The work we are interested in
+resides in `builtins/pack-objects.c:get_object_list()`; examination of that
+function shows that the all-object walk is being performed by
+`traverse_commit_list()` or `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`. Those two
+functions reside in `list-objects.c`; examining the source shows that, despite
+the name, these functions traverse all kinds of objects. Let's have a look at
+the arguments to `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`, which are a superset of the
+arguments to the unfiltered version.
+
+- `struct list_objects_filter_options *filter_options`: This is a struct which
+ stores a filter-spec as outlined in `Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`.
+- `struct rev_info *revs`: This is the `rev_info` used for the walk.
+- `show_commit_fn show_commit`: A callback which will be used to handle each
+ individual commit object.
+- `show_object_fn show_object`: A callback which will be used to handle each
+ non-commit object (so each blob, tree, or tag).
+- `void *show_data`: A context buffer which is passed in turn to `show_commit`
+ and `show_object`.
+- `struct oidset *omitted`: A linked-list of object IDs which the provided
+ filter caused to be omitted.
+
+It looks like this `traverse_commit_list_filtered()` uses callbacks we provide
+instead of needing us to call it repeatedly ourselves. Cool! Let's add the
+callbacks first.
+
+For the sake of this tutorial, we'll simply keep track of how many of each kind
+of object we find. At file scope in `builtin/walken.c` add the following
+tracking variables:
+
+----
+static int commit_count;
+static int tag_count;
+static int blob_count;
+static int tree_count;
+----
+
+Commits are handled by a different callback than other objects; let's do that
+one first:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_commit(struct commit *cmt, void *buf)
+{
+ commit_count++;
+}
+----
+
+The `cmt` argument is fairly self-explanatory. But it's worth mentioning that
+the `buf` argument is actually the context buffer that we can provide to the
+traversal calls - `show_data`, which we mentioned a moment ago.
+
+Since we have the `struct commit` object, we can look at all the same parts that
+we looked at in our earlier commit-only walk. For the sake of this tutorial,
+though, we'll just increment the commit counter and move on.
+
+The callback for non-commits is a little different, as we'll need to check
+which kind of object we're dealing with:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_object(struct object *obj, const char *str, void *buf)
+{
+ switch (obj->type) {
+ case OBJ_TREE:
+ tree_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_BLOB:
+ blob_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_TAG:
+ tag_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_COMMIT:
+ BUG("unexpected commit object in walken_show_object\n");
+ default:
+ BUG("unexpected object type %s in walken_show_object\n",
+ type_name(obj->type));
+ }
+}
+----
+
+Again, `obj` is fairly self-explanatory, and we can guess that `buf` is the same
+context pointer that `walken_show_commit()` receives: the `show_data` argument
+to `traverse_commit_list()` and `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`. Finally,
+`str` contains the name of the object, which ends up being something like
+`foo.txt` (blob), `bar/baz` (tree), or `v1.2.3` (tag).
+
+To help assure us that we aren't double-counting commits, we'll include some
+complaining if a commit object is routed through our non-commit callback; we'll
+also complain if we see an invalid object type. Since those two cases should be
+unreachable, and would only change in the event of a semantic change to the Git
+codebase, we complain by using `BUG()` - which is a signal to a developer that
+the change they made caused unintended consequences, and the rest of the
+codebase needs to be updated to understand that change. `BUG()` is not intended
+to be seen by the public, so it is not localized.
+
+Our main object walk implementation is substantially different from our commit
+walk implementation, so let's make a new function to perform the object walk. We
+can perform setup which is applicable to all objects here, too, to keep separate
+from setup which is applicable to commit-only walks.
+
+We'll start by enabling all types of objects in the `struct rev_info`. We'll
+also turn on `tree_blobs_in_commit_order`, which means that we will walk a
+commit's tree and everything it points to immediately after we find each commit,
+as opposed to waiting for the end and walking through all trees after the commit
+history has been discovered. With the appropriate settings configured, we are
+ready to call `prepare_revision_walk()`.
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ rev->tree_objects = 1;
+ rev->blob_objects = 1;
+ rev->tag_objects = 1;
+ rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order = 1;
+
+ if (prepare_revision_walk(rev))
+ die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+
+ commit_count = 0;
+ tag_count = 0;
+ blob_count = 0;
+ tree_count = 0;
+----
+
+Let's start by calling just the unfiltered walk and reporting our counts.
+Complete your implementation of `walken_object_walk()`:
+
+----
+ traverse_commit_list(rev, walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL);
+
+ printf("commits %d\nblobs %d\ntags %d\ntrees %d\n", commit_count,
+ blob_count, tag_count, tree_count);
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: This output is intended to be machine-parsed. Therefore, we are not
+sending it to `trace_printf()`, and we are not localizing it - we need scripts
+to be able to count on the formatting to be exactly the way it is shown here.
+If we were intending this output to be read by humans, we would need to localize
+it with `_()`.
+
+Finally, we'll ask `cmd_walken()` to use the object walk instead. Discussing
+command line options is out of scope for this tutorial, so we'll just hardcode
+a branch we can change at compile time. Where you call `final_rev_info_setup()`
+and `walken_commit_walk()`, instead branch like so:
+
+----
+ if (1) {
+ add_head_to_pending(&rev);
+ walken_object_walk(&rev);
+ } else {
+ final_rev_info_setup(argc, argv, prefix, &rev);
+ walken_commit_walk(&rev);
+ }
+----
+
+NOTE: For simplicity, we've avoided all the filters and sorts we applied in
+`final_rev_info_setup()` and simply added `HEAD` to our pending queue. If you
+want, you can certainly use the filters we added before by moving
+`final_rev_info_setup()` out of the conditional and removing the call to
+`add_head_to_pending()`.
+
+Now we can try to run our command! It should take noticeably longer than the
+commit walk, but an examination of the output will give you an idea why. Your
+output should look similar to this example, but with different counts:
+
+----
+Object walk completed. Found 55733 commits, 100274 blobs, 0 tags, and 104210 trees.
+----
+
+This makes sense. We have more trees than commits because the Git project has
+lots of subdirectories which can change, plus at least one tree per commit. We
+have no tags because we started on a commit (`HEAD`) and while tags can point to
+commits, commits can't point to tags.
+
+NOTE: You will have different counts when you run this yourself! The number of
+objects grows along with the Git project.
+
+=== Adding a Filter
+
+There are a handful of filters that we can apply to the object walk laid out in
+`Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`. These filters are typically useful for
+operations such as creating packfiles or performing a partial clone. They are
+defined in `list-objects-filter-options.h`. For the purposes of this tutorial we
+will use the "tree:1" filter, which causes the walk to omit all trees and blobs
+which are not directly referenced by commits reachable from the commit in
+`pending` when the walk begins. (`pending` is the list of objects which need to
+be traversed during a walk; you can imagine a breadth-first tree traversal to
+help understand. In our case, that means we omit trees and blobs not directly
+referenced by `HEAD` or `HEAD`'s history, because we begin the walk with only
+`HEAD` in the `pending` list.)
+
+First, we'll need to `#include "list-objects-filter-options.h`" and set up the
+`struct list_objects_filter_options` at the top of the function.
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ struct list_objects_filter_options filter_options = {};
+
+ ...
+----
+
+For now, we are not going to track the omitted objects, so we'll replace those
+parameters with `NULL`. For the sake of simplicity, we'll add a simple
+build-time branch to use our filter or not. Replace the line calling
+`traverse_commit_list()` with the following, which will remind us which kind of
+walk we've just performed:
+
+----
+ if (0) {
+ /* Unfiltered: */
+ trace_printf(_("Unfiltered object walk.\n"));
+ traverse_commit_list(rev, walken_show_commit,
+ walken_show_object, NULL);
+ } else {
+ trace_printf(
+ _("Filtered object walk with filterspec 'tree:1'.\n"));
+ parse_list_objects_filter(&filter_options, "tree:1");
+
+ traverse_commit_list_filtered(&filter_options, rev,
+ walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL, NULL);
+ }
+----
+
+`struct list_objects_filter_options` is usually built directly from a command
+line argument, so the module provides an easy way to build one from a string.
+Even though we aren't taking user input right now, we can still build one with
+a hardcoded string using `parse_list_objects_filter()`.
+
+With the filter spec "tree:1", we are expecting to see _only_ the root tree for
+each commit; therefore, the tree object count should be less than or equal to
+the number of commits. (For an example of why that's true: `git commit --revert`
+points to the same tree object as its grandparent.)
+
+=== Counting Omitted Objects
+
+We also have the capability to enumerate all objects which were omitted by a
+filter, like with `git log --filter=<spec> --filter-print-omitted`. Asking
+`traverse_commit_list_filtered()` to populate the `omitted` list means that our
+object walk does not perform any better than an unfiltered object walk; all
+reachable objects are walked in order to populate the list.
+
+First, add the `struct oidset` and related items we will use to iterate it:
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(
+ ...
+
+ struct oidset omitted;
+ struct oidset_iter oit;
+ struct object_id *oid = NULL;
+ int omitted_count = 0;
+ oidset_init(&omitted, 0);
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Modify the call to `traverse_commit_list_filtered()` to include your `omitted`
+object:
+
+----
+ ...
+
+ traverse_commit_list_filtered(&filter_options, rev,
+ walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL, &omitted);
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Then, after your traversal, the `oidset` traversal is pretty straightforward.
+Count all the objects within and modify the print statement:
+
+----
+ /* Count the omitted objects. */
+ oidset_iter_init(&omitted, &oit);
+
+ while ((oid = oidset_iter_next(&oit)))
+ omitted_count++;
+
+ printf("commits %d\nblobs %d\ntags %d\ntrees%d\nomitted %d\n",
+ commit_count, blob_count, tag_count, tree_count, omitted_count);
+----
+
+By running your walk with and without the filter, you should find that the total
+object count in each case is identical. You can also time each invocation of
+the `walken` subcommand, with and without `omitted` being passed in, to confirm
+to yourself the runtime impact of tracking all omitted objects.
+
+=== Changing the Order
+
+Finally, let's demonstrate that you can also reorder walks of all objects, not
+just walks of commits. First, we'll make our handlers chattier - modify
+`walken_show_commit()` and `walken_show_object()` to print the object as they
+go:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_commit(struct commit *cmt, void *buf)
+{
+ trace_printf("commit: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&cmt->object.oid));
+ commit_count++;
+}
+
+static void walken_show_object(struct object *obj, const char *str, void *buf)
+{
+ trace_printf("%s: %s\n", type_name(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: Since we will be examining this output directly as humans, we'll use
+`trace_printf()` here. Additionally, since this change introduces a significant
+number of printed lines, using `trace_printf()` will allow us to easily silence
+those lines without having to recompile.
+
+(Leave the counter increment logic in place.)
+
+With only that change, run again (but save yourself some scrollback):
+
+----
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers/git walken | head -n 10
+----
+
+Take a look at the top commit with `git show` and the object ID you printed; it
+should be the same as the output of `git show HEAD`.
+
+Next, let's change a setting on our `struct rev_info` within
+`walken_object_walk()`. Find where you're changing the other settings on `rev`,
+such as `rev->tree_objects` and `rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order`, and add the
+`reverse` setting at the bottom:
+
+----
+ ...
+
+ rev->tree_objects = 1;
+ rev->blob_objects = 1;
+ rev->tag_objects = 1;
+ rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order = 1;
+ rev->reverse = 1;
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Now, run again, but this time, let's grab the last handful of objects instead
+of the first handful:
+
+----
+$ make
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers git walken | tail -n 10
+----
+
+The last commit object given should have the same OID as the one we saw at the
+top before, and running `git show <oid>` with that OID should give you again
+the same results as `git show HEAD`. Furthermore, if you run and examine the
+first ten lines again (with `head` instead of `tail` like we did before applying
+the `reverse` setting), you should see that now the first commit printed is the
+initial commit, `e83c5163`.
+
+== Wrapping Up
+
+Let's review. In this tutorial, we:
+
+- Built a commit walk from the ground up
+- Enabled a grep filter for that commit walk
+- Changed the sort order of that filtered commit walk
+- Built an object walk (tags, commits, trees, and blobs) from the ground up
+- Learned how to add a filter-spec to an object walk
+- Changed the display order of the filtered object walk
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
index daf4bdb..d6d42f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ Updates in v1.5.0 since v1.4.4 series
the repository when that happens.
-* Crufts removal
+* Cruft removal
- We used to say "old commits are retrievable using reflog and
'master@{yesterday}' syntax as long as you haven't run
@@ -379,7 +379,7 @@ Updates in v1.5.0 since v1.4.4 series
- The value of i18n.commitencoding in the originating
repository is recorded in the commit object on the "encoding"
header, if it is not UTF-8. git-log and friends notice this,
- and reencodes the message to the log output encoding when
+ and re-encodes the message to the log output encoding when
displaying, if they are different. The log output encoding
is determined by "git log --encoding=<encoding>",
i18n.logoutputencoding configuration, or i18n.commitencoding
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
index ad060f4..980adfb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
index 418c685..4bcff94 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
index 7a90441..a2a34b4 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
index d3a2a3e..344333d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ Fixes since v1.6.5.3
* "git prune-packed" gave progress output even when its standard error is
not connected to a terminal; this caused cron jobs that run it to
- produce crufts.
+ produce cruft.
* "git pack-objects --all-progress" is an option to ask progress output
from write-object phase _if_ progress output were to be produced, and
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
index ee141c1..6c7f7da 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
index c50b59c..3ed1e01 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ users will fare this time.
Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition process that already took place so far.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
index fcb46ca..73ed2b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.0.1
* "git status" in 1.7.0 lacked the optimization we used to have in 1.6.X series
to speed up scanning of large working tree.
- * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading tis configuration
+ * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading its configuration
file.
And other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
index 326670d..57597f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.10.3
* The message file for Swedish translation has been updated a bit.
* A name taken from mailmap was copied into an internal buffer
- incorrectly and could overun the buffer if it is too long.
+ incorrectly and could overrun the buffer if it is too long.
* A malformed commit object that has a header line chomped in the
middle could kill git with a NULL pointer dereference.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
index ecda427..4b82297 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.12.2
its Accept-Encoding header.
* "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
- progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+ progress output while processing objects it received to the user
when run over the smart-http protocol.
* "git status" honored the ignore=dirty settings in .gitmodules but
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
index 9c03353..1d24edc 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.5.2
* "git log --stdin path" with an input that has additional pathspec
used to corrupt memory.
- * "git send-pack" (hence "git push") over smalt-HTTP protocol could
+ * "git send-pack" (hence "git push") over smart-HTTP protocol could
deadlock when the client side pack-object died early.
* Compressed tarball gitweb generates used to be made with the timestamp
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
index 43883c1..63d6e4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@ to them for details).
together, misdetected branches.
* "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
- progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+ progress output while processing objects it received to the user
when run over the smart-http protocol.
* When you misspell the command name you give to the "exec" action in
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
index 96090ef..c257beb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ Fixes since v1.8.4
in 1.8.4-rc1).
* "git rebase -i" and other scripted commands were feeding a
- random, data dependant error message to 'echo' and expecting it
+ random, data dependent error message to 'echo' and expecting it
to come out literally.
* Setting the "submodule.<name>.path" variable to the empty
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
index 02f681b..255e185 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
credential helper interface from Git.pm.
* Update build for Cygwin 1.[57]. Torsten Bögershausen reports that
- this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 ($gmane/225824) so let's try moving it
+ this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 (cf. <51A606A0.5060101@web.de>) so let's try moving it
ahead.
* The credential helper to talk to keychain on OS X (in contrib/) has
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
index acc9ebb..0dfb17c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ Git v2.1.3 Release Notes
they are new enough to support the `--output` option.
* "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate
- object recheability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
+ object reachability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
pack.
* "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
index f4da28a..3792b7d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
@@ -478,7 +478,7 @@ notes for details).
* One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
- the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+ the system where outside stuff is usually called "theirs" in
contrast to "ours".
* "git blame file" allowed the lineage of lines in the uncommitted,
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
index c4d4397..abbd331 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ Fixes since v2.10.1
by refusing to check out a branch that is already checked out in
another worktree. However, this also prevented checking out a
branch, which is designated as the primary branch of a bare
- reopsitory, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
+ repository, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
repository. The check has been corrected to allow it.
* "git rebase" immediately after "git clone" failed to find the fork
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
index 9cd14c8..7d35cf1 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@ Fixes since v2.11
"git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
has been fixed.
- * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ * "git p4" that tracks multiple p4 paths imported a single changelist
that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
index ef8b97d..d2f6a83 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
@@ -315,7 +315,7 @@ notes for details).
"git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
has been fixed.
- * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ * "git p4" that tracks multiple p4 paths imported a single changelist
that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
index aa99d4b..2a47b4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
been changed to enable "--decorate".
* The output from "git status --short" has been extended to show
- various kinds of dirtyness in submodules differently; instead of to
+ various kinds of dirtiness in submodules differently; instead of to
"M" for modified, 'm' and '?' can be shown to signal changes only
to the working tree of the submodule but not the commit that is
checked out.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
index 5d76ad5..384e4de 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v2.13.2
* The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
- unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ unnecessarily complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
* "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ Fixes since v2.13.2
* Fix a recent regression to "git rebase -i" and add tests that would
have caught it and others.
- * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code ahs been corrected.
+ * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code has been corrected.
* Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
index 4246c68..2711a25 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* Some platforms have ulong that is smaller than time_t, and our
historical use of ulong for timestamp would mean they cannot
represent some timestamp that the platform allows. Invent a
- separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distingiuish
+ separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distinguish
timestamps and a vanilla ulongs, which along is already a good
move), and then declare uintmax_t is the type to be used as the
timestamp_t.
@@ -442,7 +442,7 @@ notes for details).
* The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
- unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ unnecessarily complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
* Fix configuration codepath to pay proper attention to commondir
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..72b7af6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+Git v2.14.6 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release addresses the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387.
+
+Fixes since v2.14.5
+-------------------
+
+ * CVE-2019-1348:
+ The --export-marks option of git fast-import is exposed also via
+ the in-stream command feature export-marks=... and it allows
+ overwriting arbitrary paths.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1349:
+ When submodules are cloned recursively, under certain circumstances
+ Git could be fooled into using the same Git directory twice. We now
+ require the directory to be empty.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1350:
+ Incorrect quoting of command-line arguments allowed remote code
+ execution during a recursive clone in conjunction with SSH URLs.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1351:
+ While the only permitted drive letters for physical drives on
+ Windows are letters of the US-English alphabet, this restriction
+ does not apply to virtual drives assigned via subst <letter>:
+ <path>. Git mistook such paths for relative paths, allowing writing
+ outside of the worktree while cloning.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1352:
+ Git was unaware of NTFS Alternate Data Streams, allowing files
+ inside the .git/ directory to be overwritten during a clone.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1353:
+ When running Git in the Windows Subsystem for Linux (also known as
+ "WSL") while accessing a working directory on a regular Windows
+ drive, none of the NTFS protections were active.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1354:
+ Filenames on Linux/Unix can contain backslashes. On Windows,
+ backslashes are directory separators. Git did not use to refuse to
+ write out tracked files with such filenames.
+
+ * CVE-2019-1387:
+ Recursive clones are currently affected by a vulnerability that is
+ caused by too-lax validation of submodule names, allowing very
+ targeted attacks via remote code execution in recursive clones.
+
+Credit for finding these vulnerabilities goes to Microsoft Security
+Response Center, in particular to Nicolas Joly. The `fast-import`
+fixes were provided by Jeff King, the other fixes by Johannes
+Schindelin with help from Garima Singh.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dc241cb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+Git v2.15.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6 to address
+the security issues CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350,
+CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, and
+CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes for that version for details.
+
+In conjunction with a vulnerability that was fixed in v2.20.2,
+`.gitmodules` is no longer allowed to contain entries of the form
+`submodule.<name>.update=!command`.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
index 0c81c59..b474781 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ Fixes since v2.15
(merge eef3df5a93 bw/pathspec-match-submodule-boundary later to maint).
* Amending commits in git-gui broke the author name that is non-ascii
- due to incorrect enconding conversion.
+ due to incorrect encoding conversion.
* Recent update to the submodule configuration code broke "diff-tree"
by accidentally stopping to read from the index upfront.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
index 64a0bcb..f0121a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ Fixes since v2.16.2
* The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
- so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ so that it can be more safely shareable.
* Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
what it did not acquire lock on.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..438306e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.16.6 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6 and in
+v2.15.4 addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349,
+CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353,
+CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes for those
+versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
index c2cf891..8b17c26 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ Fixes since v2.16
* The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
- so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ so that it can be more safely shareable.
(merge 8ba18e6fa4 jt/http-redact-cookies later to maint).
* Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5a46c94
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+Git v2.17.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6 and in
+v2.15.4 addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349,
+CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353,
+CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes for those
+versions for details.
+
+In addition, `git fsck` was taught to identify `.gitmodules` entries
+of the form `submodule.<name>.update=!command`, which have been
+disallowed in v2.15.4.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
index 3ea280c..6c8a0e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
(merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
* Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
- on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addition, has been
optimized to use the same fan-out table.
* The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..98b168a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.18.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4
+and in v2.17.3, addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes
+for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
index a06ccf6..891c79b 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* The conversion to pass "the_repository" and then "a_repository"
throughout the object access API continues.
- * Continuing with the idea to programatically enumerate various
+ * Continuing with the idea to programmatically enumerate various
pieces of data required for command line completion, teach the
codebase to report the list of configuration variables
subcommands care about to help complete them.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..92d7f89
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.19.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4
+and in v2.17.3, addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes
+for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
index e71fe3d..3dd7e6e 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
alias expansion.
* The documentation of "git gc" has been updated to mention that it
- is no longer limited to "pruning away crufts" but also updates
+ is no longer limited to "pruning away cruft" but also updates
ancillary files like commit-graph as a part of repository
optimization.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8e680cb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
+Git v2.20.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4
+and in v2.17.3, addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes
+for those versions for details.
+
+The change to disallow `submodule.<name>.update=!command` entries in
+`.gitmodules` which was introduced v2.15.4 (and for which v2.17.3
+added explicit fsck checks) fixes the vulnerability in v2.20.x where a
+recursive clone followed by a submodule update could execute code
+contained within the repository without the user explicitly having
+asked for that (CVE-2019-19604).
+
+Credit for finding this vulnerability goes to Joern Schneeweisz,
+credit for the fixes goes to Jonathan Nieder.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b759415
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+Git v2.21.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3 and in v2.20.2, addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and CVE-2019-19604;
+see the release notes for those versions for details.
+
+Additionally, this version also includes a couple of fixes for the
+Windows-specific quoting of command-line arguments when Git executes
+a Unix shell on Windows.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..940a23f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.22.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e3c4e78
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,348 @@
+Git 2.23 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.22
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility note
+
+ * The "--base" option of "format-patch" computed the patch-ids for
+ prerequisite patches in an unstable way, which has been updated to
+ compute in a way that is compatible with "git patch-id --stable".
