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-rw-r--r--.gitattributes1
-rw-r--r--.gitignore365
-rw-r--r--COPYING25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile30
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt50
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-hash-object.txt4
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-init.txt6
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-web--browse.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-write-tree.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt61
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt196
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt95
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitignore.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitworkflows.txt121
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/i18n.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/manpage-base-url.xsl.in10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/manpage-quote-apos.xsl16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-config.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt100
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-options.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt78
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt535
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt187
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt96
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls-remotes.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt58
-rwxr-xr-xGIT-VERSION-GEN2
-rw-r--r--INSTALL18
-rw-r--r--Makefile797
l---------RelNotes2
-rw-r--r--abspath.c5
-rw-r--r--advice.c22
-rw-r--r--advice.h8
-rw-r--r--archive.c33
-rw-r--r--attr.c11
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diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 0636dee..5e98806 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -1,2 +1,3 @@
* whitespace=!indent,trail,space
*.[ch] whitespace=indent,trail,space
+*.sh whitespace=indent,trail,space
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 51a37b1..7b3acb7 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -1,184 +1,195 @@
-GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
-GIT-CFLAGS
-GIT-GUI-VARS
-GIT-VERSION-FILE
-git
-git-add
-git-add--interactive
-git-am
-git-annotate
-git-apply
-git-archimport
-git-archive
-git-bisect
-git-bisect--helper
-git-blame
-git-branch
-git-bundle
-git-cat-file
-git-check-attr
-git-check-ref-format
-git-checkout
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-git-cherry
-git-cherry-pick
-git-clean
-git-clone
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-git-config
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-git-diff
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-git-difftool
-git-difftool--helper
-git-describe
-git-fast-export
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-git-fetch
-git-fetch--tool
-git-fetch-pack
-git-filter-branch
-git-fmt-merge-msg
-git-for-each-ref
-git-format-patch
-git-fsck
-git-fsck-objects
-git-gc
-git-get-tar-commit-id
-git-grep
-git-hash-object
-git-help
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-git-imap-send
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-git-write-tree
-git-core-*/?*
-gitk-wish
-gitweb/gitweb.cgi
-test-chmtime
-test-ctype
-test-date
-test-delta
-test-dump-cache-tree
-test-genrandom
-test-match-trees
-test-parse-options
-test-path-utils
-test-sha1
-test-sigchain
-common-cmds.h
+/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
+/GIT-CFLAGS
+/GIT-GUI-VARS
+/GIT-VERSION-FILE
+/bin-wrappers/
+/git
+/git-add
+/git-add--interactive
+/git-am
+/git-annotate
+/git-apply
+/git-archimport
+/git-archive
+/git-bisect
+/git-bisect--helper
+/git-blame
+/git-branch
+/git-bundle
+/git-cat-file
+/git-check-attr
+/git-check-ref-format
+/git-checkout
+/git-checkout-index
+/git-cherry
+/git-cherry-pick
+/git-clean
+/git-clone
+/git-commit
+/git-commit-tree
+/git-config
+/git-count-objects
+/git-cvsexportcommit
+/git-cvsimport
+/git-cvsserver
+/git-daemon
+/git-diff
+/git-diff-files
+/git-diff-index
+/git-diff-tree
+/git-difftool
+/git-difftool--helper
+/git-describe
+/git-fast-export
+/git-fast-import
+/git-fetch
+/git-fetch--tool
+/git-fetch-pack
+/git-filter-branch
+/git-fmt-merge-msg
+/git-for-each-ref
+/git-format-patch
+/git-fsck
+/git-fsck-objects
+/git-gc
+/git-get-tar-commit-id
+/git-grep
+/git-hash-object
+/git-help
+/git-http-backend
+/git-http-fetch
+/git-http-push
+/git-imap-send
+/git-index-pack
+/git-init
+/git-init-db
+/git-instaweb
+/git-log
+/git-lost-found
+/git-ls-files
+/git-ls-remote
+/git-ls-tree
+/git-mailinfo
+/git-mailsplit
+/git-merge
+/git-merge-base
+/git-merge-index
+/git-merge-file
+/git-merge-tree
+/git-merge-octopus
+/git-merge-one-file
+/git-merge-ours
+/git-merge-recursive
+/git-merge-resolve
+/git-merge-subtree
+/git-mergetool
+/git-mergetool--lib
+/git-mktag
+/git-mktree
+/git-name-rev
+/git-mv
+/git-notes
+/git-pack-redundant
+/git-pack-objects
+/git-pack-refs
+/git-parse-remote
+/git-patch-id
+/git-peek-remote
+/git-prune
+/git-prune-packed
+/git-pull
+/git-push
+/git-quiltimport
+/git-read-tree
+/git-rebase
+/git-rebase--interactive
+/git-receive-pack
+/git-reflog
+/git-relink
+/git-remote
+/git-remote-curl
+/git-remote-http
+/git-remote-https
+/git-remote-ftp
+/git-remote-ftps
+/git-repack
+/git-replace
+/git-repo-config
+/git-request-pull
+/git-rerere
+/git-reset
+/git-rev-list
+/git-rev-parse
+/git-revert
+/git-rm
+/git-send-email
+/git-send-pack
+/git-sh-setup
+/git-shell
+/git-shortlog
+/git-show
+/git-show-branch
+/git-show-index
+/git-show-ref
+/git-stage
+/git-stash
+/git-status
+/git-stripspace
+/git-submodule
+/git-svn
+/git-symbolic-ref
+/git-tag
+/git-tar-tree
+/git-unpack-file
+/git-unpack-objects
+/git-update-index
+/git-update-ref
+/git-update-server-info
+/git-upload-archive
+/git-upload-pack
+/git-var
+/git-verify-pack
+/git-verify-tag
+/git-web--browse
+/git-whatchanged
+/git-write-tree
+/git-core-*/?*
+/gitk-git/gitk-wish
+/gitweb/gitweb.cgi
+/test-chmtime
+/test-ctype
+/test-date
+/test-delta
+/test-dump-cache-tree
+/test-genrandom
+/test-index-version
+/test-match-trees
+/test-parse-options
+/test-path-utils
+/test-run-command
+/test-sha1
+/test-sigchain
+/common-cmds.h
*.tar.gz
*.dsc
*.deb
-git.spec
+/git.spec
*.exe
*.[aos]
*.py[co]
-config.mak
-autom4te.cache
-config.cache
-config.log
-config.status
-config.mak.autogen
-config.mak.append
-configure
-tags
-TAGS
-cscope*
+*.o.d
+*+
+/config.mak
+/autom4te.cache
+/config.cache
+/config.log
+/config.status
+/config.mak.autogen
+/config.mak.append
+/configure
+/tags
+/TAGS
+/cscope*
*.obj
*.lib
*.sln
@@ -188,5 +199,5 @@ cscope*
*.user
*.idb
*.pdb
-Debug/
-Release/
+/Debug/
+/Release/
diff --git a/COPYING b/COPYING
index 6ff87c4..536e555 100644
--- a/COPYING
+++ b/COPYING
@@ -22,8 +22,8 @@
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
Version 2, June 1991
- Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
- 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
-the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
+the GNU Lesser General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
your programs, too.
When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.
-
+
GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@@ -131,7 +131,7 @@ above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
-
+
These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
-
+
4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
@@ -246,7 +246,7 @@ impose that choice.
This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.
-
+
8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
@@ -299,7 +299,7 @@ PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
-
+
How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
@@ -324,10 +324,9 @@ the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
GNU General Public License for more details.
- You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
- along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
- Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
-
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
+ with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
+ 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
@@ -357,5 +356,5 @@ necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
-library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
+library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index d8edd90..1c3a9fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -8,3 +8,4 @@ gitman.info
howto-index.txt
doc.dep
cmds-*.txt
+manpage-base-url.xsl
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 06b0c57..8a8a395 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@ DOC_HTML=$(MAN_HTML)
ARTICLES = howto-index
ARTICLES += everyday
ARTICLES += git-tools
+ARTICLES += git-bisect-lk2009
# with their own formatting rules.
SP_ARTICLES = howto/revert-branch-rebase howto/using-merge-subtree user-manual
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
@@ -103,6 +104,25 @@ ifdef DOCBOOK_SUPPRESS_SP
XMLTO_EXTRA += -m manpage-suppress-sp.xsl
endif
+# Newer DocBook stylesheet emits warning cruft in the output when
+# this is not set, and if set it shows an absolute link. Older
+# stylesheets simply ignore this parameter.
+#
+# Distros may want to use MAN_BASE_URL=file:///path/to/git/docs/
+# or similar.
+ifndef MAN_BASE_URL
+MAN_BASE_URL = file://$(htmldir)/
+endif
+XMLTO_EXTRA += -m manpage-base-url.xsl
+
+# If your target system uses GNU groff, it may try to render
+# apostrophes as a "pretty" apostrophe using unicode. This breaks
+# cut&paste, so you should set GNU_ROFF to force them to be ASCII
+# apostrophes. Unfortunately does not work with non-GNU roff.
+ifdef GNU_ROFF
+XMLTO_EXTRA += -m manpage-quote-apos.xsl
+endif
+
SHELL_PATH ?= $(SHELL)
# Shell quote;
SHELL_PATH_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(SHELL_PATH))
@@ -184,7 +204,7 @@ install-pdf: pdf
install-html: html
'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-webdoc.sh $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
-../GIT-VERSION-FILE: .FORCE-GIT-VERSION-FILE
+../GIT-VERSION-FILE: FORCE
$(QUIET_SUBDIR0)../ $(QUIET_SUBDIR1) GIT-VERSION-FILE
-include ../GIT-VERSION-FILE
@@ -222,6 +242,7 @@ clean:
$(RM) howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
$(RM) technical/api-*.html technical/api-index.txt
$(RM) $(cmds_txt) *.made
+ $(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
@@ -229,7 +250,10 @@ $(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
-%.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml
+manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
+ sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
+
+%.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl
$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
xmlto -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
@@ -313,4 +337,4 @@ quick-install-man:
quick-install-html:
'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-doc-quick.sh $(HTML_REF) $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
-.PHONY: .FORCE-GIT-VERSION-FILE
+.PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..309ba18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+GIT v1.6.5.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5
+------------------
+
+ * An corrupt pack could make codepath to read objects into an
+ infinite loop.
+
+ * Download throughput display was always shown in KiB/s but on fast links
+ it is more appropriate to show it in MiB/s.
+
+ * "git grep -f filename" used uninitialized variable and segfaulted.
+
+ * "git clone -b branch" gave a wrong commit object name to post-checkout
+ hook.
+
+ * "git pull" over http did not work on msys.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa7ccce
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+GIT v1.6.5.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.1
+--------------------
+
+ * Installation of templates triggered a bug in busybox when using tar
+ implementation from it.
+
+ * "git add -i" incorrectly ignored paths that are already in the index
+ if they matched .gitignore patterns.
+
+ * "git describe --always" should have produced some output even there
+ were no tags in the repository, but it didn't.
+
+ * "git ls-files" when showing tracked files incorrectly paid attention
+ to the exclude patterns.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b2fad1b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
+Git v1.6.5.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.2
+--------------------
+
+ * info/grafts file didn't ignore trailing CR at the end of lines.
+
+ * Packages generated on newer FC were unreadable by older versions of
+ RPM as the new default is to use stronger hash.
+
+ * output from "git blame" was unreadable when the file ended in an
+ incomplete line.
+
+ * "git add -i/-p" didn't handle deletion of empty files correctly.
+
+ * "git clone" takes up to two parameters, but did not complain when
+ given more arguments than necessary and silently ignored them.
+
+ * "git cvsimport" did not read files given as command line arguments
+ correctly when it is run from a subdirectory.
+
+ * "git diff --color-words -U0" didn't work correctly.
+
+ * The handling of blank lines at the end of file by "git diff/apply
+ --whitespace" was inconsistent with the other kinds of errors.
+ They are now colored, warned against, and fixed the same way as others.
+
+ * There was no way to allow blank lines at the end of file without
+ allowing extra blanks at the end of lines. You can use blank-at-eof
+ and blank-at-eol whitespace error class to specify them separately.
+ The old trailing-space error class is now a short-hand to set both.
+
+ * "-p" option to "git format-patch" was supposed to suppress diffstat
+ generation, but it was broken since 1.6.1.
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not compile cleanly with newer OpenSSL.
+
+ * "git help -a" outside of a git repository was broken.
+
+ * "git ls-files -i" was supposed to be inverse of "git ls-files" without -i
+ with respect to exclude patterns, but it was broken since 1.6.5.2.
+
+ * "git ls-remote" outside of a git repository over http was broken.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" gave bogus error message when the command word was
+ misspelled.
+
+ * "git receive-pack" that is run in response to "git push" did not run
+ garbage collection nor update-server-info, but in larger hosting sites,
+ these almost always need to be run. To help site administrators, the
+ command now runs "gc --auto" and "u-s-i" by setting receive.autogc
+ and receive.updateserverinfo configuration variables, respectively.
+
+ * Release notes spelled the package name with incorrect capitalization.
+
+ * "gitweb" did not escape non-ascii characters correctly in the URL.
+
+ * "gitweb" showed "patch" link even for merge commits.
+
+ * "gitweb" showed incorrect links for blob line numbers in pathinfo mode.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e42f8b2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+Git v1.6.5.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.3
+--------------------
+
+ * "git help" (without argument) used to check if you are in a directory
+ under git control. There was no breakage in behaviour per-se, but this
+ was unnecessary.
+
+ * "git prune-packed" gave progress output even when its standard error is
+ not connected to a terminal; this caused cron jobs that run it to
+ produce crufts.
+
+ * "git pack-objects --all-progress" is an option to ask progress output
+ from write-object phase _if_ progress output were to be produced, and
+ shouldn't have forced the progress output.
+
+ * "git apply -p<n> --directory=<elsewhere>" did not work well for a
+ non-default value of n.
+
+ * "git merge foo HEAD" was misparsed as an old-style invocation of the
+ command and produced a confusing error message. As it does not specify
+ any other branch to merge, it shouldn't be mistaken as such. We will
+ remove the old style "git merge <message> HEAD <commit>..." syntax in
+ future versions, but not in this release,
+
+ * "git merge -m <message> <branch>..." added the standard merge message
+ on its own after user-supplied message, which should have overrided the
+ standard one.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ecfc57d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
+Git v1.6.5.5 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.4
+--------------------
+
+ * Manual pages can be formatted with older xmlto again.
+
+ * GREP_OPTIONS exported from user's environment could have broken
+ our scripted commands.
+
+ * In configuration files, a few variables that name paths can begin with
+ ~/ and ~username/ and they are expanded as expected. This is not a
+ bugfix but 1.6.6 will have this and without backporting users cannot
+ easily use the same ~/.gitconfig across versions.
+
+ * "git diff -B -M" did the same computation to hash lines of contents
+ twice, and held onto memory after it has used the data in it
+ unnecessarily before it freed.
+
+ * "git diff -B" and "git diff --dirstat" was not counting newly added
+ contents correctly.
+
+ * "git format-patch revisions... -- path" issued an incorrect error
+ message that suggested to use "--" on the command line when path
+ does not exist in the current work tree (it is a separate matter if
+ it makes sense to limit format-patch with pathspecs like that
+ without using the --full-diff option).
+
+ * "git grep -F -i StRiNg" did not work as expected.
+
+ * Enumeration of available merge strategies iterated over the list of
+ commands in a wrong way, sometimes producing an incorrect result.
+
+ * "git shortlog" did not honor the "encoding" header embedded in the
+ commit object like "git log" did.
+
+ * Reading progress messages that come from the remote side while running
+ "git pull" is given precedence over reading the actual pack data to
+ prevent garbled progress message on the user's terminal.
+
+ * "git rebase" got confused when the log message began with certain
+ strings that looked like Subject:, Date: or From: header.
+
+ * "git reset" accidentally run in .git/ directory checked out the
+ work tree contents in there.
+
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a9eaf76
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,23 @@
+Git v1.6.5.6 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.5
+--------------------
+
+ * "git add -p" had a regression since v1.6.5.3 that broke deletion of
+ non-empty files.
+
+ * "git archive -o o.zip -- Makefile" produced an archive in o.zip
+ but in POSIX tar format.
+
+ * Error message given to "git pull --rebase" when the user didn't give
+ enough clue as to what branch to integrate with still talked about
+ "merging with" the branch.
+
+ * Error messages given by "git merge" when the merge resulted in a
+ fast-forward still were in plumbing lingo, even though in v1.6.5
+ we reworded messages in other cases.
+
+ * The post-upload-hook run by upload-pack in response to "git fetch" has
+ been removed, due to security concerns (the hook first appeared in
+ 1.6.5).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.7.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5b49ea5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.7.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+Git v1.6.5.7 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.6
+--------------------
+
+* If a user specifies a color for a <slot> (i.e. a class of things to show
+ in a particular color) that is known only by newer versions of git
+ (e.g. "color.diff.func" was recently added for upcoming 1.6.6 release),
+ an older version of git should just ignore them. Instead we diagnosed
+ it as an error.
+
+* With help.autocorrect set to non-zero value, the logic to guess typoes
+ in the subcommand name misfired and ran a random nonsense command.
+
+* If a command is run with an absolute path as a pathspec inside a bare
+ repository, e.g. "rev-list HEAD -- /home", the code tried to run
+ strlen() on NULL, which is the result of get_git_work_tree(), and
+ segfaulted.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.8.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.8.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8b24beb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.5.8.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+Git v1.6.5.8 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5.7
+--------------------
+
+* "git count-objects" did not handle packfiles that are bigger than 4G on
+ platforms with 32-bit off_t.
+
+* "git rebase -i" did not abort cleanly if it failed to launch the editor.
+
+* "git blame" did not work well when commit lacked the author name.
+
+* "git fast-import" choked when handling a tag that points at an object
+ that is not a commit.
+
+* "git reset --hard" did not work correctly when GIT_WORK_TREE environment
+ variable is used to point at the root of the true work tree.
+
+* "git grep" fed a buffer that is not NUL-terminated to underlying
+ regexec().
+
+* "git checkout -m other" while on a branch that does not have any commit
+ segfaulted, instead of failing.
+
+* "git branch -a other" should have diagnosed the command as an error.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are also included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f1d0a4a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+Git v1.6.6.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.6
+------------------
+
+ * "git blame" did not work well when commit lacked the author name.
+
+ * "git branch -a name" wasn't diagnosed as an error.
+
+ * "git count-objects" did not handle packfiles that are bigger than 4G on
+ platforms with 32-bit off_t.
+
+ * "git checkout -m other" while on a branch that does not have any commit
+ segfaulted, instead of failing.
+
+ * "git fast-import" choked when fed a tag that do not point at a
+ commit.
+
+ * "git grep" finding from work tree files could have fed garbage to
+ the underlying regexec(3).
+
+ * "git grep -L" didn't show empty files (they should never match, and
+ they should always appear in -L output as unmatching).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" did not abort cleanly if it failed to launch the editor.
+
+ * "git reset --hard" did not work correctly when GIT_WORK_TREE environment
+ variable is used to point at the root of the true work tree.
+
+ * http-backend was not listed in the command list in the documentation.
+
+ * Building on FreeBSD (both 7 and 8) needs OLD_ICONV set in the Makefile
+
+ * "git checkout -m some-branch" while on an unborn branch crashed.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4eaddc0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+Git v1.6.6.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.6.1
+--------------------
+
+ * recursive merge didn't correctly diagnose its own programming errors,
+ and instead caused the caller to segfault.
+
+ * The new "smart http" aware clients probed the web servers to see if
+ they support smart http, but did not fall back to dumb http transport
+ correctly with some servers.
+
+ * Time based reflog syntax e.g. "@{yesterday}" didn't diagnose a misspelled
+ time specification and instead assumed "@{now}".
+
+ * "git archive HEAD -- no-such-directory" produced an empty archive
+ without complaining.
+
+ * "git blame -L start,end -- file" misbehaved when given a start that is
+ larger than the number of lines in the file.
+
+ * "git checkout -m" didn't correctly call custom merge backend supplied
+ by the end user.
+
+ * "git config -f <file>" misbehaved when run from a subdirectory.
+
+ * "git cvsserver" didn't like having regex metacharacters (e.g. '+') in
+ CVSROOT environment.
+
+ * "git fast-import" did not correctly handle large blobs that may
+ bust the pack size limit.
+
+ * "git gui" is supposed to work even when launched from inside a .git
+ directory.
+
+ * "git gui" misbehaved when applying a hunk that ends with deletion.
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not honor imap.preformattedHTML as documented.
+
+ * "git log" family incorrectly showed the commit notes unconditionally by
+ mistake, which was especially irritating when running "git log --oneline".
+
+ * "git status" shouldn't require an write access to the repository.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..04e205c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,224 @@
+Git v1.6.6 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Notes on behaviour change
+-------------------------
+
+ * In this release, "git fsck" defaults to "git fsck --full" and
+ checks packfiles, and because of this it will take much longer to
+ complete than before. If you prefer a quicker check only on loose
+ objects (the old default), you can say "git fsck --no-full". This
+ has been supported by 1.5.4 and newer versions of git, so it is
+ safe to write it in your script even if you use slightly older git
+ on some of your machines.
+
+Preparing yourselves for compatibility issues in 1.7.0
+------------------------------------------------------
+
+In git 1.7.0, which is planned to be the release after 1.6.6, there will
+be a handful of behaviour changes that will break backward compatibility.
+
+These changes were discussed long time ago and existing behaviours have
+been identified as more problematic to the userbase than keeping them for
+the sake of backward compatibility.
+
+When necessary, a transition strategy for existing users has been designed
+not to force them running around setting configuration variables and
+updating their scripts in order to either keep the traditional behaviour
+or adjust to the new behaviour, on the day their sysadmin decides to install
+the new version of git. When we switched from "git-foo" to "git foo" in
+1.6.0, even though the change had been advertised and the transition
+guide had been provided for a very long time, the users procrastinated
+during the entire transtion period, and ended up panicking on the day
+their sysadmins updated their git installation. We are trying to avoid
+repeating that unpleasantness in the 1.7.0 release.
+
+For changes decided to be in 1.7.0, commands that will be affected
+have been much louder to strongly discourage such procrastination, and
+they continue to be in this release. If you have been using recent
+versions of git, you would have seen warnings issued when you used
+features whose behaviour will change, with a clear instruction on how
+to keep the existing behaviour if you want to. You hopefully are
+already well prepared.
+
+Of course, we have also been giving "this and that will change in
+1.7.0; prepare yourselves" warnings in the release notes and
+announcement messages for the past few releases. Let's see how well
+users will fare this time.
+
+ * "git push" into a branch that is currently checked out (i.e. pointed by
+ HEAD in a repository that is not bare) will be refused by default.
+
+ Similarly, "git push $there :$killed" to delete the branch $killed
+ in a remote repository $there, when $killed branch is the current
+ branch pointed at by its HEAD, will be refused by default.
+
+ Setting the configuration variables receive.denyCurrentBranch and
+ receive.denyDeleteCurrent to 'ignore' in the receiving repository
+ can be used to override these safety features. Versions of git
+ since 1.6.2 have issued a loud warning when you tried to do these
+ operations without setting the configuration, so repositories of
+ people who still need to be able to perform such a push should
+ already have been future proofed.
+
+ Please refer to:
+
+ http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
+ http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+
+ for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
+ transition process that already took place so far.
+
+ * "git send-email" will not make deep threads by default when sending a
+ patch series with more than two messages. All messages will be sent
+ as a reply to the first message, i.e. cover letter. Git 1.6.6 (this
+ release) will issue a warning about the upcoming default change, when
+ it uses the traditional "deep threading" behaviour as the built-in
+ default. To squelch the warning but still use the "deep threading"
+ behaviour, give --chain-reply-to option or set sendemail.chainreplyto
+ to true.
+
+ It has been possible to configure send-email to send "shallow thread"
+ by setting sendemail.chainreplyto configuration variable to false.
+ The only thing 1.7.0 release will do is to change the default when
+ you haven't configured that variable.
+
+ * "git status" will not be "git commit --dry-run". This change does not
+ affect you if you run the command without pathspec.
+
+ Nobody sane found the current behaviour of "git status Makefile" useful
+ nor meaningful, and it confused users. "git commit --dry-run" has been
+ provided as a way to get the current behaviour of this command since
+ 1.6.5.
+
+ * "git diff" traditionally treated various "ignore whitespace" options
+ only as a way to filter the patch output. "git diff --exit-code -b"
+ exited with non-zero status even if all changes were about changing the
+ ammount of whitespace and nothing else. and "git diff -b" showed the
+ "diff --git" header line for such a change without patch text.
+
+ In 1.7.0, the "ignore whitespaces" will affect the semantics of the
+ diff operation itself. A change that does not affect anything but
+ whitespaces will be reported with zero exit status when run with
+ --exit-code, and there will not be "diff --git" header for such a
+ change.
+
+
+Updates since v1.6.5
+--------------------
+
+(subsystems)
+
+ * various gitk updates including use of themed widgets under Tk 8.5,
+ Japanese translation, a fix to a bug when running "gui blame" from
+ a subdirectory, etc.
+
+ * various git-gui updates including new translations, wm states fixes,
+ Tk bug workaround after quitting, improved heuristics to trigger gc,
+ etc.
+
+ * various git-svn updates.
+
+ * "git fetch" over http learned a new mode that is different from the
+ traditional "dumb commit walker".
+
+(portability)
+
+ * imap-send can be built on mingw port.
+
+(performance)
+
+ * "git diff -B" has smaller memory footprint.
+
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+
+ * The object replace mechanism can be bypassed with --no-replace-objects
+ global option given to the "git" program.
+
+ * In configuration files, a few variables that name paths can begin with ~/
+ and ~username/ and they are expanded as expected.
+
+ * "git subcmd -h" now shows short usage help for many more subcommands.
+
+ * "git bisect reset" can reset to an arbitrary commit.
+
+ * "git checkout frotz" when there is no local branch "frotz" but there
+ is only one remote tracking branch "frotz" is taken as a request to
+ start the named branch at the corresponding remote tracking branch.
+
+ * "git commit -c/-C/--amend" can be told with a new "--reset-author" option
+ to ignore authorship information in the commit it is taking the message
+ from.
+
+ * "git describe" can be told to add "-dirty" suffix with "--dirty" option.
+
+ * "git diff" learned --submodule option to show a list of one-line logs
+ instead of differences between the commit object names.
+
+ * "git diff" learned to honor diff.color.func configuration to paint
+ function name hint printed on the hunk header "@@ -j,k +l,m @@" line
+ in the specified color.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned --all and --multiple options, to run fetch from
+ many repositories, and --prune option to remove remote tracking
+ branches that went stale. These make "git remote update" and "git
+ remote prune" less necessary (there is no plan to remove "remote
+ update" nor "remote prune", though).
+
+ * "git fsck" by default checks the packfiles (i.e. "--full" is the
+ default); you can turn it off with "git fsck --no-full".
+
+ * "git grep" can use -F (fixed strings) and -i (ignore case) together.
+
+ * import-tars contributed fast-import frontend learned more types of
+ compressed tarballs.
+
+ * "git instaweb" knows how to talk with mod_cgid to apache2.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" shows the location of HEAD as well.
+
+ * "git log" and "git rev-list" learned to take revs and pathspecs from
+ the standard input with the new "--stdin" option.
+
+ * "--pretty=format" option to "log" family of commands learned:
+
+ . to wrap text with the "%w()" specifier.
+ . to show reflog information with "%g[sdD]" specifier.
+
+ * "git notes" command to annotate existing commits.
+
+ * "git merge" (and "git pull") learned --ff-only option to make it fail
+ if the merge does not result in a fast-forward.
+
+ * "git mergetool" learned to use p4merge.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" learned "reword" that acts like "edit" but immediately
+ starts an editor to tweak the log message without returning control to
+ the shell, which is done by "edit" to give an opportunity to tweak the
+ contents.
+
+ * "git send-email" can be told with "--envelope-sender=auto" to use the
+ same address as "From:" address as the envelope sender address.
+
+ * "git send-email" will issue a warning when it defaults to the
+ --chain-reply-to behaviour without being told by the user and
+ instructs to prepare for the change of the default in 1.7.0 release.
+
+ * In "git submodule add <repository> <path>", <path> is now optional and
+ inferred from <repository> the same way "git clone <repository>" does.
+
+ * "git svn" learned to read SVN 1.5+ and SVK merge tickets.
+
+ * "git svn" learned to recreate empty directories tracked only by SVN.
+
+ * "gitweb" can optionally render its "blame" output incrementally (this
+ requires JavaScript on the client side).
+
+ * Author names shown in gitweb output are links to search commits by the
+ author.
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.6.5.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8ff5bca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+Git v1.7.0.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.0
+------------------
+
+ * In a freshly created repository "rev-parse HEAD^0" complained that
+ it is dangling symref, even though "rev-parse HEAD" didn't.
+
+ * "git show :no-such-name" tried to access the index without bounds
+ check, leading to a potential segfault.
+
+ * Message from "git cherry-pick" was harder to read and use than necessary
+ when it stopped due to conflicting changes.
+
+ * We referred to ".git/refs/" throughout the documentation when we
+ meant to talk about abstract notion of "ref namespace". Because
+ people's repositories often have packed refs these days, this was
+ confusing.
+
+ * "git diff --output=/path/that/cannot/be/written" did not correctly
+ error out.
+
+ * "git grep -e -pattern-that-begin-with-dash paths..." could not be
+ spelled as "git grep -- -pattern-that-begin-with-dash paths..." which
+ would be a GNU way to use "--" as "end of options".
+
+ * "git grep" compiled with threading support tried to access an
+ uninitialized mutex on boxes with a single CPU.
+
+ * "git stash pop -q --index" failed because the unnecessary --index
+ option was propagated to "git stash drop" that is internally run at the
+ end.
+
+And other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fcb46ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+Git v1.7.0.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.0.1
+--------------------
+
+ * GIT_PAGER was not honored consistently by some scripted Porcelains, most
+ notably "git am".
+
+ * updating working tree files after telling git to add them to the
+ index and while it is still working created garbage object files in
+ the repository without diagnosing it as an error.
+
+ * "git bisect -- pathspec..." did not diagnose an error condition properly when
+ the simplification with given pathspec made the history empty.
+
+ * "git rev-list --cherry-pick A...B" now has an obvious optimization when the
+ histories haven't diverged (i.e. when one end is an ancestor of the other).
+
+ * "git diff --quiet -w" did not work as expected.
+
+ * "git fast-import" didn't work with a large input, as it lacked support
+ for producing the pack index in v2 format.
+
+ * "git imap-send" didn't use CRLF line endings over the imap protocol
+ when storing its payload to the draft box, violating RFC 3501.
+
+ * "git log --format='%w(x,y,z)%b'" and friends that rewrap message
+ has been optimized for utf-8 payload.
+
+ * Error messages generated on the receiving end did not come back to "git
+ push".
+
+ * "git status" in 1.7.0 lacked the optimization we used to have in 1.6.X series
+ to speed up scanning of large working tree.
+
+ * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading tis configuration
+ file.
+
+And other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ed93638
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+Git v1.7.0.3 Release Notes (draft)
+==================================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.0.2
+--------------------
+
+ * Object files are created in a more ACL friendly way in repositories
+ where group permission is ACL controlled.
+
+ * "git add -i" didn't handle a deleted path very well.
+
+ * "git fetch --all/--multi" used to discard information for remotes that
+ are fetched earlier.
+
+ * "git log --author=me --grep=it" tried to find commits that have "it"
+ or are written by "me", instead of the ones that have "it" _and_ are
+ written by "me".
+
+ * "git mailinfo" (hence "git am") incorrectly removed initial indent from
+ paragraphs.
+
+ * "git prune" and "git reflog" (hence "git gc" as well) didn't honor
+ an instruction never to expire by setting gc.reflogexpire to never.
+
+ * "git push" misbehaved when branch.<name>.merge was configured without
+ matching branch.<name>.remote.
+
+And other minor fixes and documentation updates.
+
+--
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+echo O=$(git describe)
+O=v1.7.0.2-53-g6eb3adf
+git shortlog --no-merges $O..
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..43e3f33
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,214 @@
+Git v1.7.0 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Notes on behaviour change
+-------------------------
+
+ * "git push" into a branch that is currently checked out (i.e. pointed at by
+ HEAD in a repository that is not bare) is refused by default.
+
+ Similarly, "git push $there :$killed" to delete the branch $killed
+ in a remote repository $there, when $killed branch is the current
+ branch pointed at by its HEAD, will be refused by default.
+
+ Setting the configuration variables receive.denyCurrentBranch and
+ receive.denyDeleteCurrent to 'ignore' in the receiving repository
+ can be used to override these safety features.
+
+ * "git send-email" does not make deep threads by default when sending a
+ patch series with more than two messages. All messages will be sent
+ as a reply to the first message, i.e. cover letter.
+
+ It has been possible already to configure send-email to send "shallow thread"
+ by setting sendemail.chainreplyto configuration variable to false. The
+ only thing this release does is to change the default when you haven't
+ configured that variable.
+
+ * "git status" is not "git commit --dry-run" anymore. This change does
+ not affect you if you run the command without argument.
+
+ * "git diff" traditionally treated various "ignore whitespace" options
+ only as a way to filter the patch output. "git diff --exit-code -b"
+ exited with non-zero status even if all changes were about changing the
+ amount of whitespace and nothing else; and "git diff -b" showed the
+ "diff --git" header line for such a change without patch text.
+
+ In this release, the "ignore whitespaces" options affect the semantics
+ of the diff operation. A change that does not affect anything but
+ whitespaces is reported with zero exit status when run with
+ --exit-code, and there is no "diff --git" header for such a change.
+
+ * External diff and textconv helpers are now executed using the shell.
+ This makes them consistent with other programs executed by git, and
+ allows you to pass command-line parameters to the helpers. Any helper
+ paths containing spaces or other metacharacters now need to be
+ shell-quoted. The affected helpers are GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF in the
+ environment, and diff.*.command and diff.*.textconv in the config
+ file.
+
+ * The --max-pack-size argument to 'git repack', 'git pack-objects', and
+ 'git fast-import' was assuming the provided size to be expressed in MiB,
+ unlike the corresponding config variable and other similar options accepting
+ a size value. It is now expecting a size expressed in bytes, with a possible
+ unit suffix of 'k', 'm', or 'g'.
+
+Updates since v1.6.6
+--------------------
+
+(subsystems)
+
+ * "git fast-import" updates; adds "option" and "feature" to detect the
+ mismatch between fast-import and the frontends that produce the input
+ stream.
+
+ * "git svn" support of subversion "merge tickets" and miscellaneous fixes.
+
+ * "gitk" and "git gui" translation updates.
+
+ * "gitweb" updates (code clean-up, load checking etc.)
+
+(portability)
+
+ * Some more MSVC portability patches for msysgit port.
+
+ * Minimum Pthreads emulation for msysgit port.
+
+(performance)
+
+ * More performance improvement patches for msysgit port.
+
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+
+ * More commands learned "--quiet" and "--[no-]progress" options.
+
+ * Various commands given by the end user (e.g. diff.type.textconv,
+ and GIT_EDITOR) can be specified with command line arguments. E.g. it
+ is now possible to say "[diff "utf8doc"] textconv = nkf -w".
+
+ * "sparse checkout" feature allows only part of the work tree to be
+ checked out.
+
+ * HTTP transfer can use authentication scheme other than basic
+ (i.e./e.g. digest).
+
+ * Switching from a version of superproject that used to have a submodule
+ to another version of superproject that no longer has it did not remove
+ the submodule directory when it should (namely, when you are not
+ interested in the submodule at all and didn't clone/checkout).
+
+ * A new attribute conflict-marker-size can be used to change the size of
+ the conflict markers from the default 7; this is useful when tracked
+ contents (e.g. git-merge documentation) have strings that resemble the
+ conflict markers.
+
+ * A new syntax "<branch>@{upstream}" can be used on the command line to
+ substitute the name of the "upstream" of the branch. Missing branch
+ defaults to the current branch, so "git fetch && git merge @{upstream}"
+ will be equivalent to "git pull".
+
+ * "git am --resolved" has a synonym "git am --continue".
+
+ * "git branch --set-upstream" can be used to update the (surprise!) upstream,
+ i.e. where the branch is supposed to pull and merge from (or rebase onto).
+
+ * "git checkout A...B" is a way to detach HEAD at the merge base between
+ A and B.
+
+ * "git checkout -m path" to reset the work tree file back into the
+ conflicted state works even when you already ran "git add path" and
+ resolved the conflicts.
+
+ * "git commit --date='<date>'" can be used to override the author date
+ just like "git commit --author='<name> <email>'" can be used to
+ override the author identity.
+
+ * "git commit --no-status" can be used to omit the listing of the index
+ and the work tree status in the editor used to prepare the log message.
+
+ * "git commit" warns a bit more aggressively until you configure user.email,
+ whose default value almost always is not (and fundamentally cannot be)
+ what you want.
+
+ * "git difftool" has been extended to make it easier to integrate it
+ with gitk.
+
+ * "git fetch --all" can now be used in place of "git remote update".
+
+ * "git grep" does not rely on external grep anymore. It can use more than
+ one thread to accelerate the operation.
+
+ * "git grep" learned "--quiet" option.
+
+ * "git log" and friends learned "--glob=heads/*" syntax that is a more
+ flexible way to complement "--branches/--tags/--remotes".
+
+ * "git merge" learned to pass options specific to strategy-backends. E.g.
+
+ - "git merge -Xsubtree=path/to/directory" can be used to tell the subtree
+ strategy how much to shift the trees explicitly.
+
+ - "git merge -Xtheirs" can be used to auto-merge as much as possible,
+ while discarding your own changes and taking merged version in
+ conflicted regions.
+
+ * "git push" learned "git push origin --delete branch", a syntactic sugar
+ for "git push origin :branch".
+
+ * "git push" learned "git push --set-upstream origin forker:forkee" that
+ lets you configure your "forker" branch to later pull from "forkee"
+ branch at "origin".
+
+ * "git rebase --onto A...B" means the history is replayed on top of the
+ merge base between A and B.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" learned new action "fixup" that squashes the change
+ but does not affect existing log message.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" also learned --autosquash option that is useful
+ together with the new "fixup" action.
+
+ * "git remote" learned set-url subcommand that updates (surprise!) url
+ for an existing remote nickname.
+
+ * "git rerere" learned "forget path" subcommand. Together with "git
+ checkout -m path" it will be useful when you recorded a wrong
+ resolution.
+
+ * Use of "git reset --merge" has become easier when resetting away a
+ conflicted mess left in the work tree.
+
+ * "git rerere" had rerere.autoupdate configuration but there was no way
+ to countermand it from the command line; --no-rerere-autoupdate option
+ given to "merge", "revert", etc. fixes this.
+
+ * "git status" learned "-s(hort)" output format.
+
+(developers)
+
+ * The infrastructure to build foreign SCM interface has been updated.
+
+ * Many more commands are now built-in.
+
+ * THREADED_DELTA_SEARCH is no more. If you build with threads, delta
+ compression will always take advantage of it.
+
+Fixes since v1.6.6
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.6.6.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
+
+ * "git branch -d branch" used to refuse deleting the branch even when
+ the branch is fully merged to its upstream branch if it is not merged
+ to the current branch. It now deletes it in such a case.
+
+ * "fiter-branch" command incorrectly said --prune-empty and --filter-commit
+ were incompatible; the latter should be read as --commit-filter.