+
+ * The "git log" command by default behaves as if the --mailmap option
+ was given.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * The "git fast-export/import" pair has been taught to handle commits
+ with log messages in encoding other than UTF-8 better.
+
+ * In recent versions of Git, per-worktree refs are exposed in
+ refs/worktrees/<wtname>/ hierarchy, which means that worktree names
+ must be a valid refname component. The code now sanitizes the names
+ given to worktrees, to make sure these refs are well-formed.
+
+ * "git merge" learned "--quit" option that cleans up the in-progress
+ merge while leaving the working tree and the index still in a mess.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learns a configuration to set the default for
+ its --notes=<ref> option.
+
+ * The code to show args with potential typo that cannot be
+ interpreted as a commit-ish has been improved.
+
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules" learned to set up the submodules
+ to ignore commit object names recorded in the superproject gitlink
+ and instead use the commits that happen to be at the tip of the
+ remote-tracking branches from the get-go, by passing the new
+ "--remote-submodules" option.
+
+ * The pattern "git diff/grep" use to extract funcname and words
+ boundary for Matlab has been extend to cover Octave, which is more
+ or less equivalent.
+
+ * "git help git" was hard to discover (well, at least for some
+ people).
+
+ * The pattern "git diff/grep" use to extract funcname and words
+ boundary for Rust has been added.
+
+ * "git status" can be told a non-standard default value for the
+ "--[no-]ahead-behind" option with a new configuration variable
+ status.aheadBehind.
+
+ * "git fetch" and "git pull" reports when a fetch results in
+ non-fast-forward updates to let the user notice unusual situation.
+ The commands learned "--no-show-forced-updates" option to disable
+ this safety feature.
+
+ * Two new commands "git switch" and "git restore" are introduced to
+ split "checking out a branch to work on advancing its history" and
+ "checking out paths out of the index and/or a tree-ish to work on
+ advancing the current history" out of the single "git checkout"
+ command.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to always output the detached HEAD as
+ the first item (when the HEAD is detached, of course), regardless
+ of the locale.
+
+ * The conditional inclusion mechanism learned to base the choice on
+ the branch the HEAD currently is on.
+
+ * "git rev-list --objects" learned the "--no-object-names" option to
+ squelch the path to the object that is used as a grouping hint for
+ pack-objects.
+
+ * A new tag.gpgSign configuration variable turns "git tag -a" into
+ "git tag -s".
+
+ * "git multi-pack-index" learned expire and repack subcommands.
+
+ * "git blame" learned to "ignore" commits in the history, whose
+ effects (as well as their presence) get ignored.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick/revert" learned a new "--skip" action.
+
+ * The tips of refs from the alternate object store can be used as
+ starting point for reachability computation now.
+
+ * Extra blank lines in "git status" output have been reduced.
+
+ * The commits in a repository can be described by multiple
+ commit-graph files now, which allows the commit-graph files to be
+ updated incrementally.
+
+ * "git range-diff" output has been tweaked for easier identification
+ of which part of what file the patch shown is about.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Update supporting parts of "git rebase" to remove code that should
+ no longer be used.
+
+ * Developer support to emulate unsatisfied prerequisites in tests to
+ ensure that the remainder of the tests still succeeds when tests
+ with prerequisites are skipped.
+
+ * "git update-server-info" learned not to rewrite the file with the
+ same contents.
+
+ * The way of specifying the path to find dynamic libraries at runtime
+ has been simplified. The old default to pass -R/path/to/dir has been
+ replaced with the new default to pass -Wl,-rpath,/path/to/dir,
+ which is the more recent GCC uses. Those who need to build with an
+ old GCC can still use "CC_LD_DYNPATH=-R"
+
+ * Prepare use of reachability index in topological walker that works
+ on a range (A..B).
+
+ * A new tutorial targeting specifically aspiring git-core
+ developers has been added.
+
+ * Auto-detect how to tell HP-UX aCC where to use dynamically linked
+ libraries from at runtime.
+
+ * "git mergetool" and its tests now spawn fewer subprocesses.
+
+ * Dev support update to help tracing out tests.
+
+ * Support to build with MSVC has been updated.
+
+ * "git fetch" that grabs from a group of remotes learned to run the
+ auto-gc only once at the very end.
+
+ * A handful of Windows build patches have been upstreamed.
+
+ * The code to read state files used by the sequencer machinery for
+ "git status" has been made more robust against a corrupt or stale
+ state files.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" with multiple patterns have been optimized.
+
+ * The tree-walk API learned to pass an in-core repository
+ instance throughout more codepaths.
+
+ * When one step in multi step cherry-pick or revert is reset or
+ committed, the command line prompt script failed to notice the
+ current status, which has been improved.
+
+ * Many GIT_TEST_* environment variables control various aspects of
+ how our tests are run, but a few followed "non-empty is true, empty
+ or unset is false" while others followed the usual "there are a few
+ ways to spell true, like yes, on, etc., and also ways to spell
+ false, like no, off, etc." convention.
+
+ * Adjust the dir-iterator API and apply it to the local clone
+ optimization codepath.
+
+ * We have been trying out a few language features outside c89; the
+ coding guidelines document did not talk about them and instead had
+ a blanket ban against them.
+
+ * A test helper has been introduced to optimize preparation of test
+ repositories with many simple commits, and a handful of test
+ scripts have been updated to use it.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.22
+-----------------
+
+ * A relative pathname given to "git init --template=<path> <repo>"
+ ought to be relative to the directory "git init" gets invoked in,
+ but it instead was made relative to the repository, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * "git worktree add" used to fail when another worktree connected to
+ the same repository was corrupt, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The ownership rule for the file descriptor to fast-import remote
+ backend was mixed up, leading to an unrelated file descriptor getting
+ closed, which has been fixed.
+
+ * A "merge -c" instruction during "git rebase --rebase-merges" should
+ give the user a chance to edit the log message, even when there is
+ otherwise no need to create a new merge and replace the existing
+ one (i.e. fast-forward instead), but did not. Which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Code cleanup and futureproof.
+
+ * More parameter validation.
+
+ * "git update-server-info" used to leave stale packfiles in its
+ output, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The server side support for "git fetch" used to show incorrect
+ value for the HEAD symbolic ref when the namespace feature is in
+ use, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git am -i --resolved" segfaulted after trying to see a commit as
+ if it were a tree, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" needs to see if prerequisite objects exist in
+ the receiving repository, but the command did not check if we are
+ in a repository upfront, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git merge --squash" is designed to update the working tree and the
+ index without creating the commit, and this cannot be countermanded
+ by adding the "--commit" option; the command now refuses to work
+ when both options are given.
+
+ * The data collected by fsmonitor was not properly written back to
+ the on-disk index file, breaking t7519 tests occasionally, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * Update to Unicode 12.1 width table.
+
+ * The command line to invoke a "git cat-file" command from inside
+ "git p4" was not properly quoted to protect a caret and running a
+ broken command on Windows, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git request-pull" learned to warn when the ref we ask them to pull
+ from in the local repository and in the published repository are
+ different.
+
+ * When creating a partial clone, the object filtering criteria is
+ recorded for the origin of the clone, but this incorrectly used a
+ hardcoded name "origin" to name that remote; it has been corrected
+ to honor the "--origin <name>" option.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a lazy clone forgot to fetch base objects that are
+ necessary to complete delta in a thin packfile, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The filter_data used in the list-objects-filter (which manages a
+ lazily sparse clone repository) did not use the dynamic array API
+ correctly---'nr' is supposed to point at one past the last element
+ of the array in use. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The description about slashes in gitignore patterns (used to
+ indicate things like "anchored to this level only" and "only
+ matches directories") has been revamped.
+
+ * The URL decoding code has been updated to avoid going past the end
+ of the string while parsing %-<hex>-<hex> sequence.
+
+ * The list of for-each like macros used by clang-format has been
+ updated.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to show branches that are checked out
+ in other worktrees connected to the same repository prefixed with
+ '+', similar to the way the currently checked out branch is shown
+ with '*' in front.
+ (merge 6e9381469e nb/branch-show-other-worktrees-head later to maint).
+
+ * Code restructuring during 2.20 period broke fetching tags via
+ "import" based transports.
+
+ * The commit-graph file is now part of the "files that the runtime
+ may keep open file descriptors on, all of which would need to be
+ closed when done with the object store", and the file descriptor to
+ an existing commit-graph file now is closed before "gc" finalizes a
+ new instance to replace it.
+
+ * "git checkout -p" needs to selectively apply a patch in reverse,
+ which did not work well.
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid signed integer wraparounds during binary search.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" always treated '#' as the comment
+ character, regardless of core.commentChar setting, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * "git stash show 23" used to work, but no more after getting
+ rewritten in C; this regression has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase --abort" used to leave refs/rewritten/ when concluding
+ "git rebase -r", which has been corrected.
+
+ * An incorrect list of options was cached after command line
+ completion failed (e.g. trying to complete a command that requires
+ a repository outside one), which has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to parse scaled numbers out of configuration files has
+ been made more robust and also easier to follow.
+
+ * The codepath to compute delta islands used to spew progress output
+ without giving the callers any way to squelch it, which has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * Protocol capabilities that go over wire should never be translated,
+ but it was incorrectly marked for translation, which has been
+ corrected. The output of protocol capabilities for debugging has
+ been tweaked a bit.
+
+ * Use "Erase in Line" CSI sequence that is already used in the editor
+ support to clear cruft in the progress output.
+
+ * "git submodule foreach" did not protect command line options passed
+ to the command to be run in each submodule correctly, when the
+ "--recursive" option was in use.
+
+ * The configuration variable rebase.rescheduleFailedExec should be
+ effective only while running an interactive rebase and should not
+ affect anything when running a non-interactive one, which was not
+ the case. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The "git clone" documentation refers to command line options in its
+ description in the short form; they have been replaced with long
+ forms to make them more recognisable.
+
+ * Generation of pack bitmaps are now disabled when .keep files exist,
+ as these are mutually exclusive features.
+ (merge 7328482253 ew/repack-with-bitmaps-by-default later to maint).
+
+ * "git rm" to resolve a conflicted path leaked an internal message
+ "needs merge" before actually removing the path, which was
+ confusing. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git stash --keep-index" did not work correctly on paths that have
+ been removed, which has been fixed.
+ (merge b932f6a5e8 tg/stash-keep-index-with-removed-paths later to maint).
+
+ * Window 7 update ;-)
+
+ * A codepath that reads from GPG for signed object verification read
+ past the end of allocated buffer, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git clean" silently skipped a path when it cannot lstat() it; now
+ it gives a warning.
+
+ * "git push --atomic" that goes over the transport-helper (namely,
+ the smart http transport) failed to prevent refs to be pushed when
+ it can locally tell that one of the ref update will fail without
+ having to consult the other end, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The internal diff machinery can be made to read out of bounds while
+ looking for --function-context line in a corner case, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge b777f3fd61 jk/xdiff-clamp-funcname-context-index later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge fbec05c210 cc/test-oidmap later to maint).
+ (merge 7a06fb038c jk/no-system-includes-in-dot-c later to maint).
+ (merge 81ed2b405c cb/xdiff-no-system-includes-in-dot-c later to maint).
+ (merge d61e6ce1dd sg/fsck-config-in-doc later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2083b49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.23.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bde1541
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,398 @@
+Git 2.24 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.23
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility note
+
+ * "filter-branch" is showing its age and alternatives are available.
+ From this release, we started to discourage its use and hint
+ people about filter-repo.
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * We now have an active interim maintainer for the Git-Gui part of
+ the system. Praise and thank Pratyush Yadav for volunteering.
+
+ * The command line parser learned "--end-of-options" notation; the
+ standard convention for scripters to have hardcoded set of options
+ first on the command line, and force the command to treat end-user
+ input as non-options, has been to use "--" as the delimiter, but
+ that would not work for commands that use "--" as a delimiter
+ between revs and pathspec.
+
+ * A mechanism to affect the default setting for a (related) group of
+ configuration variables is introduced.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned "--set-upstream" option to help those who first
+ clone from their private fork they intend to push to, add the true
+ upstream via "git remote add" and then "git fetch" from it.
+
+ * Device-tree files learned their own userdiff patterns.
+ (merge 3c81760bc6 sb/userdiff-dts later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" learned to drive different merge
+ strategies and pass strategy specific options to them.
+
+ * A new "pre-merge-commit" hook has been introduced.
+
+ * Command line completion updates for "git -c var.name=val" have been
+ added.
+
+ * The lazy clone machinery has been taught that there can be more
+ than one promisor remote and consult them in order when downloading
+ missing objects on demand.
+
+ * The list-objects-filter API (used to create a sparse/lazy clone)
+ learned to take a combined filter specification.
+
+ * The documentation and tests for "git format-patch" have been
+ cleaned up.
+
+ * On Windows, the root level of UNC share is now allowed to be used
+ just like any other directory.
+
+ * The command line completion support (in contrib/) learned about the
+ "--skip" option of "git revert" and "git cherry-pick".
+
+ * "git rebase --keep-base <upstream>" tries to find the original base
+ of the topic being rebased and rebase on top of that same base,
+ which is useful when running the "git rebase -i" (and its limited
+ variant "git rebase -x").
+
+ The command also has learned to fast-forward in more cases where it
+ can instead of replaying to recreate identical commits.
+
+ * A configuration variable tells "git fetch" to write the commit
+ graph after finishing.
+
+ * "git add -i" has been taught to show the total number of hunks and
+ the hunks that has been processed so far when showing prompts.
+
+ * "git fetch --jobs=<n>" allowed <n> parallel jobs when fetching
+ submodules, but this did not apply to "git fetch --multiple" that
+ fetches from multiple remote repositories. It now does.
+
+ * The installation instruction for zsh completion script (in
+ contrib/) has been a bit improved.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The code to write commit-graph over given commit object names has
+ been made a bit more robust.
+
+ * The first line of verbose output from each test piece now carries
+ the test name and number to help scanning with eyeballs.
+
+ * Further clean-up of the initialization code.
+
+ * xmalloc() used to have a mechanism to ditch memory and address
+ space resources as the last resort upon seeing an allocation
+ failure from the underlying malloc(), which made the code complex
+ and thread-unsafe with dubious benefit, as major memory resource
+ users already do limit their uses with various other mechanisms.
+ It has been simplified away.
+
+ * Unnecessary full-tree diff in "git log -L" machinery has been
+ optimized away.
+
+ * The http transport lacked some optimization the native transports
+ learned to avoid unnecessary ref advertisement, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Preparation for SHA-256 upgrade continues in the test department.
+ (merge 0c37c41d13 bc/hash-independent-tests-part-5 later to maint).
+
+ * The memory ownership model of the "git fast-import" got
+ straightened out.
+
+ * Output from trace2 subsystem is formatted more prettily now.
+
+ * The internal code originally invented for ".gitignore" processing
+ got reshuffled and renamed to make it less tied to "excluding" and
+ stress more that it is about "matching", as it has been reused for
+ things like sparse checkout specification that want to check if a
+ path is "included".
+
+ * "git stash" learned to write refreshed index back to disk.
+
+ * Coccinelle checks are done on more source files than before now.
+
+ * The cache-tree code has been taught to be less aggressive in
+ attempting to see if a tree object it computed already exists in
+ the repository.
+
+ * The code to parse and use the commit-graph file has been made more
+ robust against corrupted input.
+
+ * The hg-to-git script (in contrib/) has been updated to work with
+ Python 3.
+
+ * Update the way build artifacts in t/helper/ directory are ignored.
+
+ * Preparation for SHA-256 upgrade continues.
+
+ * "git log --graph" for an octopus merge is sometimes colored
+ incorrectly, which is demonstrated and documented but not yet
+ fixed.
+
+ * The trace2 output, when sending them to files in a designated
+ directory, can populate the directory with too many files; a
+ mechanism is introduced to set the maximum number of files and
+ discard further logs when the maximum is reached.
+
+ * We have adopted a Code-of-conduct document.
+ (merge 3f9ef874a7 jk/coc later to maint).
+
+
+Fixes since v2.23
+-----------------
+
+ * "git grep --recurse-submodules" that looks at the working tree
+ files looked at the contents in the index in submodules, instead of
+ files in the working tree.
+ (merge 6a289d45c0 mt/grep-submodules-working-tree later to maint).
+
+ * Codepaths to walk tree objects have been audited for integer
+ overflows and hardened.
+ (merge 5aa02f9868 jk/tree-walk-overflow later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-refs" can lose refs that are created while running, which
+ is getting corrected.
+ (merge a613d4f817 sc/pack-refs-deletion-racefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout" and "git restore" to re-populate the index from a
+ tree-ish (typically HEAD) did not work correctly for a path that
+ was removed and then added again with the intent-to-add bit, when
+ the corresponding working tree file was empty. This has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Compilation fix.
+ (merge 70597e8386 rs/nedalloc-fixlets later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" learned to call the clean-up procedure before exiting.
+ (merge 0d88f3d2c5 py/git-gui-do-quit later to maint).
+
+ * We promoted the "indent heuristics" that decides where to split
+ diff hunks from experimental to the default a few years ago, but
+ some stale documentation still marked it as experimental, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 64e5e1fba1 sg/diff-indent-heuristic-non-experimental later to maint).
+
+ * Fix a mismerge that happened in 2.22 timeframe.
+ (merge acb7da05ac en/checkout-mismerge-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" recorded incorrect length in extended pax header in
+ some corner cases, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 71d41ff651 rs/pax-extended-header-length-fix later to maint).
+
+ * On-demand object fetching in lazy clone incorrectly tried to fetch
+ commits from submodule projects, while still working in the
+ superproject, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a63694f523 jt/diff-lazy-fetch-submodule-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Prepare get_short_oid() codepath to be thread-safe.
+ (merge 7cfcb16b0e rs/sort-oid-array-thread-safe later to maint).
+
+ * "for-each-ref" and friends that show refs did not protect themselves
+ against ancient tags that did not record tagger names when asked to
+ show "%(taggername)", which have been corrected.
+ (merge 8b3f33ef11 mp/for-each-ref-missing-name-or-email later to maint).
+
+ * The "git am" based backend of "git rebase" ignored the result of
+ updating ".gitattributes" done in one step when replaying
+ subsequent steps.
+ (merge 2c65d90f75 bc/reread-attributes-during-rebase later to maint).
+
+ * Tell cURL library to use the same malloc() implementation, with the
+ xmalloc() wrapper, as the rest of the system, for consistency.
+ (merge 93b980e58f cb/curl-use-xmalloc later to maint).
+
+ * Build fix to adjust .gitignore to unignore a path that we started to track.
+ (merge aac6ff7b5b js/visual-studio later to maint).
+
+ * A few implementation fixes in the notes API.
+ (merge 60fe477a0b mh/notes-duplicate-entries later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an earlier regression to "git push --all" which should have
+ been forbidden when the target remote repository is set to be a
+ mirror.
+ (merge 8e4c8af058 tg/push-all-in-mirror-forbidden later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an earlier regression in the test suite, which mistakenly
+ stopped running HTTPD tests.
+ (merge 3960290675 sg/git-test-boolean later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --autostash <upstream> <branch>", when <branch> is
+ different from the current branch, incorrectly moved the tip of the
+ current branch, which has been corrected.
+ (merge bf1e28e0ad bw/rebase-autostash-keep-current-branch later to maint).
+
+ * Update support for Asciidoctor documentation toolchain.
+ (merge 83b0b8953e ma/asciidoctor-refmiscinfo later to maint).
+
+ * Start using DocBook 5 (instead of DocBook 4.5) as Asciidoctor 2.0
+ no longer works with the older one.
+ (merge f6461b82b9 bc/doc-use-docbook-5 later to maint).
+
+ * The markup used in user-manual has been updated to work better with
+ asciidoctor.
+ (merge c4d2f6143a ma/user-manual-markup-update later to maint).
+
+ * Make sure the grep machinery does not abort when seeing a payload
+ that is not UTF-8 even when JIT is not in use with PCRE1.
+ (merge ad7c543e3b cb/skip-utf8-check-with-pcre1 later to maint).
+
+ * The name of the blob object that stores the filter specification
+ for sparse cloning/fetching was interpreted in a wrong place in the
+ code, causing Git to abort.
+
+ * "git log --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>" was incorrectly
+ overruled when the "--simplify-by-decoration" option is used, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 0cc7380d88 rs/simplify-by-deco-with-deco-refs-exclude later to maint).
+
+ * The "upload-pack" (the counterpart of "git fetch") needs to disable
+ commit-graph when responding to a shallow clone/fetch request, but
+ the way this was done made Git panic, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The object traversal machinery has been optimized not to load tree
+ objects when we are only interested in commit history.
+ (merge 72ed80c784 jk/list-objects-optim-wo-trees later to maint).
+
+ * The object name parser for "Nth parent" syntax has been made more
+ robust against integer overflows.
+ (merge 59fa5f5a25 rs/nth-parent-parse later to maint).
+
+ * The code used in following tags in "git fetch" has been optimized.
+ (merge b7e2d8bca5 ms/fetch-follow-tag-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Regression fix for progress output.
+ (merge 2bb74b53a4 sg/progress-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A bug in merge-recursive code that triggers when a branch with a
+ symbolic link is merged with a branch that replaces it with a
+ directory has been fixed.
+ (merge 83e3ad3b12 jt/merge-recursive-symlink-is-not-a-dir-in-way later to maint).
+
+ * The rename detection logic sorts a list of rename source candidates
+ by similarity to pick the best candidate, which means that a tie
+ between sources with the same similarity is broken by the original
+ location in the original candidate list (which is sorted by path).
+ Force the sorting by similarity done with a stable sort, which is
+ not promised by system supplied qsort(3), to ensure consistent
+ results across platforms.
+ (merge 2049b8dc65 js/diff-rename-force-stable-sort later to maint).
+
+ * The code to skip "UTF" and "UTF-" prefix, when computing an advice
+ message, did not work correctly when the prefix was "UTF", which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge b181676ce9 rs/convert-fix-utf-without-dash later to maint).
+
+ * The author names taken from SVN repositories may have extra leading
+ or trailing whitespaces, which are now munged away.
+ (merge 4ddd4bddb1 tk/git-svn-trim-author-name later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" showed a wrong HEAD while "reword" open the editor.
+ (merge b0a3186140 pw/rebase-i-show-HEAD-to-reword later to maint).
+
+ * A few simplification and bugfixes to PCRE interface.
+ (merge c581e4a749 ab/pcre-jit-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * PCRE fixes.
+ (merge ff61681b46 cb/pcre1-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git range-diff" segfaulted when diff.noprefix configuration was
+ used, as it blindly expected the patch it internally generates to
+ have the standard a/ and b/ prefixes. The command now forces the
+ internal patch to be built without any prefix, not to be affected
+ by any end-user configuration.