+
+ * When using "git status" or asking "git diff" to compare the work tree
+ with something, they used to consider that a checked-out submodule with
+ uncommitted changes is not modified; this could cause people to forget
+ committing these changes in the submodule before committing in the
+ superproject. They now consider such a change as a modification and
+ "git diff" will append a "-dirty" to the work tree side when generating
+ patch output or when used with the --submodule option.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dfc06cb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.7.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+Git v1.7.1 Release Notes (draft)
+================================
+
+Updates since v1.7.0
+--------------------
+
+ * "git cvsimport" learned -R option to leave revision mapping between
+ CVS revisions and resulting git commits.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" learned %(symref), %(symref:short) and %(flag)
+ tokens.
+
+ * "git grep" learned "--no-index" option, to search inside contents that
+ are not managed by git.
+
+ * "git grep" learned --color=auto/always/never.
+
+ * "git hash-object --stdin-paths" can take "--no-filters" option now.
+
+ * "git request-pull" identifies the commit the request is relative to in
+ a more readable way.
+
+ * "git svn" should work better when interacting with repositories
+ with CRLF line endings.
+
+ * "git imap-send" learned to support CRAM-MD5 authentication.
+
+Fixes since v1.7.0
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.7.0.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
+
+---
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+echo O=$(git describe)
+O=v1.7.0.2-181-gc6830a3
+git shortlog --no-merges ^maint $O..
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 76fc84d..c686f86 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -280,6 +280,20 @@ people play with it without having to pick up and apply the patch to
their trees themselves.
------------------------------------------------
+Know the status of your patch after submission
+
+* You can use Git itself to find out when your patch is merged in
+ master. 'git pull --rebase' will automatically skip already-applied
+ patches, and will let you know. This works only if you rebase on top
+ of the branch in which your patch has been merged (i.e. it will not
+ tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
+ master).
+
+* Read the git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
+ entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
+ the status of various proposed changes.
+
+------------------------------------------------
MUA specific hints
Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index 1625ffc..4833cac 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -98,8 +98,10 @@ commit.
files that were modified in the same commit. This is
useful when you reorganize your program and move code
around across files. When this option is given twice,
- the command additionally looks for copies from all other
- files in the parent for the commit that creates the file.
+ the command additionally looks for copies from other
+ files in the commit that creates the file. When this
+ option is given three times, the command additionally
+ looks for copies from other files in any commit.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index cd17814..7103172 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ The values following the equals sign in variable assign are all either
a string, an integer, or a boolean. Boolean values may be given as yes/no,
0/1, true/false or on/off. Case is not significant in boolean values, when
converting value to the canonical form using '--bool' type specifier;
-'git-config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false".
+'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false".
String values may be entirely or partially enclosed in double quotes.
You need to enclose variable values in double quotes if you want to
@@ -126,12 +126,33 @@ advice.*::
Directions on how to stage/unstage/add shown in the
output of linkgit:git-status[1] and the template shown
when writing commit messages. Default: true.
+ commitBeforeMerge::
+ Advice shown when linkgit:git-merge[1] refuses to
+ merge to avoid overwritting local changes.
+ Default: true.
+ resolveConflict::
+ Advices shown by various commands when conflicts
+ prevent the operation from being performed.
+ Default: true.
+ implicitIdentity::
+ Advice on how to set your identity configuration when
+ your information is guessed from the system username and
+ domain name. Default: true.
+
+ detachedHead::
+ Advice shown when you used linkgit::git-checkout[1] to
+ move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to create
+ a local branch after the fact. Default: true.
--
core.fileMode::
If false, the executable bit differences between the index and
the working copy are ignored; useful on broken filesystems like FAT.
- See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+ See linkgit:git-update-index[1].
++
+The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
+will probe and set core.fileMode false if appropriate when the
+repository is created.
core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
This option is only used by Cygwin implementation of Git. If false,
@@ -144,6 +165,18 @@ core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
is true, in which case ignoreCygwinFSTricks is ignored as Cygwin's
POSIX emulation is required to support core.filemode.
+core.ignorecase::
+ If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
+ git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
+ like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
+ "makefile" when git expects "Makefile", git will assume
+ it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
+ "Makefile".
++
+The default is false, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
+will probe and set core.ignorecase true if appropriate when the repository
+is created.
+
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
working copy are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -169,9 +202,10 @@ core.autocrlf::
writing to the filesystem. The variable can be set to
'input', in which case the conversion happens only while
reading from the filesystem but files are written out with
- `LF` at the end of lines. Currently, which paths to consider
- "text" (i.e. be subjected to the autocrlf mechanism) is
- decided purely based on the contents.
+ `LF` at the end of lines. A file is considered
+ "text" (i.e. be subjected to the autocrlf mechanism) based on
+ the file's `crlf` attribute, or if `crlf` is unspecified,
+ based on the file's contents. See linkgit:gitattributes[5].
core.safecrlf::
If true, makes git check if converting `CRLF` as controlled by
@@ -223,7 +257,11 @@ core.symlinks::
contain the link text. linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
linkgit:git-add[1] will not change the recorded type to regular
file. Useful on filesystems like FAT that do not support
- symbolic links. True by default.
+ symbolic links.
++
+The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
+will probe and set core.symlinks false if appropriate when the repository
+is created.
core.gitProxy::
A "proxy command" to execute (as 'command host port') instead
@@ -272,17 +310,24 @@ false), while all other repositories are assumed to be bare (bare
= true).
core.worktree::
- Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
- used in combination with repositories found automatically in
- a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
+ Set the path to the root of the work tree.
This can be overridden by the GIT_WORK_TREE environment
variable and the '--work-tree' command line option. It can be
- a absolute path or relative path to the directory specified by
- --git-dir or GIT_DIR.
- Note: If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
+ an absolute path or a relative path to the .git directory,
+ either specified by --git-dir or GIT_DIR, or automatically
+ discovered.
+ If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
--work-tree, GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree is specified,
- the current working directory is regarded as the top directory
- of your working tree.
+ the current working directory is regarded as the root of the
+ work tree.
++
+Note that this variable is honored even when set in a configuration
+file in a ".git" subdirectory of a directory, and its value differs
+from the latter directory (e.g. "/path/to/.git/config" has
+core.worktree set to "/different/path"), which is most likely a
+misconfiguration. Running git commands in "/path/to" directory will
+still use "/different/path" as the root of the work tree and can cause
+great confusion to the users.
core.logAllRefUpdates::
Enable the reflog. Updates to a ref <ref> is logged to the file
@@ -377,19 +422,32 @@ You probably do not need to adjust this value.
+
Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
+core.bigFileThreshold::
+ Files larger than this size are stored deflated, without
+ attempting delta compression. Storing large files without
+ delta compression avoids excessive memory usage, at the
+ slight expense of increased disk usage.
++
+Default is 512 MiB on all platforms. This should be reasonable
+for most projects as source code and other text files can still
+be delta compressed, but larger binary media files won't be.
++
+Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
++
+Currently only linkgit:git-fast-import[1] honors this setting.
+
core.excludesfile::
In addition to '.gitignore' (per-directory) and
'.git/info/exclude', git looks into this file for patterns
- of files which are not meant to be tracked. See
- linkgit:gitignore[5].
+ of files which are not meant to be tracked. "{tilde}/" is expanded
+ to the value of `$HOME` and "{tilde}user/" to the specified user's
+ home directory. See linkgit:gitignore[5].
core.editor::
Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
messages by launching an editor uses the value of this
variable when it is set, and the environment variable
- `GIT_EDITOR` is not set. The order of preference is
- `GIT_EDITOR` environment, `core.editor`, `VISUAL` and
- `EDITOR` environment variables and then finally `vi`.
+ `GIT_EDITOR` is not set. See linkgit:git-var[1].
core.pager::
The command that git will use to paginate output. Can
@@ -411,18 +469,22 @@ core.pager::
core.whitespace::
A comma separated list of common whitespace problems to
- notice. 'git-diff' will use `color.diff.whitespace` to
- highlight them, and 'git-apply --whitespace=error' will
+ notice. 'git diff' will use `color.diff.whitespace` to
+ highlight them, and 'git apply --whitespace=error' will
consider them as errors. You can prefix `-` to disable
any of them (e.g. `-trailing-space`):
+
-* `trailing-space` treats trailing whitespaces at the end of the line
+* `blank-at-eol` treats trailing whitespaces at the end of the line
as an error (enabled by default).
* `space-before-tab` treats a space character that appears immediately
before a tab character in the initial indent part of the line as an
error (enabled by default).
* `indent-with-non-tab` treats a line that is indented with 8 or more
space characters as an error (not enabled by default).
+* `blank-at-eof` treats blank lines added at the end of file as an error
+ (enabled by default).
+* `trailing-space` is a short-hand to cover both `blank-at-eol` and
+ `blank-at-eof`.
* `cr-at-eol` treats a carriage-return at the end of line as
part of the line terminator, i.e. with it, `trailing-space`
does not trigger if the character before such a carriage-return
@@ -454,8 +516,25 @@ On some file system/operating system combinations, this is unreliable.
Set this config setting to 'rename' there; However, This will remove the
check that makes sure that existing object files will not get overwritten.
+core.notesRef::
+ When showing commit messages, also show notes which are stored in
+ the given ref. This ref is expected to contain files named
+ after the full SHA-1 of the commit they annotate.
++
+If such a file exists in the given ref, the referenced blob is read, and
+appended to the commit message, separated by a "Notes:" line. If the
+given ref itself does not exist, it is not an error, but means that no
+notes should be printed.
++
+This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and can be overridden by
+the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable.
+
+core.sparseCheckout::
+ Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
+ linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
+
add.ignore-errors::
- Tells 'git-add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
+ Tells 'git add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
option of linkgit:git-add[1].
@@ -477,19 +556,19 @@ executed from the top-level directory of a repository, which may
not necessarily be the current directory.
apply.ignorewhitespace::
- When set to 'change', tells 'git-apply' to ignore changes in
+ When set to 'change', tells 'git apply' to ignore changes in
whitespace, in the same way as the '--ignore-space-change'
option.
- When set to one of: no, none, never, false tells 'git-apply' to
+ When set to one of: no, none, never, false tells 'git apply' to
respect all whitespace differences.
See linkgit:git-apply[1].
apply.whitespace::
- Tells 'git-apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
+ Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
as the '--whitespace' option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
branch.autosetupmerge::
- Tells 'git-branch' and 'git-checkout' to setup new branches
+ Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
starting point branch. Note that even if this option is not set,
this behavior can be chosen per-branch using the `--track`
@@ -500,7 +579,7 @@ branch.autosetupmerge::
branch. This option defaults to true.
branch.autosetuprebase::
- When a new branch is created with 'git-branch' or 'git-checkout'
+ When a new branch is created with 'git branch' or 'git checkout'
that tracks another branch, this variable tells git to set
up pull to rebase instead of merge (see "branch.<name>.rebase").
When `never`, rebase is never automatically set to true.
@@ -515,24 +594,24 @@ branch.autosetuprebase::
This option defaults to never.
branch.<name>.remote::
- When in branch <name>, it tells 'git-fetch' and 'git-push' which
+ When in branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push' which
remote to fetch from/push to. It defaults to `origin` if no remote is
configured. `origin` is also used if you are not on any branch.
branch.<name>.merge::
Defines, together with branch.<name>.remote, the upstream branch
- for the given branch. It tells 'git-fetch'/'git-pull' which
- branch to merge and can also affect 'git-push' (see push.default).
- When in branch <name>, it tells 'git-fetch' the default
+ for the given branch. It tells 'git fetch'/'git pull' which
+ branch to merge and can also affect 'git push' (see push.default).
+ When in branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' the default
refspec to be marked for merging in FETCH_HEAD. The value is
handled like the remote part of a refspec, and must match a
ref which is fetched from the remote given by
"branch.<name>.remote".
- The merge information is used by 'git-pull' (which at first calls
- 'git-fetch') to lookup the default branch for merging. Without
- this option, 'git-pull' defaults to merge the first refspec fetched.
+ The merge information is used by 'git pull' (which at first calls
+ 'git fetch') to lookup the default branch for merging. Without
+ this option, 'git pull' defaults to merge the first refspec fetched.
Specify multiple values to get an octopus merge.
- If you wish to setup 'git-pull' so that it merges into <name> from
+ If you wish to setup 'git pull' so that it merges into <name> from
another branch in the local repository, you can point
branch.<name>.merge to the desired branch, and use the special setting
`.` (a period) for branch.<name>.remote.
@@ -594,29 +673,19 @@ color.diff.<slot>::
Use customized color for diff colorization. `<slot>` specifies
which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
of `plain` (context text), `meta` (metainformation), `frag`
- (hunk header), `old` (removed lines), `new` (added lines),
- `commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace` (highlighting
- whitespace errors). The values of these variables may be specified as
- in color.branch.<slot>.
+ (hunk header), 'func' (function in hunk header), `old` (removed lines),
+ `new` (added lines), `commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace`
+ (highlighting whitespace errors). The values of these variables may be
+ specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
color.grep::
When set to `always`, always highlight matches. When `false` (or
`never`), never. When set to `true` or `auto`, use color only
when the output is written to the terminal. Defaults to `false`.
-color.grep.external::
- The string value of this variable is passed to an external 'grep'
- command as a command line option if match highlighting is turned
- on. If set to an empty string, no option is passed at all,
- turning off coloring for external 'grep' calls; this is the default.
- For GNU grep, set it to `--color=always` to highlight matches even
- when a pager is used.
-
color.grep.match::
Use customized color for matches. The value of this variable
- may be specified as in color.branch.<slot>. It is passed using
- the environment variables 'GREP_COLOR' and 'GREP_COLORS' when
- calling an external 'grep'.
+ may be specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
color.interactive::
When set to `always`, always use colors for interactive prompts
@@ -625,7 +694,7 @@ color.interactive::
colors only when the output is to the terminal. Defaults to false.
color.interactive.<slot>::
- Use customized color for 'git-add --interactive'
+ Use customized color for 'git add --interactive'
output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, `help` or `error`, for
four distinct types of normal output from interactive
commands. The values of these variables may be specified as
@@ -664,18 +733,25 @@ color.ui::
terminal. When more specific variables of color.* are set, they always
take precedence over this setting. Defaults to false.
+commit.status::
+ A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
+ commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
+ message. Defaults to true.
+
commit.template::
Specify a file to use as the template for new commit messages.
+ "{tilde}/" is expanded to the value of `$HOME` and "{tilde}user/" to the
+ specified user's home directory.
diff.autorefreshindex::
- When using 'git-diff' to compare with work tree
+ When using 'git diff' to compare with work tree
files, do not consider stat-only change as changed.
Instead, silently run `git update-index --refresh` to
update the cached stat information for paths whose
contents in the work tree match the contents in the
index. This option defaults to true. Note that this
- affects only 'git-diff' Porcelain, and not lower level
- 'diff' commands, such as 'git-diff-files'.
+ affects only 'git diff' Porcelain, and not lower level
+ 'diff' commands such as 'git diff-files'.
diff.external::
If this config variable is set, diff generation is not
@@ -687,24 +763,24 @@ diff.external::
your files, you might want to use linkgit:gitattributes[5] instead.
diff.mnemonicprefix::
- If set, 'git-diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
+ If set, 'git diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
standard "a/" and "b/" depending on what is being compared. When
this configuration is in effect, reverse diff output also swaps
the order of the prefixes:
-'git-diff';;
+`git diff`;;
compares the (i)ndex and the (w)ork tree;
-'git-diff HEAD';;
+`git diff HEAD`;;
compares a (c)ommit and the (w)ork tree;
-'git diff --cached';;
+`git diff --cached`;;
compares a (c)ommit and the (i)ndex;
-'git-diff HEAD:file1 file2';;
+`git diff HEAD:file1 file2`;;
compares an (o)bject and a (w)ork tree entity;
-'git diff --no-index a b';;
+`git diff --no-index a b`;;
compares two non-git things (1) and (2).
diff.renameLimit::
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
- detection; equivalent to the 'git-diff' option '-l'.
+ detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
diff.renames::
Tells git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
@@ -790,9 +866,9 @@ format.pretty::
linkgit:git-whatchanged[1].
format.thread::
- The default threading style for 'git-format-patch'. Can be
- either a boolean value, `shallow` or `deep`. `shallow`
- threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the series,
+ The default threading style for 'git format-patch'. Can be
+ a boolean value, or `shallow` or `deep`. `shallow` threading
+ makes every mail a reply to the head of the series,
where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
`\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order.
`deep` threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
@@ -808,7 +884,7 @@ format.signoff::
gc.aggressiveWindow::
The window size parameter used in the delta compression
- algorithm used by 'git-gc --aggressive'. This defaults
+ algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'. This defaults
to 10.
gc.auto::
@@ -825,39 +901,36 @@ gc.autopacklimit::
default value is 50. Setting this to 0 disables it.
gc.packrefs::
- 'git-gc' does not run `git pack-refs` in a bare repository by
- default so that older dumb-transport clients can still fetch
- from the repository. Setting this to `true` lets 'git-gc'
- to run `git pack-refs`. Setting this to `false` tells
- 'git-gc' never to run `git pack-refs`. The default setting is
- `notbare`. Enable it only when you know you do not have to
- support such clients. The default setting will change to `true`
- at some stage, and setting this to `false` will continue to
- prevent `git pack-refs` from being run from 'git-gc'.
+ Running `git pack-refs` in a repository renders it
+ unclonable by Git versions prior to 1.5.1.2 over dumb
+ transports such as HTTP. This variable determines whether
+ 'git gc' runs `git pack-refs`. This can be set to `nobare`
+ to enable it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a
+ boolean value. The default is `true`.
gc.pruneexpire::
- When 'git-gc' is run, it will call 'prune --expire 2.weeks.ago'.
+ When 'git gc' is run, it will call 'prune --expire 2.weeks.ago'.
Override the grace period with this config variable. The value
"now" may be used to disable this grace period and always prune
unreachable objects immediately.
gc.reflogexpire::
- 'git-reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
+ 'git reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
this time; defaults to 90 days.
gc.reflogexpireunreachable::
- 'git-reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
+ 'git reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
this time and are not reachable from the current tip;
defaults to 30 days.
gc.rerereresolved::
Records of conflicted merge you resolved earlier are
- kept for this many days when 'git-rerere gc' is run.
+ kept for this many days when 'git rerere gc' is run.
The default is 60 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
gc.rerereunresolved::
Records of conflicted merge you have not resolved are
- kept for this many days when 'git-rerere gc' is run.
+ kept for this many days when 'git rerere gc' is run.
The default is 15 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
gitcvs.commitmsgannotation::
@@ -965,7 +1038,7 @@ gui.spellingdictionary::
off.
gui.fastcopyblame::
- If true, 'git gui blame' uses '-C' instead of '-C -C' for original
+ If true, 'git gui blame' uses `-C` instead of `-C -C` for original
location detection. It makes blame significantly faster on huge
repositories at the expense of less thorough copy detection.
@@ -1089,6 +1162,20 @@ http.maxRequests::
How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
+http.minSessions::
+ The number of curl sessions (counted across slots) to be kept across
+ requests. They will not be ended with curl_easy_cleanup() until
+ http_cleanup() is invoked. If USE_CURL_MULTI is not defined, this
+ value will be capped at 1. Defaults to 1.
+
+http.postBuffer::
+ Maximum size in bytes of the buffer used by smart HTTP
+ transports when POSTing data to the remote system.
+ For requests larger than this buffer size, HTTP/1.1 and
+ Transfer-Encoding: chunked is used to avoid creating a
+ massive pack file locally. Default is 1 MiB, which is
+ sufficient for most requests.
+
http.lowSpeedLimit, http.lowSpeedTime::
If the HTTP transfer speed is less than 'http.lowSpeedLimit'
for longer than 'http.lowSpeedTime' seconds, the transfer is aborted.
@@ -1110,7 +1197,7 @@ i18n.commitEncoding::
i18n.logOutputEncoding::
Character encoding the commit messages are converted to when
- running 'git-log' and friends.
+ running 'git log' and friends.
imap::
The configuration variables in the 'imap' section are described
@@ -1144,7 +1231,7 @@ interactive.singlekey::
log.date::
Set default date-time mode for the log command. Setting log.date
- value is similar to using 'git-log'\'s --date option. The value is one of the
+ value is similar to using 'git log'\'s --date option. The value is one of the
following alternatives: {relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short}.
See linkgit:git-log[1].
@@ -1284,10 +1371,13 @@ you can use linkgit:git-index-pack[1] on the *.pack file to regenerate
the `{asterisk}.idx` file.
pack.packSizeLimit::
- The default maximum size of a pack. This setting only affects
- packing to a file, i.e. the git:// protocol is unaffected. It
- can be overridden by the `\--max-pack-size` option of
- linkgit:git-repack[1].
+ The maximum size of a pack. This setting only affects
+ packing to a file when repacking, i.e. the git:// protocol
+ is unaffected. It can be overridden by the `\--max-pack-size`
+ option of linkgit:git-repack[1]. The minimum size allowed is
+ limited to 1 MiB. The default is unlimited.
+ Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are
+ supported.
pager.<cmd>::
Allows turning on or off pagination of the output of a
@@ -1320,6 +1410,11 @@ rebase.stat::
Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
rebase. False by default.
+receive.autogc::
+ By default, git-receive-pack will run "git-gc --auto" after
+ receiving data from git-push and updating refs. You can stop
+ it by setting this variable to false.
+
receive.fsckObjects::
If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
@@ -1351,10 +1446,14 @@ receive.denyCurrentBranch::
receive.denyNonFastForwards::
If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
- not a fast forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
+ not a fast-forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
set when initializing a shared repository.
+receive.updateserverinfo::
+ If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
+ after receiving data from git-push and updating refs.
+
remote.<name>.url::
The URL of a remote repository. See linkgit:git-fetch[1] or
linkgit:git-push[1].
@@ -1381,7 +1480,13 @@ remote.<name>.mirror::
remote.<name>.skipDefaultUpdate::
If true, this remote will be skipped by default when updating
- using the update subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1].
+ using linkgit:git-fetch[1] or the `update` subcommand of
+ linkgit:git-remote[1].
+
+remote.<name>.skipFetchAll::
+ If true, this remote will be skipped by default when updating
+ using linkgit:git-fetch[1] or the `update` subcommand of
+ linkgit:git-remote[1].
remote.<name>.receivepack::
The default program to execute on the remote side when pushing. See
@@ -1395,6 +1500,10 @@ remote.<name>.tagopt::
Setting this value to \--no-tags disables automatic tag following when
fetching from remote <name>
+remote.<name>.vcs::
+ Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause git to interact with
+ the remote with the git-remote-<vcs> helper.
+
remotes.<group>::
The list of remotes which are fetched by "git remote update
<group>". See linkgit:git-remote[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/date-formats.txt b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c000f08
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/date-formats.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,26 @@
+DATE FORMATS
+------------
+
+The GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_DATE environment variables
+ifdef::git-commit[]
+and the `--date` option
+endif::git-commit[]
+support the following date formats:
+
+Git internal format::
+ It is `<unix timestamp> <timezone offset>`, where `<unix
+ timestamp>` is the number of seconds since the UNIX epoch.
+ `<timezone offset>` is a positive or negative offset from UTC.
+ For example CET (which is 2 hours ahead UTC) is `+0200`.
+
+RFC 2822::
+ The standard email format as described by RFC 2822, for example
+ `Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200`.
+
+ISO 8601::
+ Time and date specified by the ISO 8601 standard, for example
+ `2005-04-07T22:13:13`. The parser accepts a space instead of the
+ `T` character as well.
++
+NOTE: In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats:
+`YYYY.MM.DD`, `MM/DD/YYYY` and `DD.MM.YYYY`.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index b717124..15c7e79 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]::
git-diff-files [<pattern>...]::
compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
-The "git-diff-tree" command begins its ouput by printing the hash of
+The "git-diff-tree" command begins its output by printing the hash of
what is being compared. After that, all the commands print one output
line per changed file.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 9276fae..60e922e 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
ifdef::git-format-patch[]
-p::
- Generate patches without diffstat.
+--no-stat::
+ Generate plain patches without any diffstats.
endif::git-format-patch[]
ifndef::git-format-patch[]
@@ -27,33 +28,40 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
-U<n>::
--unified=<n>::
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
- the usual three. Implies "-p".
+ the usual three.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
+ Implies `-p`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
--raw::
Generate the raw format.
{git-diff-core? This is the default.}
+endif::git-format-patch[]
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
--patch-with-raw::
- Synonym for "-p --raw".
+ Synonym for `-p --raw`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
--patience::
Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
--stat[=width[,name-width]]::
Generate a diffstat. You can override the default
- output width for 80-column terminal by "--stat=width".
+ output width for 80-column terminal by `--stat=width`.
The width of the filename part can be controlled by
giving another width to it separated by a comma.
--numstat::
- Similar to \--stat, but shows number of added and
+ Similar to `\--stat`, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
`0 0`.
--shortstat::
- Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
+ Output only the last line of the `--stat` format containing total
number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
lines.
@@ -61,24 +69,39 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Output the distribution of relative amount of changes (number of lines added or
removed) for each sub-directory. Directories with changes below
a cut-off percent (3% by default) are not shown. The cut-off percent
- can be set with "--dirstat=limit". Changes in a child directory is not
- counted for the parent directory, unless "--cumulative" is used.
+ can be set with `--dirstat=limit`. Changes in a child directory is not
+ counted for the parent directory, unless `--cumulative` is used.
--dirstat-by-file[=limit]::
- Same as --dirstat, but counts changed files instead of lines.
+ Same as `--dirstat`, but counts changed files instead of lines.
--summary::
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
such as creations, renames and mode changes.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
--patch-with-stat::
- Synonym for "-p --stat".
- {git-format-patch? This is the default.}
+ Synonym for `-p --stat`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
+
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-z::
- NUL-line termination on output. This affects the --raw
- output field terminator. Also output from commands such
- as "git-log" will be delimited with NUL between commits.
+ifdef::git-log[]
+ Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.
++
+Also, when `--raw` or `--numstat` has been given, do not munge
+pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
+endif::git-log[]
+ifndef::git-log[]
+ When `--raw` or `--numstat` has been given, do not munge
+ pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
+endif::git-log[]
++
+Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
+and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
+respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
+any of those replacements occurred.
--name-only::
Show only names of changed files.
@@ -87,12 +110,21 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
of the `--diff-filter` option on what the status letters mean.
---color::
+--submodule[=<format>]::
+ Chose the output format for submodule differences. <format> can be one of
+ 'short' and 'log'. 'short' just shows pairs of commit names, this format
+ is used when this option is not given. 'log' is the default value for this
+ option and lists the commits in that commit range like the 'summary'
+ option of linkgit:git-submodule[1] does.
+
+--color[=<when>]::
Show colored diff.
+ The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
--no-color::
Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file
gives the default to color output.
+ Same as `--color=never`.
--color-words[=<regex>]::
Show colored word diff, i.e., color words which have changed.
@@ -110,16 +142,19 @@ The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
linkgit:gitattributes[1] or linkgit:git-config[1]. Giving it explicitly
overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
override configuration settings.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
--no-renames::
Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
file gives the default to do so.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
--check::
Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace
or an indent that uses a space before a tab. Exits with
non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible with
--exit-code.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
--full-index::
Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
@@ -127,16 +162,16 @@ override configuration settings.
line when generating patch format output.
--binary::
- In addition to --full-index, output "binary diff" that
- can be applied with "git apply".
+ In addition to `--full-index`, output a binary diff that
+ can be applied with `git-apply`.
--abbrev[=<n>]::
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
lines, show only a partial prefix. This is
- independent of --full-index option above, which controls
+ independent of the `--full-index` option above, which controls
the diff-patch output format. Non default number of
- digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
+ digits can be specified with `--abbrev=<n>`.
-B::
Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
@@ -147,6 +182,7 @@ override configuration settings.
-C::
Detect copies as well as renames. See also `--find-copies-harder`.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
--diff-filter=[ACDMRTUXB*]::
Select only files that are Added (`A`), Copied (`C`),
Deleted (`D`), Modified (`M`), Renamed (`R`), have their
@@ -158,6 +194,7 @@ override configuration settings.
paths are selected if there is any file that matches
other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
--find-copies-harder::
For performance reasons, by default, `-C` option finds copies only
@@ -169,12 +206,13 @@ override configuration settings.
`-C` option has the same effect.
-l<num>::
- -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n
+ The `-M` and `-C` options require O(n^2) processing time where n
is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This
option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
number.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-S<string>::
Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
<string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
@@ -182,18 +220,20 @@ override configuration settings.
linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more details.
--pickaxe-all::
- When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that
+ When `-S` finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
in <string>.
--pickaxe-regex::
Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX
regex to match.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
Output the patch in the order specified in the
<orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-R::
Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
on-disk file to tree contents.
@@ -205,6 +245,7 @@ override configuration settings.
not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a <path> as an argument.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
-a::
--text::
@@ -229,13 +270,15 @@ override configuration settings.
Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
--exit-code::
Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
0 means no differences.
--quiet::
- Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.
+ Disable all output of the program. Implies `--exit-code`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
--ext-diff::
Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 5eb2b0e..fe716b2 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -1,13 +1,5 @@
-ifndef::git-pull[]
--q::
---quiet::
- Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally
- used git commands.
-
--v::
---verbose::
- Be verbose.
-endif::git-pull[]
+--all::
+ Fetch all remotes.
-a::
--append::
@@ -15,20 +7,38 @@ endif::git-pull[]
existing contents of `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. Without this
option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
---upload-pack <upload-pack>::
- When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled
- by 'git-fetch-pack', '--exec=<upload-pack>' is passed to
- the command to specify non-default path for the command
- run on the other end.
+--depth=<depth>::
+ Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
+ `git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
+ by the specified number of commits.
+
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+--dry-run::
+ Show what would be done, without making any changes.
+endif::git-pull[]
-f::
--force::
- When 'git-fetch' is used with `<rbranch>:<lbranch>`
+ When 'git fetch' is used with `<rbranch>:<lbranch>`
refspec, it refuses to update the local branch
`<lbranch>` unless the remote branch `<rbranch>` it
fetches is a descendant of `<lbranch>`. This option
overrides that check.
+-k::
+--keep::
+ Keep downloaded pack.
+
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+--multiple::
+ Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be
+ specified. No <refspec>s may be specified.
+
+--prune::
+ After fetching, remove any remote tracking branches which
+ no longer exist on the remote.
+endif::git-pull[]
+
ifdef::git-pull[]
--no-tags::
endif::git-pull[]
@@ -49,20 +59,28 @@ endif::git-pull[]
flag lets all tags and their associated objects be
downloaded.
--k::
---keep::
- Keep downloaded pack.
-
-u::
--update-head-ok::
- By default 'git-fetch' refuses to update the head which
+ By default 'git fetch' refuses to update the head which
corresponds to the current branch. This flag disables the
- check. This is purely for the internal use for 'git-pull'
- to communicate with 'git-fetch', and unless you are
+ check. This is purely for the internal use for 'git pull'
+ to communicate with 'git fetch', and unless you are
implementing your own Porcelain you are not supposed to
use it.
---depth=<depth>::
- Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
- `git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
- by the specified number of commits.
+--upload-pack <upload-pack>::
+ When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled
+ by 'git fetch-pack', '--exec=<upload-pack>' is passed to
+ the command to specify non-default path for the command
+ run on the other end.
+
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ Pass --quiet to git-fetch-pack and silence any other internally
+ used git commands.
+
+-v::
+--verbose::
+ Be verbose.
+endif::git-pull[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 45ebf87..51cbeb7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -14,28 +14,32 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command adds the current content of new or modified files to the
-index, thus staging that content for inclusion in the next commit.
+This command updates the index using the current content found in
+the working tree, to prepare the content staged for the next commit.
+It typically adds the current content of existing paths as a whole,
+but with some options it can also be used to add content with
+only part of the changes made to the working tree files applied, or
+remove paths that do not exist in the working tree anymore.
The "index" holds a snapshot of the content of the working tree, and it
is this snapshot that is taken as the contents of the next commit. Thus
after making any changes to the working directory, and before running
-the commit command, you must use the 'add' command to add any new or
+the commit command, you must use the `add` command to add any new or
modified files to the index.
This command can be performed multiple times before a commit. It only
adds the content of the specified file(s) at the time the add command is
run; if you want subsequent changes included in the next commit, then
-you must run 'git add' again to add the new content to the index.
+you must run `git add` again to add the new content to the index.
-The 'git status' command can be used to obtain a summary of which
+The `git status` command can be used to obtain a summary of which
files have changes that are staged for the next commit.
-The 'git add' command will not add ignored files by default. If any
-ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, 'git add'
+The `git add` command will not add ignored files by default. If any
+ignored files were explicitly specified on the command line, `git add`
will fail with a list of ignored files. Ignored files reached by
directory recursion or filename globbing performed by Git (quote your
-globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The 'add' command can
+globs before the shell) will be silently ignored. The 'git add' command can
be used to add ignored files with the `-f` (force) option.
Please see linkgit:git-commit[1] for alternative ways to add content to a
@@ -76,10 +80,10 @@ OPTIONS
work tree and add them to the index. This gives the user a chance
to review the difference before adding modified contents to the
index.
-
- This effectively runs ``add --interactive``, but bypasses the
- initial command menu and directly jumps to `patch` subcommand.
- See ``Interactive mode'' for details.
++
+This effectively runs `add --interactive`, but bypasses the
+initial command menu and directly jumps to the `patch` subcommand.
+See ``Interactive mode'' for details.
-e, \--edit::
Open the diff vs. the index in an editor and let the user
@@ -92,28 +96,31 @@ apply.
-u::
--update::
- Update only files that git already knows about, staging modified
- content for commit and marking deleted files for removal. This
- is similar
- to what "git commit -a" does in preparation for making a commit,
- except that the update is limited to paths specified on the
- command line. If no paths are specified, all tracked files in the
- current directory and its subdirectories are updated.
+ Only match <filepattern> against already tracked files in
+ the index rather than the working tree. That means that it
+ will never stage new files, but that it will stage modified
+ new contents of tracked files and that it will remove files
+ from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree
+ have been removed.
++
+If no <filepattern> is given, default to "."; in other words,
+update all tracked files in the current directory and its
+subdirectories.
-A::
--all::
- Update files that git already knows about (same as '\--update')
- and add all untracked files that are not ignored by '.gitignore'
- mechanism.
-
+ Like `-u`, but match <filepattern> against files in the
+ working tree in addition to the index. That means that it
+ will find new files as well as staging modified content and
+ removing files that are no longer in the working tree.
-N::
--intent-to-add::
Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
- such files with 'git diff' and committing them with 'git commit
- -a'.
+ such files with `git diff` and committing them with `git commit
+ -a`.
--refresh::
Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
@@ -133,7 +140,7 @@ apply.
Configuration
-------------
-The optional configuration variable 'core.excludesfile' indicates a path to a
+The optional configuration variable `core.excludesfile` indicates a path to a
file containing patterns of file names to exclude from git-add, similar to
$GIT_DIR/info/exclude. Patterns in the exclude file are used in addition to
those in info/exclude. See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5].
@@ -146,7 +153,7 @@ EXAMPLES
and its subdirectories:
+
------------
-$ git add Documentation/\\*.txt
+$ git add Documentation/\*.txt
------------
+
Note that the asterisk `\*` is quoted from the shell in this
@@ -181,7 +188,7 @@ and type return, like this:
What now> 1
------------
-You also could say "s" or "sta" or "status" above as long as the
+You also could say `s` or `sta` or `status` above as long as the
choice is unique.
The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
@@ -189,9 +196,9 @@ The main command loop has 6 subcommands (plus help and quit).
status::
This shows the change between HEAD and index (i.e. what will be
- committed if you say "git commit"), and between index and
+ committed if you say `git commit`), and between index and
working tree files (i.e. what you could stage further before
- "git commit" using "git-add") for each path. A sample output
+ `git commit` using `git add`) for each path. A sample output
looks like this:
+
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 67ad5da..23864df 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
[--reject] [-q | --quiet] [--scissors | --no-scissors]
[<mbox> | <Maildir>...]
-'git am' (--skip | --resolved | --abort)
+'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -37,14 +37,14 @@ OPTIONS
-k::
--keep::
- Pass `-k` flag to 'git-mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
+ Pass `-k` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
-c::
--scissors::
Remove everything in body before a scissors line (see
linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
----no-scissors::
+--no-scissors::
Ignore scissors lines (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
-q::
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ OPTIONS
-u::
--utf8::
- Pass `-u` flag to 'git-mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
+ Pass `-u` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
The proposed commit log message taken from the e-mail
is re-coded into UTF-8 encoding (configuration variable
`i18n.commitencoding` can be used to specify project's
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ This was optional in prior versions of git, but now it is the
default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--no-utf8::
- Pass `-n` flag to 'git-mailinfo' (see
+ Pass `-n` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see
linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
-3::
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
-p<n>::
--directory=<dir>::
--reject::
- These flags are passed to the 'git-apply' (see linkgit:git-apply[1])
+ These flags are passed to the 'git apply' (see linkgit:git-apply[1])
program that applies
the patch.
@@ -107,6 +107,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
restarting an aborted patch.
+--continue::
-r::
--resolved::
After a patch failure (e.g. attempting to apply
@@ -121,7 +122,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
to the screen before exiting. This overrides the
standard message informing you to use `--resolved`
or `--skip` to handle the failure. This is solely
- for internal use between 'git-rebase' and 'git-am'.
+ for internal use between 'git rebase' and 'git am'.
--abort::
Restore the original branch and abort the patching operation.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 5ee8c91..8463439 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-apply(1)
NAME
----
-git-apply - Apply a patch on a git index file and/or a working tree
+git-apply - Apply a patch to files and/or to the index
SYNOPSIS
@@ -20,8 +20,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads supplied 'diff' output and applies it on a git index file
-and a work tree.
+Reads the supplied diff output (i.e. "a patch") and applies it to files.
+With the `--index` option the patch is also applied to the index, and
+with the `--cache` option the patch is only applied to the index.
+Without these options, the command applies the patch only to files,
+and does not require them to be in a git repository.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -34,7 +37,7 @@ OPTIONS
input. Turns off "apply".
--numstat::
- Similar to \--stat, but shows the number of added and
+ Similar to `--stat`, but shows the number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and the pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
@@ -48,25 +51,25 @@ OPTIONS
--check::
Instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is
- applicable to the current work tree and/or the index
+ applicable to the current working tree and/or the index
file and detects errors. Turns off "apply".
--index::
- When --check is in effect, or when applying the patch
+ When `--check` is in effect, or when applying the patch
(which is the default when none of the options that
disables it is in effect), make sure the patch is
applicable to what the current index file records. If
- the file to be patched in the work tree is not
+ the file to be patched in the working tree is not
up-to-date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
causes the index file to be updated.
--cached::
Apply a patch without touching the working tree. Instead take the
cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
- without using the working tree. This implies '--index'.
+ without using the working tree. This implies `--index`.
--build-fake-ancestor=<file>::
- Newer 'git-diff' output has embedded 'index information'
+ Newer 'git diff' output has embedded 'index information'
for each blob to help identify the original version that
the patch applies to. When this flag is given, and if
the original versions of the blobs are available locally,
@@ -80,18 +83,20 @@ the information is read from the current index instead.
Apply the patch in reverse.
--reject::
- For atomicity, 'git-apply' by default fails the whole patch and
+ For atomicity, 'git apply' by default fails the whole patch and
does not touch the working tree when some of the hunks
do not apply. This option makes it apply
the parts of the patch that are applicable, and leave the
rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files.
-z::
- When showing the index information, do not munge paths,
- but use NUL terminated machine readable format. Without
- this flag, the pathnames output will have TAB, LF, and
- backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
- respectively.