+ (merge 937b76ed49 js/range-diff-noprefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash apply" in a subdirectory of a secondary worktree failed
+ to access the worktree correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge dfd557c978 js/stash-apply-in-secondary-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * The merge-recursive machinery is one of the most complex parts of
+ the system that accumulated cruft over time. This large series
+ cleans up the implementation quite a bit.
+ (merge b657047719 en/merge-recursive-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Pretty-printed command line formatter (used in e.g. reporting the
+ command being run by the tracing API) had a bug that lost an
+ argument that is an empty string, which has been corrected.
+ (merge ce2d7ed2fd gs/sq-quote-buf-pretty later to maint).
+
+ * "git range-diff" failed to handle mode-only change, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 2b6a9b13ca tg/range-diff-output-update later to maint).
+
+ * Dev support update.
+ (merge 4f3c1dc5d6 dl/allow-running-cocci-verbosely later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch -o <outdir>" did an equivalent of "mkdir <outdir>"
+ not "mkdir -p <outdir>", which was corrected.
+
+ * "git stash save" lost local changes to submodules, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 556895d0c8 jj/stash-reset-only-toplevel later to maint).
+
+ * The atomic push over smart HTTP transport did not work, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 6f1194246a bc/smart-http-atomic-push later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge d1387d3895 en/fast-import-merge-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 1c24a54ea4 bm/repository-layout-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 415b770b88 ds/midx-expire-repack later to maint).
+ (merge 19800bdc3f nd/diff-parseopt later to maint).
+ (merge 58166c2e9d tg/t0021-racefix later to maint).
+ (merge 7027f508c7 dl/compat-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge e770fbfeff jc/test-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 1fd881d404 rs/trace2-dst-warning later to maint).
+ (merge 7e92756751 mh/http-urlmatch-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 9784f97321 mh/release-commit-memory-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 60d198d022 tb/banned-vsprintf-namefix later to maint).
+ (merge 80e3658647 rs/help-unknown-ref-does-not-return later to maint).
+ (merge 0a8bc7068f dt/remote-helper-doc-re-lock-option later to maint).
+ (merge 27fd1e4ea7 en/merge-options-ff-and-friends later to maint).
+ (merge 502c386ff9 sg/clean-nested-repo-with-ignored later to maint).
+ (merge 26e3d1cbea am/mailmap-andrey-mazo later to maint).
+ (merge 47b27c96fa ss/get-time-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge dd2e50a84e jk/commit-graph-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 4fd39c76e6 cs/pretty-formats-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 40e747e89d dl/submodule-set-branch later to maint).
+ (merge 689a146c91 rs/commit-graph-use-list-count later to maint).
+ (merge 0eb7c37a8a js/doc-patch-text later to maint).
+ (merge 4b3aa170d1 rs/nth-switch-code-simplification later to maint).
+ (merge 0d4304c124 ah/doc-submodule-ignore-submodules later to maint).
+ (merge af78249463 cc/svn-fe-py-shebang later to maint).
+ (merge 7bd97d6dff rs/alias-use-copy-array later to maint).
+ (merge c46ebc2496 sg/travis-help-debug later to maint).
+ (merge 24c681794f ps/my-first-contribution-alphasort later to maint).
+ (merge 75b2c15435 cb/do-not-use-test-cmp-with-a later to maint).
+ (merge cda0d497e3 bw/submodule-helper-usage-fix later to maint).
+ (merge fe0ed5d5e9 am/visual-studio-config-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 2e09c01232 sg/name-rev-cutoff-underflow-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ddb3c856f3 as/shallow-slab-use-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 71f4960b91 js/mingw-spawn-with-spaces-in-path later to maint).
+ (merge 53d687bf5f ah/cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge f537485fa5 rs/test-remove-useless-debugging-cat later to maint).
+ (merge 11a3d3aadd dl/rev-list-doc-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge d928a8388a am/t0028-utf16-tests later to maint).
+ (merge b05b40930e dl/t0000-skip-test-test later to maint).
+ (merge 03d3b1297c js/xdiffi-comment-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 57d8f4b4c7 js/doc-stash-save later to maint).
+ (merge 8c1cfd58e3 ta/t1308-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge fa364ad790 bb/utf8-wcwidth-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 68b69211b2 bb/compat-util-comment-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5cc6a4be11 rs/http-push-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge a81e42d235 rs/column-use-utf8-strnwidth later to maint).
+ (merge 062a309d36 rs/remote-curl-use-argv-array later to maint).
+ (merge 3b3c79f6c9 nr/diff-highlight-indent-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 3444ec2eb2 wb/fsmonitor-bitmap-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 10da030ab7 cb/pcre2-chartables-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge 60e6569a12 js/mingw-needs-hiding-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 52bd3e4657 rl/gitweb-blame-prev-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1810485
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.24.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..91ceb34
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,370 @@
+Git 2.25 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.24
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A tutorial on object enumeration has been added.
+
+ * The branch description ("git branch --edit-description") has been
+ used to fill the body of the cover letters by the format-patch
+ command; this has been enhanced so that the subject can also be
+ filled.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" has been marked as deprecated; this
+ release stops advertising it in the "git rebase -h" output.
+
+ * The code to generate multi-pack index learned to show (or not to
+ show) progress indicators.
+
+ * "git apply --3way" learned to honor merge.conflictStyle
+ configuration variable, like merges would.
+
+ * The custom format for "git log --format=<format>" learned the l/L
+ placeholder that is similar to e/E that fills in the e-mail
+ address, but only the local part on the left side of '@'.
+
+ * Documentation pages for "git shortlog" now list commit limiting
+ options explicitly.
+
+ * The patterns to detect function boundary for Elixir language has
+ been added.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned that the "--onto"
+ option of "git rebase" can take its argument as the value of the
+ option.
+
+ * The userdiff machinery has been taught that "async def" is another
+ way to begin a "function" in Python.
+
+ * "git range-diff" learned to take the "--notes=<ref>" and the
+ "--no-notes" options to control the commit notes included in the
+ log message that gets compared.
+
+ * "git rev-parse --show-toplevel" run outside of any working tree did
+ not error out, which has been corrected.
+
+ * A few commands learned to take the pathspec from the standard input
+ or a named file, instead of taking it as the command line
+ arguments, with the "--pathspec-from-file" option.
+
+ * "git submodule" learned a subcommand "set-url".
+
+ * "git log" family learned "--pretty=reference" that gives the name
+ of a commit in the format that is often used to refer to it in log
+ messages.
+
+ * The interaction between "git clone --recurse-submodules" and
+ alternate object store was ill-designed. The documentation and
+ code have been taught to make more clear recommendations when the
+ users see failures.
+
+ * Management of sparsely checked-out working tree has gained a
+ dedicated "sparse-checkout" command.
+
+ * Miscellaneous small UX improvements on "git-p4".
+
+ * "git sparse-checkout list" subcommand learned to give its output in
+ a more concise form when the "cone" mode is in effect.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Debugging support for lazy cloning has been a bit improved.
+
+ * Move the definition of a set of bitmask constants from 0ctal
+ literal to (1U<<count) notation.
+
+ * Test updates to prepare for SHA-2 transition continues.
+
+ * Crufty code and logic accumulated over time around the object
+ parsing and low-level object access used in "git fsck" have been
+ cleaned up.
+
+ * The implementation of "git log --graph" got refactored and then its
+ output got simplified.
+
+ * Follow recent push to move API docs from Documentation/ to header
+ files and update config.h
+
+ * "git bundle" has been taught to use the parse options API. "git
+ bundle verify" learned "--quiet" and "git bundle create" learned
+ options to control the progress output.
+
+ * Handling of commit objects that use non UTF-8 encoding during
+ "rebase -i" has been improved.
+
+ * The beginning of rewriting "git add -i" in C.
+
+ * A label used in the todo list that are generated by "git rebase
+ --rebase-merges" is used as a part of a refname; the logic to come
+ up with the label has been tightened to avoid names that cannot be
+ used as such.
+
+ * The logic to avoid duplicate label names generated by "git rebase
+ --rebase-merges" forgot that the machinery itself uses "onto" as a
+ label name, which must be avoided by auto-generated labels, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * We have had compatibility fallback macro definitions for "PRIuMAX",
+ "PRIu32", etc. but did not for "PRIdMAX", while the code used the
+ last one apparently without any hiccup reported recently. The
+ fallback macro definitions for these <inttypes.h> macros that must
+ appear in C99 systems have been removed.
+
+ * Recently we have declared that GIT_TEST_* variables take the
+ usual boolean values (it used to be that some used "non-empty
+ means true" and taking GIT_TEST_VAR=YesPlease as true); make
+ sure we notice and fail when non-bool strings are given to
+ these variables.
+
+ * Users of oneway_merge() (like "reset --hard") learned to take
+ advantage of fsmonitor to avoid unnecessary lstat(2) calls.
+
+ * Performance tweak on "git push" into a repository with many refs
+ that point at objects we have never heard of.
+
+ * PerfTest fix to avoid stale result mixed up with the latest round
+ of test results.
+
+ * Hide lower-level verify_signed-buffer() API as a pure helper to
+ implement the public check_signature() function, in order to
+ encourage new callers to use the correct and more strict
+ validation.
+
+ * Unnecessary reading of state variables back from the disk during
+ sequencer operation has been reduced.
+
+ * The code has been made to avoid gmtime() and localtime() and prefer
+ their reentrant counterparts.
+
+ * In a repository with many packfiles, the cost of the procedure that
+ avoids registering the same packfile twice was unnecessarily high
+ by using an inefficient search algorithm, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Redo "git name-rev" to avoid recursive calls.
+
+ * FreeBSD CI support via Cirrus-CI has been added.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.24
+-----------------
+
+ * "rebase -i" ceased to run post-commit hook by mistake in an earlier
+ update, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git notes copy $original" ought to copy the notes attached to the
+ original object to HEAD, but a mistaken tightening to command line
+ parameter validation made earlier disabled that feature by mistake.
+
+ * When all files from some subdirectory were renamed to the root
+ directory, the directory rename heuristics would fail to detect that
+ as a rename/merge of the subdirectory to the root directory, which has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Code clean-up and a bugfix in the logic used to tell worktree local
+ and repository global refs apart.
+ (merge f45f88b2e4 sg/dir-trie-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash save" in a working tree that is sparsely checked out
+ mistakenly removed paths that are outside the area of interest.
+ (merge 4a58c3d7f7 js/update-index-ignore-removal-for-skip-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse --git-path HEAD.lock" did not give the right path
+ when run in a secondary worktree.
+ (merge 76a53d640f js/git-path-head-dot-lock-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge --no-commit" needs "--no-ff" if you do not want to move
+ HEAD, which has been corrected in the manual page for "git bisect".
+ (merge 8dd327b246 ma/bisect-doc-sample-update later to maint).
+
+ * "git worktree add" internally calls "reset --hard" that should not
+ descend into submodules, even when submodule.recurse configuration
+ is set, but it was affected. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 4782cf2ab6 pb/no-recursive-reset-hard-in-worktree-add later to maint).
+
+ * Messages from die() etc. can be mixed up from multiple processes
+ without even line buffering on Windows, which has been worked
+ around.
+ (merge 116d1fa6c6 js/vreportf-wo-buffering later to maint).
+
+ * HTTP transport had possible allocator/deallocator mismatch, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The watchman integration for fsmonitor was racy, which has been
+ corrected to be more conservative.
+ (merge dd0b61f577 kw/fsmonitor-watchman-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Fetching from multiple remotes into the same repository in parallel
+ had a bad interaction with the recent change to (optionally) update
+ the commit-graph after a fetch job finishes, as these parallel
+ fetches compete with each other. Which has been corrected.
+
+ * Recent update to "git stash pop" made the command empty the index
+ when run with the "--quiet" option, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git fetch" codepath had a big "do not lazily fetch missing objects
+ when I ask if something exists" switch. This has been corrected by
+ marking the "does this thing exist?" calls with "if not please do not
+ lazily fetch it" flag.
+
+ * Test update to avoid wasted cycles.
+ (merge e0316695ec sg/skip-skipped-prereq later to maint).
+
+ * Error handling after "git push" finishes sending the packdata and
+ waits for the response to the remote side has been improved.
+ (merge ad7a403268 jk/send-pack-remote-failure later to maint).
+
+ * Some codepaths in "gitweb" that forgot to escape URLs generated
+ based on end-user input have been corrected.
+ (merge a376e37b2c jk/gitweb-anti-xss later to maint).
+
+ * CI jobs for macOS has been made less chatty when updating perforce
+ package used during testing.
+ (merge 0dbc4a0edf jc/azure-ci-osx-fix-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git unpack-objects" used to show progress based only on the number
+ of received and unpacked objects, which stalled when it has to
+ handle an unusually large object. It now shows the throughput as
+ well.
+ (merge bae60ba7e9 sg/unpack-progress-throughput later to maint).
+
+ * The sequencer machinery compared the HEAD and the state it is
+ attempting to commit to decide if the result would be a no-op
+ commit, even when amending a commit, which was incorrect, and
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to parse GPG output used to assume incorrectly that the
+ finterprint for the primary key would always be present for a valid
+ signature, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 67a6ea6300 hi/gpg-optional-pkfp-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule status" and "git submodule status --cached" show
+ different things, but the documentation did not cover them
+ correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 8d483c8408 mg/doc-submodule-status-cached later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset --patch $object" without any pathspec should allow a
+ tree object to be given, but incorrectly required a committish,
+ which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git submodule status" that is run from a subdirectory of the
+ superproject did not work well, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 1f3aea22c7 mg/submodule-status-from-a-subdirectory later to maint).
+
+ * The revision walking machinery uses resources like per-object flag
+ bits that need to be reset before a new iteration of walking
+ begins, but the resources related to topological walk were not
+ cleared correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0aa0c2b2ec mh/clear-topo-walk-upon-reset later to maint).
+
+ * TravisCI update.
+ (merge 176441bfb5 sg/osx-force-gcc-9 later to maint).
+
+ * While running "revert" or "cherry-pick --edit" for multiple
+ commits, a recent regression incorrectly detected "nothing to
+ commit, working tree clean", instead of replaying the commits,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge befd4f6a81 sg/assume-no-todo-update-in-cherry-pick later to maint).
+
+ * Work around a issue where a FD that is left open when spawning a
+ child process and is kept open in the child can interfere with the
+ operation in the parent process on Windows.
+
+ * One kind of progress messages were always given during commit-graph
+ generation, instead of following the "if it takes more than two
+ seconds, show progress" pattern, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase" did not work well when format.useAutoBase
+ configuration variable is set, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The "diff" machinery learned not to lose added/removed blank lines
+ in the context when --ignore-blank-lines and --function-context are
+ used at the same time.
+ (merge 0bb313a552 rs/xdiff-ignore-ws-w-func-context later to maint).
+
+ * The test on "fast-import" used to get stuck when "fast-import" died
+ in the middle.
+ (merge 0d9b0d7885 sg/t9300-robustify later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch" can take a set of configured format.notes values
+ to specify which notes refs to use in the log message part of the
+ output. The behaviour of this was not consistent with multiple
+ --notes command line options, which has been corrected.
+ (merge e0f9095aaa dl/format-patch-notes-config-fixup later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" used to ignore lfs.storage configuration variable, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge ea94b16fb8 rb/p4-lfs later to maint).
+
+ * Assorted fixes to the directory traversal API.
+ (merge 6836d2fe06 en/fill-directory-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Forbid pathnames that the platform's filesystem cannot represent on
+ MinGW.
+ (merge 4dc42c6c18 js/mingw-reserved-filenames later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --signoff" stopped working when the command was written
+ in C, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 4fe7e43c53 en/rebase-signoff-fix later to maint).
+
+ * An earlier update to Git for Windows declared that a tree object is
+ invalid if it has a path component with backslash in it, which was
+ overly strict, which has been corrected. The only protection the
+ Windows users need is to prevent such path (or any path that their
+ filesystem cannot check out) from entering the index.
+ (merge 224c7d70fa js/mingw-loosen-overstrict-tree-entry-checks later to maint).
+
+ * The code to write split commit-graph file(s) upon fetching computed
+ bogus value for the parameter used in splitting the resulting
+ files, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 63020f175f ds/commit-graph-set-size-mult later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge 80736d7c5e jc/am-show-current-patch-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge 8b656572ca sg/commit-graph-usage-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6c02042139 mr/clone-dir-exists-to-path-exists later to maint).
+ (merge 44ae131e38 sg/blame-indent-heuristics-is-now-the-default later to maint).
+ (merge 0115e5d929 dl/doc-diff-no-index-implies-exit-code later to maint).
+ (merge 270de6acbe en/t6024-style later to maint).
+ (merge 14c4776d75 ns/test-desc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 68d40f30c4 dj/typofix-merge-strat later to maint).
+ (merge f66e0401ab jk/optim-in-pack-idx-conversion later to maint).
+ (merge 169bed7421 rs/parse-options-dup-null-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 51bd6be32d rs/use-copy-array-in-mingw-shell-command-preparation later to maint).
+ (merge b018719927 ma/t7004 later to maint).
+ (merge 932757b0cc ar/install-doc-update-cmds-needing-the-shell later to maint).
+ (merge 46efd28be1 ep/guard-kset-tar-headers later to maint).
+ (merge 9e5afdf997 ec/fetch-mark-common-refs-trace2 later to maint).
+ (merge f0e58b3fe8 pb/submodule-update-fetches later to maint).
+ (merge 2a02262078 dl/t5520-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge a4fb016ba1 js/pkt-line-h-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 54a7a64613 rs/simplify-prepare-cmd later to maint).
+ (merge 3eae30e464 jk/lore-is-the-archive later to maint).
+ (merge 14b7664df8 dl/lore-is-the-archive later to maint).
+ (merge 0e40a73a4c po/bundle-doc-clonable later to maint).
+ (merge e714b898c6 as/t7812-missing-redirects-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 528d9e6d01 jk/perf-wo-git-dot-pm later to maint).
+ (merge fc42f20e24 sg/test-squelch-noise-in-commit-bulk later to maint).
+ (merge c64368e3a2 bc/t9001-zsh-in-posix-emulation-mode later to maint).
+ (merge 11de8dd7ef dr/branch-usage-casefix later to maint).
+ (merge e05e8cf074 rs/archive-zip-code-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 147ee35558 rs/commit-export-env-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge 4507ecc771 rs/patch-id-use-oid-to-hex later to maint).
+ (merge 51a0a4ed95 mr/bisect-use-after-free later to maint).
+ (merge cc2bd5c45d pb/submodule-doc-xref later to maint).
+ (merge df5be01669 ja/doc-markup-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 7c5cea7242 mr/bisect-save-pointer-to-const-string later to maint).
+ (merge 20a67e8ce9 js/use-test-tool-on-path later to maint).
+ (merge 4e61b2214d ew/packfile-syscall-optim later to maint).
+ (merge ace0f86c7f pb/clarify-line-log-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 763a59e71c en/merge-recursive-oid-eq-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge 4e2c4c0d4f do/gitweb-typofix-in-comments later to maint).
+ (merge 421c0ffb02 jb/doc-multi-pack-idx-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f8740c586b pm/am-in-body-header-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 5814d44d9b tm/doc-submodule-absorb-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cd869b0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,55 @@
+Git 2.25.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.25
+-----------------
+
+ * "git commit" gives output similar to "git status" when there is
+ nothing to commit, but without honoring the advise.statusHints
+ configuration variable, which has been corrected.
+
+ * has_object_file() said "no" given an object registered to the
+ system via pretend_object_file(), making it inconsistent with
+ read_object_file(), causing lazy fetch to attempt fetching an
+ empty tree from promisor remotes.
+
+ * The code that tries to skip over the entries for the paths in a
+ single directory using the cache-tree was not careful enough
+ against corrupt index file.
+
+ * Complete an update to tutorial that encourages "git switch" over
+ "git checkout" that was done only half-way.
+
+ * Reduce unnecessary round-trip when running "ls-remote" over the
+ stateless RPC mechanism.
+
+ * "git restore --staged" did not correctly update the cache-tree
+ structure, resulting in bogus trees to be written afterwards, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The code recently added to move to the entry beyond the ones in the
+ same directory in the index in the sparse-cone mode did not count
+ the number of entries to skip over incorrectly, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Work around test breakages caused by custom regex engine used in
+ libasan, when address sanitizer is used with more recent versions
+ of gcc and clang.
+
+ * "git fetch --refmap=" option has got a better documentation.
+
+ * Corner case bugs in "git clean" that stems from a (necessarily for
+ performance reasons) awkward calling convention in the directory
+ enumeration API has been corrected.
+
+ * "git grep --no-index" should not get affected by the contents of
+ the .gitmodules file but when "--recurse-submodules" is given or
+ the "submodule.recurse" variable is set, it did. Now these
+ settings are ignored in the "--no-index" mode.
+
+ * Technical details of the bundle format has been documented.
+
+ * Unhelpful warning messages during documentation build have been
+ squelched.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates, code clean-ups and minor fixups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.26.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.26.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..30ef134
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.26.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,277 @@
+Git 2.26 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.25
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Sample credential helper for using .netrc has been updated to work
+ out of the box.
+
+ * gpg.minTrustLevel configuration variable has been introduced to
+ tell various signature verification codepaths the required minimum
+ trust level.
+
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) learned to complete
+ subcommands and arguments to "git worktree".
+
+ * Disambiguation logic to tell revisions and pathspec apart has been
+ tweaked so that backslash-escaped glob special characters do not
+ count in the "wildcards are pathspec" rule.
+
+ * One effect of specifying where the GIT_DIR is (either with the
+ environment variable, or with the "git --git-dir=<where> cmd"
+ option) is to disable the repository discovery. This has been
+ placed a bit more stress in the documentation, as new users often
+ get confused.
+
+ * Two help messages given when "git add" notices the user gave it
+ nothing to add have been updated to use advise() API.
+
+ * A new version of fsmonitor-watchman hook has been introduced, to
+ avoid races.
+
+ * "git config" learned to show in which "scope", in addition to in
+ which file, each config setting comes from.
+
+ * The basic 7 colors learned the brighter counterparts
+ (e.g. "brightred").
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Tell .editorconfig that in this project, *.txt files are indented
+ with tabs.
+
+ * The test-lint machinery knew to check "VAR=VAL shell_function"
+ construct, but did not check "VAR= shell_funciton", which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Replace "git config --bool" calls with "git config --type=bool" in
+ sample templates.
+
+ * The effort to move "git-add--interactive" to C continues.
+
+ * Improve error message generation for "git submodule add".
+
+ * Preparation of test scripts for the day when the object names will
+ use SHA-256 continues.
+
+ * Warn programmers about pretend_object_file() that allows the code
+ to tentatively use in-core objects.
+
+ * The way "git pack-objects" reuses objects stored in existing pack
+ to generate its result has been improved.
+
+ * The transport protocol version 2 becomes the default one.
+
+ * Traditionally, we avoided threaded grep while searching in objects
+ (as opposed to files in the working tree) as accesses to the object
+ layer is not thread-safe. This limitation is getting lifted.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" (and friends) used to unnecessarily check out the
+ tip of the branch to be rebased, which has been corrected.
+
+ * A low-level API function get_oid(), that accepts various ways to
+ name an object, used to issue end-user facing error messages
+ without l10n, which has been updated to be translatable.
+
+ * Unneeded connectivity check is now disabled in a partial clone when
+ fetching into it.
+
+ * Some rough edges in the sparse-checkout feature, especially around
+ the cone mode, have been cleaned up.
+
+ * The diff-* plumbing family of subcommands now pay attention to the
+ diff.wsErrorHighlight configuration, which has been ignored before;
+ this allows "git add -p" to also show the whitespace problems to
+ the end user.
+
+ * Some codepaths were given a repository instance as a parameter to
+ work in the repository, but passed the_repository instance to its
+ callees, which has been cleaned up (somewhat).
+
+ * Memory footprint and performance of "git name-rev" has been
+ improved.
+
+ * The object reachability bitmap machinery and the partial cloning
+ machinery were not prepared to work well together, because some
+ object-filtering criteria that partial clones use inherently rely
+ on object traversal, but the bitmap machinery is an optimization
+ to bypass that object traversal. There however are some cases
+ where they can work together, and they were taught about them.
+
+ * "git rebase" has learned to use the merge backend (i.e. the
+ machinery that drives "rebase -i") by default, while allowing
+ "--apply" option to use the "apply" backend (e.g. the moral
+ equivalent of "format-patch piped to am"). The rebase.backend
+ configuration variable can be set to customize.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.25
+-----------------
+
+ * "git commit" gives output similar to "git status" when there is
+ nothing to commit, but without honoring the advise.statusHints
+ configuration variable, which has been corrected.
+
+ * has_object_file() said "no" given an object registered to the
+ system via pretend_object_file(), making it inconsistent with
+ read_object_file(), causing lazy fetch to attempt fetching an
+ empty tree from promisor remotes.
+
+ * Complete an update to tutorial that encourages "git switch" over
+ "git checkout" that was done only half-way.
+
+ * C pedantry ;-) fix.
+
+ * The code that tries to skip over the entries for the paths in a
+ single directory using the cache-tree was not careful enough
+ against corrupt index file.
+
+ * Reduce unnecessary round-trip when running "ls-remote" over the
+ stateless RPC mechanism.
+
+ * "git restore --staged" did not correctly update the cache-tree
+ structure, resulting in bogus trees to be written afterwards, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The code recently added to move to the entry beyond the ones in the
+ same directory in the index in the sparse-cone mode did not count
+ the number of entries to skip over incorrectly, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Rendering by "git log --graph" of ancestry lines leading to a merge
+ commit were made suboptimal to waste vertical space a bit with a
+ recent update, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Work around test breakages caused by custom regex engine used in
+ libasan, when address sanitizer is used with more recent versions
+ of gcc and clang.
+
+ * Minor bugfixes to "git add -i" that has recently been rewritten in C.
+ (merge 849e43cc18 js/builtin-add-i-cmds later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --refmap=" option has got a better documentation.
+
+ * "git checkout X" did not correctly fail when X is not a local
+ branch but could name more than one remote-tracking branches
+ (i.e. to be dwimmed as the starting point to create a corresponding
+ local branch), which has been corrected.
+ (merge fa74180d08 am/checkout-file-and-ref-ref-ambiguity later to maint).
+
+ * Corner case bugs in "git clean" that stems from a (necessarily for
+ performance reasons) awkward calling convention in the directory
+ enumeration API has been corrected.
+
+ * A fetch that is told to recursively fetch updates in submodules
+ inevitably produces reams of output, and it becomes hard to spot
+ error messages. The command has been taught to enumerate
+ submodules that had errors at the end of the operation.
+ (merge 0222540827 es/fetch-show-failed-submodules-atend later to maint).
+
+ * The "--recurse-submodules" option of various subcommands did not
+ work well when run in an alternate worktree, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge a9472afb63 pb/recurse-submodule-in-worktree-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Futureproofing a test not to depend on the current implementation
+ detail.
+
+ * Running "git rm" on a submodule failed unnecessarily when
+ .gitmodules is only cache-dirty, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 7edee32985 dt/submodule-rm-with-stale-cache later to maint).
+
+ * C pedantry ;-) fix.
+ (merge cf82bff73f jk/clang-sanitizer-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep --no-index" should not get affected by the contents of
+ the .gitmodules file but when "--recurse-submodules" is given or
+ the "submodule.recurse" variable is set, it did. Now these
+ settings are ignored in the "--no-index" mode.
+
+ * Technical details of the bundle format has been documented.
+
+ * Unhelpful warning messages during documentation build have been squelched.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" identifies existing commits in its todo file with
+ their abbreviated object name, which could become ambigous as it
+ goes to create new commits, and has a mechanism to avoid ambiguity
+ in the main part of its execution. A few other cases however were
+ not covered by the protection against ambiguity, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 26027625dd js/rebase-i-with-colliding-hash later to maint).
+
+ * Allow the rebase.missingCommitsCheck configuration to kick in when
+ "rebase --edit-todo" and "rebase --continue" restarts the procedure.
+ (merge 5a5445d878 ag/edit-todo-drop-check later to maint).
+
+ * The way "git submodule status" reports an initialized but not yet
+ populated submodule has not been reimplemented correctly when a
+ part of the "git submodule" command was rewritten in C, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge f38c92452d pk/status-of-uncloned-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * The code to automatically shrink the fan-out in the notes tree had
+ an off-by-one bug, which has been killed.
+ (merge dbc27477ff jh/notes-fanout-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The index-pack code now diagnoses a bad input packstream that
+ records the same object twice when it is used as delta base; the
+ code used to declare a software bug when encountering such an
+ input, but it is an input error.
+ (merge a21781011f jk/index-pack-dupfix later to maint).
+
+ * The code to compute the commit-graph has been taught to use a more
+ robust way to tell if two object directories refer to the same
+ thing.
+ (merge a7df60cac8 tb/commit-graph-object-dir later to maint).
+
+ * "git remote rename X Y" needs to adjust configuration variables
+ (e.g. branch.<name>.remote) whose value used to be X to Y.
+ branch.<name>.pushRemote is now also updated.
+
+ * Update to doc-diff.
+ (merge 2607d39da3 jk/doc-diff-parallel later to maint).
+
+ * Doc markup fix.
+ (merge 0aa6ce3094 jk/push-option-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git check-ignore" did not work when the given path is explicitly
+ marked as not ignored with a negative entry in the .gitignore file.
+ (merge 7ec8125fba en/check-ignore later to maint).
+
+ * The merge-recursive machinery failed to refresh the cache entry for
+ a merge result in a couple of places, resulting in an unnecessary
+ merge failure, which has been fixed.
+ (merge fb1c18fc46 en/t3433-rebase-stat-dirty-failure later to maint).
+
+ * Fix for a bug revealed by a recent change to make the protocol v2
+ the default.
+ (merge 3e96c66805 ds/partial-clone-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge 26f924d50e en/simplify-check-updates-in-unpack-trees later to maint).
+ (merge d0d0a357a1 am/update-pathspec-f-f-tests later to maint).
+ (merge f94f7bd00d am/test-pathspec-f-f-error-cases later to maint).
+ (merge c513a958b6 ss/t6025-modernize later to maint).
+ (merge b441717256 dl/test-must-fail-fixes later to maint).
+ (merge d031049da3 mt/sparse-checkout-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 145136a95a jc/skip-prefix later to maint).
+ (merge 5290d45134 jk/alloc-cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge 7a9f8ca805 rs/parse-options-concat-dup later to maint).
+ (merge 517b60564e rs/strbuf-insertstr later to maint).
+ (merge f696a2b1c8 jk/mailinfo-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 076ee3e8a2 js/test-write-junit-xml-fix later to maint).
+ (merge de26f02db1 js/test-avoid-pipe later to maint).
+ (merge bfe2bbb47f js/test-unc-fetch later to maint).
+ (merge 08809c09aa js/mingw-open-in-gdb later to maint).
+ (merge cc4f2eb828 jk/doc-credential-helper later to maint).
+ (merge e0020b2f82 es/outside-repo-errmsg-hints later to maint).
+ (merge a2dc43414c es/doc-mentoring later to maint).
+ (merge 539052f42f jk/run-command-formatfix later to maint).
+ (merge 02bbbe9df9 es/worktree-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 2ce6d075fa rs/micro-cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge 27f182b3fc rs/blame-typefix-for-fingerprint later to maint).
+ (merge 3c29e21eb0 ma/test-cleanup later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt
index 5ef1264..850dc68 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ Fixes since v2.3.2
* Description given by "grep -h" for its --exclude-standard option
was phrased poorly.
- * Documentaton for "git remote add" mentioned "--tags" and
+ * Documentation for "git remote add" mentioned "--tags" and
"--no-tags" and it was not clear that fetch from the remote in
the future will use the default behaviour when neither is given
to override it.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt
index fc95812..5769184 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Git v2.3.7 Release Notes
Fixes since v2.3.6
------------------
- * An earlier update to the parser that disects a URL broke an
+ * An earlier update to the parser that dissects a URL broke an
address, followed by a colon, followed by an empty string (instead
of the port number), e.g. ssh://example.com:/path/to/repo.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt
index 914d2c1..422e930 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ Fixes since v2.4.3
* Some time ago, "git blame" (incorrectly) lost the convert_to_git()
call when synthesizing a fake "tip" commit that represents the
state in the working tree, which broke folks who record the history
- with LF line ending to make their project portabile across
+ with LF line ending to make their project portable across
platforms while terminating lines in their working tree files with
CRLF for their platform.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt
index 8704450..84723f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt
@@ -172,7 +172,8 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
incorrect patch text to "git apply". Add tests to demonstrate
this.
- I have a slight suspicion that this may be $gmane/87202 coming back
+ I have a slight suspicion that this may be
+ cf. <7vtzf77wjp.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org> coming back
and biting us (I seem to have said "let's run with this and see
what happens" back then).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
index 563dadc..e3cbf3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
* "git interpret-trailers" can now run outside of a Git repository.
- * "git p4" learned to reencode the pathname it uses to communicate
+ * "git p4" learned to re-encode the pathname it uses to communicate
with the p4 depot with a new option.
* Give progress meter to "git filter-branch".
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt
index 6553d69..6323fea 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ Fixes since v2.7
setting GIT_WORK_TREE environment themselves.
* The "exclude_list" structure has the usual "alloc, nr" pair of
- fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_exclude_list() forgot
+ fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_pattern_list() forgot
to reset 'alloc' to 0 when it cleared 'nr' to discard the managed
array.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt
index 6adf038..f618d71 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ Fixes since v2.7.2
tests.
* "git show 'HEAD:Foo[BAR]Baz'" did not interpret the argument as a
- rev, i.e. the object named by the the pathname with wildcard
+ rev, i.e. the object named by the pathname with wildcard
characters in a tree object.
* "git rev-parse --git-common-dir" used in the worktree feature
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
index 2507971..27320b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* Some calls to strcpy(3) triggers a false warning from static
analyzers that are less intelligent than humans, and reducing the
number of these false hits helps us notice real issues. A few
- calls to strcpy(3) in a couple of protrams that are already safe
+ calls to strcpy(3) in a couple of programs that are already safe
has been rewritten to avoid false warnings.
* The "name_path" API was an attempt to reduce the need to construct
@@ -270,7 +270,7 @@ notes for details).
setting GIT_WORK_TREE environment themselves.
* The "exclude_list" structure has the usual "alloc, nr" pair of
- fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_exclude_list() forgot
+ fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_pattern_list() forgot
to reset 'alloc' to 0 when it cleared 'nr' to discard the managed
array.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
index fedd996..a63825e 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
@@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ Fixes since v2.8.2
This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds. It also
has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
- See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853
- and http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/275680.
+ See https://lore.kernel.org/git/20160419091055.GF2345@dinwoodie.org/
+ and https://lore.kernel.org/git/20150811100527.GW14466@dinwoodie.org/.
* "git replace -e" did not honour "core.editor" configuration.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
index b61d367..9916401 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ notes for details).
This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds. It also
has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
- See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853
+ See https://lore.kernel.org/git/20160419091055.GF2345@dinwoodie.org/
* "merge-octopus" strategy did not ensure that the index is clean
when merge begins.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
index 695b86f..305e080 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ Fixes since v2.9.2
* One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
- the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+ the system where outside stuff is usually called "theirs" in
contrast to "ours".
* The test framework learned a new helper test_match_signal to
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 6d589e1..4515cab 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -142,19 +142,25 @@ archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
[[commit-reference]]
If you want to reference a previous commit in the history of a stable
-branch, use the format "abbreviated sha1 (subject, date)",
-with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes, like this:
+branch, use the format "abbreviated hash (subject, date)", like this:
....
- Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
+ Commit f86a374 (pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak, 2015-03-30)
noticed that ...
....
The "Copy commit summary" command of gitk can be used to obtain this
-format, or this invocation of `git show`:
+format (with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes), or this
+invocation of `git show`:
....
- git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
+ git show -s --pretty=reference <commit>
+....
+
+or, on an older version of Git without support for --pretty=reference:
+
+....
+ git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h (%s, %ad)' <commit>
....
[[git-tools]]
@@ -372,9 +378,9 @@ such as "Thanks-to:", "Based-on-patch-by:", or "Mentored-by:".
Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
repositories.
-- `git-gui/` comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
+- `git-gui/` comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pratyush Yadav:
- git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
+ https://github.com/prati0100/git-gui.git
- `gitk-git/` comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 2c16c53..8fc4b67 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -78,9 +78,9 @@ template::[header-declarations]
<refmeta>
<refentrytitle>{mantitle}</refentrytitle>
<manvolnum>{manvolnum}</manvolnum>
-<refmiscinfo class="source">Git</refmiscinfo>
-<refmiscinfo class="version">{git_version}</refmiscinfo>
-<refmiscinfo class="manual">Git Manual</refmiscinfo>
+<refmiscinfo class="source">{mansource}</refmiscinfo>
+<refmiscinfo class="version">{manversion}</refmiscinfo>
+<refmiscinfo class="manual">{manmanual}</refmiscinfo>
</refmeta>
<refnamediv>
<refname>{manname}</refname>
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb b/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb
index 0089e0c..d906a00 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb
@@ -9,8 +9,11 @@ module Git
named :chrome
def process(parent, target, attrs)
- if parent.document.basebackend? 'html'
- prefix = parent.document.attr('git-relative-html-prefix')
+ prefix = parent.document.attr('git-relative-html-prefix')
+ if parent.document.doctype == 'book'
+ "<ulink url=\"#{prefix}#{target}.html\">" \
+ "#{target}(#{attrs[1]})</ulink>"
+ elsif parent.document.basebackend? 'html'
%(<a href="#{prefix}#{target}.html">#{target}(#{attrs[1]})</a>)
elsif parent.document.basebackend? 'docbook'
"<citerefentry>\n" \
@@ -20,9 +23,26 @@ module Git
end
end
end
+
+ class DocumentPostProcessor < Asciidoctor::Extensions::Postprocessor
+ def process document, output
+ if document.basebackend? 'docbook'
+ mansource = document.attributes['mansource']
+ manversion = document.attributes['manversion']
+ manmanual = document.attributes['manmanual']
+ new_tags = "" \
+ "<refmiscinfo class=\"source\">#{mansource}</refmiscinfo>\n" \
+ "<refmiscinfo class=\"version\">#{manversion}</refmiscinfo>\n" \
+ "<refmiscinfo class=\"manual\">#{manmanual}</refmiscinfo>\n"
+ output = output.sub(/<\/refmeta>/, new_tags + "</refmeta>")
+ end
+ output
+ end
+ end
end
end
Asciidoctor::Extensions.register do
inline_macro Git::Documentation::LinkGitProcessor, :linkgit
+ postprocessor Git::Documentation::DocumentPostProcessor
end
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index dc41957..5d122db 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -110,5 +110,24 @@ commit. And the default value is 40. If there are more than one
`-C` options given, the <num> argument of the last `-C` will
take effect.
+--ignore-rev <rev>::
+ Ignore changes made by the revision when assigning blame, as if the
+ change never happened. Lines that were changed or added by an ignored
+ commit will be blamed on the previous commit that changed that line or
+ nearby lines. This option may be specified multiple times to ignore
+ more than one revision. If the `blame.markIgnoredLines` config option
+ is set, then lines that were changed by an ignored commit and attributed to
+ another commit will be marked with a `?` in the blame output. If the
+ `blame.markUnblamableLines` config option is set, then those lines touched
+ by an ignored commit that we could not attribute to another revision are
+ marked with a '*'.
+
+--ignore-revs-file <file>::
+ Ignore revisions listed in `file`, which must be in the same format as an
+ `fsck.skipList`. This option may be repeated, and these files will be
+ processed after any files specified with the `blame.ignoreRevsFile` config
+ option. An empty file name, `""`, will clear the list of revs from
+ previously processed files.
+
-h::
Show help message.
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 7e2a6f6..08b13ba 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -142,7 +142,21 @@ refer to linkgit:gitignore[5] for details. For convenience:
`gitdir/i`::
This is the same as `gitdir` except that matching is done
- case-insensitively (e.g. on case-insensitive file sytems)
+ case-insensitively (e.g. on case-insensitive file systems)
+
+`onbranch`::
+ The data that follows the keyword `onbranch:` is taken to be a
+ pattern with standard globbing wildcards and two additional
+ ones, `**/` and `/**`, that can match multiple path components.
+ If we are in a worktree where the name of the branch that is
+ currently checked out matches the pattern, the include condition
+ is met.
++
+If the pattern ends with `/`, `**` will be automatically added. For
+example, the pattern `foo/` becomes `foo/**`. In other words, it matches
+all branches that begin with `foo/`. This is useful if your branches are
+organized hierarchically and you would like to apply a configuration to
+all the branches in that hierarchy.
A few more notes on matching via `gitdir` and `gitdir/i`:
@@ -164,46 +178,53 @@ to either specify only the realpath version, or both versions.
Example
~~~~~~~
- # Core variables
- [core]
- ; Don't trust file modes
- filemode = false
-
- # Our diff algorithm
- [diff]
- external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
- renames = true
-
- [branch "devel"]
- remote = origin
- merge = refs/heads/devel
-
- # Proxy settings
- [core]
- gitProxy="ssh" for "kernel.org"
- gitProxy=default-proxy ; for the rest
-
- [include]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc ; include by absolute path
- path = foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" relative to the current file
- path = ~/foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" in your `$HOME` directory
-
- ; include if $GIT_DIR is /path/to/foo/.git
- [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/foo/.git"]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc
-
- ; include for all repositories inside /path/to/group
- [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc
-
- ; include for all repositories inside $HOME/to/group
- [includeIf "gitdir:~/to/group/"]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc
-
- ; relative paths are always relative to the including
- ; file (if the condition is true); their location is not
- ; affected by the condition
- [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+----
+# Core variables
+[core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+# Our diff algorithm
+[diff]
+ external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
+ renames = true
+
+[branch "devel"]
+ remote = origin
+ merge = refs/heads/devel
+
+# Proxy settings
+[core]
+ gitProxy="ssh" for "kernel.org"
+ gitProxy=default-proxy ; for the rest
+
+[include]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc ; include by absolute path
+ path = foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" relative to the current file
+ path = ~/foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" in your `$HOME` directory
+
+; include if $GIT_DIR is /path/to/foo/.git
+[includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/foo/.git"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+; include for all repositories inside /path/to/group
+[includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+; include for all repositories inside $HOME/to/group
+[includeIf "gitdir:~/to/group/"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+; relative paths are always relative to the including
+; file (if the condition is true); their location is not
+; affected by the condition
+[includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+ path = foo.inc
+----
+
+ ; include only if we are in a worktree where foo-branch is
+ ; currently checked out
+ [includeIf "onbranch:foo-branch"]
path = foo.inc
Values
@@ -242,7 +263,9 @@ color::
+
The basic colors accepted are `normal`, `black`, `red`, `green`, `yellow`,
`blue`, `magenta`, `cyan` and `white`. The first color given is the
-foreground; the second is the background.
+foreground; the second is the background. All the basic colors except
+`normal` have a bright variant that can be speficied by prefixing the
+color with `bright`, like `brightred`.
+
Colors may also be given as numbers between 0 and 255; these use ANSI
256-color mode (but note that not all terminals may support this). If
@@ -326,6 +349,8 @@ include::config/difftool.txt[]
include::config/fastimport.txt[]
+include::config/feature.txt[]
+
include::config/fetch.txt[]
include::config/format.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/config/add.txt b/Documentation/config/add.txt
index 4d753f0..c9f748f 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/add.txt
@@ -5,3 +5,8 @@ add.ignore-errors (deprecated)::
option of linkgit:git-add[1]. `add.ignore-errors` is deprecated,
as it does not follow the usual naming convention for configuration
variables.
+
+add.interactive.useBuiltin::
+ [EXPERIMENTAL] Set to `true` to use the experimental built-in
+ implementation of the interactive version of linkgit:git-add[1]
+ instead of the Perl script version. Is `false` by default.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/advice.txt b/Documentation/config/advice.txt
index ec4f6ae..bdd37c3 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/advice.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/advice.txt
@@ -4,6 +4,10 @@ advice.*::
can tell Git that you do not need help by setting these to 'false':
+
--
+ fetchShowForcedUpdates::
+ Advice shown when linkgit:git-fetch[1] takes a long time
+ to calculate forced updates after ref updates, or to warn
+ that the check is disabled.
pushUpdateRejected::
Set this variable to 'false' if you want to disable
'pushNonFFCurrent',
@@ -37,12 +41,19 @@ advice.*::
we can still suggest that the user push to either
refs/heads/* or refs/tags/* based on the type of the
source object.
+ statusAheadBehind::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-status[1] computes the ahead/behind
+ counts for a local ref compared to its remote tracking ref,
+ and that calculation takes longer than expected. Will not
+ appear if `status.aheadBehind` is false or the option
+ `--no-ahead-behind` is given.
statusHints::
Show directions on how to proceed from the current
state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1], in
the template shown when writing commit messages in
linkgit:git-commit[1], and in the help message shown
- by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when switching branch.
+ by linkgit:git-switch[1] or
+ linkgit:git-checkout[1] when switching branch.
statusUoption::
Advise to consider using the `-u` option to linkgit:git-status[1]
when the command takes more than 2 seconds to enumerate untracked
@@ -57,17 +68,21 @@ advice.*::
resolveConflict::
Advice shown by various commands when conflicts
prevent the operation from being performed.
+ sequencerInUse::
+ Advice shown when a sequencer command is already in progress.
implicitIdentity::
Advice on how to set your identity configuration when
your information is guessed from the system username and
domain name.
detachedHead::
- Advice shown when you used linkgit:git-checkout[1] to
- move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to create
- a local branch after the fact.