+ When `--numstat` has been given, do not munge pathnames,
+ but use a NUL-terminated machine-readable format.
++
+Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
+and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
+respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
+any of those replacements occurred.
-p<n>::
Remove <n> leading slashes from traditional diff paths. The
@@ -104,18 +109,18 @@ the information is read from the current index instead.
ever ignored.
--unidiff-zero::
- By default, 'git-apply' expects that the patch being
+ By default, 'git apply' expects that the patch being
applied is a unified diff with at least one line of context.
This provides good safety measures, but breaks down when
- applying a diff generated with --unified=0. To bypass these
- checks use '--unidiff-zero'.
+ applying a diff generated with `--unified=0`. To bypass these
+ checks use `--unidiff-zero`.
+
Note, for the reasons stated above usage of context-free patches is
discouraged.
--apply::
If you use any of the options marked "Turns off
- 'apply'" above, 'git-apply' reads and outputs the
+ 'apply'" above, 'git apply' reads and outputs the
requested information without actually applying the
patch. Give this flag after those flags to also apply
the patch.
@@ -144,7 +149,7 @@ discouraged.
be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to include certain
files or directories.
+
-When --exclude and --include patterns are used, they are examined in the
+When `--exclude` and `--include` patterns are used, they are examined in the
order they appear on the command line, and the first match determines if a
patch to each path is used. A patch to a path that does not match any
include/exclude pattern is used by default if there is no include pattern
@@ -224,16 +229,16 @@ apply.whitespace::
Submodules
----------
-If the patch contains any changes to submodules then 'git-apply'
+If the patch contains any changes to submodules then 'git apply'
treats these changes as follows.
-If --index is specified (explicitly or implicitly), then the submodule
+If `--index` is specified (explicitly or implicitly), then the submodule
commits must match the index exactly for the patch to apply. If any
of the submodules are checked-out, then these check-outs are completely
ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up-to-date or clean and they
are not updated.
-If --index is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
+If `--index` is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
are ignored and only the absence or presence of the corresponding
subdirectory is checked and (if possible) updated.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
index c7a6e3e..4d4325f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -29,17 +29,17 @@ branches that have different roots, it will refuse to run. In that case,
edit your <archive/branch> parameters to define clearly the scope of the
import.
-'git-archimport' uses `tla` extensively in the background to access the
+'git archimport' uses `tla` extensively in the background to access the
Arch repository.
Make sure you have a recent version of `tla` available in the path. `tla` must
-know about the repositories you pass to 'git-archimport'.
+know about the repositories you pass to 'git archimport'.
-For the initial import, 'git-archimport' expects to find itself in an empty
+For the initial import, 'git archimport' expects to find itself in an empty
directory. To follow the development of a project that uses Arch, rerun
-'git-archimport' with the same parameters as the initial import to perform
+'git archimport' with the same parameters as the initial import to perform
incremental imports.
-While 'git-archimport' will try to create sensible branch names for the
+While 'git archimport' will try to create sensible branch names for the
archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify git branch names
manually. To do so, write a git branch name after each <archive/branch>
parameter, separated by a colon. This way, you can shorten the Arch
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ OPTIONS
-o::
Use this for compatibility with old-style branch names used by
- earlier versions of 'git-archimport'. Old-style branch names
+ earlier versions of 'git archimport'. Old-style branch names
were category--branch, whereas new-style branch names are
archive,category--branch--version. In both cases, names given
on the command-line will override the automatically-generated
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index 3d1c1e7..8d3e666 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -21,13 +21,13 @@ structure for the named tree, and writes it out to the standard
output. If <prefix> is specified it is
prepended to the filenames in the archive.
-'git-archive' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when
+'git archive' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when
given a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is
used as the modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter
case the commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is
used instead. Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global
extended pax header if the tar format is used; it can be extracted
-using 'git-get-tar-commit-id'. In ZIP files it is stored as a file
+using 'git get-tar-commit-id'. In ZIP files it is stored as a file
comment.
OPTIONS
@@ -74,8 +74,9 @@ OPTIONS
The tree or commit to produce an archive for.
path::
- If one or more paths are specified, include only these in the
- archive, otherwise include all files and subdirectories.
+ Without an optional path parameter, all files and subdirectories
+ of the current working directory are included in the archive.
+ If one or more paths are specified, only these are included.
BACKEND EXTRA OPTIONS
---------------------
@@ -111,6 +112,14 @@ export-subst::
expand several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.
See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
+Note that attributes are by default taken from the `.gitattributes` files
+in the tree that is being archived. If you want to tweak the way the
+output is generated after the fact (e.g. you committed without adding an
+appropriate export-ignore in its `.gitattributes`), adjust the checked out
+`.gitattributes` file as necessary and use `--work-tree-attributes`
+option. Alternatively you can keep necessary attributes that should apply
+while archiving any tree in your `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
git archive --format=tar --prefix=junk/ HEAD | (cd /var/tmp/ && tar xf -)::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..86b3015
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1358 @@
+Fighting regressions with git bisect
+====================================
+:Author: Christian Couder
+:Email: chriscool@tuxfamily.org
+:Date: 2009/11/08
+
+Abstract
+--------
+
+"git bisect" enables software users and developers to easily find the
+commit that introduced a regression. We show why it is important to
+have good tools to fight regressions. We describe how "git bisect"
+works from the outside and the algorithms it uses inside. Then we
+explain how to take advantage of "git bisect" to improve current
+practices. And we discuss how "git bisect" could improve in the
+future.
+
+
+Introduction to "git bisect"
+----------------------------
+
+Git is a Distributed Version Control system (DVCS) created by Linus
+Torvalds and maintained by Junio Hamano.
+
+In Git like in many other Version Control Systems (VCS), the different
+states of the data that is managed by the system are called
+commits. And, as VCS are mostly used to manage software source code,
+sometimes "interesting" changes of behavior in the software are
+introduced in some commits.
+
+In fact people are specially interested in commits that introduce a
+"bad" behavior, called a bug or a regression. They are interested in
+these commits because a commit (hopefully) contains a very small set
+of source code changes. And it's much easier to understand and
+properly fix a problem when you only need to check a very small set of
+changes, than when you don't know where look in the first place.
+
+So to help people find commits that introduce a "bad" behavior, the
+"git bisect" set of commands was invented. And it follows of course
+that in "git bisect" parlance, commits where the "interesting
+behavior" is present are called "bad" commits, while other commits are
+called "good" commits. And a commit that introduce the behavior we are
+interested in is called a "first bad commit". Note that there could be
+more than one "first bad commit" in the commit space we are searching.
+
+So "git bisect" is designed to help find a "first bad commit". And to
+be as efficient as possible, it tries to perform a binary search.
+
+
+Fighting regressions overview
+-----------------------------
+
+Regressions: a big problem
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Regressions are a big problem in the software industry. But it's
+difficult to put some real numbers behind that claim.
+
+There are some numbers about bugs in general, like a NIST study in
+2002 <<1>> that said:
+
+_____________
+Software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that
+they cost the U.S. economy an estimated $59.5 billion annually, or
+about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product, according to a newly
+released study commissioned by the Department of Commerce's National
+Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At the national level,
+over half of the costs are borne by software users and the remainder
+by software developers/vendors. The study also found that, although
+all errors cannot be removed, more than a third of these costs, or an
+estimated $22.2 billion, could be eliminated by an improved testing
+infrastructure that enables earlier and more effective identification
+and removal of software defects. These are the savings associated with
+finding an increased percentage (but not 100 percent) of errors closer
+to the development stages in which they are introduced. Currently,
+over half of all errors are not found until "downstream" in the
+development process or during post-sale software use.
+_____________
+
+And then:
+
+_____________
+Software developers already spend approximately 80 percent of
+development costs on identifying and correcting defects, and yet few
+products of any type other than software are shipped with such high
+levels of errors.
+_____________
+
+Eventually the conclusion started with:
+
+_____________
+The path to higher software quality is significantly improved software
+testing.
+_____________
+
+There are other estimates saying that 80% of the cost related to
+software is about maintenance <<2>>.
+
+Though, according to Wikipedia <<3>>:
+
+_____________
+A common perception of maintenance is that it is merely fixing
+bugs. However, studies and surveys over the years have indicated that
+the majority, over 80%, of the maintenance effort is used for
+non-corrective actions (Pigosky 1997). This perception is perpetuated
+by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality
+enhancements to the system.
+_____________
+
+But we can guess that improving on existing software is very costly
+because you have to watch out for regressions. At least this would
+make the above studies consistent among themselves.
+
+Of course some kind of software is developed, then used during some
+time without being improved on much, and then finally thrown away. In
+this case, of course, regressions may not be a big problem. But on the
+other hand, there is a lot of big software that is continually
+developed and maintained during years or even tens of years by a lot
+of people. And as there are often many people who depend (sometimes
+critically) on such software, regressions are a really big problem.
+
+One such software is the linux kernel. And if we look at the linux
+kernel, we can see that a lot of time and effort is spent to fight
+regressions. The release cycle start with a 2 weeks long merge
+window. Then the first release candidate (rc) version is tagged. And
+after that about 7 or 8 more rc versions will appear with around one
+week between each of them, before the final release.
+
+The time between the first rc release and the final release is
+supposed to be used to test rc versions and fight bugs and especially
+regressions. And this time is more than 80% of the release cycle
+time. But this is not the end of the fight yet, as of course it
+continues after the release.
+
+And then this is what Ingo Molnar (a well known linux kernel
+developer) says about his use of git bisect:
+
+_____________
+I most actively use it during the merge window (when a lot of trees
+get merged upstream and when the influx of bugs is the highest) - and
+yes, there have been cases that i used it multiple times a day. My
+average is roughly once a day.
+_____________
+
+So regressions are fought all the time by developers, and indeed it is
+well known that bugs should be fixed as soon as possible, so as soon
+as they are found. That's why it is interesting to have good tools for
+this purpose.
+
+Other tools to fight regressions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+So what are the tools used to fight regressions? They are nearly the
+same as those used to fight regular bugs. The only specific tools are
+test suites and tools similar as "git bisect".
+
+Test suites are very nice. But when they are used alone, they are
+supposed to be used so that all the tests are checked after each
+commit. This means that they are not very efficient, because many
+tests are run for no interesting result, and they suffer from
+combinational explosion.
+
+In fact the problem is that big software often has many different
+configuration options and that each test case should pass for each
+configuration after each commit. So if you have for each release: N
+configurations, M commits and T test cases, you should perform:
+
+-------------
+N * M * T tests
+-------------
+
+where N, M and T are all growing with the size your software.
+
+So very soon it will not be possible to completely test everything.
+
+And if some bugs slip through your test suite, then you can add a test
+to your test suite. But if you want to use your new improved test
+suite to find where the bug slipped in, then you will either have to
+emulate a bisection process or you will perhaps bluntly test each
+commit backward starting from the "bad" commit you have which may be
+very wasteful.
+
+"git bisect" overview
+---------------------
+
+Starting a bisection
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The first "git bisect" subcommand to use is "git bisect start" to
+start the search. Then bounds must be set to limit the commit
+space. This is done usually by giving one "bad" and at least one
+"good" commit. They can be passed in the initial call to "git bisect
+start" like this:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start [BAD [GOOD...]]
+-------------
+
+or they can be set using:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect bad [COMMIT]
+-------------
+
+and:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect good [COMMIT...]
+-------------
+
+where BAD, GOOD and COMMIT are all names that can be resolved to a
+commit.
+
+Then "git bisect" will checkout a commit of its choosing and ask the
+user to test it, like this:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start v2.6.27 v2.6.25
+Bisecting: 10928 revisions left to test after this (roughly 14 steps)
+[2ec65f8b89ea003c27ff7723525a2ee335a2b393] x86: clean up using max_low_pfn on 32-bit
+-------------
+
+Note that the example that we will use is really a toy example, we
+will be looking for the first commit that has a version like
+"2.6.26-something", that is the commit that has a "SUBLEVEL = 26" line
+in the top level Makefile. This is a toy example because there are
+better ways to find this commit with git than using "git bisect" (for
+example "git blame" or "git log -S<string>").
+
+Driving a bisection manually
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+At this point there are basically 2 ways to drive the search. It can
+be driven manually by the user or it can be driven automatically by a
+script or a command.
+
+If the user is driving it, then at each step of the search, the user
+will have to test the current commit and say if it is "good" or "bad"
+using the "git bisect good" or "git bisect bad" commands respectively
+that have been described above. For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect bad
+Bisecting: 5480 revisions left to test after this (roughly 13 steps)
+[66c0b394f08fd89236515c1c84485ea712a157be] KVM: kill file->f_count abuse in kvm
+-------------
+
+And after a few more steps like that, "git bisect" will eventually
+find a first bad commit:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect bad
+2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d is the first bad commit
+commit 2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
+Date: Sat May 3 11:59:44 2008 -0700
+
+ Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+
+:100644 100644 5cf8258195331a4dbdddff08b8d68642638eea57 4492984efc09ab72ff6219a7bc21fb6a957c4cd5 M Makefile
+-------------
+
+At this point we can see what the commit does, check it out (if it's
+not already checked out) or tinker with it, for example:
+
+-------------
+$ git show HEAD
+commit 2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
+Date: Sat May 3 11:59:44 2008 -0700
+
+ Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+
+diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
+index 5cf8258..4492984 100644
+--- a/Makefile
++++ b/Makefile
+@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
+ VERSION = 2
+ PATCHLEVEL = 6
+-SUBLEVEL = 25
+-EXTRAVERSION =
++SUBLEVEL = 26
++EXTRAVERSION = -rc1
+ NAME = Funky Weasel is Jiggy wit it
+
+ # *DOCUMENTATION*
+-------------
+
+And when we are finished we can use "git bisect reset" to go back to
+the branch we were in before we started bisecting:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect reset
+Checking out files: 100% (21549/21549), done.
+Previous HEAD position was 2ddcca3... Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+Switched to branch 'master'
+-------------
+
+Driving a bisection automatically
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The other way to drive the bisection process is to tell "git bisect"
+to launch a script or command at each bisection step to know if the
+current commit is "good" or "bad". To do that, we use the "git bisect
+run" command. For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start v2.6.27 v2.6.25
+Bisecting: 10928 revisions left to test after this (roughly 14 steps)
+[2ec65f8b89ea003c27ff7723525a2ee335a2b393] x86: clean up using max_low_pfn on 32-bit
+$
+$ git bisect run grep '^SUBLEVEL = 25' Makefile
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+Bisecting: 5480 revisions left to test after this (roughly 13 steps)
+[66c0b394f08fd89236515c1c84485ea712a157be] KVM: kill file->f_count abuse in kvm
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+SUBLEVEL = 25
+Bisecting: 2740 revisions left to test after this (roughly 12 steps)
+[671294719628f1671faefd4882764886f8ad08cb] V4L/DVB(7879): Adding cx18 Support for mxl5005s
+...
+...
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+Bisecting: 0 revisions left to test after this (roughly 0 steps)
+[2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d] Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d is the first bad commit
+commit 2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
+Date: Sat May 3 11:59:44 2008 -0700
+
+ Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+
+:100644 100644 5cf8258195331a4dbdddff08b8d68642638eea57 4492984efc09ab72ff6219a7bc21fb6a957c4cd5 M Makefile
+bisect run success
+-------------
+
+In this example, we passed "grep '^SUBLEVEL = 25' Makefile" as
+parameter to "git bisect run". This means that at each step, the grep
+command we passed will be launched. And if it exits with code 0 (that
+means success) then git bisect will mark the current state as
+"good". If it exits with code 1 (or any code between 1 and 127
+included, except the special code 125), then the current state will be
+marked as "bad".
+
+Exit code between 128 and 255 are special to "git bisect run". They
+make it stop immediately the bisection process. This is useful for
+example if the command passed takes too long to complete, because you
+can kill it with a signal and it will stop the bisection process.
+
+It can also be useful in scripts passed to "git bisect run" to "exit
+255" if some very abnormal situation is detected.
+
+Avoiding untestable commits
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sometimes it happens that the current state cannot be tested, for
+example if it does not compile because there was a bug preventing it
+at that time. This is what the special exit code 125 is for. It tells
+"git bisect run" that the current commit should be marked as
+untestable and that another one should be chosen and checked out.
+
+If the bisection process is driven manually, you can use "git bisect
+skip" to do the same thing. (In fact the special exit code 125 makes
+"git bisect run" use "git bisect skip" in the background.)
+
+Or if you want more control, you can inspect the current state using
+for example "git bisect visualize". It will launch gitk (or "git log"
+if the DISPLAY environment variable is not set) to help you find a
+better bisection point.
+
+Either way, if you have a string of untestable commits, it might
+happen that the regression you are looking for has been introduced by
+one of these untestable commits. In this case it's not possible to
+tell for sure which commit introduced the regression.
+
+So if you used "git bisect skip" (or the run script exited with
+special code 125) you could get a result like this:
+
+-------------
+There are only 'skip'ped commits left to test.
+The first bad commit could be any of:
+15722f2fa328eaba97022898a305ffc8172db6b1
+78e86cf3e850bd755bb71831f42e200626fbd1e0
+e15b73ad3db9b48d7d1ade32f8cd23a751fe0ace
+070eab2303024706f2924822bfec8b9847e4ac1b
+We cannot bisect more!
+-------------
+
+Saving a log and replaying it
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If you want to show other people your bisection process, you can get a
+log using for example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect log > bisect_log.txt
+-------------
+
+And it is possible to replay it using:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect replay bisect_log.txt
+-------------
+
+
+"git bisect" details
+--------------------
+
+Bisection algorithm
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As the Git commits form a directed acyclic graph (DAG), finding the
+best bisection commit to test at each step is not so simple. Anyway
+Linus found and implemented a "truly stupid" algorithm, later improved
+by Junio Hamano, that works quite well.
+
+So the algorithm used by "git bisect" to find the best bisection
+commit when there are no skipped commits is the following:
+
+1) keep only the commits that:
+
+a) are ancestor of the "bad" commit (including the "bad" commit itself),
+b) are not ancestor of a "good" commit (excluding the "good" commits).
+
+This means that we get rid of the uninteresting commits in the DAG.
+
+For example if we start with a graph like this:
+
+-------------
+G-Y-G-W-W-W-X-X-X-X
+ \ /
+ W-W-B
+ /
+Y---G-W---W
+ \ / \
+Y-Y X-X-X-X
+
+-> time goes this way ->
+-------------
+
+where B is the "bad" commit, "G" are "good" commits and W, X, and Y
+are other commits, we will get the following graph after this first
+step:
+
+-------------
+W-W-W
+ \
+ W-W-B
+ /
+W---W
+-------------
+
+So only the W and B commits will be kept. Because commits X and Y will
+have been removed by rules a) and b) respectively, and because commits
+G are removed by rule b) too.
+
+Note for git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
+given by:
+
+-------------
+git rev-list BAD --not GOOD1 GOOD2...
+-------------
+
+Also note that we don't require the commits that are kept to be
+descendants of a "good" commit. So in the following example, commits W
+and Z will be kept:
+
+-------------
+G-W-W-W-B
+ /
+Z-Z
+-------------
+
+2) starting from the "good" ends of the graph, associate to each
+commit the number of ancestors it has plus one
+
+For example with the following graph where H is the "bad" commit and A
+and D are some parents of some "good" commits:
+
+-------------
+A-B-C
+ \
+ F-G-H
+ /
+D---E
+-------------
+
+this will give:
+
+-------------
+1 2 3
+A-B-C
+ \6 7 8
+ F-G-H
+1 2/
+D---E
+-------------
+
+3) associate to each commit: min(X, N - X)
+
+where X is the value associated to the commit in step 2) and N is the
+total number of commits in the graph.
+
+In the above example we have N = 8, so this will give:
+
+-------------
+1 2 3
+A-B-C
+ \2 1 0
+ F-G-H
+1 2/
+D---E
+-------------
+
+4) the best bisection point is the commit with the highest associated
+number
+
+So in the above example the best bisection point is commit C.
+
+5) note that some shortcuts are implemented to speed up the algorithm
+
+As we know N from the beginning, we know that min(X, N - X) can't be
+greater than N/2. So during steps 2) and 3), if we would associate N/2
+to a commit, then we know this is the best bisection point. So in this
+case we can just stop processing any other commit and return the
+current commit.
+
+Bisection algorithm debugging
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+For any commit graph, you can see the number associated with each
+commit using "git rev-list --bisect-all".
+
+For example, for the above graph, a command like:
+
+-------------
+$ git rev-list --bisect-all BAD --not GOOD1 GOOD2
+-------------
+
+would output something like:
+
+-------------
+e15b73ad3db9b48d7d1ade32f8cd23a751fe0ace (dist=3)
+15722f2fa328eaba97022898a305ffc8172db6b1 (dist=2)
+78e86cf3e850bd755bb71831f42e200626fbd1e0 (dist=2)
+a1939d9a142de972094af4dde9a544e577ddef0e (dist=2)
+070eab2303024706f2924822bfec8b9847e4ac1b (dist=1)
+a3864d4f32a3bf5ed177ddef598490a08760b70d (dist=1)
+a41baa717dd74f1180abf55e9341bc7a0bb9d556 (dist=1)
+9e622a6dad403b71c40979743bb9d5be17b16bd6 (dist=0)
+-------------
+
+Bisection algorithm discussed
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+First let's define "best bisection point". We will say that a commit X
+is a best bisection point or a best bisection commit if knowing its
+state ("good" or "bad") gives as much information as possible whether
+the state of the commit happens to be "good" or "bad".
+
+This means that the best bisection commits are the commits where the
+following function is maximum:
+
+-------------
+f(X) = min(information_if_good(X), information_if_bad(X))
+-------------
+
+where information_if_good(X) is the information we get if X is good
+and information_if_bad(X) is the information we get if X is bad.
+
+Now we will suppose that there is only one "first bad commit". This
+means that all its descendants are "bad" and all the other commits are
+"good". And we will suppose that all commits have an equal probability
+of being good or bad, or of being the first bad commit, so knowing the
+state of c commits gives always the same amount of information
+wherever these c commits are on the graph and whatever c is. (So we
+suppose that these commits being for example on a branch or near a
+good or a bad commit does not give more or less information).
+
+Let's also suppose that we have a cleaned up graph like one after step
+1) in the bisection algorithm above. This means that we can measure
+the information we get in terms of number of commit we can remove from
+the graph..
+
+And let's take a commit X in the graph.
+
+If X is found to be "good", then we know that its ancestors are all
+"good", so we want to say that:
+
+-------------
+information_if_good(X) = number_of_ancestors(X) (TRUE)
+-------------
+
+And this is true because at step 1) b) we remove the ancestors of the
+"good" commits.
+
+If X is found to be "bad", then we know that its descendants are all
+"bad", so we want to say that:
+
+-------------
+information_if_bad(X) = number_of_descendants(X) (WRONG)
+-------------
+
+But this is wrong because at step 1) a) we keep only the ancestors of
+the bad commit. So we get more information when a commit is marked as
+"bad", because we also know that the ancestors of the previous "bad"
+commit that are not ancestors of the new "bad" commit are not the
+first bad commit. We don't know if they are good or bad, but we know
+that they are not the first bad commit because they are not ancestor
+of the new "bad" commit.
+
+So when a commit is marked as "bad" we know we can remove all the
+commits in the graph except those that are ancestors of the new "bad"
+commit. This means that:
+
+-------------
+information_if_bad(X) = N - number_of_ancestors(X) (TRUE)
+-------------
+
+where N is the number of commits in the (cleaned up) graph.
+
+So in the end this means that to find the best bisection commits we
+should maximize the function:
+
+-------------
+f(X) = min(number_of_ancestors(X), N - number_of_ancestors(X))
+-------------
+
+And this is nice because at step 2) we compute number_of_ancestors(X)
+and so at step 3) we compute f(X).
+
+Let's take the following graph as an example:
+
+-------------
+ G-H-I-J
+ / \
+A-B-C-D-E-F O
+ \ /
+ K-L-M-N
+-------------
+
+If we compute the following non optimal function on it:
+
+-------------
+g(X) = min(number_of_ancestors(X), number_of_descendants(X))
+-------------
+
+we get:
+
+-------------
+ 4 3 2 1
+ G-H-I-J
+1 2 3 4 5 6/ \0
+A-B-C-D-E-F O
+ \ /
+ K-L-M-N
+ 4 3 2 1
+-------------
+
+but with the algorithm used by git bisect we get:
+
+-------------
+ 7 7 6 5
+ G-H-I-J
+1 2 3 4 5 6/ \0
+A-B-C-D-E-F O
+ \ /
+ K-L-M-N
+ 7 7 6 5
+-------------
+
+So we chose G, H, K or L as the best bisection point, which is better
+than F. Because if for example L is bad, then we will know not only
+that L, M and N are bad but also that G, H, I and J are not the first
+bad commit (since we suppose that there is only one first bad commit
+and it must be an ancestor of L).
+
+So the current algorithm seems to be the best possible given what we
+initially supposed.
+
+Skip algorithm
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When some commits have been skipped (using "git bisect skip"), then
+the bisection algorithm is the same for step 1) to 3). But then we use
+roughly the following steps:
+
+6) sort the commit by decreasing associated value
+
+7) if the first commit has not been skipped, we can return it and stop
+here
+
+8) otherwise filter out all the skipped commits in the sorted list
+
+9) use a pseudo random number generator (PRNG) to generate a random
+number between 0 and 1
+
+10) multiply this random number with its square root to bias it toward
+0
+
+11) multiply the result by the number of commits in the filtered list
+to get an index into this list
+
+12) return the commit at the computed index
+
+Skip algorithm discussed
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+After step 7) (in the skip algorithm), we could check if the second
+commit has been skipped and return it if it is not the case. And in
+fact that was the algorithm we used from when "git bisect skip" was
+developed in git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
+git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
+
+But Ingo Molnar and H. Peter Anvin (another well known linux kernel
+developer) both complained that sometimes the best bisection points
+all happened to be in an area where all the commits are
+untestable. And in this case the user was asked to test many
+untestable commits, which could be very inefficient.
+
+Indeed untestable commits are often untestable because a breakage was
+introduced at one time, and that breakage was fixed only after many
+other commits were introduced.
+
+This breakage is of course most of the time unrelated to the breakage
+we are trying to locate in the commit graph. But it prevents us to
+know if the interesting "bad behavior" is present or not.
+
+So it is a fact that commits near an untestable commit have a high
+probability of being untestable themselves. And the best bisection
+commits are often found together too (due to the bisection algorithm).
+
+This is why it is a bad idea to just chose the next best unskipped
+bisection commit when the first one has been skipped.
+
+We found that most commits on the graph may give quite a lot of
+information when they are tested. And the commits that will not on
+average give a lot of information are the one near the good and bad
+commits.
+
+So using a PRNG with a bias to favor commits away from the good and
+bad commits looked like a good choice.
+
+One obvious improvement to this algorithm would be to look for a
+commit that has an associated value near the one of the best bisection
+commit, and that is on another branch, before using the PRNG. Because
+if such a commit exists, then it is not very likely to be untestable
+too, so it will probably give more information than a nearly randomly
+chosen one.
+
+Checking merge bases
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+There is another tweak in the bisection algorithm that has not been
+described in the "bisection algorithm" above.
+
+We supposed in the previous examples that the "good" commits were
+ancestors of the "bad" commit. But this is not a requirement of "git
+bisect".
+
+Of course the "bad" commit cannot be an ancestor of a "good" commit,
+because the ancestors of the good commits are supposed to be
+"good". And all the "good" commits must be related to the bad commit.
+They cannot be on a branch that has no link with the branch of the
+"bad" commit. But it is possible for a good commit to be related to a
+bad commit and yet not be neither one of its ancestor nor one of its
+descendants.
+
+For example, there can be a "main" branch, and a "dev" branch that was
+forked of the main branch at a commit named "D" like this:
+
+-------------
+A-B-C-D-E-F-G <--main
+ \
+ H-I-J <--dev
+-------------
+
+The commit "D" is called a "merge base" for branch "main" and "dev"
+because it's the best common ancestor for these branches for a merge.
+
+Now let's suppose that commit J is bad and commit G is good and that
+we apply the bisection algorithm like it has been previously
+described.
+
+As described in step 1) b) of the bisection algorithm, we remove all
+the ancestors of the good commits because they are supposed to be good
+too.
+
+So we would be left with only:
+
+-------------
+H-I-J
+-------------
+
+But what happens if the first bad commit is "B" and if it has been
+fixed in the "main" branch by commit "F"?
+
+The result of such a bisection would be that we would find that H is
+the first bad commit, when in fact it's B. So that would be wrong!
+
+And yes it can happen in practice that people working on one branch
+are not aware that people working on another branch fixed a bug! It
+could also happen that F fixed more than one bug or that it is a
+revert of some big development effort that was not ready to be
+released.
+
+In fact development teams often maintain both a development branch and
+a maintenance branch, and it would be quite easy for them if "git
+bisect" just worked when they want to bisect a regression on the
+development branch that is not on the maintenance branch. They should
+be able to start bisecting using:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start dev main
+-------------
+
+To enable that additional nice feature, when a bisection is started
+and when some good commits are not ancestors of the bad commit, we
+first compute the merge bases between the bad and the good commits and
+we chose these merge bases as the first commits that will be checked
+out and tested.
+
+If it happens that one merge base is bad, then the bisection process
+is stopped with a message like:
+
+-------------
+The merge base BBBBBB is bad.
+This means the bug has been fixed between BBBBBB and [GGGGGG,...].
+-------------
+
+where BBBBBB is the sha1 hash of the bad merge base and [GGGGGG,...]
+is a comma separated list of the sha1 of the good commits.
+
+If some of the merge bases are skipped, then the bisection process
+continues, but the following message is printed for each skipped merge
+base:
+
+-------------
+Warning: the merge base between BBBBBB and [GGGGGG,...] must be skipped.
+So we cannot be sure the first bad commit is between MMMMMM and BBBBBB.
+We continue anyway.
+-------------
+
+where BBBBBB is the sha1 hash of the bad commit, MMMMMM is the sha1
+hash of the merge base that is skipped and [GGGGGG,...] is a comma
+separated list of the sha1 of the good commits.
+
+So if there is no bad merge base, the bisection process continues as
+usual after this step.
+
+Best bisecting practices
+------------------------
+
+Using test suites and git bisect together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If you both have a test suite and use git bisect, then it becomes less
+important to check that all tests pass after each commit. Though of
+course it is probably a good idea to have some checks to avoid
+breaking too many things because it could make bisecting other bugs
+more difficult.
+
+You can focus your efforts to check at a few points (for example rc
+and beta releases) that all the T test cases pass for all the N
+configurations. And when some tests don't pass you can use "git
+bisect" (or better "git bisect run"). So you should perform roughly:
+
+-------------
+c * N * T + b * M * log2(M) tests
+-------------
+
+where c is the number of rounds of test (so a small constant) and b is
+the ratio of bug per commit (hopefully a small constant too).
+
+So of course it's much better as it's O(N \* T) vs O(N \* T \* M) if
+you would test everything after each commit.
+
+This means that test suites are good to prevent some bugs from being
+committed and they are also quite good to tell you that you have some
+bugs. But they are not so good to tell you where some bugs have been
+introduced. To tell you that efficiently, git bisect is needed.
+
+The other nice thing with test suites, is that when you have one, you
+already know how to test for bad behavior. So you can use this
+knowledge to create a new test case for "git bisect" when it appears
+that there is a regression. So it will be easier to bisect the bug and
+fix it. And then you can add the test case you just created to your
+test suite.
+
+So if you know how to create test cases and how to bisect, you will be
+subject to a virtuous circle:
+
+more tests => easier to create tests => easier to bisect => more tests
+
+So test suites and "git bisect" are complementary tools that are very
+powerful and efficient when used together.
+
+Bisecting build failures
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You can very easily automatically bisect broken builds using something
+like:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start BAD GOOD
+$ git bisect run make
+-------------
+
+Passing sh -c "some commands" to "git bisect run"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect run sh -c "make || exit 125; ./my_app | grep 'good output'"
+-------------
+
+On the other hand if you do this often, then it can be worth having
+scripts to avoid too much typing.
+
+Finding performance regressions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Here is an example script that comes slightly modified from a real
+world script used by Junio Hamano <<4>>.
+
+This script can be passed to "git bisect run" to find the commit that
+introduced a performance regression:
+
+-------------
+#!/bin/sh
+
+# Build errors are not what I am interested in.
+make my_app || exit 255
+
+# We are checking if it stops in a reasonable amount of time, so
+# let it run in the background...
+
+./my_app >log 2>&1 &
+
+# ... and grab its process ID.
+pid=$!
+
+# ... and then wait for sufficiently long.
+sleep $NORMAL_TIME
+
+# ... and then see if the process is still there.
+if kill -0 $pid
+then
+ # It is still running -- that is bad.
+ kill $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid;
+ exit 1
+else
+ # It has already finished (the $pid process was no more),
+ # and we are happy.
+ exit 0
+fi
+-------------
+
+Following general best practices
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+It is obviously a good idea not to have commits with changes that
+knowingly break things, even if some other commits later fix the
+breakage.
+
+It is also a good idea when using any VCS to have only one small
+logical change in each commit.
+
+The smaller the changes in your commit, the most effective "git
+bisect" will be. And you will probably need "git bisect" less in the
+first place, as small changes are easier to review even if they are
+only reviewed by the commiter.
+
+Another good idea is to have good commit messages. They can be very
+helpful to understand why some changes were made.
+
+These general best practices are very helpful if you bisect often.
+
+Avoiding bug prone merges
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+First merges by themselves can introduce some regressions even when
+the merge needs no source code conflict resolution. This is because a
+semantic change can happen in one branch while the other branch is not
+aware of it.
+
+For example one branch can change the semantic of a function while the
+other branch add more calls to the same function.
+
+This is made much worse if many files have to be fixed to resolve
+conflicts. That's why such merges are called "evil merges". They can
+make regressions very difficult to track down. It can even be
+misleading to know the first bad commit if it happens to be such a
+merge, because people might think that the bug comes from bad conflict
+resolution when it comes from a semantic change in one branch.
+
+Anyway "git rebase" can be used to linearize history. This can be used
+either to avoid merging in the first place. Or it can be used to
+bisect on a linear history instead of the non linear one, as this
+should give more information in case of a semantic change in one
+branch.
+
+Merges can be also made simpler by using smaller branches or by using
+many topic branches instead of only long version related branches.
+
+And testing can be done more often in special integration branches
+like linux-next for the linux kernel.
+
+Adapting your work-flow
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+A special work-flow to process regressions can give great results.
+
+Here is an example of a work-flow used by Andreas Ericsson:
+
+* write, in the test suite, a test script that exposes the regression
+* use "git bisect run" to find the commit that introduced it
+* fix the bug that is often made obvious by the previous step
+* commit both the fix and the test script (and if needed more tests)
+
+And here is what Andreas said about this work-flow <<5>>:
+
+_____________
+To give some hard figures, we used to have an average report-to-fix
+cycle of 142.6 hours (according to our somewhat weird bug-tracker
+which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to git, we've
+lowered that to 16.2 hours. Primarily because we can stay on top of
+the bug fixing now, and because everyone's jockeying to get to fix
+bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let git find the bugs
+for us). Each new release results in ~40% fewer bugs (almost certainly
+due to how we now feel about writing tests).
+_____________
+
+Clearly this work-flow uses the virtuous circle between test suites
+and "git bisect". In fact it makes it the standard procedure to deal
+with regression.
+
+In other messages Andreas says that they also use the "best practices"
+described above: small logical commits, topic branches, no evil
+merge,... These practices all improve the bisectability of the commit
+graph, by making it easier and more useful to bisect.
+
+So a good work-flow should be designed around the above points. That
+is making bisecting easier, more useful and standard.
+
+Involving QA people and if possible end users
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+One nice about "git bisect" is that it is not only a developer
+tool. It can effectively be used by QA people or even end users (if
+they have access to the source code or if they can get access to all
+the builds).
+
+There was a discussion at one point on the linux kernel mailing list
+of whether it was ok to always ask end user to bisect, and very good
+points were made to support the point of view that it is ok.
+
+For example David Miller wrote <<6>>:
+
+_____________
+What people don't get is that this is a situation where the "end node
+principle" applies. When you have limited resources (here: developers)
+you don't push the bulk of the burden upon them. Instead you push
+things out to the resource you have a lot of, the end nodes (here:
+users), so that the situation actually scales.
+_____________
+
+This means that it is often "cheaper" if QA people or end users can do
+it.
+
+What is interesting too is that end users that are reporting bugs (or
+QA people that reproduced a bug) have access to the environment where
+the bug happens. So they can often more easily reproduce a
+regression. And if they can bisect, then more information will be
+extracted from the environment where the bug happens, which means that
+it will be easier to understand and then fix the bug.
+
+For open source projects it can be a good way to get more useful
+contributions from end users, and to introduce them to QA and
+development activities.
+
+Using complex scripts
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In some cases like for kernel development it can be worth developing
+complex scripts to be able to fully automate bisecting.
+
+Here is what Ingo Molnar says about that <<7>>:
+
+_____________
+i have a fully automated bootup-hang bisection script. It is based on
+"git-bisect run". I run the script, it builds and boots kernels fully
+automatically, and when the bootup fails (the script notices that via
+the serial log, which it continuously watches - or via a timeout, if
+the system does not come up within 10 minutes it's a "bad" kernel),
+the script raises my attention via a beep and i power cycle the test
+box. (yeah, i should make use of a managed power outlet to 100%
+automate it)
+_____________
+
+Combining test suites, git bisect and other systems together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+We have seen that test suites an git bisect are very powerful when
+used together. It can be even more powerful if you can combine them
+with other systems.
+
+For example some test suites could be run automatically at night with
+some unusual (or even random) configurations. And if a regression is
+found by a test suite, then "git bisect" can be automatically
+launched, and its result can be emailed to the author of the first bad
+commit found by "git bisect", and perhaps other people too. And a new
+entry in the bug tracking system could be automatically created too.
+
+
+The future of bisecting
+-----------------------
+
+"git replace"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+We saw earlier that "git bisect skip" is now using a PRNG to try to
+avoid areas in the commit graph where commits are untestable. The
+problem is that sometimes the first bad commit will be in an
+untestable area.
+
+To simplify the discussion we will suppose that the untestable area is
+a simple string of commits and that it was created by a breakage
+introduced by one commit (let's call it BBC for bisect breaking
+commit) and later fixed by another one (let's call it BFC for bisect
+fixing commit).
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+...-Y-BBC-X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-BFC-Z-...
+-------------
+
+where we know that Y is good and BFC is bad, and where BBC and X1 to
+X6 are untestable.
+
+In this case if you are bisecting manually, what you can do is create
+a special branch that starts just before the BBC. The first commit in
+this branch should be the BBC with the BFC squashed into it. And the
+other commits in the branch should be the commits between BBC and BFC
+rebased on the first commit of the branch and then the commit after
+BFC also rebased on.
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+ (BBC+BFC)-X1'-X2'-X3'-X4'-X5'-X6'-Z'
+ /
+...-Y-BBC-X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-BFC-Z-...
+-------------
+
+where commits quoted with ' have been rebased.
+
+You can easily create such a branch with Git using interactive rebase.
+
+For example using:
+
+-------------
+$ git rebase -i Y Z
+-------------
+
+and then moving BFC after BBC and squashing it.
+
+After that you can start bisecting as usual in the new branch and you
+should eventually find the first bad commit.
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start Z' Y
+-------------
+
+If you are using "git bisect run", you can use the same manual fix up
+as above, and then start another "git bisect run" in the special
+branch. Or as the "git bisect" man page says, the script passed to
+"git bisect run" can apply a patch before it compiles and test the
+software <<8>>. The patch should turn a current untestable commits
+into a testable one. So the testing will result in "good" or "bad" and
+"git bisect" will be able to find the first bad commit. And the script
+should not forget to remove the patch once the testing is done before
+exiting from the script.
+
+(Note that instead of a patch you can use "git cherry-pick BFC" to
+apply the fix, and in this case you should use "git reset --hard
+HEAD^" to revert the cherry-pick after testing and before returning
+from the script.)
+
+But the above ways to work around untestable areas are a little bit
+clunky. Using special branches is nice because these branches can be
+shared by developers like usual branches, but the risk is that people
+will get many such branches. And it disrupts the normal "git bisect"
+work-flow. So, if you want to use "git bisect run" completely
+automatically, you have to add special code in your script to restart
+bisection in the special branches.
+
+Anyway one can notice in the above special branch example that the Z'
+and Z commits should point to the same source code state (the same
+"tree" in git parlance). That's because Z' result from applying the
+same changes as Z just in a slightly different order.
+
+So if we could just "replace" Z by Z' when we bisect, then we would
+not need to add anything to a script. It would just work for anyone in
+the project sharing the special branches and the replacements.
+
+With the example above that would give:
+
+-------------
+ (BBC+BFC)-X1'-X2'-X3'-X4'-X5'-X6'-Z'-...
+ /
+...-Y-BBC-X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-BFC-Z
+-------------
+
+That's why the "git replace" command was created. Technically it
+stores replacements "refs" in the "refs/replace/" hierarchy. These
+"refs" are like branches (that are stored in "refs/heads/") or tags
+(that are stored in "refs/tags"), and that means that they can
+automatically be shared like branches or tags among developers.
+
+"git replace" is a very powerful mechanism. It can be used to fix
+commits in already released history, for example to change the commit
+message or the author. And it can also be used instead of git "grafts"
+to link a repository with another old repository.
+
+In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the git community, so
+it is now in the "master" branch of git's git repository and it should
+be released in git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
+
+One problem with "git replace" is that currently it stores all the
+replacements refs in "refs/replace/", but it would be perhaps better
+if the replacement refs that are useful only for bisecting would be in
+"refs/replace/bisect/". This way the replacement refs could be used
+only for bisecting, while other refs directly in "refs/replace/" would
+be used nearly all the time.
+
+Bisecting sporadic bugs
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Another possible improvement to "git bisect" would be to optionally
+add some redundancy to the tests performed so that it would be more
+reliable when tracking sporadic bugs.
+
+This has been requested by some kernel developers because some bugs
+called sporadic bugs do not appear in all the kernel builds because
+they are very dependent on the compiler output.
+
+The idea is that every 3 test for example, "git bisect" could ask the
+user to test a commit that has already been found to be "good" or
+"bad" (because one of its descendants or one of its ancestors has been
+found to be "good" or "bad" respectively). If it happens that a commit
+has been previously incorrectly classified then the bisection can be
+aborted early, hopefully before too many mistakes have been made. Then
+the user will have to look at what happened and then restart the
+bisection using a fixed bisect log.
+
+There is already a project called BBChop created by Ealdwulf Wuffinga
+on Github that does something like that using Bayesian Search Theory
+<<9>>:
+
+_____________
+BBChop is like 'git bisect' (or equivalent), but works when your bug
+is intermittent. That is, it works in the presence of false negatives
+(when a version happens to work this time even though it contains the
+bug). It assumes that there are no false positives (in principle, the
+same approach would work, but adding it may be non-trivial).
+_____________
+
+But BBChop is independent of any VCS and it would be easier for Git
+users to have something integrated in Git.
+
+Conclusion
+----------
+
+We have seen that regressions are an important problem, and that "git
+bisect" has nice features that complement very well practices and
+other tools, especially test suites, that are generally used to fight
+regressions. But it might be needed to change some work-flows and
+(bad) habits to get the most out of it.
+
+Some improvements to the algorithms inside "git bisect" are possible
+and some new features could help in some cases, but overall "git
+bisect" works already very well, is used a lot, and is already very
+useful. To back up that last claim, let's give the final word to Ingo
+Molnar when he was asked by the author how much time does he think
+"git bisect" saves him when he uses it:
+
+_____________
+a _lot_.
+
+About ten years ago did i do my first 'bisection' of a Linux patch
+queue. That was prior the Git (and even prior the BitKeeper) days. I
+literally days spent sorting out patches, creating what in essence
+were standalone commits that i guessed to be related to that bug.
+
+It was a tool of absolute last resort. I'd rather spend days looking
+at printk output than do a manual 'patch bisection'.
+
+With Git bisect it's a breeze: in the best case i can get a ~15 step
+kernel bisection done in 20-30 minutes, in an automated way. Even with
+manual help or when bisecting multiple, overlapping bugs, it's rarely
+more than an hour.
+
+In fact it's invaluable because there are bugs i would never even
+_try_ to debug if it wasn't for git bisect. In the past there were bug
+patterns that were immediately hopeless for me to debug - at best i
+could send the crash/bug signature to lkml and hope that someone else
+can think of something.
+
+And even if a bisection fails today it tells us something valuable
+about the bug: that it's non-deterministic - timing or kernel image
+layout dependent.
+
+So git bisect is unconditional goodness - and feel free to quote that
+;-)
+_____________
+
+Acknowledgements
+----------------
+
+Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
+reviewing the patches I sent to the git mailing list, for discussing
+some ideas and helping me improve them, for improving "git bisect" a
+lot and for his awesome work in maintaining and developing Git.
+
+Many thanks to Ingo Molnar for giving me very useful information that
+appears in this paper, for commenting on this paper, for his
+suggestions to improve "git bisect" and for evangelizing "git bisect"
+on the linux kernel mailing lists.
+
+Many thanks to Linus Torvalds for inventing, developing and
+evangelizing "git bisect", Git and Linux.
+
+Many thanks to the many other great people who helped one way or
+another when I worked on git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
+Schindelin, H. Peter Anvin, Daniel Barkalow, Bill Lear, John Hawley,
+Shawn O. Pierce, Jeff King, Sam Vilain, Jon Seymour.
+
+Many thanks to the Linux-Kongress program committee for choosing the
+author to given a talk and for publishing this paper.
+
+References
+----------
+
+- [[[1]]] http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/n02-10.htm['Software Errors Cost U.S. Economy $59.5 Billion Annually'. Nist News Release.]
+- [[[2]]] http://java.sun.com/docs/codeconv/html/CodeConventions.doc.html#16712['Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language'. Sun Microsystems.]
+- [[[3]]] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance['Software maintenance'. Wikipedia.]
+- [[[4]]] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/45195/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'. Gmane.]
+- [[[5]]] http://lwn.net/Articles/317154/[Christian Couder. 'Fully automated bisecting with "git bisect run"'. LWN.net.]
+- [[[6]]] http://lwn.net/Articles/277872/[Jonathan Corbet. 'Bisection divides users and developers'. LWN.net.]
+- [[[7]]] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.scsi/36652/[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Gmane.]
+- [[[8]]] http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-bisect.html[Junio C Hamano and the git-list. 'git-bisect(1) Manual Page'. Linux Kernel Archives.]
+- [[[9]]] http://github.com/Ealdwulf/bbchop[Ealdwulf. 'bbchop'. GitHub.]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 63e7a42..c39d957 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ on the subcommand:
git bisect bad [<rev>]
git bisect good [<rev>...]
git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
- git bisect reset [<branch>]
+ git bisect reset [<commit>]
git bisect visualize
git bisect replay <logfile>
git bisect log
@@ -81,16 +81,27 @@ will have been left with the first bad kernel revision in "refs/bisect/bad".
Bisect reset
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-To return to the original head after a bisect session, issue the
-following command:
+After a bisect session, to clean up the bisection state and return to
+the original HEAD, issue the following command:
------------------------------------------------
$ git bisect reset
------------------------------------------------
-This resets the tree to the original branch instead of being on the
-bisection commit ("git bisect start" will also do that, as it resets
-the bisection state).
+By default, this will return your tree to the commit that was checked
+out before `git bisect start`. (A new `git bisect start` will also do
+that, as it cleans up the old bisection state.)
+
+With an optional argument, you can return to a different commit
+instead:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git bisect reset <commit>
+------------------------------------------------
+
+For example, `git bisect reset HEAD` will leave you on the current
+bisection commit and avoid switching commits at all, while `git bisect
+reset bisect/bad` will check out the first bad revision.
Bisect visualize
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -319,6 +330,11 @@ Documentation
-------------
Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+link:git-bisect-lk2009.html[Fighting regressions with git bisect],
+linkgit:git-blame[1].
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 8c7b7b0..a27f439 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
- [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
+ [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
[<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
DESCRIPTION
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating from the given revision.
The command can also limit the range of lines annotated.
The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
-replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git-diff' or the "pickaxe"
+replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git diff' or the "pickaxe"
interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ include::blame-options.txt[]
file (see `-M`). The first number listed is the score.
This is the number of alphanumeric characters detected
as having been moved between or within files. This must be above
- a certain threshold for 'git-blame' to consider those lines
+ a certain threshold for 'git blame' to consider those lines
of code to have been moved.
-f::
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ header elements later.
SPECIFYING RANGES
-----------------
-Unlike 'git-blame' and 'git-annotate' in older versions of git, the extent
+Unlike 'git blame' and 'git annotate' in older versions of git, the extent
of the annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
ranges. When you are interested in finding the origin for
lines 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use the `-L` option like so
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ which limits the annotation to the body of the `hello` subroutine.
When you are not interested in changes older than version
v2.6.18, or changes older than 3 weeks, you can use revision
-range specifiers similar to 'git-rev-list':
+range specifiers similar to 'git rev-list':
git blame v2.6.18.. -- foo
git blame --since=3.weeks -- foo
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 0e83680..903a690 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -8,10 +8,10 @@ git-branch - List, create, or delete branches
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git branch' [--color | --no-color] [-r | -a]
+'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
[-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
[(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]]
-'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
+'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
new branch.
When a local branch is started off a remote branch, git sets up the
-branch so that 'git-pull' will appropriately merge from
+branch so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
the remote branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
`branch.autosetupmerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
overridden by using the `--track` and `--no-track` options.
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
Use -r together with -d to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
-in the remote repository or if 'git-fetch' was configured not to fetch
+in the remote repository or if 'git fetch' was configured not to fetch
them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ OPTIONS
-f::
--force::
Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
- already. Without `-f` 'git-branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
+ already. Without `-f` 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
-m::
Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
@@ -84,12 +84,14 @@ OPTIONS
-M::
Move/rename a branch even if the new branch name already exists.
---color::
+--color[=<when>]::
Color branches to highlight current, local, and remote branches.
+ The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
--no-color::
Turn off branch colors, even when the configuration file gives the
default to color output.
+ Same as `--color=never`.
-r::
List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
@@ -129,6 +131,12 @@ start-point is either a local or remote branch.
Do not set up "upstream" configuration, even if the
branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable is true.
+--set-upstream::
+ If specified branch does not exist yet or if '--force' has been
+ given, acts exactly like '--track'. Otherwise sets up configuration
+ like '--track' would when creating the branch, except that where
+ branch points to is not changed.
+
--contains <commit>::
Only list branches which contain the specified commit.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index aee7e4a..a5ed8fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -21,10 +21,10 @@ Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
be directly connected, and therefore the interactive git protocols (git,
ssh, rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
-'git-fetch' and 'git-pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
+'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
-another repository using 'git-fetch' and 'git-pull'
-after moving the archive by some means (i.e., by sneakernet). As no
+another repository using 'git fetch' and 'git pull'
+after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet). As no
direct connection between the repositories exists, the user must specify a
basis for the bundle that is held by the destination repository: the
bundle assumes that all objects in the basis are already in the
@@ -35,14 +35,14 @@ OPTIONS
create <file>::
Used to create a bundle named 'file'. This requires the
- 'git-rev-list' arguments to define the bundle contents.
+ 'git rev-list' arguments to define the bundle contents.
verify <file>::
Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply
cleanly to the current repository. This includes checks on the
bundle format itself as well as checking that the prerequisite
commits exist and are fully linked in the current repository.
- 'git-bundle' prints a list of missing commits, if any, and exits
+ 'git bundle' prints a list of missing commits, if any, and exits
with a non-zero status.
list-heads <file>::
@@ -51,15 +51,15 @@ list-heads <file>::
printed out.
unbundle <file>::
- Passes the objects in the bundle to 'git-index-pack'
+ Passes the objects in the bundle to 'git index-pack'
for storage in the repository, then prints the names of all
defined references. If a list of references is given, only
references matching those in the list are printed. This command is
- really plumbing, intended to be called only by 'git-fetch'.
+ really plumbing, intended to be called only by 'git fetch'.
[git-rev-list-args...]::
- A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git-rev-parse' and
- 'git-rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
+ A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
+ 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
to transport. For example, `master\~10..master` causes the
current master reference to be packaged along with all objects
added since its 10th ancestor commit. There is no explicit
@@ -69,16 +69,16 @@ unbundle <file>::
[refname...]::
A list of references used to limit the references reported as
- available. This is principally of use to 'git-fetch', which
+ available. This is principally of use to 'git fetch', which
expects to receive only those references asked for and not
- necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git-bundle' acts
- like 'git-fetch-pack').
+ necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git bundle' acts
+ like 'git fetch-pack').
SPECIFYING REFERENCES
---------------------
-'git-bundle' will only package references that are shown by
-'git-show-ref': this includes heads, tags, and remote heads. References
+'git bundle' will only package references that are shown by
+'git show-ref': this includes heads, tags, and remote heads. References
such as `master\~1` cannot be packaged, but are perfectly suitable for
defining the basis. More than one reference may be packaged, and more
than one basis can be specified. The objects packaged are those not
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 0b7982e..379eee6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git check-ref-format' <refname>
-'git check-ref-format' [--branch] <branchname-shorthand>
+'git check-ref-format' --print <refname>
+'git check-ref-format' --branch <branchname-shorthand>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -18,8 +19,9 @@ status if it is not.
A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
branch head is stored under the `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` directory, and
-a tag is stored under the `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` directory. git
-imposes the following rules on how references are named:
+a tag is stored under the `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` directory (or, if refs
+are packed by `git gc`, as entries in the `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs` file).
+git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
@@ -42,7 +44,7 @@ imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They cannot contain a sequence `@{`.
-- They cannot contain a `\\`.
+. They cannot contain a `\`.
These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
reference names, pathname expansion by the shell when a reference name is used
@@ -59,20 +61,35 @@ reference name expressions (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]):
. A colon `:` is used as in `srcref:dstref` to mean "use srcref\'s
value and store it in dstref" in fetch and push operations.
It may also be used to select a specific object such as with
- 'git-cat-file': "git cat-file blob v1.3.3:refs.c".
+ 'git cat-file': "git cat-file blob v1.3.3:refs.c".
. at-open-brace `@{` is used as a notation to access a reflog entry.
-With the `--branch` option, it expands a branch name shorthand and
-prints the name of the branch the shorthand refers to.
+With the `--print` option, if 'refname' is acceptable, it prints the
+canonicalized name of a hypothetical reference with that name. That is,
+it prints 'refname' with any extra `/` characters removed.
-EXAMPLE
--------
+With the `--branch` option, it expands the ``previous branch syntax''
+`@{-n}`. For example, `@{-1}` is a way to refer the last branch you
+were on. This option should be used by porcelains to accept this
+syntax anywhere a branch name is expected, so they can act as if you
+typed the branch name.
-git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}::
-
-Print the name of the previous branch.
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+* Print the name of the previous branch:
++
+------------
+$ git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}
+------------
+
+* Determine the reference name to use for a new branch:
++
+------------
+$ ref=$(git check-ref-format --print "refs/heads/$newbranch") ||
+die "we do not like '$newbranch' as a branch name."
+------------
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
index 62d8483..d6aa6e1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ $ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 git checkout-index -f --
which will force all existing `*.h` files to be replaced with their
cached copies. If an empty command line implied "all", then this would
force-refresh everything in the index, which was not the point. But
-since 'git-checkout-index' accepts --stdin it would be faster to use:
+since 'git checkout-index' accepts --stdin it would be faster to use:
----------------
$ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | git checkout-index -f -z --stdin
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ Using `--` is probably a good policy in scripts.
Using --temp or --stage=all
---------------------------
When `--temp` is used (or implied by `--stage=all`)
-'git-checkout-index' will create a temporary file for each index
+'git checkout-index' will create a temporary file for each index
entry being checked out. The index will not be updated with stat
information. These options can be useful if the caller needs all
stages of all unmerged entries so that the unmerged files can be
@@ -147,9 +147,9 @@ To update and refresh only the files already checked out::
$ git checkout-index -n -f -a && git update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
----------------
-Using 'git-checkout-index' to "export an entire tree"::
+Using 'git checkout-index' to "export an entire tree"::
The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use
- 'git-checkout-index' as an "export as tree" function.
+ 'git checkout-index' as an "export as tree" function.
Just read the desired tree into the index, and do:
+
----------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index b764130..78f4714 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ OPTIONS
-e::
--edit::
- With this option, 'git-cherry-pick' will let you edit the commit
+ With this option, 'git cherry-pick' will let you edit the commit
message prior to committing.
-x::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
index 7deefda..fed115a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
The changeset (or "diff") of each commit between the fork-point and <head>
is compared against each commit between the fork-point and <upstream>.
The commits are compared with their 'patch id', obtained from
-the 'git-patch-id' program.
+the 'git patch-id' program.
Every commit that doesn't exist in the <upstream> branch
has its id (sha1) reported, prefixed by a symbol. The ones that have
@@ -37,8 +37,8 @@ to and including <limit> are not reported:
\__*__*__<limit>__-__+__> <head>
-Because 'git-cherry' compares the changeset rather than the commit id
-(sha1), you can use 'git-cherry' to find out if a commit you made locally
+Because 'git cherry' compares the changeset rather than the commit id
+(sha1), you can use 'git cherry' to find out if a commit you made locally
has been applied <upstream> under a different commit id. For example,
this will happen if you're feeding patches <upstream> via email rather
than pushing or pulling commits directly.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-citool.txt b/Documentation/git-citool.txt
index 670cb02..fb2753c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-citool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-citool.txt
@@ -14,9 +14,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
A Tcl/Tk based graphical interface to review modified files, stage
them into the index, enter a commit message and record the new
commit onto the current branch. This interface is an alternative
-to the less interactive 'git-commit' program.
+to the less interactive 'git commit' program.
-'git-citool' is actually a standard alias for `git gui citool`.
+'git citool' is actually a standard alias for `git gui citool`.
See linkgit:git-gui[1] for more details.
Author
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 9d291bd..a81cb6c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -33,8 +33,8 @@ OPTIONS
-f::
--force::
- If the git configuration specifies clean.requireForce as true,
- 'git-clean' will refuse to run unless given -f or -n.
+ If the git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
+ to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f or -n.
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@ OPTIONS
-x::
Don't use the ignore rules. This allows removing all untracked
files, including build products. This can be used (possibly in
- conjunction with 'git-reset') to create a pristine
+ conjunction with 'git reset') to create a pristine
working directory to test a clean build.
-X::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 5ebcba1..88ea624 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git clone' [--template=<template_directory>]
[-l] [-s] [--no-hardlinks] [-q] [-n] [--bare] [--mirror]
- [-o <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
+ [-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
[--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ arguments will in addition merge the remote master branch into the
current master branch, if any.
This default configuration is achieved by creating references to
-the remote branch heads under `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/origin` and
+the remote branch heads under `refs/remotes/origin` and
by initializing `remote.origin.url` and `remote.origin.fetch`
configuration variables.
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ OPTIONS
--local::
-l::
When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
- this flag bypasses normal "git aware" transport
+ this flag bypasses the normal "git aware" transport
mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
The files under `.git/objects/` directory are hardlinked
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ OPTIONS
-s::
When the repository to clone is on the local machine,
instead of using hard links, automatically setup
- .git/objects/info/alternates to share the objects
+ `.git/objects/info/alternates` to share the objects
with the source repository. The resulting repository
starts out without any object of its own.
+
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ it unless you understand what it does. If you clone your
repository using this option and then delete branches (or use any
other git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
source repository, some objects may become unreferenced (or dangling).
-These objects may be removed by normal git operations (such as 'git-commit')
+These objects may be removed by normal git operations (such as `git commit`)
which automatically call `git gc --auto`. (See linkgit:git-gc[1].)
If these objects are removed and were referenced by the cloned repository,
then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
@@ -86,23 +86,29 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--reference <repository>::
If the reference repository is on the local machine,
- automatically setup .git/objects/info/alternates to
+ automatically setup `.git/objects/info/alternates` to
obtain objects from the reference repository. Using
an already existing repository as an alternate will
require fewer objects to be copied from the repository
being cloned, reducing network and local storage costs.
+
-*NOTE*: see NOTE to --shared option.
+*NOTE*: see the NOTE for the `--shared` option.
--quiet::
-q::
- Operate quietly. This flag is also passed to the `rsync'
+ Operate quietly. Progress is not reported to the standard
+ error stream. This flag is also passed to the `rsync'
command when given.
--verbose::
-v::
- Display the progressbar, even in case the standard output is not
- a terminal.
+ Run verbosely.
+
+--progress::
+ Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
+ by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
+ is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
+ standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
--no-checkout::
-n::
@@ -121,17 +127,17 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
configuration variables are created.
--mirror::
- Set up a mirror of the remote repository. This implies --bare.
+ Set up a mirror of the remote repository. This implies `--bare`.
--origin <name>::
-o <name>::
- Instead of using the remote name 'origin' to keep track
- of the upstream repository, use <name>.
+ Instead of using the remote name `origin` to keep track
+ of the upstream repository, use `<name>`.
--branch <name>::
-b <name>::
Instead of pointing the newly created HEAD to the branch pointed
- to by the cloned repository's HEAD, point to <name> branch
+ to by the cloned repository's HEAD, point to `<name>` branch
instead. In a non-bare repository, this is the branch that will
be checked out.
@@ -158,7 +164,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--recursive::
After the clone is created, initialize all submodules within,
using their default settings. This is equivalent to running
- 'git submodule update --init --recursive' immediately after
+ `git submodule update --init --recursive` immediately after
the clone is finished. This option is ignored if the cloned
repository does not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of
`--no-checkout`/`-n`, `--bare`, or `--mirror` is given)
@@ -171,8 +177,8 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
<directory>::
The name of a new directory to clone into. The "humanish"
part of the source repository is used if no directory is
- explicitly given ("repo" for "/path/to/repo.git" and "foo"
- for "host.xz:foo/.git"). Cloning into an existing directory
+ explicitly given (`repo` for `/path/to/repo.git` and `foo`
+ for `host.xz:foo/.git`). Cloning into an existing directory
is only allowed if the directory is empty.
:git-clone: 1
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index b8834ba..6188854 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -70,9 +70,10 @@ is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
present, system user name and fully qualified hostname.
A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog
-entry is not provided via "<" redirection, 'git-commit-tree' will just wait
+entry is not provided via "<" redirection, 'git commit-tree' will just wait
for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.
+include::date-formats.txt[]
Diagnostics
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 0578a40..64fb458 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git commit' [-a | --interactive] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend] [--dry-run]
- [(-c | -C) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>]
+ [(-c | -C) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author]
[--allow-empty] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
- [--cleanup=<mode>] [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
+ [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status] [--]
+ [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -20,11 +21,11 @@ with a log message from the user describing the changes.
The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
-1. by using 'git-add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
+1. by using 'git add' to incrementally "add" changes to the
index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified
files must be "added");
-2. by using 'git-rm' to remove files from the working tree
+2. by using 'git rm' to remove files from the working tree
and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
@@ -40,14 +41,14 @@ The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
5. by using the --interactive switch with the 'commit' command to decide one
by one which files should be part of the commit, before finalizing the
- operation. Currently, this is done by invoking 'git-add --interactive'.
+ operation. Currently, this is done by invoking 'git add --interactive'.
The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
-that, you can recover from it with 'git-reset'.
+that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
OPTIONS
@@ -69,6 +70,25 @@ OPTIONS
Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
the user can further edit the commit message.
+--reset-author::
+ When used with -C/-c/--amend options, declare that the
+ authorship of the resulting commit now belongs of the committer.
+ This also renews the author timestamp.
+
+--short::
+ When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
+ linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
+
+--porcelain::
+ When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
+ format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
+ `--dry-run`.
+
+-z::
+ When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
+ entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
+ format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
+
-F <file>::
--file=<file>::
Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
@@ -80,6 +100,9 @@ OPTIONS
an existing commit that matches the given string and its author
name is used.
+--date=<date>::
+ Override the author date used in the commit.
+
-m <msg>::
--message=<msg>::
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
@@ -162,7 +185,7 @@ FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
Make a commit only from the paths specified on the
command line, disregarding any contents that have been
staged so far. This is the default mode of operation of
- 'git-commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
+ 'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
in which case this option can be omitted.
If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
@@ -174,13 +197,13 @@ FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
Show untracked files (Default: 'all').
+
The mode parameter is optional, and is used to specify
-the handling of untracked files. The possible options are:
+the handling of untracked files.
++
+The possible options are:
+
---
- 'no' - Show no untracked files
- 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
- 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
---
+
See linkgit:git-config[1] for configuration variable
used to change the default for when the option is not
@@ -202,6 +225,17 @@ specified.
to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
+--status::
+ Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
+ message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
+ message. Defaults to on, but can be used to override
+ configuration variable commit.status.
+
+--no-status::
+ Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
+ commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
+ default commit message.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
@@ -212,15 +246,17 @@ specified.
these files are also staged for the next commit on top
of what have been staged before.
+:git-commit: 1
+include::date-formats.txt[]
EXAMPLES
--------
When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
-called the "index" with 'git-add'. A file can be
+called the "index" with 'git add'. A file can be
reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
to that of the last commit with `git reset HEAD -- <file>`,
-which effectively reverts 'git-add' and prevents the changes to
+which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
this file from participating in the next commit. After building
the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
`git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
@@ -276,13 +312,13 @@ $ git commit
this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
`hello.h` as expected.
-After a merge (initiated by 'git-merge' or 'git-pull') stops
+After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
because of conflicts, cleanly merged
paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
conflicted are left in unmerged state. You would have to first
-check which paths are conflicting with 'git-status'
+check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
-stage the result as usual with 'git-add':
+stage the result as usual with 'git add':
------------
$ git status | grep unmerged
@@ -323,7 +359,7 @@ ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
-order).
+order). See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
HOOKS
-----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index f68b198..543dd64 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -37,11 +37,12 @@ existing values that match the regexp are updated or unset. If
you want to handle the lines that do *not* match the regex, just
prepend a single exclamation mark in front (see also <<EXAMPLES>>).
-The type specifier can be either '--int' or '--bool', which will make
-'git-config' ensure that the variable(s) are of the given type and
+The type specifier can be either '--int' or '--bool', to make
+'git config' ensure that the variable(s) are of the given type and
convert the value to the canonical form (simple decimal number for int,
-a "true" or "false" string for bool). If no type specifier is passed,
-no checks or transformations are performed on the value.
+a "true" or "false" string for bool), or '--path', which does some
+path expansion (see '--path' below). If no type specifier is passed, no
+checks or transformations are performed on the value.
The file-option can be one of '--system', '--global' or '--file'
which specify where the values will be read from or written to.
@@ -124,18 +125,25 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
List all variables set in config file.
--bool::
- 'git-config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false"
+ 'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false"
--int::
- 'git-config' will ensure that the output is a simple
+ 'git config' will ensure that the output is a simple
decimal number. An optional value suffix of 'k', 'm', or 'g'
in the config file will cause the value to be multiplied
by 1024, 1048576, or 1073741824 prior to output.
--bool-or-int::
- 'git-config' will ensure that the output matches the format of
+ 'git config' will ensure that the output matches the format of
either --bool or --int, as described above.
+--path::
+ 'git-config' will expand leading '{tilde}' to the value of
+ '$HOME', and '{tilde}user' to the home directory for the
+ specified user. This option has no effect when setting the
+ value (but you can use 'git config bla {tilde}/' from the
+ command line to let your shell do the expansion).
+
-z::
--null::
For all options that output values and/or keys, always
@@ -173,7 +181,7 @@ FILES
-----
If not set explicitly with '--file', there are three files where
-'git-config' will search for configuration options:
+'git config' will search for configuration options:
$GIT_DIR/config::
Repository specific configuration file. (The filename is
@@ -190,12 +198,12 @@ $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
If no further options are given, all reading options will read all of these
files that are available. If the global or the system-wide configuration
file are not available they will be ignored. If the repository configuration
-file is not available or readable, 'git-config' will exit with a non-zero
+file is not available or readable, 'git config' will exit with a non-zero
error code. However, in neither case will an error message be issued.
All writing options will per default write to the repository specific
configuration file. Note that this also affects options like '--replace-all'
-and '--unset'. *'git-config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
+and '--unset'. *'git config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
You can override these rules either by command line options or by environment
variables. The '--global' and the '--system' options will limit the file used
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
index abaaf27..b2696ef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ by default.
Supports file additions, removals, and commits that affect binary files.
-If the commit is a merge commit, you must tell 'git-cvsexportcommit' what
+If the commit is a merge commit, you must tell 'git cvsexportcommit' what
parent the changeset should be done against.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index 614e769..8bcd875 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-A <author-conv-file>] [-p <options-for-cvsps>] [-P <file>]
[-C <git_repository>] [-z <fuzz>] [-i] [-k] [-u] [-s <subst>]
[-a] [-m] [-M <regex>] [-S <regex>] [-L <commitlimit>]
- [-r <remote>] [<CVS_module>]
+ [-r <remote>] [-R] [<CVS_module>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -28,9 +28,9 @@ At least version 2.1 is required.
Please see the section <<issues,ISSUES>> for further reference.
You should *never* do any work of your own on the branches that are
-created by 'git-cvsimport'. By default initial import will create and populate a
+created by 'git cvsimport'. By default initial import will create and populate a
"master" branch from the CVS repository's main branch which you're free
-to work with; after that, you need to 'git-merge' incremental imports, or
+to work with; after that, you need to 'git merge' incremental imports, or
any CVS branches, yourself. It is advisable to specify a named remote via
-r to separate and protect the incoming branches.
@@ -49,13 +49,13 @@ OPTIONS
-d <CVSROOT>::
The root of the CVS archive. May be local (a simple path) or remote;
currently, only the :local:, :ext: and :pserver: access methods
- are supported. If not given, 'git-cvsimport' will try to read it
+ are supported. If not given, 'git cvsimport' will try to read it
from `CVS/Root`. If no such file exists, it checks for the
`CVSROOT` environment variable.
<CVS_module>::
The CVS module you want to import. Relative to <CVSROOT>.
- If not given, 'git-cvsimport' tries to read it from
+ If not given, 'git cvsimport' tries to read it from
`CVS/Repository`.
-C <target-dir>::
@@ -65,14 +65,14 @@ OPTIONS
-r <remote>::
The git remote to import this CVS repository into.
Moves all CVS branches into remotes/<remote>/<branch>
- akin to the way 'git-clone' uses 'origin' by default.
+ akin to the way 'git clone' uses 'origin' by default.
-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
When no remote is specified (via -r) the 'HEAD' branch
from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the git
repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for git.
When a remote is specified the 'HEAD' branch is named
- remotes/<remote>/master mirroring 'git-clone' behaviour.
+ remotes/<remote>/master mirroring 'git clone' behaviour.
Use this option if you want to import into a different
branch.
+
@@ -145,17 +145,33 @@ This option can be used several times to provide several detection regexes.
---------
+
-'git-cvsimport' will make it appear as those authors had
+'git cvsimport' will make it appear as those authors had
their GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL set properly
all along.
+
For convenience, this data is saved to `$GIT_DIR/cvs-authors`
each time the '-A' option is provided and read from that same
-file each time 'git-cvsimport' is run.
+file each time 'git cvsimport' is run.
+
It is not recommended to use this feature if you intend to
export changes back to CVS again later with
-'git-cvsexportcommit'.
+'git cvsexportcommit'.
+
+-R::
+ Generate a `$GIT_DIR/cvs-revisions` file containing a mapping from CVS
+ revision numbers to newly-created Git commit IDs. The generated file
+ will contain one line for each (filename, revision) pair imported;
+ each line will look like
++
+---------
+src/widget.c 1.1 1d862f173cdc7325b6fa6d2ae1cfd61fd1b512b7
+---------
++
+The revision data is appended to the file if it already exists, for use when
+doing incremental imports.
++
+This option may be useful if you have CVS revision numbers stored in commit
+messages, bug-tracking systems, email archives, and the like.
-h::
Print a short usage message and exit.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index 785779e..dbb053e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-cvsserver git-cvsserver pserver
Usage:
[verse]
-'git cvsserver' [options] [pserver|server] [<directory> ...]
+'git-cvsserver' [options] [pserver|server] [<directory> ...]
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -182,10 +182,9 @@ Database Backend
----------------
'git-cvsserver' uses one database per git head (i.e. CVS module) to
-store information about the repository for faster access. The
-database doesn't contain any persistent data and can be completely
-regenerated from the git repository at any time. The database
-needs to be updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
+store information about the repository to maintain consistent
+CVS revision numbers. The database needs to be
+updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
If the commit is done directly by using `git` (as opposed to
using 'git-cvsserver') the update will need to happen on the
@@ -204,6 +203,18 @@ write so it might not be enough to grant the users using
'git-cvsserver' write access to the database file without granting
them write access to the directory, too.
+The database can not be reliably regenerated in a
+consistent form after the branch it is tracking has changed.
+Example: For merged branches, 'git-cvsserver' only tracks
+one branch of development, and after a 'git merge' an
+incrementally updated database may track a different branch
+than a database regenerated from scratch, causing inconsistent
+CVS revision numbers. `git-cvsserver` has no way of knowing which
+branch it would have picked if it had been run incrementally
+pre-merge. So if you have to fully or partially (from old
+backup) regenerate the database, you should be suspicious
+of pre-existing CVS sandboxes.
+
You can configure the database backend with the following
configuration variables:
@@ -266,6 +277,21 @@ In `dbdriver` and `dbuser` you can use the following variables:
If no name can be determined, the
numeric uid is used.
+ENVIRONMENT
+-----------
+
+These variables obviate the need for command-line options in some
+circumstances, allowing easier restricted usage through git-shell.
+
+GIT_CVSSERVER_BASE_PATH takes the place of the argument to --base-path.
+
+GIT_CVSSERVER_ROOT specifies a single-directory whitelist. The
+repository must still be configured to allow access through
+git-cvsserver, as described above.
+
+When these environment variables are set, the corresponding
+command-line arguments may not be used.
+
Eclipse CVS Client Notes
------------------------
@@ -283,7 +309,7 @@ To get a checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:
Protocol notes: If you are using anonymous access via pserver, just select that.
Those using SSH access should choose the 'ext' protocol, and configure 'ext'
access on the Preferences->Team->CVS->ExtConnection pane. Set CVS_SERVER to
-"'git cvsserver'". Note that password support is not good when using 'ext',
+"`git cvsserver`". Note that password support is not good when using 'ext',
you will definitely want to have SSH keys setup.
Alternatively, you can just use the non-standard extssh protocol that Eclipse
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index a85121c..01c9f8e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -28,36 +28,36 @@ that service if it is enabled.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
it will refuse to export any git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
-pass some directory paths as 'git-daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
+pass some directory paths as 'git daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
By default, only `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
-'git-fetch-pack' and 'git-ls-remote' clients, which are invoked
-from 'git-fetch', 'git-pull', and 'git-clone'.
+'git fetch-pack' and 'git ls-remote' clients, which are invoked
+from 'git fetch', 'git pull', and 'git clone'.
This is ideally suited for read-only updates, i.e., pulling from
git repositories.
-An `upload-archive` also exists to serve 'git-archive'.
+An `upload-archive` also exists to serve 'git archive'.
OPTIONS
-------
--strict-paths::
Match paths exactly (i.e. don't allow "/foo/repo" when the real path is
"/foo/repo.git" or "/foo/repo/.git") and don't do user-relative paths.
- 'git-daemon' will refuse to start when this option is enabled and no
+ 'git daemon' will refuse to start when this option is enabled and no
whitelist is specified.
--base-path=path::
Remap all the path requests as relative to the given path.
- This is sort of "GIT root" - if you run 'git-daemon' with
+ This is sort of "GIT root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
'--base-path=/srv/git' on example.com, then if you later try to pull
- 'git://example.com/hello.git', 'git-daemon' will interpret the path
+ 'git://example.com/hello.git', 'git daemon' will interpret the path
as '/srv/git/hello.git'.
--base-path-relaxed::
If --base-path is enabled and repo lookup fails, with this option
- 'git-daemon' will attempt to lookup without prefixing the base path.
+ 'git daemon' will attempt to lookup without prefixing the base path.
This is useful for switching to --base-path usage, while still
allowing the old paths.
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ OPTIONS
+
Giving these options is an error when used with `--inetd`; use
the facility of inet daemon to achieve the same before spawning
-'git-daemon' if needed.
+'git daemon' if needed.
--enable=service::
--disable=service::
@@ -169,24 +169,24 @@ SERVICES
These services can be globally enabled/disabled using the
command line options of this command. If a finer-grained
-control is desired (e.g. to allow 'git-archive' to be run
+control is desired (e.g. to allow 'git archive' to be run
against only in a few selected repositories the daemon serves),
the per-repository configuration file can be used to enable or
disable them.
upload-pack::
- This serves 'git-fetch-pack' and 'git-ls-remote'
+ This serves 'git fetch-pack' and 'git ls-remote'
clients. It is enabled by default, but a repository can
disable it by setting `daemon.uploadpack` configuration
item to `false`.
upload-archive::
- This serves 'git-archive --remote'. It is disabled by
+ This serves 'git archive --remote'. It is disabled by
default, but a repository can enable it by setting
`daemon.uploadarch` configuration item to `true`.
receive-pack::
- This serves 'git-send-pack' clients, allowing anonymous
+ This serves 'git send-pack' clients, allowing anonymous
push. It is disabled by default, as there is _no_
authentication in the protocol (in other words, anybody
can push anything into the repository, including removal
@@ -204,8 +204,8 @@ $ grep 9418 /etc/services
git 9418/tcp # Git Version Control System
------------
-'git-daemon' as inetd server::
- To set up 'git-daemon' as an inetd service that handles any
+'git daemon' as inetd server::
+ To set up 'git daemon' as an inetd service that handles any
repository under the whitelisted set of directories, /pub/foo
and /pub/bar, place an entry like the following into
/etc/inetd all on one line:
@@ -217,8 +217,8 @@ git 9418/tcp # Git Version Control System
------------------------------------------------
-'git-daemon' as inetd server for virtual hosts::
- To set up 'git-daemon' as an inetd service that handles
+'git daemon' as inetd server for virtual hosts::
+ To set up 'git daemon' as an inetd service that handles
repositories for different virtual hosts, `www.example.com`
and `www.example.org`, place an entry like the following into
`/etc/inetd` all on one line:
@@ -240,8 +240,8 @@ clients, a symlink from `/software` into the appropriate
default repository could be made as well.