+ Advice shown when you used
+ linkgit:git-switch[1] or linkgit:git-checkout[1]
+ to move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to
+ create a local branch after the fact.
checkoutAmbiguousRemoteBranchName::
Advice shown when the argument to
- linkgit:git-checkout[1] ambiguously resolves to a
+ linkgit:git-checkout[1] and linkgit:git-switch[1]
+ ambiguously resolves to a
remote tracking branch on more than one remote in
situations where an unambiguous argument would have
otherwise caused a remote-tracking branch to be
@@ -92,4 +107,13 @@ advice.*::
editor input from the user.
nestedTag::
Advice shown if a user attempts to recursively tag a tag object.
+ submoduleAlternateErrorStrategyDie::
+ Advice shown when a submodule.alternateErrorStrategy option
+ configured to "die" causes a fatal error.
+ addIgnoredFile::
+ Advice shown if a user attempts to add an ignored file to
+ the index.
+ addEmptyPathspec::
+ Advice shown if a user runs the add command without providing
+ the pathspec parameter.
--
diff --git a/Documentation/config/blame.txt b/Documentation/config/blame.txt
index 67b5c1d..9468e85 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/blame.txt
@@ -19,3 +19,19 @@ blame.showEmail::
blame.showRoot::
Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.ignoreRevsFile::
+ Ignore revisions listed in the file, one unabbreviated object name per
+ line, in linkgit:git-blame[1]. Whitespace and comments beginning with
+ `#` are ignored. This option may be repeated multiple times. Empty
+ file names will reset the list of ignored revisions. This option will
+ be handled before the command line option `--ignore-revs-file`.
+
+blame.markUnblamables::
+ Mark lines that were changed by an ignored revision that we could not
+ attribute to another commit with a '*' in the output of
+ linkgit:git-blame[1].
+
+blame.markIgnoredLines::
+ Mark lines that were changed by an ignored revision that we attributed to
+ another commit with a '?' in the output of linkgit:git-blame[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/config/branch.txt b/Documentation/config/branch.txt
index 8f4b3fa..cc5f324 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/branch.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
branch.autoSetupMerge::
- Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
+ Tells 'git branch', 'git switch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
starting point branch. Note that even if this option is not set,
this behavior can be chosen per-branch using the `--track`
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ branch.autoSetupMerge::
branch. This option defaults to true.
branch.autoSetupRebase::
- When a new branch is created with 'git branch' or 'git checkout'
+ When a new branch is created with 'git branch', 'git switch' or 'git checkout'
that tracks another branch, this variable tells Git to set
up pull to rebase instead of merge (see "branch.<name>.rebase").
When `never`, rebase is never automatically set to true.
@@ -81,15 +81,16 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
"git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
branch-specific manner.
+
-When `merges`, pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
+When `merges` (or just 'm'), pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
+
-When `preserve` (deprecated in favor of `merges`), also pass
+When `preserve` (or just 'p', deprecated in favor of `merges`), also pass
`--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase' so that locally committed merge
commits will not be flattened by running 'git pull'.
+
-When the value is `interactive`, the rebase is run in interactive mode.
+When the value is `interactive` (or just 'i'), the rebase is run in interactive
+mode.
+
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/config/checkout.txt b/Documentation/config/checkout.txt
index c4118fa..6b64681 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/checkout.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
checkout.defaultRemote::
- When you run 'git checkout <something>' and only have one
+ When you run 'git checkout <something>'
+ or 'git switch <something>' and only have one
remote, it may implicitly fall back on checking out and
tracking e.g. 'origin/<something>'. This stops working as soon
as you have more than one remote with a '<something>'
@@ -8,16 +9,10 @@ checkout.defaultRemote::
disambiguation. The typical use-case is to set this to
`origin`.
+
-Currently this is used by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when 'git checkout
-<something>' will checkout the '<something>' branch on another remote,
+Currently this is used by linkgit:git-switch[1] and
+linkgit:git-checkout[1] when 'git checkout <something>'
+or 'git switch <something>'
+will checkout the '<something>' branch on another remote,
and by linkgit:git-worktree[1] when 'git worktree add' refers to a
remote branch. This setting might be used for other checkout-like
commands or functionality in the future.
-
-checkout.optimizeNewBranch::
- Optimizes the performance of "git checkout -b <new_branch>" when
- using sparse-checkout. When set to true, git will not update the
- repo based on the current sparse-checkout settings. This means it
- will not update the skip-worktree bit in the index nor add/remove
- files in the working directory to reflect the current sparse checkout
- settings nor will it show the local changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/color.txt b/Documentation/config/color.txt
index 8375596..d5daacb 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/color.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/color.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ color.blame.highlightRecent::
+
This setting should be set to a comma-separated list of color and date settings,
starting and ending with a color, the dates should be set from oldest to newest.
-The metadata will be colored given the colors if the the line was introduced
+The metadata will be colored given the colors if the line was introduced
before the given timestamp, overwriting older timestamped colors.
+
Instead of an absolute timestamp relative timestamps work as well, e.g.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/core.txt b/Documentation/config/core.txt
index 75538d2..74619a9 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/core.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/core.txt
@@ -68,6 +68,17 @@ core.fsmonitor::
avoiding unnecessary processing of files that have not changed.
See the "fsmonitor-watchman" section of linkgit:githooks[5].
+core.fsmonitorHookVersion::
+ Sets the version of hook that is to be used when calling fsmonitor.
+ There are currently versions 1 and 2. When this is not set,
+ version 2 will be tried first and if it fails then version 1
+ will be tried. Version 1 uses a timestamp as input to determine
+ which files have changes since that time but some monitors
+ like watchman have race conditions when used with a timestamp.
+ Version 2 uses an opaque string so that the monitor can return
+ something that can be used to determine what files have changed
+ without race conditions.
+
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
working tree are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -86,7 +97,9 @@ core.untrackedCache::
it will automatically be removed, if set to `false`. Before
setting it to `true`, you should check that mtime is working
properly on your system.
- See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default.
+ See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default, unless
+ `feature.manyFiles` is enabled which sets this setting to
+ `true` by default.
core.checkStat::
When missing or is set to `default`, many fields in the stat
@@ -557,6 +570,12 @@ core.unsetenvvars::
Defaults to `PERL5LIB` to account for the fact that Git for
Windows insists on using its own Perl interpreter.
+core.restrictinheritedhandles::
+ Windows-only: override whether spawned processes inherit only standard
+ file handles (`stdin`, `stdout` and `stderr`) or all handles. Can be
+ `auto`, `true` or `false`. Defaults to `auto`, which means `true` on
+ Windows 7 and later, and `false` on older Windows versions.
+
core.createObject::
You can set this to 'link', in which case a hardlink followed by
a delete of the source are used to make sure that object creation
@@ -577,7 +596,7 @@ the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable. See linkgit:git-notes[1].
core.commitGraph::
If true, then git will read the commit-graph file (if it exists)
- to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to false. See
+ to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to true. See
linkgit:git-commit-graph[1] for more information.
core.useReplaceRefs::
@@ -591,8 +610,14 @@ core.multiPackIndex::
multi-pack-index design document].
core.sparseCheckout::
- Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
- linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
+ Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See linkgit:git-sparse-checkout[1]
+ for more information.
+
+core.sparseCheckoutCone::
+ Enables the "cone mode" of the sparse checkout feature. When the
+ sparse-checkout file contains a limited set of patterns, then this
+ mode provides significant performance advantages. See
+ linkgit:git-sparse-checkout[1] for more information.
core.abbrev::
Set the length object names are abbreviated to. If
diff --git a/Documentation/config/diff.txt b/Documentation/config/diff.txt
index 2c4c9ba..ff09f1c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/diff.txt
@@ -78,7 +78,8 @@ diff.external::
diff.ignoreSubmodules::
Sets the default value of --ignore-submodules. Note that this
affects only 'git diff' Porcelain, and not lower level 'diff'
- commands such as 'git diff-files'. 'git checkout' also honors
+ commands such as 'git diff-files'. 'git checkout'
+ and 'git switch' also honor
this setting when reporting uncommitted changes. Setting it to
'all' disables the submodule summary normally shown by 'git commit'
and 'git status' when `status.submoduleSummary` is set unless it is
@@ -188,7 +189,7 @@ diff.guitool::
include::../mergetools-diff.txt[]
diff.indentHeuristic::
- Set this option to `true` to enable experimental heuristics
+ Set this option to `false` to disable the default heuristics
that shift diff hunk boundaries to make patches easier to read.
diff.algorithm::
diff --git a/Documentation/config/feature.txt b/Documentation/config/feature.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..875f8c8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/config/feature.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+feature.*::
+ The config settings that start with `feature.` modify the defaults of
+ a group of other config settings. These groups are created by the Git
+ developer community as recommended defaults and are subject to change.
+ In particular, new config options may be added with different defaults.
+
+feature.experimental::
+ Enable config options that are new to Git, and are being considered for
+ future defaults. Config settings included here may be added or removed
+ with each release, including minor version updates. These settings may
+ have unintended interactions since they are so new. Please enable this
+ setting if you are interested in providing feedback on experimental
+ features. The new default values are:
++
+* `pack.useSparse=true` uses a new algorithm when constructing a pack-file
+which can improve `git push` performance in repos with many files.
++
+* `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm=skipping` may improve fetch negotiation times by
+skipping more commits at a time, reducing the number of round trips.
++
+* `fetch.writeCommitGraph=true` writes a commit-graph after every `git fetch`
+command that downloads a pack-file from a remote. Using the `--split` option,
+most executions will create a very small commit-graph file on top of the
+existing commit-graph file(s). Occasionally, these files will merge and the
+write may take longer. Having an updated commit-graph file helps performance
+of many Git commands, including `git merge-base`, `git push -f`, and
+`git log --graph`.
+
+feature.manyFiles::
+ Enable config options that optimize for repos with many files in the
+ working directory. With many files, commands such as `git status` and
+ `git checkout` may be slow and these new defaults improve performance:
++
+* `index.version=4` enables path-prefix compression in the index.
++
+* `core.untrackedCache=true` enables the untracked cache. This setting assumes
+that mtime is working on your machine.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/fetch.txt b/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
index cbfad6c..f119402 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,33 @@ fetch.negotiationAlgorithm::
effort to converge faster, but may result in a larger-than-necessary
packfile; The default is "default" which instructs Git to use the default algorithm
that never skips commits (unless the server has acknowledged it or one
- of its descendants).
+ of its descendants). If `feature.experimental` is enabled, then this
+ setting defaults to "skipping".
Unknown values will cause 'git fetch' to error out.
+
See also the `--negotiation-tip` option for linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
+fetch.showForcedUpdates::
+ Set to false to enable `--no-show-forced-updates` in
+ linkgit:git-fetch[1] and linkgit:git-pull[1] commands.
+ Defaults to true.
+
+fetch.parallel::
+ Specifies the maximal number of fetch operations to be run in parallel
+ at a time (submodules, or remotes when the `--multiple` option of
+ linkgit:git-fetch[1] is in effect).
++
+A value of 0 will give some reasonable default. If unset, it defaults to 1.
++
+For submodules, this setting can be overridden using the `submodule.fetchJobs`
+config setting.
+
+fetch.writeCommitGraph::
+ Set to true to write a commit-graph after every `git fetch` command
+ that downloads a pack-file from a remote. Using the `--split` option,
+ most executions will create a very small commit-graph file on top of
+ the existing commit-graph file(s). Occasionally, these files will
+ merge and the write may take longer. Having an updated commit-graph
+ file helps performance of many Git commands, including `git merge-base`,
+ `git push -f`, and `git log --graph`. Defaults to false, unless
+ `feature.experimental` is true.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/format.txt b/Documentation/config/format.txt
index dc77941..45c7bd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/format.txt
@@ -36,6 +36,12 @@ format.subjectPrefix::
The default for format-patch is to output files with the '[PATCH]'
subject prefix. Use this variable to change that prefix.
+format.coverFromDescription::
+ The default mode for format-patch to determine which parts of
+ the cover letter will be populated using the branch's
+ description. See the `--cover-from-description` option in
+ linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
+
format.signature::
The default for format-patch is to output a signature containing
the Git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
@@ -77,11 +83,43 @@ format.coverLetter::
A boolean that controls whether to generate a cover-letter when
format-patch is invoked, but in addition can be set to "auto", to
generate a cover-letter only when there's more than one patch.
+ Default is false.
format.outputDirectory::
Set a custom directory to store the resulting files instead of the
- current working directory.
+ current working directory. All directory components will be created.
format.useAutoBase::
A boolean value which lets you enable the `--base=auto` option of
format-patch by default.
+
+format.notes::
+ Provides the default value for the `--notes` option to
+ format-patch. Accepts a boolean value, or a ref which specifies
+ where to get notes. If false, format-patch defaults to
+ `--no-notes`. If true, format-patch defaults to `--notes`. If
+ set to a non-boolean value, format-patch defaults to
+ `--notes=<ref>`, where `ref` is the non-boolean value. Defaults
+ to false.
++
+If one wishes to use the ref `ref/notes/true`, please use that literal
+instead.
++
+This configuration can be specified multiple times in order to allow
+multiple notes refs to be included. In that case, it will behave
+similarly to multiple `--[no-]notes[=]` options passed in. That is, a
+value of `true` will show the default notes, a value of `<ref>` will
+also show notes from that notes ref and a value of `false` will negate
+previous configurations and not show notes.
++
+For example,
++
+------------
+[format]
+ notes = true
+ notes = foo
+ notes = false
+ notes = bar
+------------
++
+will only show notes from `refs/notes/bar`.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/gc.txt b/Documentation/config/gc.txt
index 02b92b1..00ea0a6 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/gc.txt
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ gc.writeCommitGraph::
If true, then gc will rewrite the commit-graph file when
linkgit:git-gc[1] is run. When using `git gc --auto`
the commit-graph will be updated if housekeeping is
- required. Default is false. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
+ required. Default is true. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
for details.
gc.logExpiry::
diff --git a/Documentation/config/gpg.txt b/Documentation/config/gpg.txt
index cce2c89..d94025c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/gpg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/gpg.txt
@@ -18,3 +18,18 @@ gpg.<format>.program::
chose. (see `gpg.program` and `gpg.format`) `gpg.program` can still
be used as a legacy synonym for `gpg.openpgp.program`. The default
value for `gpg.x509.program` is "gpgsm".
+
+gpg.minTrustLevel::
+ Specifies a minimum trust level for signature verification. If
+ this option is unset, then signature verification for merge
+ operations require a key with at least `marginal` trust. Other
+ operations that perform signature verification require a key
+ with at least `undefined` trust. Setting this option overrides
+ the required trust-level for all operations. Supported values,
+ in increasing order of significance:
++
+* `undefined`
+* `never`
+* `marginal`
+* `fully`
+* `ultimate`
diff --git a/Documentation/config/http.txt b/Documentation/config/http.txt
index 5a32f5b..e806033 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/http.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/http.txt
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ http.saveCookies::
http.version::
Use the specified HTTP protocol version when communicating with a server.
If you want to force the default. The available and default version depend
- on libcurl. Actually the possible values of
+ on libcurl. Currently the possible values of
this option are:
- HTTP/2
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ http.sslVersion::
particular configuration of the crypto library in use. Internally
this sets the 'CURLOPT_SSL_VERSION' option; see the libcurl
documentation for more details on the format of this option and
- for the ssl version supported. Actually the possible values of
+ for the ssl version supported. Currently the possible values of
this option are:
- sslv2
@@ -199,6 +199,14 @@ http.postBuffer::
Transfer-Encoding: chunked is used to avoid creating a
massive pack file locally. Default is 1 MiB, which is
sufficient for most requests.
++
+Note that raising this limit is only effective for disabling chunked
+transfer encoding and therefore should be used only where the remote
+server or a proxy only supports HTTP/1.0 or is noncompliant with the
+HTTP standard. Raising this is not, in general, an effective solution
+for most push problems, but can increase memory consumption
+significantly since the entire buffer is allocated even for small
+pushes.
http.lowSpeedLimit, http.lowSpeedTime::
If the HTTP transfer speed is less than 'http.lowSpeedLimit'
diff --git a/Documentation/config/index.txt b/Documentation/config/index.txt
index f181503..7cb50b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/index.txt
@@ -24,3 +24,4 @@ index.threads::
index.version::
Specify the version with which new index files should be
initialized. This does not affect existing repositories.
+ If `feature.manyFiles` is enabled, then the default is 4.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/interactive.txt b/Documentation/config/interactive.txt
index ad846dd..a2d3c7e 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/interactive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/interactive.txt
@@ -2,7 +2,8 @@ interactive.singleKey::
In interactive commands, allow the user to provide one-letter
input with a single key (i.e., without hitting enter).
Currently this is used by the `--patch` mode of
- linkgit:git-add[1], linkgit:git-checkout[1], linkgit:git-commit[1],
+ linkgit:git-add[1], linkgit:git-checkout[1],
+ linkgit:git-restore[1], linkgit:git-commit[1],
linkgit:git-reset[1], and linkgit:git-stash[1]. Note that this
setting is silently ignored if portable keystroke input
is not available; requires the Perl module Term::ReadKey.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/log.txt b/Documentation/config/log.txt
index 78d9e44..e9e1e39 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/log.txt
@@ -40,4 +40,5 @@ log.showSignature::
log.mailmap::
If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
- linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`.
+ linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`, otherwise
+ assume `--no-use-mailmap`. True by default.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/pack.txt b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
index 9cdcfa7..0dac580 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
@@ -27,6 +27,13 @@ Note that changing the compression level will not automatically recompress
all existing objects. You can force recompression by passing the -F option
to linkgit:git-repack[1].
+pack.allowPackReuse::
+ When true, and when reachability bitmaps are enabled,
+ pack-objects will try to send parts of the bitmapped packfile
+ verbatim. This can reduce memory and CPU usage to serve fetches,
+ but might result in sending a slightly larger pack. Defaults to
+ true.
+
pack.island::
An extended regular expression configuring a set of delta
islands. See "DELTA ISLANDS" in linkgit:git-pack-objects[1]
@@ -112,7 +119,8 @@ pack.useSparse::
objects. This can have significant performance benefits when
computing a pack to send a small change. However, it is possible
that extra objects are added to the pack-file if the included
- commits contain certain types of direct renames.
+ commits contain certain types of direct renames. Default is `false`
+ unless `feature.experimental` is enabled.
pack.writeBitmaps (deprecated)::
This is a deprecated synonym for `repack.writeBitmaps`.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/protocol.txt b/Documentation/config/protocol.txt
index bfccc07..756591d 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/protocol.txt
@@ -45,11 +45,10 @@ The protocol names currently used by git are:
--
protocol.version::
- Experimental. If set, clients will attempt to communicate with a
- server using the specified protocol version. If unset, no
- attempt will be made by the client to communicate using a
- particular protocol version, this results in protocol version 0
- being used.
+ If set, clients will attempt to communicate with a server
+ using the specified protocol version. If the server does
+ not support it, communication falls back to version 0.
+ If unset, the default is `2`.
Supported versions:
+
--
diff --git a/Documentation/config/pull.txt b/Documentation/config/pull.txt
index b87cab3..5404830 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/pull.txt
@@ -14,15 +14,16 @@ pull.rebase::
pull" is run. See "branch.<name>.rebase" for setting this on a
per-branch basis.
+
-When `merges`, pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
+When `merges` (or just 'm'), pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
+
-When `preserve` (deprecated in favor of `merges`), also pass
+When `preserve` (or just 'p', deprecated in favor of `merges`), also pass
`--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase' so that locally committed merge
commits will not be flattened by running 'git pull'.
+
-When the value is `interactive`, the rebase is run in interactive mode.
+When the value is `interactive` (or just 'i'), the rebase is run in interactive
+mode.
+
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/config/push.txt b/Documentation/config/push.txt
index 0a0e000..0a7aa32 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/push.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
push.default::
Defines the action `git push` should take if no refspec is
- explicitly given. Different values are well-suited for
+ given (whether from the command-line, config, or elsewhere).
+ Different values are well-suited for
specific workflows; for instance, in a purely central workflow
(i.e. the fetch source is equal to the push destination),
`upstream` is probably what you want. Possible values are:
@@ -8,7 +9,7 @@ push.default::
--
* `nothing` - do not push anything (error out) unless a refspec is
- explicitly given. This is primarily meant for people who want to
+ given. This is primarily meant for people who want to
avoid mistakes by always being explicit.
* `current` - push the current branch to update a branch with the same
@@ -79,7 +80,7 @@ higher priority configuration file (e.g. `.git/config` in a
repository) to clear the values inherited from a lower priority
configuration files (e.g. `$HOME/.gitconfig`).
+
---
+----
Example:
@@ -96,7 +97,7 @@ repo/.git/config
This will result in only b (a and c are cleared).
---
+----
push.recurseSubmodules::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
diff --git a/Documentation/config/rebase.txt b/Documentation/config/rebase.txt
index d98e32d..7f7a07d 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/rebase.txt
@@ -5,6 +5,12 @@ rebase.useBuiltin::
is always used. Setting this will emit a warning, to alert any
remaining users that setting this now does nothing.
+rebase.backend::
+ Default backend to use for rebasing. Possible choices are
+ 'apply' or 'merge'. In the future, if the merge backend gains
+ all remaining capabilities of the apply backend, this setting
+ may become unused.
+
rebase.stat::
Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
rebase. False by default.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/remote.txt b/Documentation/config/remote.txt
index 6c4cad8..a8e6437 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/remote.txt
@@ -76,3 +76,11 @@ remote.<name>.pruneTags::
+
See also `remote.<name>.prune` and the PRUNING section of
linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
+remote.<name>.promisor::
+ When set to true, this remote will be used to fetch promisor
+ objects.
+
+remote.<name>.partialclonefilter::
+ The filter that will be applied when fetching from this
+ promisor remote.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/stash.txt b/Documentation/config/stash.txt
index 7710758..abc7ef4 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/stash.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ stash.useBuiltin::
the built-in rewrite of it in C.
+
The C rewrite is first included with Git version 2.22 (and Git for Windows
-version 2.19). This option serves an an escape hatch to re-enable the
+version 2.19). This option serves as an escape hatch to re-enable the
legacy version in case any bugs are found in the rewrite. This option and
the shell script version of linkgit:git-stash[1] will be removed in some
future release.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/status.txt b/Documentation/config/status.txt
index ed72fa7..0fc704a 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/status.txt
@@ -12,6 +12,11 @@ status.branch::
Set to true to enable --branch by default in linkgit:git-status[1].
The option --no-branch takes precedence over this variable.
+status.aheadBehind::
+ Set to true to enable `--ahead-behind` and false to enable
+ `--no-ahead-behind` by default in linkgit:git-status[1] for
+ non-porcelain status formats. Defaults to true.