-'git-daemon' as regular daemon for virtual hosts::
- To set up 'git-daemon' as a regular, non-inetd service that
+'git daemon' as regular daemon for virtual hosts::
+ To set up 'git daemon' as a regular, non-inetd service that
handles repositories for multiple virtual hosts based on
their IP addresses, start the daemon like this:
+
@@ -258,7 +258,7 @@ Repositories can still be accessed by hostname though, assuming
they correspond to these IP addresses.
selectively enable/disable services per repository::
- To enable 'git-archive --remote' and disable 'git-fetch' against
+ To enable 'git archive --remote' and disable 'git fetch' against
a repository, have the following in the configuration file in the
repository (that is the file 'config' next to 'HEAD', 'refs' and
'objects').
@@ -272,7 +272,7 @@ selectively enable/disable services per repository::
ENVIRONMENT
-----------
-'git-daemon' will set REMOTE_ADDR to the IP address of the client
+'git daemon' will set REMOTE_ADDR to the IP address of the client
that connected to it, if the IP address is available. REMOTE_ADDR will
be available in the environment of hooks called when
services are performed.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index b231dbb..6fc5323 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,9 @@ git-describe - Show the most recent tag that is reachable from a commit
SYNOPSIS
--------
+[verse]
'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <committish>...
+'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] --dirty[=<mark>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -27,6 +29,11 @@ OPTIONS
<committish>...::
Committish object names to describe.
+--dirty[=<mark>]::
+ Describe the working tree.
+ It means describe HEAD and appends <mark> (`-dirty` by
+ default) if the working tree is dirty.
+
--all::
Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
found in `.git/refs/`. This option enables matching
@@ -44,7 +51,9 @@ OPTIONS
--abbrev=<n>::
Instead of using the default 7 hexadecimal digits as the
- abbreviated object name, use <n> digits.
+ abbreviated object name, use <n> digits, or as many digits
+ as needed to form a unique object name. An <n> of 0
+ will suppress long format, only showing the closest tag.
--candidates=<n>::
Instead of considering only the 10 most recent tags as
@@ -68,8 +77,8 @@ OPTIONS
This is useful when you want to see parts of the commit object name
in "describe" output, even when the commit in question happens to be
a tagged version. Instead of just emitting the tag name, it will
- describe such a commit as v1.2-0-deadbeef (0th commit since tag v1.2
- that points at object deadbeef....).
+ describe such a commit as v1.2-0-gdeadbee (0th commit since tag v1.2
+ that points at object deadbee....).
--match <pattern>::
Only consider tags matching the given pattern (can be used to avoid
@@ -97,7 +106,7 @@ of commits which would be displayed by "git log v1.0.4..parent".
The hash suffix is "-g" + 7-char abbreviation for the tip commit
of parent (which was `2414721b194453f058079d897d13c4e377f92dc6`).
-Doing a 'git-describe' on a tag-name will just show the tag name:
+Doing a 'git describe' on a tag-name will just show the tag name:
[torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe v1.0.4
v1.0.4
@@ -108,7 +117,7 @@ the output shows the reference path as well:
[torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --all --abbrev=4 v1.0.5^2
tags/v1.0.0-21-g975b
- [torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --all HEAD^
+ [torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --all --abbrev=4 HEAD^
heads/lt/describe-7-g975b
With --abbrev set to 0, the command can be used to find the
@@ -117,16 +126,23 @@ closest tagname without any suffix:
[torvalds@g5 git]$ git describe --abbrev=0 v1.0.5^2
tags/v1.0.0
+Note that the suffix you get if you type these commands today may be
+longer than what Linus saw above when he ran these commands, as your
+git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
+975b that did not exist back then, and "-g975b" suffix alone may not
+be sufficient to disambiguate these commits.
+
+
SEARCH STRATEGY
---------------
-For each committish supplied, 'git-describe' will first look for
+For each committish supplied, 'git describe' will first look for
a tag which tags exactly that commit. Annotated tags will always
be preferred over lightweight tags, and tags with newer dates will
always be preferred over tags with older dates. If an exact match
is found, its name will be output and searching will stop.
-If an exact match was not found, 'git-describe' will walk back
+If an exact match was not found, 'git describe' will walk back
through the commit history to locate an ancestor commit which
has been tagged. The ancestor's tag will be output along with an
abbreviation of the input committish's SHA1.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
index 4ef0357..9cd8cce 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Compares the files in the working tree and the index. When paths
are specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
entries in the index are compared. The output format is the
-same as for 'git-diff-index' and 'git-diff-tree'.
+same as for 'git diff-index' and 'git diff-tree'.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index 8b9ed29..162cb74 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
-m::
By default, files recorded in the index but not checked
out are reported as deleted. This flag makes
- 'git-diff-index' say that all non-checked-out files are up
+ 'git diff-index' say that all non-checked-out files are up
to date.
include::diff-format.txt[]
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@ Cached Mode
If '--cached' is specified, it allows you to ask:
show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
- contents (the ones I'd write using 'git-write-tree')
+ contents (the ones I'd write using 'git write-tree')
For example, let's say that you have worked on your working directory, updated
some files in the index and are ready to commit. You want to see exactly
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ object and compare it that way, and to do that, you just do
Example: let's say I had renamed `commit.c` to `git-commit.c`, and I had
done an `update-index` to make that effective in the index file.
`git diff-files` wouldn't show anything at all, since the index file
-matches my working directory. But doing a 'git-diff-index' does:
+matches my working directory. But doing a 'git diff-index' does:
torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git diff-index --cached HEAD
-100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 commit.c
@@ -69,10 +69,10 @@ matches my working directory. But doing a 'git-diff-index' does:
You can see easily that the above is a rename.
In fact, `git diff-index --cached` *should* always be entirely equivalent to
-actually doing a 'git-write-tree' and comparing that. Except this one is much
+actually doing a 'git write-tree' and comparing that. Except this one is much
nicer for the case where you just want to check where you are.
-So doing a 'git-diff-index --cached' is basically very useful when you are
+So doing a `git diff-index --cached` is basically very useful when you are
asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
what's the difference to a previous tree".
@@ -80,20 +80,20 @@ Non-cached Mode
---------------
The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
the more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with
-a 'git-write-tree' + 'git-diff-tree'. Thus that's the default mode.
+a 'git write-tree' + 'git diff-tree'. Thus that's the default mode.
The non-cached version asks the question:
show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up-to-date
which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
-you *could* commit. Again, the output matches the 'git-diff-tree -r'
+you *could* commit. Again, the output matches the 'git diff-tree -r'
output to a tee, but with a twist.
The twist is that if some file doesn't match the index, we don't have
a backing store thing for it, and we use the magic "all-zero" sha1 to
show that. So let's say that you have edited `kernel/sched.c`, but
-have not actually done a 'git-update-index' on it yet - there is no
+have not actually done a 'git update-index' on it yet - there is no
"object" associated with the new state, and you get:
torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> git diff-index HEAD
@@ -104,11 +104,11 @@ not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
-NOTE: As with other commands of this type, 'git-diff-index' does not
+NOTE: As with other commands of this type, 'git diff-index' does not
actually look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe
`kernel/sched.c` hasn't actually changed, and it's just that you
touched it. In either case, it's a note that you need to
-'git-update-index' it to make the index be in sync.
+'git update-index' it to make the index be in sync.
NOTE: You can have a mixture of files show up as "has been updated"
and "is still dirty in the working directory" together. You can always
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
index f2cef12..a7e37b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two tree objects.
If there is only one <tree-ish> given, the commit is compared with its parents
(see --stdin below).
-Note that 'git-diff-tree' can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.
+Note that 'git diff-tree' can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -67,25 +67,25 @@ The following flags further affect the behavior when comparing
commits (but not trees).
-m::
- By default, 'git-diff-tree --stdin' does not show
+ By default, 'git diff-tree --stdin' does not show
differences for merge commits. With this flag, it shows
differences to that commit from all of its parents. See
also '-c'.
-s::
- By default, 'git-diff-tree --stdin' shows differences,
+ By default, 'git diff-tree --stdin' shows differences,
either in machine-readable form (without '-p') or in patch
form (with '-p'). This output can be suppressed. It is
only useful with '-v' flag.
-v::
- This flag causes 'git-diff-tree --stdin' to also show
+ This flag causes 'git diff-tree --stdin' to also show
the commit message before the differences.
include::pretty-options.txt[]
--no-commit-id::
- 'git-diff-tree' outputs a line with the commit ID when
+ 'git diff-tree' outputs a line with the commit ID when
applicable. This flag suppressed the commit ID output.
-c::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index 0ac7112..723a648 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -157,6 +157,10 @@ $ git diff -R <2>
rewrites (very expensive).
<2> Output diff in reverse.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-difftool[1]::
+ Show changes using common diff tools
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 96a6c51..8250bad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -7,13 +7,13 @@ git-difftool - Show changes using common diff tools
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git difftool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y|--no-prompt|--prompt] [<'git diff' options>]
+'git difftool' [<options>] <commit>{0,2} [--] [<path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git-difftool' is a git command that allows you to compare and edit files
+'git difftool' is a git command that allows you to compare and edit files
between revisions using common diff tools. 'git difftool' is a frontend
-to 'git-diff' and accepts the same options and arguments.
+to 'git diff' and accepts the same options and arguments.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -31,25 +31,25 @@ OPTIONS
Use the diff tool specified by <tool>.
Valid merge tools are:
kdiff3, kompare, tkdiff, meld, xxdiff, emerge, vimdiff, gvimdiff,
- ecmerge, diffuse, opendiff and araxis.
+ ecmerge, diffuse, opendiff, p4merge and araxis.
+
-If a diff tool is not specified, 'git-difftool'
+If a diff tool is not specified, 'git difftool'
will use the configuration variable `diff.tool`. If the
-configuration variable `diff.tool` is not set, 'git-difftool'
+configuration variable `diff.tool` is not set, 'git difftool'
will pick a suitable default.
+
You can explicitly provide a full path to the tool by setting the
configuration variable `difftool.<tool>.path`. For example, you
can configure the absolute path to kdiff3 by setting
-`difftool.kdiff3.path`. Otherwise, 'git-difftool' assumes the
+`difftool.kdiff3.path`. Otherwise, 'git difftool' assumes the
tool is available in PATH.
+
Instead of running one of the known diff tools,
-'git-difftool' can be customized to run an alternative program
+'git difftool' can be customized to run an alternative program
by specifying the command line to invoke in a configuration
variable `difftool.<tool>.cmd`.
+
-When 'git-difftool' is invoked with this tool (either through the
+When 'git difftool' is invoked with this tool (either through the
`-t` or `--tool` option or the `diff.tool` configuration variable)
the configured command line will be invoked with the following
variables available: `$LOCAL` is set to the name of the temporary
@@ -58,16 +58,31 @@ is set to the name of the temporary file containing the contents
of the diff post-image. `$BASE` is provided for compatibility
with custom merge tool commands and has the same value as `$LOCAL`.
+-x <command>::
+--extcmd=<command>::
+ Specify a custom command for viewing diffs.
+ 'git-difftool' ignores the configured defaults and runs
+ `$command $LOCAL $REMOTE` when this option is specified.
+
+-g::
+--gui::
+ When 'git-difftool' is invoked with the `-g` or `--gui` option
+ the default diff tool will be read from the configured
+ `diff.guitool` variable instead of `diff.tool`.
+
See linkgit:git-diff[1] for the full list of supported options.
CONFIG VARIABLES
----------------
-'git-difftool' falls back to 'git-mergetool' config variables when the
+'git difftool' falls back to 'git mergetool' config variables when the
difftool equivalents have not been defined.
diff.tool::
The default diff tool to use.
+diff.guitool::
+ The default diff tool to use when `--gui` is specified.
+
difftool.<tool>.path::
Override the path for the given tool. This is useful in case
your tool is not in the PATH.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index 75b06f3..98ec6b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -13,18 +13,18 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This program dumps the given revisions in a form suitable to be piped
-into 'git-fast-import'.
+into 'git fast-import'.
You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement (see
linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a kind of an interactive
-'git-filter-branch'.
+'git filter-branch'.
OPTIONS
-------
--progress=<n>::
Insert 'progress' statements every <n> objects, to be shown by
- 'git-fast-import' during import.
+ 'git fast-import' during import.
--signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|strip|abort)::
Specify how to handle signed tags. Since any transformation
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ unsigned, with 'verbatim', they will be silently exported
and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a warning.
--tag-of-filtered-object=(abort|drop|rewrite)::
- Specify how to handle tags whose tagged objectis filtered out.
+ Specify how to handle tags whose tagged object is filtered out.
Since revisions and files to export can be limited by path,
tagged objects may be filtered completely.
+
@@ -91,8 +91,8 @@ marks the same across runs.
already contains the necessary objects.
[git-rev-list-args...]::
- A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git-rev-parse' and
- 'git-rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
+ A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
+ 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
to export. For example, `master\~10..master` causes the
current master reference to be exported along with all objects
added since its 10th ancestor commit.
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ referenced by that revision range contains the string
Limitations
-----------
-Since 'git-fast-import' cannot tag trees, you will not be
+Since 'git fast-import' cannot tag trees, you will not be
able to export the linux-2.6.git repository completely, as it contains
a tag referencing a tree instead of a commit.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index c2f483a..19082b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
This program is usually not what the end user wants to run directly.
Most end users want to use one of the existing frontend programs,
which parses a specific type of foreign source and feeds the contents
-stored there to 'git-fast-import'.
+stored there to 'git fast-import'.
fast-import reads a mixed command/data stream from standard input and
writes one or more packfiles directly into the current repository.
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ updated branch and tag refs, fully updating the current repository
with the newly imported data.
The fast-import backend itself can import into an empty repository (one that
-has already been initialized by 'git-init') or incrementally
+has already been initialized by 'git init') or incrementally
update an existing populated repository. Whether or not incremental
imports are supported from a particular foreign source depends on
the frontend program in use.
@@ -44,11 +44,14 @@ OPTIONS
not contain the old commit).
--max-pack-size=<n>::
- Maximum size of each output packfile, expressed in MiB.
- The default is 4096 (4 GiB) as that is the maximum allowed
- packfile size (due to file format limitations). Some
- importers may wish to lower this, such as to ensure the
- resulting packfiles fit on CDs.
+ Maximum size of each output packfile.
+ The default is unlimited.
+
+--big-file-threshold=<n>::
+ Maximum size of a blob that fast-import will attempt to
+ create a delta for, expressed in bytes. The default is 512m
+ (512 MiB). Some importers may wish to lower this on systems
+ with constrained memory.
--depth=<n>::
Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
@@ -75,6 +78,20 @@ OPTIONS
set of marks. If a mark is defined to different values,
the last file wins.
+--relative-marks::
+ After specifying --relative-marks= the paths specified
+ with --import-marks= and --export-marks= are relative
+ to an internal directory in the current repository.
+ In git-fast-import this means that the paths are relative
+ to the .git/info/fast-import directory. However, other
+ importers may use a different location.
+
+--no-relative-marks::
+ Negates a previous --relative-marks. Allows for combining
+ relative and non-relative marks by interweaving
+ --(no-)-relative-marks= with the --(import|export)-marks=
+ options.
+
--export-pack-edges=<file>::
After creating a packfile, print a line of data to
<file> listing the filename of the packfile and the last
@@ -82,7 +99,7 @@ OPTIONS
This information may be useful after importing projects
whose total object set exceeds the 4 GiB packfile limit,
as these commits can be used as edge points during calls
- to 'git-pack-objects'.
+ to 'git pack-objects'.
--quiet::
Disable all non-fatal output, making fast-import silent when it
@@ -124,9 +141,9 @@ an ideal situation, given that most conversion tools are throw-away
Parallel Operation
------------------
-Like 'git-push' or 'git-fetch', imports handled by fast-import are safe to
+Like 'git push' or 'git fetch', imports handled by fast-import are safe to
run alongside parallel `git repack -a -d` or `git gc` invocations,
-or any other Git operation (including 'git-prune', as loose objects
+or any other Git operation (including 'git prune', as loose objects
are never used by fast-import).
fast-import does not lock the branch or tag refs it is actively importing.
@@ -138,7 +155,7 @@ fast-forward update, fast-import will skip updating that ref and instead
prints a warning message. fast-import will always attempt to update all
branch refs, and does not stop on the first failure.
-Branch updates can be forced with \--force, but its recommended that
+Branch updates can be forced with \--force, but it's recommended that
this only be used on an otherwise quiet repository. Using \--force
is not necessary for an initial import into an empty repository.
@@ -220,7 +237,7 @@ variation in formatting will cause fast-import to reject the value.
+
An example value is ``Tue Feb 6 11:22:18 2007 -0500''. The Git
parser is accurate, but a little on the lenient side. It is the
-same parser used by 'git-am' when applying patches
+same parser used by 'git am' when applying patches
received from email.
+
Some malformed strings may be accepted as valid dates. In some of
@@ -253,10 +270,10 @@ is always copied into the identity string at the time it is being
created by fast-import. There is no way to specify a different time or
timezone.
+
-This particular format is supplied as its short to implement and
+This particular format is supplied as it's short to implement and
may be useful to a process that wants to create a new commit
right now, without needing to use a working directory or
-'git-update-index'.
+'git update-index'.
+
If separate `author` and `committer` commands are used in a `commit`
the timestamps may not match, as the system clock will be polled
@@ -303,6 +320,15 @@ and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
standard output. This command is optional and is not needed
to perform an import.
+`feature`::
+ Require that fast-import supports the specified feature, or
+ abort if it does not.
+
+`option`::
+ Specify any of the options listed under OPTIONS that do not
+ change stream semantic to suit the frontend's needs. This
+ command is optional and is not needed to perform an import.
+
`commit`
~~~~~~~~
Create or update a branch with a new commit, recording one logical
@@ -311,12 +337,12 @@ change to the project.
....
'commit' SP <ref> LF
mark?
- ('author' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
- 'committer' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+ ('author' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
+ 'committer' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
data
('from' SP <committish> LF)?
('merge' SP <committish> LF)?
- (filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall)*
+ (filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)*
LF?
....
@@ -339,14 +365,13 @@ commit message use a 0 length data. Commit messages are free-form
and are not interpreted by Git. Currently they must be encoded in
UTF-8, as fast-import does not permit other encodings to be specified.
-Zero or more `filemodify`, `filedelete`, `filecopy`, `filerename`
-and `filedeleteall` commands
+Zero or more `filemodify`, `filedelete`, `filecopy`, `filerename`,
+`filedeleteall` and `notemodify` commands
may be included to update the contents of the branch prior to
creating the commit. These commands may be supplied in any order.
However it is recommended that a `filedeleteall` command precede
-all `filemodify`, `filecopy` and `filerename` commands in the same
-commit, as `filedeleteall`
-wipes the branch clean (see below).
+all `filemodify`, `filecopy`, `filerename` and `notemodify` commands in
+the same commit, as `filedeleteall` wipes the branch clean (see below).
The `LF` after the command is optional (it used to be required).
@@ -398,7 +423,7 @@ quoting or escaping syntax is supported within `<committish>`.
Here `<committish>` is any of the following:
* The name of an existing branch already in fast-import's internal branch
- table. If fast-import doesn't know the name, its treated as a SHA-1
+ table. If fast-import doesn't know the name, it's treated as a SHA-1
expression.
* A mark reference, `:<idnum>`, where `<idnum>` is the mark number.
@@ -595,6 +620,40 @@ more memory per active branch (less than 1 MiB for even most large
projects); so frontends that can easily obtain only the affected
paths for a commit are encouraged to do so.
+`notemodify`
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Included in a `commit` command to add a new note (annotating a given
+commit) or change the content of an existing note. This command has
+two different means of specifying the content of the note.
+
+External data format::
+ The data content for the note was already supplied by a prior
+ `blob` command. The frontend just needs to connect it to the
+ commit that is to be annotated.
++
+....
+ 'N' SP <dataref> SP <committish> LF
+....
++
+Here `<dataref>` can be either a mark reference (`:<idnum>`)
+set by a prior `blob` command, or a full 40-byte SHA-1 of an
+existing Git blob object.
+
+Inline data format::
+ The data content for the note has not been supplied yet.
+ The frontend wants to supply it as part of this modify
+ command.
++
+....
+ 'N' SP 'inline' SP <committish> LF
+ data
+....
++
+See below for a detailed description of the `data` command.
+
+In both formats `<committish>` is any of the commit specification
+expressions also accepted by `from` (see above).
+
`mark`
~~~~~~
Arranges for fast-import to save a reference to the current object, allowing
@@ -624,7 +683,7 @@ lightweight (non-annotated) tags see the `reset` command below.
....
'tag' SP <name> LF
'from' SP <committish> LF
- 'tagger' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+ 'tagger' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
data
....
@@ -657,7 +716,7 @@ recommended, as the frontend does not (easily) have access to the
complete set of bytes which normally goes into such a signature.
If signing is required, create lightweight tags from within fast-import with
`reset`, then create the annotated versions of those tags offline
-with the standard 'git-tag' process.
+with the standard 'git tag' process.
`reset`
~~~~~~~
@@ -703,7 +762,7 @@ assigned mark.
The mark command is optional here as some frontends have chosen
to generate the Git SHA-1 for the blob on their own, and feed that
-directly to `commit`. This is typically more work than its worth
+directly to `commit`. This is typically more work than it's worth
however, as marks are inexpensive to store and easy to use.
`data`
@@ -813,6 +872,62 @@ Placing a `progress` command immediately after a `checkpoint` will
inform the reader when the `checkpoint` has been completed and it
can safely access the refs that fast-import updated.
+`feature`
+~~~~~~~~~
+Require that fast-import supports the specified feature, or abort if
+it does not.
+
+....
+ 'feature' SP <feature> LF
+....
+
+The <feature> part of the command may be any string matching
+^[a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z-]*$ and should be understood by fast-import.
+
+Feature work identical as their option counterparts with the
+exception of the import-marks feature, see below.
+
+The following features are currently supported:
+
+* date-format
+* import-marks
+* export-marks
+* relative-marks
+* no-relative-marks
+* force
+
+The import-marks behaves differently from when it is specified as
+commandline option in that only one "feature import-marks" is allowed
+per stream. Also, any --import-marks= specified on the commandline
+will override those from the stream (if any).
+
+`option`
+~~~~~~~~
+Processes the specified option so that git fast-import behaves in a
+way that suits the frontend's needs.
+Note that options specified by the frontend are overridden by any
+options the user may specify to git fast-import itself.
+
+....
+ 'option' SP <option> LF
+....
+
+The `<option>` part of the command may contain any of the options
+listed in the OPTIONS section that do not change import semantics,
+without the leading '--' and is treated in the same way.
+
+Option commands must be the first commands on the input (not counting
+feature commands), to give an option command after any non-option
+command is an error.
+
+The following commandline options change import semantics and may therefore
+not be passed as option:
+
+* date-format
+* import-marks
+* export-marks
+* force
+
Crash Reports
-------------
If fast-import is supplied invalid input it will terminate with a
@@ -958,7 +1073,7 @@ is not `refs/heads/TAG_FIXUP`).
When committing fixups, consider using `merge` to connect the
commit(s) which are supplying file revisions to the fixup branch.
-Doing so will allow tools such as 'git-blame' to track
+Doing so will allow tools such as 'git blame' to track
through the real commit history and properly annotate the source
files.
@@ -987,7 +1102,7 @@ Repacking Historical Data
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If you are repacking very old imported data (e.g. older than the
last year), consider expending some extra CPU time and supplying
-\--window=50 (or higher) when you run 'git-repack'.
+\--window=50 (or higher) when you run 'git repack'.
This will take longer, but will also produce a smaller packfile.
You only need to expend the effort once, and everyone using your
project will benefit from the smaller repository.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index 47448da..4a8487c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -12,13 +12,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Usually you would want to use 'git-fetch', which is a
+Usually you would want to use 'git fetch', which is a
higher level wrapper of this command, instead.
Invokes 'git-upload-pack' on a possibly remote repository
and asks it to send objects missing from this repository, to
update the named heads. The list of commits available locally
-is found out by scanning local $GIT_DIR/refs/ and sent to
+is found out by scanning the local refs/ hierarchy and sent to
'git-upload-pack' running on the other end.
This command degenerates to download everything to complete the
@@ -33,19 +33,19 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
--quiet::
- Pass '-q' flag to 'git-unpack-objects'; this makes the
+ Pass '-q' flag to 'git unpack-objects'; this makes the
cloning process less verbose.
-k::
--keep::
- Do not invoke 'git-unpack-objects' on received data, but
+ Do not invoke 'git unpack-objects' on received data, but
create a single packfile out of it instead, and store it
in the object database. If provided twice then the pack is
locked against repacking.
--thin::
- Spend extra cycles to minimize the number of objects to be sent.
- Use it on slower connection.
+ Fetch a "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based
+ on objects not included in the pack to reduce network traffic.
--include-tag::
If the remote side supports it, annotated tags objects will
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index d3164c5..948ea26 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -10,15 +10,21 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
'git fetch' <options> <repository> <refspec>...
+'git fetch' <options> <group>
+
+'git fetch' --multiple <options> [<repository> | <group>]...
+
+'git fetch' --all <options>
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Fetches named heads or tags from another repository, along with
-the objects necessary to complete them.
+Fetches named heads or tags from one or more other repositories,
+along with the objects necessary to complete them.
The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information is left for a later merge
-operation done by 'git-merge'.
+operation done by 'git merge'.
When <refspec> stores the fetched result in tracking branches,
the tags that point at these branches are automatically
@@ -28,6 +34,10 @@ pointed by remote tags that it does not yet have, then fetch
those missing tags. If the other end has tags that point at
branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.
+'git fetch' can fetch from either a single named repository, or
+or from several repositories at once if <group> is given and
+there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file.
+(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -37,6 +47,35 @@ include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
include::urls-remotes.txt[]
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Update the remote-tracking branches:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git fetch origin
+------------------------------------------------
++
+The above command copies all branches from the remote refs/heads/
+namespace and stores them to the local refs/remotes/origin/ namespace,
+unless the branch.<name>.fetch option is used to specify a non-default
+refspec.
+
+* Using refspecs explicitly:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp
+------------------------------------------------
++
+This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches `pu` and `tmp` in
+the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively)
+`pu` and `maint` from the remote repository.
++
+The `pu` branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward,
+because it is prefixed with a plus sign; `tmp` will not be.
+
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-pull[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 2b40bab..020028c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ OPTIONS
--commit-filter <command>::
This is the filter for performing the commit.
If this filter is specified, it will be called instead of the
- 'git-commit-tree' command, with arguments of the form
+ 'git commit-tree' command, with arguments of the form
"<TREE_ID> [-p <PARENT_COMMIT_ID>]..." and the log message on
stdin. The commit id is expected on stdout.
+
@@ -127,10 +127,10 @@ have all of them as parents.
You can use the 'map' convenience function in this filter, and other
convenience functions, too. For example, calling 'skip_commit "$@"'
will leave out the current commit (but not its changes! If you want
-that, use 'git-rebase' instead).
+that, use 'git rebase' instead).
+
-You can also use the 'git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"' instead of
-'git commit-tree "$@"' if you don't wish to keep commits with a single parent
+You can also use the `git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"` instead of
+`git commit-tree "$@"` if you don't wish to keep commits with a single parent
and that makes no change to the tree.
--tag-name-filter <command>::
@@ -159,7 +159,18 @@ to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
--subdirectory-filter <directory>::
Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory.
The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
- project root.
+ project root. Implies --remap-to-ancestor.
+
+--remap-to-ancestor::
+ Rewrite refs to the nearest rewritten ancestor instead of
+ ignoring them.
++
+Normally, positive refs on the command line are only changed if the
+commit they point to was rewritten. However, you can limit the extent
+of this rewriting by using linkgit:rev-list[1] arguments, e.g., path
+limiters. Refs pointing to such excluded commits would then normally
+be ignored. With this option, they are instead rewritten to point at
+the nearest ancestor that was not excluded.
--prune-empty::
Some kind of filters will generate empty commits, that left the tree
@@ -168,7 +179,7 @@ to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
and only one parent, it will hence keep merges points. Also, this
option is not compatible with the use of '--commit-filter'. Though you
just need to use the function 'git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"' instead
- of the 'git commit-tree "$@"' idiom in your commit filter to make that
+ of the `git commit-tree "$@"` idiom in your commit filter to make that
happen.
--original <namespace>::
@@ -185,15 +196,15 @@ to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
-f::
--force::
- 'git-filter-branch' refuses to start with an existing temporary
+ 'git filter-branch' refuses to start with an existing temporary
directory or when there are already refs starting with
'refs/original/', unless forced.
<rev-list options>...::
- Arguments for 'git-rev-list'. All positive refs included by
+ Arguments for 'git rev-list'. All positive refs included by
these options are rewritten. You may also specify options
such as '--all', but you must use '--' to separate them from
- the 'git-filter-branch' options.
+ the 'git filter-branch' options.
Examples
@@ -210,7 +221,7 @@ However, if the file is absent from the tree of some commit,
a simple `rm filename` will fail for that tree and commit.
Thus you may instead want to use `rm -f filename` as the script.
-Using `\--index-filter` with 'git-rm' yields a significantly faster
+Using `\--index-filter` with 'git rm' yields a significantly faster
version. Like with using `rm filename`, `git rm --cached filename`
will fail if the file is absent from the tree of a commit. If you
want to "completely forget" a file, it does not matter when it entered
@@ -292,7 +303,7 @@ and all children of the merge will become merge commits with P1,P2
as their parents instead of the merge commit.
You can rewrite the commit log messages using `--msg-filter`. For
-example, 'git-svn-id' strings in a repository created by 'git-svn' can
+example, 'git svn-id' strings in a repository created by 'git svn' can
be removed this way:
-------------------------------------------------------
@@ -303,7 +314,7 @@ git filter-branch --msg-filter '
To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision
range in addition to the new branch name. The new branch name will
-point to the top-most revision that a 'git-rev-list' of this range
+point to the top-most revision that a 'git rev-list' of this range
will print.
If you need to add 'Acked-by' lines to, say, the last 10 commits (none
@@ -319,7 +330,7 @@ git filter-branch --msg-filter '
*NOTE* the changes introduced by the commits, and which are not reverted
by subsequent commits, will still be in the rewritten branch. If you want
to throw out _changes_ together with the commits, you should use the
-interactive mode of 'git-rebase'.
+interactive mode of 'git rebase'.
Consider this history:
@@ -347,7 +358,7 @@ To move the whole tree into a subdirectory, or remove it from there:
---------------------------------------------------------------
git filter-branch --index-filter \
- 'git ls-files -s | sed "s-\t-&newsubdir/-" |
+ 'git ls-files -s | sed "s-\t\"*-&newsubdir/-" |
GIT_INDEX_FILE=$GIT_INDEX_FILE.new \
git update-index --index-info &&
mv $GIT_INDEX_FILE.new $GIT_INDEX_FILE' HEAD
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index a586950..a585dbe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Takes the list of merged objects on stdin and produces a suitable
commit message to be used for the merge commit, usually to be
-passed as the '<merge-message>' argument of 'git-merge'.
+passed as the '<merge-message>' argument of 'git merge'.
This command is intended mostly for internal use by scripts
automatically invoking 'git merge'.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 8dc873f..7e83288 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -82,7 +82,7 @@ objecttype::
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
objectsize::
- The size of the object (the same as 'git-cat-file -s' reports).
+ The size of the object (the same as 'git cat-file -s' reports).
objectname::
The object name (aka SHA-1).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 687e667..9674f9d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Prepare each commit with its patch in
one file per commit, formatted to resemble UNIX mailbox format.
The output of this command is convenient for e-mail submission or
-for use with 'git-am'.
+for use with 'git am'.
There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
@@ -43,28 +43,28 @@ There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
-history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: "git format-patch
-\--root <commit>". If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
-can do this with "git format-patch -1 <commit>".
+history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
+\--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
+can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
-the filename. With the --numbered-files option, the output file names
+the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
The names of the output files are printed to standard
-output, unless the --stdout option is specified.
+output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
-If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
+If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
they are created in the current working directory.
By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
-Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use -n. To omit
-patch numbers from the subject, use -N
+Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`. To omit
+patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
-If given --thread, 'git-format-patch' will generate In-Reply-To and
-References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
-as replies to the first mail; this also generates a Message-Id header to
+If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
+`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
+as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
reference.
OPTIONS
@@ -112,7 +112,7 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
--attach[=<boundary>]::
Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
- second part, with "Content-Disposition: attachment".
+ second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
--no-attach::
Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
@@ -121,13 +121,13 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
--inline[=<boundary>]::
Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
- second part, with "Content-Disposition: inline".
+ second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
--thread[=<style>]::
--no-thread::
- Controls addition of In-Reply-To and References headers to
+ Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
- first. Also controls generation of the Message-Id header to
+ first. Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
reference.
+
The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
@@ -136,16 +136,16 @@ series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
`\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'deep'
threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
+
-The default is --no-thread, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
-is set. If --thread is specified without a style, it defaults to the
+The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
+is set. If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
+
Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
-itself. If you want 'git format-patch' to take care of hreading, you
-will want to ensure that threading is disabled for 'git send-email'.
+itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
+will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
- Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
+ Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
provide a new patch series.
@@ -160,16 +160,16 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for 'git send-email'.
Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
- combined with the --numbered option.
+ combined with the `--numbered` option.
--cc=<email>::
- Add a "Cc:" header to the email headers. This is in addition
+ Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
--add-header=<header>::
Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
- For example, --add-header="Organization: git-foo"
+ For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`
--cover-letter::
In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
@@ -221,7 +221,7 @@ EXAMPLES
--------
* Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top of
-the current branch using 'git-am' to cherry-pick them:
+the current branch using 'git am' to cherry-pick them:
+
------------
$ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index 287c4fc..3ad48a6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git fsck' [--tags] [--root] [--unreachable] [--cache] [--no-reflogs]
- [--full] [--strict] [--verbose] [--lost-found] [<object>*]
+ [--[no-]full] [--strict] [--verbose] [--lost-found] [<object>*]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ OPTIONS
<object>::
An object to treat as the head of an unreachability trace.
+
-If no objects are given, 'git-fsck' defaults to using the
+If no objects are given, 'git fsck' defaults to using the
index file, all SHA1 references in .git/refs/*, and all reflogs (unless
--no-reflogs is given) as heads.
@@ -52,7 +52,8 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in .git/refs/*, and all reflogs (unless
or $GIT_DIR/objects/info/alternates,
and in packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
and corresponding pack subdirectories in alternate
- object pools.
+ object pools. This is now default; you can turn it off
+ with --no-full.
--strict::
Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
@@ -84,7 +85,7 @@ So for example
will do quite a _lot_ of verification on the tree. There are a few
extra validity tests to be added (make sure that tree objects are
-sorted properly etc), but on the whole if 'git-fsck' is happy, you
+sorted properly etc), but on the whole if 'git fsck' is happy, you
do have a valid tree.
Any corrupt objects you will have to find in backups or other archives
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 1f6df6a..189573a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -15,13 +15,13 @@ DESCRIPTION
Runs a number of housekeeping tasks within the current repository,
such as compressing file revisions (to reduce disk space and increase
performance) and removing unreachable objects which may have been
-created from prior invocations of 'git-add'.
+created from prior invocations of 'git add'.
Users are encouraged to run this task on a regular basis within
each repository to maintain good disk space utilization and good
operating performance.
-Some git commands may automatically run 'git-gc'; see the `--auto` flag
+Some git commands may automatically run 'git gc'; see the `--auto` flag
below for details. If you know what you're doing and all you want is to
disable this behavior permanently without further considerations, just do:
@@ -33,15 +33,15 @@ OPTIONS
-------
--aggressive::
- Usually 'git-gc' runs very quickly while providing good disk
+ Usually 'git gc' runs very quickly while providing good disk
space utilization and performance. This option will cause
- 'git-gc' to more aggressively optimize the repository at the expense
+ 'git gc' to more aggressively optimize the repository at the expense
of taking much more time. The effects of this optimization are
persistent, so this option only needs to be used occasionally; every
few hundred changesets or so.
--auto::
- With this option, 'git-gc' checks whether any housekeeping is
+ With this option, 'git gc' checks whether any housekeeping is
required; if not, it exits without performing any work.
Some git commands run `git gc --auto` after performing
operations that could create many loose objects.
@@ -50,13 +50,13 @@ Housekeeping is required if there are too many loose objects or
too many packs in the repository. If the number of loose objects
exceeds the value of the `gc.auto` configuration variable, then
all loose objects are combined into a single pack using
-'git-repack -d -l'. Setting the value of `gc.auto` to 0
+`git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of `gc.auto` to 0
disables automatic packing of loose objects.
+
If the number of packs exceeds the value of `gc.autopacklimit`,
then existing packs (except those marked with a `.keep` file)
are consolidated into a single pack by using the `-A` option of
-'git-repack'. Setting `gc.autopacklimit` to 0 disables
+'git repack'. Setting `gc.autopacklimit` to 0 disables
automatic consolidation of packs.
--prune=<date>::
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ how long records of conflicted merge you have not resolved are
kept. This defaults to 15 days.
The optional configuration variable 'gc.packrefs' determines if
-'git-gc' runs 'git-pack-refs'. This can be set to "nobare" to enable
+'git gc' runs 'git pack-refs'. This can be set to "nobare" to enable
it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a boolean value.
This defaults to true.
@@ -116,11 +116,11 @@ default is "2 weeks ago".
Notes
-----
-'git-gc' tries very hard to be safe about the garbage it collects. In
+'git gc' tries very hard to be safe about the garbage it collects. In
particular, it will keep not only objects referenced by your current set
of branches and tags, but also objects referenced by the index, remote
-tracking branches, refs saved by 'git-filter-branch' in
-refs/original/, or reflogs (which may references commits in branches
+tracking branches, refs saved by 'git filter-branch' in
+refs/original/, or reflogs (which may reference commits in branches
that were later amended or rewound).
If you are expecting some objects to be collected and they aren't, check
diff --git a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
index 84f23ee..790af95 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
@@ -14,12 +14,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Acts as a filter, extracting the commit ID stored in archives created by
-'git-archive'. It reads only the first 1024 bytes of input, thus its
+'git archive'. It reads only the first 1024 bytes of input, thus its
runtime is not influenced by the size of <tarfile> very much.
-If no commit ID is found, 'git-get-tar-commit-id' quietly exists with a
+If no commit ID is found, 'git get-tar-commit-id' quietly exists with a
return code of 1. This can happen if <tarfile> had not been created
-using 'git-archive' or if the first parameter of 'git-archive' had been
+using 'git archive' or if the first parameter of 'git archive' had been
a tree ID instead of a commit ID or tag.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 8c70020..4b32322 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -9,32 +9,35 @@ git-grep - Print lines matching a pattern
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git grep' [--cached]
- [-a | --text] [-I] [-i | --ignore-case] [-w | --word-regexp]
+'git grep' [-a | --text] [-I] [-i | --ignore-case] [-w | --word-regexp]
[-v | --invert-match] [-h|-H] [--full-name]
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-F | --fixed-strings] [-n]
[-l | --files-with-matches] [-L | --files-without-match]
[-z | --null]
- [-c | --count] [--all-match]
+ [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
[--max-depth <depth>]
- [--color | --no-color]
+ [--color[=<when>] | --no-color]
[-A <post-context>] [-B <pre-context>] [-C <context>]
[-f <file>] [-e] <pattern>
- [--and|--or|--not|(|)|-e <pattern>...] [<tree>...]
- [--] [<path>...]
+ [--and|--or|--not|(|)|-e <pattern>...]
+ [--cached | --no-index | <tree>...]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Look for specified patterns in the working tree files, blobs
-registered in the index file, or given tree objects.
+Look for specified patterns in the tracked files in the work tree, blobs
+registered in the index file, or blobs in given tree objects.
OPTIONS
-------
--cached::
- Instead of searching in the working tree files, check
- the blobs registered in the index file.
+ Instead of searching tracked files in the working tree, search
+ blobs registered in the index file.
+
+--no-index::
+ Search files in the current directory, not just those tracked by git.
-a::
--text::
@@ -49,7 +52,7 @@ OPTIONS
Don't match the pattern in binary files.
--max-depth <depth>::
- For each pathspec given on command line, descend at most <depth>
+ For each <pathspec> given on command line, descend at most <depth>
levels of directories. A negative value means no limit.
-w::
@@ -98,8 +101,8 @@ OPTIONS
--files-without-match::
Instead of showing every matched line, show only the
names of files that contain (or do not contain) matches.
- For better compatibility with 'git-diff', --name-only is a
- synonym for --files-with-matches.
+ For better compatibility with 'git diff', `--name-only` is a
+ synonym for `--files-with-matches`.
-z::
--null::
@@ -111,12 +114,14 @@ OPTIONS
Instead of showing every matched line, show the number of
lines that match.
---color::
+--color[=<when>]::
Show colored matches.
+ The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
--no-color::
Turn off match highlighting, even when the configuration file
gives the default to color output.
+ Same as `--color=never`.
-[ABC] <context>::
Show `context` trailing (`A` -- after), or leading (`B`
@@ -125,7 +130,7 @@ OPTIONS
matches.
-<num>::
- A shortcut for specifying -C<num>.
+ A shortcut for specifying `-C<num>`.
-p::
--show-function::
@@ -140,7 +145,7 @@ OPTIONS
-e::
The next parameter is the pattern. This option has to be
- used for patterns starting with - and should be used in
+ used for patterns starting with `-` and should be used in
scripts passing user input to grep. Multiple patterns are
combined by 'or'.
@@ -158,16 +163,29 @@ OPTIONS
this flag is specified to limit the match to files that
have lines to match all of them.
-`<tree>...`::
- Search blobs in the trees for specified patterns.
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ Do not output matched lines; instead, exit with status 0 when
+ there is a match and with non-zero status when there isn't.
+
+<tree>...::
+ Instead of searching tracked files in the working tree, search
+ blobs in the given trees.
\--::
Signals the end of options; the rest of the parameters
- are <path> limiters.
+ are <pathspec> limiters.
+<pathspec>...::
+ If given, limit the search to paths matching at least one pattern.
+ Both leading paths match and glob(7) patterns are supported.
-Example
--------
+Examples
+--------
+
+git grep 'time_t' -- '*.[ch]'::
+ Looks for `time_t` in all tracked .c and .h files in the working
+ directory and its subdirectories.
git grep -e \'#define\' --and \( -e MAX_PATH -e PATH_MAX \)::
Looks for a line that has `#define` and either `MAX_PATH` or
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index d0bc98b..2563710 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -11,19 +11,19 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A Tcl/Tk based graphical user interface to Git. 'git-gui' focuses
+A Tcl/Tk based graphical user interface to Git. 'git gui' focuses
on allowing users to make changes to their repository by making
new commits, amending existing ones, creating branches, performing
local merges, and fetching/pushing to remote repositories.
-Unlike 'gitk', 'git-gui' focuses on commit generation
+Unlike 'gitk', 'git gui' focuses on commit generation
and single file annotation and does not show project history.
It does however supply menu actions to start a 'gitk' session from
-within 'git-gui'.
+within 'git gui'.
-'git-gui' is known to work on all popular UNIX systems, Mac OS X,
+'git gui' is known to work on all popular UNIX systems, Mac OS X,
and Windows (under both Cygwin and MSYS). To the extent possible
-OS specific user interface guidelines are followed, making 'git-gui'
+OS specific user interface guidelines are followed, making 'git gui'
a fairly native interface for users.
COMMANDS
@@ -38,13 +38,13 @@ browser::
browser are opened in the blame viewer.
citool::
- Start 'git-gui' and arrange to make exactly one commit before
+ Start 'git gui' and arrange to make exactly one commit before
exiting and returning to the shell. The interface is limited
to only commit actions, slightly reducing the application's
startup time and simplifying the menubar.
version::
- Display the currently running version of 'git-gui'.
+ Display the currently running version of 'git gui'.
Examples
@@ -103,15 +103,15 @@ SEE ALSO
linkgit:gitk[1]::
The git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
and file differences. gitk is the utility started by
- 'git-gui''s Repository Visualize actions.
+ 'git gui''s Repository Visualize actions.
Other
-----
-'git-gui' is actually maintained as an independent project, but stable
+'git gui' is actually maintained as an independent project, but stable
versions are distributed as part of the Git suite for the convenience
of end users.
-A 'git-gui' development repository can be obtained from:
+A 'git gui' development repository can be obtained from:
git clone git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index 0af40cf..6904739 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--path=<file>|--no-filters] [--stdin] [--] <file>...
-'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths < <list-of-paths>
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths [--no-filters] < <list-of-paths>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ Computes the object ID value for an object with specified type
with the contents of the named file (which can be outside of the
work tree), and optionally writes the resulting object into the
object database. Reports its object ID to its standard output.
-This is used by 'git-cvsimport' to update the index
+This is used by 'git cvsimport' to update the index
without modifying files in the work tree. When <type> is not
specified, it defaults to "blob".
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index d9b9c34..f8df109 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ other display programs (see below).
+
The web browser can be specified using the configuration variable
'help.browser', or 'web.browser' if the former is not set. If none of
-these config variables is set, the 'git-web--browse' helper script
-(called by 'git-help') will pick a suitable default. See
+these config variables is set, the 'git web--browse' helper script
+(called by 'git help') will pick a suitable default. See
linkgit:git-web--browse[1] for more information about this.
CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ help.format
If no command line option is passed, the 'help.format' configuration
variable will be checked. The following values are supported for this
-variable; they make 'git-help' behave as their corresponding command
+variable; they make 'git help' behave as their corresponding command
line option:
* "man" corresponds to '-m|--man',
@@ -122,7 +122,7 @@ man.<tool>.path
You can explicitly provide a full path to your preferred man viewer by
setting the configuration variable 'man.<tool>.path'. For example, you
can configure the absolute path to konqueror by setting
-'man.konqueror.path'. Otherwise, 'git-help' assumes the tool is
+'man.konqueror.path'. Otherwise, 'git help' assumes the tool is
available in PATH.
man.<tool>.cmd
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5238820
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,188 @@
+git-http-backend(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-http-backend - Server side implementation of Git over HTTP
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git http-backend'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A simple CGI program to serve the contents of a Git repository to Git
+clients accessing the repository over http:// and https:// protocols.
+The program supports clients fetching using both the smart HTTP protocol
+and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as well as clients
+pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.
+
+It verifies that the directory has the magic file
+"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any git directory
+that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way (unless the
+GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).
+
+By default, only the `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
+'git fetch-pack' and 'git ls-remote' clients, which are invoked from
+'git fetch', 'git pull', and 'git clone'. If the client is authenticated,
+the `receive-pack` service is enabled, which serves 'git send-pack'
+clients, which is invoked from 'git push'.
+
+SERVICES
+--------
+These services can be enabled/disabled using the per-repository
+configuration file:
+
+http.getanyfile::
+ This serves older Git clients which are unable to use the
+ upload pack service. When enabled, clients are able to read
+ any file within the repository, including objects that are
+ no longer reachable from a branch but are still present.
+ It is enabled by default, but a repository can disable it
+ by setting this configuration item to `false`.
+
+http.uploadpack::
+ This serves 'git fetch-pack' and 'git ls-remote' clients.
+ It is enabled by default, but a repository can disable it
+ by setting this configuration item to `false`.
+
+http.receivepack::
+ This serves 'git send-pack' clients, allowing push. It is
+ disabled by default for anonymous users, and enabled by
+ default for users authenticated by the web server. It can be
+ disabled by setting this item to `false`, or enabled for all
+ users, including anonymous users, by setting it to `true`.
+
+URL TRANSLATION
+---------------
+To determine the location of the repository on disk, 'git http-backend'
+concatenates the environment variables PATH_INFO, which is set
+automatically by the web server, and GIT_PROJECT_ROOT, which must be set
+manually in the web server configuration. If GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is not
+set, 'git http-backend' reads PATH_TRANSLATED, which is also set
+automatically by the web server.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+All of the following examples map 'http://$hostname/git/foo/bar.git'
+to '/var/www/git/foo/bar.git'.
+
+Apache 2.x::
+ Ensure mod_cgi, mod_alias, and mod_env are enabled, set
+ GIT_PROJECT_ROOT (or DocumentRoot) appropriately, and
+ create a ScriptAlias to the CGI:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
+SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL
+ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access,
+require authorization with a LocationMatch directive:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+<LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
+ AuthType Basic
+ AuthName "Git Access"
+ Require group committers
+ ...
+</LocationMatch>
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location
+directive around the repository, or one of its parent directories:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+<Location /git/private>
+ AuthType Basic
+ AuthName "Private Git Access"
+ Require group committers
+ ...
+</Location>
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To serve gitweb at the same url, use a ScriptAliasMatch to only
+those URLs that 'git http-backend' can handle, and forward the
+rest to gitweb:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+ScriptAliasMatch \
+ "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
+ info/refs | \
+ objects/(info/[^/]+ | \
+ [0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38} | \
+ pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}\.(pack|idx)) | \
+ git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
+ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1
+
+ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Accelerated static Apache 2.x::
+ Similar to the above, but Apache can be used to return static
+ files that are stored on disk. On many systems this may
+ be more efficient as Apache can ask the kernel to copy the
+ file contents from the file system directly to the network:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
+
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$ /var/www/git/$1
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
+ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+This can be combined with the gitweb configuration:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
+
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$ /var/www/git/$1
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
+ScriptAliasMatch \
+ "(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
+ info/refs | \
+ objects/info/[^/]+ | \
+ git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
+ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1
+ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+ENVIRONMENT
+-----------
+'git http-backend' relies upon the CGI environment variables set
+by the invoking web server, including:
+
+* PATH_INFO (if GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is set, otherwise PATH_TRANSLATED)
+* REMOTE_USER
+* REMOTE_ADDR
+* CONTENT_TYPE
+* QUERY_STRING
+* REQUEST_METHOD
+
+The GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable may be passed to
+'git-http-backend' to bypass the check for the "git-daemon-export-ok"
+file in each repository before allowing export of that repository.
+
+The backend process sets GIT_COMMITTER_NAME to '$REMOTE_USER' and
+GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL to '$\{REMOTE_USER}@http.$\{REMOTE_ADDR\}',
+ensuring that any reflogs created by 'git-receive-pack' contain some
+identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.
+
+All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks
+invoked by the 'git-receive-pack'.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index e7c7961..d91cb7f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ commit-id::
--stdin::
Instead of a commit id on the command line (which is not expected in this
- case), 'git-http-fetch' expects lines on stdin in the format
+ case), 'git http-fetch' expects lines on stdin in the format
<commit-id>['\t'<filename-as-in--w>]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
index aef383e..ddf7a18 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
@@ -82,11 +82,11 @@ destination side.
Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
<dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
-ancestor) of <src>. This check, known as "fast forward check",
+ancestor) of <src>. This check, known as "fast-forward check",
is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
-With '--force', the fast forward check is disabled for all refs.
+With '--force', the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index d016daf..6cafbe2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command uploads a mailbox generated with 'git-format-patch'
+This command uploads a mailbox generated with 'git format-patch'
into an IMAP drafts folder. This allows patches to be sent as
other email is when using mail clients that cannot read mailbox
files directly.
@@ -71,6 +71,10 @@ imap.preformattedHTML::
option causes Thunderbird to send the patch as a plain/text,
format=fixed email. Default is `false`.
+imap.authMethod::
+ Specify authenticate method for authentication with IMAP server.
+ Current supported method is 'CRAM-MD5' only.
+
Examples
~~~~~~~~
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 4b5c743..f3ccc72 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -43,23 +43,19 @@ OPTIONS
a default name determined from the pack content. If
<pack-file> is not specified consider using --keep to
prevent a race condition between this process and
- 'git-repack'.
+ 'git repack'.
--fix-thin::
- It is possible for 'git-pack-objects' to build
- "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based on
- objects not included in the pack to reduce network traffic.
- Those objects are expected to be present on the receiving end
- and they must be included in the pack for that pack to be self
- contained and indexable. Without this option any attempt to
- index a thin pack will fail. This option only makes sense in
- conjunction with --stdin.
+ Fix a "thin" pack produced by `git pack-objects --thin` (see
+ linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] for details) by adding the
+ excluded objects the deltified objects are based on to the
+ pack. This option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdin.
--keep::
Before moving the index into its final destination
create an empty .keep file for the associated pack file.
This option is usually necessary with --stdin to prevent a
- simultaneous 'git-repack' process from deleting
+ simultaneous 'git repack' process from deleting
the newly constructed pack and index before refs can be
updated to use objects contained in the pack.
@@ -86,7 +82,7 @@ Once the index has been created, the list of object names is sorted
and the SHA1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
also used then this is prefixed by either "pack\t", or "keep\t" if a
new .keep file was successfully created. This is useful to remove a
-.keep file used as a lock to prevent the race with 'git-repack'
+.keep file used as a lock to prevent the race with 'git repack'
mentioned above.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index f081b24..7ee102d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -95,11 +95,11 @@ If the object storage directory is specified via the `$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY`
environment variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects` directory is used.
-Running 'git-init' in an existing repository is safe. It will not overwrite
-things that are already there. The primary reason for rerunning 'git-init'
+Running 'git init' in an existing repository is safe. It will not overwrite
+things that are already there. The primary reason for rerunning 'git init'
is to pick up newly added templates.
-Note that 'git-init' is the same as 'git-init-db'. The command
+Note that 'git init' is the same as 'git init-db'. The command
was primarily meant to initialize the object database, but over
time it has become responsible for setting up the other aspects
of the repository, such as installing the default hooks and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt b/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt
index 0771f25..a1f17df 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-instaweb.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ OPTIONS
-b::
--browser::
The web browser that should be used to view the gitweb
- page. This will be passed to the 'git-web--browse' helper
+ page. This will be passed to the 'git web--browse' helper
script along with the URL of the gitweb instance. See
linkgit:git-web--browse[1] for more information about this. If
the script fails, the URL will be printed to stdout.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 3d79de1..0e39bb6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -14,9 +14,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Shows the commit logs.
-The command takes options applicable to the 'git-rev-list'
+The command takes options applicable to the 'git rev-list'
command to control what is shown and how, and options applicable to
-the 'git-diff-*' commands to control how the changes
+the 'git diff-*' commands to control how the changes
each commit introduces are shown.
@@ -107,6 +107,17 @@ git log --follow builtin-rev-list.c::
those commits that occurred before the file was given its
present name.
+git log --branches --not --remotes=origin::
+
+ Shows all commits that are in any of local branches but not in
+ any of remote tracking branches for 'origin' (what you have that
+ origin doesn't).
+
+git log master --not --remotes=*/master::
+
+ Shows all commits that are in local master but not in any remote
+ repository master branches.
+
Discussion
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 021066e..3521637 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -48,8 +48,10 @@ OPTIONS
-i::
--ignored::
- Show ignored files in the output.
- Note that this also reverses any exclude list present.
+ Show only ignored files in the output. When showing files in the
+ index, print only those matched by an exclude pattern. When
+ showing "other" files, show only those matched by an exclude
+ pattern.
-s::
--stage::
@@ -107,6 +109,7 @@ OPTIONS
Identify the file status with the following tags (followed by
a space) at the start of each line:
H:: cached
+ S:: skip-worktree
M:: unmerged
R:: removed/deleted
C:: modified/changed
@@ -138,12 +141,12 @@ OPTIONS
Output
------
-show files just outputs the filename unless '--stage' is specified in
+'git ls-files' just outputs the filenames unless '--stage' is specified in
which case it outputs:
[<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>
-'git-ls-files --unmerged' and 'git-ls-files --stage' can be used to examine
+'git ls-files --unmerged' and 'git ls-files --stage' can be used to examine
detailed information on unmerged paths.
For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA1 pair,
@@ -160,7 +163,7 @@ respectively.
Exclude Patterns
----------------
-'git-ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
+'git ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
traversing the directory tree and finding files to show when the
flags --others or --ignored are specified. linkgit:gitignore[5]
specifies the format of exclude patterns.
@@ -176,7 +179,7 @@ These exclude patterns come from these places, in order:
in the same order they appear in the file.
3. command line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies
- a name of the file in each directory 'git-ls-files'
+ a name of the file in each directory 'git ls-files'
examines, normally `.gitignore`. Files in deeper
directories take precedence. Patterns are ordered in the
same order they appear in the files.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
index c3fdccb..1f89d36 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ in the current working directory. Note that:
in a directory 'sub' that has a directory 'dir', you can run 'git
ls-tree -r HEAD dir' to list the contents of the tree (that is
'sub/dir' in 'HEAD'). You don't want to give a tree that is not at the
- root level (e.g. 'git ls-tree -r HEAD:sub dir') in this case, as that
+ root level (e.g. `git ls-tree -r HEAD:sub dir`) in this case, as that
would result in asking for 'sub/sub/dir' in the 'HEAD' commit.
However, the current working directory can be ignored by passing
--full-tree option.
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ Output Format
Unless the `-z` option is used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`, respectively.
-This output format is compatible with what '--index-info --stdin' of
+This output format is compatible with what `--index-info --stdin` of
'git update-index' expects.
When the `-l` option is used, format changes to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 996c3fc..e3d58cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-mailinfo - Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git mailinfo' [-k] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
+'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
DESCRIPTION
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Reads a single e-mail message from the standard input, and
writes the commit log message in <msg> file, and the patches in
<patch> file. The author name, e-mail and e-mail subject are
-written out to the standard output to be used by 'git-am'
+written out to the standard output to be used by 'git am'
to create a commit. It is usually not necessary to use this
command directly. See linkgit:git-am[1] instead.
@@ -30,7 +30,12 @@ OPTIONS
whitespaces, (3) '[' up to ']', typically '[PATCH]', and
then prepends "[PATCH] ". This flag forbids this
munging, and is most useful when used to read back
- 'git-format-patch -k' output.
+ 'git format-patch -k' output.
+
+-b::
+ When -k is not in effect, all leading strings bracketed with '['
+ and ']' pairs are stripped. This option limits the stripping to
+ only the pairs whose bracketed string contains the word "PATCH".
-u::
The commit log message, author name and author email are
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
index 3035373..234269a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
@@ -10,20 +10,21 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git merge-file' [-L <current-name> [-L <base-name> [-L <other-name>]]]
- [-p|--stdout] [-q|--quiet] <current-file> <base-file> <other-file>
+ [--ours|--theirs] [-p|--stdout] [-q|--quiet]
+ <current-file> <base-file> <other-file>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git-merge-file' incorporates all changes that lead from the `<base-file>`
+'git merge-file' incorporates all changes that lead from the `<base-file>`
to `<other-file>` into `<current-file>`. The result ordinarily goes into
-`<current-file>`. 'git-merge-file' is useful for combining separate changes
+`<current-file>`. 'git merge-file' is useful for combining separate changes
to an original. Suppose `<base-file>` is the original, and both
`<current-file>` and `<other-file>` are modifications of `<base-file>`,
-then 'git-merge-file' combines both changes.
+then 'git merge-file' combines both changes.
A conflict occurs if both `<current-file>` and `<other-file>` have changes
-in a common segment of lines. If a conflict is found, 'git-merge-file'
+in a common segment of lines. If a conflict is found, 'git merge-file'
normally outputs a warning and brackets the conflict with lines containing
<<<<<<< and >>>>>>> markers. A typical conflict will look like this:
@@ -34,12 +35,14 @@ normally outputs a warning and brackets the conflict with lines containing
>>>>>>> B
If there are conflicts, the user should edit the result and delete one of
-the alternatives.
+the alternatives. When `--ours` or `--theirs` option is in effect, however,
+these conflicts are resolved favouring lines from `<current-file>` or
+lines from `<other-file>` respectively.
The exit value of this program is negative on error, and the number of
conflicts otherwise. If the merge was clean, the exit value is 0.
-'git-merge-file' is designed to be a minimal clone of RCS 'merge'; that is, it
+'git merge-file' is designed to be a minimal clone of RCS 'merge'; that is, it
implements all of RCS 'merge''s functionality which is needed by
linkgit:git[1].
@@ -62,6 +65,11 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
+--ours::
+--theirs::
+ Instead of leaving conflicts in the file, resolve conflicts
+ favouring our (or their) side of the lines.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index 123e6d0..4d266de 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -36,14 +36,14 @@ OPTIONS
failure usually indicates conflicts during the merge). This is for
porcelains which might want to emit custom messages.
-If 'git-merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
+If 'git merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
processes them in turn only stopping if merge returns a non-zero exit
code.
Typically this is run with a script calling git's imitation of
the 'merge' command from the RCS package.
-A sample script called 'git-merge-one-file' is included in the
+A sample script called 'git merge-one-file' is included in the
distribution.
ALERT ALERT ALERT! The git "merge object order" is different from the
@@ -68,10 +68,10 @@ or
This is added AA in the branch B.
fatal: merge program failed
-where the latter example shows how 'git-merge-index' will stop trying to
+where the latter example shows how 'git merge-index' will stop trying to
merge once anything has returned an error (i.e., `cat` returned an error
for the AA file, because it didn't exist in the original, and thus
-'git-merge-index' didn't even try to merge the MM thing).
+'git merge-index' didn't even try to merge the MM thing).
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt
index dc8a96a..a163cfc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt
@@ -8,12 +8,12 @@ git-merge-one-file - The standard helper program to use with git-merge-index
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git-merge-one-file'
+'git merge-one-file'
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This is the standard helper program to use with 'git-merge-index'
-to resolve a merge after the trivial merge done with 'git-read-tree -m'.
+This is the standard helper program to use with 'git merge-index'
+to resolve a merge after the trivial merge done with 'git read-tree -m'.
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index d05f324..9c9618c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -10,17 +10,45 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [-s <strategy>]...
- [-m <msg>] <remote>...
-'git merge' <msg> HEAD <remote>...
+ [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] <commit>...
+'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This is the top-level interface to the merge machinery
-which drives multiple merge strategy scripts.
+Incorporates changes from the named commits (since the time their
+histories diverged from the current branch) into the current
+branch. This command is used by 'git pull' to incorporate changes
+from another repository and can be used by hand to merge changes
+from one branch into another.
-The second syntax (<msg> `HEAD` <remote>) is supported for
+Assume the following history exists and the current branch is
+"`master`":
+
+------------
+ A---B---C topic
+ /
+ D---E---F---G master
+------------
+
+Then "`git merge topic`" will replay the changes made on the
+`topic` branch since it diverged from `master` (i.e., `E`) until
+its current commit (`C`) on top of `master`, and record the result
+in a new commit along with the names of the two parent commits and
+a log message from the user describing the changes.
+
+------------
+ A---B---C topic
+ / \
+ D---E---F---G---H master
+------------
+
+The second syntax (<msg> `HEAD` <commit>...) is supported for
historical reasons. Do not use it from the command line or in
-new scripts. It is the same as `git merge -m <msg> <remote>`.
+new scripts. It is the same as `git merge -m <msg> <commit>...`.
+
+*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with uncommitted changes is
+discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a state that is hard to
+back out of in the case of a conflict.
OPTIONS
@@ -33,93 +61,83 @@ include::merge-options.txt[]
used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
invocations.
-<remote>...::
- Other branch heads to merge into our branch. You need at
- least one <remote>. Specifying more than one <remote>
- obviously means you are trying an Octopus.
+--rerere-autoupdate::
+--no-rerere-autoupdate::
+ Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
+ result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
-include::merge-strategies.txt[]
+<commit>...::
+ Commits, usually other branch heads, to merge into our branch.
+ You need at least one <commit>. Specifying more than one
+ <commit> obviously means you are trying an Octopus.
-If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts and
-want to start over, you can recover with 'git-reset'.
+PRE-MERGE CHECKS
+----------------
-CONFIGURATION
--------------
-include::merge-config.txt[]
+Before applying outside changes, you should get your own work in
+good shape and committed locally, so it will not be clobbered if
+there are conflicts. See also linkgit:git-stash[1].
+'git pull' and 'git merge' will stop without doing anything when
+local uncommitted changes overlap with files that 'git pull'/'git
+merge' may need to update.
-branch.<name>.mergeoptions::
- Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and
- supported options are the same as those of 'git merge', but option
- values containing whitespace characters are currently not supported.
+To avoid recording unrelated changes in the merge commit,
+'git pull' and 'git merge' will also abort if there are any changes
+registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit. (One
+exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that
+would result from the merge already.)
-HOW MERGE WORKS
----------------
-
-A merge is always between the current `HEAD` and one or more
-commits (usually, branch head or tag), and the index file must
-match the tree of `HEAD` commit (i.e. the contents of the last commit)
-when it starts out. In other words, `git diff --cached HEAD` must
-report no changes. (One exception is when the changed index
-entries are already in the same state that would result from
-the merge anyway.)
-
-Three kinds of merge can happen:
-
-* The merged commit is already contained in `HEAD`. This is the
- simplest case, called "Already up-to-date."
-
-* `HEAD` is already contained in the merged commit. This is the
- most common case especially when invoked from 'git pull':
- you are tracking an upstream repository, have committed no local
- changes and now you want to update to a newer upstream revision.
- Your `HEAD` (and the index) is updated to point at the merged
- commit, without creating an extra merge commit. This is
- called "Fast-forward".
-
-* Both the merged commit and `HEAD` are independent and must be
- tied together by a merge commit that has both of them as its parents.
- The rest of this section describes this "True merge" case.
-
-The chosen merge strategy merges the two commits into a single
-new source tree.
-When things merge cleanly, this is what happens:
-
-1. The results are updated both in the index file and in your
- working tree;
-2. Index file is written out as a tree;
-3. The tree gets committed; and
-4. The `HEAD` pointer gets advanced.
-
-Because of 2., we require that the original state of the index
-file matches exactly the current `HEAD` commit; otherwise we
-will write out your local changes already registered in your
-index file along with the merge result, which is not good.
-Because 1. involves only those paths differing between your
-branch and the remote branch you are pulling from during the
-merge (which is typically a fraction of the whole tree), you can
-have local modifications in your working tree as long as they do
-not overlap with what the merge updates.
-
-When there are conflicts, the following happens:
-
-1. `HEAD` stays the same.
-
-2. Cleanly merged paths are updated both in the index file and
- in your working tree.
+If all named commits are already ancestors of `HEAD`, 'git merge'
+will exit early with the message "Already up-to-date."
+
+FAST-FORWARD MERGE
+------------------
+
+Often the current branch head is an ancestor of the named commit.
+This is the most common case especially when invoked from 'git
+pull': you are tracking an upstream repository, you have committed
+no local changes, and now you want to update to a newer upstream
+revision. In this case, a new commit is not needed to store the
+combined history; instead, the `HEAD` (along with the index) is
+updated to point at the named commit, without creating an extra
+merge commit.
+
+This behavior can be suppressed with the `--no-ff` option.
+
+TRUE MERGE
+----------
-3. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three
- versions; stage1 stores the version from the common ancestor,
- stage2 from `HEAD`, and stage3 from the remote branch (you
+Except in a fast-forward merge (see above), the branches to be
+merged must be tied together by a merge commit that has both of them
+as its parents.
+
+A merged version reconciling the changes from all branches to be
+merged is committed, and your `HEAD`, index, and working tree are
+updated to it. It is possible to have modifications in the working
+tree as long as they do not overlap; the update will preserve them.
+
+When it is not obvious how to reconcile the changes, the following
+happens:
+
+1. The `HEAD` pointer stays the same.
+2. The `MERGE_HEAD` ref is set to point to the other branch head.
+3. Paths that merged cleanly are updated both in the index file and
+ in your working tree.
+4. For conflicting paths, the index file records up to three
+ versions: stage 1 stores the version from the common ancestor,
+ stage 2 from `HEAD`, and stage 3 from `MERGE_HEAD` (you
can inspect the stages with `git ls-files -u`). The working
tree files contain the result of the "merge" program; i.e. 3-way
- merge results with familiar conflict markers `<<< === >>>`.
-
-4. No other changes are done. In particular, the local
+ merge results with familiar conflict markers `<<<` `===` `>>>`.
+5. No other changes are made. In particular, the local
modifications you had before you started merge will stay the
same and the index entries for them stay as they were,
i.e. matching `HEAD`.
+If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts and
+want to start over, you can recover with `git reset --merge`.
+
HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED
---------------------------
@@ -189,28 +207,74 @@ After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:
* Decide not to merge. The only clean-ups you need are to reset
the index file to the `HEAD` commit to reverse 2. and to clean
- up working tree changes made by 2. and 3.; 'git-reset --hard' can
+ up working tree changes made by 2. and 3.; `git-reset --hard` can
be used for this.
* Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in
the working tree. Edit the files into shape and
- 'git-add' them to the index. Use 'git-commit' to seal the deal.
+ 'git add' them to the index. Use 'git commit' to seal the deal.
You can work through the conflict with a number of tools:
- * Use a mergetool. 'git mergetool' to launch a graphical
+ * Use a mergetool. `git mergetool` to launch a graphical
mergetool which will work you through the merge.
- * Look at the diffs. 'git diff' will show a three-way diff,
- highlighting changes from both the HEAD and remote versions.
+ * Look at the diffs. `git diff` will show a three-way diff,
+ highlighting changes from both the `HEAD` and `MERGE_HEAD`
+ versions.
+
+ * Look at the diffs from each branch. `git log --merge -p <path>`
+ will show diffs first for the `HEAD` version and then the
+ `MERGE_HEAD` version.
+
+ * Look at the originals. `git show :1:filename` shows the
+ common ancestor, `git show :2:filename` shows the `HEAD`
+ version, and `git show :3:filename` shows the `MERGE_HEAD`
+ version.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
- * Look at the diffs on their own. 'git log --merge -p <path>'
- will show diffs first for the HEAD version and then the
- remote version.
+* Merge branches `fixes` and `enhancements` on top of
+ the current branch, making an octopus merge:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git merge fixes enhancements
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Merge branch `obsolete` into the current branch, using `ours`
+ merge strategy:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git merge -s ours obsolete
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Merge branch `maint` into the current branch, but do not make
+ a new commit automatically:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git merge --no-commit maint
+------------------------------------------------
++
+This can be used when you want to include further changes to the
+merge, or want to write your own merge commit message.
++
+You should refrain from abusing this option to sneak substantial
+changes into a merge commit. Small fixups like bumping
+release/version name would be acceptable.
- * Look at the originals. 'git show :1:filename' shows the
- common ancestor, 'git show :2:filename' shows the HEAD
- version and 'git show :3:filename' shows the remote version.
+
+include::merge-strategies.txt[]
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+include::merge-config.txt[]
+
+branch.<name>.mergeoptions::
+ Sets default options for merging into branch <name>. The syntax and
+ supported options are the same as those of 'git merge', but option
+ values containing whitespace characters are currently not supported.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 68ed6c0..55735fa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Use `git mergetool` to run one of several merge utilities to resolve
-merge conflicts. It is typically run after 'git-merge'.
+merge conflicts. It is typically run after 'git merge'.
If one or more <file> parameters are given, the merge tool program will
be run to resolve differences on each file. If no <file> names are
-specified, 'git-mergetool' will run the merge tool program on every file
+specified, 'git mergetool' will run the merge tool program on every file
with merge conflicts.
OPTIONS
@@ -27,25 +27,25 @@ OPTIONS
Use the merge resolution program specified by <tool>.
Valid merge tools are:
kdiff3, tkdiff, meld, xxdiff, emerge, vimdiff, gvimdiff, ecmerge,
- diffuse, tortoisemerge, opendiff and araxis.
+ diffuse, tortoisemerge, opendiff, p4merge and araxis.
+
-If a merge resolution program is not specified, 'git-mergetool'
+If a merge resolution program is not specified, 'git mergetool'
will use the configuration variable `merge.tool`. If the
-configuration variable `merge.tool` is not set, 'git-mergetool'
+configuration variable `merge.tool` is not set, 'git mergetool'
will pick a suitable default.
+
You can explicitly provide a full path to the tool by setting the
configuration variable `mergetool.<tool>.path`. For example, you
can configure the absolute path to kdiff3 by setting
-`mergetool.kdiff3.path`. Otherwise, 'git-mergetool' assumes the
+`mergetool.kdiff3.path`. Otherwise, 'git mergetool' assumes the
tool is available in PATH.
+
Instead of running one of the known merge tool programs,
-'git-mergetool' can be customized to run an alternative program
+'git mergetool' can be customized to run an alternative program
by specifying the command line to invoke in a configuration
variable `mergetool.<tool>.cmd`.
+
-When 'git-mergetool' is invoked with this tool (either through the
+When 'git mergetool' is invoked with this tool (either through the
`-t` or `--tool` option or the `merge.tool` configuration
variable) the configured command line will be invoked with `$BASE`
set to the name of a temporary file containing the common base for
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ merge resolution.
If the custom merge tool correctly indicates the success of a
merge resolution with its exit code, then the configuration
variable `mergetool.<tool>.trustExitCode` can be set to `true`.
-Otherwise, 'git-mergetool' will prompt the user to indicate the
+Otherwise, 'git mergetool' will prompt the user to indicate the
success of the resolution after the custom tool has exited.
-y::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index 7ca8a7b..2108237 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Finds symbolic names suitable for human digestion for revisions given in any
-format parsable by 'git-rev-parse'.
+format parsable by 'git rev-parse'.
OPTIONS
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ wrote you about that fantastic commit 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a.
Of course, you look into the commit, but that only tells you what happened, but
not the context.
-Enter 'git-name-rev':
+Enter 'git name-rev':
------------
% git name-rev 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d4487ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+git-notes(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-notes - Add/inspect commit notes
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git notes' (edit [-F <file> | -m <msg>] | show) [commit]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This command allows you to add notes to commit messages, without
+changing the commit. To discern these notes from the message stored
+in the commit object, the notes are indented like the message, after
+an unindented line saying "Notes:".
+
+To disable commit notes, you have to set the config variable
+core.notesRef to the empty string. Alternatively, you can set it
+to a different ref, something like "refs/notes/bugzilla". This setting
+can be overridden by the environment variable "GIT_NOTES_REF".
+
+
+SUBCOMMANDS
+-----------
+
+edit::
+ Edit the notes for a given commit (defaults to HEAD).
+
+show::
+ Show the notes for a given commit (defaults to HEAD).
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-m <msg>::
+ Use the given note message (instead of prompting).
+ If multiple `-m` (or `-F`) options are given, their
+ values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.
+
+-F <file>::
+ Take the note message from the given file. Use '-' to
+ read the note message from the standard input.
+ If multiple `-F` (or `-m`) options are given, their
+ values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Johannes Schindelin <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Johannes Schindelin
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 2e49929..8ed09c0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,9 @@ git-pack-objects - Create a packed archive of objects
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git pack-objects' [-q] [--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
- [--local] [--incremental] [--window=N] [--depth=N] [--all-progress]
+'git pack-objects' [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
+ [--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
+ [--local] [--incremental] [--window=N] [--depth=N]
[--revs [--unpacked | --all]*] [--stdout | base-name]
[--keep-true-parents] < object-list
@@ -20,27 +21,28 @@ DESCRIPTION
Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes a packed
archive with specified base-name, or to the standard output.
-A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer set of objects
-between two repositories, and also is an archival format which
-is efficient to access. The packed archive format (.pack) is
-designed to be self contained so that it can be unpacked without
-any further information, but for fast, random access to the objects
-in the pack, a pack index file (.idx) will be generated.
+A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer a set of objects
+between two repositories as well as an access efficient archival
+format. In a packed archive, an object is either stored as a
+compressed whole or as a difference from some other object.
+The latter is often called a delta.
-Placing both in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
+The packed archive format (.pack) is designed to be self-contained
+so that it can be unpacked without any further information. Therefore,
+each object that a delta depends upon must be present within the pack.
+
+A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
+objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the packed
+archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES)
-enables git to read from such an archive.
+enables git to read from the pack archive.
-The 'git-unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
+The 'git unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
expand the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
one-object" format; this is typically done by the smart-pull
commands when a pack is created on-the-fly for efficient network
transport by their peers.
-In a packed archive, an object is either stored as a compressed
-whole, or as a difference from some other object. The latter is
-often called a delta.
-
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -60,7 +62,7 @@ base-name::
--revs::
Read the revision arguments from the standard input, instead of
individual object names. The revision arguments are processed
- the same way as 'git-rev-list' with the `--objects` flag
+ the same way as 'git rev-list' with the `--objects` flag
uses its `commit` arguments to build the list of objects it
outputs. The objects on the resulting list are packed.
@@ -72,7 +74,7 @@ base-name::
--all::
This implies `--revs`. In addition to the list of
revision arguments read from the standard input, pretend
- as if all refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs` are specified to be
+ as if all refs under `refs/` are specified to be
included.
--include-tag::
@@ -104,26 +106,26 @@ base-name::
`--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited, which is the
default.
---max-pack-size=<n>::
- Maximum size of each output packfile, expressed in MiB.
+--max-pack-size=[N]::
+ Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed with
+ "k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB.
If specified, multiple packfiles may be created.
The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
--honor-pack-keep::
This flag causes an object already in a local pack that
- has a .keep file to be ignored, even if it appears in the
- standard input.
+ has a .keep file to be ignored, even if it it would have
+ otherwise been packed.
--incremental::
- This flag causes an object already in a pack ignored
- even if it appears in the standard input.
+ This flag causes an object already in a pack to be ignored
+ even if it would have otherwise been packed.
--local::
- This flag is similar to `--incremental`; instead of
- ignoring all packed objects, it only ignores objects
- that are packed and/or not in the local object store
- (i.e. borrowed from an alternate).
+ This flag causes an object that is borrowed from an alternate
+ object store to be ignored even if it would have otherwise been
+ packed.
--non-empty::
Only create a packed archive if it would contain at
@@ -137,7 +139,7 @@ base-name::
--all-progress::
When --stdout is specified then progress report is
- displayed during the object count and deltification phases
+ displayed during the object count and compression phases
but inhibited during the write-out phase. The reason is
that in some cases the output stream is directly linked
to another command which may wish to display progress
@@ -146,6 +148,11 @@ base-name::
report for the write-out phase as well even if --stdout is
used.
+--all-progress-implied::
+ This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display
+ is activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn't actually
+ force any progress display by itself.
+
-q::
This flag makes the command not to report its progress
on the standard error stream.
@@ -172,11 +179,21 @@ base-name::
Add --no-reuse-object if you want to force a uniform compression
level on all data no matter the source.
+--thin::
+ Create a "thin" pack by omitting the common objects between a
+ sender and a receiver in order to reduce network transfer. This
+ option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.
++
+Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
+required objects and is thus unusable by git without making it
+self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
+(see linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) to restore the self-contained property.
+
--delta-base-offset::
A packed archive can express base object of a delta as
either 20-byte object name or as an offset in the
stream, but older version of git does not understand the
- latter. By default, 'git-pack-objects' only uses the
+ latter. By default, 'git pack-objects' only uses the
former format for better compatibility. This option
allows the command to use the latter format for
compactness. Depending on the average delta chain
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt
index 5f9435e..d060787 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ This program computes which packs in your repository
are redundant. The output is suitable for piping to
`xargs rm` if you are in the root of the repository.