+
status.displayCommentPrefix::
If set to true, linkgit:git-status[1] will insert a comment
prefix before each output line (starting with
diff --git a/Documentation/config/submodule.txt b/Documentation/config/submodule.txt
index 0a1293b..b331771 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/submodule.txt
@@ -79,4 +79,6 @@ submodule.alternateLocation::
submodule.alternateErrorStrategy::
Specifies how to treat errors with the alternates for a submodule
as computed via `submodule.alternateLocation`. Possible values are
- `ignore`, `info`, `die`. Default is `die`.
+ `ignore`, `info`, `die`. Default is `die`. Note that if set to `ignore`
+ or `info`, and if there is an error with the computed alternate, the
+ clone proceeds as if no alternate was specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/tag.txt b/Documentation/config/tag.txt
index 663663b..6d9110d 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/tag.txt
@@ -8,6 +8,14 @@ tag.sort::
linkgit:git-tag[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
value of this variable will be used as the default.
+tag.gpgSign::
+ A boolean to specify whether all tags should be GPG signed.
+ Use of this option when running in an automated script can
+ result in a large number of tags being signed. It is therefore
+ convenient to use an agent to avoid typing your gpg passphrase
+ several times. Note that this option doesn't affect tag signing
+ behavior enabled by "-u <keyid>" or "--local-user=<keyid>" options.
+
tar.umask::
This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
tar archive entries. The default is 0002, which turns off the
diff --git a/Documentation/config/trace2.txt b/Documentation/config/trace2.txt
index 2edbfb0..4ce0b9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/trace2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/trace2.txt
@@ -54,3 +54,9 @@ trace2.destinationDebug::
By default, these errors are suppressed and tracing is
silently disabled. May be overridden by the
`GIT_TRACE2_DST_DEBUG` environment variable.
+
+trace2.maxFiles::
+ Integer. When writing trace files to a target directory, do not
+ write additional traces if we would exceed this many files. Instead,
+ write a sentinel file that will block further tracing to this
+ directory. Defaults to 0, which disables this check.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/transfer.txt b/Documentation/config/transfer.txt
index 4a5dfe2..f5b6245 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/transfer.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/transfer.txt
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ linkgit:git-receive-pack[1]. On the fetch side, malformed objects will
instead be left unreferenced in the repository.
+
Due to the non-quarantine nature of the `fetch.fsckObjects`
-implementation it can not be relied upon to leave the object store
+implementation it cannot be relied upon to leave the object store
clean like `receive.fsckObjects` can.
+
As objects are unpacked they're written to the object store, so there
diff --git a/Documentation/config/user.txt b/Documentation/config/user.txt
index 0557cbb..59aec7c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/user.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/user.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,12 @@ committer.email::
Also, all of these can be overridden by the `GIT_AUTHOR_NAME`,
`GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL`, `GIT_COMMITTER_NAME`,
`GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL` and `EMAIL` environment variables.
- See linkgit:git-commit-tree[1] for more information.
++
+Note that the `name` forms of these variables conventionally refer to
+some form of a personal name. See linkgit:git-commit[1] and the
+environment variables section of linkgit:git[1] for more information on
+these settings and the `credential.username` option if you're looking
+for authentication credentials instead.
user.useConfigOnly::
Instruct Git to avoid trying to guess defaults for `user.email`
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index 4d846d7..fbbd410 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ Possible status letters are:
- R: renaming of a file
- T: change in the type of the file
- U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it can
-be committed)
+ be committed)
- X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report it)
Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index f10ca41..e8ed647 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,15 @@
-Generating patches with -p
---------------------------
-
-When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
-with a `-p` option, "git diff" without the `--raw` option, or
-"git log" with the "-p" option, they
-do not produce the output described above; instead they produce a
-patch file. You can customize the creation of such patches via the
+Generating patch text with -p
+-----------------------------
+
+Running
+linkgit:git-diff[1],
+linkgit:git-log[1],
+linkgit:git-show[1],
+linkgit:git-diff-index[1],
+linkgit:git-diff-tree[1], or
+linkgit:git-diff-files[1]
+with the `-p` option produces patch text.
+You can customize the creation of patch text via the
`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` and the `GIT_DIFF_OPTS` environment variables.
What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
@@ -49,7 +53,7 @@ similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal
files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old
file made it into the new one.
+
-The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change.
+The index line includes the blob object names before and after the change.
The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change; otherwise,
separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.
@@ -70,7 +74,7 @@ separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.
rename to a
-combined diff format
+Combined diff format
--------------------
Any diff-generating command can take the `-c` or `--cc` option to
@@ -80,7 +84,7 @@ linkgit:git-show[1]. Note also that you can give the `-m` option to any
of these commands to force generation of diffs with individual parents
of a merge.
-A 'combined diff' format looks like this:
+A "combined diff" format looks like this:
------------
diff --combined describe.c
@@ -113,11 +117,11 @@ index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
------------
1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
- this (when `-c` option is used):
+ this (when the `-c` option is used):
diff --combined file
+
-or like this (when `--cc` option is used):
+or like this (when the `--cc` option is used):
diff --cc file
@@ -160,7 +164,7 @@ parents.
4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
accidentally feeding it to `patch -p1`. Combined diff format
was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
- meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the
+ meant to be applied. The change is similar to the change in the
extended 'index' header:
@@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 09faee3..bb31f0c 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -567,13 +567,13 @@ To illustrate the difference between `-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex` and
file:
+
----
-+ return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
++ return frotz(nitfol, two->ptr, 1, 0);
...
-- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+- hit = frotz(nitfol, mf2.ptr, 1, 0);
----
+
-While `git log -G"regexec\(regexp"` will show this commit, `git log
--S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
+While `git log -G"frotz\(nitfol"` will show this commit, `git log
+-S"frotz\(nitfol" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
occurrences of that string did not change).
+
Unless `--text` is supplied patches of binary files without a textconv
diff --git a/Documentation/doc-diff b/Documentation/doc-diff
index 3355be4..1694300 100755
--- a/Documentation/doc-diff
+++ b/Documentation/doc-diff
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ asciidoc use asciidoc with both commits
to-asciidoc use asciidoc with the 'to'-commit
to-asciidoctor use asciidoctor with the 'to'-commit
asciidoctor use asciidoctor with both commits
-cut-header-footer cut away header and footer
+cut-footer cut away footer
"
SUBDIRECTORY_OK=1
. "$(git --exec-path)/git-sh-setup"
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ force=
clean=
from_program=
to_program=
-cut_header_footer=
+cut_footer=
while test $# -gt 0
do
case "$1" in
@@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ do
--asciidoc)
from_program=-asciidoc
to_program=-asciidoc ;;
- --cut-header-footer)
- cut_header_footer=-cut-header-footer ;;
+ --cut-footer)
+ cut_footer=-cut-footer ;;
--)
shift; break ;;
*)
@@ -118,8 +118,8 @@ construct_makemanflags () {
from_makemanflags=$(construct_makemanflags "$from_program") &&
to_makemanflags=$(construct_makemanflags "$to_program") &&
-from_dir=$from_oid$from_program$cut_header_footer &&
-to_dir=$to_oid$to_program$cut_header_footer &&
+from_dir=$from_oid$from_program$cut_footer &&
+to_dir=$to_oid$to_program$cut_footer &&
# generate_render_makefile <srcdir> <dstdir>
generate_render_makefile () {
@@ -127,7 +127,7 @@ generate_render_makefile () {
while read src
do
dst=$2/${src#$1/}
- printf 'all:: %s\n' "$dst"
+ printf 'all: %s\n' "$dst"
printf '%s: %s\n' "$dst" "$src"
printf '\t@echo >&2 " RENDER $(notdir $@)" && \\\n'
printf '\tmkdir -p $(dir $@) && \\\n'
@@ -169,12 +169,11 @@ render_tree () {
make -j$parallel -f - &&
mv "$tmp/rendered/$dname+" "$tmp/rendered/$dname"
- if test "$cut_header_footer" = "-cut-header-footer"
+ if test "$cut_footer" = "-cut-footer"
then
for f in $(find "$tmp/rendered/$dname" -type f)
do
- tail -n +3 "$f" | head -n -2 |
- sed -e '1{/^$/d}' -e '${/^$/d}' >"$f+" &&
+ head -n -2 "$f" | sed -e '${/^$/d}' >"$f+" &&
mv "$f+" "$f" ||
return 1
done
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 91c4775..a115a1a 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -88,6 +88,14 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be
specified. No <refspec>s may be specified.
+--[no-]auto-gc::
+ Run `git gc --auto` at the end to perform garbage collection
+ if needed. This is enabled by default.
+
+--[no-]write-commit-graph::
+ Write a commit-graph after fetching. This overrides the config
+ setting `fetch.writeCommitGraph`.
+
-p::
--prune::
Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
@@ -131,7 +139,10 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
specified refspec (can be given more than once) to map the
refs to remote-tracking branches, instead of the values of
`remote.*.fetch` configuration variables for the remote
- repository. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking
+ repository. Providing an empty `<refspec>` to the
+ `--refmap` option causes Git to ignore the configured
+ refspecs and rely entirely on the refspecs supplied as
+ command-line arguments. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking
Branches" for details.
-t::
@@ -156,15 +167,27 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
-j::
--jobs=<n>::
- Number of parallel children to be used for fetching submodules.
- Each will fetch from different submodules, such that fetching many
- submodules will be faster. By default submodules will be fetched
- one at a time.
+ Number of parallel children to be used for all forms of fetching.
++
+If the `--multiple` option was specified, the different remotes will be fetched
+in parallel. If multiple submodules are fetched, they will be fetched in
+parallel. To control them independently, use the config settings
+`fetch.parallel` and `submodule.fetchJobs` (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
++
+Typically, parallel recursive and multi-remote fetches will be faster. By
+default fetches are performed sequentially, not in parallel.
--no-recurse-submodules::
Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect as
using the `--recurse-submodules=no` option).
+--set-upstream::
+ If the remote is fetched successfully, pull and add upstream
+ (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
+ linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
+ see `branch.<name>.merge` and `branch.<name>.remote` in
+ linkgit:git-config[1].
+
--submodule-prefix=<path>::
Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages
such as "Fetching submodule foo". This option is used
@@ -221,6 +244,19 @@ endif::git-pull[]
When multiple `--server-option=<option>` are given, they are all
sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.
+--show-forced-updates::
+ By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during
+ fetch. This can be disabled through fetch.showForcedUpdates, but
+ the --show-forced-updates option guarantees this check occurs.
+ See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+--no-show-forced-updates::
+ By default, git checks if a branch is force-updated during
+ fetch. Pass --no-show-forced-updates or set fetch.showForcedUpdates
+ to false to skip this check for performance reasons. If used during
+ 'git-pull' the --ff-only option will still check for forced updates
+ before attempting a fast-forward update. See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
-4::
--ipv4::
Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 8b0e4c7..be5e3ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
[--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
[--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
- [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
+ [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -187,6 +188,19 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
unchanged.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
\--::
This option can be used to separate command-line options from
the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index fc3b993..11ca61b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
untouched.
--show-current-patch::
- Show the patch being applied when "git am" is stopped because
+ Show the entire e-mail message "git am" has stopped at, because
of conflicts.
DISCUSSION
@@ -190,8 +190,8 @@ the commit, after stripping common prefix "[PATCH <anything>]".
The "Subject: " line is supposed to concisely describe what the
commit is about in one line of text.
-"From: " and "Subject: " lines starting the body override the respective
-commit author name and title values taken from the headers.
+"From: ", "Date: ", and "Subject: " lines starting the body override the
+respective commit author name and title values taken from the headers.
The commit message is formed by the title taken from the
"Subject: ", a blank line and the body of the message up to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index e999251..3ba49e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -158,7 +158,7 @@ Test suites are very nice. But when they are used alone, they are
supposed to be used so that all the tests are checked after each
commit. This means that they are not very efficient, because many
tests are run for no interesting result, and they suffer from
-combinational explosion.
+combinatorial explosion.
In fact the problem is that big software often has many different
configuration options and that each test case should pass for each
@@ -1350,9 +1350,9 @@ References
- [[[1]]] https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/director/planning/report02-3.pdf['The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Infratructure for Software Testing'. Nist Planning Report 02-3], see Executive Summary and Chapter 8.
- [[[2]]] http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/codeconvtoc-136057.html['Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language'. Sun Microsystems.]
- [[[3]]] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance['Software maintenance'. Wikipedia.]
-- [[[4]]] https://public-inbox.org/git/7vps5xsbwp.fsf_-_@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'.]
+- [[[4]]] https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vps5xsbwp.fsf_-_@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'.]
- [[[5]]] https://lwn.net/Articles/317154/[Christian Couder. 'Fully automated bisecting with "git bisect run"'. LWN.net.]
- [[[6]]] https://lwn.net/Articles/277872/[Jonathan Corbet. 'Bisection divides users and developers'. LWN.net.]
-- [[[7]]] http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=119702753411680&w=2[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Linux-kernel mailing list.]
+- [[[7]]] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20071207113734.GA14598@elte.hu/[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Linux-kernel mailing list.]
- [[[8]]] https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-bisect.html[Junio C Hamano and the git-list. 'git-bisect(1) Manual Page'. Linux Kernel Archives.]
- [[[9]]] https://github.com/Ealdwulf/bbchop[Ealdwulf. 'bbchop'. GitHub.]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 4b45d83..7586c5a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -413,7 +413,7 @@ $ cat ~/test.sh
# tweak the working tree by merging the hot-fix branch
# and then attempt a build
-if git merge --no-commit hot-fix &&
+if git merge --no-commit --no-ff hot-fix &&
make
then
# run project specific test and report its status
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 16323eb..7e81541 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental]
[-L <range>] [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
+ [--ignore-rev <rev>] [--ignore-revs-file <file>]
[--progress] [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>..<rev>]
[--] <file>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index d9325e2..135206f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,8 @@ git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color]
+'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [--show-current]
[-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
- [--show-current]
[--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
[(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
[--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
@@ -29,8 +28,10 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
-branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
-asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
+branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted in green and
+marked with an asterisk. Any branches checked out in linked worktrees will
+be highlighted in cyan and marked with a plus sign. Option `-r` causes the
+remote-tracking branches to be listed,
and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches.
If a `<pattern>`
@@ -59,7 +60,7 @@ can leave out at most one of `A` and `B`, in which case it defaults to
`HEAD`.
Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
-working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
+working tree to it; use "git switch <newbranch>" to switch to the
new branch.
When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
@@ -183,8 +184,10 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
When in list mode,
show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
- the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
- show <remote>`).
+ the path of the linked worktree (if any) and the name of the upstream
+ branch, as well (see also `git remote show <remote>`). Note that the
+ current worktree's HEAD will not have its path printed (it will always
+ be your current directory).
-q::
--quiet::
@@ -211,7 +214,7 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
+
This behavior is the default when the start point is a remote-tracking branch.
Set the branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable to `false` if you
-want `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
+want `git switch`, `git checkout` and `git branch` to always behave as if `--no-track`
were given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
@@ -310,7 +313,7 @@ Start development from a known tag::
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
$ cd my2.6
$ git branch my2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
-$ git checkout my2.6.14
+$ git switch my2.6.14
------------
+
<1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
@@ -347,9 +350,9 @@ Patterns will normally need quoting.
NOTES
-----
-If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
-easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
-a branch and check it out with a single command.
+If you are creating a branch that you want to switch to immediately,
+it is easier to use the "git switch" command with its `-c` option to
+do the same thing with a single command.
The options `--contains`, `--no-contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged`
serve four related but different purposes:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 7d6c9dc..d34b096 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ git-bundle - Move objects and refs by archive
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git bundle' create <file> <git-rev-list-args>
-'git bundle' verify <file>
+'git bundle' create [-q | --quiet | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied] <file> <git-rev-list-args>
+'git bundle' verify [-q | --quiet] <file>
'git bundle' list-heads <file> [<refname>...]
'git bundle' unbundle <file> [<refname>...]
@@ -20,11 +20,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
be directly connected, and therefore the interactive Git protocols (git,
-ssh, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
-'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
-in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
-another repository using 'git fetch' and 'git pull'
-after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet). As no
+ssh, http) cannot be used.
+
+The 'git bundle' command packages objects and references in an archive
+at the originating machine, which can then be imported into another
+repository using 'git fetch', 'git pull', or 'git clone',
+after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet).
+
+As no
direct connection between the repositories exists, the user must specify a
basis for the bundle that is held by the destination repository: the
bundle assumes that all objects in the basis are already in the
@@ -33,9 +36,11 @@ destination repository.
OPTIONS
-------
-create <file>::
+create [options] <file> <git-rev-list-args>::
Used to create a bundle named 'file'. This requires the
- 'git-rev-list-args' arguments to define the bundle contents.
+ '<git-rev-list-args>' arguments to define the bundle contents.
+ 'options' contains the options specific to the 'git bundle create'
+ subcommand.
verify <file>::
Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply
@@ -75,6 +80,33 @@ unbundle <file>::
necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git bundle' acts
like 'git fetch-pack').
+--progress::
+ Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
+ by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
+ is specified. This flag forces progress status even if
+ the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
+
+--all-progress::
+ When --stdout is specified then progress report is
+ displayed during the object count and compression phases
+ but inhibited during the write-out phase. The reason is
+ that in some cases the output stream is directly linked
+ to another command which may wish to display progress
+ status of its own as it processes incoming pack data.
+ This flag is like --progress except that it forces progress
+ report for the write-out phase as well even if --stdout is
+ used.
+
+--all-progress-implied::
+ This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display
+ is activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn't actually
+ force any progress display by itself.
+
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ This flag makes the command not to report its progress
+ on the standard error stream.
+
SPECIFYING REFERENCES
---------------------
@@ -92,6 +124,14 @@ It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file
to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored
when unpacking at the destination.
+`git clone` can use any bundle created without negative refspecs
+(e.g., `new`, but not `old..new`).
+If you want to match `git clone --mirror`, which would include your
+refs such as `refs/remotes/*`, use `--all`.
+If you want to provide the same set of refs that a clone directly
+from the source repository would get, use `--branches --tags` for
+the `<git-rev-list-args>`.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 3c05782..84f41a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ OPTIONS
instead of from the command-line.
-z::
- The output format is modified to be machine-parseable.
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parsable.
If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
index 8b42cb3..0c3924a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -30,16 +30,22 @@ OPTIONS
valid with a single pathname.
-v, --verbose::
- Also output details about the matching pattern (if any)
- for each given pathname. For precedence rules within and
- between exclude sources, see linkgit:gitignore[5].
+ Instead of printing the paths that are excluded, for each path
+ that matches an exclude pattern, print the exclude pattern
+ together with the path. (Matching an exclude pattern usually
+ means the path is excluded, but if the pattern begins with '!'
+ then it is a negated pattern and matching it means the path is
+ NOT excluded.)
++
+For precedence rules within and between exclude sources, see
+linkgit:gitignore[5].
--stdin::
Read pathnames from the standard input, one per line,
instead of from the command-line.
-z::
- The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parsable (see
below). If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index d9de992..ee6a414 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -88,7 +88,8 @@ but it is explicitly forbidden at the beginning of a branch name).
When run with `--branch` option in a repository, the input is first
expanded for the ``previous checkout syntax''
`@{-n}`. For example, `@{-1}` is a way to refer the last thing that
-was checked out using "git checkout" operation. This option should be
+was checked out using "git switch" or "git checkout" operation.
+This option should be
used by porcelains to accept this syntax anywhere a branch name is
expected, so they can act as if you typed the branch name. As an
exception note that, the ``previous checkout operation'' might result
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 964f912..c8fb995 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -12,42 +12,33 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
-'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
-'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
-'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]
+'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Updates files in the working tree to match the version in the index
-or the specified tree. If no paths are given, 'git checkout' will
+or the specified tree. If no pathspec was given, 'git checkout' will
also update `HEAD` to set the specified branch as the current
branch.
-'git checkout' <branch>::
- To prepare for working on <branch>, switch to it by updating
+'git checkout' [<branch>]::
+ To prepare for working on `<branch>`, switch to it by updating
the index and the files in the working tree, and by pointing
- HEAD at the branch. Local modifications to the files in the
+ `HEAD` at the branch. Local modifications to the files in the
working tree are kept, so that they can be committed to the
- <branch>.
+ `<branch>`.
+
-If <branch> is not found but there does exist a tracking branch in
-exactly one remote (call it <remote>) with a matching name, treat as
-equivalent to
+If `<branch>` is not found but there does exist a tracking branch in
+exactly one remote (call it `<remote>`) with a matching name and
+`--no-guess` is not specified, treat as equivalent to
+
------------
$ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>
------------
+
-If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
-the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
-one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
-unique across all remotes. Set it to
-e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
-branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
-'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
-linkgit:git-config[1].
-+
-You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
+You could omit `<branch>`, in which case the command degenerates to
"check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with
rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking information,
if exists, for the current branch.
@@ -61,7 +52,7 @@ if exists, for the current branch.
`--track` without `-b` implies branch creation; see the
description of `--track` below.
+
-If `-B` is given, <new_branch> is created if it doesn't exist; otherwise, it
+If `-B` is given, `<new_branch>` is created if it doesn't exist; otherwise, it
is reset. This is the transactional equivalent of
+
------------
@@ -75,26 +66,27 @@ successful.
'git checkout' --detach [<branch>]::
'git checkout' [--detach] <commit>::
- Prepare to work on top of <commit>, by detaching HEAD at it
+ Prepare to work on top of `<commit>`, by detaching `HEAD` at it
(see "DETACHED HEAD" section), and updating the index and the
files in the working tree. Local modifications to the files
in the working tree are kept, so that the resulting working
tree will be the state recorded in the commit plus the local
modifications.
+
-When the <commit> argument is a branch name, the `--detach` option can
-be used to detach HEAD at the tip of the branch (`git checkout
-<branch>` would check out that branch without detaching HEAD).
+When the `<commit>` argument is a branch name, the `--detach` option can
+be used to detach `HEAD` at the tip of the branch (`git checkout
+<branch>` would check out that branch without detaching `HEAD`).
+
-Omitting <branch> detaches HEAD at the tip of the current branch.
+Omitting `<branch>` detaches `HEAD` at the tip of the current branch.
-'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]::
- Overwrite paths in the working tree by replacing with the
- contents in the index or in the <tree-ish> (most often a
- commit). When a <tree-ish> is given, the paths that
- match the <pathspec> are updated both in the index and in
- the working tree.
+ Overwrite the contents of the files that match the pathspec.
+ When the `<tree-ish>` (most often a commit) is not given,
+ overwrite working tree with the contents in the index.
+ When the `<tree-ish>` is given, overwrite both the index and
+ the working tree with the contents at the `<tree-ish>`.
+
The index may contain unmerged entries because of a previous failed merge.
By default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
@@ -105,12 +97,10 @@ using `--ours` or `--theirs`. With `-m`, changes made to the working tree
file can be discarded to re-create the original conflicted merge result.