-'git-pack-redundant' accepts a list of objects on standard input. Any objects
+'git pack-redundant' accepts a list of objects on standard input. Any objects
given will be ignored when checking which packs are required. This makes the
following command useful when wanting to remove packs which contain unreachable
objects.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 253fc0f..4dae139 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ ID" are almost guaranteed to be the same thing.
IOW, you can use this thing to look for likely duplicate commits.
-When dealing with 'git-diff-tree' output, it takes advantage of
+When dealing with 'git diff-tree' output, it takes advantage of
the fact that the patch is prefixed with the object name of the
commit, and outputs two 40-byte hexadecimal strings. The first
string is the patch ID, and the second string is the commit ID.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
index 8282a5e..87dacd7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command is deprecated; use 'git-ls-remote' instead.
+This command is deprecated; use 'git ls-remote' instead.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index da6055d..15cfb7a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -8,21 +8,21 @@ git-prune - Prune all unreachable objects from the object database
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git-prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
+'git prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-NOTE: In most cases, users should run 'git-gc', which calls
-'git-prune'. See the section "NOTES", below.
+NOTE: In most cases, users should run 'git gc', which calls
+'git prune'. See the section "NOTES", below.
-This runs 'git-fsck --unreachable' using all the refs
-available in `$GIT_DIR/refs`, optionally with additional set of
+This runs 'git fsck --unreachable' using all the refs
+available in `refs/`, optionally with additional set of
objects specified on the command line, and prunes all unpacked
objects unreachable from any of these head objects from the object database.
In addition, it
prunes the unpacked objects that are also found in packs by
-running 'git-prune-packed'.
+running 'git prune-packed'.
Note that unreachable, packed objects will remain. If this is
not desired, see linkgit:git-repack[1].
@@ -62,12 +62,12 @@ $ git prune $(cd ../another && $(git rev-parse --all))
Notes
-----
-In most cases, users will not need to call 'git-prune' directly, but
-should instead call 'git-gc', which handles pruning along with
+In most cases, users will not need to call 'git prune' directly, but
+should instead call 'git gc', which handles pruning along with
many other housekeeping tasks.
For a description of which objects are considered for pruning, see
-'git-fsck''s --unreachable option.
+'git fsck''s --unreachable option.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index 7578623..31f42ea 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -13,19 +13,27 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Runs 'git-fetch' with the given parameters, and calls 'git-merge'
+Runs 'git fetch' with the given parameters, and calls 'git merge'
to merge the retrieved head(s) into the current branch.
-With `--rebase`, calls 'git-rebase' instead of 'git-merge'.
+With `--rebase`, calls 'git rebase' instead of 'git merge'.
Note that you can use `.` (current directory) as the
<repository> to pull from the local repository -- this is useful
when merging local branches into the current branch.
-Also note that options meant for 'git-pull' itself and underlying
-'git-merge' must be given before the options meant for 'git-fetch'.
+Also note that options meant for 'git pull' itself and underlying
+'git merge' must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
+
+*Warning*: Running 'git pull' (actually, the underlying 'git merge')
+with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
+in a state that is hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
OPTIONS
-------
+
+Options related to merging
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
include::merge-options.txt[]
:git-pull: 1
@@ -47,6 +55,9 @@ unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
--no-rebase::
Override earlier --rebase.
+Options related to fetching
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
include::fetch-options.txt[]
include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
@@ -131,58 +142,17 @@ $ git pull origin next
------------------------------------------------
+
This leaves a copy of `next` temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but
-does not update any remote-tracking branches.
-
-* Bundle local branch `fixes` and `enhancements` on top of
- the current branch, making an Octopus merge:
-+
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git pull . fixes enhancements
-------------------------------------------------
-+
-This `git pull .` syntax is equivalent to `git merge`.
-
-* Merge local branch `obsolete` into the current branch, using `ours`
- merge strategy:
+does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
+branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
+
------------------------------------------------
-$ git pull -s ours . obsolete
+$ git fetch origin
+$ git merge origin/next
------------------------------------------------
-* Merge local branch `maint` into the current branch, but do not make
- a commit automatically:
-+
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git pull --no-commit . maint
-------------------------------------------------
-+
-This can be used when you want to include further changes to the
-merge, or want to write your own merge commit message.
-+
-You should refrain from abusing this option to sneak substantial
-changes into a merge commit. Small fixups like bumping
-release/version name would be acceptable.
-
-* Command line pull of multiple branches from one repository:
-+
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git checkout master
-$ git fetch origin +pu:pu maint:tmp
-$ git pull . tmp
-------------------------------------------------
-+
-This updates (or creates, as necessary) branches `pu` and `tmp` in
-the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively)
-`pu` and `maint` from the remote repository.
-+
-The `pu` branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward;
-the others will not be.
-+
-The final command then merges the newly fetched `tmp` into master.
-
If you tried a pull which resulted in a complex conflicts and
-would want to start over, you can recover with 'git-reset'.
+would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index ba6a8a2..49b6bd9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
- [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
+ [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
[<repository> <refspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -50,9 +50,9 @@ updated.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
-update can fast forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
+update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
-fast forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
+fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
EXAMPLES below for details.
+
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ EXAMPLES below for details.
Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
+
-The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
+The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
@@ -69,11 +69,11 @@ nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
--all::
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
- refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
+ refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
--mirror::
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
- refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
+ refs under `refs/` (which includes but is not
limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
@@ -91,8 +91,12 @@ nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
symbolic names of the refs will be given.
+--delete::
+ All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
+ the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
+
--tags::
- All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
+ All refs under `refs/tags` are pushed, in
addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
line.
@@ -112,7 +116,7 @@ nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
--repo=<repository>::
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
- passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git-push' derives the
+ passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git push' derives the
remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
@@ -126,18 +130,31 @@ git push --repo=public #2
+
is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
-useful if you write an alias or script around 'git-push'.
+useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
+
+-u::
+--set-upstream::
+ For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
+ upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
+ linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
+ see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
--thin::
--no-thin::
- These options are passed to 'git-send-pack'. Thin
- transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
- objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
+ These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
+ significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
+ receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
+ \--thin.
-v::
--verbose::
Run verbosely.
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs,
+ unless an error occurs.
+
include::urls-remotes.txt[]
OUTPUT
@@ -160,21 +177,26 @@ If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
<flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
-------------------------------
+The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
+option is used.
+
flag::
- A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
- blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
- rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
- date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
- date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
+ A single character indicating the status of the ref:
+(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
+`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
+`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
+`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
+`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
+`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
summary::
For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
`git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
- `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast forward updates). For a
+ `<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates). For a
failed update, more details are given for the failure.
The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
- ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The
+ ref at all (typically because it is not a fast-forward). The
string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
@@ -342,9 +364,9 @@ git push origin :experimental::
git push origin {plus}dev:master::
Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
- allowing non-fast forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
+ allowing non-fast-forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
- following situation, where a fast forward is not possible:
+ following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
+
----
o---o---o---A---B origin/master
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index 4a932b0..567671c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
'git read-tree' [[-m [--trivial] [--aggressive] | --reset | --prefix=<prefix>]
[-u [--exclude-per-directory=<gitignore>] | -i]]
- [--index-output=<file>]
+ [--index-output=<file>] [--no-sparse-checkout]
<tree-ish1> [<tree-ish2> [<tree-ish3>]]
@@ -25,8 +25,8 @@ fast-forward (i.e. 2-way) merge, or a 3-way merge, with the `-m`
flag. When used with `-m`, the `-u` flag causes it to also update
the files in the work tree with the result of the merge.
-Trivial merges are done by 'git-read-tree' itself. Only conflicting paths
-will be in unmerged state when 'git-read-tree' returns.
+Trivial merges are done by 'git read-tree' itself. Only conflicting paths
+will be in unmerged state when 'git read-tree' returns.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -57,13 +57,13 @@ OPTIONS
Show the progress of checking files out.
--trivial::
- Restrict three-way merge by 'git-read-tree' to happen
+ Restrict three-way merge by 'git read-tree' to happen
only if there is no file-level merging required, instead
of resolving merge for trivial cases and leaving
conflicting files unresolved in the index.
--aggressive::
- Usually a three-way merge by 'git-read-tree' resolves
+ Usually a three-way merge by 'git read-tree' resolves
the merge for really trivial cases and leaves other
cases unresolved in the index, so that Porcelains can
implement different merge policies. This flag makes the
@@ -110,13 +110,17 @@ OPTIONS
directories the index file and index output file are
located in.
+--no-sparse-checkout::
+ Disable sparse checkout support even if `core.sparseCheckout`
+ is true.
+
<tree-ish#>::
The id of the tree object(s) to be read/merged.
Merging
-------
-If `-m` is specified, 'git-read-tree' can perform 3 kinds of
+If `-m` is specified, 'git read-tree' can perform 3 kinds of
merge, a single tree merge if only 1 tree is given, a
fast-forward merge with 2 trees, or a 3-way merge if 3 trees are
provided.
@@ -124,18 +128,18 @@ provided.
Single Tree Merge
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-If only 1 tree is specified, 'git-read-tree' operates as if the user did not
+If only 1 tree is specified, 'git read-tree' operates as if the user did not
specify `-m`, except that if the original index has an entry for a
given pathname, and the contents of the path matches with the tree
being read, the stat info from the index is used. (In other words, the
index's stat()s take precedence over the merged tree's).
That means that if you do a `git read-tree -m <newtree>` followed by a
-`git checkout-index -f -u -a`, the 'git-checkout-index' only checks out
+`git checkout-index -f -u -a`, the 'git checkout-index' only checks out
the stuff that really changed.
-This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when 'git-diff-files' is
-run after 'git-read-tree'.
+This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when 'git diff-files' is
+run after 'git read-tree'.
Two Tree Merge
@@ -144,9 +148,9 @@ Two Tree Merge
Typically, this is invoked as `git read-tree -m $H $M`, where $H
is the head commit of the current repository, and $M is the head
of a foreign tree, which is simply ahead of $H (i.e. we are in a
-fast forward situation).
+fast-forward situation).
-When two trees are specified, the user is telling 'git-read-tree'
+When two trees are specified, the user is telling 'git read-tree'
the following:
1. The current index and work tree is derived from $H, but
@@ -199,10 +203,10 @@ Here are the "carry forward" rules:
In all "keep index" cases, the index entry stays as in the
original index file. If the entry were not up to date,
-'git-read-tree' keeps the copy in the work tree intact when
+'git read-tree' keeps the copy in the work tree intact when
operating under the -u flag.
-When this form of 'git-read-tree' returns successfully, you can
+When this form of 'git read-tree' returns successfully, you can
see what "local changes" you made are carried forward by running
`git diff-index --cached $M`. Note that this does not
necessarily match `git diff-index --cached $H` would have
@@ -225,7 +229,7 @@ of the path is kept as long as $H and $M are the same.
Each "index" entry has two bits worth of "stage" state. stage 0 is the
normal one, and is the only one you'd see in any kind of normal use.
-However, when you do 'git-read-tree' with three trees, the "stage"
+However, when you do 'git read-tree' with three trees, the "stage"
starts out at 1.
This means that you can do
@@ -241,7 +245,7 @@ branch into the current branch, we use the common ancestor tree
as <tree1>, the current branch head as <tree2>, and the other
branch head as <tree3>.
-Furthermore, 'git-read-tree' has special-case logic that says: if you see
+Furthermore, 'git read-tree' has special-case logic that says: if you see
a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
"collapses" back to "stage0":
@@ -257,7 +261,7 @@ a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
- stage 1 and stage 3 are the same and stage 2 is different take
stage 2 (we did something while they did nothing)
-The 'git-write-tree' command refuses to write a nonsensical tree, and it
+The 'git write-tree' command refuses to write a nonsensical tree, and it
will complain about unmerged entries if it sees a single entry that is not
stage 0.
@@ -273,7 +277,7 @@ start a 3-way merge with an index file that is already
populated. Here is an outline of how the algorithm works:
- if a file exists in identical format in all three trees, it will
- automatically collapse to "merged" state by 'git-read-tree'.
+ automatically collapse to "merged" state by 'git read-tree'.
- a file that has _any_ difference what-so-ever in the three trees
will stay as separate entries in the index. It's up to "porcelain
@@ -297,8 +301,8 @@ populated. Here is an outline of how the algorithm works:
matching "stage1" entry if it exists too. .. all the normal
trivial rules ..
-You would normally use 'git-merge-index' with supplied
-'git-merge-one-file' to do this last step. The script updates
+You would normally use 'git merge-index' with supplied
+'git merge-one-file' to do this last step. The script updates
the files in the working tree as it merges each path and at the
end of a successful merge.
@@ -320,7 +324,7 @@ $ JC=`git rev-parse --verify "HEAD^0"`
$ git checkout-index -f -u -a $JC
----------------
-You do random edits, without running 'git-update-index'. And then
+You do random edits, without running 'git update-index'. And then
you notice that the tip of your "upstream" tree has advanced
since you pulled from him:
@@ -346,20 +350,66 @@ your work-in-progress changes, and your work tree would be
updated to the result of the merge.
However, if you have local changes in the working tree that
-would be overwritten by this merge, 'git-read-tree' will refuse
+would be overwritten by this merge, 'git read-tree' will refuse
to run to prevent your changes from being lost.
In other words, there is no need to worry about what exists only
in the working tree. When you have local changes in a part of
the project that is not involved in the merge, your changes do
not interfere with the merge, and are kept intact. When they
-*do* interfere, the merge does not even start ('git-read-tree'
+*do* interfere, the merge does not even start ('git read-tree'
complains loudly and fails without modifying anything). In such
a case, you can simply continue doing what you were in the
middle of doing, and when your working tree is ready (i.e. you
have finished your work-in-progress), attempt the merge again.
+Sparse checkout
+---------------
+
+"Sparse checkout" allows to sparsely populate working directory.
+It uses skip-worktree bit (see linkgit:git-update-index[1]) to tell
+Git whether a file on working directory is worth looking at.
+
+"git read-tree" and other merge-based commands ("git merge", "git
+checkout"...) can help maintaining skip-worktree bitmap and working
+directory update. `$GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout` is used to
+define the skip-worktree reference bitmap. When "git read-tree" needs
+to update working directory, it will reset skip-worktree bit in index
+based on this file, which uses the same syntax as .gitignore files.
+If an entry matches a pattern in this file, skip-worktree will be
+set on that entry. Otherwise, skip-worktree will be unset.
+
+Then it compares the new skip-worktree value with the previous one. If
+skip-worktree turns from unset to set, it will add the corresponding
+file back. If it turns from set to unset, that file will be removed.
+
+While `$GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout` is usually used to specify what
+files are in. You can also specify what files are _not_ in, using
+negate patterns. For example, to remove file "unwanted":
+
+----------------
+*
+!unwanted
+----------------
+
+Another tricky thing is fully repopulating working directory when you
+no longer want sparse checkout. You cannot just disable "sparse
+checkout" because skip-worktree are still in the index and you working
+directory is still sparsely populated. You should re-populate working
+directory with the `$GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout` file content as
+follows:
+
+----------------
+*
+----------------
+
+Then you can disable sparse checkout. Sparse checkout support in "git
+read-tree" and similar commands is disabled by default. You need to
+turn `core.sparseCheckout` on in order to have sparse checkout
+support.
+
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-write-tree[1]; linkgit:git-ls-files[1];
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 0aefc34..823f2a4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-If <branch> is specified, 'git-rebase' will perform an automatic
+If <branch> is specified, 'git rebase' will perform an automatic
`git checkout <branch>` before doing anything else. Otherwise
it remains on the current branch.
@@ -170,8 +170,8 @@ This is useful if F and G were flawed in some way, or should not be
part of topicA. Note that the argument to --onto and the <upstream>
parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
-In case of conflict, 'git-rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
-and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git-diff' to locate
+In case of conflict, 'git rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
+and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git diff' to locate
the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
file you edit, you need to tell git that the conflict has been resolved,
typically this would be done with
@@ -187,7 +187,7 @@ desired resolution, you can continue the rebasing process with
git rebase --continue
-Alternatively, you can undo the 'git-rebase' with
+Alternatively, you can undo the 'git rebase' with
git rebase --abort
@@ -228,13 +228,23 @@ OPTIONS
Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the
upstream side.
++
+Note that a rebase merge works by replaying each commit from the working
+branch on top of the <upstream> branch. Because of this, when a merge
+conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
+series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch. In
+other words, the sides are swapped.
-s <strategy>::
--strategy=<strategy>::
Use the given merge strategy.
- If there is no `-s` option, a built-in list of strategies
- is used instead ('git-merge-recursive' when merging a single
- head, 'git-merge-octopus' otherwise). This implies --merge.
+ If there is no `-s` option 'git merge-recursive' is used
+ instead. This implies --merge.
++
+Because 'git rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
+on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
+the 'ours' strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>,
+which makes little sense.
-q::
--quiet::
@@ -270,13 +280,13 @@ OPTIONS
--ignore-whitespace::
--whitespace=<option>::
- These flag are passed to the 'git-apply' program
+ These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
(see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
Incompatible with the --interactive option.
--committer-date-is-author-date::
--ignore-date::
- These flags are passed to 'git-am' to easily change the dates
+ These flags are passed to 'git am' to easily change the dates
of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
-i::
@@ -298,12 +308,22 @@ OPTIONS
root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
instead.
+--autosquash::
+ When the commit log message begins with "squash! ..." (or
+ "fixup! ..."), and there is a commit whose title begins with
+ the same ..., automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i
+ so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
+ commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved
+ commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`).
++
+This option is only valid when '--interactive' option is used.
+
include::merge-strategies.txt[]
NOTES
-----
-You should understand the implications of using 'git-rebase' on a
+You should understand the implications of using 'git rebase' on a
repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
below.
@@ -359,27 +379,33 @@ pick fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit
...
-------------------------------------------
-The oneline descriptions are purely for your pleasure; 'git-rebase' will
+The oneline descriptions are purely for your pleasure; 'git rebase' will
not look at them but at the commit names ("deadbee" and "fa1afe1" in this
example), so do not delete or edit the names.
By replacing the command "pick" with the command "edit", you can tell
-'git-rebase' to stop after applying that commit, so that you can edit
+'git rebase' to stop after applying that commit, so that you can edit
the files and/or the commit message, amend the commit, and continue
rebasing.
+If you just want to edit the commit message for a commit, replace the
+command "pick" with the command "reword".
+
If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
-"pick" with "squash" for the second and subsequent commit. If the
-commits had different authors, it will attribute the squashed commit to
-the author of the first commit.
+"pick" for the second and subsequent commits with "squash" or "fixup".
+If the commits had different authors, the folded commit will be
+attributed to the author of the first commit. The suggested commit
+message for the folded commit is the concatenation of the commit
+messages of the first commit and of those with the "squash" command,
+but omits the commit messages of commits with the "fixup" command.
-In both cases, or when a "pick" does not succeed (because of merge
-errors), the loop will stop to let you fix things, and you can continue
-the loop with `git rebase --continue`.
+'git rebase' will stop when "pick" has been replaced with "edit" or
+when a command fails due to merge errors. When you are done editing
+and/or resolving conflicts you can continue with `git rebase --continue`.
For example, if you want to reorder the last 5 commits, such that what
was HEAD~4 becomes the new HEAD. To achieve that, you would call
-'git-rebase' like this:
+'git rebase' like this:
----------------------
$ git rebase -i HEAD~5
@@ -409,7 +435,7 @@ SPLITTING COMMITS
-----------------
In interactive mode, you can mark commits with the action "edit". However,
-this does not necessarily mean that 'git-rebase' expects the result of this
+this does not necessarily mean that 'git rebase' expects the result of this
edit to be exactly one commit. Indeed, you can undo the commit, or you can
add other commits. This can be used to split a commit into two:
@@ -425,7 +451,7 @@ add other commits. This can be used to split a commit into two:
- Now add the changes to the index that you want to have in the first
commit. You can use `git add` (possibly interactively) or
- 'git-gui' (or both) to do that.
+ 'git gui' (or both) to do that.
- Commit the now-current index with whatever commit message is appropriate
now.
@@ -436,7 +462,7 @@ add other commits. This can be used to split a commit into two:
If you are not absolutely sure that the intermediate revisions are
consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use
-'git-stash' to stash away the not-yet-committed changes
+'git stash' to stash away the not-yet-committed changes
after each commit, test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.
@@ -499,8 +525,8 @@ Easy case: The changes are literally the same.::
Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
- `\--interactive` to omit, edit, or squash commits; or if the
- upstream used one of `commit \--amend`, `reset`, or
+ `\--interactive` to omit, edit, squash, or fixup commits; or
+ if the upstream used one of `commit \--amend`, `reset`, or
`filter-branch`.
@@ -511,7 +537,7 @@ Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
'subsystem' are literally the same before and after the rebase
'subsystem' did.
-In that case, the fix is easy because 'git-rebase' knows to skip
+In that case, the fix is easy because 'git rebase' knows to skip
changes that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say
(assuming you're on 'topic')
------------
@@ -538,12 +564,12 @@ NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
example, a commit that was removed via `git rebase
\--interactive` will be **resurrected**!
-The idea is to manually tell 'git-rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
+The idea is to manually tell 'git rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
of the old 'subsystem', for example:
-* With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git-fetch', the old tip of
+* With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git fetch', the old tip of
'subsystem' is at `subsystem@\{1}`. Subsequent fetches will
increase the number. (See linkgit:git-reflog[1].)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 514f03c..2790eeb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -8,19 +8,19 @@ git-receive-pack - Receive what is pushed into the repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git receive-pack' <directory>
+'git-receive-pack' <directory>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Invoked by 'git-send-pack' and updates the repository with the
+Invoked by 'git send-pack' and updates the repository with the
information fed from the remote end.
This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user.
-The UI for the protocol is on the 'git-send-pack' side, and the
+The UI for the protocol is on the 'git send-pack' side, and the
program pair is meant to be used to push updates to remote
repository. For pull operations, see linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1].
-The command allows for creation and fast forwarding of sha1 refs
+The command allows for creation and fast-forwarding of sha1 refs
(heads/tags) on the remote end (strictly speaking, it is the
local end 'git-receive-pack' runs, but to the user who is sitting at
the send-pack end, it is updating the remote. Confused?)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 7f7a544..802bd57 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ OPTIONS
refs.
+
This computation involves traversing all the reachable objects, i.e. it
-has the same cost as 'git-prune'. Fortunately, once this is run, we
+has the same cost as 'git prune'. Fortunately, once this is run, we
should not have to ever worry about missing objects, because the current
prune and pack-objects know about reflogs and protect objects referred by
them.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
index 173ee23..1b5f61a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,10 @@ Commands are given by the caller on the helper's standard input, one per line.
'capabilities'::
Lists the capabilities of the helper, one per line, ending
- with a blank line.
+ with a blank line. Each capability may be preceded with '*'.
+ This marks them mandatory for git version using the remote
+ helper to understand (unknown mandatory capability is fatal
+ error).
'list'::
Lists the refs, one per line, in the format "<value> <name>
@@ -34,15 +37,76 @@ Commands are given by the caller on the helper's standard input, one per line.
value of the ref. A space-separated list of attributes follows
the name; unrecognized attributes are ignored. After the
complete list, outputs a blank line.
++
+If 'push' is supported this may be called as 'list for-push'
+to obtain the current refs prior to sending one or more 'push'
+commands to the helper.
+
+'option' <name> <value>::
+ Set the transport helper option <name> to <value>. Outputs a
+ single line containing one of 'ok' (option successfully set),
+ 'unsupported' (option not recognized) or 'error <msg>'
+ (option <name> is supported but <value> is not correct
+ for it). Options should be set before other commands,
+ and may how those commands behave.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.
'fetch' <sha1> <name>::
- Fetches the given object, writing the necessary objects to the
- database. Outputs a blank line when the fetch is
- complete. Only objects which were reported in the ref list
- with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
+ Fetches the given object, writing the necessary objects
+ to the database. Fetch commands are sent in a batch, one
+ per line, and the batch is terminated with a blank line.
+ Outputs a single blank line when all fetch commands in the
+ same batch are complete. Only objects which were reported
+ in the ref list with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
++
+Optionally may output a 'lock <file>' line indicating a file under
+GIT_DIR/objects/pack which is keeping a pack until refs can be
+suitably updated.
+
Supported if the helper has the "fetch" capability.
+'push' +<src>:<dst>::
+ Pushes the given <src> commit or branch locally to the
+ remote branch described by <dst>. A batch sequence of
+ one or more push commands is terminated with a blank line.
++
+Zero or more protocol options may be entered after the last 'push'
+command, before the batch's terminating blank line.
++
+When the push is complete, outputs one or more 'ok <dst>' or
+'error <dst> <why>?' lines to indicate success or failure of
+each pushed ref. The status report output is terminated by
+a blank line. The option field <why> may be quoted in a C
+style string if it contains an LF.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "push" capability.
+
+'import' <name>::
+ Produces a fast-import stream which imports the current value
+ of the named ref. It may additionally import other refs as
+ needed to construct the history efficiently. The script writes
+ to a helper-specific private namespace. The value of the named
+ ref should be written to a location in this namespace derived
+ by applying the refspecs from the "refspec" capability to the
+ name of the ref.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "import" capability.
+
+'connect' <service>::
+ Connects to given service. Standard input and standard output
+ of helper are connected to specified service (git prefix is
+ included in service name so e.g. fetching uses 'git-upload-pack'
+ as service) on remote side. Valid replies to this command are
+ empty line (connection established), 'fallback' (no smart
+ transport support, fall back to dumb transports) and just
+ exiting with error message printed (can't connect, don't
+ bother trying to fall back). After line feed terminating the
+ positive (empty) response, the output of service starts. After
+ the connection ends, the remote helper exits.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "connect" capability.
+
If a fatal error occurs, the program writes the error message to
stderr and exits. The caller should expect that a suitable error
message has been printed if the child closes the connection without
@@ -57,14 +121,79 @@ CAPABILITIES
'fetch'::
This helper supports the 'fetch' command.
+'option'::
+ This helper supports the option command.
+
+'push'::
+ This helper supports the 'push' command.
+
+'import'::
+ This helper supports the 'import' command.
+
+'refspec' 'spec'::
+ When using the import command, expect the source ref to have
+ been written to the destination ref. The earliest applicable
+ refspec takes precedence. For example
+ "refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/*" means that, after an
+ "import refs/heads/name", the script has written to
+ refs/svn/origin/branches/name. If this capability is used at
+ all, it must cover all refs reported by the list command; if
+ it is not used, it is effectively "*:*"
+
+'connect'::
+ This helper supports the 'connect' command.
+
REF LIST ATTRIBUTES
-------------------
-None are defined yet, but the caller must accept any which are supplied.
+'for-push'::
+ The caller wants to use the ref list to prepare push
+ commands. A helper might chose to acquire the ref list by
+ opening a different type of connection to the destination.
+
+'unchanged'::
+ This ref is unchanged since the last import or fetch, although
+ the helper cannot necessarily determine what value that produced.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+'option verbosity' <N>::
+ Change the level of messages displayed by the helper.
+ When N is 0 the end-user has asked the process to be
+ quiet, and the helper should produce only error output.
+ N of 1 is the default level of verbosity, higher values
+ of N correspond to the number of -v flags passed on the
+ command line.
+
+'option progress' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Enable (or disable) progress messages displayed by the
+ transport helper during a command.
+
+'option depth' <depth>::
+ Deepen the history of a shallow repository.
+
+'option followtags' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ If enabled the helper should automatically fetch annotated
+ tag objects if the object the tag points at was transferred
+ during the fetch command. If the tag is not fetched by
+ the helper a second fetch command will usually be sent to
+ ask for the tag specifically. Some helpers may be able to
+ use this option to avoid a second network connection.
+
+'option dry-run' \{'true'|'false'\}:
+ If true, pretend the operation completed successfully,
+ but don't actually change any repository data. For most
+ helpers this only applies to the 'push', if supported.
+
+'option servpath <c-style-quoted-path>'::
+ Set service path (--upload-pack, --receive-pack etc.) for
+ next connect. Remote helper MAY support this option. Remote
+ helper MUST NOT rely on this option being set before
+ connect request occurs.
Documentation
-------------
-Documentation by Daniel Barkalow.
+Documentation by Daniel Barkalow and Ilari Liusvaara
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 82a3d29..3fc599c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -13,10 +13,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--mirror] <name> <url>
'git remote rename' <old> <new>
'git remote rm' <name>
-'git remote set-head' <name> [-a | -d | <branch>]
-'git remote show' [-n] <name>
+'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | -d | <branch>)
+'git remote set-url' [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]
+'git remote set-url --add' [--push] <name> <newurl>
+'git remote set-url --delete' [--push] <name> <url>
+'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'show' [-n] <name>
'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>
-'git remote update' [-p | --prune] [group | remote]...
+'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'update' [-p | --prune] [group | remote]...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -30,6 +33,7 @@ OPTIONS
-v::
--verbose::
Be a little more verbose and show remote url after name.
+ NOTE: This must be placed between `remote` and `subcommand`.
COMMANDS
@@ -100,6 +104,20 @@ remote set-head origin master" will set `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD` to
`refs/remotes/origin/master` already exists; if not it must be fetched first.
+
+'set-url'::
+
+Changes URL remote points to. Sets first URL remote points to matching
+regex <oldurl> (first URL if no <oldurl> is given) to <newurl>. If
+<oldurl> doesn't match any URL, error occurs and nothing is changed.
++
+With '--push', push URLs are manipulated instead of fetch URLs.
++
+With '--add', instead of changing some URL, new URL is added.
++
+With '--delete', instead of changing some URL, all URLs matching
+regex <url> are deleted. Trying to delete all non-push URLs is an
+error.
+
'show'::
Gives some information about the remote <name>.
@@ -160,7 +178,7 @@ $ git checkout -b nfs linux-nfs/master
...
------------
-* Imitate 'git-clone' but track only selected branches
+* Imitate 'git clone' but track only selected branches
+
------------
$ mkdir project.git
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index c9257a1..8c67d17 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -49,16 +49,16 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
deleted by way of being left in the old pack and then
removed. Instead, the loose unreachable objects
will be pruned according to normal expiry rules
- with the next 'git-gc' invocation. See linkgit:git-gc[1].
+ with the next 'git gc' invocation. See linkgit:git-gc[1].
-d::
After packing, if the newly created packs make some
existing packs redundant, remove the redundant packs.
- Also run 'git-prune-packed' to remove redundant
+ Also run 'git prune-packed' to remove redundant
loose object files.
-l::
- Pass the `--local` option to 'git-pack-objects'. See
+ Pass the `--local` option to 'git pack-objects'. See
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
-f::
@@ -66,12 +66,12 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
-q::
- Pass the `-q` option to 'git-pack-objects'. See
+ Pass the `-q` option to 'git pack-objects'. See
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
-n::
Do not update the server information with
- 'git-update-server-info'. This option skips
+ 'git update-server-info'. This option skips
updating local catalog files needed to publish
this repository (or a direct copy of it)
over HTTP or FTP. See linkgit:git-update-server-info[1].
@@ -98,24 +98,26 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
`--window-memory=0` makes memory usage unlimited, which is the
default.
---max-pack-size=<n>::
- Maximum size of each output packfile, expressed in MiB.
+--max-pack-size=[N]::
+ Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed with
+ "k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB.
If specified, multiple packfiles may be created.
- The default is unlimited.
+ The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
+ `pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
Configuration
-------------
-When configuration variable `repack.UseDeltaBaseOffset` is set
-for the repository, the command passes `--delta-base-offset`
-option to 'git-pack-objects'; this typically results in slightly
-smaller packs, but the generated packs are incompatible with
-versions of git older than (and including) v1.4.3; do not set
-the variable in a repository that older version of git needs to
-be able to read (this includes repositories from which packs can
-be copied out over http or rsync, and people who obtained packs
-that way can try to use older git with it).
+By default, the command passes `--delta-base-offset` option to
+'git pack-objects'; this typically results in slightly smaller packs,
+but the generated packs are incompatible with versions of Git older than
+version 1.4.4. If you need to share your repository with such ancient Git
+versions, either directly or via the dumb http or rsync protocol, then you
+need to set the configuration variable `repack.UseDeltaBaseOffset` to
+"false" and repack. Access from old Git versions over the native protocol
+is unaffected by this option as the conversion is performed on the fly
+as needed in that case.
Author
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 915cb77..fde2092 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -17,12 +17,36 @@ DESCRIPTION
Adds a 'replace' reference in `.git/refs/replace/`
The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the object that is
-replaced. The content of the replace reference is the SHA1 of the
+replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the
replacement object.
-Unless `-f` is given, the replace reference must not yet exist in
+Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist in
`.git/refs/replace/` directory.
+Replacement references will be used by default by all git commands
+except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
+fsck).
+
+It is possible to disable use of replacement references for any
+command using the `--no-replace-objects` option just after 'git'.
+
+For example if commit 'foo' has been replaced by commit 'bar':
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git --no-replace-objects cat-file commit foo
+------------------------------------------------
+
+shows information about commit 'foo', while:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git cat-file commit foo
+------------------------------------------------
+
+shows information about commit 'bar'.
+
+The 'GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS' environment variable can be set to
+achieve the same effect as the `--no-replace-objects` option.
+
OPTIONS
-------
-f::
@@ -41,7 +65,7 @@ OPTIONS
BUGS
----
Comparing blobs or trees that have been replaced with those that
-replace them will not work properly. And using 'git reset --hard' to
+replace them will not work properly. And using `git reset --hard` to
go back to a replaced commit will move the branch to the replacement
commit instead of the replaced commit.
@@ -54,6 +78,7 @@ SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-tag[1]
linkgit:git-branch[1]
+linkgit:git[1]
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rerere.txt b/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
index 7dd515b..acc220a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
@@ -30,14 +30,14 @@ enable this command.
COMMANDS
--------
-Normally, 'git-rerere' is run without arguments or user-intervention.
+Normally, 'git rerere' is run without arguments or user-intervention.
However, it has several commands that allow it to interact with
its working state.
'clear'::
This resets the metadata used by rerere if a merge resolution is to be
-aborted. Calling 'git-am [--skip|--abort]' or 'git-rebase [--skip|--abort]'
+aborted. Calling 'git am [--skip|--abort]' or 'git rebase [--skip|--abort]'
will automatically invoke this command.
'diff'::
@@ -142,32 +142,32 @@ finally ready and merged into the master branch. This merge
would require you to resolve the conflict, introduced by the
commits marked with `*`. However, this conflict is often the
same conflict you resolved when you created the test merge you
-blew away. 'git-rerere' helps you resolve this final
+blew away. 'git rerere' helps you resolve this final
conflicted merge using the information from your earlier hand
resolve.
-Running the 'git-rerere' command immediately after a conflicted
+Running the 'git rerere' command immediately after a conflicted
automerge records the conflicted working tree files, with the
usual conflict markers `<<<<<<<`, `=======`, and `>>>>>>>` in
them. Later, after you are done resolving the conflicts,
-running 'git-rerere' again will record the resolved state of these
+running 'git rerere' again will record the resolved state of these
files. Suppose you did this when you created the test merge of
master into the topic branch.
Next time, after seeing the same conflicted automerge,
-running 'git-rerere' will perform a three-way merge between the
+running 'git rerere' will perform a three-way merge between the
earlier conflicted automerge, the earlier manual resolution, and
the current conflicted automerge.
If this three-way merge resolves cleanly, the result is written
out to your working tree file, so you do not have to manually
-resolve it. Note that 'git-rerere' leaves the index file alone,
+resolve it. Note that 'git rerere' leaves the index file alone,
so you still need to do the final sanity checks with `git diff`
-(or `git diff -c`) and 'git-add' when you are satisfied.
+(or `git diff -c`) and 'git add' when you are satisfied.
-As a convenience measure, 'git-merge' automatically invokes
-'git-rerere' upon exiting with a failed automerge and 'git-rerere'
+As a convenience measure, 'git merge' automatically invokes
+'git rerere' upon exiting with a failed automerge and 'git rerere'
records the hand resolve when it is a new conflict, or reuses the earlier hand
-resolve when it is not. 'git-commit' also invokes 'git-rerere'
+resolve when it is not. 'git commit' also invokes 'git rerere'
when committing a merge result. What this means is that you do
not have to do anything special yourself (besides enabling
the rerere.enabled config variable).
@@ -177,8 +177,8 @@ resolution is recorded, and it will be reused when you do the
actual merge later with the updated master and topic branch, as long
as the recorded resolution is still applicable.
-The information 'git-rerere' records is also used when running
-'git-rebase'. After blowing away the test merge and continuing
+The information 'git rerere' records is also used when running
+'git rebase'. After blowing away the test merge and continuing
development on the topic branch:
------------
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ you could run `git rebase master topic`, to bring yourself
up-to-date before your topic is ready to be sent upstream.
This would result in falling back to a three-way merge, and it
would conflict the same way as the test merge you resolved earlier.
-'git-rerere' will be run by 'git-rebase' to help you resolve this
+'git rerere' will be run by 'git rebase' to help you resolve this
conflict.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 469cf6d..168db08 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ OPTIONS
--soft::
Does not touch the index file nor the working tree at all, but
requires them to be in a good order. This leaves all your changed
- files "Changes to be committed", as 'git-status' would
+ files "Changes to be committed", as 'git status' would
put it.
--hard::
@@ -62,11 +62,101 @@ This means that `git reset -p` is the opposite of `git add -p` (see
linkgit:git-add[1]).
-q::
+--quiet::
Be quiet, only report errors.
<commit>::
Commit to make the current HEAD. If not given defaults to HEAD.
+DISCUSSION
+----------
+
+The tables below show what happens when running:
+
+----------
+git reset --option target
+----------
+
+to reset the HEAD to another commit (`target`) with the different
+reset options depending on the state of the files.
+
+In these tables, A, B, C and D are some different states of a
+file. For example, the first line of the first table means that if a
+file is in state A in the working tree, in state B in the index, in
+state C in HEAD and in state D in the target, then "git reset --soft
+target" will put the file in state A in the working tree, in state B
+in the index and in state D in HEAD.
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ A B C D --soft A B D
+ --mixed A D D
+ --hard D D D
+ --merge (disallowed)
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ A B C C --soft A B C
+ --mixed A C C
+ --hard C C C
+ --merge (disallowed)
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ B B C D --soft B B D
+ --mixed B D D
+ --hard D D D
+ --merge D D D
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ B B C C --soft B B C
+ --mixed B C C
+ --hard C C C
+ --merge C C C
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ B C C D --soft B C D
+ --mixed B D D
+ --hard D D D
+ --merge (disallowed)
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ B C C C --soft B C C
+ --mixed B C C
+ --hard C C C
+ --merge B C C
+
+"reset --merge" is meant to be used when resetting out of a conflicted
+merge. Any mergy operation guarantees that the work tree file that is
+involved in the merge does not have local change wrt the index before
+it starts, and that it writes the result out to the work tree. So if
+we see some difference between the index and the target and also
+between the index and the work tree, then it means that we are not
+resetting out from a state that a mergy operation left after failing
+with a conflict. That is why we disallow --merge option in this case.
+
+The following tables show what happens when there are unmerged
+entries:
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ X U A B --soft (disallowed)
+ --mixed X B B
+ --hard B B B
+ --merge B B B
+
+ working index HEAD target working index HEAD
+ ----------------------------------------------------
+ X U A A --soft (disallowed)
+ --mixed X A A
+ --hard A A A
+ --merge A A A
+
+X means any state and U means an unmerged index.
+
Examples
--------
@@ -150,7 +240,7 @@ Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
$ git reset --hard <2>
$ git pull . topic/branch <3>
Updating from 41223... to 13134...