'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
- This is similar to the "check out paths to the working tree
- from either the index or from a tree-ish" mode described
- above, but lets you use the interactive interface to show
- the "diff" output and choose which hunks to use in the
- result. See below for the description of `--patch` option.
-
+ This is similar to the previous mode, but lets you use the
+ interactive interface to show the "diff" output and choose which
+ hunks to use in the result. See below for the description of
+ `--patch` option.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -118,7 +108,8 @@ OPTIONS
--quiet::
Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
---[no-]progress::
+--progress::
+--no-progress::
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless `--quiet`
is specified. This flag enables progress reporting even if not
@@ -127,7 +118,7 @@ OPTIONS
-f::
--force::
When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
- working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
+ working tree differs from `HEAD`. This is used to throw away
local changes.
+
When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
@@ -154,12 +145,12 @@ on your side branch as `theirs` (i.e. "one contributor's work on top
of it").
-b <new_branch>::
- Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
- <start_point>; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
+ Create a new branch named `<new_branch>` and start it at
+ `<start_point>`; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
-B <new_branch>::
- Creates the branch <new_branch> and start it at <start_point>;
- if it already exists, then reset it to <start_point>. This is
+ Creates the branch `<new_branch>` and start it at `<start_point>`;
+ if it already exists, then reset it to `<start_point>`. This is
equivalent to running "git branch" with "-f"; see
linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
@@ -172,15 +163,36 @@ If no `-b` option is given, the name of the new branch will be
derived from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part of
the refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping
the initial part up to the "*".
-This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
-off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
-"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
+This would tell us to use `hack` as the local branch when branching
+off of `origin/hack` (or `remotes/origin/hack`, or even
+`refs/remotes/origin/hack`). If the given name has no slash, or the above
guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
explicitly give a name with `-b` in such a case.
--no-track::
Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
- branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
+ `branch.autoSetupMerge` configuration variable is true.
+
+--guess::
+--no-guess::
+ If `<branch>` is not found but there does exist a tracking
+ branch in exactly one remote (call it `<remote>`) with a
+ matching name, treat as equivalent to
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>
+------------
++
+If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
+the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
+one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
+unique across all remotes. Set it to
+e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
+branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
+'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
+linkgit:git-config[1].
++
+Use `--no-guess` to disable this.
-l::
Create the new branch's reflog; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for
@@ -189,21 +201,21 @@ explicitly give a name with `-b` in such a case.
--detach::
Rather than checking out a branch to work on it, check out a
commit for inspection and discardable experiments.
- This is the default behavior of "git checkout <commit>" when
- <commit> is not a branch name. See the "DETACHED HEAD" section
+ This is the default behavior of `git checkout <commit>` when
+ `<commit>` is not a branch name. See the "DETACHED HEAD" section
below for details.
--orphan <new_branch>::
- Create a new 'orphan' branch, named <new_branch>, started from
- <start_point> and switch to it. The first commit made on this
+ Create a new 'orphan' branch, named `<new_branch>`, started from
+ `<start_point>` and switch to it. The first commit made on this
new branch will have no parents and it will be the root of a new
history totally disconnected from all the other branches and
commits.
+
The index and the working tree are adjusted as if you had previously run
-"git checkout <start_point>". This allows you to start a new history
-that records a set of paths similar to <start_point> by easily running
-"git commit -a" to make the root commit.
+`git checkout <start_point>`. This allows you to start a new history
+that records a set of paths similar to `<start_point>` by easily running
+`git commit -a` to make the root commit.
+
This can be useful when you want to publish the tree from a commit
without exposing its full history. You might want to do this to publish
@@ -212,17 +224,17 @@ whose full history contains proprietary or otherwise encumbered bits of
code.
+
If you want to start a disconnected history that records a set of paths
-that is totally different from the one of <start_point>, then you should
+that is totally different from the one of `<start_point>`, then you should
clear the index and the working tree right after creating the orphan
-branch by running "git rm -rf ." from the top level of the working tree.
+branch by running `git rm -rf .` from the top level of the working tree.
Afterwards you will be ready to prepare your new files, repopulating the
working tree, by copying them from elsewhere, extracting a tarball, etc.
--ignore-skip-worktree-bits::
In sparse checkout mode, `git checkout -- <paths>` would
- update only entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns
- in $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores
- the sparse patterns and adds back any files in <paths>.
+ update only entries matched by `<paths>` and sparse patterns
+ in `$GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout`. This option ignores
+ the sparse patterns and adds back any files in `<paths>`.
-m::
--merge::
@@ -246,25 +258,25 @@ the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
When switching branches with `--merge`, staged changes may be lost.
--conflict=<style>::
- The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
+ The same as `--merge` option above, but changes the way the
conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
- merge.conflictStyle configuration variable. Possible values are
+ `merge.conflictStyle` configuration variable. Possible values are
"merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
"merge" style, shows the original contents).
-p::
--patch::
Interactively select hunks in the difference between the
- <tree-ish> (or the index, if unspecified) and the working
+ `<tree-ish>` (or the index, if unspecified) and the working
tree. The chosen hunks are then applied in reverse to the
- working tree (and if a <tree-ish> was specified, the index).
+ working tree (and if a `<tree-ish>` was specified, the index).
+
This means that you can use `git checkout -p` to selectively discard
edits from your current working tree. See the ``Interactive Mode''
section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
+
Note that this option uses the no overlay mode by default (see also
-`--[no-]overlay`), and currently doesn't support overlay mode.
+`--overlay`), and currently doesn't support overlay mode.
--ignore-other-worktrees::
`git checkout` refuses when the wanted ref is already checked
@@ -272,38 +284,55 @@ Note that this option uses the no overlay mode by default (see also
out anyway. In other words, the ref can be held by more than one
worktree.
---[no-]recurse-submodules::
- Using --recurse-submodules will update the content of all initialized
+--overwrite-ignore::
+--no-overwrite-ignore::
+ Silently overwrite ignored files when switching branches. This
+ is the default behavior. Use `--no-overwrite-ignore` to abort
+ the operation when the new branch contains ignored files.
+
+--recurse-submodules::
+--no-recurse-submodules::
+ Using `--recurse-submodules` will update the content of all initialized
submodules according to the commit recorded in the superproject. If
local modifications in a submodule would be overwritten the checkout
- will fail unless `-f` is used. If nothing (or --no-recurse-submodules)
+ will fail unless `-f` is used. If nothing (or `--no-recurse-submodules`)
is used, the work trees of submodules will not be updated.
- Just like linkgit:git-submodule[1], this will detach the
- submodules HEAD.
-
---no-guess::
- Do not attempt to create a branch if a remote tracking branch
- of the same name exists.
+ Just like linkgit:git-submodule[1], this will detach `HEAD` of the
+ submodule.
---[no-]overlay::
+--overlay::
+--no-overlay::
In the default overlay mode, `git checkout` never
removes files from the index or the working tree. When
specifying `--no-overlay`, files that appear in the index and
- working tree, but not in <tree-ish> are removed, to make them
- match <tree-ish> exactly.
+ working tree, but not in `<tree-ish>` are removed, to make them
+ match `<tree-ish>` exactly.
+
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
<branch>::
Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
branch is checked out. Otherwise, if it refers to a valid
- commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
+ commit, your `HEAD` becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
any branch (see below for details).
+
-You can use the `"@{-N}"` syntax to refer to the N-th last
+You can use the `@{-N}` syntax to refer to the N-th last
branch/commit checked out using "git checkout" operation. You may
-also specify `-` which is synonymous to `"@{-1}"`.
+also specify `-` which is synonymous to `@{-1}`.
+
-As a special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
+As a special case, you may use `A...B` as a shortcut for the
merge base of `A` and `B` if there is exactly one merge base. You can
leave out at most one of `A` and `B`, in which case it defaults to `HEAD`.
@@ -312,7 +341,7 @@ leave out at most one of `A` and `B`, in which case it defaults to `HEAD`.
<start_point>::
The name of a commit at which to start the new branch; see
- linkgit:git-branch[1] for details. Defaults to HEAD.
+ linkgit:git-branch[1] for details. Defaults to `HEAD`.
+
As a special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
merge base of `A` and `B` if there is exactly one merge base. You can
@@ -322,13 +351,19 @@ leave out at most one of `A` and `B`, in which case it defaults to `HEAD`.
Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified,
the index will be used.
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+<pathspec>...::
+ Limits the paths affected by the operation.
++
+For more details, see the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
DETACHED HEAD
-------------
-HEAD normally refers to a named branch (e.g. 'master'). Meanwhile, each
+`HEAD` normally refers to a named branch (e.g. `master`). Meanwhile, each
branch refers to a specific commit. Let's look at a repo with three
-commits, one of them tagged, and with branch 'master' checked out:
+commits, one of them tagged, and with branch `master` checked out:
------------
HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
@@ -341,10 +376,10 @@ a---b---c branch 'master' (refers to commit 'c')
------------
When a commit is created in this state, the branch is updated to refer to
-the new commit. Specifically, 'git commit' creates a new commit 'd', whose
-parent is commit 'c', and then updates branch 'master' to refer to new
-commit 'd'. HEAD still refers to branch 'master' and so indirectly now refers
-to commit 'd':
+the new commit. Specifically, 'git commit' creates a new commit `d`, whose
+parent is commit `c`, and then updates branch `master` to refer to new
+commit `d`. `HEAD` still refers to branch `master` and so indirectly now refers
+to commit `d`:
------------
$ edit; git add; git commit
@@ -361,7 +396,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
It is sometimes useful to be able to checkout a commit that is not at
the tip of any named branch, or even to create a new commit that is not
referenced by a named branch. Let's look at what happens when we
-checkout commit 'b' (here we show two ways this may be done):
+checkout commit `b` (here we show two ways this may be done):
------------
$ git checkout v2.0 # or
@@ -376,9 +411,9 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')
------------
-Notice that regardless of which checkout command we use, HEAD now refers
-directly to commit 'b'. This is known as being in detached HEAD state.
-It means simply that HEAD refers to a specific commit, as opposed to
+Notice that regardless of which checkout command we use, `HEAD` now refers
+directly to commit `b`. This is known as being in detached `HEAD` state.
+It means simply that `HEAD` refers to a specific commit, as opposed to
referring to a named branch. Let's see what happens when we create a commit:
------------
@@ -395,7 +430,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')
------------
-There is now a new commit 'e', but it is referenced only by HEAD. We can
+There is now a new commit `e`, but it is referenced only by `HEAD`. We can
of course add yet another commit in this state:
------------
@@ -413,7 +448,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
------------
In fact, we can perform all the normal Git operations. But, let's look
-at what happens when we then checkout master:
+at what happens when we then checkout `master`:
------------
$ git checkout master
@@ -428,9 +463,9 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
------------
It is important to realize that at this point nothing refers to commit
-'f'. Eventually commit 'f' (and by extension commit 'e') will be deleted
+`f`. Eventually commit `f` (and by extension commit `e`) will be deleted
by the routine Git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
-before that happens. If we have not yet moved away from commit 'f',
+before that happens. If we have not yet moved away from commit `f`,
any of these will create a reference to it:
------------
@@ -439,19 +474,19 @@ $ git branch foo <2>
$ git tag foo <3>
------------
-<1> creates a new branch 'foo', which refers to commit 'f', and then
- updates HEAD to refer to branch 'foo'. In other words, we'll no longer
- be in detached HEAD state after this command.
+<1> creates a new branch `foo`, which refers to commit `f`, and then
+ updates `HEAD` to refer to branch `foo`. In other words, we'll no longer
+ be in detached `HEAD` state after this command.
-<2> similarly creates a new branch 'foo', which refers to commit 'f',
- but leaves HEAD detached.
+<2> similarly creates a new branch `foo`, which refers to commit `f`,
+ but leaves `HEAD` detached.
-<3> creates a new tag 'foo', which refers to commit 'f',
- leaving HEAD detached.
+<3> creates a new tag `foo`, which refers to commit `f`,
+ leaving `HEAD` detached.
-If we have moved away from commit 'f', then we must first recover its object
+If we have moved away from commit `f`, then we must first recover its object
name (typically by using git reflog), and then we can create a reference to
-it. For example, to see the last two commits to which HEAD referred, we
+it. For example, to see the last two commits to which `HEAD` referred, we
can use either of these commands:
------------
@@ -462,12 +497,12 @@ $ git log -g -2 HEAD
ARGUMENT DISAMBIGUATION
-----------------------
-When there is only one argument given and it is not `--` (e.g. "git
-checkout abc"), and when the argument is both a valid `<tree-ish>`
-(e.g. a branch "abc" exists) and a valid `<pathspec>` (e.g. a file
+When there is only one argument given and it is not `--` (e.g. `git
+checkout abc`), and when the argument is both a valid `<tree-ish>`
+(e.g. a branch `abc` exists) and a valid `<pathspec>` (e.g. a file
or a directory whose name is "abc" exists), Git would usually ask
you to disambiguate. Because checking out a branch is so common an
-operation, however, "git checkout abc" takes "abc" as a `<tree-ish>`
+operation, however, `git checkout abc` takes "abc" as a `<tree-ish>`
in such a situation. Use `git checkout -- <pathspec>` if you want
to checkout these paths out of the index.
@@ -475,7 +510,7 @@ EXAMPLES
--------
. The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
- the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
+ the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes `hello.c` by
mistake, and gets it back from the index.
+
------------
@@ -487,7 +522,7 @@ $ git checkout hello.c <3>
+
<1> switch branch
<2> take a file out of another commit
-<3> restore hello.c from the index
+<3> restore `hello.c` from the index
+
If you want to check out _all_ C source files out of the index,
you can say
@@ -516,7 +551,7 @@ $ git checkout -- hello.c
$ git checkout mytopic
------------
+
-However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
+However, your "wrong" branch and correct `mytopic` branch may
differ in files that you have modified locally, in which case
the above checkout would fail like this:
+
@@ -557,6 +592,11 @@ $ edit frotz
$ git add frotz
------------
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-switch[1],
+linkgit:git-restore[1]
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index 754b16c..83ce51a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -10,9 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff]
[-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
-'git cherry-pick' --continue
-'git cherry-pick' --quit
-'git cherry-pick' --abort
+'git cherry-pick' (--continue | --skip | --abort | --quit)
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index db876f7..a7f309d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -26,18 +26,20 @@ are affected.
OPTIONS
-------
-d::
- Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
- If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git
- repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice
- if you really want to remove such a directory.
+ Normally, when no <path> is specified, git clean will not
+ recurse into untracked directories to avoid removing too much.
+ Specify -d to have it recurse into such directories as well.
+ If any paths are specified, -d is irrelevant; all untracked
+ files matching the specified paths (with exceptions for nested
+ git directories mentioned under `--force`) will be removed.
-f::
--force::
If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
to false, 'git clean' will refuse to delete files or directories
- unless given -f, -n or -i. Git will refuse to delete directories
- with .git sub directory or file unless a second -f
- is given.
+ unless given -f or -i. Git will refuse to modify untracked
+ nested git repositories (directories with a .git subdirectory)
+ unless a second -f is given.
-i::
--interactive::
@@ -63,7 +65,7 @@ OPTIONS
still use the ignore rules given with `-e` options from the command
line. This allows removing all untracked
files, including build products. This can be used (possibly in
- conjunction with 'git reset') to create a pristine
+ conjunction with 'git restore' or 'git reset') to create a pristine
working directory to test a clean build.
-X::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index ca8871c..bf24f18 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
[--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch] [--no-tags]
[--recurse-submodules[=<pathspec>]] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
- [--jobs <n>] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
+ [--[no-]remote-submodules] [--jobs <n>] [--sparse] [--] <repository>
+ [<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -155,6 +156,12 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
used, neither remote-tracking branches nor the related
configuration variables are created.
+--sparse::
+ Initialize the sparse-checkout file so the working
+ directory starts with only the files in the root
+ of the repository. The sparse-checkout file can be
+ modified to grow the working directory as needed.
+
--mirror::
Set up a mirror of the source repository. This implies `--bare`.
Compared to `--bare`, `--mirror` not only maps local branches of the
@@ -260,6 +267,12 @@ or `--mirror` is given)
--[no-]shallow-submodules::
All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a depth of 1.
+--[no-]remote-submodules::
+ All submodules which are cloned will use the status of the submodule's
+ remote-tracking branch to update the submodule, rather than the
+ superproject's recorded SHA-1. Equivalent to passing `--remote` to
+ `git submodule update`.
+
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
index 624470e..28d1fee 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,8 @@ git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit-graph files
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
-'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>]
-'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>] [--shallow] [--[no-]progress]
+'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>] [--[no-]progress]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -26,9 +25,15 @@ OPTIONS
Use given directory for the location of packfiles and commit-graph
file. This parameter exists to specify the location of an alternate
that only has the objects directory, not a full `.git` directory. The
- commit-graph file is expected to be at `<dir>/info/commit-graph` and
- the packfiles are expected to be in `<dir>/pack`.
+ commit-graph file is expected to be in the `<dir>/info` directory and
+ the packfiles are expected to be in `<dir>/pack`. If the directory
+ could not be made into an absolute path, or does not match any known
+ object directory, `git commit-graph ...` will exit with non-zero
+ status.
+--[no-]progress::
+ Turn progress on/off explicitly. If neither is specified, progress is
+ shown if standard error is connected to a terminal.
COMMANDS
--------
@@ -51,16 +56,33 @@ or `--stdin-packs`.)
+
With the `--append` option, include all commits that are present in the
existing commit-graph file.
-
-'read'::
-
-Read the commit-graph file and output basic details about it.
-Used for debugging purposes.
++
+With the `--split` option, write the commit-graph as a chain of multiple
+commit-graph files stored in `<dir>/info/commit-graphs`. The new commits
+not already in the commit-graph are added in a new "tip" file. This file
+is merged with the existing file if the following merge conditions are
+met:
++
+* If `--size-multiple=<X>` is not specified, let `X` equal 2. If the new
+tip file would have `N` commits and the previous tip has `M` commits and
+`X` times `N` is greater than `M`, instead merge the two files into a
+single file.
++
+* If `--max-commits=<M>` is specified with `M` a positive integer, and the
+new tip file would have more than `M` commits, then instead merge the new
+tip with the previous tip.
++
+Finally, if `--expire-time=<datetime>` is not specified, let `datetime`
+be the current time. After writing the split commit-graph, delete all
+unused commit-graph whose modified times are older than `datetime`.
'verify'::
Read the commit-graph file and verify its contents against the object
database. Used to check for corrupted data.
++
+With the `--shallow` option, only check the tip commit-graph file in
+a chain of split commit-graphs.
EXAMPLES
@@ -93,12 +115,6 @@ $ git show-ref -s | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits
$ git rev-parse HEAD | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits --append
------------------------------------------------
-* Read basic information from the commit-graph file.
-+
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git commit-graph read
-------------------------------------------------
-
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 4b90b9c..ec15ee8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -69,7 +69,6 @@ OPTIONS
Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a `--gpg-sign` option
given earlier on the command line.
-
Commit Information
------------------
@@ -79,26 +78,6 @@ A commit encapsulates:
- author name, email and date
- committer name and email and the commit time.
-While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and
-committer information is taken from the following environment variables,
-if set:
-
- GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
- GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
- GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
- GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
- GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
- GIT_COMMITTER_DATE
-
-(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
-
-In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information
-is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
-present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set,
-system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
-from `/etc/mailname` and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when
-that file does not exist).
-
A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog
entry is not provided via "<" redirection, 'git commit-tree' will just wait
for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.
@@ -117,6 +96,7 @@ FILES
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-write-tree[1]
+linkgit:git-commit[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index a85c2c2..13f6539 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
[--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
- [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
+ [-i | -o] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
+ [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -278,22 +279,37 @@ FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
already been staged. If used together with `--allow-empty`
paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be created.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
-u[<mode>]::
--untracked-files[=<mode>]::
Show untracked files.
+
+--
The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
-+
+
The possible options are:
-+
+
- 'no' - Show no untracked files
- 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
- 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
-+
+
The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+--
-v::
--verbose::
@@ -343,15 +359,13 @@ changes to tracked files.
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
-<file>...::
- When files are given on the command line, the command
- commits the contents of the named files, without
- recording the changes already staged. The contents of
- these files are also staged for the next commit on top
- of what have been staged before.
-
-:git-commit: 1
-include::date-formats.txt[]
+<pathspec>...::
+ When pathspec is given on the command line, commit the contents of
+ the files that match the pathspec without recording the changes
+ already added to the index. The contents of these files are also
+ staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.
++
+For more details, see the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -359,7 +373,7 @@ When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
-to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
+to that of the last commit with `git restore --staged <file>`,
which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
this file from participating in the next commit. After building
the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
@@ -446,6 +460,43 @@ alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
should be recorded as a single commit. In fact, the command
refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
+COMMIT INFORMATION
+------------------
+
+Author and committer information is taken from the following environment
+variables, if set:
+
+ GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
+ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
+ GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
+ GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
+ GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
+ GIT_COMMITTER_DATE
+
+(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
+
+The author and committer names are by convention some form of a personal name
+(that is, the name by which other humans refer to you), although Git does not
+enforce or require any particular form. Arbitrary Unicode may be used, subject
+to the constraints listed above. This name has no effect on authentication; for
+that, see the `credential.username` variable in linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information
+is taken from the configuration items `user.name` and `user.email`, or, if not
+present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set,
+system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
+from `/etc/mailname` and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when
+that file does not exist).
+
+The `author.name` and `committer.name` and their corresponding email options
+override `user.name` and `user.email` if set and are overridden themselves by
+the environment variables.
+
+The typical usage is to set just the `user.name` and `user.email` variables;
+the other options are provided for more complex use cases.
+
+:git-commit: 1
+include::date-formats.txt[]
DISCUSSION
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index ff9310f..7573160 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -9,18 +9,18 @@ git-config - Get and set repository or global options
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [--show-scope] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] --add name value
'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [--show-scope] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [--show-scope] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [--show-scope] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --rename-section old_name new_name
'git config' [<file-option>] --remove-section name
-'git config' [<file-option>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] [--name-only] -l | --list
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--show-origin] [--show-scope] [-z|--null] [--name-only] -l | --list
'git config' [<file-option>] --get-color name [default]
'git config' [<file-option>] --get-colorbool name [stdout-is-tty]
'git config' [<file-option>] -e | --edit
@@ -222,6 +222,11 @@ Valid `<type>`'s include:
the actual origin (config file path, ref, or blob id if
applicable).
+--show-scope::
+ Similar to `--show-origin` in that it augments the output of
+ all queried config options with the scope of that value
+ (local, global, system, command).
+
--get-colorbool name [stdout-is-tty]::
Find the color setting for `name` (e.g. `color.diff`) and output
@@ -339,33 +344,35 @@ EXAMPLES
Given a .git/config like this:
- #
- # This is the config file, and
- # a '#' or ';' character indicates
- # a comment
- #
-
- ; core variables
- [core]
- ; Don't trust file modes
- filemode = false
-
- ; Our diff algorithm
- [diff]
- external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
- renames = true
-
- ; Proxy settings
- [core]
- gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
- gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
-
- ; HTTP
- [http]
- sslVerify
- [http "https://weak.example.com"]
- sslVerify = false
- cookieFile = /tmp/cookie.txt
+------------
+#
+# This is the config file, and
+# a '#' or ';' character indicates
+# a comment
+#
+
+; core variables
+[core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+; Our diff algorithm
+[diff]
+ external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
+ renames = true
+
+; Proxy settings
+[core]
+ gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
+ gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
+
+; HTTP
+[http]
+ sslVerify
+[http "https://weak.example.com"]
+ sslVerify = false
+ cookieFile = /tmp/cookie.txt
+------------
you can set the filemode to true with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
index b211440..6f0c7ca 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -19,8 +19,7 @@ from system-specific helpers, as well as prompting the user for
usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
credentials in the same manner as Git. The design of this scriptable
-interface models the internal C API; see
-link:technical/api-credentials.html[the Git credential API] for more
+interface models the internal C API; see credential.h for more
background on the concepts.
git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index f98b7c6..1b1c71a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -232,7 +232,7 @@ write so it might not be enough to grant the users using
'git-cvsserver' write access to the database file without granting
them write access to the directory, too.
-The database can not be reliably regenerated in a
+The database cannot be reliably regenerated in a
consistent form after the branch it is tracking has changed.
Example: For merged branches, 'git-cvsserver' only tracks
one branch of development, and after a 'git merge' an
@@ -294,7 +294,7 @@ In `dbDriver` and `dbUser` you can use the following variables:
Git directory name
%g::
Git directory name, where all characters except for
- alpha-numeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
+ alphanumeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
`_` (this should make it easier to use the directory
name in a filename if wanted)
%m::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index 72179d9..37781cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
running the command in a working tree controlled by Git and
at least one of the paths points outside the working tree,
or when running the command outside a working tree
- controlled by Git.
+ controlled by Git. This form implies `--exit-code`.
'git diff' [<options>] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index 64c01ba..e8950de 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -17,9 +17,9 @@ This program dumps the given revisions in a form suitable to be piped
into 'git fast-import'.
You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement (see
-linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a kind of an interactive
-'git filter-branch'.
-
+linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a format that can be edited before being
+fed to 'git fast-import' in order to do history rewrites (an ability
+relied on by tools like 'git filter-repo').
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -75,11 +75,20 @@ produced incorrect results if you gave these options.
Before processing any input, load the marks specified in
<file>. The input file must exist, must be readable, and
must use the same format as produced by --export-marks.
+
+--mark-tags::
+ In addition to labelling blobs and commits with mark ids, also
+ label tags. This is useful in conjunction with
+ `--export-marks` and `--import-marks`, and is also useful (and
+ necessary) for exporting of nested tags. It does not hurt
+ other cases and would be the default, but many fast-import
+ frontends are not prepared to accept tags with mark
+ identifiers.
+
-Any commits that have already been marked will not be exported again.
-If the backend uses a similar --import-marks file, this allows for
-incremental bidirectional exporting of the repository by keeping the
-marks the same across runs.
+Any commits (or tags) that have already been marked will not be
+exported again. If the backend uses a similar --import-marks file,
+this allows for incremental bidirectional exporting of the repository
+by keeping the marks the same across runs.
--fake-missing-tagger::
Some old repositories have tags without a tagger. The
@@ -116,7 +125,7 @@ marks the same across runs.
and will make master{tilde}4 no longer have master{tilde}5 as
a parent (though both the old master{tilde}4 and new
master{tilde}4 will have all the same files). Use
- --reference-excluded-parents to instead have the the stream
+ --reference-excluded-parents to instead have the stream
refer to commits in the excluded range of history by their
sha1sum. Note that the resulting stream can only be used by a
repository which already contains the necessary parent
@@ -129,6 +138,13 @@ marks the same across runs.
for intermediary filters (e.g. for rewriting commit messages
which refer to older commits, or for stripping blobs by id).
+--reencode=(yes|no|abort)::
+ Specify how to handle `encoding` header in commit objects. When
+ asking to 'abort' (which is the default), this program will die
+ when encountering such a commit object. With 'yes', the commit
+ message will be re-encoded into UTF-8. With 'no', the original
+ encoding will be preserved.
+
--refspec::
Apply the specified refspec to each ref exported. Multiple of them can
be specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index d65cdb3..7889f95 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -51,6 +51,21 @@ OPTIONS
memory used by fast-import during this run. Showing this output
is currently the default, but can be disabled with --quiet.
+--allow-unsafe-features::
+ Many command-line options can be provided as part of the
+ fast-import stream itself by using the `feature` or `option`
+ commands. However, some of these options are unsafe (e.g.,
+ allowing fast-import to access the filesystem outside of the
+ repository). These options are disabled by default, but can be
+ allowed by providing this option on the command line. This
+ currently impacts only the `export-marks`, `import-marks`, and
+ `import-marks-if-exists` feature commands.
++
+ Only enable this option if you trust the program generating the
+ fast-import stream! This option is enabled automatically for
+ remote-helpers that use the `import` capability, as they are
+ already trusted to run their own code.
+
Options for Frontends
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -337,6 +352,13 @@ and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
`commit` command. This command is optional and is not
needed to perform an import.
+`alias`::
+ Record that a mark refers to a given object without first
+ creating any new object. Using --import-marks and referring
+ to missing marks will cause fast-import to fail, so aliases
+ can provide a way to set otherwise pruned commits to a valid
+ value (e.g. the nearest non-pruned ancestor).
+
`checkpoint`::
Forces fast-import to close the current packfile, generate its
unique SHA-1 checksum and index, and start a new packfile.
@@ -388,9 +410,10 @@ change to the project.
original-oid?
('author' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
'committer' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+ ('encoding' SP <encoding>)?
data
('from' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
- ('merge' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
+ ('merge' SP <commit-ish> LF)*
(filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)*
LF?
....
@@ -424,7 +447,7 @@ the same commit, as `filedeleteall` wipes the branch clean (see below).
The `LF` after the command is optional (it used to be required). Note
that for reasons of backward compatibility, if the commit ends with a
-`data` command (i.e. it has has no `from`, `merge`, `filemodify`,
+`data` command (i.e. it has no `from`, `merge`, `filemodify`,
`filedelete`, `filecopy`, `filerename`, `filedeleteall` or
`notemodify` commands) then two `LF` commands may appear at the end of
the command instead of just one.
@@ -455,6 +478,12 @@ that was selected by the --date-format=<fmt> command-line option.
See ``Date Formats'' above for the set of supported formats, and
their syntax.
+`encoding`
+^^^^^^^^^^
+The optional `encoding` command indicates the encoding of the commit
+message. Most commits are UTF-8 and the encoding is omitted, but this
+allows importing commit messages into git without first reencoding them.
+
`from`
^^^^^^
The `from` command is used to specify the commit to initialize
@@ -767,6 +796,7 @@ lightweight (non-annotated) tags see the `reset` command below.
....
'tag' SP <name> LF
+ mark?
'from' SP <commit-ish> LF
original-oid?
'tagger' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
@@ -906,6 +936,21 @@ a data chunk which does not have an LF as its last byte.
+
The `LF` after `<delim> LF` is optional (it used to be required).
+`alias`
+~~~~~~~
+Record that a mark refers to a given object without first creating any
+new object.
+
+....
+ 'alias' LF
+ mark
+ 'to' SP <commit-ish> LF
+ LF?
+....
+
+For a detailed description of `<commit-ish>` see above under `from`.
+
+
`checkpoint`
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Forces fast-import to close the current packfile, start a new one, and to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index 266d63c..5b1909f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -262,7 +262,7 @@ This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches `pu` and `tmp` in
the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively)
`pu` and `maint` from the remote repository.
+
-The `pu` branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward,
+The `pu` branch will be updated even if it does not fast-forward,
because it is prefixed with a plus sign; `tmp` will not be.
* Peek at a remote's branch, without configuring the remote in your local
@@ -285,7 +285,7 @@ BUGS
----
Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
-just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
+just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself cannot be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 6b53dd7..40ba4aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -16,6 +16,19 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--original <namespace>] [-d <directory>] [-f | --force]
[--state-branch <branch>] [--] [<rev-list options>...]
+WARNING
+-------
+'git filter-branch' has a plethora of pitfalls that can produce non-obvious
+manglings of the intended history rewrite (and can leave you with little
+time to investigate such problems since it has such abysmal performance).
+These safety and performance issues cannot be backward compatibly fixed and
+as such, its use is not recommended. Please use an alternative history
+filtering tool such as https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo/[git
+filter-repo]. If you still need to use 'git filter-branch', please
+carefully read <<SAFETY>> (and <<PERFORMANCE>>) to learn about the land
+mines of filter-branch, and then vigilantly avoid as many of the hazards
+listed there as reasonably possible.
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Lets you rewrite Git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
@@ -445,36 +458,245 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
-NOTES
------
-
-git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
-of your Git history, but you probably don't need this flexibility if
-you're simply _removing unwanted data_ like large files or passwords.
-For those operations you may want to consider
-http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/[The BFG Repo-Cleaner],
-a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least
-10-50x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different
-characteristics:
-
-* Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly _once_. The BFG,
- unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to
- handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed
- within your history. This constraint gives the core performance
- benefit of The BFG, and is well-suited to the task of cleansing bad
- data - you don't care _where_ the bad data is, you just want it
- _gone_.
-
-* By default The BFG takes full advantage of multi-core machines,
- cleansing commit file-trees in parallel. git-filter-branch cleans
- commits sequentially (i.e. in a single-threaded manner), though it
- _is_ possible to write filters that include their own parallelism,
- in the scripts executed against each commit.
-
-* The http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/#examples[command options]
- are much more restrictive than git-filter branch, and dedicated just
- to the tasks of removing unwanted data- e.g:
- `--strip-blobs-bigger-than 1M`.
+[[PERFORMANCE]]
+PERFORMANCE
+-----------
+
+The performance of git-filter-branch is glacially slow; its design makes it
+impossible for a backward-compatible implementation to ever be fast:
+
+* In editing files, git-filter-branch by design checks out each and
+ every commit as it existed in the original repo. If your repo has
+ `10^5` files and `10^5` commits, but each commit only modifies five
+ files, then git-filter-branch will make you do `10^10` modifications,
+ despite only having (at most) `5*10^5` unique blobs.
+
+* If you try and cheat and try to make git-filter-branch only work on
+ files modified in a commit, then two things happen
+
+ ** you run into problems with deletions whenever the user is simply
+ trying to rename files (because attempting to delete files that
+ don't exist looks like a no-op; it takes some chicanery to remap
+ deletes across file renames when the renames happen via arbitrary
+ user-provided shell)
+
+ ** even if you succeed at the map-deletes-for-renames chicanery, you
+ still technically violate backward compatibility because users
+ are allowed to filter files in ways that depend upon topology of
+ commits instead of filtering solely based on file contents or
+ names (though this has not been observed in the wild).
+
+* Even if you don't need to edit files but only want to e.g. rename or
+ remove some and thus can avoid checking out each file (i.e. you can
+ use --index-filter), you still are passing shell snippets for your
+ filters. This means that for every commit, you have to have a
+ prepared git repo where those filters can be run. That's a
+ significant setup.
+
+* Further, several additional files are created or updated per commit
+ by git-filter-branch. Some of these are for supporting the
+ convenience functions provided by git-filter-branch (such as map()),
+ while others are for keeping track of internal state (but could have
+ also been accessed by user filters; one of git-filter-branch's
+ regression tests does so). This essentially amounts to using the
+ filesystem as an IPC mechanism between git-filter-branch and the
+ user-provided filters. Disks tend to be a slow IPC mechanism, and
+ writing these files also effectively represents a forced
+ synchronization point between separate processes that we hit with
+ every commit.
+
+* The user-provided shell commands will likely involve a pipeline of
+ commands, resulting in the creation of many processes per commit.
+ Creating and running another process takes a widely varying amount
+ of time between operating systems, but on any platform it is very
+ slow relative to invoking a function.
+
+* git-filter-branch itself is written in shell, which is kind of slow.
+ This is the one performance issue that could be backward-compatibly
+ fixed, but compared to the above problems that are intrinsic to the
+ design of git-filter-branch, the language of the tool itself is a
+ relatively minor issue.
+
+ ** Side note: Unfortunately, people tend to fixate on the
+ written-in-shell aspect and periodically ask if git-filter-branch
+ could be rewritten in another language to fix the performance
+ issues. Not only does that ignore the bigger intrinsic problems
+ with the design, it'd help less than you'd expect: if
+ git-filter-branch itself were not shell, then the convenience
+ functions (map(), skip_commit(), etc) and the `--setup` argument
+ could no longer be executed once at the beginning of the program
+ but would instead need to be prepended to every user filter (and
+ thus re-executed with every commit).
+
+The https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo/[git filter-repo] tool is
+an alternative to git-filter-branch which does not suffer from these
+performance problems or the safety problems (mentioned below). For those
+with existing tooling which relies upon git-filter-branch, 'git
+repo-filter' also provides
+https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo/blob/master/contrib/filter-repo-demos/filter-lamely[filter-lamely],
+a drop-in git-filter-branch replacement (with a few caveats). While
+filter-lamely suffers from all the same safety issues as
+git-filter-branch, it at least ameliorates the performance issues a
+little.
+
+[[SAFETY]]
+SAFETY
+------
+
+git-filter-branch is riddled with gotchas resulting in various ways to
+easily corrupt repos or end up with a mess worse than what you started
+with:
+
+* Someone can have a set of "working and tested filters" which they
+ document or provide to a coworker, who then runs them on a different
+ OS where the same commands are not working/tested (some examples in
+ the git-filter-branch manpage are also affected by this).
+ BSD vs. GNU userland differences can really bite. If lucky, error
+ messages are spewed. But just as likely, the commands either don't
+ do the filtering requested, or silently corrupt by making some
+ unwanted change. The unwanted change may only affect a few commits,
+ so it's not necessarily obvious either. (The fact that problems
+ won't necessarily be obvious means they are likely to go unnoticed
+ until the rewritten history is in use for quite a while, at which
+ point it's really hard to justify another flag-day for another
+ rewrite.)
+
+* Filenames with spaces are often mishandled by shell snippets since
+ they cause problems for shell pipelines. Not everyone is familiar
+ with find -print0, xargs -0, git-ls-files -z, etc. Even people who
+ are familiar with these may assume such flags are not relevant
+ because someone else renamed any such files in their repo back
+ before the person doing the filtering joined the project. And
+ often, even those familiar with handling arguments with spaces may
+ not do so just because they aren't in the mindset of thinking about
+ everything that could possibly go wrong.
+
+* Non-ascii filenames can be silently removed despite being in a
+ desired directory. Keeping only wanted paths is often done using
+ pipelines like `git ls-files | grep -v ^WANTED_DIR/ | xargs git rm`.
+ ls-files will only quote filenames if needed, so folks may not
+ notice that one of the files didn't match the regex (at least not
+ until it's much too late). Yes, someone who knows about
+ core.quotePath can avoid this (unless they have other special
+ characters like \t, \n, or "), and people who use ls-files -z with
+ something other than grep can avoid this, but that doesn't mean they
+ will.
+
+* Similarly, when moving files around, one can find that filenames
+ with non-ascii or special characters end up in a different
+ directory, one that includes a double quote character. (This is
+ technically the same issue as above with quoting, but perhaps an
+ interesting different way that it can and has manifested as a
+ problem.)
+
+* It's far too easy to accidentally mix up old and new history. It's
+ still possible with any tool, but git-filter-branch almost
+ invites it. If lucky, the only downside is users getting frustrated
+ that they don't know how to shrink their repo and remove the old
+ stuff. If unlucky, they merge old and new history and end up with
+ multiple "copies" of each commit, some of which have unwanted or
+ sensitive files and others which don't. This comes about in
+ multiple different ways:
+
+ ** the default to only doing a partial history rewrite ('--all' is not
+ the default and few examples show it)
+
+ ** the fact that there's no automatic post-run cleanup
+
+ ** the fact that --tag-name-filter (when used to rename tags) doesn't
+ remove the old tags but just adds new ones with the new name
+
+ ** the fact that little educational information is provided to inform
+ users of the ramifications of a rewrite and how to avoid mixing old
+ and new history. For example, this man page discusses how users
+ need to understand that they need to rebase their changes for all
+ their branches on top of new history (or delete and reclone), but
+ that's only one of multiple concerns to consider. See the
+ "DISCUSSION" section of the git filter-repo manual page for more
+ details.
+
+* Annotated tags can be accidentally converted to lightweight tags,
+ due to either of two issues:
+
+ ** Someone can do a history rewrite, realize they messed up, restore
+ from the backups in refs/original/, and then redo their
+ git-filter-branch command. (The backup in refs/original/ is not a
+ real backup; it dereferences tags first.)
+
+ ** Running git-filter-branch with either --tags or --all in your
+ <rev-list options>. In order to retain annotated tags as
+ annotated, you must use --tag-name-filter (and must not have
+ restored from refs/original/ in a previously botched rewrite).
+
+* Any commit messages that specify an encoding will become corrupted
+ by the rewrite; git-filter-branch ignores the encoding, takes the
+ original bytes, and feeds it to commit-tree without telling it the
+ proper encoding. (This happens whether or not --msg-filter is
+ used.)
+
+* Commit messages (even if they are all UTF-8) by default become
+ corrupted due to not being updated -- any references to other commit
+ hashes in commit messages will now refer to no-longer-extant
+ commits.
+
+* There are no facilities for helping users find what unwanted crud
+ they should delete, which means they are much more likely to have
+ incomplete or partial cleanups that sometimes result in confusion
+ and people wasting time trying to understand. (For example, folks
+ tend to just look for big files to delete instead of big directories
+ or extensions, and once they do so, then sometime later folks using
+ the new repository who are going through history will notice a build
+ artifact directory that has some files but not others, or a cache of
+ dependencies (node_modules or similar) which couldn't have ever been
+ functional since it's missing some files.)
+
+* If --prune-empty isn't specified, then the filtering process can
+ create hoards of confusing empty commits
+
+* If --prune-empty is specified, then intentionally placed empty
+ commits from before the filtering operation are also pruned instead
+ of just pruning commits that became empty due to filtering rules.
+
+* If --prune-empty is specified, sometimes empty commits are missed
+ and left around anyway (a somewhat rare bug, but it happens...)
+
+* A minor issue, but users who have a goal to update all names and
+ emails in a repository may be led to --env-filter which will only
+ update authors and committers, missing taggers.
+
+* If the user provides a --tag-name-filter that maps multiple tags to
+ the same name, no warning or error is provided; git-filter-branch
+ simply overwrites each tag in some undocumented pre-defined order
+ resulting in only one tag at the end. (A git-filter-branch
+ regression test requires this surprising behavior.)
+
+Also, the poor performance of git-filter-branch often leads to safety
+issues:
+
+* Coming up with the correct shell snippet to do the filtering you
+ want is sometimes difficult unless you're just doing a trivial
+ modification such as deleting a couple files. Unfortunately, people
+ often learn if the snippet is right or wrong by trying it out, but
+ the rightness or wrongness can vary depending on special
+ circumstances (spaces in filenames, non-ascii filenames, funny
+ author names or emails, invalid timezones, presence of grafts or
+ replace objects, etc.), meaning they may have to wait a long time,
+ hit an error, then restart. The performance of git-filter-branch is
+ so bad that this cycle is painful, reducing the time available to
+ carefully re-check (to say nothing about what it does to the
+ patience of the person doing the rewrite even if they do technically
+ have more time available). This problem is extra compounded because
+ errors from broken filters may not be shown for a long time and/or
+ get lost in a sea of output. Even worse, broken filters often just
+ result in silent incorrect rewrites.
+
+* To top it all off, even when users finally find working commands,
+ they naturally want to share them. But they may be unaware that
+ their repo didn't have some special cases that someone else's does.
+ So, when someone else with a different repository runs the same
+ commands, they get hit by the problems above. Or, the user just
+ runs commands that really were vetted for special cases, but they
+ run it on a different OS where it doesn't work, as noted above.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 774cecc..6dcd39f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -214,6 +214,11 @@ symref::
`:lstrip` and `:rstrip` options in the same way as `refname`
above.
+worktreepath::
+ The absolute path to the worktree in which the ref is checked
+ out, if it is checked out in any linked worktree. Empty string
+ otherwise.
+
In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
be used to specify the value in the header field.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 1af85d4..0d4f895 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -17,12 +17,14 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--signature-file=<file>]
[-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
- [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
+ [--in-reply-to=<message id>] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
[--ignore-if-in-upstream]
- [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
+ [--cover-from-description=<mode>]
+ [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=<subject prefix>]
[(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
- [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet]
+ [--no-notes | --notes[=<ref>]]
[--interdiff=<previous>]
[--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
[--progress]
@@ -65,7 +67,8 @@ they are created in the current working directory. The default path
can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
To store patches in the current working directory even when
-`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
+`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`. All directory
+components will be created.
By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
@@ -158,9 +161,9 @@ Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
---in-reply-to=Message-Id::
+--in-reply-to=<message id>::
Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
- reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
+ reply to the given <message id>, which avoids breaking threads to
provide a new patch series.
--ignore-if-in-upstream::
@@ -170,9 +173,29 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
ignored.
---subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
+--cover-from-description=<mode>::
+ Controls which parts of the cover letter will be automatically
+ populated using the branch's description.
++
+If `<mode>` is `message` or `default`, the cover letter subject will be
+populated with placeholder text. The body of the cover letter will be
+populated with the branch's description. This is the default mode when
+no configuration nor command line option is specified.
++
+If `<mode>` is `subject`, the first paragraph of the branch description will
+populate the cover letter subject. The remainder of the description will
+populate the body of the cover letter.
++
+If `<mode>` is `auto`, if the first paragraph of the branch description
+is greater than 100 bytes, then the mode will be `message`, otherwise
+`subject` will be used.
++
+If `<mode>` is `none`, both the cover letter subject and body will be
+populated with placeholder text.
+
+--subject-prefix=<subject prefix>::
Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
- line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
+ line, instead use '[<subject prefix>]'. This
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
combined with the `--numbered` option.
@@ -263,6 +286,7 @@ material (this may change in the future).
for details.
--notes[=<ref>]::
+--no-notes::
Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
after the three-dash line.
+
@@ -273,6 +297,9 @@ these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
++
+The default is `--no-notes`, unless the `format.notes` configuration is
+set.
--[no-]signature=<signature>::
Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
@@ -306,10 +333,12 @@ you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
of the hash of the commit.
---base=<commit>::
+--[no-]base[=<commit>]::
Record the base tree information to identify the state the
patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
- below for details.
+ below for details. If <commit> is "auto", a base commit is
+ automatically chosen. The `--no-base` option overrides a
+ `format.useAutoBase` configuration.
--root::
Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
@@ -325,8 +354,9 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,