-Fast forward
+Fast-forward
$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <4>
------------
+
@@ -161,7 +251,7 @@ right now, so you decide to do that later.
which is a synonym for "git reset --hard HEAD" clears the mess
from the index file and the working tree.
<3> Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted
-in a fast forward.
+in a fast-forward.
<4> But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
consumption yet. "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original
tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 3341d1b..173f3fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git-rev-list' [ \--max-count=number ]
+'git rev-list' [ \--max-count=number ]
[ \--skip=number ]
[ \--max-age=timestamp ]
[ \--min-age=timestamp ]
@@ -21,9 +21,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--full-history ]
[ \--not ]
[ \--all ]
- [ \--branches ]
- [ \--tags ]
- [ \--remotes ]
+ [ \--branches[=pattern] ]
+ [ \--tags[=pattern] ]
+ [ \--remotes[=pattern] ]
+ [ \--glob=glob-pattern ]
[ \--stdin ]
[ \--quiet ]
[ \--topo-order ]
@@ -93,8 +94,8 @@ between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
'rev-list' is a very essential git command, since it
provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
-used by commands as different as 'git-bisect' and
-'git-repack'.
+used by commands as different as 'git bisect' and
+'git repack'.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 82045a2..8db600f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -15,16 +15,16 @@ DESCRIPTION
Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
-meant for the underlying 'git-rev-list' command they use internally
+meant for the underlying 'git rev-list' command they use internally
and flags and parameters for the other commands they use
-downstream of 'git-rev-list'. This command is used to
+downstream of 'git rev-list'. This command is used to
distinguish between them.
OPTIONS
-------
--parseopt::
- Use 'git-rev-parse' in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).
+ Use 'git rev-parse' in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section below).
--keep-dashdash::
Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Tells the option parser to echo
@@ -33,20 +33,20 @@ OPTIONS
--stop-at-non-option::
Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Lets the option parser stop at
the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands
- that take options themself.
+ that take options themselves.
--sq-quote::
- Use 'git-rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
+ Use 'git rev-parse' in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE
section below). In contrast to the `--sq` option below, this
mode does only quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.
--revs-only::
Do not output flags and parameters not meant for
- 'git-rev-list' command.
+ 'git rev-list' command.
--no-revs::
Do not output flags and parameters meant for
- 'git-rev-list' command.
+ 'git rev-list' command.
--flags::
Do not output non-flag parameters.
@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ OPTIONS
properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when
you expect your parameter to contain whitespaces and
newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe `-S` with
- 'git-diff-\*'). In contrast to the `--sq-quote` option,
+ 'git diff-\*'). In contrast to the `--sq-quote` option,
the command input is still interpreted as usual.
--not::
@@ -101,16 +101,28 @@ OPTIONS
abbreviation mode.
--all::
- Show all refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs`.
-
---branches::
- Show branch refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads`.
+ Show all refs found in `refs/`.
+
+--branches[=pattern]::
+--tags[=pattern]::
+--remotes[=pattern]::
+ Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches,
+ respectively (i.e., refs found in `refs/heads`,
+ `refs/tags`, or `refs/remotes`, respectively).
++
+If a `pattern` is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are
+shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
+`\*`, or `[`), it is turned into a prefix match by appending `/\*`.
---tags::
- Show tag refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags`.
+--glob=pattern::
+ Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern `pattern`. If
+ the pattern does not start with `refs/`, this is automatically
+ prepended. If the pattern does not contain a globbing
+ character (`?`, `\*`, or `[`), it is turned into a prefix
+ match by appending `/\*`.
---remotes::
- Show tag refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes`.
+--show-toplevel::
+ Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
--show-prefix::
When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the
@@ -136,6 +148,12 @@ OPTIONS
--is-bare-repository::
When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
+--local-env-vars::
+ List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
+ repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
+ Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value,
+ even if they are set.
+
--short::
--short=number::
Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to
@@ -145,12 +163,12 @@ OPTIONS
--since=datestring::
--after=datestring::
Parse the date string, and output the corresponding
- --max-age= parameter for 'git-rev-list'.
+ --max-age= parameter for 'git rev-list'.
--until=datestring::
--before=datestring::
Parse the date string, and output the corresponding
- --min-age= parameter for 'git-rev-list'.
+ --min-age= parameter for 'git rev-list'.
<args>...::
Flags and parameters to be parsed.
@@ -171,12 +189,12 @@ blobs contained in a commit.
name the same commit object if there are no other object in
your repository whose object name starts with dae86e.
-* An output from 'git-describe'; i.e. a closest tag, optionally
+* An output from 'git describe'; i.e. a closest tag, optionally
followed by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a
`g`, and an abbreviated object name.
* A symbolic ref name. E.g. 'master' typically means the commit
- object referenced by $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/master. If you
+ object referenced by refs/heads/master. If you
happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can
explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell git which one you mean.
When ambiguous, a `<name>` is disambiguated by taking the
@@ -185,25 +203,28 @@ blobs contained in a commit.
. if `$GIT_DIR/<name>` exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
useful only for `HEAD`, `FETCH_HEAD`, `ORIG_HEAD` and `MERGE_HEAD`);
- . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/<name>` if exists;
+ . otherwise, `refs/<name>` if exists;
- . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<name>` if exists;
+ . otherwise, `refs/tags/<name>` if exists;
- . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<name>` if exists;
+ . otherwise, `refs/heads/<name>` if exists;
- . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/<name>` if exists;
+ . otherwise, `refs/remotes/<name>` if exists;
- . otherwise, `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` if exists.
+ . otherwise, `refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD` if exists.
+
HEAD names the commit your changes in the working tree is based on.
FETCH_HEAD records the branch you fetched from a remote repository
-with your last 'git-fetch' invocation.
+with your last 'git fetch' invocation.
ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that moves your HEAD in a drastic
way, to record the position of the HEAD before their operation, so that
you can change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
them easily.
MERGE_HEAD records the commit(s) you are merging into your branch
-when you run 'git-merge'.
+when you run 'git merge'.
++
+Note that any of the `refs/*` cases above may come either from
+the `$GIT_DIR/refs` directory or from the `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs` file.
* A ref followed by the suffix '@' with a date specification
enclosed in a brace
@@ -231,6 +252,10 @@ when you run 'git-merge'.
* The special construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
before the current one.
+* The suffix '@\{upstream\}' to a ref (short form 'ref@\{u\}') refers to
+ the branch the ref is set to build on top of. Missing ref defaults
+ to the current branch.
+
* A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
that commit object. '{caret}<n>' means the <n>th parent (i.e.
'rev{caret}'
@@ -308,7 +333,7 @@ G H I J
SPECIFYING RANGES
-----------------
-History traversing commands such as 'git-log' operate on a set
+History traversing commands such as 'git log' operate on a set
of commits, not just a single commit. To these commands,
specifying a single revision with the notation described in the
previous section means the set of commits reachable from that
@@ -349,7 +374,7 @@ Here are a handful of examples:
PARSEOPT
--------
-In `--parseopt` mode, 'git-rev-parse' helps massaging options to bring to shell
+In `--parseopt` mode, 'git rev-parse' helps massaging options to bring to shell
scripts the same facilities C builtins have. It works as an option normalizer
(e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit like `getopt(1)` does.
@@ -361,7 +386,7 @@ usage on the standard error stream, and exits with code 129.
Input Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-'git-rev-parse --parseopt' input format is fully text based. It has two parts,
+'git rev-parse --parseopt' input format is fully text based. It has two parts,
separated by a line that contains only `--`. The lines before the separator
(should be more than one) are used for the usage.
The lines after the separator describe the options.
@@ -420,13 +445,13 @@ eval `echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?`
SQ-QUOTE
--------
-In `--sq-quote` mode, 'git-rev-parse' echoes on the standard output a
+In `--sq-quote` mode, 'git rev-parse' echoes on the standard output a
single line suitable for `sh(1)` `eval`. This line is made by
normalizing the arguments following `--sq-quote`. Nothing other than
quoting the arguments is done.
If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by
-'git-rev-parse' before the output is shell quoted, see the `--sq`
+'git rev-parse' before the output is shell quoted, see the `--sq`
option.
Example
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 5e11758..c66bf80 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -20,8 +20,8 @@ effect of an earlier commit (often a faulty one). If you want to
throw away all uncommitted changes in your working directory, you
should see linkgit:git-reset[1], particularly the '--hard' option. If
you want to extract specific files as they were in another commit, you
-should see linkgit:git-checkout[1], specifically the 'git checkout
-<commit> -- <filename>' syntax. Take care with these alternatives as
+should see linkgit:git-checkout[1], specifically the `git checkout
+<commit> -- <filename>` syntax. Take care with these alternatives as
both will discard uncommitted changes in your working directory.
OPTIONS
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ OPTIONS
-e::
--edit::
- With this option, 'git-revert' will let you edit the commit
+ With this option, 'git revert' will let you edit the commit
message prior to committing the revert. This is the default if
you run the command from a terminal.
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
more details.
--no-edit::
- With this option, 'git-revert' will not start the commit
+ With this option, 'git revert' will not start the commit
message editor.
-n::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 5afb1e7..c21d19e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -12,13 +12,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Remove files from the index, or from the working tree and the index.
-'git-rm' will not remove a file from just your working directory.
-(There is no option to remove a file only from the work tree
+`git rm` will not remove a file from just your working directory.
+(There is no option to remove a file only from the working tree
and yet keep it in the index; use `/bin/rm` if you want to do that.)
The files being removed have to be identical to the tip of the branch,
and no updates to their contents can be staged in the index,
though that default behavior can be overridden with the `-f` option.
-When '--cached' is given, the staged content has to
+When `--cached` is given, the staged content has to
match either the tip of the branch or the file on disk,
allowing the file to be removed from just the index.
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
--quiet::
- 'git-rm' normally outputs one line (in the form of an "rm" command)
+ `git rm` normally outputs one line (in the form of an `rm` command)
for each file removed. This option suppresses that output.
@@ -81,6 +81,58 @@ two directories `d` and `d2`, there is a difference between
using `git rm \'d\*\'` and `git rm \'d/\*\'`, as the former will
also remove all of directory `d2`.
+REMOVING FILES THAT HAVE DISAPPEARED FROM THE FILESYSTEM
+--------------------------------------------------------
+There is no option for `git rm` to remove from the index only
+the paths that have disappeared from the filesystem. However,
+depending on the use case, there are several ways that can be
+done.
+
+Using "git commit -a"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+If you intend that your next commit should record all modifications
+of tracked files in the working tree and record all removals of
+files that have been removed from the working tree with `rm`
+(as opposed to `git rm`), use `git commit -a`, as it will
+automatically notice and record all removals. You can also have a
+similar effect without committing by using `git add -u`.
+
+Using "git add -A"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+When accepting a new code drop for a vendor branch, you probably
+want to record both the removal of paths and additions of new paths
+as well as modifications of existing paths.
+
+Typically you would first remove all tracked files from the working
+tree using this command:
+
+----------------
+git ls-files -z | xargs -0 rm -f
+----------------
+
+and then "untar" the new code in the working tree. Alternately
+you could "rsync" the changes into the working tree.
+
+After that, the easiest way to record all removals, additions, and
+modifications in the working tree is:
+
+----------------
+git add -A
+----------------
+
+See linkgit:git-add[1].
+
+Other ways
+~~~~~~~~~~
+If all you really want to do is to remove from the index the files
+that are no longer present in the working tree (perhaps because
+your working tree is dirty so that you cannot use `git commit -a`),
+use the following command:
+
+----------------
+git diff --name-only --diff-filter=D -z | xargs -0 git rm --cached
+----------------
+
EXAMPLES
--------
git rm Documentation/\\*.txt::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 767cf4d..ced35b2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -60,8 +60,8 @@ The --bcc option must be repeated for each user you want on the bcc list.
The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
--compose::
- Use $GIT_EDITOR, core.editor, $VISUAL, or $EDITOR to edit an
- introductory message for the patch series.
+ Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
+ to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
+
When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ See the CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiedit'.
--in-reply-to=<identifier>::
Specify the contents of the first In-Reply-To header.
Subsequent emails will refer to the previous email
- instead of this if --chain-reply-to is set (the default)
+ instead of this if --chain-reply-to is set.
Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
is not set, this will be prompted for.
@@ -108,9 +108,10 @@ Sending
--envelope-sender=<address>::
Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
- subscribed to a list. If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
- suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of
- the 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
+ subscribed to a list. In order to use the 'From' address, set the
+ value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
+ suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of the
+ 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
--smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
@@ -171,8 +172,8 @@ Automating
email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
- entire patch series. Default is the value of the 'sendemail.chainreplyto'
- configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --chain-reply-to.
+ entire patch series. Disabled by default, but the 'sendemail.chainreplyto'
+ configuration variable can be used to enable it.
--identity=<identity>::
A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index 3998218..deaa7d9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Usually you would want to use 'git-push', which is a
+Usually you would want to use 'git push', which is a
higher-level wrapper of this command, instead. See linkgit:git-push[1].
Invokes 'git-receive-pack' on a possibly remote repository, and
@@ -48,8 +48,8 @@ OPTIONS
Run verbosely.
--thin::
- Spend extra cycles to minimize the number of objects to be sent.
- Use it on slower connection.
+ Send a "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based
+ on objects not included in the pack to reduce network traffic.
<host>::
A remote host to house the repository. When this
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ and the destination side (after the colon). The ref to be
pushed is determined by finding a match that matches the source
side, and where it is pushed is determined by using the
destination side. The rules used to match a ref are the same
-rules used by 'git-rev-parse' to resolve a symbolic ref
+rules used by 'git rev-parse' to resolve a symbolic ref
name. See linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
- It is an error if <src> does not match exactly one of the
@@ -105,11 +105,11 @@ name. See linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
<dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
-ancestor) of <src>. This check, known as "fast forward check",
+ancestor) of <src>. This check, known as "fast-forward check",
is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
-With '--force', the fast forward check is disabled for all refs.
+With '--force', the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
index 18f14b5..3da2413 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ This is not a command the end user would want to run. Ever.
This documentation is meant for people who are studying the
Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
-The 'git-sh-setup' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
+The 'git sh-setup' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up some variables pointing at
the normal git directories and a few helper shell functions.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index 42463a9..dfd4d0c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -3,17 +3,17 @@ git-shortlog(1)
NAME
----
-git-shortlog - Summarize 'git-log' output
+git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [-h] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-w]
-git shortlog [-n|--numbered] [-s|--summary] [-e|--email] [-w[<width>[,<indent1>[,<indent2>]]]] [<committish>...]
+'git shortlog' [-n|--numbered] [-s|--summary] [-e|--email] [-w[<width>[,<indent1>[,<indent2>]]]] [<committish>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Summarizes 'git-log' output in a format suitable for inclusion
+Summarizes 'git log' output in a format suitable for inclusion
in release announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and
the first line of the commit message will be shown.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index 7343361..f1499bb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git show-branch' [-a|--all] [-r|--remotes] [--topo-order | --date-order]
- [--current] [--color | --no-color] [--sparse]
+ [--current] [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [--sparse]
[--more=<n> | --list | --independent | --merge-base]
[--no-name | --sha1-name] [--topics]
[<rev> | <glob>]...
@@ -20,8 +20,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Shows the commit ancestry graph starting from the commits named
-with <rev>s or <globs>s (or all refs under $GIT_DIR/refs/heads
-and/or $GIT_DIR/refs/tags) semi-visually.
+with <rev>s or <globs>s (or all refs under refs/heads
+and/or refs/tags) semi-visually.
It cannot show more than 29 branches and commits at a time.
@@ -37,8 +37,8 @@ OPTIONS
<glob>::
A glob pattern that matches branch or tag names under
- $GIT_DIR/refs. For example, if you have many topic
- branches under $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/topic, giving
+ refs/. For example, if you have many topic
+ branches under refs/heads/topic, giving
`topic/*` would show all of them.
-r::
@@ -117,13 +117,15 @@ OPTIONS
When no explicit <ref> parameter is given, it defaults to the
current branch (or `HEAD` if it is detached).
---color::
+--color[=<when>]::
Color the status sign (one of these: `*` `!` `+` `-`) of each commit
corresponding to the branch it's in.
+ The value must be always (the default), never, or auto.
--no-color::
Turn off colored output, even when the configuration file gives the
default to color output.
+ Same as `--color=never`.
Note that --more, --list, --independent and --merge-base options
are mutually exclusive.
@@ -176,7 +178,7 @@ EXAMPLE
-------
If you keep your primary branches immediately under
-`$GIT_DIR/refs/heads`, and topic branches in subdirectories of
+`refs/heads`, and topic branches in subdirectories of
it, having the following in the configuration file may help:
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index e3285aa..8382fbe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -14,10 +14,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with
-'git-pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
+'git pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
-'git-verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
+'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
offset and SHA1 of each object.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index f4429bd..df17d49 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-show-ref - List references in a local repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git show-ref' [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [-h|--head] [-d|--dereference]
+'git show-ref' [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [--head] [-d|--dereference]
[-s|--hash[=<n>]] [--abbrev[=<n>]] [--tags]
[--heads] [--] <pattern>...
'git show-ref' --exclude-existing[=<pattern>] < ref-list
@@ -30,7 +30,6 @@ the `.git` directory.
OPTIONS
-------
--h::
--head::
Show the HEAD reference.
@@ -73,7 +72,7 @@ OPTIONS
--exclude-existing[=<pattern>]::
- Make 'git-show-ref' act as a filter that reads refs from stdin of the
+ Make 'git show-ref' act as a filter that reads refs from stdin of the
form "^(?:<anything>\s)?<refname>(?:\^\{\})?$" and performs the
following actions on each:
(1) strip "^{}" at the end of line if any;
@@ -136,7 +135,7 @@ When using the '--verify' flag, the command requires an exact path:
will only match the exact branch called "master".
-If nothing matches, 'git-show-ref' will return an error code of 1,
+If nothing matches, 'git show-ref' will return an error code of 1,
and in the case of verification, it will show an error message.
For scripting, you can ask it to be quiet with the "--quiet" flag, which
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show.txt b/Documentation/git-show.txt
index 48b612e..55e687a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show.txt
@@ -16,16 +16,16 @@ Shows one or more objects (blobs, trees, tags and commits).
For commits it shows the log message and textual diff. It also
presents the merge commit in a special format as produced by
-'git-diff-tree --cc'.
+'git diff-tree --cc'.
For tags, it shows the tag message and the referenced objects.
-For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to 'git-ls-tree'
+For trees, it shows the names (equivalent to 'git ls-tree'
with \--name-only).
For plain blobs, it shows the plain contents.
-The command takes options applicable to the 'git-diff-tree' command to
+The command takes options applicable to the 'git diff-tree' command to
control how the changes the commit introduces are shown.
This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 3f14b72..473889a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Use 'git stash' when you want to record the current state of the
+Use `git stash` when you want to record the current state of the
working directory and the index, but want to go back to a clean
working directory. The command saves your local modifications away
and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
you create one.
-The latest stash you created is stored in `$GIT_DIR/refs/stash`; older
+The latest stash you created is stored in `refs/stash`; older
stashes are found in the reflog of this reference and can be named using
the usual reflog syntax (e.g. `stash@\{0}` is the most recently
created stash, `stash@\{1}` is the one before it, `stash@\{2.hours.ago}`
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ stash@{0}: WIP on submit: 6ebd0e2... Update git-stash documentation
stash@{1}: On master: 9cc0589... Add git-stash
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
-The command takes options applicable to the 'git-log'
+The command takes options applicable to the 'git log'
command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
show [<stash>]::
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ show [<stash>]::
Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
- it will accept any format known to 'git-diff' (e.g., `git stash show
+ it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
-p stash@\{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
@@ -201,7 +201,7 @@ $ git reset --soft HEAD^
# ... continue hacking ...
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
-You can use 'git-stash' to simplify the above, like this:
+You can use 'git stash' to simplify the above, like this:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
# ... hack hack hack ...
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 84f60f3..1cab91b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-status - Show the working tree status
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git status' <options>...
+'git status' [<options>...] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -17,28 +17,93 @@ current HEAD commit, paths that have differences between the working
tree and the index file, and paths in the working tree that are not
tracked by git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
are what you _would_ commit by running `git commit`; the second and
-third are what you _could_ commit by running 'git-add' before running
+third are what you _could_ commit by running 'git add' before running
`git commit`.
-The command takes the same set of options as 'git-commit'; it
-shows what would be committed if the same options are given to
-'git-commit'.
-
-If there is no path that is different between the index file and
-the current HEAD commit (i.e., there is nothing to commit by running
-`git commit`), the command exits with non-zero status.
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-s::
+--short::
+ Give the output in the short-format.
+
+--porcelain::
+ Give the output in a stable, easy-to-parse format for scripts.
+ Currently this is identical to --short output, but is guaranteed
+ not to change in the future, making it safe for scripts.
+
+-u[<mode>]::
+--untracked-files[=<mode>]::
+ Show untracked files (Default: 'all').
++
+The mode parameter is optional, and is used to specify
+the handling of untracked files. The possible options are:
++
+--
+ - 'no' - Show no untracked files
+ - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
+ - 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
+--
++
+See linkgit:git-config[1] for configuration variable
+used to change the default for when the option is not
+specified.
+
+-z::
+ Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF. This implies
+ the `--porcelain` output format if no other format is given.
OUTPUT
------
The output from this command is designed to be used as a commit
template comment, and all the output lines are prefixed with '#'.
+The default, long format, is designed to be human readable,
+verbose and descriptive. They are subject to change in any time.
The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other git commands, are
made relative to the current directory if you are working in a
subdirectory (this is on purpose, to help cutting and pasting). See
the status.relativePaths config option below.
+In short-format, the status of each path is shown as
+
+ XY PATH1 -> PATH2
+
+where `PATH1` is the path in the `HEAD`, and ` -> PATH2` part is
+shown only when `PATH1` corresponds to a different path in the
+index/worktree (i.e. renamed).
+
+For unmerged entries, `X` shows the status of stage #2 (i.e. ours) and `Y`
+shows the status of stage #3 (i.e. theirs).
+
+For entries that do not have conflicts, `X` shows the status of the index,
+and `Y` shows the status of the work tree. For untracked paths, `XY` are
+`??`.
+
+ X Y Meaning
+ -------------------------------------------------
+ [MD] not updated
+ M [ MD] updated in index
+ A [ MD] added to index
+ D [ MD] deleted from index
+ R [ MD] renamed in index
+ C [ MD] copied in index
+ [MARC] index and work tree matches
+ [ MARC] M work tree changed since index
+ [ MARC] D deleted in work tree
+ -------------------------------------------------
+ D D unmerged, both deleted
+ A U unmerged, added by us
+ U D unmerged, deleted by them
+ U A unmerged, added by them
+ D U unmerged, deleted by us
+ A A unmerged, both added
+ U U unmerged, both modified
+ -------------------------------------------------
+ ? ? untracked
+ -------------------------------------------------
+
CONFIGURATION
-------------
@@ -53,9 +118,9 @@ paths shown are relative to the repository root, not to the current
directory.
If `status.submodulesummary` is set to a non zero number or true (identical
-to -1 or an unlimited number), the submodule summary will be enabled and a
-summary of commits for modified submodules will be shown (see --summary-limit
-option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]).
+to -1 or an unlimited number), the submodule summary will be enabled for
+the long format and a summary of commits for modified submodules will be
+shown (see --summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]).
SEE ALSO
--------
@@ -63,8 +128,7 @@ linkgit:gitignore[5]
Author
------
-Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
-Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
+Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
Documentation
--------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 5ccdd18..2502531 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b branch]
- [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> <path>
+ [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [-N|--no-fetch] [--rebase]
@@ -69,7 +69,11 @@ add::
to the changeset to be committed next to the current
project: the current project is termed the "superproject".
+
-This requires two arguments: <repository> and <path>.
+This requires at least one argument: <repository>. The optional
+argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
+to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
+"humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
+"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
+
<repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
@@ -95,11 +99,11 @@ locate the submodule using the relative URL in .gitmodules.
status::
Show the status of the submodules. This will print the SHA-1 of the
currently checked out commit for each submodule, along with the
- submodule path and the output of 'git-describe' for the
+ submodule path and the output of 'git describe' for the
SHA-1. Each SHA-1 will be prefixed with `-` if the submodule is not
initialized and `+` if the currently checked out submodule commit
does not match the SHA-1 found in the index of the containing
- repository. This command is the default command for 'git-submodule'.
+ repository. This command is the default command for 'git submodule'.
+
If '--recursive' is specified, this command will recurse into nested
submodules, and show their status as well.
@@ -110,8 +114,8 @@ init::
The key used in .git/config is `submodule.$name.url`.
This command does not alter existing information in .git/config.
You can then customize the submodule clone URLs in .git/config
- for your local setup and proceed to 'git submodule update';
- you can also just use 'git submodule update --init' without
+ for your local setup and proceed to `git submodule update`;
+ you can also just use `git submodule update --init` without
the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
any submodule locations.
@@ -214,7 +218,7 @@ OPTIONS
This option is only valid for the update command.
Rebase the current branch onto the commit recorded in the
superproject. If this option is given, the submodule's HEAD will not
- be detached. If a a merge failure prevents this process, you will have
+ be detached. If a merge failure prevents this process, you will have
to resolve these failures with linkgit:git-rebase[1].
If the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to `rebase`, this option is
implicit.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 1812890..99f3c1e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -62,6 +62,8 @@ COMMANDS
Set the 'useSvnsyncProps' option in the [svn-remote] config.
--rewrite-root=<URL>;;
Set the 'rewriteRoot' option in the [svn-remote] config.
+--rewrite-uuid=<UUID>;;
+ Set the 'rewriteUUID' option in the [svn-remote] config.
--username=<USER>;;
For transports that SVN handles authentication for (http,
https, and plain svn), specify the username. For other
@@ -239,6 +241,19 @@ discouraged.
where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
'init' (or "svn" by default).
+--username;;
+ Specify the SVN username to perform the commit as. This option overrides
+ configuration property 'username'.
+
+--commit-url;;
+ Use the specified URL to connect to the destination Subversion
+ repository. This is useful in cases where the source SVN
+ repository is read-only. This option overrides configuration
+ property 'commiturl'.
++
+ git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
++
+
'tag'::
Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
'branch -t'.
@@ -320,6 +335,13 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
directories. The output is suitable for appending to
the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
+'mkdirs'::
+ Attempts to recreate empty directories that core git cannot track
+ based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
+ Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
+ "git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
+ for use after commands like "git checkout" or "git reset".
+
'commit-diff'::
Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
command-line. This command does not rely on being inside an `git svn
@@ -609,6 +631,12 @@ svn-remote.<name>.rewriteRoot::
the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the
metadata so users of it will see the public URL.
+svn-remote.<name>.rewriteUUID::
+ Similar to the useSvmProps option; this is for users who need
+ to remap the UUID manually. This may be useful in situations
+ where the original UUID is not available via either useSvmProps
+ or useSvnsyncProps.
+
svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround::
This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround
broken symlinks checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this
@@ -618,13 +646,14 @@ svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround::
revision fetched. If unset, 'git svn' assumes this option to
be "true".
-Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps
+Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, rewriteUUID, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps
options all affect the metadata generated and used by 'git svn'; they
*must* be set in the configuration file before any history is imported
and these settings should never be changed once they are set.
-Additionally, only one of these four options can be used per-svn-remote
-section because they affect the 'git-svn-id:' metadata line.
+Additionally, only one of these options can be used per svn-remote
+section because they affect the 'git-svn-id:' metadata line, except
+for rewriteRoot and rewriteUUID which can be used together.
BASIC EXAMPLES
@@ -735,6 +764,16 @@ merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a git branch
that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
branch.
+If you do merge, note the following rule: 'git svn dcommit' will
+attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+You 'must' therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch
+you want to dcommit to is the 'first' parent of the merge. Chaos will
+ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on
+the same SVN branch.
+
'git clone' does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or
any 'git svn' metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with
using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
@@ -799,6 +838,22 @@ independent path component (surrounded by '/' or EOL). This
type of configuration is not automatically created by 'init' and
should be manually entered with a text-editor or using 'git config'.
+It is also possible to fetch a subset of branches or tags by using a
+comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[svn-remote "huge-project"]
+ url = http://server.org/svn
+ fetch = trunk/src:refs/remotes/trunk
+ branches = branches/{red,green}/src:refs/remotes/branches/*
+ tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/tags/*
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
+or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
+fetching, then .git/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or
+reset) branches-maxRev and/or tags-maxRev as appropriate.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-rebase[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
index 6392538..33a1536 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ cumbersome. On some platforms, `ln -sf` does not even work as
advertised (horrors). Therefore symbolic links are now deprecated
and symbolic refs are used by default.
-'git-symbolic-ref' will exit with status 0 if the contents of the
+'git symbolic-ref' will exit with status 0 if the contents of the
symbolic ref were printed correctly, with status 1 if the requested
name is not a symbolic ref, or 128 if another error occurs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 299b04f..31c78a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ OPTIONS
CONFIGURATION
-------------
-By default, 'git-tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
+By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
committer identity (of the form "Your Name <your@email.address>") to
find a key. If you want to use a different default key, you can specify
it in the repository configuration as follows:
@@ -131,12 +131,12 @@ and be done with it.
. The insane thing.
You really want to call the new version "X" too, 'even though'
-others have already seen the old one. So just use 'git-tag -f'
+others have already seen the old one. So just use 'git tag -f'
again, as if you hadn't already published the old one.
However, Git does *not* (and it should not) change tags behind
users back. So if somebody already got the old tag, doing a
-'git-pull' on your tree shouldn't just make them overwrite the old
+'git pull' on your tree shouldn't just make them overwrite the old
one.
If somebody got a release tag from you, you cannot just change
@@ -190,7 +190,7 @@ private anchor point tags from the other person.
You would notice "please pull" messages on the mailing list says
repo URL and branch name alone. This is designed to be easily
-cut&pasted to a 'git-fetch' command line:
+cut&pasted to a 'git fetch' command line:
------------
Linus, please pull from
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
index a5d9558..3c786bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
@@ -12,19 +12,19 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-THIS COMMAND IS DEPRECATED. Use 'git-archive' with `--format=tar`
+THIS COMMAND IS DEPRECATED. Use 'git archive' with `--format=tar`
option instead (and move the <base> argument to `--prefix=base/`).
Creates a tar archive containing the tree structure for the named tree.
When <base> is specified it is added as a leading path to the files in the
generated tar archive.
-'git-tar-tree' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when given
+'git tar-tree' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when given
a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is used as
modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter case the
commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is used instead.
Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global extended pax header.
-It can be extracted using 'git-get-tar-commit-id'.
+It can be extracted using 'git get-tar-commit-id'.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 25e0bbe..68dc187 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]\*
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
[--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
+ [--skip-worktree | --no-skip-worktree]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
[--info-only] [--index-info]
@@ -31,7 +32,7 @@ cleared.
See also linkgit:git-add[1] for a more user-friendly way to do some of
the most common operations on the index.
-The way 'git-update-index' handles files it is told about can be modified
+The way 'git update-index' handles files it is told about can be modified
using the various options:
OPTIONS
@@ -53,7 +54,7 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
Quiet. If --refresh finds that the index needs an update, the
default behavior is to error out. This option makes
- 'git-update-index' continue anyway.
+ 'git update-index' continue anyway.
--ignore-submodules::
Do not try to update submodules. This option is only respected
@@ -61,7 +62,7 @@ OPTIONS
--unmerged::
If --refresh finds unmerged changes in the index, the default
- behavior is to error out. This option makes 'git-update-index'
+ behavior is to error out. This option makes 'git update-index'
continue anyway.
--ignore-missing::
@@ -99,9 +100,20 @@ in the index e.g. when merging in a commit;
thus, in case the assumed-untracked file is changed upstream,
you will need to handle the situation manually.
+--really-refresh::
+ Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
+ without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.
+
+--skip-worktree::
+--no-skip-worktree::
+ When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
+ for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
+ set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
+ section "Skip-worktree bit" below for more information.
+
-g::
--again::
- Runs 'git-update-index' itself on the paths whose index
+ Runs 'git update-index' itself on the paths whose index
entries are different from those from the `HEAD` commit.
--unresolve::
@@ -119,7 +131,7 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
--replace::
By default, when a file `path` exists in the index,
- 'git-update-index' refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
+ 'git update-index' refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
cannot be added. With --replace flag, existing entries
that conflict with the entry being added are
@@ -155,7 +167,7 @@ up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
the stat entry is out of date.
-For example, you'd want to do this after doing a 'git-read-tree', to link
+For example, you'd want to do this after doing a 'git read-tree', to link
up the stat index details with the proper files.
Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
@@ -196,13 +208,13 @@ back on 3-way merge.
. mode SP type SP sha1 TAB path
+
-The second format is to stuff 'git-ls-tree' output
+The second format is to stuff 'git ls-tree' output
into the index file.
. mode SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
+
This format is to put higher order stages into the
-index file and matches 'git-ls-files --stage' output.
+index file and matches 'git ls-files --stage' output.
To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
@@ -259,8 +271,8 @@ option. To unset, use `--no-assume-unchanged`.
The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. When
this is true, paths updated with `git update-index paths...` and
paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
-working tree (e.g. 'git-apply --index', 'git-checkout-index -u',
-and 'git-read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
+working tree (e.g. 'git apply --index', 'git checkout-index -u',
+and 'git read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
unchanged". Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
`git update-index --refresh` finds the working tree file matches
the index (use `git update-index --really-refresh` if you want
@@ -304,16 +316,37 @@ M foo.c
<9> now it checks with lstat(2) and finds it has been changed.
+Skip-worktree bit
+-----------------
+
+Skip-worktree bit can be defined in one (long) sentence: When reading
+an entry, if it is marked as skip-worktree, then Git pretends its
+working directory version is up to date and read the index version
+instead.
+
+To elaborate, "reading" means checking for file existence, reading
+file attributes or file content. The working directory version may be
+present or absent. If present, its content may match against the index
+version or not. Writing is not affected by this bit, content safety
+is still first priority. Note that Git _can_ update working directory
+file, that is marked skip-worktree, if it is safe to do so (i.e.
+working directory version matches index version)
+
+Although this bit looks similar to assume-unchanged bit, its goal is
+different from assume-unchanged bit's. Skip-worktree also takes
+precedence over assume-unchanged bit when both are set.
+
+
Configuration
-------------
The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable. If
-your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
+your repository is on a filesystem whose executable bits are
unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
executable bit. On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
-need to use 'git-update-index --chmod='.
+need to use 'git update-index --chmod='.
Quite similarly, if `core.symlinks` configuration variable is set
to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]), symbolic links are checked out
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index bbd7617..f5f2b39 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -12,11 +12,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Invoked by 'git-archive --remote' and sends a generated archive to the
+Invoked by 'git archive --remote' and sends a generated archive to the
other end over the git protocol.
This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user. The UI
-for the protocol is on the 'git-archive' side, and the program pair
+for the protocol is on the 'git archive' side, and the program pair
is meant to be used to get an archive from a remote repository.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
index 63f3b5c..71ca4ef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -8,20 +8,18 @@ git-upload-pack - Send objects packed back to git-fetch-pack
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git upload-pack' [--strict] [--timeout=<n>] <directory>
+'git-upload-pack' [--strict] [--timeout=<n>] <directory>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Invoked by 'git-fetch-pack', learns what
+Invoked by 'git fetch-pack', learns what
objects the other side is missing, and sends them after packing.
This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user.
-The UI for the protocol is on the 'git-fetch-pack' side, and the
+The UI for the protocol is on the 'git fetch-pack' side, and the
program pair is meant to be used to pull updates from a remote
-repository. For push operations, see 'git-send-pack'.
+repository. For push operations, see 'git send-pack'.
-After finishing the operation successfully, `post-upload-pack`
-hook is called (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index e2f4c09..458f3e2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-var - Show a git logical variable
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git var' [ -l | <variable> ]
+'git var' ( -l | <variable> )
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ OPTIONS
Cause the logical variables to be listed. In addition, all the
variables of the git configuration file .git/config are listed
as well. (However, the configuration variables listing functionality
- is deprecated in favor of 'git config -l'.)
+ is deprecated in favor of `git config -l`.)
EXAMPLE
--------
@@ -36,6 +36,20 @@ GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT::
GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT::
The person who put a piece of code into git.
+GIT_EDITOR::
+ Text editor for use by git commands. The value is meant to be
+ interpreted by the shell when it is used. Examples: `~/bin/vi`,
+ `$SOME_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE`, `"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe"
+ --nofork`. The order of preference is the `$GIT_EDITOR`
+ environment variable, then `core.editor` configuration, then
+ `$VISUAL`, then `$EDITOR`, and then finally 'vi'.
+
+GIT_PAGER::
+ Text viewer for use by git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
+ is meant to be interpreted by the shell. The order of preference
+ is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
+ configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then finally 'less'.
+
Diagnostics
-----------
You don't exist. Go away!::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
index 97f7f91..916a38a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with the
-'git-pack-objects' command and verifies idx file and the
+'git pack-objects' command and verifies idx file and the
corresponding pack file.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
index 84e70a0..dada212 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Validates the gpg signature created by 'git-tag'.
+Validates the gpg signature created by 'git tag'.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index 278cf73..7572049 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ browser.<tool>.path
You can explicitly provide a full path to your preferred browser by
setting the configuration variable 'browser.<tool>.path'. For example,
you can configure the absolute path to firefox by setting
-'browser.firefox.path'. Otherwise, 'git-web--browse' assumes the tool
+'browser.firefox.path'. Otherwise, 'git web--browse' assumes the tool
is available in PATH.
browser.<tool>.cmd
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ browser.<tool>.cmd
When the browser, specified by options or configuration variables, is
not among the supported ones, then the corresponding
'browser.<tool>.cmd' configuration variable will be looked up. If this
-variable exists then 'git-web--browse' will treat the specified tool
+variable exists then 'git web--browse' will treat the specified tool
as a custom command and will use a shell eval to run the command with
the URLs passed as arguments.
@@ -113,7 +113,7 @@ See linkgit:git-config[1] for more information about this.
Author
------
Written by Christian Couder <chriscool@tuxfamily.org> and the git-list
-<git@vger.kernel.org>, based on 'git-mergetool' by Theodore Y. Ts'o.
+<git@vger.kernel.org>, based on 'git mergetool' by Theodore Y. Ts'o.
Documentation
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
index cadfbd9..ea753cd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
@@ -13,8 +13,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Shows commit logs and diff output each commit introduces. The
-command internally invokes 'git-rev-list' piped to
-'git-diff-tree', and takes command line options for both of
+command internally invokes 'git rev-list' piped to
+'git diff-tree', and takes command line options for both of
these commands.
This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt
index c8899d5..bfceaca 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt
@@ -17,17 +17,17 @@ tree object is printed to standard output.
The index must be in a fully merged state.
-Conceptually, 'git-write-tree' sync()s the current index contents
+Conceptually, 'git write-tree' sync()s the current index contents
into a set of tree files.
In order to have that match what is actually in your directory right
-now, you need to have done a 'git-update-index' phase before you did the
-'git-write-tree'.
+now, you need to have done a 'git update-index' phase before you did the
+'git write-tree'.
OPTIONS
-------
--missing-ok::
- Normally 'git-write-tree' ensures that the objects referenced by the
+ Normally 'git write-tree' ensures that the objects referenced by the
directory exist in the object database. This option disables this
check.
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index d97aaf5..35c0c79 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [--html-path]
- [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
+ [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects]
[--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
[--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
@@ -43,9 +43,31 @@ unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here: