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-rw-r--r--.clang-format169
-rw-r--r--.gitattributes8
-rw-r--r--.github/CONTRIBUTING.md19
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m---------sha1collisiondetection0
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817 files changed, 116187 insertions, 59747 deletions
diff --git a/.clang-format b/.clang-format
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..611ab47
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.clang-format
@@ -0,0 +1,169 @@
+# This file is an example configuration for clang-format 5.0.
+#
+# Note that this style definition should only be understood as a hint
+# for writing new code. The rules are still work-in-progress and does
+# not yet exactly match the style we have in the existing code.
+
+# Use tabs whenever we need to fill whitespace that spans at least from one tab
+# stop to the next one.
+UseTab: Always
+TabWidth: 8
+IndentWidth: 8
+ContinuationIndentWidth: 8
+ColumnLimit: 80
+
+# C Language specifics
+Language: Cpp
+
+# Align parameters on the open bracket
+# someLongFunction(argument1,
+# argument2);
+AlignAfterOpenBracket: Align
+
+# Don't align consecutive assignments
+# int aaaa = 12;
+# int b = 14;
+AlignConsecutiveAssignments: false
+
+# Don't align consecutive declarations
+# int aaaa = 12;
+# double b = 3.14;
+AlignConsecutiveDeclarations: false
+
+# Align escaped newlines as far left as possible
+# #define A \
+# int aaaa; \
+# int b; \
+# int cccccccc;
+AlignEscapedNewlines: Left
+
+# Align operands of binary and ternary expressions
+# int aaa = bbbbbbbbbbb +
+# cccccc;
+AlignOperands: true
+
+# Don't align trailing comments
+# int a; // Comment a
+# int b = 2; // Comment b
+AlignTrailingComments: false
+
+# By default don't allow putting parameters onto the next line
+# myFunction(foo, bar, baz);
+AllowAllParametersOfDeclarationOnNextLine: false
+
+# Don't allow short braced statements to be on a single line
+# if (a) not if (a) return;
+# return;
+AllowShortBlocksOnASingleLine: false
+AllowShortCaseLabelsOnASingleLine: false
+AllowShortFunctionsOnASingleLine: false
+AllowShortIfStatementsOnASingleLine: false
+AllowShortLoopsOnASingleLine: false
+
+# By default don't add a line break after the return type of top-level functions
+# int foo();
+AlwaysBreakAfterReturnType: None
+
+# Pack as many parameters or arguments onto the same line as possible
+# int myFunction(int aaaaaaaaaaaa, int bbbbbbbb,
+# int cccc);
+BinPackArguments: true
+BinPackParameters: true
+
+# Attach braces to surrounding context except break before braces on function
+# definitions.
+# void foo()
+# {
+# if (true) {
+# } else {
+# }
+# };
+BreakBeforeBraces: Linux
+
+# Break after operators
+# int valuve = aaaaaaaaaaaaa +
+# bbbbbb -
+# ccccccccccc;
+BreakBeforeBinaryOperators: None
+BreakBeforeTernaryOperators: false
+
+# Don't break string literals
+BreakStringLiterals: false
+
+# Use the same indentation level as for the switch statement.
+# Switch statement body is always indented one level more than case labels.
+IndentCaseLabels: false
+
+# Don't indent a function definition or declaration if it is wrapped after the
+# type
+IndentWrappedFunctionNames: false
+
+# Align pointer to the right
+# int *a;
+PointerAlignment: Right
+
+# Don't insert a space after a cast
+# x = (int32)y; not x = (int32) y;
+SpaceAfterCStyleCast: false
+
+# Insert spaces before and after assignment operators
+# int a = 5; not int a=5;
+# a += 42; a+=42;
+SpaceBeforeAssignmentOperators: true
+
+# Put a space before opening parentheses only after control statement keywords.
+# void f() {
+# if (true) {
+# f();
+# }
+# }
+SpaceBeforeParens: ControlStatements
+
+# Don't insert spaces inside empty '()'
+SpaceInEmptyParentheses: false
+
+# The number of spaces before trailing line comments (// - comments).
+# This does not affect trailing block comments (/* - comments).
+SpacesBeforeTrailingComments: 1
+
+# Don't insert spaces in casts
+# x = (int32) y; not x = ( int32 ) y;
+SpacesInCStyleCastParentheses: false
+
+# Don't insert spaces inside container literals
+# var arr = [1, 2, 3]; not var arr = [ 1, 2, 3 ];
+SpacesInContainerLiterals: false
+
+# Don't insert spaces after '(' or before ')'
+# f(arg); not f( arg );
+SpacesInParentheses: false
+
+# Don't insert spaces after '[' or before ']'
+# int a[5]; not int a[ 5 ];
+SpacesInSquareBrackets: false
+
+# Insert a space after '{' and before '}' in struct initializers
+Cpp11BracedListStyle: false
+
+# A list of macros that should be interpreted as foreach loops instead of as
+# function calls.
+ForEachMacros: ['for_each_string_list_item']
+
+# The maximum number of consecutive empty lines to keep.
+MaxEmptyLinesToKeep: 1
+
+# No empty line at the start of a block.
+KeepEmptyLinesAtTheStartOfBlocks: false
+
+# Penalties
+# This decides what order things should be done if a line is too long
+PenaltyBreakAssignment: 10
+PenaltyBreakBeforeFirstCallParameter: 30
+PenaltyBreakComment: 10
+PenaltyBreakFirstLessLess: 0
+PenaltyBreakString: 10
+PenaltyExcessCharacter: 100
+PenaltyReturnTypeOnItsOwnLine: 5
+
+# Don't sort #include's
+SortIncludes: false
diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 320e33c..8ce9c6b 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -1,3 +1,9 @@
* whitespace=!indent,trail,space
*.[ch] whitespace=indent,trail,space diff=cpp
-*.sh whitespace=indent,trail,space
+*.sh whitespace=indent,trail,space eol=lf
+*.perl eol=lf
+*.pm eol=lf
+/Documentation/git-*.txt eol=lf
+/command-list.txt eol=lf
+/GIT-VERSION-GEN eol=lf
+/mergetools/* eol=lf
diff --git a/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md b/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..64e605a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+## Contributing to Git
+
+Thanks for taking the time to contribute to Git! Please be advised that the
+Git community does not use github.com for their contributions. Instead, we use
+a mailing list (git@vger.kernel.org) for code submissions, code
+reviews, and bug reports.
+
+Nevertheless, you can use [submitGit](http://submitgit.herokuapp.com/) to
+conveniently send your Pull Requests commits to our mailing list.
+
+Please read ["A note from the maintainer"](https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/plain/MaintNotes?h=todo)
+to learn how the Git project is managed, and how you can work with it.
+In addition, we highly recommend you to read [our submission guidelines](../Documentation/SubmittingPatches).
+
+If you prefer video, then [this talk](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q7i_qQW__q4&feature=youtu.be&t=6m4s)
+might be useful to you as the presenter walks you through the contribution
+process by example.
+
+Your friendly Git community!
diff --git a/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md b/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..adba13e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md
@@ -0,0 +1,7 @@
+Thanks for taking the time to contribute to Git! Please be advised that the
+Git community does not use github.com for their contributions. Instead, we use
+a mailing list (git@vger.kernel.org) for code submissions, code reviews, and
+bug reports. Nevertheless, you can use submitGit to conveniently send your Pull
+Requests commits to our mailing list.
+
+Please read the "guidelines for contributing" linked above!
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index b1020b8..833ef3b 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -114,6 +114,7 @@
/git-read-tree
/git-rebase
/git-rebase--am
+/git-rebase--helper
/git-rebase--interactive
/git-rebase--merge
/git-receive-pack
diff --git a/.gitmodules b/.gitmodules
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cbeebda
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.gitmodules
@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+[submodule "sha1collisiondetection"]
+ path = sha1collisiondetection
+ url = https://github.com/cr-marcstevens/sha1collisiondetection.git
+ branch = master
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index c44cf67..7c71e88 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -113,6 +113,7 @@ Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> <junio@pobox.com>
Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> <junio@twinsun.com>
Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> <junkio@cox.net>
Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> <junkio@twinsun.com>
+Kaartic Sivaraam <kaartic.sivaraam@gmail.com> <kaarticsivaraam91196@gmail.com>
Karl Wiberg <kha@treskal.com> Karl Hasselström
Karl Wiberg <kha@treskal.com> <kha@yoghurt.hemma.treskal.com>
Karsten Blees <blees@dcon.de> <karsten.blees@dcon.de>
@@ -178,6 +179,7 @@ Paolo Bonzini <bonzini@gnu.org> <paolo.bonzini@lu.unisi.ch>
Pascal Obry <pascal@obry.net> <pascal.obry@gmail.com>
Pascal Obry <pascal@obry.net> <pascal.obry@wanadoo.fr>
Pat Notz <patnotz@gmail.com> <pknotz@sandia.gov>
+Patrick Steinhardt <ps@pks.im> <patrick.steinhardt@elego.de>
Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> <paulus@dorrigo.(none)>
Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org> <paulus@pogo.(none)>
Peter Baumann <waste.manager@gmx.de> <Peter.B.Baumann@stud.informatik.uni-erlangen.de>
@@ -193,6 +195,7 @@ Philippe Bruhat <book@cpan.org>
Ralf Thielow <ralf.thielow@gmail.com> <ralf.thielow@googlemail.com>
Ramsay Jones <ramsay@ramsayjones.plus.com> <ramsay@ramsay1.demon.co.uk>
René Scharfe <l.s.r@web.de> <rene.scharfe@lsrfire.ath.cx>
+René Scharfe <l.s.r@web.de> Rene Scharfe
Richard Hansen <rhansen@rhansen.org> <hansenr@google.com>
Richard Hansen <rhansen@rhansen.org> <rhansen@bbn.com>
Robert Fitzsimons <robfitz@273k.net>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index 591cc57..281f101 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -39,30 +39,44 @@ env:
matrix:
include:
+ - env: GETTEXT_POISON=YesPlease
+ os: linux
+ compiler:
+ addons:
+ before_install:
+ - env: Windows
+ os: linux
+ compiler:
+ addons:
+ before_install:
+ before_script:
+ script:
+ - >
+ test "$TRAVIS_REPO_SLUG" != "git/git" ||
+ ci/run-windows-build.sh $TRAVIS_BRANCH $(git rev-parse HEAD)
+ after_failure:
- env: Linux32
os: linux
+ compiler:
services:
- docker
before_install:
- - docker pull daald/ubuntu32:xenial
before_script:
- script:
- - >
- docker run
- --interactive
- --env DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET
- --env GIT_PROVE_OPTS
- --env GIT_TEST_OPTS
- --env GIT_TEST_CLONE_2GB
- --volume "${PWD}:/usr/src/git"
- daald/ubuntu32:xenial
- /usr/src/git/ci/run-linux32-build.sh $(id -u $USER)
- # Use the following command to debug the docker build locally:
- # $ docker run -itv "${PWD}:/usr/src/git" --entrypoint /bin/bash daald/ubuntu32:xenial
- # root@container:/# /usr/src/git/ci/run-linux32-build.sh
+ script: ci/run-linux32-docker.sh
+ - env: Static Analysis
+ os: linux
+ compiler:
+ addons:
+ apt:
+ packages:
+ - coccinelle
+ before_install:
+ before_script:
+ script: ci/run-static-analysis.sh
+ after_failure:
- env: Documentation
os: linux
- compiler: clang
+ compiler:
addons:
apt:
packages:
@@ -73,64 +87,10 @@ matrix:
script: ci/test-documentation.sh
after_failure:
-before_install:
- - >
- case "${TRAVIS_OS_NAME:-linux}" in
- linux)
- export GIT_TEST_HTTPD=YesPlease
-
- mkdir --parents custom/p4
- pushd custom/p4
- wget --quiet http://filehost.perforce.com/perforce/r$LINUX_P4_VERSION/bin.linux26x86_64/p4d
- wget --quiet http://filehost.perforce.com/perforce/r$LINUX_P4_VERSION/bin.linux26x86_64/p4
- chmod u+x p4d
- chmod u+x p4
- export PATH="$(pwd):$PATH"
- popd
- mkdir --parents custom/git-lfs
- pushd custom/git-lfs
- wget --quiet https://github.com/github/git-lfs/releases/download/v$LINUX_GIT_LFS_VERSION/git-lfs-linux-amd64-$LINUX_GIT_LFS_VERSION.tar.gz
- tar --extract --gunzip --file "git-lfs-linux-amd64-$LINUX_GIT_LFS_VERSION.tar.gz"
- cp git-lfs-$LINUX_GIT_LFS_VERSION/git-lfs .
- export PATH="$(pwd):$PATH"
- popd
- ;;
- osx)
- brew update --quiet
- # Uncomment this if you want to run perf tests:
- # brew install gnu-time
- brew install git-lfs gettext
- brew link --force gettext
- brew install caskroom/cask/perforce
- ;;
- esac;
- echo "$(tput setaf 6)Perforce Server Version$(tput sgr0)";
- p4d -V | grep Rev.;
- echo "$(tput setaf 6)Perforce Client Version$(tput sgr0)";
- p4 -V | grep Rev.;
- echo "$(tput setaf 6)Git-LFS Version$(tput sgr0)";
- git-lfs version;
- mkdir -p $HOME/travis-cache;
- ln -s $HOME/travis-cache/.prove t/.prove;
-
-before_script: make --jobs=2
-
-script: make --quiet test
-
-after_failure:
- - >
- : '<-- Click here to see detailed test output! ';
- for TEST_EXIT in t/test-results/*.exit;
- do
- if [ "$(cat "$TEST_EXIT")" != "0" ];
- then
- TEST_OUT="${TEST_EXIT%exit}out";
- echo "------------------------------------------------------------------------";
- echo "$(tput setaf 1)${TEST_OUT}...$(tput sgr0)";
- echo "------------------------------------------------------------------------";
- cat "${TEST_OUT}";
- fi;
- done;
+before_install: ci/install-dependencies.sh
+before_script: ci/run-build.sh
+script: ci/run-tests.sh
+after_failure: ci/print-test-failures.sh
notifications:
email: false
diff --git a/.tsan-suppressions b/.tsan-suppressions
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8c85014
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.tsan-suppressions
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+# Suppressions for ThreadSanitizer (tsan).
+#
+# This file is used by setting the environment variable TSAN_OPTIONS to, e.g.,
+# "suppressions=$(pwd)/.tsan-suppressions". Observe that relative paths such as
+# ".tsan-suppressions" might not work.
+
+# A static variable is written to racily, but we always write the same value, so
+# in practice it (hopefully!) doesn't matter.
+race:^want_color$
+race:^transfer_debug$
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index a4191aa..c4cb5ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ code. For Git in general, a few rough rules are:
"Once it _is_ in the tree, it's not really worth the patch noise to
go and fix it up."
- Cf. http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/943020
+ Cf. http://lkml.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/1001.3/01069.html
Make your code readable and sensible, and don't try to be clever.
@@ -256,12 +256,12 @@ For C programs:
Note however that a comment that explains a translatable string to
translators uses a convention of starting with a magic token
- "TRANSLATORS: " immediately after the opening delimiter, even when
- it spans multiple lines. We do not add an asterisk at the beginning
- of each line, either. E.g.
+ "TRANSLATORS: ", e.g.
- /* TRANSLATORS: here is a comment that explains the string
- to be translated, that follows immediately after it */
+ /*
+ * TRANSLATORS: here is a comment that explains the string to
+ * be translated, that follows immediately after it.
+ */
_("Here is a translatable string explained by the above.");
- Double negation is often harder to understand than no negation
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index b5be2e2..471bb29 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@ MAN7_TXT += giteveryday.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitglossary.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitnamespaces.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitrevisions.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitsubmodules.txt
MAN7_TXT += gittutorial-2.txt
MAN7_TXT += gittutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
@@ -66,6 +67,7 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
+TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
index be68524..71a86cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.1.txt
@@ -69,7 +69,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.10
* The 'push to upstream' implementation was broken in some corner
cases. "git push $there" without refspec, when the current branch
is set to push to a remote different from $there, used to push to
- $there using the upstream information to a remote unreleated to
+ $there using the upstream information to a remote unrelated to
$there.
* Giving "--continue" to a conflicted "rebase -i" session skipped a
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
index 2915480..ef8b97d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
@@ -264,7 +264,7 @@ notes for details).
needed it so far.
* Git 2.11 had a minor regression in "merge --ff-only" that competed
- with another process that simultanously attempted to update the
+ with another process that simultaneously attempted to update the
index. We used to explain what went wrong with an error message,
but the new code silently failed. The error message has been
resurrected.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa99d4b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,618 @@
+Git 2.13 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a
+ more explicit '.' for that instead. The hope is that existing
+ users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be
+ turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of
+ this (mis)feature. That is not scheduled to happen in the upcoming
+ release (yet).
+
+ * The historical argument order "git merge <msg> HEAD <commit>..."
+ has been deprecated for quite some time, and is now removed.
+
+ * The default location "~/.git-credential-cache/socket" for the
+ socket used to communicate with the credential-cache daemon has
+ been moved to "~/.cache/git/credential/socket".
+
+ * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
+ sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository. A corner case that
+ happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").
+ We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there
+ might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are
+ greatly appreciated.
+
+
+Updates since v2.12
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git describe" and "git name-rev" have been taught to take more
+ than one refname patterns to restrict the set of refs to base their
+ naming output on, and also learned to take negative patterns to
+ name refs not to be used for naming via their "--exclude" option.
+
+ * Deletion of a branch "foo/bar" could remove .git/refs/heads/foo
+ once there no longer is any other branch whose name begins with
+ "foo/", but we didn't do so so far. Now we do.
+
+ * When "git merge" detects a path that is renamed in one history
+ while the other history deleted (or modified) it, it now reports
+ both paths to help the user understand what is going on in the two
+ histories being merged.
+
+ * The <url> part in "http.<url>.<variable>" configuration variable
+ can now be spelled with '*' that serves as wildcard.
+ E.g. "http.https://*.example.com.proxy" can be used to specify the
+ proxy used for https://a.example.com, https://b.example.com, etc.,
+ i.e. any host in the example.com domain.
+
+ * "git tag" did not leave useful message when adding a new entry to
+ reflog; this was left unnoticed for a long time because refs/tags/*
+ doesn't keep reflog by default.
+
+ * The "negative" pathspec feature was somewhat more cumbersome to use
+ than necessary in that its short-hand used "!" which needed to be
+ escaped from shells, and it required "exclude from what?" specified.
+
+ * The command line options for ssh invocation needs to be tweaked for
+ some implementations of SSH (e.g. PuTTY plink wants "-P <port>"
+ while OpenSSH wants "-p <port>" to specify port to connect to), and
+ the variant was guessed when GIT_SSH environment variable is used
+ to specify it. The logic to guess now applies to the command
+ specified by the newer GIT_SSH_COMMAND and also core.sshcommand
+ configuration variable, and comes with an escape hatch for users to
+ deal with misdetected cases.
+
+ * The "--git-path", "--git-common-dir", and "--shared-index-path"
+ options of "git rev-parse" did not produce usable output. They are
+ now updated to show the path to the correct file, relative to where
+ the caller is.
+
+ * "git diff -W" has been taught to handle the case where a new
+ function is added at the end of the file better.
+
+ * "git update-ref -d" and other operations to delete references did
+ not leave any entry in HEAD's reflog when the reference being
+ deleted was the current branch. This is not a problem in practice
+ because you do not want to delete the branch you are currently on,
+ but caused renaming of the current branch to something else not to
+ be logged in a useful way.
+
+ * "Cc:" on the trailer part does not have to conform to RFC strictly,
+ unlike in the e-mail header. "git send-email" has been updated to
+ ignore anything after '>' when picking addresses, to allow non-address
+ cruft like " # stable 4.4" after the address.
+
+ * When "git submodule init" decides that the submodule in the working
+ tree is its upstream, it now gives a warning as it is not a very
+ common setup.
+
+ * "git stash push" takes a pathspec so that the local changes can be
+ stashed away only partially.
+
+ * Documentation for "git ls-files" did not refer to core.quotePath.
+
+ * The experimental "split index" feature has gained a few
+ configuration variables to make it easier to use.
+
+ * From a working tree of a repository, a new option of "rev-parse"
+ lets you ask if the repository is used as a submodule of another
+ project, and where the root level of the working tree of that
+ project (i.e. your superproject) is.
+
+ * The pathspec mechanism learned to further limit the paths that
+ match the pattern to those that have specified attributes attached
+ via the gitattributes mechanism.
+
+ * Our source code has used the SHA1_HEADER cpp macro after "#include"
+ in the C code to switch among the SHA-1 implementations. Instead,
+ list the exact header file names and switch among implementations
+ using "#ifdef BLK_SHA1/#include "block-sha1/sha1.h"/.../#endif";
+ this helps some IDE tools.
+
+ * The start-up sequence of "git" needs to figure out some configured
+ settings before it finds and set itself up in the location of the
+ repository and was quite messy due to its "chicken-and-egg" nature.
+ The code has been restructured.
+
+ * The command line prompt (in contrib/) learned a new 'tag' style
+ that can be specified with GIT_PS1_DESCRIBE_STYLE, to describe a
+ detached HEAD with "git describe --tags".
+
+ * The configuration file learned a new "includeIf.<condition>.path"
+ that includes the contents of the given path only when the
+ condition holds. This allows you to say "include this work-related
+ bit only in the repositories under my ~/work/ directory".
+
+ * Recent update to "rebase -i" started showing a message that is not
+ a warning with "warning:" prefix by mistake. This has been fixed.
+
+ * Recently we started passing the "--push-options" through the
+ external remote helper interface; now the "smart HTTP" remote
+ helper understands what to do with the passed information.
+
+ * "git describe --dirty" dies when it cannot be determined if the
+ state in the working tree matches that of HEAD (e.g. broken
+ repository or broken submodule). The command learned a new option
+ "git describe --broken" to give "$name-broken" (where $name is the
+ description of HEAD) in such a case.
+
+ * "git checkout" is taught the "--recurse-submodules" option.
+
+ * Recent enhancement to "git stash push" command to support pathspec
+ to allow only a subset of working tree changes to be stashed away
+ was found to be too chatty and exposed the internal implementation
+ detail (e.g. when it uses reset to match the index to HEAD before
+ doing other things, output from reset seeped out). These, and
+ other chattyness has been fixed.
+
+ * "git merge <message> HEAD <commit>" syntax that has been deprecated
+ since October 2007 has been removed.
+
+ * The refs completion for large number of refs has been sped up,
+ partly by giving up disambiguating ambiguous refs and partly by
+ eliminating most of the shell processing between 'git for-each-ref'
+ and 'ls-remote' and Bash's completion facility.
+
+ * On many keyboards, typing "@{" involves holding down SHIFT key and
+ one can easily end up with "@{Up..." when typing "@{upstream}". As
+ the upstream/push keywords do not appear anywhere else in the syntax,
+ we can safely accept them case insensitively without introducing
+ ambiguity or confusion to solve this.
+
+ * "git tag/branch/for-each-ref" family of commands long allowed to
+ filter the refs by "--contains X" (show only the refs that are
+ descendants of X), "--merged X" (show only the refs that are
+ ancestors of X), "--no-merged X" (show only the refs that are not
+ ancestors of X). One curious omission, "--no-contains X" (show
+ only the refs that are not descendants of X) has been added to
+ them.
+
+ * The default behaviour of "git log" in an interactive session has
+ been changed to enable "--decorate".
+
+ * The output from "git status --short" has been extended to show
+ various kinds of dirtyness in submodules differently; instead of to
+ "M" for modified, 'm' and '?' can be shown to signal changes only
+ to the working tree of the submodule but not the commit that is
+ checked out.
+
+ * Allow the http.postbuffer configuration variable to be set to a
+ size that can be expressed in size_t, which can be larger than
+ ulong on some platforms.
+
+ * "git rebase" learns "--signoff" option.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to complete "git push
+ --delete b<TAB>" to complete branch name to be deleted.
+
+ * "git worktree add --lock" allows to lock a worktree immediately
+ after it's created. This helps prevent a race between "git worktree
+ add; git worktree lock" and "git worktree prune".
+
+ * Completion for "git checkout <branch>" that auto-creates the branch
+ out of a remote tracking branch can now be disabled, as this
+ completion often gets in the way when completing to checkout an
+ existing local branch that happens to share the same prefix with
+ bunch of remote tracking branches.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The code to list branches in "git branch" has been consolidated
+ with the more generic ref-filter API.
+
+ * Resource usage while enumerating refs from alternate object store
+ has been optimized to help receiving end of "push" that hosts a
+ repository with many "forks".
+
+ * The gitattributes machinery is being taught to work better in a
+ multi-threaded environment.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" starts using the recently updated "sequencer" code.
+
+ * Code and design clean-up for the refs API.
+
+ * The preload-index code has been taught not to bother with the index
+ entries that are paths that are not checked out by "sparse checkout".
+
+ * Some warning() messages from "git clean" were updated to show the
+ errno from failed system calls.
+
+ * The "parse_config_key()" API function has been cleaned up.
+
+ * A test that creates a confusing branch whose name is HEAD has been
+ corrected not to do so.
+
+ * The code that parses header fields in the commit object has been
+ updated for (micro)performance and code hygiene.
+
+ * An helper function to make it easier to append the result from
+ real_path() to a strbuf has been added.
+
+ * Reduce authentication round-trip over HTTP when the server supports
+ just a single authentication method. This also improves the
+ behaviour when Git is misconfigured to enable http.emptyAuth
+ against a server that does not authenticate without a username
+ (i.e. not using Kerberos etc., which makes http.emptyAuth
+ pointless).
+
+ * Windows port wants to use OpenSSL's implementation of SHA-1
+ routines, so let them.
+
+ * The t/perf performance test suite was not prepared to test not so
+ old versions of Git, but now it covers versions of Git that are not
+ so ancient.
+
+ * Add 32-bit Linux variant to the set of platforms to be tested with
+ Travis CI.
+
+ * "git branch --list" takes the "--abbrev" and "--no-abbrev" options
+ to control the output of the object name in its "-v"(erbose)
+ output, but a recent update started ignoring them; fix it before
+ the breakage reaches to any released version.
+
+ * Picking two versions of Git and running tests to make sure the
+ older one and the newer one interoperate happily has now become
+ possible.
+
+ * "git tag --contains" used to (ab)use the object bits to keep track
+ of the state of object reachability without clearing them after
+ use; this has been cleaned up and made to use the newer commit-slab
+ facility.
+
+ * The "debug" helper used in the test framework learned to run
+ a command under "gdb" interactively.
+
+ * The "detect attempt to create collisions" variant of SHA-1
+ implementation by Marc Stevens (CWI) and Dan Shumow (Microsoft)
+ has been integrated and made the default.
+
+ * The test framework learned to detect unterminated here documents.
+
+ * The name-hash used for detecting paths that are different only in
+ cases (which matter on case insensitive filesystems) has been
+ optimized to take advantage of multi-threading when it makes sense.
+
+ * An earlier version of sha1dc/sha1.c that was merged to 'master'
+ compiled incorrectly on Windows, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "what URL do we want to update this submodule?" and "are we
+ interested in this submodule?" are split into two distinct
+ concepts, and then the way used to express the latter got extended,
+ paving a way to make it easier to manage a project with many
+ submodules and make it possible to later extend use of multiple
+ worktrees for a project with submodules.
+
+ * Some debugging output from "git describe" were marked for l10n,
+ but some weren't. Mark missing ones for l10n.
+
+ * Define a new task in .travis.yml that triggers a test session on
+ Windows run elsewhere.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * The "submodule" specific field in the ref_store structure is
+ replaced with a more generic "gitdir" that can later be used also
+ when dealing with ref_store that represents the set of refs visible
+ from the other worktrees.
+
+ * The string-list API used a custom reallocation strategy that was
+ very inefficient, instead of using the usual ALLOC_GROW() macro,
+ which has been fixed.
+ (merge 950a234cbd jh/string-list-micro-optim later to maint).
+
+ * In a 2- and 3-way merge of trees, more than one source trees often
+ end up sharing an identical subtree; optimize by not reading the
+ same tree multiple times in such a case.
+ (merge d12a8cf0af jh/unpack-trees-micro-optim later to maint).
+
+ * The index file has a trailing SHA-1 checksum to detect file
+ corruption, and historically we checked it every time the index
+ file is used. Omit the validation during normal use, and instead
+ verify only in "git fsck".
+
+ * Having a git command on the upstream side of a pipe in a test
+ script will hide the exit status from the command, which may cause
+ us to fail to notice a breakage; rewrite tests in a script to avoid
+ this issue.
+
+ * Travis CI learns to run coccicheck.
+
+ * "git checkout" that handles a lot of paths has been optimized by
+ reducing the number of unnecessary checks of paths in the
+ has_dir_name() function.
+
+ * The internals of the refs API around the cached refs has been
+ streamlined.
+
+ * Output from perf tests have been updated to align their titles.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.12
+-----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.12 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git repack --depth=<n>" for a long time busted the specified depth
+ when reusing delta from existing packs. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to parse the command line "git grep <patterns>... <rev>
+ [[--] <pathspec>...]" has been cleaned up, and a handful of bugs
+ have been fixed (e.g. we used to check "--" if it is a rev).
+
+ * "git ls-remote" and "git archive --remote" are designed to work
+ without being in a directory under Git's control. However, recent
+ updates revealed that we randomly look into a directory called
+ .git/ without actually doing necessary set-up when working in a
+ repository. Stop doing so.
+
+ * "git show-branch" expected there were only very short branch names
+ in the repository and used a fixed-length buffer to hold them
+ without checking for overflow.
+
+ * A caller of tempfile API that uses stdio interface to write to
+ files may ignore errors while writing, which is detected when
+ tempfile is closed (with a call to ferror()). By that time, the
+ original errno that may have told us what went wrong is likely to
+ be long gone and was overwritten by an irrelevant value.
+ close_tempfile() now resets errno to EIO to make errno at least
+ predictable.
+
+ * "git remote rm X", when a branch has remote X configured as the
+ value of its branch.*.remote, tried to remove branch.*.remote and
+ branch.*.merge and failed if either is unset.
+
+ * A "gc.log" file left by a backgrounded "gc --auto" disables further
+ automatic gc; it has been taught to run at least once a day (by
+ default) by ignoring a stale "gc.log" file that is too old.
+
+ * The code to parse "git -c VAR=VAL cmd" and set configuration
+ variable for the duration of cmd had two small bugs, which have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * user.email that consists of only cruft chars should consistently
+ error out, but didn't.
+
+ * "git upload-pack", which is a counter-part of "git fetch", did not
+ report a request for a ref that was not advertised as invalid.
+ This is generally not a problem (because "git fetch" will stop
+ before making such a request), but is the right thing to do.
+
+ * A leak in a codepath to read from a packed object in (rare) cases
+ has been plugged.
+
+ * When a redirected http transport gets an error during the
+ redirected request, we ignored the error we got from the server,
+ and ended up giving a not-so-useful error message.
+
+ * The patch subcommand of "git add -i" was meant to have paths
+ selection prompt just like other subcommand, unlike "git add -p"
+ directly jumps to hunk selection. Recently, this was broken and
+ "add -i" lost the paths selection dialog, but it now has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * Git v2.12 was shipped with an embarrassing breakage where various
+ operations that verify paths given from the user stopped dying when
+ seeing an issue, and instead later triggering segfault.
+
+ * There is no need for Python only to give a few messages to the
+ standard error stream, but we somehow did.
+
+ * The code to parse "git log -L..." command line was buggy when there
+ are many ranges specified with -L; overrun of the allocated buffer
+ has been fixed.
+
+ * The command-line parsing of "git log -L" copied internal data
+ structures using incorrect size on ILP32 systems.
+
+ * "git diff --quiet" relies on the size field in diff_filespec to be
+ correctly populated, but diff_populate_filespec() helper function
+ made an incorrect short-cut when asked only to populate the size
+ field for paths that need to go through convert_to_git() (e.g. CRLF
+ conversion).
+
+ * A few tests were run conditionally under (rare) conditions where
+ they cannot be run (like running cvs tests under 'root' account).
+
+ * "git branch @" created refs/heads/@ as a branch, and in general the
+ code that handled @{-1} and @{upstream} was a bit too loose in
+ disambiguating.
+
+ * "git fetch" that requests a commit by object name, when the other
+ side does not allow such an request, failed without much
+ explanation.
+
+ * "git filter-branch --prune-empty" drops a single-parent commit that
+ becomes a no-op, but did not drop a root commit whose tree is empty.
+
+ * Recent versions of Git treats http alternates (used in dumb http
+ transport) just like HTTP redirects and requires the client to
+ enable following it, due to security concerns. But we forgot to
+ give a warning when we decide not to honor the alternates.
+
+ * "git push" had a handful of codepaths that could lead to a deadlock
+ when unexpected error happened, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "Dumb http" transport used to misparse a nonsense http-alternates
+ response, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git add -p <pathspec>" unnecessarily expanded the pathspec to a
+ list of individual files that matches the pathspec by running "git
+ ls-files <pathspec>", before feeding it to "git diff-index" to see
+ which paths have changes, because historically the pathspec
+ language supported by "diff-index" was weaker. These days they are
+ equivalent and there is no reason to internally expand it. This
+ helps both performance and avoids command line argument limit on
+ some platforms.
+ (merge 7288e12cce jk/add-i-use-pathspecs later to maint).
+
+ * "git status --porcelain" is supposed to give a stable output, but a
+ few strings were left as translatable by mistake.
+
+ * "git revert -m 0 $merge_commit" complained that reverting a merge
+ needs to say relative to which parent the reversion needs to
+ happen, as if "-m 0" weren't given. The correct diagnosis is that
+ "-m 0" does not refer to the first parent ("-m 1" does). This has
+ been fixed.
+
+ * Code to read submodule.<name>.ignore config did not state the
+ variable name correctly when giving an error message diagnosing
+ misconfiguration.
+
+ * Fix for NO_PTHREADS build.
+
+ * Fix for potential segv introduced in v2.11.0 and later (also
+ v2.10.2) to "git log --pickaxe-regex -S".
+
+ * A few unterminated here documents in tests were fixed, which in
+ turn revealed incorrect expectations the tests make. These tests
+ have been updated.
+
+ * Fix for NO_PTHREADS option.
+ (merge 2225e1ea20 bw/grep-recurse-submodules later to maint).
+
+ * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
+ sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository. A corner case that
+ happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").
+ (merge b1ef400eec jk/no-looking-at-dotgit-outside-repo-final later to maint).
+
+ * A few commands that recently learned the "--recurse-submodule"
+ option misbehaved when started from a subdirectory of the
+ superproject.
+ (merge b2dfeb7c00 bw/recurse-submodules-relative-fix later to maint).
+
+ * FreeBSD implementation of getcwd(3) behaved differently when an
+ intermediate directory is unreadable/unsearchable depending on the
+ length of the buffer provided, which our strbuf_getcwd() was not
+ aware of. strbuf_getcwd() has been taught to cope with it better.
+ (merge a54e938e5b rs/freebsd-getcwd-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * A recent update to "rebase -i" stopped running hooks for the "git
+ commit" command during "reword" action, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Removing an entry from a notes tree and then looking another note
+ entry from the resulting tree using the internal notes API
+ functions did not work as expected. No in-tree users of the API
+ has such access pattern, but it still is worth fixing.
+
+ * "git receive-pack" could have been forced to die by attempting
+ allocate an unreasonably large amount of memory with a crafted push
+ certificate; this has been fixed.
+ (merge f2214dede9 bc/push-cert-receive-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Update error handling for codepath that deals with corrupt loose
+ objects.
+ (merge 51054177b3 jk/loose-object-info-report-error later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --submodule=diff" learned to work better in a project
+ with a submodule that in turn has its own submodules.
+ (merge 17b254cda6 sb/show-diff-for-submodule-in-diff-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Update the build dependency so that an update to /usr/bin/perl
+ etc. result in recomputation of perl.mak file.
+ (merge c59c4939c2 ab/regen-perl-mak-with-different-perl later to maint).
+
+ * "git push --recurse-submodules --push-option=<string>" learned to
+ propagate the push option recursively down to pushes in submodules.
+
+ * If a patch e-mail had its first paragraph after an in-body header
+ indented (even after a blank line after the in-body header line),
+ the indented line was mistook as a continuation of the in-body
+ header. This has been fixed.
+ (merge fd1062e52e lt/mailinfo-in-body-header-continuation later to maint).
+
+ * Clean up fallouts from recent tightening of the set-up sequence,
+ where Git barfs when repository information is accessed without
+ first ensuring that it was started in a repository.
+ (merge bccb22cbb1 jk/no-looking-at-dotgit-outside-repo later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" used "name-rev HEAD" when it wants to learn what branch is
+ checked out; it should use "symbolic-ref HEAD".
+ (merge eff451101d ld/p4-current-branch-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "http.proxy" set to an empty string is used to disable the usage of
+ proxy. We broke this early last year.
+ (merge ae51d91105 sr/http-proxy-configuration-fix later to maint).
+
+ * $GIT_DIR may in some cases be normalized with all symlinks resolved
+ while "gitdir" path expansion in the pattern does not receive the
+ same treatment, leading to incorrect mismatch. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git submodule" script does not work well with strange pathnames.
+ Protect it from a path with slashes in them, at least.
+
+ * "git fetch-pack" was not prepared to accept ERR packet that the
+ upload-pack can send with a human-readable error message. It
+ showed the packet contents with ERR prefix, so there was no data
+ loss, but it was redundant to say "ERR" in an error message.
+ (merge 8e2c7bef03 jt/fetch-pack-error-reporting later to maint).
+
+ * "ls-files --recurse-submodules" did not quite work well in a
+ project with nested submodules.
+
+ * gethostname(2) may not NUL terminate the buffer if hostname does
+ not fit; unfortunately there is no easy way to see if our buffer
+ was too small, but at least this will make sure we will not end up
+ using garbage past the end of the buffer.
+ (merge 5781a9a270 dt/xgethostname-nul-termination later to maint).
+
+ * A recent update broke "git add -p ../foo" from a subdirectory.
+
+ * While handy, "git_path()" is a dangerous function to use as a
+ callsite that uses it safely one day can be broken by changes
+ to other code that calls it. Reduction of its use continues.
+ (merge 16d2676c9e jk/war-on-git-path later to maint).
+
+ * The split-index code configuration code used an unsafe git_path()
+ function without copying its result out.
+
+ * Many stale HTTP(s) links have been updated in our documentation.
+ (merge 613416f0be jk/update-links-in-docs later to maint).
+
+ * "git-shell" rejects a request to serve a repository whose name
+ begins with a dash, which makes it no longer possible to get it
+ confused into spawning service programs like "git-upload-pack" with
+ an option like "--help", which in turn would spawn an interactive
+ pager, instead of working with the repository user asked to access
+ (i.e. the one whose name is "--help").
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge df2a6e38b7 jk/pager-in-use later to maint).
+ (merge 75ec4a6cb0 ab/branch-list-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 3e5b36c637 sg/skip-prefix-in-prettify-refname later to maint).
+ (merge 2c5e2865cc jk/fast-import-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 4473060bc2 ab/test-readme-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 48a96972fd ab/doc-submitting later to maint).
+ (merge f5c2bc2b96 jk/make-coccicheck-detect-errors later to maint).
+ (merge c105f563d1 cc/untracked later to maint).
+ (merge 8668976b53 jc/unused-symbols later to maint).
+ (merge fba275dc93 jc/bs-t-is-not-a-tab-for-sed later to maint).
+ (merge be6ed145de mm/ls-files-s-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 60b091c679 qp/bisect-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge 47242cd103 ah/diff-files-ours-theirs-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 35ad44cbd8 sb/submodule-rm-absorb later to maint).
+ (merge 0301f1fd92 va/i18n-perl-scripts later to maint).
+ (merge 733e064d98 vn/revision-shorthand-for-side-branch-log later to maint).
+ (merge 85999743e7 tb/doc-eol-normalization later to maint).
+ (merge 0747fb49fd jk/loose-object-fsck later to maint).
+ (merge d8f4481c4f jk/quarantine-received-objects later to maint).
+ (merge 7ba1ceef95 xy/format-patch-base later to maint).
+ (merge fa1912c89a rs/misc-cppcheck-fixes later to maint).
+ (merge f17d642d3b ab/push-cas-doc-n-test later to maint).
+ (merge 61e282425a ss/gitmodules-ignore-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 8d3047cd5b ss/submodule-shallow-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 1f9e18b772 jk/prio-queue-avoid-swap-with-self later to maint).
+ (merge 627fde1025 jk/submodule-init-segv-fix later to maint).
+ (merge d395745d81 rg/doc-pull-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 01e60a9a22 rg/doc-submittingpatches-wordfix later to maint).
+ (merge 501d3cd7b8 sr/hooks-cwd-doc later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ed7cd97
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,114 @@
+Git v2.13.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.13
+-----------------
+
+ * The Web interface to gmane news archive is long gone, even though
+ the articles are still accessible via NTTP. Replace the links with
+ ones to public-inbox.org. Because their message identification is
+ based on the actual message-id, it is likely that it will be easier
+ to migrate away from it if/when necessary.
+
+ * Update tests to pass under GETTEXT_POISON (a mechanism to ensure
+ that output strings that should not be translated are not
+ translated by mistake), and tell TravisCI to run them.
+
+ * Setting "log.decorate=false" in the configuration file did not take
+ effect in v2.13, which has been corrected.
+
+ * An earlier update to test 7400 needed to be skipped on CYGWIN.
+
+ * Git sometimes gives an advice in a rhetorical question that does
+ not require an answer, which can confuse new users and non native
+ speakers. Attempt to rephrase them.
+
+ * "git read-tree -m" (no tree-ish) gave a nonsense suggestion "use
+ --empty if you want to clear the index". With "-m", such a request
+ will still fail anyway, as you'd need to name at least one tree-ish
+ to be merged.
+
+ * The codepath in "git am" that is used when running "git rebase"
+ leaked memory held for the log message of the commits being rebased.
+
+ * "pack-objects" can stream a slice of an existing packfile out when
+ the pack bitmap can tell that the reachable objects are all needed
+ in the output, without inspecting individual objects. This
+ strategy however would not work well when "--local" and other
+ options are in use, and need to be disabled.
+
+ * Clarify documentation for include.path and includeIf.<condition>.path
+ configuration variables.
+
+ * Tag objects, which are not reachable from any ref, that point at
+ missing objects were mishandled by "git gc" and friends (they
+ should silently be ignored instead)
+
+ * A few http:// links that are redirected to https:// in the
+ documentation have been updated to https:// links.
+
+ * Make sure our tests would pass when the sources are checked out
+ with "platform native" line ending convention by default on
+ Windows. Some "text" files out tests use and the test scripts
+ themselves that are meant to be run with /bin/sh, ought to be
+ checked out with eol=LF even on Windows.
+
+ * Fix memory leaks pointed out by Coverity (and people).
+
+ * The receive-pack program now makes sure that the push certificate
+ records the same set of push options used for pushing.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" and other uses of the sequencer machinery
+ mishandled a trailer block whose last line is an incomplete line.
+ This has been fixed so that an additional sign-off etc. are added
+ after completing the existing incomplete line.
+
+ * The shell completion script (in contrib/) learned "git stash" has
+ a new "push" subcommand.
+
+ * Travis CI gained a task to format the documentation with both
+ AsciiDoc and AsciiDoctor.
+
+ * Update the C style recommendation for notes for translators, as
+ recent versions of gettext tools can work with our style of
+ multi-line comments.
+
+ * "git clone --config var=val" is a way to populate the
+ per-repository configuration file of the new repository, but it did
+ not work well when val is an empty string. This has been fixed.
+
+ * A few codepaths in "checkout" and "am" working on an unborn branch
+ tried to access an uninitialized piece of memory.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." with %(HEAD) in the format used to
+ resolve the HEAD symref as many times as it had processed refs,
+ which was wasteful, and "git branch" shared the same problem.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers", when used as GIT_EDITOR for "git commit
+ -v", looked for and appended to a trailer block at the very end,
+ i.e. at the end of the "diff" output. The command has been
+ corrected to pay attention to the cut-mark line "commit -v" adds to
+ the buffer---the real trailer block should appear just before it.
+
+ * A test allowed both "git push" and "git receive-pack" on the other
+ end write their traces into the same file. This is OK on platforms
+ that allows atomically appending to a file opened with O_APPEND,
+ but on other platforms led to a mangled output, causing
+ intermittent test failures. This has been fixed by disabling
+ traces from "receive-pack" in the test.
+
+ * "foo\bar\baz" in "git fetch foo\bar\baz", even though there is no
+ slashes in it, cannot be a nickname for a remote on Windows, as
+ that is likely to be a pathname on a local filesystem.
+
+ * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13
+ was quite broken on some big-endian platforms and/or platforms that
+ do not like unaligned fetches. Update to the upstream code which
+ has already fixed these issues.
+
+ * "git am -h" triggered a BUG().
+
+ * The interaction of "url.*.insteadOf" and custom URL scheme's
+ whitelisting is now documented better.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8c2b200
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,54 @@
+Git v2.13.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.13.1
+-------------------
+
+ * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13.1
+ was still broken on some platforms. Update to the upstream code
+ again to take their fix.
+
+ * "git checkout --recurse-submodules" did not quite work with a
+ submodule that itself has submodules.
+
+ * Introduce the BUG() macro to improve die("BUG: ...").
+
+ * The "run-command" API implementation has been made more robust
+ against dead-locking in a threaded environment.
+
+ * A recent update to t5545-push-options.sh started skipping all the
+ tests in the script when a web server testing is disabled or
+ unavailable, not just the ones that require a web server. Non HTTP
+ tests have been salvaged to always run in this script.
+
+ * "git clean -d" used to clean directories that has ignored files,
+ even though the command should not lose ignored ones without "-x".
+ "git status --ignored" did not list ignored and untracked files
+ without "-uall". These have been corrected.
+
+ * The timestamp of the index file is now taken after the file is
+ closed, to help Windows, on which a stale timestamp is reported by
+ fstat() on a file that is opened for writing and data was written
+ but not yet closed.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase --autostash" didn't auto-stash when the local history
+ fast-forwards to the upstream.
+
+ * "git describe --contains" penalized light-weight tags so much that
+ they were almost never considered. Instead, give them about the
+ same chance to be considered as an annotated tag that is the same
+ age as the underlying commit would.
+
+ * The result from "git diff" that compares two blobs, e.g. "git diff
+ $commit1:$path $commit2:$path", used to be shown with the full
+ object name as given on the command line, but it is more natural to
+ use the $path in the output and use it to look up .gitattributes.
+
+ * A flaky test has been corrected.
+
+ * Help contributors that visit us at GitHub.
+
+ * "git stash push <pathspec>" did not work from a subdirectory at all.
+ Bugfix for a topic in v2.13
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5d76ad5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+Git v2.13.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.13.2
+-------------------
+
+ * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13.2
+ was still broken on some platforms. Update to the upstream code
+ again to take their fix.
+
+ * The 'diff-highlight' program (in contrib/) has been restructured
+ for easier reuse by an external project 'diff-so-fancy'.
+
+ * "git mergetool" learned to work around a wrapper MacOS X adds
+ around underlying meld.
+
+ * An example in documentation that does not work in multi worktree
+ configuration has been corrected.
+
+ * The pretty-format specifiers like '%h', '%t', etc. had an
+ optimization that no longer works correctly. In preparation/hope
+ of getting it correctly implemented, first discard the optimization
+ that is broken.
+
+ * The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
+ configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
+ then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
+ unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
+
+ * "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom
+ core.commentchar but the implementation was buggy and a
+ metacharacter like $ and * did not work.
+
+ * Fix a recent regression to "git rebase -i" and add tests that would
+ have caught it and others.
+
+ * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code ahs been corrected.
+
+ * Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input.
+
+ * The split index code did not honor core.sharedrepository setting
+ correctly.
+
+ * The Makefile rule in contrib/subtree for building documentation
+ learned to honour USE_ASCIIDOCTOR just like the main documentation
+ set does.
+
+ * A few tests that tried to verify the contents of push certificates
+ did not use 'git rev-parse' to formulate the line to look for in
+ the certificate correctly.
+
+ * After "git branch --move" of the currently checked out branch, the
+ code to walk the reflog of HEAD via "log -g" and friends
+ incorrectly stopped at the reflog entry that records the renaming
+ of the branch.
+
+ * The rewrite of "git branch --list" using for-each-ref's internals
+ that happened in v2.13 regressed its handling of color.branch.local;
+ this has been fixed.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9a9f8f9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+Git v2.13.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.13.3
+-------------------
+
+ * Update the character width tables.
+
+ * A recent update broke an alias that contained an uppercase letter,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * On Cygwin, similar to Windows, "git push //server/share/repository"
+ ought to mean a repository on a network share that can be accessed
+ locally, but this did not work correctly due to stripping the double
+ slashes at the beginning.
+
+ * The progress meter did not give a useful output when we haven't had
+ 0.5 seconds to measure the throughput during the interval. Instead
+ show the overall throughput rate at the end, which is a much more
+ useful number.
+
+ * We run an early part of "git gc" that deals with refs before
+ daemonising (and not under lock) even when running a background
+ auto-gc, which caused multiple gc processes attempting to run the
+ early part at the same time. This is now prevented by running the
+ early part also under the GC lock.
+
+Also contains a handful of small code and documentation clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6949fcd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+Git v2.13.5 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release forward-ports the fix for "ssh://..." URL from Git v2.7.6
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..afcae9c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
+Git v2.13.6 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.13.5
+-------------------
+
+ * "git cvsserver" no longer is invoked by "git daemon" by default,
+ as it is old and largely unmaintained.
+
+ * Various Perl scripts did not use safe_pipe_capture() instead of
+ backticks, leaving them susceptible to end-user input. They have
+ been corrected.
+
+Credits go to joernchen <joernchen@phenoelit.de> for finding the
+unsafe constructs in "git cvsserver", and to Jeff King at GitHub for
+finding and fixing instances of the same issue in other scripts.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4246c68
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,517 @@
+Git 2.14 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a
+ more explicit '.' for that instead. The hope is that existing
+ users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be
+ turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of
+ this (mis)feature. That is not scheduled to happen in the upcoming
+ release (yet).
+
+ * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
+ sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository. A corner case that
+ happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").
+ We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there
+ might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are
+ greatly appreciated.
+
+ * The experiment to improve the hunk-boundary selection of textual
+ diff output has finished, and the "indent heuristics" has now
+ become the default.
+
+ * Git can now be built with PCRE v2 instead of v1 of the PCRE
+ library. Replace USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease with USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease
+ in existing build scripts to build against the new version. As the
+ upstream PCRE maintainer has abandoned v1 maintenance for all but
+ the most critical bug fixes, use of v2 is recommended.
+
+
+Updates since v2.13
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * The colors in which "git status --short --branch" showed the names
+ of the current branch and its remote-tracking branch are now
+ configurable.
+
+ * "git clone" learned the "--no-tags" option not to fetch all tags
+ initially, and also set up the tagopt not to follow any tags in
+ subsequent fetches.
+
+ * "git archive --format=zip" learned to use zip64 extension when
+ necessary to go beyond the 4GB limit.
+
+ * "git reset" learned "--recurse-submodules" option.
+
+ * "git diff --submodule=diff" now recurses into nested submodules.
+
+ * "git repack" learned to accept the --threads=<n> option and pass it
+ to pack-objects.
+
+ * "git send-email" learned to run sendemail-validate hook to inspect
+ and reject a message before sending it out.
+
+ * There is no good reason why "git fetch $there $sha1" should fail
+ when the $sha1 names an object at the tip of an advertised ref,
+ even when the other side hasn't enabled allowTipSHA1InWant.
+
+ * The "[includeIf "gitdir:$dir"] path=..." mechanism introduced in
+ 2.13.0 would canonicalize the path of the gitdir being matched,
+ and did not match e.g. "gitdir:~/work/*" against a repo in
+ "~/work/main" if "~/work" was a symlink to "/mnt/storage/work".
+ Now we match both the resolved canonical path and what "pwd" would
+ show. The include will happen if either one matches.
+
+ * The "indent" heuristics is now the default in "diff". The
+ diff.indentHeuristic configuration variable can be set to "false"
+ for those who do not want it.
+
+ * Many commands learned to pay attention to submodule.recurse
+ configuration.
+
+ * The convention for a command line is to follow "git cmdname
+ --options" with revisions followed by an optional "--"
+ disambiguator and then finally pathspecs. When "--" is not there,
+ we make sure early ones are all interpretable as revs (and do not
+ look like paths) and later ones are the other way around. A
+ pathspec with "magic" (e.g. ":/p/a/t/h" that matches p/a/t/h from
+ the top-level of the working tree, no matter what subdirectory you
+ are working from) are conservatively judged as "not a path", which
+ required disambiguation more often. The command line parser
+ learned to say "it's a pathspec" a bit more often when the syntax
+ looks like so.
+
+ * Update "perl-compatible regular expression" support to enable JIT
+ and also allow linking with the newer PCRE v2 library.
+
+ * "filter-branch" learned a pseudo filter "--setup" that can be used
+ to define common functions/variables that can be used by other
+ filters.
+
+ * Using "git add d/i/r" when d/i/r is the top of the working tree of
+ a separate repository would create a gitlink in the index, which
+ would appear as a not-quite-initialized submodule to others. We
+ learned to give warnings when this happens.
+
+ * "git status" learned to optionally give how many stash entries there
+ are in its output.
+
+ * "git status" has long shown essentially the same message as "git
+ commit"; the message it gives while preparing for the root commit,
+ i.e. "Initial commit", was hard to understand for some new users.
+ Now it says "No commits yet" to stress more on the current status
+ (rather than the commit the user is preparing for, which is more in
+ line with the focus of "git commit").
+
+ * "git send-email" now has --batch-size and --relogin-delay options
+ which can be used to overcome limitations on SMTP servers that
+ restrict on how many of e-mails can be sent in a single session.
+
+ * An old message shown in the commit log template was removed, as it
+ has outlived its usefulness.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase --recurse-submodules" learns to rebase the
+ branch in the submodules to an updated base.
+
+ * "git log" learned -P as a synonym for --perl-regexp, "git grep"
+ already had such a synonym.
+
+ * "git log" didn't understand --regexp-ignore-case when combined with
+ --perl-regexp. This has been fixed.
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The default packed-git limit value has been raised on larger
+ platforms to save "git fetch" from a (recoverable) failure while
+ "gc" is running in parallel.
+
+ * Code to update the cache-tree has been tightened so that we won't
+ accidentally write out any 0{40} entry in the tree object.
+
+ * Attempt to allow us notice "fishy" situation where we fail to
+ remove the temporary directory used during the test.
+
+ * Travis CI gained a task to format the documentation with both
+ AsciiDoc and AsciiDoctor.
+
+ * Some platforms have ulong that is smaller than time_t, and our
+ historical use of ulong for timestamp would mean they cannot
+ represent some timestamp that the platform allows. Invent a
+ separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distingiuish
+ timestamps and a vanilla ulongs, which along is already a good
+ move), and then declare uintmax_t is the type to be used as the
+ timestamp_t.
+
+ * We can trigger Windows auto-build tester (credits: Dscho &
+ Microsoft) from our existing Travis CI tester now.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Simplify parse_pathspec() codepath and stop it from looking at the
+ default in-core index.
+
+ * Add perf-test for wildmatch.
+
+ * Code from "conversion using external process" codepath has been
+ extracted to a separate sub-process.[ch] module.
+
+ * When "git checkout", "git merge", etc. manipulates the in-core
+ index, various pieces of information in the index extensions are
+ discarded from the original state, as it is usually not the case
+ that they are kept up-to-date and in-sync with the operation on the
+ main index. The untracked cache extension is copied across these
+ operations now, which would speed up "git status" (as long as the
+ cache is properly invalidated).
+
+ * The internal implementation of "git grep" has seen some clean-up.
+
+ * Update the C style recommendation for notes for translators, as
+ recent versions of gettext tools can work with our style of
+ multi-line comments.
+
+ * The implementation of "ref" API around the "packed refs" have been
+ cleaned up, in preparation for further changes.
+
+ * The internal logic used in "git blame" has been libified to make it
+ easier to use by cgit.
+
+ * Our code often opens a path to an optional file, to work on its
+ contents when we can successfully open it. We can ignore a failure
+ to open if such an optional file does not exist, but we do want to
+ report a failure in opening for other reasons (e.g. we got an I/O
+ error, or the file is there, but we lack the permission to open).
+
+ The exact errors we need to ignore are ENOENT (obviously) and
+ ENOTDIR (less obvious). Instead of repeating comparison of errno
+ with these two constants, introduce a helper function to do so.
+
+ * We often try to open a file for reading whose existence is
+ optional, and silently ignore errors from open/fopen; report such
+ errors if they are not due to missing files.
+
+ * When an existing repository is used for t/perf testing, we first
+ create bit-for-bit copy of it, which may grab a transient state of
+ the repository and freeze it into the repository used for testing,
+ which then may cause Git operations to fail. Single out "the index
+ being locked" case and forcibly drop the lock from the copy.
+
+ * Three instances of the same helper function have been consolidated
+ to one.
+
+ * "fast-import" uses a default pack chain depth that is consistent
+ with other parts of the system.
+
+ * A new test to show the interaction between the pattern [^a-z]
+ (which matches '/') and a slash in a path has been added. The
+ pattern should not match the slash with "pathmatch", but should
+ with "wildmatch".
+
+ * The 'diff-highlight' program (in contrib/) has been restructured
+ for easier reuse by an external project 'diff-so-fancy'.
+
+ * A common pattern to free a piece of memory and assign NULL to the
+ pointer that used to point at it has been replaced with a new
+ FREE_AND_NULL() macro.
+
+ * Traditionally, the default die() routine had a code to prevent it
+ from getting called multiple times, which interacted badly when a
+ threaded program used it (one downside is that the real error may
+ be hidden and instead the only error message given to the user may
+ end up being "die recursion detected", which is not very useful).
+
+ * Introduce a "repository" object to eventually make it easier to
+ work in multiple repositories (the primary focus is to work with
+ the superproject and its submodules) in a single process.
+
+ * Optimize "what are the object names already taken in an alternate
+ object database?" query that is used to derive the length of prefix
+ an object name is uniquely abbreviated to.
+
+ * The hashmap API has been updated so that data to customize the
+ behaviour of the comparison function can be specified at the time a
+ hashmap is initialized.
+
+ * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13 is
+ now integrated into git.git as a submodule (the first submodule to
+ ship with git.git). Clone git.git with --recurse-submodules to get
+ it. For now a non-submodule copy of the same code is also shipped
+ as part of the tree.
+
+ * A recent update made it easier to use "-fsanitize=" option while
+ compiling but supported only one sanitize option. Allow more than
+ one to be combined, joined with a comma, like "make SANITIZE=foo,bar".
+
+ * Use "p4 -G" to make "p4 changes" output more Python-friendly
+ to parse.
+
+ * We started using "%" PRItime, imitating "%" PRIuMAX and friends, as
+ a way to format the internal timestamp value, but this does not
+ play well with gettext(1) i18n framework, and causes "make pot"
+ that is run by the l10n coordinator to create a broken po/git.pot
+ file. This is a possible workaround for that problem.
+
+ * It turns out that Cygwin also needs the fopen() wrapper that
+ returns failure when a directory is opened for reading.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.13
+-----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.13 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git gc" did not interact well with "git worktree"-managed
+ per-worktree refs.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" and other uses of the sequencer machinery
+ mishandled a trailer block whose last line is an incomplete line.
+ This has been fixed so that an additional sign-off etc. are added
+ after completing the existing incomplete line.
+
+ * The codepath in "git am" that is used when running "git rebase"
+ leaked memory held for the log message of the commits being rebased.
+
+ * "git clone --config var=val" is a way to populate the
+ per-repository configuration file of the new repository, but it did
+ not work well when val is an empty string. This has been fixed.
+
+ * Setting "log.decorate=false" in the configuration file did not take
+ effect in v2.13, which has been corrected.
+
+ * A few codepaths in "checkout" and "am" working on an unborn branch
+ tried to access an uninitialized piece of memory.
+
+ * The Web interface to gmane news archive is long gone, even though
+ the articles are still accessible via NTTP. Replace the links with
+ ones to public-inbox.org. Because their message identification is
+ based on the actual message-id, it is likely that it will be easier
+ to migrate away from it if/when necessary.
+
+ * The receive-pack program now makes sure that the push certificate
+ records the same set of push options used for pushing.
+
+ * Tests have been updated to pass under GETTEXT_POISON (a mechanism
+ to ensure that output strings that should not be translated are
+ not translated by mistake), and TravisCI is told to run them.
+
+ * "git checkout --recurse-submodules" did not quite work with a
+ submodule that itself has submodules.
+
+ * "pack-objects" can stream a slice of an existing packfile out when
+ the pack bitmap can tell that the reachable objects are all needed
+ in the output, without inspecting individual objects. This
+ strategy however would not work well when "--local" and other
+ options are in use, and need to be disabled.
+
+ * Fix memory leaks pointed out by Coverity (and people).
+
+ * "git read-tree -m" (no tree-ish) gave a nonsense suggestion "use
+ --empty if you want to clear the index". With "-m", such a request
+ will still fail anyway, as you'd need to name at least one tree-ish
+ to be merged.
+
+ * Make sure our tests would pass when the sources are checked out
+ with "platform native" line ending convention by default on
+ Windows. Some "text" files out tests use and the test scripts
+ themselves that are meant to be run with /bin/sh, ought to be
+ checked out with eol=LF even on Windows.
+
+ * Introduce the BUG() macro to improve die("BUG: ...").
+
+ * Clarify documentation for include.path and includeIf.<condition>.path
+ configuration variables.
+
+ * Git sometimes gives an advice in a rhetorical question that does
+ not require an answer, which can confuse new users and non native
+ speakers. Attempt to rephrase them.
+
+ * A few http:// links that are redirected to https:// in the
+ documentation have been updated to https:// links.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." with %(HEAD) in the format used to
+ resolve the HEAD symref as many times as it had processed refs,
+ which was wasteful, and "git branch" shared the same problem.
+
+ * Regression fix to topic recently merged to 'master'.
+
+ * The shell completion script (in contrib/) learned "git stash" has
+ a new "push" subcommand.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers", when used as GIT_EDITOR for "git commit
+ -v", looked for and appended to a trailer block at the very end,
+ i.e. at the end of the "diff" output. The command has been
+ corrected to pay attention to the cut-mark line "commit -v" adds to
+ the buffer---the real trailer block should appear just before it.
+
+ * A test allowed both "git push" and "git receive-pack" on the other
+ end write their traces into the same file. This is OK on platforms
+ that allows atomically appending to a file opened with O_APPEND,
+ but on other platforms led to a mangled output, causing
+ intermittent test failures. This has been fixed by disabling
+ traces from "receive-pack" in the test.
+
+ * Tag objects, which are not reachable from any ref, that point at
+ missing objects were mishandled by "git gc" and friends (they
+ should silently be ignored instead)
+
+ * "git describe --contains" penalized light-weight tags so much that
+ they were almost never considered. Instead, give them about the
+ same chance to be considered as an annotated tag that is the same
+ age as the underlying commit would.
+
+ * The "run-command" API implementation has been made more robust
+ against dead-locking in a threaded environment.
+
+ * A recent update to t5545-push-options.sh started skipping all the
+ tests in the script when a web server testing is disabled or
+ unavailable, not just the ones that require a web server. Non HTTP
+ tests have been salvaged to always run in this script.
+
+ * "git send-email" now uses Net::SMTP::SSL, which is obsolete, only
+ when needed. Recent versions of Net::SMTP can do TLS natively.
+
+ * "foo\bar\baz" in "git fetch foo\bar\baz", even though there is no
+ slashes in it, cannot be a nickname for a remote on Windows, as
+ that is likely to be a pathname on a local filesystem.
+
+ * "git clean -d" used to clean directories that has ignored files,
+ even though the command should not lose ignored ones without "-x".
+ "git status --ignored" did not list ignored and untracked files
+ without "-uall". These have been corrected.
+
+ * The result from "git diff" that compares two blobs, e.g. "git diff
+ $commit1:$path $commit2:$path", used to be shown with the full
+ object name as given on the command line, but it is more natural to
+ use the $path in the output and use it to look up .gitattributes.
+
+ * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13
+ was quite broken on some big-endian platforms and/or platforms that
+ do not like unaligned fetches. Update to the upstream code which
+ has already fixed these issues.
+
+ * "git am -h" triggered a BUG().
+
+ * The interaction of "url.*.insteadOf" and custom URL scheme's
+ whitelisting is now documented better.
+
+ * The timestamp of the index file is now taken after the file is
+ closed, to help Windows, on which a stale timestamp is reported by
+ fstat() on a file that is opened for writing and data was written
+ but not yet closed.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase --autostash" didn't auto-stash when the local history
+ fast-forwards to the upstream.
+
+ * A flaky test has been corrected.
+
+ * "git $cmd -h" for builtin commands calls the implementation of the
+ command (i.e. cmd_$cmd() function) without doing any repository
+ set-up, and the commands that expect RUN_SETUP is done by the Git
+ potty needs to be prepared to show the help text without barfing.
+ (merge d691551192 jk/consistent-h later to maint).
+
+ * Help contributors that visit us at GitHub.
+
+ * "git stash push <pathspec>" did not work from a subdirectory at all.
+ Bugfix for a topic in v2.13
+
+ * As there is no portable way to pass timezone information to
+ strftime, some output format from "git log" and friends are
+ impossible to produce. Teach our own strbuf_addftime to replace %z
+ and %Z with caller-supplied values to help working around this.
+ (merge 6eced3ec5e rs/strbuf-addftime-zZ later to maint).
+
+ * "git mergetool" learned to work around a wrapper MacOS X adds
+ around underlying meld.
+
+ * An example in documentation that does not work in multi worktree
+ configuration has been corrected.
+
+ * The pretty-format specifiers like '%h', '%t', etc. had an
+ optimization that no longer works correctly. In preparation/hope
+ of getting it correctly implemented, first discard the optimization
+ that is broken.
+
+ * The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
+ configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
+ then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
+ unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
+
+ * Fix configuration codepath to pay proper attention to commondir
+ that is used in multi-worktree situation, and isolate config API
+ into its own header file.
+ (merge dc8441fdb4 bw/config-h later to maint).
+
+ * "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom
+ core.commentchar but the implementation was buggy and a
+ metacharacter like $ and * did not work.
+
+ * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" has been fixed and tests
+ that would have caught it and others have been added.
+
+ * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code has been corrected.
+
+ * Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input.
+
+ * The split index code did not honor core.sharedRepository setting
+ correctly.
+
+ * The Makefile rule in contrib/subtree for building documentation
+ learned to honour USE_ASCIIDOCTOR just like the main documentation
+ set does.
+
+ * Code clean-up to fix possible buffer over-reading.
+
+ * A few tests that tried to verify the contents of push certificates
+ did not use 'git rev-parse' to formulate the line to look for in
+ the certificate correctly.
+
+ * Update the character width tables.
+
+ * After "git branch --move" of the currently checked out branch, the
+ code to walk the reflog of HEAD via "log -g" and friends
+ incorrectly stopped at the reflog entry that records the renaming
+ of the branch.
+
+ * The rewrite of "git branch --list" using for-each-ref's internals
+ that happened in v2.13 regressed its handling of color.branch.local;
+ this has been fixed.
+
+ * The build procedure has been improved to allow building and testing
+ Git with address sanitizer more easily.
+ (merge 425ca6710b jk/build-with-asan later to maint).
+
+ * On Cygwin, similar to Windows, "git push //server/share/repository"
+ ought to mean a repository on a network share that can be accessed
+ locally, but this did not work correctly due to stripping the double
+ slashes at the beginning.
+
+ * The progress meter did not give a useful output when we haven't had
+ 0.5 seconds to measure the throughput during the interval. Instead
+ show the overall throughput rate at the end, which is a much more
+ useful number.
+
+ * Code clean-up, that makes us in sync with Debian by one patch.
+
+ * We run an early part of "git gc" that deals with refs before
+ daemonising (and not under lock) even when running a background
+ auto-gc, which caused multiple gc processes attempting to run the
+ early part at the same time. This is now prevented by running the
+ early part also under the GC lock.
+
+ * A recent update broke an alias that contained an uppercase letter.
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 5053313562 rs/urlmatch-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 42c78a216e rs/use-div-round-up later to maint).
+ (merge 5e8d2729ae rs/wt-status-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge bc9b7e207f as/diff-options-grammofix later to maint).
+ (merge ac05222b31 ah/patch-id-doc later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9403340
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,4 @@
+Git v2.14.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release forward-ports the fix for "ssh://..." URL from Git v2.7.6
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bec9186
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,105 @@
+Git v2.14.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.14.1
+-------------------
+
+ * Because recent Git for Windows do come with a real msgfmt, the
+ build procedure for git-gui has been updated to use it instead of a
+ hand-rolled substitute.
+
+ * "%C(color name)" in the pretty print format always produced ANSI
+ color escape codes, which was an early design mistake. They now
+ honor the configuration (e.g. "color.ui = never") and also tty-ness
+ of the output medium.
+
+ * The http.{sslkey,sslCert} configuration variables are to be
+ interpreted as a pathname that honors "~[username]/" prefix, but
+ weren't, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Numerous bugs in walking of reflogs via "log -g" and friends have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit" when seeing an totally empty message said "you did not
+ edit the message", which is clearly wrong. The message has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * When a directory is not readable, "gitweb" fails to build the
+ project list. Work this around by skipping such a directory.
+
+ * A recently added test for the "credential-cache" helper revealed
+ that EOF detection done around the time the connection to the cache
+ daemon is torn down were flaky. This was fixed by reacting to
+ ECONNRESET and behaving as if we got an EOF.
+
+ * Some versions of GnuPG fail to kill gpg-agent it auto-spawned
+ and such a left-over agent can interfere with a test. Work it
+ around by attempting to kill one before starting a new test.
+
+ * "git log --tag=no-such-tag" showed log starting from HEAD, which
+ has been fixed---it now shows nothing.
+
+ * The "tag.pager" configuration variable was useless for those who
+ actually create tag objects, as it interfered with the use of an
+ editor. A new mechanism has been introduced for commands to enable
+ pager depending on what operation is being carried out to fix this,
+ and then "git tag -l" is made to run pager by default.
+
+ * "git push --recurse-submodules $there HEAD:$target" was not
+ propagated down to the submodules, but now it is.
+
+ * Commands like "git rebase" accepted the --rerere-autoupdate option
+ from the command line, but did not always use it. This has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules --quiet" did not pass the quiet
+ option down to submodules.
+
+ * "git am -s" has been taught that some input may end with a trailer
+ block that is not Signed-off-by: and it should refrain from adding
+ an extra blank line before adding a new sign-off in such a case.
+
+ * "git svn" used with "--localtime" option did not compute the tz
+ offset for the timestamp in question and instead always used the
+ current time, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Memory leaks in a few error codepaths have been plugged.
+
+ * bash 4.4 or newer gave a warning on NUL byte in command
+ substitution done in "git stash"; this has been squelched.
+
+ * "git grep -L" and "git grep --quiet -L" reported different exit
+ codes; this has been corrected.
+
+ * When handshake with a subprocess filter notices that the process
+ asked for an unknown capability, Git did not report what program
+ the offending subprocess was running. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git apply" that is used as a better "patch -p1" failed to apply a
+ taken from a file with CRLF line endings to a file with CRLF line
+ endings. The root cause was because it misused convert_to_git()
+ that tried to do "safe-crlf" processing by looking at the index
+ entry at the same path, which is a nonsense---in that mode, "apply"
+ is not working on the data in (or derived from) the index at all.
+ This has been fixed.
+
+ * Killing "git merge --edit" before the editor returns control left
+ the repository in a state with MERGE_MSG but without MERGE_HEAD,
+ which incorrectly tells the subsequent "git commit" that there was
+ a squash merge in progress. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git archive" did not work well with pathspecs and the
+ export-ignore attribute.
+
+ * "git cvsserver" no longer is invoked by "git daemon" by default,
+ as it is old and largely unmaintained.
+
+ * Various Perl scripts did not use safe_pipe_capture() instead of
+ backticks, leaving them susceptible to end-user input. They have
+ been corrected.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+Credits go to joernchen <joernchen@phenoelit.de> for finding the
+unsafe constructs in "git cvsserver", and to Jeff King at GitHub for
+finding and fixing instances of the same issue in other scripts.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..977c9e8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,99 @@
+Git v2.14.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.14.2
+-------------------
+
+ * A helper function to read a single whole line into strbuf
+ mistakenly triggered OOM error at EOF under certain conditions,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * In addition to "cc: <a@dd.re.ss> # cruft", "cc: a@dd.re.ss # cruft"
+ was taught to "git send-email" as a valid way to tell it that it
+ needs to also send a carbon copy to <a@dd.re.ss> in the trailer
+ section.
+
+ * Fix regression to "gitk --bisect" by a recent update.
+
+ * Unlike "git commit-tree < file", "git commit-tree -F file" did not
+ pass the contents of the file verbatim and instead completed an
+ incomplete line at the end, if exists. The latter has been updated
+ to match the behaviour of the former.
+
+ * "git archive", especially when used with pathspec, stored an empty
+ directory in its output, even though Git itself never does so.
+ This has been fixed.
+
+ * API error-proofing which happens to also squelch warnings from GCC.
+
+ * "git gc" tries to avoid running two instances at the same time by
+ reading and writing pid/host from and to a lock file; it used to
+ use an incorrect fscanf() format when reading, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The test linter has been taught that we do not like "echo -e".
+
+ * Code cmp.std.c nitpick.
+
+ * "git describe --match" learned to take multiple patterns in v2.13
+ series, but the feature ignored the patterns after the first one
+ and did not work at all. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git cat-file --textconv" started segfaulting recently, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The built-in pattern to detect the "function header" for HTML did
+ not match <H1>..<H6> elements without any attributes, which has
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git mailinfo" was loose in decoding quoted printable and produced
+ garbage when the two letters after the equal sign are not
+ hexadecimal. This has been fixed.
+
+ * The documentation for '-X<option>' for merges was misleadingly
+ written to suggest that "-s theirs" exists, which is not the case.
+
+ * Spell the name of our system as "Git" in the output from
+ request-pull script.
+
+ * Fixes for a handful memory access issues identified by valgrind.
+
+ * Backports a moral equivalent of 2015 fix to the poll emulation from
+ the upstream gnulib to fix occasional breakages on HPE NonStop.
+
+ * In the "--format=..." option of the "git for-each-ref" command (and
+ its friends, i.e. the listing mode of "git branch/tag"), "%(atom:)"
+ (e.g. "%(refname:)", "%(body:)" used to error out. Instead, treat
+ them as if the colon and an empty string that follows it were not
+ there.
+
+ * Users with "color.ui = always" in their configuration were broken
+ by a recent change that made plumbing commands to pay attention to
+ them as the patch created internally by "git add -p" were colored
+ (heh) and made unusable. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git branch -M a b" while on a branch that is completely unrelated
+ to either branch a or branch b misbehaved when multiple worktree
+ was in use. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git fast-export" with -M/-C option issued "copy" instruction on a
+ path that is simultaneously modified, which was incorrect.
+
+ * The checkpoint command "git fast-import" did not flush updates to
+ refs and marks unless at least one object was created since the
+ last checkpoint, which has been corrected, as these things can
+ happen without any new object getting created.
+
+ * The scripts to drive TravisCI has been reorganized and then an
+ optimization to avoid spending cycles on a branch whose tip is
+ tagged has been implemented.
+
+ * "git fetch <there> <src>:<dst>" allows an object name on the <src>
+ side when the other side accepts such a request since Git v2.5, but
+ the documentation was left stale.
+
+ * A regression in 2.11 that made the code to read the list of
+ alternate object stores overrun the end of the string has been
+ fixed.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cdd761b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,508 @@
+Git 2.15 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a
+ more explicit '.' for that instead. The hope is that existing
+ users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be
+ turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of
+ this (mis)feature. That is now scheduled to happen in Git v2.16,
+ the next major release after this one.
+
+ * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
+ sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository. A corner case that
+ happens to work right now may be broken by a call to BUG().
+ We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there
+ might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are
+ greatly appreciated.
+
+ * "branch --set-upstream" that has been deprecated in Git 1.8 has
+ finally been retired.
+
+
+Updates since v2.14
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * An example that is now obsolete has been removed from a sample hook,
+ and an old example in it that added a sign-off manually has been
+ improved to use the interpret-trailers command.
+
+ * The advice message given when "git rebase" stops for conflicting
+ changes has been improved.
+
+ * The "rerere-train" script (in contrib/) learned the "--overwrite"
+ option to allow overwriting existing recorded resolutions.
+
+ * "git contacts" (in contrib/) now lists the address on the
+ "Reported-by:" trailer to its output, in addition to those on
+ S-o-b: and other trailers, to make it easier to notify (and thank)
+ the original bug reporter.
+
+ * "git rebase", especially when it is run by mistake and ends up
+ trying to replay many changes, spent long time in silence. The
+ command has been taught to show progress report when it spends
+ long time preparing these many changes to replay (which would give
+ the user a chance to abort with ^C).
+
+ * "git merge" learned a "--signoff" option to add the Signed-off-by:
+ trailer with the committer's name.
+
+ * "git diff" learned to optionally paint new lines that are the same
+ as deleted lines elsewhere differently from genuinely new lines.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" learned to take the trailer specifications
+ from the command line that overrides the configured values.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" has been taught a "--parse" and a few
+ other options to make it easier for scripts to grab existing
+ trailer lines from a commit log message.
+
+ * The "--format=%(trailers)" option "git log" and its friends take
+ learned to take the 'unfold' and 'only' modifiers to normalize its
+ output, e.g. "git log --format=%(trailers:only,unfold)".
+
+ * "gitweb" shows a link to visit the 'raw' contents of blobs in the
+ history overview page.
+
+ * "[gc] rerereResolved = 5.days" used to be invalid, as the variable
+ is defined to take an integer counting the number of days. It now
+ is allowed.
+
+ * The code to acquire a lock on a reference (e.g. while accepting a
+ push from a client) used to immediately fail when the reference is
+ already locked---now it waits for a very short while and retries,
+ which can make it succeed if the lock holder was holding it during
+ a read-only operation.
+
+ * "branch --set-upstream" that has been deprecated in Git 1.8 has
+ finally been retired.
+
+ * The codepath to call external process filter for smudge/clean
+ operation learned to show the progress meter.
+
+ * "git rev-parse" learned "--is-shallow-repository", that is to be
+ used in a way similar to existing "--is-bare-repository" and
+ friends.
+
+ * "git describe --match <pattern>" has been taught to play well with
+ the "--all" option.
+
+ * "git branch" learned "-c/-C" to create a new branch by copying an
+ existing one.
+
+ * Some commands (most notably "git status") makes an opportunistic
+ update when performing a read-only operation to help optimize later
+ operations in the same repository. The new "--no-optional-locks"
+ option can be passed to Git to disable them.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." learned a new format element,
+ %(trailers), to show only the commit log trailer part of the log
+ message.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Start using selected c99 constructs in small, stable and
+ essential part of the system to catch people who care about
+ older compilers that do not grok them.
+
+ * The filter-process interface learned to allow a process with long
+ latency give a "delayed" response.
+
+ * Many uses of comparison callback function the hashmap API uses
+ cast the callback function type when registering it to
+ hashmap_init(), which defeats the compile time type checking when
+ the callback interface changes (e.g. gaining more parameters).
+ The callback implementations have been updated to take "void *"
+ pointers and cast them to the type they expect instead.
+
+ * Because recent Git for Windows do come with a real msgfmt, the
+ build procedure for git-gui has been updated to use it instead of a
+ hand-rolled substitute.
+
+ * "git grep --recurse-submodules" has been reworked to give a more
+ consistent output across submodule boundary (and do its thing
+ without having to fork a separate process).
+
+ * A helper function to read a single whole line into strbuf
+ mistakenly triggered OOM error at EOF under certain conditions,
+ which has been fixed.
+
+ * The "ref-store" code reorganization continues.
+
+ * "git commit" used to discard the index and re-read from the filesystem
+ just in case the pre-commit hook has updated it in the middle; this
+ has been optimized out when we know we do not run the pre-commit hook.
+ (merge 680ee550d7 kw/commit-keep-index-when-pre-commit-is-not-run later to maint).
+
+ * Updates to the HTTP layer we made recently unconditionally used
+ features of libCurl without checking the existence of them, causing
+ compilation errors, which has been fixed. Also migrate the code to
+ check feature macros, not version numbers, to cope better with
+ libCurl that vendor ships with backported features.
+
+ * The API to start showing progress meter after a short delay has
+ been simplified.
+ (merge 8aade107dd jc/simplify-progress later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid mixing values read from the .gitmodules file
+ and values read from the .git/config file.
+
+ * We used to spend more than necessary cycles allocating and freeing
+ piece of memory while writing each index entry out. This has been
+ optimized.
+
+ * Platforms that ship with a separate sha1 with collision detection
+ library can link to it instead of using the copy we ship as part of
+ our source tree.
+
+ * Code around "notes" have been cleaned up.
+ (merge 3964281524 mh/notes-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * The long-standing rule that an in-core lockfile instance, once it
+ is used, must not be freed, has been lifted and the lockfile and
+ tempfile APIs have been updated to reduce the chance of programming
+ errors.
+
+ * Our hashmap implementation in hashmap.[ch] is not thread-safe when
+ adding a new item needs to expand the hashtable by rehashing; add
+ an API to disable the automatic rehashing to work it around.
+
+ * Many of our programs consider that it is OK to release dynamic
+ storage that is used throughout the life of the program by simply
+ exiting, but this makes it harder to leak detection tools to avoid
+ reporting false positives. Plug many existing leaks and introduce
+ a mechanism for developers to mark that the region of memory
+ pointed by a pointer is not lost/leaking to help these tools.
+
+ * As "git commit" to conclude a conflicted "git merge" honors the
+ commit-msg hook, "git merge" that records a merge commit that
+ cleanly auto-merges should, but it didn't.
+
+ * The codepath for "git merge-recursive" has been cleaned up.
+
+ * Many leaks of strbuf have been fixed.
+
+ * "git imap-send" has our own implementation of the protocol and also
+ can use more recent libCurl with the imap protocol support. Update
+ the latter so that it can use the credential subsystem, and then
+ make it the default option to use, so that we can eventually
+ deprecate and remove the former.
+
+ * "make style" runs git-clang-format to help developers by pointing
+ out coding style issues.
+
+ * A test to demonstrate "git mv" failing to adjust nested submodules
+ has been added.
+ (merge c514167df2 hv/mv-nested-submodules-test later to maint).
+
+ * On Cygwin, "ulimit -s" does not report failure but it does not work
+ at all, which causes an unexpected success of some tests that
+ expect failures under a limited stack situation. This has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * Many codepaths have been updated to squelch -Wimplicit-fallthrough
+ warnings from Gcc 7 (which is a good code hygiene).
+
+ * Add a helper for DLL loading in anticipation for its need in a
+ future topic RSN.
+
+ * "git status --ignored", when noticing that a directory without any
+ tracked path is ignored, still enumerated all the ignored paths in
+ the directory, which is unnecessary. The codepath has been
+ optimized to avoid this overhead.
+
+ * The final batch to "git rebase -i" updates to move more code from
+ the shell script to C has been merged.
+
+ * Operations that do not touch (majority of) packed refs have been
+ optimized by making accesses to packed-refs file lazy; we no longer
+ pre-parse everything, and an access to a single ref in the
+ packed-refs does not touch majority of irrelevant refs, either.
+
+ * Add comment to clarify that the style file is meant to be used with
+ clang-5 and the rules are still work in progress.
+
+ * Many variables that points at a region of memory that will live
+ throughout the life of the program have been marked with UNLEAK
+ marker to help the leak checkers concentrate on real leaks..
+
+ * Plans for weaning us off of SHA-1 has been documented.
+
+ * A new "oidmap" API has been introduced and oidset API has been
+ rewritten to use it.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.14
+-----------------
+
+ * "%C(color name)" in the pretty print format always produced ANSI
+ color escape codes, which was an early design mistake. They now
+ honor the configuration (e.g. "color.ui = never") and also tty-ness
+ of the output medium.
+
+ * The http.{sslkey,sslCert} configuration variables are to be
+ interpreted as a pathname that honors "~[username]/" prefix, but
+ weren't, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Numerous bugs in walking of reflogs via "log -g" and friends have
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git commit" when seeing an totally empty message said "you did not
+ edit the message", which is clearly wrong. The message has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * When a directory is not readable, "gitweb" fails to build the
+ project list. Work this around by skipping such a directory.
+
+ * Some versions of GnuPG fails to kill gpg-agent it auto-spawned
+ and such a left-over agent can interfere with a test. Work it
+ around by attempting to kill one before starting a new test.
+
+ * A recently added test for the "credential-cache" helper revealed
+ that EOF detection done around the time the connection to the cache
+ daemon is torn down were flaky. This was fixed by reacting to
+ ECONNRESET and behaving as if we got an EOF.
+
+ * "git log --tag=no-such-tag" showed log starting from HEAD, which
+ has been fixed---it now shows nothing.
+
+ * The "tag.pager" configuration variable was useless for those who
+ actually create tag objects, as it interfered with the use of an
+ editor. A new mechanism has been introduced for commands to enable
+ pager depending on what operation is being carried out to fix this,
+ and then "git tag -l" is made to run pager by default.
+
+ * "git push --recurse-submodules $there HEAD:$target" was not
+ propagated down to the submodules, but now it is.
+
+ * Commands like "git rebase" accepted the --rerere-autoupdate option
+ from the command line, but did not always use it. This has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules --quiet" did not pass the quiet
+ option down to submodules.
+
+ * Test portability fix for OBSD.
+
+ * Portability fix for OBSD.
+
+ * "git am -s" has been taught that some input may end with a trailer
+ block that is not Signed-off-by: and it should refrain from adding
+ an extra blank line before adding a new sign-off in such a case.
+
+ * "git svn" used with "--localtime" option did not compute the tz
+ offset for the timestamp in question and instead always used the
+ current time, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Memory leak in an error codepath has been plugged.
+
+ * "git stash -u" used the contents of the committed version of the
+ ".gitignore" file to decide which paths are ignored, even when the
+ file has local changes. The command has been taught to instead use
+ the locally modified contents.
+
+ * bash 4.4 or newer gave a warning on NUL byte in command
+ substitution done in "git stash"; this has been squelched.
+
+ * "git grep -L" and "git grep --quiet -L" reported different exit
+ codes; this has been corrected.
+
+ * When handshake with a subprocess filter notices that the process
+ asked for an unknown capability, Git did not report what program
+ the offending subprocess was running. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git apply" that is used as a better "patch -p1" failed to apply a
+ taken from a file with CRLF line endings to a file with CRLF line
+ endings. The root cause was because it misused convert_to_git()
+ that tried to do "safe-crlf" processing by looking at the index
+ entry at the same path, which is a nonsense---in that mode, "apply"
+ is not working on the data in (or derived from) the index at all.
+ This has been fixed.
+
+ * Killing "git merge --edit" before the editor returns control left
+ the repository in a state with MERGE_MSG but without MERGE_HEAD,
+ which incorrectly tells the subsequent "git commit" that there was
+ a squash merge in progress. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git archive" did not work well with pathspecs and the
+ export-ignore attribute.
+
+ * In addition to "cc: <a@dd.re.ss> # cruft", "cc: a@dd.re.ss # cruft"
+ was taught to "git send-email" as a valid way to tell it that it
+ needs to also send a carbon copy to <a@dd.re.ss> in the trailer
+ section.
+
+ * "git branch -M a b" while on a branch that is completely unrelated
+ to either branch a or branch b misbehaved when multiple worktree
+ was in use. This has been fixed.
+ (merge 31824d180d nd/worktree-kill-parse-ref later to maint).
+
+ * "git gc" and friends when multiple worktrees are used off of a
+ single repository did not consider the index and per-worktree refs
+ of other worktrees as the root for reachability traversal, making
+ objects that are in use only in other worktrees to be subject to
+ garbage collection.
+
+ * A regression to "gitk --bisect" by a recent update has been fixed.
+
+ * "git -c submodule.recurse=yes pull" did not work as if the
+ "--recurse-submodules" option was given from the command line.
+ This has been corrected.
+
+ * Unlike "git commit-tree < file", "git commit-tree -F file" did not
+ pass the contents of the file verbatim and instead completed an
+ incomplete line at the end, if exists. The latter has been updated
+ to match the behaviour of the former.
+
+ * Many codepaths did not diagnose write failures correctly when disks
+ go full, due to their misuse of write_in_full() helper function,
+ which have been corrected.
+ (merge f48ecd38cb jk/write-in-full-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git help co" now says "co is aliased to ...", not "git co is".
+ (merge b3a8076e0d ks/help-alias-label later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive", especially when used with pathspec, stored an empty
+ directory in its output, even though Git itself never does so.
+ This has been fixed.
+
+ * API error-proofing which happens to also squelch warnings from GCC.
+
+ * The explanation of the cut-line in the commit log editor has been
+ slightly tweaked.
+ (merge 8c4b1a3593 ks/commit-do-not-touch-cut-line later to maint).
+
+ * "git gc" tries to avoid running two instances at the same time by
+ reading and writing pid/host from and to a lock file; it used to
+ use an incorrect fscanf() format when reading, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The scripts to drive TravisCI has been reorganized and then an
+ optimization to avoid spending cycles on a branch whose tip is
+ tagged has been implemented.
+ (merge 8376eb4a8f ls/travis-scriptify later to maint).
+
+ * The test linter has been taught that we do not like "echo -e".
+
+ * Code cmp.std.c nitpick.
+
+ * A regression fix for 2.11 that made the code to read the list of
+ alternate object stores overrun the end of the string.
+ (merge f0f7bebef7 jk/info-alternates-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git describe --match" learned to take multiple patterns in v2.13
+ series, but the feature ignored the patterns after the first one
+ and did not work at all. This has been fixed.
+
+ * "git filter-branch" cannot reproduce a history with a tag without
+ the tagger field, which only ancient versions of Git allowed to be
+ created. This has been corrected.
+ (merge b2c1ca6b4b ic/fix-filter-branch-to-handle-tag-without-tagger later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --textconv" started segfaulting recently, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The built-in pattern to detect the "function header" for HTML did
+ not match <H1>..<H6> elements without any attributes, which has
+ been fixed.
+
+ * "git mailinfo" was loose in decoding quoted printable and produced
+ garbage when the two letters after the equal sign are not
+ hexadecimal. This has been fixed.
+
+ * The machinery to create xdelta used in pack files received the
+ sizes of the data in size_t, but lost the higher bits of them by
+ storing them in "unsigned int" during the computation, which is
+ fixed.
+
+ * The delta format used in the packfile cannot reference data at
+ offset larger than what can be expressed in 4-byte, but the
+ generator for the data failed to make sure the offset does not
+ overflow. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The documentation for '-X<option>' for merges was misleadingly
+ written to suggest that "-s theirs" exists, which is not the case.
+
+ * "git fast-export" with -M/-C option issued "copy" instruction on a
+ path that is simultaneously modified, which was incorrect.
+ (merge b3e8ca89cf jt/fast-export-copy-modify-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Many codepaths have been updated to squelch -Wsign-compare
+ warnings.
+ (merge 071bcaab64 rj/no-sign-compare later to maint).
+
+ * Memory leaks in various codepaths have been plugged.
+ (merge 4d01a7fa65 ma/leakplugs later to maint).
+
+ * Recent versions of "git rev-parse --parseopt" did not parse the
+ option specification that does not have the optional flags (*=?!)
+ correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a6304fa4c2 bc/rev-parse-parseopt-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The checkpoint command "git fast-import" did not flush updates to
+ refs and marks unless at least one object was created since the
+ last checkpoint, which has been corrected, as these things can
+ happen without any new object getting created.
+ (merge 30e215a65c er/fast-import-dump-refs-on-checkpoint later to maint).
+
+ * Spell the name of our system as "Git" in the output from
+ request-pull script.
+
+ * Fixes for a handful memory access issues identified by valgrind.
+
+ * Backports a moral equivalent of 2015 fix to the poll() emulation
+ from the upstream gnulib to fix occasional breakages on HPE NonStop.
+
+ * Users with "color.ui = always" in their configuration were broken
+ by a recent change that made plumbing commands to pay attention to
+ them as the patch created internally by "git add -p" were colored
+ (heh) and made unusable. This has been fixed by reverting the
+ offending change.
+
+ * In the "--format=..." option of the "git for-each-ref" command (and
+ its friends, i.e. the listing mode of "git branch/tag"), "%(atom:)"
+ (e.g. "%(refname:)", "%(body:)" used to error out. Instead, treat
+ them as if the colon and an empty string that follows it were not
+ there.
+
+ * An ancient bug that made Git misbehave with creation/renaming of
+ refs has been fixed.
+
+ * "git fetch <there> <src>:<dst>" allows an object name on the <src>
+ side when the other side accepts such a request since Git v2.5, but
+ the documentation was left stale.
+ (merge 83558a412a jc/fetch-refspec-doc-update later to maint).
+
+ * Update the documentation for "git filter-branch" so that the filter
+ options are listed in the same order as they are applied, as
+ described in an earlier part of the doc.
+ (merge 07c4984508 dg/filter-branch-filter-order-doc later to maint).
+
+ * A possible oom error is now caught as a fatal error, instead of
+ continuing and dereferencing NULL.
+ (merge 55d7d15847 ao/path-use-xmalloc later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge f094b89a4d ma/parse-maybe-bool later to maint).
+ (merge 6cdf8a7929 ma/ts-cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge 7560f547e6 ma/up-to-date later to maint).
+ (merge 0db3dc75f3 rs/apply-epoch later to maint).
+ (merge 276d0e35c0 ma/split-symref-update-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f777623514 ks/branch-tweak-error-message-for-extra-args later to maint).
+ (merge 33f3c683ec ks/verify-filename-non-option-error-message-tweak later to maint).
+ (merge 7cbbf9d6a2 ls/filter-process-delayed later to maint).
+ (merge 488aa65c8f wk/merge-options-gpg-sign-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e61cb19a27 jc/branch-force-doc-readability-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 32fceba3fd np/config-path-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e38c681fb7 sb/rev-parse-show-superproject-root later to maint).
+ (merge 4f851dc883 sg/rev-list-doc-reorder-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e46197f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,166 @@
+Git 2.16 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
+
+ * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
+ 'everything matches' is now an error.
+
+
+Updates since v2.15
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * An empty string as a pathspec element that means "everything"
+ i.e. 'git add ""', is now illegal. We started this by first
+ deprecating and warning a pathspec that has such an element in
+ 2.11 (Nov 2016).
+
+ * A hook script that is set unexecutable is simply ignored. Git
+ notifies when such a file is ignored, unless the message is
+ squelched via advice.ignoredHook configuration.
+
+ * "git pull" has been taught to accept "--[no-]signoff" option and
+ pass it down to "git merge".
+
+ * The "--push-option=<string>" option to "git push" now defaults to a
+ list of strings configured via push.pushOption variable.
+
+ * "gitweb" checks if a directory is searchable with Perl's "-x"
+ operator, which can be enhanced by using "filetest 'access'"
+ pragma, which now we do.
+
+ * "git stash save" has been deprecated in favour of "git stash push".
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * An earlier update made it possible to use an on-stack in-core
+ lockfile structure (as opposed to having to deliberately leak an
+ on-heap one). Many codepaths have been updated to take advantage
+ of this new facility.
+
+ * Calling cmd_foo() as if it is a general purpose helper function is
+ a no-no. Correct two instances of such to set an example.
+
+ * We try to see if somebody runs our test suite with a shell that
+ does not support "local" like bash/dash does.
+
+ * An early part of piece-by-piece rewrite of "git bisect" in C.
+
+ * GSoC to piece-by-piece rewrite "git submodule" in C.
+
+ * Optimize the code to find shortest unique prefix of object names.
+
+ * Pathspec-limited revision traversal was taught not to keep finding
+ unneeded differences once it knows two trees are different inside
+ given pathspec.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Code cleanup.
+ (merge 62a24c8923 rs/hex-to-bytes-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * A single-word "unsigned flags" in the diff options is being split
+ into a structure with many bitfields.
+ (merge 0d1e0e7801 bw/diff-opt-impl-to-bitfields later to maint).
+
+ * TravisCI build updates.
+ (merge c2154953b8 sg/travis-fixes later to maint).
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.15
+-----------------
+
+ * "auto" as a value for the columnar output configuration ought to
+ judge "is the output consumed by humans?" with the same criteria as
+ "auto" for coloured output configuration, i.e. either the standard
+ output stream is going to tty, or a pager is in use. We forgot the
+ latter, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 965ff23a43 kd/auto-col-with-pager-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The experimental "color moved lines differently in diff output"
+ feature was buggy around "ignore whitespace changes" edges, whihch
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge b66b507292 jk/diff-color-moved-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Instead of using custom line comparison and hashing functions to
+ implement "moved lines" coloring in the diff output, use the pair
+ of these functions from lower-layer xdiff/ code.
+ (merge 01be97c2b2 sb/diff-color-moved-use-xdl-recmatch later to maint).
+
+ * Some codepaths did not check for errors when asking what branch the
+ HEAD points at, which have been fixed.
+ (merge dbd2b55cb7 jk/misc-resolve-ref-unsafe-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit", after making a commit, did not check for errors when
+ asking on what branch it made the commit, which has been correted.
+ (merge c26de08370 ao/check-resolve-ref-unsafe-result later to maint).
+
+ * "git status --ignored -u" did not stop at a working tree of a
+ separate project that is embedded in an ignored directory and
+ listed files in that other project, instead of just showing the
+ directory itself as ignored.
+ (merge fadb4820c4 js/submodule-in-excluded later to maint).
+
+ * A broken access to object databases in recent update to "git grep
+ --recurse-submodules" has been fixed.
+ (merge 9560e6245a bw/grep-recurse-submodules later to maint).
+
+ * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" that broke execution of git
+ commands from subdirectories via "exec" insn has been fixed.
+ (merge 09d7b6c6fa jk/rebase-i-exec-gitdir-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A (possibly flakey) test fix.
+ (merge cff48ccf2a jc/t5601-copy-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * "git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}" bit a "BUG()" when run
+ outside a repository for obvious reasons; clarify the documentation
+ and make sure we do not even try to expand the at-mark magic in
+ such a case, but still call the validation logic for branch names.
+ (merge 89dd32aedc jc/check-ref-format-oor later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --recurse-submodules" now knows that submodules can be
+ moved around in the superproject in addition to getting updated,
+ and finds the ones that need to be fetched accordingly.
+ (merge 4b4acedd61 hv/fetch-moved-submodules-on-demand later to maint).
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) update.
+ (merge 6357d9d004 tb/complete-checkout later to maint).
+
+ * Description of blame.{showroot,blankboundary,showemail,date}
+ configuration variables have been added to "git config --help".
+ (merge de0bc11d13 sb/blame-config-doc later to maint).
+
+ * After an error from lstat(), diff_populate_filespec() function
+ sometimes still went ahead and used invalid data in struct stat,
+ which has been fixed.
+ (merge 10e0ca843d ao/diff-populate-filespec-lstat-errorpath-fix later to maint).
+
+ * UNC paths are also relevant in Cygwin builds and they are now
+ tested just like Mingw builds.
+ (merge f21d60b429 ad/5580-unc-tests-on-cygwin later to maint).
+
+ * Correct start-up sequence so that a repository could be placed
+ immediately under the root directory again (which was broken at
+ around Git 2.13).
+ (merge fa4d8c783d js/early-config later to maint).
+
+ * The credential helper for libsecret (in contrib/) has been improved
+ to allow possibly prompting the end user to unlock secrets that are
+ currently locked (otherwise the secrets may not be loaded).
+ (merge 9c109e9bbc dk/libsecret-unlock-to-load-fix later to maint).
+
+ * MinGW updates.
+ (merge 39bb86b4e5 js/mingw-full-version-in-resources later to maint).
+ (merge 601e1e7897 js/wincred-empty-cred later to maint).
+ (merge b2f55717c7 js/mingw-redirect-std-handles later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge bab76141da cn/diff-indent-no-longer-is-experimental later to maint).
+ (merge 8684dde10d jm/relnotes-2.15-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge cd3f8e2fc2 ks/mailmap later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 3faf7eb..558d465 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ If your description starts to get too long, that's a sign that you
probably need to split up your commit to finer grained pieces.
That being said, patches which plainly describe the things that
help reviewers check the patch, and future maintainers understand
-the code, are the most beautiful patches. Descriptions that summarise
+the code, are the most beautiful patches. Descriptions that summarize
the point in the subject well, and describe the motivation for the
change, the approach taken by the change, and if relevant how this
differs substantially from the prior version, are all good things
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ patches separate from other documentation changes.
Oh, another thing. We are picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
-run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
+run "git diff --check" on your changes before you commit.
(2) Describe your changes well.
@@ -98,18 +98,23 @@ should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
prefix the first line with "area: " where the area is a filename or
identifier for the general area of the code being modified, e.g.
- . archive: ustar header checksum is computed unsigned
- . git-cherry-pick.txt: clarify the use of revision range notation
+ . doc: clarify distinction between sign-off and pgp-signing
+ . githooks.txt: improve the intro section
If in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges" on the
files you are modifying to see the current conventions.
+It's customary to start the remainder of the first line after "area: "
+with a lower-case letter. E.g. "doc: clarify...", not "doc:
+Clarify...", or "githooks.txt: improve...", not "githooks.txt:
+Improve...".
+
The body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
- . explains the problem the change tries to solve, iow, what is wrong
+ . explains the problem the change tries to solve, i.e. what is wrong
with the current code without the change.
- . justifies the way the change solves the problem, iow, why the
+ . justifies the way the change solves the problem, i.e. why the
result with the change is better.
. alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
@@ -117,7 +122,7 @@ The body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
Describe your changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed xyzzy
to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase to change
-its behaviour. Try to make sure your explanation can be understood
+its behavior. Try to make sure your explanation can be understood
without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
@@ -129,8 +134,9 @@ with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes, like this:
noticed that ...
The "Copy commit summary" command of gitk can be used to obtain this
-format.
+format, or this invocation of "git show":
+ git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
(3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
@@ -255,7 +261,7 @@ smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
-pretty simple: if you can certify the below:
+pretty simple: if you can certify the below D-C-O:
Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index e43d147..671fcba 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -79,18 +79,84 @@ escape sequences) are invalid.
Includes
~~~~~~~~
-You can include one config file from another by setting the special
-`include.path` variable to the name of the file to be included. The
-variable takes a pathname as its value, and is subject to tilde
-expansion.
+The `include` and `includeIf` sections allow you to include config
+directives from another source. These sections behave identically to
+each other with the exception that `includeIf` sections may be ignored
+if their condition does not evaluate to true; see "Conditional includes"
+below.
-The
-included file is expanded immediately, as if its contents had been
-found at the location of the include directive. If the value of the
-`include.path` variable is a relative path, the path is considered to be
-relative to the configuration file in which the include directive was
-found. See below for examples.
+You can include a config file from another by setting the special
+`include.path` (or `includeIf.*.path`) variable to the name of the file
+to be included. The variable takes a pathname as its value, and is
+subject to tilde expansion. These variables can be given multiple times.
+The contents of the included file are inserted immediately, as if they
+had been found at the location of the include directive. If the value of the
+variable is a relative path, the path is considered to
+be relative to the configuration file in which the include directive
+was found. See below for examples.
+
+Conditional includes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You can include a config file from another conditionally by setting a
+`includeIf.<condition>.path` variable to the name of the file to be
+included.
+
+The condition starts with a keyword followed by a colon and some data
+whose format and meaning depends on the keyword. Supported keywords
+are:
+
+`gitdir`::
+
+ The data that follows the keyword `gitdir:` is used as a glob
+ pattern. If the location of the .git directory matches the
+ pattern, the include condition is met.
++
+The .git location may be auto-discovered, or come from `$GIT_DIR`
+environment variable. If the repository is auto discovered via a .git
+file (e.g. from submodules, or a linked worktree), the .git location
+would be the final location where the .git directory is, not where the
+.git file is.
++
+The pattern can contain standard globbing wildcards and two additional
+ones, `**/` and `/**`, that can match multiple path components. Please
+refer to linkgit:gitignore[5] for details. For convenience:
+
+ * If the pattern starts with `~/`, `~` will be substituted with the
+ content of the environment variable `HOME`.
+
+ * If the pattern starts with `./`, it is replaced with the directory
+ containing the current config file.
+
+ * If the pattern does not start with either `~/`, `./` or `/`, `**/`
+ will be automatically prepended. For example, the pattern `foo/bar`
+ becomes `**/foo/bar` and would match `/any/path/to/foo/bar`.
+
+ * If the pattern ends with `/`, `**` will be automatically added. For
+ example, the pattern `foo/` becomes `foo/**`. In other words, it
+ matches "foo" and everything inside, recursively.
+
+`gitdir/i`::
+ This is the same as `gitdir` except that matching is done
+ case-insensitively (e.g. on case-insensitive file sytems)
+
+A few more notes on matching via `gitdir` and `gitdir/i`:
+
+ * Symlinks in `$GIT_DIR` are not resolved before matching.
+
+ * Both the symlink & realpath versions of paths will be matched
+ outside of `$GIT_DIR`. E.g. if ~/git is a symlink to
+ /mnt/storage/git, both `gitdir:~/git` and `gitdir:/mnt/storage/git`
+ will match.
++
+This was not the case in the initial release of this feature in
+v2.13.0, which only matched the realpath version. Configuration that
+wants to be compatible with the initial release of this feature needs
+to either specify only the realpath version, or both versions.
+
+ * Note that "../" is not special and will match literally, which is
+ unlikely what you want.
Example
~~~~~~~
@@ -116,9 +182,26 @@ Example
[include]
path = /path/to/foo.inc ; include by absolute path
- path = foo ; expand "foo" relative to the current file
- path = ~/foo ; expand "foo" in your `$HOME` directory
+ path = foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" relative to the current file
+ path = ~/foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" in your `$HOME` directory
+
+ ; include if $GIT_DIR is /path/to/foo/.git
+ [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/foo/.git"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+ ; include for all repositories inside /path/to/group
+ [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+ ; include for all repositories inside $HOME/to/group
+ [includeIf "gitdir:~/to/group/"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+ ; relative paths are always relative to the including
+ ; file (if the condition is true); their location is not
+ ; affected by the condition
+ [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+ path = foo.inc
Values
~~~~~~
@@ -133,15 +216,15 @@ boolean::
synonyms are accepted for 'true' and 'false'; these are all
case-insensitive.
- true;; Boolean true can be spelled as `yes`, `on`, `true`,
- or `1`. Also, a variable defined without `= <value>`
+ true;; Boolean true literals are `yes`, `on`, `true`,
+ and `1`. Also, a variable defined without `= <value>`
is taken as true.
- false;; Boolean false can be spelled as `no`, `off`,
- `false`, or `0`.
+ false;; Boolean false literals are `no`, `off`, `false`,
+ `0` and the empty string.
+
When converting value to the canonical form using `--bool` type
-specifier; 'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or
+specifier, 'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or
"false" (spelled in lowercase).
integer::
@@ -265,6 +348,12 @@ advice.*::
rmHints::
In case of failure in the output of linkgit:git-rm[1],
show directions on how to proceed from the current state.
+ addEmbeddedRepo::
+ Advice on what to do when you've accidentally added one
+ git repo inside of another.
+ ignoredHook::
+ Advice shown if an hook is ignored because the hook is not
+ set as executable.
--
core.fileMode::
@@ -272,7 +361,7 @@ core.fileMode::
is to be honored.
+
Some filesystems lose the executable bit when a file that is
-marked as executable is checked out, or checks out an
+marked as executable is checked out, or checks out a
non-executable file with executable bit on.
linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1] probe the filesystem
to see if it handles the executable bit correctly
@@ -334,6 +423,10 @@ core.trustctime::
crawlers and some backup systems).
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+core.splitIndex::
+ If true, the split-index feature of the index will be used.
+ See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. False by default.
+
core.untrackedCache::
Determines what to do about the untracked cache feature of the
index. It will be kept, if this variable is unset or set to
@@ -350,16 +443,19 @@ core.checkStat::
all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
core.quotePath::
- The commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files',
- 'diff'), when not given the `-z` option, will quote
- "unusual" characters in the pathname by enclosing the
- pathname in a double-quote pair and with backslashes the
- same way strings in C source code are quoted. If this
- variable is set to false, the bytes higher than 0x80 are
- not quoted but output as verbatim. Note that double
- quote, backslash and control characters are always
- quoted without `-z` regardless of the setting of this
- variable.
+ Commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files', 'diff'), will
+ quote "unusual" characters in the pathname by enclosing the
+ pathname in double-quotes and escaping those characters with
+ backslashes in the same way C escapes control characters (e.g.
+ `\t` for TAB, `\n` for LF, `\\` for backslash) or bytes with
+ values larger than 0x80 (e.g. octal `\302\265` for "micro" in
+ UTF-8). If this variable is set to false, bytes higher than
+ 0x80 are not considered "unusual" any more. Double-quotes,
+ backslash and control characters are always escaped regardless
+ of the setting of this variable. A simple space character is
+ not considered "unusual". Many commands can output pathnames
+ completely verbatim using the `-z` option. The default value
+ is true.
core.eol::
Sets the line ending type to use in the working directory for
@@ -593,7 +689,8 @@ core.packedGitLimit::
bytes at once to complete an operation it will unmap existing
regions to reclaim virtual address space within the process.
+
-Default is 256 MiB on 32 bit platforms and 8 GiB on 64 bit platforms.
+Default is 256 MiB on 32 bit platforms and 32 TiB (effectively
+unlimited) on 64 bit platforms.
This should be reasonable for all users/operating systems, except on
the largest projects. You probably do not need to adjust this value.
+
@@ -682,6 +779,12 @@ core.commentChar::
If set to "auto", `git-commit` would select a character that is not
the beginning character of any line in existing commit messages.
+core.filesRefLockTimeout::
+ The length of time, in milliseconds, to retry when trying to
+ lock an individual reference. Value 0 means not to retry at
+ all; -1 means to try indefinitely. Default is 100 (i.e.,
+ retry for 100ms).
+
core.packedRefsTimeout::
The length of time, in milliseconds, to retry when trying to
lock the `packed-refs` file. Value 0 means not to retry at
@@ -793,6 +896,7 @@ core.abbrev::
computed based on the approximate number of packed objects
in your repository, which hopefully is enough for
abbreviated object names to stay unique for some time.
+ The minimum length is 4.
add.ignoreErrors::
add.ignore-errors (deprecated)::
@@ -848,6 +952,23 @@ apply.whitespace::
Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
as the `--whitespace` option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
+blame.showRoot::
+ Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.blankBoundary::
+ Show blank commit object name for boundary commits in
+ linkgit:git-blame[1]. This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.showEmail::
+ Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.date::
+ Specifies the format used to output dates in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ If unset the iso format is used. For supported values,
+ see the discussion of the `--date` option at linkgit:git-log[1].
+
branch.autoSetupMerge::
Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
@@ -982,14 +1103,25 @@ This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or the
'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands. Can be overridden on the
command line with the `--color[=<when>]` option.
+diff.colorMoved::
+ If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
+ in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
+ see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
+ true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
+ moved lines are not colored.
+
color.diff.<slot>::
Use customized color for diff colorization. `<slot>` specifies
which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
of `context` (context text - `plain` is a historical synonym),
`meta` (metainformation), `frag`
(hunk header), 'func' (function in hunk header), `old` (removed lines),
- `new` (added lines), `commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace`
- (highlighting whitespace errors).
+ `new` (added lines), `commit` (commit headers), `whitespace`
+ (highlighting whitespace errors), `oldMoved` (deleted lines),
+ `newMoved` (added lines), `oldMovedDimmed`, `oldMovedAlternative`,
+ `oldMovedAlternativeDimmed`, `newMovedDimmed`, `newMovedAlternative`
+ and `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
+ setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details).
color.decorate.<slot>::
Use customized color for 'git log --decorate' output. `<slot>` is one
@@ -1068,7 +1200,10 @@ color.status.<slot>::
`untracked` (files which are not tracked by Git),
`branch` (the current branch),
`nobranch` (the color the 'no branch' warning is shown in, defaulting
- to red), or
+ to red),
+ `localBranch` or `remoteBranch` (the local and remote branch names,
+ respectively, when branch and tracking information is displayed in the
+ status short-format), or
`unmerged` (files which have unmerged changes).
color.ui::
@@ -1455,11 +1590,13 @@ gc.<pattern>.reflogExpireUnreachable::
gc.rerereResolved::
Records of conflicted merge you resolved earlier are
kept for this many days when 'git rerere gc' is run.
+ You can also use more human-readable "1.month.ago", etc.
The default is 60 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
gc.rerereUnresolved::
Records of conflicted merge you have not resolved are
kept for this many days when 'git rerere gc' is run.
+ You can also use more human-readable "1.month.ago", etc.
The default is 15 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
gitcvs.commitMsgAnnotation::
@@ -1925,7 +2062,10 @@ http.<url>.*::
must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
. Host/domain name (e.g., `example.com` in `https://example.com/`).
- This field must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
+ This field must match between the config key and the URL. It is
+ possible to specify a `*` as part of the host name to match all subdomains
+ at this level. `https://*.example.com/` for example would match
+ `https://foo.example.com/`, but not `https://foo.bar.example.com/`.
. Port number (e.g., `8080` in `http://example.com:8080/`).
This field must match exactly between the config key and the URL.
@@ -1960,6 +2100,17 @@ Environment variable settings always override any matches. The URLs that are
matched against are those given directly to Git commands. This means any URLs
visited as a result of a redirection do not participate in matching.
+ssh.variant::
+ Depending on the value of the environment variables `GIT_SSH` or
+ `GIT_SSH_COMMAND`, or the config setting `core.sshCommand`, Git
+ auto-detects whether to adjust its command-line parameters for use
+ with plink or tortoiseplink, as opposed to the default (OpenSSH).
++
+The config variable `ssh.variant` can be set to override this auto-detection;
+valid values are `ssh`, `plink`, `putty` or `tortoiseplink`. Any other value
+will be treated as normal ssh. This setting can be overridden via the
+environment variable `GIT_SSH_VARIANT`.
+
i18n.commitEncoding::
Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; Git itself
does not care per se, but this information is necessary e.g. when
@@ -2057,6 +2208,10 @@ log.showRoot::
Tools like linkgit:git-log[1] or linkgit:git-whatchanged[1], which
normally hide the root commit will now show it. True by default.
+log.showSignature::
+ If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
+ linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--show-signature`.
+
log.mailmap::
If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`.
@@ -2486,6 +2641,35 @@ push.gpgSign::
override a value from a lower-priority config file. An explicit
command-line flag always overrides this config option.
+push.pushOption::
+ When no `--push-option=<option>` argument is given from the
+ command line, `git push` behaves as if each <value> of
+ this variable is given as `--push-option=<value>`.
++
+This is a multi-valued variable, and an empty value can be used in a
+higher priority configuration file (e.g. `.git/config` in a
+repository) to clear the values inherited from a lower priority
+configuration files (e.g. `$HOME/.gitconfig`).
++
+--
+
+Example:
+
+/etc/gitconfig
+ push.pushoption = a
+ push.pushoption = b
+
+~/.gitconfig
+ push.pushoption = c
+
+repo/.git/config
+ push.pushoption =
+ push.pushoption = b
+
+This will result in only b (a and c are cleared).
+
+--
+
push.recurseSubmodules::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
are available on a remote-tracking branch. If the value is 'check'
@@ -2508,7 +2692,7 @@ rebase.autoSquash::
If set to true enable `--autosquash` option by default.
rebase.autoStash::
- When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash
+ When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash entry
before the operation begins, and apply it after the operation
ends. This means that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.
However, use with care: the final stash application after a
@@ -2537,9 +2721,8 @@ receive.advertiseAtomic::
capability, set this variable to false.
receive.advertisePushOptions::
- By default, git-receive-pack will advertise the push options
- capability to its clients. If you don't want to advertise this
- capability, set this variable to false.
+ When set to true, git-receive-pack will advertise the push options
+ capability to its clients. False by default.
receive.autogc::
By default, git-receive-pack will run "git-gc --auto" after
@@ -2797,8 +2980,8 @@ sendemail.smtpsslcertpath::
sendemail.<identity>.*::
Identity-specific versions of the 'sendemail.*' parameters
- found below, taking precedence over those when the this
- identity is selected, through command-line or
+ found below, taking precedence over those when this
+ identity is selected, through either the command-line or
`sendemail.identity`.
sendemail.aliasesFile::
@@ -2831,10 +3014,45 @@ sendemail.xmailer::
sendemail.signedoffcc (deprecated)::
Deprecated alias for `sendemail.signedoffbycc`.
+sendemail.smtpBatchSize::
+ Number of messages to be sent per connection, after that a relogin
+ will happen. If the value is 0 or undefined, send all messages in
+ one connection.
+ See also the `--batch-size` option of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
+
+sendemail.smtpReloginDelay::
+ Seconds wait before reconnecting to smtp server.
+ See also the `--relogin-delay` option of linkgit:git-send-email[1].
+
showbranch.default::
The default set of branches for linkgit:git-show-branch[1].
See linkgit:git-show-branch[1].
+splitIndex.maxPercentChange::
+ When the split index feature is used, this specifies the
+ percent of entries the split index can contain compared to the
+ total number of entries in both the split index and the shared
+ index before a new shared index is written.
+ The value should be between 0 and 100. If the value is 0 then
+ a new shared index is always written, if it is 100 a new
+ shared index is never written.
+ By default the value is 20, so a new shared index is written
+ if the number of entries in the split index would be greater
+ than 20 percent of the total number of entries.
+ See linkgit:git-update-index[1].
+
+splitIndex.sharedIndexExpire::
+ When the split index feature is used, shared index files that
+ were not modified since the time this variable specifies will
+ be removed when a new shared index file is created. The value
+ "now" expires all entries immediately, and "never" suppresses
+ expiration altogether.
+ The default value is "2.weeks.ago".
+ Note that a shared index file is considered modified (for the
+ purpose of expiration) each time a new split-index file is
+ either created based on it or read from it.
+ See linkgit:git-update-index[1].
+
status.relativePaths::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] shows paths relative to the
current directory. Setting this variable to `false` shows paths
@@ -2856,6 +3074,11 @@ status.displayCommentPrefix::
behavior of linkgit:git-status[1] in Git 1.8.4 and previous.
Defaults to false.
+status.showStash::
+ If set to true, linkgit:git-status[1] will display the number of
+ entries currently stashed away.
+ Defaults to false.
+
status.showUntrackedFiles::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-commit[1] show
files which are not currently tracked by Git. Directories which
@@ -2893,27 +3116,32 @@ status.submoduleSummary::
stash.showPatch::
If this is set to true, the `git stash show` command without an
- option will show the stash in patch form. Defaults to false.
+ option will show the stash entry in patch form. Defaults to false.
See description of 'show' command in linkgit:git-stash[1].
stash.showStat::
If this is set to true, the `git stash show` command without an
- option will show diffstat of the stash. Defaults to true.
+ option will show diffstat of the stash entry. Defaults to true.
See description of 'show' command in linkgit:git-stash[1].
submodule.<name>.url::
The URL for a submodule. This variable is copied from the .gitmodules
file to the git config via 'git submodule init'. The user can change
the configured URL before obtaining the submodule via 'git submodule
- update'. After obtaining the submodule, the presence of this variable
- is used as a sign whether the submodule is of interest to git commands.
+ update'. If neither submodule.<name>.active or submodule.active are
+ set, the presence of this variable is used as a fallback to indicate
+ whether the submodule is of interest to git commands.
See linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
submodule.<name>.update::
- The default update procedure for a submodule. This variable
- is populated by `git submodule init` from the
- linkgit:gitmodules[5] file. See description of 'update'
- command in linkgit:git-submodule[1].
+ The method by which a submodule is updated by 'git submodule update',
+ which is the only affected command, others such as
+ 'git checkout --recurse-submodules' are unaffected. It exists for
+ historical reasons, when 'git submodule' was the only command to
+ interact with submodules; settings like `submodule.active`
+ and `pull.rebase` are more specific. It is populated by
+ `git submodule init` from the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file.
+ See description of 'update' command in linkgit:git-submodule[1].
submodule.<name>.branch::
The remote branch name for a submodule, used by `git submodule
@@ -2944,6 +3172,21 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
"--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
affected by this setting.
+submodule.<name>.active::
+ Boolean value indicating if the submodule is of interest to git
+ commands. This config option takes precedence over the
+ submodule.active config option.
+
+submodule.active::
+ A repeated field which contains a pathspec used to match against a
+ submodule's path to determine if the submodule is of interest to git
+ commands.
+
+submodule.recurse::
+ Specifies if commands recurse into submodules by default. This
+ applies to all commands that have a `--recurse-submodules` option.
+ Defaults to false.
+
submodule.fetchJobs::
Specifies how many submodules are fetched/cloned at the same time.
A positive integer allows up to that number of submodules fetched
@@ -3089,6 +3332,13 @@ url.<base>.insteadOf::
the best alternative for the particular user, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
insteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is used.
++
+Note that any protocol restrictions will be applied to the rewritten
+URL. If the rewrite changes the URL to use a custom protocol or remote
+helper, you may need to adjust the `protocol.*.allow` config to permit
+the request. In particular, protocols you expect to use for submodules
+must be set to `always` rather than the default of `user`. See the
+description of `protocol.allow` above.
url.<base>.pushInsteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will not be pushed to;
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index cbce8ec..5ca942a 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -200,7 +200,10 @@ diff.algorithm::
+
diff.wsErrorHighlight::
- A comma separated list of `old`, `new`, `context`, that
- specifies how whitespace errors on lines are highlighted
- with `color.diff.whitespace`. Can be overridden by the
- command line option `--ws-error-highlight=<kind>`
+ Highlight whitespace errors in the `context`, `old` or `new`
+ lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma,
+ `none` resets previous values, `default` reset the list to
+ `new` and `all` is a shorthand for `old,new,context`. The
+ whitespace errors are colored with `color.diff.whitespace`.
+ The command line option `--ws-error-highlight=<kind>`
+ overrides this setting.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index cf52626..706916c 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -78,9 +78,10 @@ Example:
:100644 100644 5be4a4...... 000000...... M file.c
------------------------------------------------
-When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
-in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
-respectively.
+Without the `-z` option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
+quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+(see linkgit:git-config[1]). Using `-z` the filename is output
+verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.
diff format for merges
----------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index d2a7ff5..231105c 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -53,10 +53,9 @@ The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change.
The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change; otherwise,
separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.
-3. TAB, LF, double quote and backslash characters in pathnames
- are represented as `\t`, `\n`, `\"` and `\\`, respectively.
- If there is need for such substitution then the whole
- pathname is put in double quotes.
+3. Pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as explained for
+ the configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see
+ linkgit:git-config[1]).
4. All the `file1` files in the output refer to files before the
commit, and all the `file2` files refer to files after the commit.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index d4f3d95..0000000
--- a/Documentation/diff-heuristic-options.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,5 +0,0 @@
---indent-heuristic::
---no-indent-heuristic::
- These are to help debugging and tuning experimental heuristics
- (which are off by default) that shift diff hunk boundaries to
- make patches easier to read.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index d91ddbd..dd0dba5 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -63,7 +63,12 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
Synonym for `-p --raw`.
endif::git-format-patch[]
-include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
+--indent-heuristic::
+ Enable the heuristic that shift diff hunk boundaries to make patches
+ easier to read. This is the default.
+
+--no-indent-heuristic::
+ Disable the indent heuristic.
--minimal::
Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible
@@ -192,10 +197,9 @@ ifndef::git-log[]
given, do not munge pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
endif::git-log[]
+
-Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
-and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
-respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
-any of those replacements occurred.
+Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
+explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]).
--name-only::
Show only names of changed files.
@@ -232,6 +236,40 @@ ifdef::git-diff[]
endif::git-diff[]
It is the same as `--color=never`.
+--color-moved[=<mode>]::
+ Moved lines of code are colored differently.
+ifdef::git-diff[]
+ It can be changed by the `diff.colorMoved` configuration setting.
+endif::git-diff[]
+ The <mode> defaults to 'no' if the option is not given
+ and to 'zebra' if the option with no mode is given.
+ The mode must be one of:
++
+--
+no::
+ Moved lines are not highlighted.
+default::
+ Is a synonym for `zebra`. This may change to a more sensible mode
+ in the future.
+plain::
+ Any line that is added in one location and was removed
+ in another location will be colored with 'color.diff.newMoved'.
+ Similarly 'color.diff.oldMoved' will be used for removed lines
+ that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
+ moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
+ if a block of code was moved without permutation.
+zebra::
+ Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
+ are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
+ painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
+ 'color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative'. The change between
+ the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
+dimmed_zebra::
+ Similar to 'zebra', but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
+ of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
+ blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
+--
+
--word-diff[=<mode>]::
Show a word diff, using the <mode> to delimit changed words.
By default, words are delimited by whitespace; see
@@ -301,15 +339,14 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
with --exit-code.
--ws-error-highlight=<kind>::
- Highlight whitespace errors on lines specified by <kind>
- in the color specified by `color.diff.whitespace`. <kind>
- is a comma separated list of `old`, `new`, `context`. When
- this option is not given, only whitespace errors in `new`
- lines are highlighted. E.g. `--ws-error-highlight=new,old`
- highlights whitespace errors on both deleted and added lines.
- `all` can be used as a short-hand for `old,new,context`.
- The `diff.wsErrorHighlight` configuration variable can be
- used to specify the default behaviour.
+ Highlight whitespace errors in the `context`, `old` or `new`
+ lines of the diff. Multiple values are separated by comma,
+ `none` resets previous values, `default` reset the list to
+ `new` and `all` is a shorthand for `old,new,context`. When
+ this option is not given, and the configuration variable
+ `diff.wsErrorHighlight` is not set, only whitespace errors in
+ `new` lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored
+ whith `color.diff.whitespace`.
endif::git-format-patch[]
@@ -393,7 +430,7 @@ endif::git-log[]
the diff between the preimage and `/dev/null`. The resulting patch
is not meant to be applied with `patch` or `git apply`; this is
solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
- text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack
+ text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lacks
enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
hence the name of the option.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 7ed63dc..b700bea 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -61,6 +61,9 @@ OPTIONS
the working tree. Note that older versions of Git used
to ignore removed files; use `--no-all` option if you want
to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
++
+For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the 'pathspec' entry
+in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -165,6 +168,13 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
be ignored, no matter if they are already present in the work
tree or not.
+--no-warn-embedded-repo::
+ By default, `git add` will warn when adding an embedded
+ repository to the index without using `git submodule add` to
+ create an entry in `.gitmodules`. This option will suppress the
+ warning (e.g., if you are manually performing operations on
+ submodules).
+
--chmod=(+|-)x::
Override the executable bit of the added files. The executable
bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
diff --git a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
index 94be4b8..05fd482 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,6 @@ familiar command name for people coming from other SCM systems.
OPTIONS
-------
include::blame-options.txt[]
-include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 8ddb207..4ebc3d3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ OPTIONS
disables it is in effect), make sure the patch is
applicable to what the current index file records. If
the file to be patched in the working tree is not
- up-to-date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
+ up to date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
causes the index file to be updated.
--cached::
@@ -108,10 +108,9 @@ the information is read from the current index instead.
When `--numstat` has been given, do not munge pathnames,
but use a NUL-terminated machine-readable format.
+
-Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
-and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
-respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
-any of those replacements occurred.
+Without this option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are quoted as
+explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]).
-p<n>::
Remove <n> leading slashes from traditional diff paths. The
@@ -260,7 +259,7 @@ treats these changes as follows.
If `--index` is specified (explicitly or implicitly), then the submodule
commits must match the index exactly for the patch to apply. If any
of the submodules are checked-out, then these check-outs are completely
-ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up-to-date or clean and they
+ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up to date or clean and they
are not updated.
If `--index` is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
index 163b9f6..ea70653 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -96,7 +96,7 @@ OPTIONS
pruned.
-a::
- Attempt to auto-register archives at http://mirrors.sourcecontrol.net
+ Attempt to auto-register archives at `http://mirrors.sourcecontrol.net`
This is particularly useful with the -D option.
-t <tmpdir>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index e015f5b..78479b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -1347,12 +1347,12 @@ author to given a talk and for publishing this paper.
References
----------
-- [[[1]]] http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/n02-10.htm['Software Errors Cost U.S. Economy $59.5 Billion Annually'. Nist News Release.]
-- [[[2]]] http://java.sun.com/docs/codeconv/html/CodeConventions.doc.html#16712['Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language'. Sun Microsystems.]
-- [[[3]]] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance['Software maintenance'. Wikipedia.]
-- [[[4]]] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/45195/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'. Gmane.]
-- [[[5]]] http://lwn.net/Articles/317154/[Christian Couder. 'Fully automated bisecting with "git bisect run"'. LWN.net.]
-- [[[6]]] http://lwn.net/Articles/277872/[Jonathan Corbet. 'Bisection divides users and developers'. LWN.net.]
-- [[[7]]] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.scsi/36652/[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Gmane.]
-- [[[8]]] http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-bisect.html[Junio C Hamano and the git-list. 'git-bisect(1) Manual Page'. Linux Kernel Archives.]
-- [[[9]]] http://github.com/Ealdwulf/bbchop[Ealdwulf. 'bbchop'. GitHub.]
+- [[[1]]] https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/director/planning/report02-3.pdf['The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Infratructure for Software Testing'. Nist Planning Report 02-3], see Executive Summary and Chapter 8.
+- [[[2]]] http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/codeconvtoc-136057.html['Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language'. Sun Microsystems.]
+- [[[3]]] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance['Software maintenance'. Wikipedia.]
+- [[[4]]] https://public-inbox.org/git/7vps5xsbwp.fsf_-_@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'.]
+- [[[5]]] https://lwn.net/Articles/317154/[Christian Couder. 'Fully automated bisecting with "git bisect run"'. LWN.net.]
+- [[[6]]] https://lwn.net/Articles/277872/[Jonathan Corbet. 'Bisection divides users and developers'. LWN.net.]
+- [[[7]]] http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=119702753411680&w=2[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Linux-kernel mailing list.]
+- [[[8]]] https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-bisect.html[Junio C Hamano and the git-list. 'git-bisect(1) Manual Page'. Linux Kernel Archives.]
+- [[[9]]] https://github.com/Ealdwulf/bbchop[Ealdwulf. 'bbchop'. GitHub.]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index bdd915a..6c42abf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@ respectively, in place of "good" and "bad". (But note that you cannot
mix "good" and "bad" with "old" and "new" in a single session.)
In this more general usage, you provide `git bisect` with a "new"
-commit has some property and an "old" commit that doesn't have that
+commit that has some property and an "old" commit that doesn't have that
property. Each time `git bisect` checks out a commit, you test if that
commit has the property. If it does, mark the commit as "new";
otherwise, mark it as "old". When the bisection is done, `git bisect`
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index fdc3aea..16323eb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -89,8 +89,6 @@ include::blame-options.txt[]
abbreviated object name, use <n>+1 digits. Note that 1 column
is used for a caret to mark the boundary commit.
-include::diff-heuristic-options.txt[]
-
THE PORCELAIN FORMAT
--------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 28d46cc..d6587c5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -10,13 +10,15 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
[--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
- [--column[=<options>] | --no-column]
- [(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]] [--sort=<key>]
- [--points-at <object>] [<pattern>...]
+ [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--sort=<key>]
+ [(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
+ [--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
+ [--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
+'git branch' (-c | -C) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
'git branch' (-d | -D) [-r] <branchname>...
'git branch' --edit-description [<branchname>]
@@ -35,11 +37,12 @@ as branch creation.
With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
(in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
-named commit). With `--merged`, only branches merged into the named
-commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named
-commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only branches not merged into
-the named commit will be listed. If the <commit> argument is missing it
-defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
+named commit), `--no-contains` inverts it. With `--merged`, only branches
+merged into the named commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are
+reachable from the named commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only
+branches not merged into the named commit will be listed. If the <commit>
+argument is missing it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the tip of the current
+branch).
The command's second form creates a new branch head named <branchname>
which points to the current `HEAD`, or <start-point> if given.
@@ -62,6 +65,10 @@ If <oldbranch> had a corresponding reflog, it is renamed to match
renaming. If <newbranch> exists, -M must be used to force the rename
to happen.
+The `-c` and `-C` options have the exact same semantics as `-m` and
+`-M`, except instead of the branch being renamed it along with its
+config and reflog will be copied to a new name.
+
With a `-d` or `-D` option, `<branchname>` will be deleted. You may
specify more than one branch for deletion. If the branch currently
has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
@@ -90,19 +97,19 @@ OPTIONS
all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
Note that in non-bare repositories, reflogs are usually
- enabled by default by the `core.logallrefupdates` config option.
+ enabled by default by the `core.logAllRefUpdates` config option.
The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
`--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
- `core.logallrefupdates`.
+ `core.logAllRefUpdates`.
-f::
--force::
- Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
- already. Without `-f` 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
+ Reset <branchname> to <startpoint>, even if <branchname> exists
+ already. Without `-f`, 'git branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
In combination with `-d` (or `--delete`), allow deleting the
branch irrespective of its merged status. In combination with
`-m` (or `--move`), allow renaming the branch even if the new
- branch name already exists.
+ branch name already exists, the same applies for `-c` (or `--copy`).
-m::
--move::
@@ -111,6 +118,13 @@ OPTIONS
-M::
Shortcut for `--move --force`.
+-c::
+--copy::
+ Copy a branch and the corresponding reflog.
+
+-C::
+ Shortcut for `--copy --force`.
+
--color[=<when>]::
Color branches to highlight current, local, and
remote-tracking branches.
@@ -142,8 +156,13 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
--list::
- Activate the list mode. `git branch <pattern>` would try to create a branch,
- use `git branch --list <pattern>` to list matching branches.
+ List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
+ branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
+ the pattern(s).
++
+This should not be confused with `git branch -l <branchname>`,
+which creates a branch named `<branchname>` with a reflog.
+See `--create-reflog` above for details.
-v::
-vv::
@@ -188,10 +207,8 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
branch.autoSetupMerge configuration variable is true.
--set-upstream::
- If specified branch does not exist yet or if `--force` has been
- given, acts exactly like `--track`. Otherwise sets up configuration
- like `--track` would when creating the branch, except that where
- branch points to is not changed.
+ As this option had confusing syntax, it is no longer supported.
+ Please use `--track` or `--set-upstream-to` instead.
-u <upstream>::
--set-upstream-to=<upstream>::
@@ -213,13 +230,19 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
if not specified). Implies `--list`.
+--no-contains [<commit>]::
+ Only list branches which don't contain the specified commit
+ (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
+
--merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
+ incompatible with `--no-merged`.
--no-merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`,
+ incompatible with `--merged`.
<branchname>::
The name of the branch to create or delete.
@@ -253,6 +276,11 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
--points-at <object>::
Only list branches of the given object.
+--format <format>::
+ A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a branch ref being shown
+ and the object it points at. The format is the same as
+ that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].
+
Examples
--------
@@ -291,13 +319,16 @@ If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
a branch and check it out with a single command.
-The options `--contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged` serve three related
-but different purposes:
+The options `--contains`, `--no-contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged`
+serve four related but different purposes:
- `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
special attention if <commit> were to be rebased or amended, since those
branches contain the specified <commit>.
+- `--no-contains <commit>` is the inverse of that, i.e. branches that don't
+ contain the specified <commit>.
+
- `--merged` is used to find all branches which can be safely deleted,
since those branches are fully contained by HEAD.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 204541c..fb09cd6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -192,7 +192,7 @@ newline. The available atoms are:
The 40-hex object name of the object.
`objecttype`::
- The type of of the object (the same as `cat-file -t` reports).
+ The type of the object (the same as `cat-file -t` reports).
`objectsize`::
The size, in bytes, of the object (the same as `cat-file -s`
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 92777ce..cf0a0b7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -77,7 +77,14 @@ reference name expressions (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]):
. at-open-brace `@{` is used as a notation to access a reflog entry.
-With the `--branch` option, it expands the ``previous branch syntax''
+With the `--branch` option, the command takes a name and checks if
+it can be used as a valid branch name (e.g. when creating a new
+branch). The rule `git check-ref-format --branch $name` implements
+may be stricter than what `git check-ref-format refs/heads/$name`
+says (e.g. a dash may appear at the beginning of a ref component,
+but it is explicitly forbidden at the beginning of a branch name).
+When run with `--branch` option in a repository, the input is first
+expanded for the ``previous branch syntax''
`@{-n}`. For example, `@{-1}` is a way to refer the last branch you
were on. This option should be used by porcelains to accept this
syntax anywhere a branch name is expected, so they can act as if you
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 8e2c066..e108b0f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
-'git checkout' [-p|--patch] [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
+'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -38,7 +39,7 @@ $ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>
------------
+
You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
-"check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with a
+"check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with
rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking information,
if exists, for the current branch.
@@ -78,20 +79,13 @@ be used to detach HEAD at the tip of the branch (`git checkout
+
Omitting <branch> detaches HEAD at the tip of the current branch.
-'git checkout' [-p|--patch] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
+'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
- When <paths> or `--patch` are given, 'git checkout' does *not*
- switch branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree
- from the index file or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a
- commit). In this case, the `-b` and `--track` options are
- meaningless and giving either of them results in an error. The
- <tree-ish> argument can be used to specify a specific tree-ish
- (i.e. commit, tag or tree) to update the index for the given
- paths before updating the working tree.
-+
-'git checkout' with <paths> or `--patch` is used to restore modified or
-deleted paths to their original contents from the index or replace paths
-with the contents from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit-ish).
+ Overwrite paths in the working tree by replacing with the
+ contents in the index or in the <tree-ish> (most often a
+ commit). When a <tree-ish> is given, the paths that
+ match the <pathspec> are updated both in the index and in
+ the working tree.
+
The index may contain unmerged entries because of a previous failed merge.
By default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
@@ -101,6 +95,14 @@ specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
using `--ours` or `--theirs`. With `-m`, changes made to the working tree
file can be discarded to re-create the original conflicted merge result.
+'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
+ This is similar to the "check out paths to the working tree
+ from either the index or from a tree-ish" mode described
+ above, but lets you use the interactive interface to show
+ the "diff" output and choose which hunks to use in the
+ result. See below for the description of `--patch` option.
+
+
OPTIONS
-------
-q::
@@ -256,6 +258,13 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
out anyway. In other words, the ref can be held by more than one
worktree.
+--[no-]recurse-submodules::
+ Using --recurse-submodules will update the content of all initialized
+ submodules according to the commit recorded in the superproject. If
+ local modifications in a submodule would be overwritten the checkout
+ will fail unless `-f` is used. If nothing (or --no-recurse-submodules)
+ is used, the work trees of submodules will not be updated.
+
<branch>::
Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 35cc34b..83c8e9b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -13,8 +13,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-l] [-s] [--no-hardlinks] [-q] [-n] [--bare] [--mirror]
[-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
[--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
- [--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch]
- [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
+ [--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch] [--no-tags]
+ [--recurse-submodules] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
[--jobs <n>] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -215,10 +215,26 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
branch when `--single-branch` clone was made, no remote-tracking
branch is created.
---recursive::
---recurse-submodules::
- After the clone is created, initialize all submodules within,
- using their default settings. This is equivalent to running
+--no-tags::
+ Don't clone any tags, and set
+ `remote.<remote>.tagOpt=--no-tags` in the config, ensuring
+ that future `git pull` and `git fetch` operations won't follow
+ any tags. Subsequent explicit tag fetches will still work,
+ (see linkgit:git-fetch[1]).
++
+Can be used in conjunction with `--single-branch` to clone and
+maintain a branch with no references other than a single cloned
+branch. This is useful e.g. to maintain minimal clones of the default
+branch of some repository for search indexing.
+
+--recurse-submodules[=<pathspec]::
+ After the clone is created, initialize and clone submodules
+ within based on the provided pathspec. If no pathspec is
+ provided, all submodules are initialized and cloned.
+ Submodules are initialized and cloned using their default
+ settings. The resulting clone has `submodule.active` set to
+ the provided pathspec, or "." (meaning all submodules) if no
+ pathspec is provided. This is equivalent to running
`git submodule update --init --recursive` immediately after
the clone is finished. This option is ignored if the cloned
repository does not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 2763edb..8c74a2c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ OPTIONS
--reset-author::
When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
- a conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
+ conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews
the author timestamp.
@@ -112,14 +112,17 @@ OPTIONS
`--dry-run`.
--long::
- When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format.
+ When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format.
Implies `--dry-run`.
-z::
--null::
- When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
- entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
- format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
+ When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, print the
+ filename verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF.
+ If no format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
+ Without the `-z` option, filenames with "unusual" characters are
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
-F <file>::
--file=<file>::
@@ -193,11 +196,12 @@ whitespace::
verbatim::
Do not change the message at all.
scissors::
- Same as `whitespace`, except that everything from (and
- including) the line
- "`# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------`"
- is truncated if the message is to be edited. "`#`" can be
- customized with core.commentChar.
+ Same as `whitespace` except that everything from (and including)
+ the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be edited.
+ "`#`" can be customized with core.commentChar.
+
+ # ------------------------ >8 ------------------------
+
default::
Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
Otherwise `whitespace`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 83f86b9..4edd09f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -174,11 +174,11 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
either --bool or --int, as described above.
--path::
- 'git-config' will expand leading '{tilde}' to the value of
- '$HOME', and '{tilde}user' to the home directory for the
+ `git config` will expand a leading `~` to the value of
+ `$HOME`, and `~user` to the home directory for the
specified user. This option has no effect when setting the
- value (but you can use 'git config bla {tilde}/' from the
- command line to let your shell do the expansion).
+ value (but you can use `git config section.variable ~/`
+ from the command line to let your shell do the expansion).
-z::
--null::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
index 96208f8..2b85826 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
@@ -33,10 +33,13 @@ OPTIONS
--socket <path>::
Use `<path>` to contact a running cache daemon (or start a new
- cache daemon if one is not started). Defaults to
- `~/.git-credential-cache/socket`. If your home directory is on a
- network-mounted filesystem, you may need to change this to a
- local filesystem. You must specify an absolute path.
+ cache daemon if one is not started).
+ Defaults to `$XDG_CACHE_HOME/git/credential/socket` unless
+ `~/.git-credential-cache/` exists in which case
+ `~/.git-credential-cache/socket` is used instead.
+ If your home directory is on a network-mounted filesystem, you
+ may need to change this to a local filesystem. You must specify
+ an absolute path.
CONTROLLING THE DAEMON
----------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index a336ae5..ba90066 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -223,7 +223,7 @@ access method and requested operation.
That means that even if you offer only read access (e.g. by using
the pserver method), 'git-cvsserver' should have write access to
the database to work reliably (otherwise you need to make sure
-that the database is up-to-date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
+that the database is up to date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
`gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite`. Note that the SQLite backend creates
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index e4ac448..c924c94 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -30,9 +30,14 @@ OPTIONS
Commit-ish object names to describe. Defaults to HEAD if omitted.
--dirty[=<mark>]::
- Describe the working tree.
- It means describe HEAD and appends <mark> (`-dirty` by
- default) if the working tree is dirty.
+--broken[=<mark>]::
+ Describe the state of the working tree. When the working
+ tree matches HEAD, the output is the same as "git describe
+ HEAD". If the working tree has local modification "-dirty"
+ is appended to it. If a repository is corrupt and Git
+ cannot determine if there is local modification, Git will
+ error out, unless `--broken' is given, which appends
+ the suffix "-broken" instead.
--all::
Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
@@ -82,8 +87,25 @@ OPTIONS
--match <pattern>::
Only consider tags matching the given `glob(7)` pattern,
- excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix. This can be used to avoid
- leaking private tags from the repository.
+ excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix. If used with `--all`, it also
+ considers local branches and remote-tracking references matching the
+ pattern, excluding respectively "refs/heads/" and "refs/remotes/"
+ prefix; references of other types are never considered. If given
+ multiple times, a list of patterns will be accumulated, and tags
+ matching any of the patterns will be considered. Use `--no-match` to
+ clear and reset the list of patterns.
+
+--exclude <pattern>::
+ Do not consider tags matching the given `glob(7)` pattern, excluding
+ the "refs/tags/" prefix. If used with `--all`, it also does not consider
+ local branches and remote-tracking references matching the pattern,
+ excluding respectively "refs/heads/" and "refs/remotes/" prefix;
+ references of other types are never considered. If given multiple times,
+ a list of patterns will be accumulated and tags matching any of the
+ patterns will be excluded. When combined with --match a tag will be
+ considered when it matches at least one --match pattern and does not
+ match any of the --exclude patterns. Use `--no-exclude` to clear and
+ reset the list of patterns.
--always::
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index a171506..b380677 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ a 'git write-tree' + 'git diff-tree'. Thus that's the default mode.
The non-cached version asks the question:
show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
- tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up-to-date
+ tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up to date
which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
you *could* commit. Again, the output matches the 'git diff-tree -r'
@@ -100,8 +100,8 @@ have not actually done a 'git update-index' on it yet - there is no
torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> git diff-index --abbrev HEAD
:100644 100664 7476bb... 000000... kernel/sched.c
-i.e., it shows that the tree has changed, and that `kernel/sched.c` has is
-not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
+i.e., it shows that the tree has changed, and that `kernel/sched.c` is
+not up to date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index bbab35f..b0c1bb9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -97,6 +97,20 @@ OPTIONS
:git-diff: 1
include::diff-options.txt[]
+-1 --base::
+-2 --ours::
+-3 --theirs::
+ Compare the working tree with the "base" version (stage #1),
+ "our branch" (stage #2) or "their branch" (stage #3). The
+ index contains these stages only for unmerged entries i.e.
+ while resolving conflicts. See linkgit:git-read-tree[1]
+ section "3-Way Merge" for detailed information.
+
+-0::
+ Omit diff output for unmerged entries and just show
+ "Unmerged". Can be used only when comparing the working tree
+ with the index.
+
<path>...::
The <paths> parameters, when given, are used to limit
the diff to the named paths (you can give directory
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 2b76265..3d3d219 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ Performance and Compression Tuning
--depth=<n>::
Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
- Default is 10.
+ Default is 50.
--export-pack-edges=<file>::
After creating a packfile, print a line of data to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 6e4bb02..3a52e4d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -8,13 +8,13 @@ git-filter-branch - Rewrite branches
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git filter-branch' [--env-filter <command>] [--tree-filter <command>]
+'git filter-branch' [--setup <command>] [--subdirectory-filter <directory>]
+ [--env-filter <command>] [--tree-filter <command>]
[--index-filter <command>] [--parent-filter <command>]
[--msg-filter <command>] [--commit-filter <command>]
- [--tag-name-filter <command>] [--subdirectory-filter <directory>]
- [--prune-empty]
+ [--tag-name-filter <command>] [--prune-empty]
[--original <namespace>] [-d <directory>] [-f | --force]
- [--] [<rev-list options>...]
+ [--state-branch <branch>] [--] [<rev-list options>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -82,12 +82,23 @@ multiple commits.
OPTIONS
-------
+--setup <command>::
+ This is not a real filter executed for each commit but a one
+ time setup just before the loop. Therefore no commit-specific
+ variables are defined yet. Functions or variables defined here
+ can be used or modified in the following filter steps except
+ the commit filter, for technical reasons.
+
+--subdirectory-filter <directory>::
+ Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory.
+ The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
+ project root. Implies <<Remap_to_ancestor>>.
+
--env-filter <command>::
This filter may be used if you only need to modify the environment
in which the commit will be performed. Specifically, you might
want to rewrite the author/committer name/email/time environment
- variables (see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1] for details). Do not forget
- to re-export the variables.
+ variables (see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1] for details).
--tree-filter <command>::
This is the filter for rewriting the tree and its contents.
@@ -161,11 +172,6 @@ be removed, buyer beware. There is also no support for changing the
author or timestamp (or the tag message for that matter). Tags which point
to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
---subdirectory-filter <directory>::
- Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory.
- The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
- project root. Implies <<Remap_to_ancestor>>.
-
--prune-empty::
Some filters will generate empty commits that leave the tree untouched.
This option instructs git-filter-branch to remove such commits if they
@@ -192,6 +198,12 @@ to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
directory or when there are already refs starting with
'refs/original/', unless forced.
+--state-branch <branch>::
+ This option will cause the mapping from old to new objects to
+ be loaded from named branch upon startup and saved as a new
+ commit to that branch upon exit, enabling incremental of large
+ trees. If '<branch>' does not exist it will be created.
+
<rev-list options>...::
Arguments for 'git rev-list'. All positive refs included by
these options are rewritten. You may also specify options
@@ -340,12 +352,10 @@ git filter-branch --env-filter '
if test "$GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL" = "root@localhost"
then
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL=john@example.com
- export GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
fi
if test "$GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL" = "root@localhost"
then
GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL=john@example.com
- export GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
fi
' -- --all
--------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index abe13f3..1d420e4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -10,8 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
[(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
- [--points-at <object>] [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]
- [--contains [<object>]]
+ [--points-at=<object>]
+ (--merged[=<object>] | --no-merged[=<object>])
+ [--contains[=<object>]] [--no-contains[=<object>]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -25,35 +26,41 @@ host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
OPTIONS
-------
-<count>::
+<pattern>...::
+ If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
+ match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
+ literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
+ beginning up to a slash.
+
+--count=<count>::
By default the command shows all refs that match
`<pattern>`. This option makes it stop after showing
that many refs.
-<key>::
+--sort=<key>::
A field name to sort on. Prefix `-` to sort in
descending order of the value. When unspecified,
`refname` is used. You may use the --sort=<key> option
multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
key.
-<format>::
- A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the
- object pointed at by a ref being shown. If `fieldname`
+--format=<format>::
+ A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a ref being shown
+ and the object it points at. If `fieldname`
is prefixed with an asterisk (`*`) and the ref points
- at a tag object, the value for the field in the object
- tag refers is used. When unspecified, defaults to
+ at a tag object, use the value for the field in the object
+ which the tag object refers to (instead of the field in the tag object).
+ When unspecified, `<format>` defaults to
`%(objectname) SPC %(objecttype) TAB %(refname)`.
It also interpolates `%%` to `%`, and `%xx` where `xx`
are hex digits interpolates to character with hex code
`xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
`%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
-<pattern>...::
- If one or more patterns are given, only refs are shown that
- match against at least one pattern, either using fnmatch(3) or
- literally, in the latter case matching completely or from the
- beginning up to a slash.
+--color[=<when>]:
+ Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
+ `<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
+ `<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
--shell::
--perl::
@@ -64,21 +71,27 @@ OPTIONS
the specified host language. This is meant to produce
a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
---points-at <object>::
+--points-at=<object>::
Only list refs which points at the given object.
---merged [<object>]::
+--merged[=<object>]::
Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
+ incompatible with `--no-merged`.
---no-merged [<object>]::
+--no-merged[=<object>]::
Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified),
+ incompatible with `--merged`.
---contains [<object>]::
+--contains[=<object>]::
Only list refs which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
specified).
+--no-contains[=<object>]::
+ Only list refs which don't contain the specified commit (HEAD
+ if not specified).
+
--ignore-case::
Sorting and filtering refs are case insensitive.
@@ -95,11 +108,20 @@ refname::
The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
- abbreviation mode. If `strip=<N>` is appended, strips `<N>`
- slash-separated path components from the front of the refname
- (e.g., `%(refname:strip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo`.
- `<N>` must be a positive integer. If a displayed ref has fewer
- components than `<N>`, the command aborts with an error.
+ abbreviation mode. If `lstrip=<N>` (`rstrip=<N>`) is appended, strips `<N>`
+ slash-separated path components from the front (back) of the refname
+ (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo` and
+ `%(refname:rstrip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`).
+ If `<N>` is a negative number, strip as many path components as
+ necessary from the specified end to leave `-<N>` path components
+ (e.g. `%(refname:lstrip=-2)` turns
+ `refs/tags/foo` into `tags/foo` and `%(refname:rstrip=-1)`
+ turns `refs/tags/foo` into `refs`). When the ref does not have
+ enough components, the result becomes an empty string if
+ stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
+ stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
++
+`strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
objecttype::
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
@@ -110,29 +132,41 @@ objectsize::
objectname::
The object name (aka SHA-1).
For a non-ambiguous abbreviation of the object name append `:short`.
+ For an abbreviation of the object name with desired length append
+ `:short=<length>`, where the minimum length is MINIMUM_ABBREV. The
+ length may be exceeded to ensure unique object names.
upstream::
The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
- from the displayed ref. Respects `:short` in the same way as
- `refname` above. Additionally respects `:track` to show
- "[ahead N, behind M]" and `:trackshort` to show the terse
- version: ">" (ahead), "<" (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind),
- or "=" (in sync). Has no effect if the ref does not have
- tracking information associated with it.
+ from the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip` and
+ `:rstrip` in the same way as `refname` above. Additionally
+ respects `:track` to show "[ahead N, behind M]" and
+ `:trackshort` to show the terse version: ">" (ahead), "<"
+ (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind), or "=" (in sync). `:track`
+ also prints "[gone]" whenever unknown upstream ref is
+ encountered. Append `:track,nobracket` to show tracking
+ information without brackets (i.e "ahead N, behind M"). Has
+ no effect if the ref does not have tracking information
+ associated with it. All the options apart from `nobracket`
+ are mutually exclusive, but if used together the last option
+ is selected.
push::
- The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}` location
- for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:track`, and
- `:trackshort` options as `upstream` does. Produces an empty
- string if no `@{push}` ref is configured.
+ The name of a local ref which represents the `@{push}`
+ location for the displayed ref. Respects `:short`, `:lstrip`,
+ `:rstrip`, `:track`, and `:trackshort` options as `upstream`
+ does. Produces an empty string if no `@{push}` ref is
+ configured.
HEAD::
'*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
otherwise.
color::
- Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
- are described in `color.branch.*`.
+ Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where color
+ names are described under Values in the "CONFIGURATION FILE"
+ section of linkgit:git-config[1]. For example,
+ `%(color:bold red)`.
align::
Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
@@ -149,6 +183,25 @@ align::
quoted, but if nested then only the topmost level performs
quoting.
+if::
+ Used as %(if)...%(then)...%(end) or
+ %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end). If there is an atom with
+ value or string literal after the %(if) then everything after
+ the %(then) is printed, else if the %(else) atom is used, then
+ everything after %(else) is printed. We ignore space when
+ evaluating the string before %(then), this is useful when we
+ use the %(HEAD) atom which prints either "*" or " " and we
+ want to apply the 'if' condition only on the 'HEAD' ref.
+ Append ":equals=<string>" or ":notequals=<string>" to compare
+ the value between the %(if:...) and %(then) atoms with the
+ given string.
+
+symref::
+ The ref which the given symbolic ref refers to. If not a
+ symbolic ref, nothing is printed. Respects the `:short`,
+ `:lstrip` and `:rstrip` options in the same way as `refname`
+ above.
+
In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
be used to specify the value in the header field.
@@ -165,11 +218,15 @@ and `date` to extract the named component.
The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line. The next
-line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
+line is `contents:body`, where body is all of the lines after the first
blank line. The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`. The
first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
Additionally, the trailers as interpreted by linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
-are obtained as 'contents:trailers'.
+are obtained as `trailers` (or by using the historical alias
+`contents:trailers`). Non-trailer lines from the trailer block can be omitted
+with `trailers:only`. Whitespace-continuations can be removed from trailers so
+that each trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content with
+`trailers:unfold`. Both can be used together as `trailers:unfold,only`.
For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
(`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
@@ -186,6 +243,14 @@ As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
values the `--date` option to linkgit:git-rev-list[1] takes).
+Some atoms like %(align) and %(if) always require a matching %(end).
+We call them "opening atoms" and sometimes denote them as %($open).
+
+When a scripting language specific quoting is in effect, everything
+between a top-level opening atom and its matching %(end) is evaluated
+according to the semantics of the opening atom and only its result
+from the top-level is quoted.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -273,6 +338,22 @@ eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
eval "$eval"
------------
+
+An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(else)...%(end).
+This prefixes the current branch with a star.
+
+------------
+git for-each-ref --format="%(if)%(HEAD)%(then)* %(else) %(end)%(refname:short)" refs/heads/
+------------
+
+
+An example to show the usage of %(if)...%(then)...%(end).
+This prints the authorname, if present.
+
+------------
+git for-each-ref --format="%(refname)%(if)%(authorname)%(then) Authored by: %(authorname)%(end)"
+------------
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index f7a069b..6cbe462 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
[--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--progress]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -283,6 +284,9 @@ you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
range are always formatted as creation patches, independently
of this flag.
+--progress::
+ Show progress reports on stderr as patches are generated.
+
CONFIGURATION
-------------
You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
@@ -557,7 +561,7 @@ series A, B, C, the history would be like:
................................................
With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
-`--cover-letter` of using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
+`--cover-letter` or using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
cover letter), like this:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 71f32f3..18b4947 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -95,13 +95,6 @@ OPTIONS
<tree> option the prefix of all submodule output will be the name of
the parent project's <tree> object.
---parent-basename <basename>::
- For internal use only. In order to produce uniform output with the
- --recurse-submodules option, this option can be used to provide the
- basename of a parent's <tree> object to a submodule so the submodule
- can prefix its output with the parent's name rather than the SHA1 of
- the submodule.
-
-a::
--text::
Process binary files as if they were text.
@@ -161,8 +154,11 @@ OPTIONS
-P::
--perl-regexp::
- Use Perl-compatible regexp for patterns. Requires libpcre to be
- compiled in.
+ Use Perl-compatible regular expressions for patterns.
++
+Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
+compile-time dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with support for them
+providing this option will cause it to die.
-F::
--fixed-strings::
@@ -293,6 +289,9 @@ OPTIONS
<pathspec>...::
If given, limit the search to paths matching at least one pattern.
Both leading paths match and glob(7) patterns are supported.
++
+For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the 'pathspec' entry
+in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
Examples
--------
@@ -309,6 +308,9 @@ Examples
Looks for a line that has `NODE` or `Unexpected` in
files that have lines that match both.
+`git grep solution -- :^Documentation`::
+ Looks for `solution`, excluding files in `Documentation`.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index 09074c7..9dd19a1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -3,24 +3,27 @@ git-interpret-trailers(1)
NAME
----
-git-interpret-trailers - help add structured information into commit messages
+git-interpret-trailers - add or parse structured information in commit messages
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git interpret-trailers' [--in-place] [--trim-empty] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
+'git interpret-trailers' [options] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
+'git interpret-trailers' [options] [--parse] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Help adding 'trailers' lines, that look similar to RFC 822 e-mail
+Help parsing or adding 'trailers' lines, that look similar to RFC 822 e-mail
headers, at the end of the otherwise free-form part of a commit
message.
This command reads some patches or commit messages from either the
-<file> arguments or the standard input if no <file> is specified. Then
-this command applies the arguments passed using the `--trailer`
-option, if any, to the commit message part of each input file. The
-result is emitted on the standard output.
+<file> arguments or the standard input if no <file> is specified. If
+`--parse` is specified, the output consists of the parsed trailers.
+
+Otherwise, this command applies the arguments passed using the
+`--trailer` option, if any, to the commit message part of each input
+file. The result is emitted on the standard output.
Some configuration variables control the way the `--trailer` arguments
are applied to each commit message and the way any existing trailer in
@@ -80,6 +83,45 @@ OPTIONS
trailer to the input messages. See the description of this
command.
+--where <placement>::
+--no-where::
+ Specify where all new trailers will be added. A setting
+ provided with '--where' overrides all configuration variables
+ and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
+ '--where' or '--no-where'.
+
+--if-exists <action>::
+--no-if-exists::
+ Specify what action will be performed when there is already at
+ least one trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
+ provided with '--if-exists' overrides all configuration variables
+ and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
+ '--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'.
+
+--if-missing <action>::
+--no-if-missing::
+ Specify what action will be performed when there is no other
+ trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
+ provided with '--if-missing' overrides all configuration variables
+ and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
+ '--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'.
+
+--only-trailers::
+ Output only the trailers, not any other parts of the input.
+
+--only-input::
+ Output only trailers that exist in the input; do not add any
+ from the command-line or by following configured `trailer.*`
+ rules.
+
+--unfold::
+ Remove any whitespace-continuation in trailers, so that each
+ trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content.
+
+--parse::
+ A convenience alias for `--only-trailers --only-input
+ --unfold`.
+
CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
-----------------------
@@ -123,7 +165,7 @@ trailer.ifexists::
same <token> in the message.
+
The valid values for this option are: `addIfDifferentNeighbor` (this
-is the default), `addIfDifferent`, `add`, `overwrite` or `doNothing`.
+is the default), `addIfDifferent`, `add`, `replace` or `doNothing`.
+
With `addIfDifferentNeighbor`, a new trailer will be added only if no
trailer with the same (<token>, <value>) pair is above or below the line
@@ -170,8 +212,8 @@ trailer.<token>.where::
configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
-trailer.<token>.ifexist::
- This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifexist'
+trailer.<token>.ifexists::
+ This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifexists'
configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 446209e..d153c17 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ OPTIONS
-s::
--stage::
- Show staged contents' object name, mode bits and stage number in the output.
+ Show staged contents' mode bits, object name and stage number in the output.
--directory::
If a whole directory is classified as "other", show just its
@@ -77,7 +77,8 @@ OPTIONS
succeed.
-z::
- \0 line termination on output.
+ \0 line termination on output and do not quote filenames.
+ See OUTPUT below for more information.
-x <pattern>::
--exclude=<pattern>::
@@ -196,9 +197,10 @@ the index records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage
the user (or the porcelain) to see what should eventually be recorded at the
path. (see linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information on state)
-When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
-in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
-respectively.
+Without the `-z` option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
+quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+(see linkgit:git-config[1]). Using `-z` the filename is output
+verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.
Exclude Patterns
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
index dbc91f9..9dee7be 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
@@ -53,7 +53,8 @@ OPTIONS
Show object size of blob (file) entries.
-z::
- \0 line termination on output.
+ \0 line termination on output and do not quote filenames.
+ See OUTPUT FORMAT below for more information.
--name-only::
--name-status::
@@ -82,8 +83,6 @@ Output Format
-------------
<mode> SP <type> SP <object> TAB <file>
-Unless the `-z` option is used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
-in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`, respectively.
This output format is compatible with what `--index-info --stdin` of
'git update-index' expects.
@@ -95,6 +94,11 @@ Object size identified by <object> is given in bytes, and right-justified
with minimum width of 7 characters. Object size is given only for blobs
(file) entries; for other entries `-` character is used in place of size.
+Without the `-z` option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
+quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+(see linkgit:git-config[1]). Using `-z` the filename is output
+verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index ca3c27b..d5dfd84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,6 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
-'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
'git merge' --abort
'git merge' --continue
@@ -46,11 +45,7 @@ a log message from the user describing the changes.
D---E---F---G---H master
------------
-The second syntax (<msg> `HEAD` <commit>...) is supported for
-historical reasons. Do not use it from the command line or in
-new scripts. It is the same as `git merge -m <msg> <commit>...`.
-
-The third syntax ("`git merge --abort`") can only be run after the
+The second syntax ("`git merge --abort`") can only be run after the
merge has resulted in conflicts. 'git merge --abort' will abort the
merge process and try to reconstruct the pre-merge state. However,
if there were uncommitted changes when the merge started (and
@@ -69,12 +64,6 @@ OPTIONS
-------
include::merge-options.txt[]
--S[<keyid>]::
---gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
- GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The `keyid` argument is
- optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified,
- it must be stuck to the option without a space.
-
-m <msg>::
Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
case one is created).
@@ -138,7 +127,7 @@ exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that
would result from the merge already.)
If all named commits are already ancestors of `HEAD`, 'git merge'
-will exit early with the message "Already up-to-date."
+will exit early with the message "Already up to date."
FAST-FORWARD MERGE
------------------
@@ -285,7 +274,10 @@ After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:
* Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in
the working tree. Edit the files into shape and
- 'git add' them to the index. Use 'git commit' to seal the deal.
+ 'git add' them to the index. Use 'git commit' or
+ 'git merge --continue' to seal the deal. The latter command
+ checks whether there is a (interrupted) merge in progress
+ before calling 'git commit'.
You can work through the conflict with a number of tools:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index ca28fb8..e8e68f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -26,7 +26,18 @@ OPTIONS
--refs=<pattern>::
Only use refs whose names match a given shell pattern. The pattern
- can be one of branch name, tag name or fully qualified ref name.
+ can be one of branch name, tag name or fully qualified ref name. If
+ given multiple times, use refs whose names match any of the given shell
+ patterns. Use `--no-refs` to clear any previous ref patterns given.
+
+--exclude=<pattern>::
+ Do not use any ref whose name matches a given shell pattern. The
+ pattern can be one of branch name, tag name or fully qualified ref
+ name. If given multiple times, a ref will be excluded when it matches
+ any of the given patterns. When used together with --refs, a ref will
+ be used as a match only when it matches at least one --refs pattern and
+ does not match any --exclude patterns. Use `--no-exclude` to clear the
+ list of exclude patterns.
--all::
List all commits reachable from all refs
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index be7db30..4367729 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -171,7 +171,7 @@ OPTIONS
object that does not have notes attached to it.
--stdin::
- Also read the object names to remove notes from from the standard
+ Also read the object names to remove notes from the standard
input (there is no reason you cannot combine this with object
names from the command line).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 8973510..473a161 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -18,8 +18,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes a packed
-archive with specified base-name, or to the standard output.
+Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes either one or
+more packed archives with the specified base-name to disk, or a packed
+archive to the standard output.
A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer a set of objects
between two repositories as well as an access efficient archival
@@ -47,9 +48,9 @@ transport by their peers.
OPTIONS
-------
base-name::
- Write into a pair of files (.pack and .idx), using
+ Write into pairs of files (.pack and .idx), using
<base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
- When this option is used, the two files are written in
+ When this option is used, the two files in a pair are written in
<base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA-1> is a hash
based on the pack content and is written to the standard
output of the command.
@@ -108,9 +109,13 @@ base-name::
is taken from the `pack.windowMemory` configuration variable.
--max-pack-size=<n>::
- Maximum size of each output pack file. The size can be suffixed with
+ In unusual scenarios, you may not be able to create files
+ larger than a certain size on your filesystem, and this option
+ can be used to tell the command to split the output packfile
+ into multiple independent packfiles, each not larger than the
+ given size. The size can be suffixed with
"k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB.
- If specified, multiple packfiles may be created, which also
+ This option
prevents the creation of a bitmap index.
The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index cf71fba..442caff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -56,9 +56,6 @@ OPTIONS
This is the default.
-<patch>::
- The diff to create the ID of.
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index 4470e4b..ce05b7a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
-the merge will be automatically cancelled and the work tree untouched.
+the merge will be automatically canceled and the work tree untouched.
It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
pulling or stash them away with linkgit:git-stash[1].
@@ -86,12 +86,12 @@ OPTIONS
--[no-]recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
- be fetched too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
- That might be necessary to get the data needed for merging submodule
- commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
- merge will not be checked out in the submodule, "git submodule update"
- has to be called afterwards to bring the work tree up to date with the
- merge result.
+ be fetched and updated, too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and
+ linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
++
+If the checkout is done via rebase, local submodule commits are rebased as well.
++
+If the update is done via merge, the submodule conflicts are resolved and checked out.
Options related to merging
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -131,7 +131,7 @@ unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
--autostash::
--no-autostash::
Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
- linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash when
+ linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash entry when
done. `--no-autostash` is useful to override the `rebase.autoStash`
configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
@@ -159,15 +159,15 @@ present while on branch `<name>`, that value is used instead of
In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value
of the configuration `remote.<origin>.url` is consulted
-and if there is not any such variable, the value on `URL: ` line
-in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>` file is used.
+and if there is not any such variable, the value on the `URL:` line
+in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>` is used.
In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and
optionally store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is
run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values
of the configuration variable `remote.<origin>.fetch` are
consulted, and if there aren't any, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`
-file is consulted and its `Pull: ` lines are used.
+is consulted and its `Pull:` lines are used.
In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:
@@ -210,7 +210,8 @@ EXAMPLES
current branch:
+
------------------------------------------------
-$ git pull, git pull origin
+$ git pull
+$ git pull origin
------------------------------------------------
+
Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 1624a35..5b08302 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
[-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
- [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
+ [--[no-]signed|--signed=(true|false|if-asked)]
[--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ already exists on the remote side.
information, see `push.followTags` in linkgit:git-config[1].
--[no-]signed::
---sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
+--signed=(true|false|if-asked)::
GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
@@ -156,11 +156,17 @@ already exists on the remote side.
Either all refs are updated, or on error, no refs are updated.
If the server does not support atomic pushes the push will fail.
--o::
---push-option::
+-o <option>::
+--push-option=<option>::
Transmit the given string to the server, which passes them to
the pre-receive as well as the post-receive hook. The given string
must not contain a NUL or LF character.
+ When multiple `--push-option=<option>` are given, they are
+ all sent to the other side in the order listed on the
+ command line.
+ When no `--push-option=<option>` is given from the command
+ line, the values of configuration variable `push.pushOption`
+ are used instead.
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
@@ -217,6 +223,47 @@ with this feature.
+
"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous --force-with-lease on the
command line.
++
+A general note on safety: supplying this option without an expected
+value, i.e. as `--force-with-lease` or `--force-with-lease=<refname>`
+interacts very badly with anything that implicitly runs `git fetch` on
+the remote to be pushed to in the background, e.g. `git fetch origin`
+on your repository in a cronjob.
++
+The protection it offers over `--force` is ensuring that subsequent
+changes your work wasn't based on aren't clobbered, but this is
+trivially defeated if some background process is updating refs in the
+background. We don't have anything except the remote tracking info to
+go by as a heuristic for refs you're expected to have seen & are
+willing to clobber.
++
+If your editor or some other system is running `git fetch` in the
+background for you a way to mitigate this is to simply set up another
+remote:
++
+ git remote add origin-push $(git config remote.origin.url)
+ git fetch origin-push
++
+Now when the background process runs `git fetch origin` the references
+on `origin-push` won't be updated, and thus commands like:
++
+ git push --force-with-lease origin-push
++
+Will fail unless you manually run `git fetch origin-push`. This method
+is of course entirely defeated by something that runs `git fetch
+--all`, in that case you'd need to either disable it or do something
+more tedious like:
++
+ git fetch # update 'master' from remote
+ git tag base master # mark our base point
+ git rebase -i master # rewrite some commits
+ git push --force-with-lease=master:base master:master
++
+I.e. create a `base` tag for versions of the upstream code that you've
+seen and are willing to overwrite, then rewrite history, and finally
+force push changes to `master` if the remote version is still at
+`base`, regardless of what your local `remotes/origin/master` has been
+updated to in the background.
-f::
--force::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index fa1d557..72bd809 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -115,6 +115,12 @@ OPTIONS
directories the index file and index output file are
located in.
+--[no-]recurse-submodules::
+ Using --recurse-submodules will update the content of all initialized
+ submodules according to the commit recorded in the superproject by
+ calling read-tree recursively, also setting the submodules HEAD to be
+ detached at that commit.
+
--no-sparse-checkout::
Disable sparse checkout support even if `core.sparseCheckout`
is true.
@@ -131,7 +137,7 @@ Merging
-------
If `-m` is specified, 'git read-tree' can perform 3 kinds of
merge, a single tree merge if only 1 tree is given, a
-fast-forward merge with 2 trees, or a 3-way merge if 3 trees are
+fast-forward merge with 2 trees, or a 3-way merge if 3 or more trees are
provided.
@@ -173,6 +179,7 @@ Here are the "carry forward" rules, where "I" denotes the index,
"clean" means that index and work tree coincide, and "exists"/"nothing"
refer to the presence of a path in the specified commit:
+....
I H M Result
-------------------------------------------------------
0 nothing nothing nothing (does not happen)
@@ -211,6 +218,7 @@ refer to the presence of a path in the specified commit:
19 no no yes exists exists keep index
20 yes yes no exists exists use M
21 no yes no exists exists fail
+....
In all "keep index" cases, the index entry stays as in the
original index file. If the entry is not up to date,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 67d48e6..3cedfb0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -334,7 +334,7 @@ which makes little sense.
-f::
--force-rebase::
- Force a rebase even if the current branch is up-to-date and
+ Force a rebase even if the current branch is up to date and
the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
+
You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
@@ -370,6 +370,11 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
Incompatible with the --interactive option.
+--signoff::
+ This flag is passed to 'git am' to sign off all the rebased
+ commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]). Incompatible with the
+ --interactive option.
+
-i::
--interactive::
Make a list of the commits which are about to be rebased. Let the
@@ -425,13 +430,15 @@ without an explicit `--interactive`.
--autosquash::
--no-autosquash::
When the commit log message begins with "squash! ..." (or
- "fixup! ..."), and there is a commit whose title begins with
- the same ..., automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i
- so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
- commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved
- commit from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). Ignores subsequent
- "fixup! " or "squash! " after the first, in case you referred to an
- earlier fixup/squash with `git commit --fixup/--squash`.
+ "fixup! ..."), and there is already a commit in the todo list that
+ matches the same `...`, automatically modify the todo list of rebase
+ -i so that the commit marked for squashing comes right after the
+ commit to be modified, and change the action of the moved commit
+ from `pick` to `squash` (or `fixup`). A commit matches the `...` if
+ the commit subject matches, or if the `...` refers to the commit's
+ hash. As a fall-back, partial matches of the commit subject work,
+ too. The recommended way to create fixup/squash commits is by using
+ the `--fixup`/`--squash` options of linkgit:git-commit[1].
+
This option is only valid when the `--interactive` option is used.
+
@@ -441,7 +448,7 @@ used to override and disable this setting.
--autostash::
--no-autostash::
- Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation
+ Automatically create a temporary stash entry before the operation
begins, and apply it after the operation ends. This means
that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use
with care: the final stash application after a successful
@@ -670,7 +677,7 @@ on this 'subsystem'. You might end up with a history like the
following:
------------
- o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
\
o---o---o---o---o subsystem
\
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 0ccd5fb..86a4b32 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -114,6 +114,8 @@ will be performed, and the update, post-receive and post-update
hooks will not be invoked either. This can be useful to quickly
bail out if the update is not to be supported.
+See the notes on the quarantine environment below.
+
update Hook
-----------
Before each ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/update file exists
@@ -214,6 +216,33 @@ if the repository is packed and is served via a dumb transport.
exec git update-server-info
+Quarantine Environment
+----------------------
+
+When `receive-pack` takes in objects, they are placed into a temporary
+"quarantine" directory within the `$GIT_DIR/objects` directory and
+migrated into the main object store only after the `pre-receive` hook
+has completed. If the push fails before then, the temporary directory is
+removed entirely.
+
+This has a few user-visible effects and caveats:
+
+ 1. Pushes which fail due to problems with the incoming pack, missing
+ objects, or due to the `pre-receive` hook will not leave any
+ on-disk data. This is usually helpful to prevent repeated failed
+ pushes from filling up your disk, but can make debugging more
+ challenging.
+
+ 2. Any objects created by the `pre-receive` hook will be created in
+ the quarantine directory (and migrated only if it succeeds).
+
+ 3. The `pre-receive` hook MUST NOT update any refs to point to
+ quarantined objects. Other programs accessing the repository will
+ not be able to see the objects (and if the pre-receive hook fails,
+ those refs would become corrupted). For safety, any ref updates
+ from within `pre-receive` are automatically rejected.
+
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-send-pack[1], linkgit:gitnamespaces[7]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index 26afe6e..ae750e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-repack - Pack unpacked objects in a repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
+'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>] [--threads=<n>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -92,6 +92,9 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
to be applied that many times to get to the necessary object.
The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50.
+--threads=<n>::
+ This option is passed through to `git pack-objects`.
+
--window-memory=<n>::
This option provides an additional limit on top of `--window`;
the window size will dynamically scale down so as to not take
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rerere.txt b/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
index 9ee083c..031f31f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rerere.txt
@@ -205,7 +205,7 @@ development on the topic branch:
------------
you could run `git rebase master topic`, to bring yourself
-up-to-date before your topic is ready to be sent upstream.
+up to date before your topic is ready to be sent upstream.
This would result in falling back to a three-way merge, and it
would conflict the same way as the test merge you resolved earlier.
'git rerere' will be run by 'git rebase' to help you resolve this
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 8a21198..1d697d9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@ $ git pull git://info.example.com/ nitfol <4>
in these files are in good order. You do not want to see them
when you run "git diff", because you plan to work on other files
and changes with these files are distracting.
-<2> Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of merging.
+<2> Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sound worthy of merging.
<3> However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does
not match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going
to make does not affect frotz.c or filfre.c, so you revert the
@@ -294,7 +294,7 @@ $ git reset --keep start <3>
Split a commit apart into a sequence of commits::
+
-Suppose that you have created lots of logically separate changes and commited
+Suppose that you have created lots of logically separate changes and committed
them together. Then, later you decide that it might be better to have each
logical chunk associated with its own commit. You can use git reset to rewind
history without changing the contents of your local files, and then successively
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 7241e96..95326b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -126,6 +126,12 @@ can be used.
'git diff-{asterisk}'). In contrast to the `--sq-quote` option,
the command input is still interpreted as usual.
+--short[=length]::
+ Same as `--verify` but shortens the object name to a unique
+ prefix with at least `length` characters. The minimum length
+ is 4, the default is the effective value of the `core.abbrev`
+ configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
--not::
When showing object names, prefix them with '{caret}' and
strip '{caret}' prefix from the object names that already have
@@ -136,12 +142,6 @@ can be used.
The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
abbreviation mode.
---short::
---short=number::
- Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to
- abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
- 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
-
--symbolic::
Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with
possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
@@ -217,6 +217,10 @@ If `$GIT_DIR` is not defined and the current directory
is not detected to lie in a Git repository or work tree
print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
+--absolute-git-dir::
+ Like `--git-dir`, but its output is always the canonicalized
+ absolute path.
+
--git-common-dir::
Show `$GIT_COMMON_DIR` if defined, else `$GIT_DIR`.
@@ -231,6 +235,9 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-bare-repository::
When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".
+--is-shallow-repository::
+ When the repository is shallow print "true", otherwise "false".
+
--resolve-git-dir <path>::
Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
@@ -257,6 +264,12 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--show-toplevel::
Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+--show-superproject-working-tree::
+ Show the absolute path of the root of the superproject's
+ working tree (if exists) that uses the current repository as
+ its submodule. Outputs nothing if the current repository is
+ not used as a submodule by any project.
+
--shared-index-path::
Show the path to the shared index file in split index mode, or
empty if not in split-index mode.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index f1efc11..b5c4622 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -140,20 +140,21 @@ Only submodules using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
tree, as their repository lives inside the .git directory of the
superproject. If a submodule (or one of those nested inside it)
-still uses a .git directory, `git rm` will fail - no matter if forced
-or not - to protect the submodule's history. If it exists the
-submodule.<name> section in the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file will also
-be removed and that file will be staged (unless --cached or -n are used).
+still uses a .git directory, `git rm` will move the submodules
+git directory into the superprojects git directory to protect
+the submodule's history. If it exists the submodule.<name> section
+in the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file will also be removed and that file
+will be staged (unless --cached or -n are used).
-A submodule is considered up-to-date when the HEAD is the same as
+A submodule is considered up to date when the HEAD is the same as
recorded in the index, no tracked files are modified and no untracked
files that aren't ignored are present in the submodules work tree.
Ignored files are deemed expendable and won't stop a submodule's work
tree from being removed.
If you only want to remove the local checkout of a submodule from your
-work tree without committing the removal,
-use linkgit:git-submodule[1] `deinit` instead.
+work tree without committing the removal, use linkgit:git-submodule[1] `deinit`
+instead. Also see linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for details on submodule removal.
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 9d66166..bac9014 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -248,6 +248,21 @@ must be used for each option.
commands and replies will be printed. Useful to debug TLS
connection and authentication problems.
+--batch-size=<num>::
+ Some email servers (e.g. smtp.163.com) limit the number emails to be
+ sent per session (connection) and this will lead to a faliure when
+ sending many messages. With this option, send-email will disconnect after
+ sending $<num> messages and wait for a few seconds (see --relogin-delay)
+ and reconnect, to work around such a limit. You may want to
+ use some form of credential helper to avoid having to retype
+ your password every time this happens. Defaults to the
+ `sendemail.smtpBatchSize` configuration variable.
+
+--relogin-delay=<int>::
+ Waiting $<int> seconds before reconnecting to SMTP server. Used together
+ with --batch-size option. Defaults to the `sendemail.smtpReloginDelay`
+ configuration variable.
+
Automating
~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -377,6 +392,7 @@ have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
Currently, validation means the following:
+
--
+ * Invoke the sendemail-validate hook if present (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
* Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
--
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index a831dd0..f51c649 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git send-pack' [--all] [--dry-run] [--force] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--verbose] [--thin] [--atomic]
- [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
+ [--[no-]signed|--signed=(true|false|if-asked)]
[<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
refs.
--[no-]signed::
---sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
+--signed=(true|false|if-asked)::
GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
logged. If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
@@ -81,6 +81,12 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails. See
linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
+--push-option=<string>::
+ Pass the specified string as a push option for consumption by
+ hooks on the server side. If the server doesn't support push
+ options, error out. See linkgit:git-push[1] and
+ linkgit:githooks[5] for details.
+
<host>::
A remote host to house the repository. When this
part is specified, 'git-receive-pack' is invoked via
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 2e9e344..8be6610 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -13,8 +13,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git stash' drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]
'git stash' branch <branchname> [<stash>]
-'git stash' [save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
- [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [<message>]]
+'git stash' [push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]
+ [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]]
'git stash' clear
'git stash' create [<message>]
'git stash' store [-m|--message <message>] [-q|--quiet] <commit>
@@ -30,7 +31,7 @@ and reverts the working directory to match the `HEAD` commit.
The modifications stashed away by this command can be listed with
`git stash list`, inspected with `git stash show`, and restored
(potentially on top of a different commit) with `git stash apply`.
-Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash save`.
+Calling `git stash` without any arguments is equivalent to `git stash push`.
A stash is by default listed as "WIP on 'branchname' ...", but
you can give a more descriptive message on the command line when
you create one.
@@ -45,15 +46,24 @@ stash index (e.g. the integer `n` is equivalent to `stash@{n}`).
OPTIONS
-------
-save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
+push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [-m|--message <message>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
- Save your local modifications to a new 'stash' and roll them
+ Save your local modifications to a new 'stash entry' and roll them
back to HEAD (in the working tree and in the index).
The <message> part is optional and gives
- the description along with the stashed state. For quickly making
- a snapshot, you can omit _both_ "save" and <message>, but giving
- only <message> does not trigger this action to prevent a misspelled
- subcommand from making an unwanted stash.
+ the description along with the stashed state.
++
+For quickly making a snapshot, you can omit "push". In this mode,
+non-option arguments are not allowed to prevent a misspelled
+subcommand from making an unwanted stash entry. The two exceptions to this
+are `stash -p` which acts as alias for `stash push -p` and pathspecs,
+which are allowed after a double hyphen `--` for disambiguation.
++
+When pathspec is given to 'git stash push', the new stash entry records the
+modified states only for the files that match the pathspec. The index
+entries and working tree files are then rolled back to the state in
+HEAD only for these files, too, leaving files that do not match the
+pathspec intact.
+
If the `--keep-index` option is used, all changes already added to the
index are left intact.
@@ -74,12 +84,18 @@ linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
`--no-keep-index` to override this.
+save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
+
+ This option is deprecated in favour of 'git stash push'. It
+ differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take pathspecs,
+ and any non-option arguments form the message.
+
list [<options>]::
- List the stashes that you currently have. Each 'stash' is listed
- with its name (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the latest stash, `stash@{1}` is
+ List the stash entries that you currently have. Each 'stash entry' is
+ listed with its name (e.g. `stash@{0}` is the latest entry, `stash@{1}` is
the one before, etc.), the name of the branch that was current when the
- stash was made, and a short description of the commit the stash was
+ entry was made, and a short description of the commit the entry was
based on.
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -92,11 +108,12 @@ command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
show [<stash>]::
- Show the changes recorded in the stash as a diff between the
- stashed state and its original parent. When no `<stash>` is given,
- shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
- it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
- -p stash@{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
+ Show the changes recorded in the stash entry as a diff between the
+ stashed contents and the commit back when the stash entry was first
+ created. When no `<stash>` is given, it shows the latest one.
+ By default, the command shows the diffstat, but it will accept any
+ format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show -p stash@{1}`
+ to view the second most recent entry in patch form).
You can use stash.showStat and/or stash.showPatch config variables
to change the default behavior.
@@ -104,7 +121,7 @@ pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
Remove a single stashed state from the stash list and apply it
on top of the current working tree state, i.e., do the inverse
- operation of `git stash save`. The working directory must
+ operation of `git stash push`. The working directory must
match the index.
+
Applying the state can fail with conflicts; in this case, it is not
@@ -123,7 +140,7 @@ apply [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
Like `pop`, but do not remove the state from the stash list. Unlike `pop`,
`<stash>` may be any commit that looks like a commit created by
- `stash save` or `stash create`.
+ `stash push` or `stash create`.
branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
@@ -134,28 +151,29 @@ branch <branchname> [<stash>]::
`stash@{<revision>}`, it then drops the `<stash>`. When no `<stash>`
is given, applies the latest one.
+
-This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash save` has
+This is useful if the branch on which you ran `git stash push` has
changed enough that `git stash apply` fails due to conflicts. Since
-the stash is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the time
-`git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state with
-no conflicts.
+the stash entry is applied on top of the commit that was HEAD at the
+time `git stash` was run, it restores the originally stashed state
+with no conflicts.
clear::
- Remove all the stashed states. Note that those states will then
+ Remove all the stash entries. Note that those entries will then
be subject to pruning, and may be impossible to recover (see
'Examples' below for a possible strategy).
drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
- Remove a single stashed state from the stash list. When no `<stash>`
- is given, it removes the latest one. i.e. `stash@{0}`, otherwise
- `<stash>` must be a valid stash log reference of the form
- `stash@{<revision>}`.
+ Remove a single stash entry from the list of stash entries.
+ When no `<stash>` is given, it removes the latest one.
+ i.e. `stash@{0}`, otherwise `<stash>` must be a valid stash
+ log reference of the form `stash@{<revision>}`.
create::
- Create a stash (which is a regular commit object) and return its
- object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref namespace.
+ Create a stash entry (which is a regular commit object) and
+ return its object name, without storing it anywhere in the ref
+ namespace.
This is intended to be useful for scripts. It is probably not
the command you want to use; see "save" above.
@@ -169,10 +187,10 @@ store::
DISCUSSION
----------
-A stash is represented as a commit whose tree records the state of the
-working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD` when
-the stash was created. The tree of the second parent records the
-state of the index when the stash is made, and it is made a child of
+A stash entry is represented as a commit whose tree records the state
+of the working directory, and its first parent is the commit at `HEAD`
+when the entry was created. The tree of the second parent records the
+state of the index when the entry is made, and it is made a child of
the `HEAD` commit. The ancestry graph looks like this:
.----W
@@ -240,14 +258,14 @@ $ git stash pop
Testing partial commits::
-You can use `git stash save --keep-index` when you want to make two or
+You can use `git stash push --keep-index` when you want to make two or
more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
each change before committing:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
-$ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
+$ git stash push --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
$ edit/build/test first part
$ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
$ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
@@ -256,12 +274,12 @@ $ edit/build/test remaining parts
$ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
----------------------------------------------------------------
-Recovering stashes that were cleared/dropped erroneously::
+Recovering stash entries that were cleared/dropped erroneously::
-If you mistakenly drop or clear stashes, they cannot be recovered
+If you mistakenly drop or clear stash entries, they cannot be recovered
through the normal safety mechanisms. However, you can try the
-following incantation to get a list of stashes that are still in your
-repository, but not reachable any more:
+following incantation to get a list of stash entries that are still in
+your repository, but not reachable any more:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
git fsck --unreachable |
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 725065e..fc282e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -32,6 +32,9 @@ OPTIONS
--branch::
Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
+--show-stash::
+ Show the number of entries currently stashed away.
+
--porcelain[=<version>]::
Give the output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
This is similar to the short output, but will remain stable
@@ -94,8 +97,27 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
(and suppresses the output of submodule summaries when the config option
`status.submoduleSummary` is set).
---ignored::
+--ignored[=<mode>]::
Show ignored files as well.
++
+The mode parameter is used to specify the handling of ignored files.
+It is optional: it defaults to 'traditional'.
++
+The possible options are:
++
+ - 'traditional' - Shows ignored files and directories, unless
+ --untracked-files=all is specifed, in which case
+ individual files in ignored directories are
+ displayed.
+ - 'no' - Show no ignored files.
+ - 'matching' - Shows ignored files and directories matching an
+ ignore pattern.
++
+When 'matching' mode is specified, paths that explicity match an
+ignored pattern are shown. If a directory matches an ignore pattern,
+then it is shown, but not paths contained in the ignored directory. If
+a directory does not match an ignore pattern, but all contents are
+ignored, then the directory is not shown, but all contents are shown.
-z::
Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF. This implies
@@ -108,6 +130,8 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never'
respectively.
+<pathspec>...::
+ See the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
OUTPUT
------
@@ -181,6 +205,17 @@ in which case `XY` are `!!`.
! ! ignored
-------------------------------------------------
+Submodules have more state and instead report
+ M the submodule has a different HEAD than
+ recorded in the index
+ m the submodule has modified content
+ ? the submodule has untracked files
+since modified content or untracked files in a submodule cannot be added
+via `git add` in the superproject to prepare a commit.
+
+'m' and '?' are applied recursively. For example if a nested submodule
+in a submodule contains an untracked file, this is reported as '?' as well.
+
If -b is used the short-format status is preceded by a line
## branchname tracking info
@@ -210,6 +245,8 @@ field from the first filename). Third, filenames containing special
characters are not specially formatted; no quoting or
backslash-escaping is performed.
+Any submodule changes are reported as modified `M` instead of `m` or single `?`.
+
Porcelain Format Version 2
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -322,10 +359,9 @@ When the `-z` option is given, pathnames are printed as is and
without any quoting and lines are terminated with a NUL (ASCII 0x00)
byte.
-Otherwise, all pathnames will be "C-quoted" if they contain any tab,
-linefeed, double quote, or backslash characters. In C-quoting, these
-characters will be replaced with the corresponding C-style escape
-sequences and the resulting pathname will be double quoted.
+Without the `-z` option, pathnames with "unusual" characters are
+quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+(see linkgit:git-config[1]).
CONFIGURATION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 8acc72e..ff61200 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -24,37 +24,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Inspects, updates and manages submodules.
-A submodule allows you to keep another Git repository in a subdirectory
-of your repository. The other repository has its own history, which does not
-interfere with the history of the current repository. This can be used to
-have external dependencies such as third party libraries for example.
-
-When cloning or pulling a repository containing submodules however,
-these will not be checked out by default; the 'init' and 'update'
-subcommands will maintain submodules checked out and at
-appropriate revision in your working tree.
-
-Submodules are composed from a so-called `gitlink` tree entry
-in the main repository that refers to a particular commit object
-within the inner repository that is completely separate.
-A record in the `.gitmodules` (see linkgit:gitmodules[5]) file at the
-root of the source tree assigns a logical name to the submodule and
-describes the default URL the submodule shall be cloned from.
-The logical name can be used for overriding this URL within your
-local repository configuration (see 'submodule init').
-
-Submodules are not to be confused with remotes, which are other
-repositories of the same project; submodules are meant for
-different projects you would like to make part of your source tree,
-while the history of the two projects still stays completely
-independent and you cannot modify the contents of the submodule
-from within the main project.
-If you want to merge the project histories and want to treat the
-aggregated whole as a single project from then on, you may want to
-add a remote for the other project and use the 'subtree' merge strategy,
-instead of treating the other project as a submodule. Directories
-that come from both projects can be cloned and checked out as a whole
-if you choose to go that route.
+For more information about submodules, see linkgit:gitsubmodules[7].
COMMANDS
--------
@@ -63,41 +33,38 @@ add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force] [--name <name>] [--reference <repository>] [--dep
to the changeset to be committed next to the current
project: the current project is termed the "superproject".
+
-This requires at least one argument: <repository>. The optional
-argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
-to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
-"humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
-"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
-The <path> is also used as the submodule's logical name in its
-configuration entries unless `--name` is used to specify a logical name.
-+
<repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
-or ../), the location relative to the superproject's origin
+or ../), the location relative to the superproject's default remote
repository (Please note that to specify a repository 'foo.git'
which is located right next to a superproject 'bar.git', you'll
have to use '../foo.git' instead of './foo.git' - as one might expect
when following the rules for relative URLs - because the evaluation
of relative URLs in Git is identical to that of relative directories).
-If the superproject doesn't have an origin configured
++
+The default remote is the remote of the remote tracking branch
+of the current branch. If no such remote tracking branch exists or
+the HEAD is detached, "origin" is assumed to be the default remote.
+If the superproject doesn't have a default remote configured
the superproject is its own authoritative upstream and the current
working directory is used instead.
+
-<path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule to
-exist in the superproject. If <path> does not exist, then the
-submodule is created by cloning from the named URL. If <path> does
-exist and is already a valid Git repository, then this is added
-to the changeset without cloning. This second form is provided
-to ease creating a new submodule from scratch, and presumes
-the user will later push the submodule to the given URL.
+The optional argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned
+submodule to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
+canonical part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
+"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git"). If <path>
+exists and is already a valid Git repository, then it is staged
+for commit without cloning. The <path> is also used as the submodule's
+logical name in its configuration entries unless `--name` is used
+to specify a logical name.
+
-In either case, the given URL is recorded into .gitmodules for
-use by subsequent users cloning the superproject. If the URL is
-given relative to the superproject's repository, the presumption
-is the superproject and submodule repositories will be kept
-together in the same relative location, and only the
-superproject's URL needs to be provided: git-submodule will correctly
-locate the submodule using the relative URL in .gitmodules.
+The given URL is recorded into `.gitmodules` for use by subsequent users
+cloning the superproject. If the URL is given relative to the
+superproject's repository, the presumption is the superproject and
+submodule repositories will be kept together in the same relative
+location, and only the superproject's URL needs to be provided.
+git-submodule will correctly locate the submodule using the relative
+URL in `.gitmodules`.
status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
Show the status of the submodules. This will print the SHA-1 of the
@@ -118,18 +85,26 @@ too (and can also report changes to a submodule's work tree).
init [--] [<path>...]::
Initialize the submodules recorded in the index (which were
- added and committed elsewhere) by copying submodule
- names and urls from .gitmodules to .git/config.
- Optional <path> arguments limit which submodules will be initialized.
- It will also copy the value of `submodule.$name.update` into
- .git/config.
- The key used in .git/config is `submodule.$name.url`.
- This command does not alter existing information in .git/config.
- You can then customize the submodule clone URLs in .git/config
- for your local setup and proceed to `git submodule update`;
- you can also just use `git submodule update --init` without
- the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
- any submodule locations.
+ added and committed elsewhere) by setting `submodule.$name.url`
+ in .git/config. It uses the same setting from `.gitmodules` as
+ a template. If the URL is relative, it will be resolved using
+ the default remote. If there is no default remote, the current
+ repository will be assumed to be upstream.
++
+Optional <path> arguments limit which submodules will be initialized.
+If no path is specified and submodule.active has been configured, submodules
+configured to be active will be initialized, otherwise all submodules are
+initialized.
++
+When present, it will also copy the value of `submodule.$name.update`.
+This command does not alter existing information in .git/config.
+You can then customize the submodule clone URLs in .git/config
+for your local setup and proceed to `git submodule update`;
+you can also just use `git submodule update --init` without
+the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
+any submodule locations.
++
+See the add subcommand for the definition of default remote.
deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)::
Unregister the given submodules, i.e. remove the whole
@@ -137,15 +112,17 @@ deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)::
tree. Further calls to `git submodule update`, `git submodule foreach`
and `git submodule sync` will skip any unregistered submodules until
they are initialized again, so use this command if you don't want to
- have a local checkout of the submodule in your working tree anymore. If
- you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit
- that use linkgit:git-rm[1] instead.
+ have a local checkout of the submodule in your working tree anymore.
+
When the command is run without pathspec, it errors out,
instead of deinit-ing everything, to prevent mistakes.
+
If `--force` is specified, the submodule's working tree will
be removed even if it contains local modifications.
++
+If you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit
+that use linkgit:git-rm[1] instead. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for removal
+options.
update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch] [--[no-]recommend-shallow] [-f|--force] [--checkout|--rebase|--merge] [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--jobs <n>] [--] [<path>...]::
+
@@ -185,7 +162,7 @@ configuration variable:
none;; the submodule is not updated.
If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the
-setting as stored in .gitmodules, you can automatically initialize the
+setting as stored in `.gitmodules`, you can automatically initialize the
submodule with the `--init` option.
If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
@@ -208,7 +185,7 @@ foreach [--recursive] <command>::
Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule.
The command has access to the variables $name, $path, $sha1 and
$toplevel:
- $name is the name of the relevant submodule section in .gitmodules,
+ $name is the name of the relevant submodule section in `.gitmodules`,
$path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the
superproject, $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the superproject,
and $toplevel is the absolute path to the top-level of the superproject.
@@ -230,7 +207,7 @@ git submodule foreach 'echo $path `git rev-parse HEAD`'
sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
Synchronizes submodules' remote URL configuration setting
- to the value specified in .gitmodules. It will only affect those
+ to the value specified in `.gitmodules`. It will only affect those
submodules which already have a URL entry in .git/config (that is the
case when they are initialized or freshly added). This is useful when
submodule URLs change upstream and you need to update your local
@@ -401,7 +378,7 @@ for linkgit:git-clone[1]'s `--reference` and `--shared` options carefully.
--[no-]recommend-shallow::
This option is only valid for the update command.
The initial clone of a submodule will use the recommended
- `submodule.<name>.shallow` as provided by the .gitmodules file
+ `submodule.<name>.shallow` as provided by the `.gitmodules` file
by default. To ignore the suggestions use `--no-recommend-shallow`.
-j <n>::
@@ -417,12 +394,16 @@ for linkgit:git-clone[1]'s `--reference` and `--shared` options carefully.
FILES
-----
-When initializing submodules, a .gitmodules file in the top-level directory
+When initializing submodules, a `.gitmodules` file in the top-level directory
of the containing repository is used to find the url of each submodule.
This file should be formatted in the same way as `$GIT_DIR/config`. The key
to each submodule url is "submodule.$name.url". See linkgit:gitmodules[5]
for details.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gitsubmodules[7], linkgit:gitmodules[5].
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 9bee9b0..636e090 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -95,6 +95,10 @@ If you still want the old default, you can get it by passing
`--prefix ""` on the command line (`--prefix=""` may not work if
your Perl's Getopt::Long is < v2.37).
+--ignore-refs=<regex>;;
+ When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
+ be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
+ of `--ignore-refs`.
--ignore-paths=<regex>;;
When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
@@ -138,6 +142,18 @@ the same local time zone.
--parent;;
Fetch only from the SVN parent of the current HEAD.
+--ignore-refs=<regex>;;
+ Ignore refs for branches or tags matching the Perl regular
+ expression. A "negative look-ahead assertion" like
+ `^refs/remotes/origin/(?!tags/wanted-tag|wanted-branch).*$`
+ can be used to allow only certain refs.
++
+[verse]
+config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-refs
++
+If the ignore-refs configuration key is set, and the command-line
+option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.
+
--ignore-paths=<regex>;;
This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN.
@@ -408,7 +424,7 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
'set-tree'::
You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
Commit specified commit or tree objects to SVN. This relies on
- your imported fetch data being up-to-date. This makes
+ your imported fetch data being up to date. This makes
absolutely no attempts to do patching when committing to SVN, it
simply overwrites files with those specified in the tree or
commit. All merging is assumed to have taken place
@@ -443,6 +459,21 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
(URL) may be omitted if you are working from a 'git svn'-aware
repository (that has been `init`-ed with 'git svn').
The -r<revision> option is required for this.
++
+The commit message is supplied either directly with the `-m` or `-F`
+option, or indirectly from the tag or commit when the second tree-ish
+denotes such an object, or it is requested by invoking an editor (see
+`--edit` option below).
+
+-m <msg>;;
+--message=<msg>;;
+ Use the given `msg` as the commit message. This option
+ disables the `--edit` option.
+
+-F <filename>;;
+--file=<filename>;;
+ Take the commit message from the given file. This option
+ disables the `--edit` option.
'info'::
Shows information about a file or directory similar to what
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 525737a..956fc01 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -12,9 +12,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <keyid>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
<tagname> [<commit> | <object>]
'git tag' -d <tagname>...
-'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--points-at <object>]
- [--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--create-reflog] [--sort=<key>]
- [--format=<format>] [--[no-]merged [<commit>]] [<pattern>...]
+'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--no-contains <commit>]
+ [--points-at <object>] [--column[=<options>] | --no-column]
+ [--create-reflog] [--sort=<key>] [--format=<format>]
+ [--[no-]merged [<commit>]] [<pattern>...]
'git tag' -v [--format=<format>] <tagname>...
DESCRIPTION
@@ -82,18 +83,24 @@ OPTIONS
-n<num>::
<num> specifies how many lines from the annotation, if any,
- are printed when using -l.
- The default is not to print any annotation lines.
- If no number is given to `-n`, only the first line is printed.
- If the tag is not annotated, the commit message is displayed instead.
-
--l <pattern>::
---list <pattern>::
- List tags with names that match the given pattern (or all if no
- pattern is given). Running "git tag" without arguments also
- lists all tags. The pattern is a shell wildcard (i.e., matched
- using fnmatch(3)). Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
- them matches, the tag is shown.
+ are printed when using -l. Implies `--list`.
++
+The default is not to print any annotation lines.
+If no number is given to `-n`, only the first line is printed.
+If the tag is not annotated, the commit message is displayed instead.
+
+-l::
+--list::
+ List tags. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git tag --list
+ 'v-*'`, list only the tags that match the pattern(s).
++
+Running "git tag" without arguments also lists all tags. The pattern
+is a shell wildcard (i.e., matched using fnmatch(3)). Multiple
+patterns may be given; if any of them matches, the tag is shown.
++
+This option is implicitly supplied if any other list-like option such
+as `--contains` is provided. See the documentation for each of those
+options for details.
--sort=<key>::
Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in
@@ -108,6 +115,11 @@ OPTIONS
variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
linkgit:git-config[1].
+--color[=<when>]:
+ Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
+ `<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
+ `<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
+
-i::
--ignore-case::
Sorting and filtering tags are case insensitive.
@@ -122,10 +134,23 @@ This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
--contains [<commit>]::
Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
- specified).
+ specified). Implies `--list`.
+
+--no-contains [<commit>]::
+ Only list tags which don't contain the specified commit (HEAD if
+ not specified). Implies `--list`.
+
+--merged [<commit>]::
+ Only list tags whose commits are reachable from the specified
+ commit (`HEAD` if not specified), incompatible with `--no-merged`.
+
+--no-merged [<commit>]::
+ Only list tags whose commits are not reachable from the specified
+ commit (`HEAD` if not specified), incompatible with `--merged`.
--points-at <object>::
- Only list tags of the given object.
+ Only list tags of the given object (HEAD if not
+ specified). Implies `--list`.
-m <msg>::
--message=<msg>::
@@ -154,7 +179,7 @@ This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
`core.logAllRefUpdates` in linkgit:git-config[1].
The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
`--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
- `core.logallrefupdates`.
+ `core.logAllRefUpdates`.
<tagname>::
The name of the tag to create, delete, or describe.
@@ -168,16 +193,11 @@ This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
Defaults to HEAD.
<format>::
- A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the object
- pointed at by a ref being shown. The format is the same as
+ A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a tag ref being shown
+ and the object it points at. The format is the same as
that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1]. When unspecified,
defaults to `%(refname:strip=2)`.
---[no-]merged [<commit>]::
- Only list tags whose tips are reachable, or not reachable
- if `--no-merged` is used, from the specified commit (`HEAD`
- if not specified).
-
CONFIGURATION
-------------
By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
@@ -190,6 +210,9 @@ it in the repository configuration as follows:
signingKey = <gpg-keyid>
-------------------------------------
+`pager.tag` is only respected when listing tags, i.e., when `-l` is
+used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
+See linkgit:git-config[1].
DISCUSSION
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tools.txt b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
index 2f4ff50..d0fec4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tools.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
@@ -7,4 +7,4 @@ maintained here. These days, however, search engines fill that role much
more efficiently, so this manually-maintained list has been retired.
See also the `contrib/` area, and the Git wiki:
-http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/InterfacesFrontendsAndTools
+https://git.wiki.kernel.org/index.php/InterfacesFrontendsAndTools
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 7386c93..75c7dd9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
+
Version 4 performs a simple pathname compression that reduces index
size by 30%-50% on large repositories, which results in faster load
-time. Version 4 is relatively young (first released in in 1.8.0 in
+time. Version 4 is relatively young (first released in 1.8.0 in
October 2012). Other Git implementations such as JGit and libgit2
may not support it yet.
@@ -163,14 +163,16 @@ may not support it yet.
--split-index::
--no-split-index::
- Enable or disable split index mode. If enabled, the index is
- split into two files, $GIT_DIR/index and $GIT_DIR/sharedindex.<SHA-1>.
- Changes are accumulated in $GIT_DIR/index while the shared
- index file contains all index entries stays unchanged. If
- split-index mode is already enabled and `--split-index` is
- given again, all changes in $GIT_DIR/index are pushed back to
- the shared index file. This mode is designed for very large
- indexes that take a significant amount of time to read or write.
+ Enable or disable split index mode. If split-index mode is
+ already enabled and `--split-index` is given again, all
+ changes in $GIT_DIR/index are pushed back to the shared index
+ file.
++
+These options take effect whatever the value of the `core.splitIndex`
+configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]). But a warning is
+emitted when the change goes against the configured value, as the
+configured value will take effect next time the index is read and this
+will remove the intended effect of the option.
--untracked-cache::
--no-untracked-cache::
@@ -212,7 +214,7 @@ will remove the intended effect of the option.
Using --refresh
---------------
`--refresh` does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
-up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
+up to date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
"re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
the stat entry is out of date.
@@ -388,6 +390,31 @@ Although this bit looks similar to assume-unchanged bit, its goal is
different from assume-unchanged bit's. Skip-worktree also takes
precedence over assume-unchanged bit when both are set.
+Split index
+-----------
+
+This mode is designed for repositories with very large indexes, and
+aims at reducing the time it takes to repeatedly write these indexes.
+
+In this mode, the index is split into two files, $GIT_DIR/index and
+$GIT_DIR/sharedindex.<SHA-1>. Changes are accumulated in
+$GIT_DIR/index, the split index, while the shared index file contains
+all index entries and stays unchanged.
+
+All changes in the split index are pushed back to the shared index
+file when the number of entries in the split index reaches a level
+specified by the splitIndex.maxPercentChange config variable (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
+Each time a new shared index file is created, the old shared index
+files are deleted if their modification time is older than what is
+specified by the splitIndex.sharedIndexExpire config variable (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
+To avoid deleting a shared index file that is still used, its
+modification time is updated to the current time everytime a new split
+index based on the shared index file is either created or read from.
+
Untracked cache
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index 553cf84..b472acc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
+'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [--lock] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
'git worktree lock' [--reason <string>] <worktree>
'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
@@ -107,6 +107,11 @@ OPTIONS
such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
+--lock::
+ Keep the working tree locked after creation. This is the
+ equivalent of `git worktree lock` after `git worktree add`,
+ but without race condition.
+
-n::
--dry-run::
With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index a52b155..463b0eb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -35,510 +35,6 @@ manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation
can be viewed at `https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html`.
-ifdef::stalenotes[]
-[NOTE]
-============
-
-You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
-unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
-branch of the `git.git` repository.
-Documentation for older releases are available here:
-
-* link:v2.12.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.12.3]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.12.3.txt[2.12.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.12.2.txt[2.12.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.12.1.txt[2.12.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.12.0.txt[2.12].
-
-* link:v2.11.1/git.html[documentation for release 2.11.1]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.11.2.txt[2.11.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.11.1.txt[2.11.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.11.0.txt[2.11].
-
-* link:v2.10.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.10.3]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.10.3.txt[2.10.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.10.2.txt[2.10.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.10.1.txt[2.10.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.10.0.txt[2.10].
-
-* link:v2.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.9.4]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.9.4.txt[2.9.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.9.3.txt[2.9.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.9.2.txt[2.9.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.9.1.txt[2.9.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.9.0.txt[2.9].
-
-* link:v2.8.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.8.5]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.8.5.txt[2.8.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.8.4.txt[2.8.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.8.3.txt[2.8.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.8.2.txt[2.8.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.8.1.txt[2.8.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.8.0.txt[2.8].
-
-* link:v2.7.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.7.5]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.7.5.txt[2.7.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.7.4.txt[2.7.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.7.3.txt[2.7.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.7.2.txt[2.7.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.7.1.txt[2.7.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
-
-* link:v2.6.7/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.7]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.6.7.txt[2.6.7],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.6.txt[2.6.6],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
-
-* link:v2.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.6]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.5.6.txt[2.5.6],
- link:RelNotes/2.5.5.txt[2.5.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.5.4.txt[2.5.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.5.3.txt[2.5.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.5.2.txt[2.5.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.5.1.txt[2.5.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.5.0.txt[2.5].
-
-* link:v2.4.12/git.html[documentation for release 2.4.12]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.4.12.txt[2.4.12],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.11.txt[2.4.11],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.10.txt[2.4.10],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.9.txt[2.4.9],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.8.txt[2.4.8],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.7.txt[2.4.7],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.6.txt[2.4.6],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.5.txt[2.4.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.4.txt[2.4.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.3.txt[2.4.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.2.txt[2.4.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.1.txt[2.4.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.4.0.txt[2.4].
-
-* link:v2.3.10/git.html[documentation for release 2.3.10]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.3.10.txt[2.3.10],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.9.txt[2.3.9],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.8.txt[2.3.8],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.7.txt[2.3.7],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.6.txt[2.3.6],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.5.txt[2.3.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.4.txt[2.3.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.3.txt[2.3.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.2.txt[2.3.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.1.txt[2.3.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.3.0.txt[2.3].
-
-* link:v2.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.2.3]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.2.3.txt[2.2.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.2.2.txt[2.2.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.2.1.txt[2.2.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.2.0.txt[2.2].
-
-* link:v2.1.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.4]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.1.4.txt[2.1.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
-
-* link:v2.0.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.5]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/2.0.5.txt[2.0.5],
- link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
- link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
- link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
- link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
- link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
-
-* link:v1.9.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.5]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.9.5.txt[1.9.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
-
-* link:v1.8.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.6]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.6.txt[1.8.5.6],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.5.txt[1.8.5.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.4.txt[1.8.5.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.3.txt[1.8.5.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.2.txt[1.8.5.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.1.txt[1.8.5.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.5.txt[1.8.5].
-
-* link:v1.8.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.4.5]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.4.5.txt[1.8.4.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt[1.8.4.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt[1.8.4.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt[1.8.4.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt[1.8.4.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.4.txt[1.8.4].
-
-* link:v1.8.3.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.4]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.3.4.txt[1.8.3.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.3.3.txt[1.8.3.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.3.2.txt[1.8.3.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
-
-* link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
-
-* link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
-
-* link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.8.0.3.txt[1.8.0.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.0.2.txt[1.8.0.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.0.1.txt[1.8.0.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.8.0.txt[1.8.0].
-
-* link:v1.7.12.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.4]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.7.12.4.txt[1.7.12.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
-
-* link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
- link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
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-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
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- link:RelNotes/1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
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- link:RelNotes/1.5.4.txt[1.5.4].
-
-* link:v1.5.3.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.3.8]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.5.3.8.txt[1.5.3.8],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.3.7.txt[1.5.3.7],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.3.6.txt[1.5.3.6],
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- link:RelNotes/1.5.3.1.txt[1.5.3.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.3.txt[1.5.3].
-
-* link:v1.5.2.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.2.5]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.5.2.5.txt[1.5.2.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.2.4.txt[1.5.2.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.2.3.txt[1.5.2.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.2.2.txt[1.5.2.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.2.1.txt[1.5.2.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.2.txt[1.5.2].
-
-* link:v1.5.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.1.6]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.6.txt[1.5.1.6],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.5.txt[1.5.1.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.4.txt[1.5.1.4],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.3.txt[1.5.1.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.2.txt[1.5.1.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.1.txt[1.5.1.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.1.txt[1.5.1].
-
-* link:v1.5.0.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.0.7]
-
-* release notes for
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.7.txt[1.5.0.7],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.6.txt[1.5.0.6],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.5.txt[1.5.0.5],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.3.txt[1.5.0.3],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.2.txt[1.5.0.2],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.1.txt[1.5.0.1],
- link:RelNotes/1.5.0.txt[1.5.0].
-
-* documentation for release link:v1.4.4.4/git.html[1.4.4.4],
- link:v1.3.3/git.html[1.3.3],
- link:v1.2.6/git.html[1.2.6],
- link:v1.0.13/git.html[1.0.13].
-
-============
-
-endif::stalenotes[]
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -579,7 +75,8 @@ example the following invocations are equivalent:
Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
-foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
+foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string which `git config
+--bool` will convert to `false`.
--exec-path[=<path>]::
Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
@@ -662,6 +159,10 @@ foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
Add "icase" magic to all pathspec. This is equivalent to setting
the `GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS` environment variable to `1`.
+--no-optional-locks::
+ Do not perform optional operations that require locks. This is
+ equivalent to setting the `GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS` to `0`.
+
GIT COMMANDS
------------
@@ -1037,6 +538,12 @@ Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your
personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
for further details.
+`GIT_SSH_VARIANT`::
+ If this environment variable is set, it overrides Git's autodetection
+ whether `GIT_SSH`/`GIT_SSH_COMMAND`/`core.sshCommand` refer to OpenSSH,
+ plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the config setting
+ `ssh.variant` that serves the same purpose.
+
`GIT_ASKPASS`::
If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
@@ -1194,6 +701,32 @@ of clones and fetches.
which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
linkgit:git-config[1] for more details.
+`GIT_OPTIONAL_LOCKS`::
+ If set to `0`, Git will complete any requested operation without
+ performing any optional sub-operations that require taking a lock.
+ For example, this will prevent `git status` from refreshing the
+ index as a side effect. This is useful for processes running in
+ the background which do not want to cause lock contention with
+ other operations on the repository. Defaults to `1`.
+
+`GIT_REDIRECT_STDIN`::
+`GIT_REDIRECT_STDOUT`::
+`GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR`::
+ Windows-only: allow redirecting the standard input/output/error
+ handles to paths specified by the environment variables. This is
+ particularly useful in multi-threaded applications where the
+ canonical way to pass standard handles via `CreateProcess()` is
+ not an option because it would require the handles to be marked
+ inheritable (and consequently *every* spawned process would
+ inherit them, possibly blocking regular Git operations). The
+ primary intended use case is to use named pipes for communication
+ (e.g. `\\.\pipe\my-git-stdin-123`).
++
+Two special values are supported: `off` will simply close the
+corresponding standard handle, and if `GIT_REDIRECT_STDERR` is
+`2>&1`, standard error will be redirected to the same handle as
+standard output.
+
Discussion[[Discussion]]
------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index e0b66c1..4c68bc1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -21,9 +21,11 @@ Each line in `gitattributes` file is of form:
pattern attr1 attr2 ...
That is, a pattern followed by an attributes list,
-separated by whitespaces. When the pattern matches the
-path in question, the attributes listed on the line are given to
-the path.
+separated by whitespaces. Leading and trailing whitespaces are
+ignored. Lines that begin with '#' are ignored. Patterns
+that begin with a double quote are quoted in C style.
+When the pattern matches the path in question, the attributes
+listed on the line are given to the path.
Each attribute can be in one of these states for a given path:
@@ -86,7 +88,7 @@ is either not set or empty, $HOME/.config/git/attributes is used instead.
Attributes for all users on a system should be placed in the
`$(prefix)/etc/gitattributes` file.
-Sometimes you would need to override an setting of an attribute
+Sometimes you would need to override a setting of an attribute
for a path to `Unspecified` state. This can be done by listing
the name of the attribute prefixed with an exclamation point `!`.
@@ -149,7 +151,10 @@ unspecified.
This attribute sets a specific line-ending style to be used in the
working directory. It enables end-of-line conversion without any
-content checks, effectively setting the `text` attribute.
+content checks, effectively setting the `text` attribute. Note that
+setting this attribute on paths which are in the index with CRLF line
+endings may make the paths to be considered dirty. Adding the path to
+the index again will normalize the line endings in the index.
Set to string value "crlf"::
@@ -227,11 +232,9 @@ From a clean working directory:
-------------------------------------------------
$ echo "* text=auto" >.gitattributes
-$ rm .git/index # Remove the index to force Git to
-$ git reset # re-scan the working directory
+$ git read-tree --empty # Clean index, force re-scan of working directory
+$ git add .
$ git status # Show files that will be normalized
-$ git add -u
-$ git add .gitattributes
$ git commit -m "Introduce end-of-line normalization"
-------------------------------------------------
@@ -425,8 +428,8 @@ packet: git< capability=clean
packet: git< capability=smudge
packet: git< 0000
------------------------
-Supported filter capabilities in version 2 are "clean" and
-"smudge".
+Supported filter capabilities in version 2 are "clean", "smudge",
+and "delay".
Afterwards Git sends a list of "key=value" pairs terminated with
a flush packet. The list will contain at least the filter command
@@ -512,12 +515,73 @@ the protocol then Git will stop the filter process and restart it
with the next file that needs to be processed. Depending on the
`filter.<driver>.required` flag Git will interpret that as error.
-After the filter has processed a blob it is expected to wait for
-the next "key=value" list containing a command. Git will close
+After the filter has processed a command it is expected to wait for
+a "key=value" list containing the next command. Git will close
the command pipe on exit. The filter is expected to detect EOF
and exit gracefully on its own. Git will wait until the filter
process has stopped.
+Delay
+^^^^^
+
+If the filter supports the "delay" capability, then Git can send the
+flag "can-delay" after the filter command and pathname. This flag
+denotes that the filter can delay filtering the current blob (e.g. to
+compensate network latencies) by responding with no content but with
+the status "delayed" and a flush packet.
+------------------------
+packet: git> command=smudge
+packet: git> pathname=path/testfile.dat
+packet: git> can-delay=1
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git> CONTENT
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git< status=delayed
+packet: git< 0000
+------------------------
+
+If the filter supports the "delay" capability then it must support the
+"list_available_blobs" command. If Git sends this command, then the
+filter is expected to return a list of pathnames representing blobs
+that have been delayed earlier and are now available.
+The list must be terminated with a flush packet followed
+by a "success" status that is also terminated with a flush packet. If
+no blobs for the delayed paths are available, yet, then the filter is
+expected to block the response until at least one blob becomes
+available. The filter can tell Git that it has no more delayed blobs
+by sending an empty list. As soon as the filter responds with an empty
+list, Git stops asking. All blobs that Git has not received at this
+point are considered missing and will result in an error.
+
+------------------------
+packet: git> command=list_available_blobs
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git< pathname=path/testfile.dat
+packet: git< pathname=path/otherfile.dat
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< status=success
+packet: git< 0000
+------------------------
+
+After Git received the pathnames, it will request the corresponding
+blobs again. These requests contain a pathname and an empty content
+section. The filter is expected to respond with the smudged content
+in the usual way as explained above.
+------------------------
+packet: git> command=smudge
+packet: git> pathname=path/testfile.dat
+packet: git> 0000
+packet: git> 0000 # empty content!
+packet: git< status=success
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< SMUDGED_CONTENT
+packet: git< 0000
+packet: git< 0000 # empty list, keep "status=success" unchanged!
+------------------------
+
+Example
+^^^^^^^
+
A long running filter demo implementation can be found in
`contrib/long-running-filter/example.pl` located in the Git
core repository. If you develop your own long running filter
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index dfe7d83..9f13266 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@ different things.
* The `--index` option is used to ask a command that
usually works on files in the working tree to *also*
affect the index. For example, `git stash apply` usually
- merges changes recorded in a stash to the working tree,
+ merges changes recorded in a stash entry to the working tree,
but with the `--index` option, it also merges changes to
the index as well.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 3a0ec8c..e29a9ef 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -631,7 +631,7 @@ So after you do a `cp -a` to create a new copy, you'll want to do
$ git update-index --refresh
----------------
+
-in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up-to-date.
+in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up to date.
Note that the second point is true even across machines. You can
duplicate a remote Git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
@@ -701,7 +701,7 @@ $ git checkout-index -u -a
----------------
where the `-u` flag means that you want the checkout to keep the index
-up-to-date (so that you don't have to refresh it afterward), and the
+up to date (so that you don't have to refresh it afterward), and the
`-a` flag means "check out all files" (if you have a stale copy or an
older version of a checked out tree you may also need to add the `-f`
flag first, to tell 'git checkout-index' to *force* overwriting of any old
@@ -1283,7 +1283,7 @@ run a single command, 'git-receive-pack'.
First, you need to create an empty repository on the remote
machine that will house your public repository. This empty
-repository will be populated and be kept up-to-date by pushing
+repository will be populated and be kept up to date by pushing
into it later. Obviously, this repository creation needs to be
done only once.
@@ -1429,7 +1429,7 @@ Although Git is a truly distributed system, it is often
convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in
-http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
+https://web.archive.org/web/20120915203609/http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
There is nothing fundamental in Git that enforces the "chain of
@@ -1450,7 +1450,7 @@ transport protocols (HTTP), you need to keep this repository
would contain a call to 'git update-server-info'
but you need to manually enable the hook with
`mv post-update.sample post-update`. This makes sure
-'git update-server-info' keeps the necessary files up-to-date.
+'git update-server-info' keeps the necessary files up to date.
3. Push into the public repository from your primary
repository.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index f3a75d1..f970196 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -101,16 +101,6 @@ $ git help credential-foo
$ git config --global credential.helper foo
-------------------------------------------
-If there are multiple instances of the `credential.helper` configuration
-variable, each helper will be tried in turn, and may provide a username,
-password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both a username and a
-password, no more helpers will be tried.
-
-If `credential.helper` is configured to the empty string, this resets
-the helper list to empty (so you may override a helper set by a
-lower-priority config file by configuring the empty-string helper,
-followed by whatever set of helpers you would like).
-
CREDENTIAL CONTEXTS
-------------------
@@ -162,6 +152,16 @@ helper::
shell (so, for example, setting this to `foo --option=bar` will execute
`git credential-foo --option=bar` via the shell. See the manual of
specific helpers for examples of their use.
++
+If there are multiple instances of the `credential.helper` configuration
+variable, each helper will be tried in turn, and may provide a username,
+password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both a username and a
+password, no more helpers will be tried.
++
+If `credential.helper` is configured to the empty string, this resets
+the helper list to empty (so you may override a helper set by a
+lower-priority config file by configuring the empty-string helper,
+followed by whatever set of helpers you would like).
username::
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 9565dc3..5d3f455 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -22,8 +22,10 @@ changed via the `core.hooksPath` configuration variable (see
linkgit:git-config[1]).
Before Git invokes a hook, it changes its working directory to either
-the root of the working tree in a non-bare repository, or to the
-$GIT_DIR in a bare repository.
+$GIT_DIR in a bare repository or the root of the working tree in a non-bare
+repository. An exception are hooks triggered during a push ('pre-receive',
+'update', 'post-receive', 'post-update', 'push-to-checkout') which are always
+executed in $GIT_DIR.
Hooks can get their arguments via the environment, command-line
arguments, and stdin. See the documentation for each hook below for
@@ -119,17 +121,16 @@ it is not suppressed by the `--no-verify` option. A non-zero exit
means a failure of the hook and aborts the commit. It should not
be used as replacement for pre-commit hook.
-The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with Git comments
-out the `Conflicts:` part of a merge's commit message.
+The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with Git removes the
+help message found in the commented portion of the commit template.
commit-msg
~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is invoked by 'git commit', and can be bypassed
-with the `--no-verify` option. It takes a single parameter, the
-name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
-Exiting with a non-zero status causes the 'git commit' to
-abort.
+This hook is invoked by 'git commit' and 'git merge', and can be
+bypassed with the `--no-verify` option. It takes a single parameter,
+the name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
+Exiting with a non-zero status causes the command to abort.
The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can be used
to normalize the message into some project standard format. It
@@ -256,6 +257,9 @@ environment variables will not be set. If the client selects
to use push options, but doesn't transmit any, the count variable
will be set to zero, `GIT_PUSH_OPTION_COUNT=0`.
+See the section on "Quarantine Environment" in
+linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for some caveats.
+
[[update]]
update
~~~~~~
@@ -364,7 +368,7 @@ them.
When enabled, the default 'post-update' hook runs
'git update-server-info' to keep the information used by dumb
-transports (e.g., HTTP) up-to-date. If you are publishing
+transports (e.g., HTTP) up to date. If you are publishing
a Git repository that is accessible via HTTP, you should
probably enable this hook.
@@ -442,6 +446,14 @@ rebase::
The commits are guaranteed to be listed in the order that they were
processed by rebase.
+sendemail-validate
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is invoked by 'git send-email'. It takes a single parameter,
+the name of the file that holds the e-mail to be sent. Exiting with a
+non-zero status causes 'git send-email' to abort before sending any
+e-mails.
+
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index 8f7c50f..db5d47e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -66,17 +66,26 @@ submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
submodule.<name>.ignore::
Defines under what circumstances "git status" and the diff family show
- a submodule as modified. When set to "all", it will never be considered
- modified (but will nonetheless show up in the output of status and
- commit when it has been staged), "dirty" will ignore all changes
- to the submodules work tree and
- takes only differences between the HEAD of the submodule and the commit
- recorded in the superproject into account. "untracked" will additionally
- let submodules with modified tracked files in their work tree show up.
- Using "none" (the default when this option is not set) also shows
- submodules that have untracked files in their work tree as changed.
- If this option is also present in the submodules entry in .git/config of
- the superproject, the setting there will override the one found in
+ a submodule as modified. The following values are supported:
+
+ all;; The submodule will never be considered modified (but will
+ nonetheless show up in the output of status and commit when it has
+ been staged).
+
+ dirty;; All changes to the submodule's work tree will be ignored, only
+ committed differences between the HEAD of the submodule and its
+ recorded state in the superproject are taken into account.
+
+ untracked;; Only untracked files in submodules will be ignored.
+ Committed differences and modifications to tracked files will show
+ up.
+
+ none;; No modifiations to submodules are ignored, all of committed
+ differences, and modifications to tracked and untracked files are
+ shown. This is the default option.
+
+ If this option is also present in the submodules entry in .git/config
+ of the superproject, the setting there will override the one found in
.gitmodules.
Both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
"--ignore-submodule" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
@@ -84,8 +93,8 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
submodule.<name>.shallow::
When set to true, a clone of this submodule will be performed as a
- shallow clone unless the user explicitly asks for a non-shallow
- clone.
+ shallow clone (with a history depth of 1) unless the user explicitly
+ asks for a non-shallow clone.
EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index e4b785e..4a584f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -463,7 +463,7 @@ set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
GPG sign pushes.
'option push-option <string>::
- Transmit <string> as a push option. As the a push option
+ Transmit <string> as a push option. As the push option
must not contain LF or NUL characters, the string is not encoded.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index f51ed4e..adf9554 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ objects/info/packs::
This file is to help dumb transports discover what packs
are available in this object store. Whenever a pack is
added or removed, `git update-server-info` should be run
- to keep this file up-to-date if the repository is
+ to keep this file up to date if the repository is
published for dumb transports. 'git repack' does this
by default.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..46cf120
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,221 @@
+gitsubmodules(7)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+gitsubmodules - mounting one repository inside another
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+ .gitmodules, $GIT_DIR/config
+------------------
+git submodule
+git <command> --recurse-submodules
+------------------
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+A submodule is a repository embedded inside another repository.
+The submodule has its own history; the repository it is embedded
+in is called a superproject.
+
+On the filesystem, a submodule usually (but not always - see FORMS below)
+consists of (i) a Git directory located under the `$GIT_DIR/modules/`
+directory of its superproject, (ii) a working directory inside the
+superproject's working directory, and a `.git` file at the root of
+the submodule’s working directory pointing to (i).
+
+Assuming the submodule has a Git directory at `$GIT_DIR/modules/foo/`
+and a working directory at `path/to/bar/`, the superproject tracks the
+submodule via a `gitlink` entry in the tree at `path/to/bar` and an entry
+in its `.gitmodules` file (see linkgit:gitmodules[5]) of the form
+`submodule.foo.path = path/to/bar`.
+
+The `gitlink` entry contains the object name of the commit that the
+superproject expects the submodule’s working directory to be at.
+
+The section `submodule.foo.*` in the `.gitmodules` file gives additional
+hints to Gits porcelain layer such as where to obtain the submodule via
+the `submodule.foo.url` setting.
+
+Submodules can be used for at least two different use cases:
+
+1. Using another project while maintaining independent history.
+ Submodules allow you to contain the working tree of another project
+ within your own working tree while keeping the history of both
+ projects separate. Also, since submodules are fixed to an arbitrary
+ version, the other project can be independently developed without
+ affecting the superproject, allowing the superproject project to
+ fix itself to new versions only when desired.
+
+2. Splitting a (logically single) project into multiple
+ repositories and tying them back together. This can be used to
+ overcome current limitations of Gits implementation to have
+ finer grained access:
+
+ * Size of the git repository:
+ In its current form Git scales up poorly for large repositories containing
+ content that is not compressed by delta computation between trees.
+ However you can also use submodules to e.g. hold large binary assets
+ and these repositories are then shallowly cloned such that you do not
+ have a large history locally.
+ * Transfer size:
+ In its current form Git requires the whole working tree present. It
+ does not allow partial trees to be transferred in fetch or clone.
+ * Access control:
+ By restricting user access to submodules, this can be used to implement
+ read/write policies for different users.
+
+The configuration of submodules
+-------------------------------
+
+Submodule operations can be configured using the following mechanisms
+(from highest to lowest precedence):
+
+ * The command line for those commands that support taking submodule specs.
+ Most commands have a boolean flag '--recurse-submodules' whether to
+ recurse into submodules. Examples are `ls-files` or `checkout`.
+ Some commands take enums, such as `fetch` and `push`, where you can
+ specify how submodules are affected.
+
+ * The configuration inside the submodule. This includes `$GIT_DIR/config`
+ in the submodule, but also settings in the tree such as a `.gitattributes`
+ or `.gitignore` files that specify behavior of commands inside the
+ submodule.
++
+For example an effect from the submodule's `.gitignore` file
+would be observed when you run `git status --ignore-submodules=none` in
+the superproject. This collects information from the submodule's working
+directory by running `status` in the submodule, which does pay attention
+to its `.gitignore` file.
++
+The submodule's `$GIT_DIR/config` file would come into play when running
+`git push --recurse-submodules=check` in the superproject, as this would
+check if the submodule has any changes not published to any remote. The
+remotes are configured in the submodule as usual in the `$GIT_DIR/config`
+file.
+
+ * The configuration file `$GIT_DIR/config` in the superproject.
+ Typical configuration at this place is controlling if a submodule
+ is recursed into at all via the `active` flag for example.
++
+If the submodule is not yet initialized, then the configuration
+inside the submodule does not exist yet, so configuration where to
+obtain the submodule from is configured here for example.
+
+ * the `.gitmodules` file inside the superproject. Additionally to the
+ required mapping between submodule's name and path, a project usually
+ uses this file to suggest defaults for the upstream collection
+ of repositories.
++
+This file mainly serves as the mapping between name and path in
+the superproject, such that the submodule's git directory can be
+located.
++
+If the submodule has never been initialized, this is the only place
+where submodule configuration is found. It serves as the last fallback
+to specify where to obtain the submodule from.
+
+FORMS
+-----
+
+Submodules can take the following forms:
+
+ * The basic form described in DESCRIPTION with a Git directory,
+a working directory, a `gitlink`, and a `.gitmodules` entry.
+
+ * "Old-form" submodule: A working directory with an embedded
+`.git` directory, and the tracking `gitlink` and `.gitmodules` entry in
+the superproject. This is typically found in repositories generated
+using older versions of Git.
++
+It is possible to construct these old form repositories manually.
++
+When deinitialized or deleted (see below), the submodule’s Git
+directory is automatically moved to `$GIT_DIR/modules/<name>/`
+of the superproject.
+
+ * Deinitialized submodule: A `gitlink`, and a `.gitmodules` entry,
+but no submodule working directory. The submodule’s git directory
+may be there as after deinitializing the git directory is kept around.
+The directory which is supposed to be the working directory is empty instead.
++
+A submodule can be deinitialized by running `git submodule deinit`.
+Besides emptying the working directory, this command only modifies
+the superproject’s `$GIT_DIR/config` file, so the superproject’s history
+is not affected. This can be undone using `git submodule init`.
+
+ * Deleted submodule: A submodule can be deleted by running
+`git rm <submodule path> && git commit`. This can be undone
+using `git revert`.
++
+The deletion removes the superproject’s tracking data, which are
+both the `gitlink` entry and the section in the `.gitmodules` file.
+The submodule’s working directory is removed from the file
+system, but the Git directory is kept around as it to make it
+possible to checkout past commits without requiring fetching
+from another repository.
++
+To completely remove a submodule, manually delete
+`$GIT_DIR/modules/<name>/`.
+
+Workflow for a third party library
+----------------------------------
+
+ # add a submodule
+ git submodule add <url> <path>
+
+ # occasionally update the submodule to a new version:
+ git -C <path> checkout <new version>
+ git add <path>
+ git commit -m "update submodule to new version"
+
+ # See the list of submodules in a superproject
+ git submodule status
+
+ # See FORMS on removing submodules
+
+
+Workflow for an artificially split repo
+--------------------------------------
+
+ # Enable recursion for relevant commands, such that
+ # regular commands recurse into submodules by default
+ git config --global submodule.recurse true
+
+ # Unlike the other commands below clone still needs
+ # its own recurse flag:
+ git clone --recurse <URL> <directory>
+ cd <directory>
+
+ # Get to know the code:
+ git grep foo
+ git ls-files
+
+ # Get new code
+ git fetch
+ git pull --rebase
+
+ # change worktree
+ git checkout
+ git reset
+
+Implementation details
+----------------------
+
+When cloning or pulling a repository containing submodules the submodules
+will not be checked out by default; You can instruct 'clone' to recurse
+into submodules. The 'init' and 'update' subcommands of 'git submodule'
+will maintain submodules checked out and at an appropriate revision in
+your working tree. Alternatively you can set 'submodule.recurse' to have
+'checkout' recursing into submodules.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-submodule[1], linkgit:gitmodules[5].
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index 794b833..242de31 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -109,7 +109,7 @@ summary of the situation with 'git status':
$ git status
On branch master
Changes to be committed:
-Your branch is up-to-date with 'origin/master'.
+Your branch is up to date with 'origin/master'.
(use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
modified: file1
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index e632089..9c8982e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -368,8 +368,8 @@ $logo_url::
$logo_label::
URI and label (title) for the Git logo link (or your site logo,
if you chose to use different logo image). By default, these both
- refer to Git homepage, http://git-scm.com[]; in the past, they pointed
- to Git documentation at http://www.kernel.org[].
+ refer to Git homepage, https://git-scm.com[]; in the past, they pointed
+ to Git documentation at https://www.kernel.org[].
Changing gitweb's look
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
index 96156e5..8845058 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ separator (rules for Perl's "`split(" ", $line)`").
* Fields use modified URI encoding, defined in RFC 3986, section 2.1
(Percent-Encoding), or rather "Query string encoding" (see
-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string#URL_encoding[]), the difference
+https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string#URL_encoding[]), the difference
being that SP (" ") can be encoded as "{plus}" (and therefore "{plus}" has to be
also percent-encoded).
+
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
index 177610e..02569d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ beginning. It is always easier to squash a few commits together than
to split one big commit into several. Don't be afraid of making too
small or imperfect steps along the way. You can always go back later
and edit the commits with `git rebase --interactive` before you
-publish them. You can use `git stash save --keep-index` to run the
+publish them. You can use `git stash push --keep-index` to run the
test suite independent of other uncommitted changes; see the EXAMPLES
section of linkgit:git-stash[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 8ad29e6..6b8888d 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -384,10 +384,33 @@ full pathname may have special meaning:
+
Glob magic is incompatible with literal magic.
+attr;;
+After `attr:` comes a space separated list of "attribute
+requirements", all of which must be met in order for the
+path to be considered a match; this is in addition to the
+usual non-magic pathspec pattern matching.
+See linkgit:gitattributes[5].
++
+Each of the attribute requirements for the path takes one of
+these forms:
+
+- "`ATTR`" requires that the attribute `ATTR` be set.
+
+- "`-ATTR`" requires that the attribute `ATTR` be unset.
+
+- "`ATTR=VALUE`" requires that the attribute `ATTR` be
+ set to the string `VALUE`.
+
+- "`!ATTR`" requires that the attribute `ATTR` be
+ unspecified.
++
+
exclude;;
After a path matches any non-exclude pathspec, it will be run
- through all exclude pathspec (magic signature: `!`). If it
- matches, the path is ignored.
+ through all exclude pathspecs (magic signature: `!` or its
+ synonym `^`). If it matches, the path is ignored. When there
+ is no non-exclude pathspec, the exclusion is applied to the
+ result set as if invoked without any pathspec.
--
[[def_parent]]parent::
@@ -547,6 +570,10 @@ The most notable example is `HEAD`.
is created by giving the `--depth` option to linkgit:git-clone[1], and
its history can be later deepened with linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+[[def_stash]]stash entry::
+ An <<def_object,object>> used to temporarily store the contents of a
+ <<def_dirty,dirty>> working directory and the index for future reuse.
+
[[def_submodule]]submodule::
A <<def_repository,repository>> that holds the history of a
separate project inside another repository (the latter of
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
index 25378f6..db219f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
@@ -4,13 +4,13 @@ From: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
Date: Fri, 26 Aug 2005 18:19:10 -0700
Abstract: In this how-to article, JC talks about how he
uses the post-update hook to automate Git documentation page
- shown at http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/.
+ shown at https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/.
Content-type: text/asciidoc
How to rebuild from update hook
===============================
-The pages under http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/
+The pages under https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/
are built from Documentation/ directory of the git.git project
and needed to be kept up-to-date. The www.kernel.org/ servers
are mirrored and I was told that the origin of the mirror is on
diff --git a/Documentation/i18n.txt b/Documentation/i18n.txt
index 2dd79db..7e36e5b 100644
--- a/Documentation/i18n.txt
+++ b/Documentation/i18n.txt
@@ -42,11 +42,11 @@ mind.
+
------------
[i18n]
- commitencoding = ISO-8859-1
+ commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1
------------
+
Commit objects created with the above setting record the value
-of `i18n.commitencoding` in its `encoding` header. This is to
+of `i18n.commitEncoding` in its `encoding` header. This is to
help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header
implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
@@ -54,15 +54,15 @@ implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
`encoding` header of a commit object, and try to re-code the
log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
specify the desired output encoding with
- `i18n.logoutputencoding` in `.git/config` file, like this:
+ `i18n.logOutputEncoding` in `.git/config` file, like this:
+
------------
[i18n]
- logoutputencoding = ISO-8859-1
+ logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1
------------
+
If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
-`i18n.commitencoding` is used instead.
+`i18n.commitEncoding` is used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log
message when a commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 5b4a62e..3888c3f 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -39,9 +39,15 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
--ff-only::
Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
- current `HEAD` is already up-to-date or the merge can be
+ current `HEAD` is already up to date or the merge can be
resolved as a fast-forward.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The `keyid` argument is
+ optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified,
+ it must be stuck to the option without a space.
+
--log[=<n>]::
--no-log::
In addition to branch names, populate the log message with
@@ -51,6 +57,16 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the
actual commits being merged.
+--signoff::
+--no-signoff::
+ Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
+ log message. The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
+ but it typically certifies that committer has
+ the rights to submit this work under the same license and
+ agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
+ (see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
++
+With --no-signoff do not add a Signed-off-by line.
--stat::
-n::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index 2eb92b9..a09d597 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@ even look at what the other tree contains at all. It discards everything
the other tree did, declaring 'our' history contains all that happened in it.
theirs;;
- This is the opposite of 'ours'.
+ This is the opposite of 'ours'; note that, unlike 'ours', there is
+ no 'theirs' merge stragegy to confuse this merge option with.
patience;;
With this option, 'merge-recursive' spends a little extra time
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 47b286b..d433d50 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -173,12 +173,17 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
- '%Cblue': switch color to blue
- '%Creset': reset color
- '%C(...)': color specification, as described under Values in the
- "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of linkgit:git-config[1];
- adding `auto,` at the beginning will emit color only when colors are
- enabled for log output (by `color.diff`, `color.ui`, or `--color`, and
- respecting the `auto` settings of the former if we are going to a
- terminal). `auto` alone (i.e. `%C(auto)`) will turn on auto coloring
- on the next placeholders until the color is switched again.
+ "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of linkgit:git-config[1].
+ By default, colors are shown only when enabled for log output (by
+ `color.diff`, `color.ui`, or `--color`, and respecting the `auto`
+ settings of the former if we are going to a terminal). `%C(auto,...)`
+ is accepted as a historical synonym for the default (e.g.,
+ `%C(auto,red)`). Specifying `%C(always,...) will show the colors
+ even when color is not otherwise enabled (though consider
+ just using `--color=always` to enable color for the whole output,
+ including this format and anything else git might color). `auto`
+ alone (i.e. `%C(auto)`) will turn on auto coloring on the next
+ placeholders until the color is switched again.
- '%m': left (`<`), right (`>`) or boundary (`-`) mark
- '%n': newline
- '%%': a raw '%'
@@ -199,8 +204,11 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
than given and there are spaces on its left, use those spaces
- '%><(<N>)', '%><|(<N>)': similar to '% <(<N>)', '%<|(<N>)'
respectively, but padding both sides (i.e. the text is centered)
--%(trailers): display the trailers of the body as interpreted by
- linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]
+- %(trailers): display the trailers of the body as interpreted by
+ linkgit:git-interpret-trailers[1]. If the `:only` option is given,
+ omit non-trailer lines from the trailer block. If the `:unfold`
+ option is given, behave as if interpret-trailer's `--unfold` option
+ was given. E.g., `%(trailers:only:unfold)` to do both.
NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
@@ -213,8 +221,8 @@ If you add a `+` (plus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, a line-feed
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
-If you add a `-` (minus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, line-feeds that
-immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
+If you add a `-` (minus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, all consecutive
+line-feeds immediately preceding the expansion are deleted if and only if the
placeholder expands to an empty string.
If you add a ` ` (space) after '%' of a placeholder, a space
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index 1ebbf1d..c579793 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -23,9 +23,11 @@ ifdef::git-pull[]
endif::git-pull[]
+
The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
-`+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+`+`, followed by the source <src>, followed
by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
-The colon can be omitted when <dst> is empty.
+The colon can be omitted when <dst> is empty. <src> is
+typically a ref, but it can also be a fully spelled hex object
+name.
+
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`;
it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index a02f732..13501e1 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -91,9 +91,14 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
pattern as a regular expression).
+-P::
--perl-regexp::
- Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular expressions.
- Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
+ Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regular
+ expressions.
++
+Support for these types of regular expressions is an optional
+compile-time dependency. If Git wasn't compiled with support for them
+providing this option will cause it to die.
--remove-empty::
Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
@@ -179,6 +184,14 @@ explicitly.
Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
command line as `<commit>`.
+--single-worktree::
+ By default, all working trees will be examined by the
+ following options when there are more than one (see
+ linkgit:git-worktree[1]): `--all`, `--reflog` and
+ `--indexed-objects`.
+ This option forces them to examine the current working tree
+ only.
+
--ignore-missing::
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
the bad input was not given.
@@ -764,7 +777,8 @@ timezone value.
1970). As with `--raw`, this is always in UTC and therefore `-local`
has no effect.
+
-`--date=format:...` feeds the format `...` to your system `strftime`.
+`--date=format:...` feeds the format `...` to your system `strftime`,
+except for %z and %Z, which are handled internally.
Use `--date=format:%c` to show the date in your system locale's
preferred format. See the `strftime` manual for a complete list of
format placeholders. When using `-local`, the correct syntax is
@@ -785,11 +799,11 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
--parents::
Print also the parents of the commit (in the form "commit parent...").
- Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+ Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
--children::
Print also the children of the commit (in the form "commit child...").
- Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+ Also enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--timestamp::
@@ -832,7 +846,7 @@ you would get an output like this:
to be drawn properly.
Cannot be combined with `--no-walk`.
+
-This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
+This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' above.
+
This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
`--date-order` option may also be specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index ba11b9c..6127746 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -96,7 +96,8 @@ some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
refers to the branch that the branch specified by branchname is set to build on
top of (configured with `branch.<name>.remote` and
`branch.<name>.merge`). A missing branchname defaults to the
- current one.
+ current one. These suffixes are also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and
+ they mean the same thing no matter the case.
'<branchname>@\{push\}', e.g. 'master@\{push\}', '@\{push\}'::
The suffix '@\{push}' reports the branch "where we would push to" if
@@ -122,6 +123,9 @@ refs/remotes/myfork/mybranch
Note in the example that we set up a triangular workflow, where we pull
from one location and push to another. In a non-triangular workflow,
'@\{push}' is the same as '@\{upstream}', and there is no need for it.
++
+This suffix is also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and means the same
+thing no matter the case.
'<rev>{caret}', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}, v1.5.1{caret}0'::
A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
@@ -291,7 +295,7 @@ The 'r1{caret}@' notation means all parents of 'r1'.
The 'r1{caret}!' notation includes commit 'r1' but excludes all of its parents.
By itself, this notation denotes the single commit 'r1'.
-The '<rev>{caret}-{<n>}' notation includes '<rev>' but excludes the <n>th
+The '<rev>{caret}-<n>' notation includes '<rev>' but excludes the <n>th
parent (i.e. a shorthand for '<rev>{caret}<n>..<rev>'), with '<n>' = 1 if
not given. This is typically useful for merge commits where you
can just pass '<commit>{caret}-' to get all the commits in the branch
@@ -333,7 +337,7 @@ Revision Range Summary
as giving commit '<rev>' and then all its parents prefixed with
'{caret}' to exclude them (and their ancestors).
-'<rev>{caret}-{<n>}', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}-, HEAD{caret}-2'::
+'<rev>{caret}-<n>', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}-, HEAD{caret}-2'::
Equivalent to '<rev>{caret}<n>..<rev>', with '<n>' = 1 if not
given.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
index cfc0630..870c8ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ always NULL-terminated at the element pointed to by `argv[argc]`. This
makes the result suitable for passing to functions expecting to receive
argv from main(), or the link:api-run-command.html[run-command API].
-The link:api-string-list.html[string-list API] is similar, but cannot be
+The string-list API (documented in string-list.h) is similar, but cannot be
used for these purposes; instead of storing a straight string pointer,
it contains an item structure with a `util` field that is not compatible
with the traditional argv interface.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 22a39b9..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,73 +0,0 @@
-builtin API
-===========
-
-Adding a new built-in
----------------------
-
-There are 4 things to do to add a built-in command implementation to
-Git:
-
-. Define the implementation of the built-in command `foo` with
- signature:
-
- int cmd_foo(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-
-. Add the external declaration for the function to `builtin.h`.
-
-. Add the command to the `commands[]` table defined in `git.c`.
- The entry should look like:
-
- { "foo", cmd_foo, <options> },
-+
-where options is the bitwise-or of:
-
-`RUN_SETUP`::
- If there is not a Git directory to work on, abort. If there
- is a work tree, chdir to the top of it if the command was
- invoked in a subdirectory. If there is no work tree, no
- chdir() is done.
-
-`RUN_SETUP_GENTLY`::
- If there is a Git directory, chdir as per RUN_SETUP, otherwise,
- don't chdir anywhere.
-
-`USE_PAGER`::
-
- If the standard output is connected to a tty, spawn a pager and
- feed our output to it.
-
-`NEED_WORK_TREE`::
-
- Make sure there is a work tree, i.e. the command cannot act
- on bare repositories.
- This only makes sense when `RUN_SETUP` is also set.
-
-. Add `builtin/foo.o` to `BUILTIN_OBJS` in `Makefile`.
-
-Additionally, if `foo` is a new command, there are 3 more things to do:
-
-. Add tests to `t/` directory.
-
-. Write documentation in `Documentation/git-foo.txt`.
-
-. Add an entry for `git-foo` to `command-list.txt`.
-
-. Add an entry for `/git-foo` to `.gitignore`.
-
-
-How a built-in is called
-------------------------
-
-The implementation `cmd_foo()` takes three parameters, `argc`, `argv,
-and `prefix`. The first two are similar to what `main()` of a
-standalone command would be called with.
-
-When `RUN_SETUP` is specified in the `commands[]` table, and when you
-were started from a subdirectory of the work tree, `cmd_foo()` is called
-after chdir(2) to the top of the work tree, and `prefix` gets the path
-to the subdirectory the command started from. This allows you to
-convert a user-supplied pathname (typically relative to that directory)
-to a pathname relative to the top of the work tree.
-
-The return value from `cmd_foo()` becomes the exit status of the
-command.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
index 20741f3..9a778b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ parsing is successful, the return value is the result.
Same as `git_config_bool`, except that integers are returned as-is, and
an `is_bool` flag is unset.
-`git_config_maybe_bool`::
+`git_parse_maybe_bool`::
Same as `git_config_bool`, except that it returns -1 on error rather
than dying.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 7f8e78d..7fae00f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -22,16 +22,41 @@ The notable options are:
`flags`::
- A bit-field of options (the `*IGNORED*` flags are mutually exclusive):
+ A bit-field of options:
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`:::
- Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked files.
+ Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked
+ files. This flag is mutually exclusive with
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`.
`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`:::
- Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in `ignored[]`
- in addition to untracked files in `entries[]`.
+ Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in
+ `ignored[]` in addition to untracked files in
+ `entries[]`. This flag is mutually exclusive with
+ `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`.
+
+`DIR_KEEP_UNTRACKED_CONTENTS`:::
+
+ Only has meaning if `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` is also set; if this is set, the
+ untracked contents of untracked directories are also returned in
+ `entries[]`.
+
+`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO_MODE_MATCHING`:::
+
+ Only has meaning if `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` is also set; if
+ this is set, returns ignored files and directories that match
+ an exclude pattern. If a directory matches an exclude pattern,
+ then the directory is returned and the contained paths are
+ not. A directory that does not match an exclude pattern will
+ not be returned even if all of its contents are ignored. In
+ this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
++
+If this is set, files and directories that explicity match an ignore
+pattern are reported. Implicity ignored directories (directories that
+do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
+are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
`DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED`:::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
index 2602668..e7cbb7c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
@@ -16,10 +16,15 @@ Data Structure
of no interest to the calling programs. The name of the
attribute can be retrieved by calling `git_attr_name()`.
-`struct git_attr_check`::
+`struct attr_check_item`::
- This structure represents a set of attributes to check in a call
- to `git_check_attr()` function, and receives the results.
+ This structure represents one attribute and its value.
+
+`struct attr_check`::
+
+ This structure represents a collection of `attr_check_item`.
+ It is passed to `git_check_attr()` function, specifying the
+ attributes to check, and receives their values.
Attribute Values
@@ -27,7 +32,7 @@ Attribute Values
An attribute for a path can be in one of four states: Set, Unset,
Unspecified or set to a string, and `.value` member of `struct
-git_attr_check` records it. There are three macros to check these:
+attr_check_item` records it. There are three macros to check these:
`ATTR_TRUE()`::
@@ -48,49 +53,51 @@ value of the attribute for the path.
Querying Specific Attributes
----------------------------
-* Prepare an array of `struct git_attr_check` to define the list of
- attributes you would want to check. To populate this array, you would
- need to define necessary attributes by calling `git_attr()` function.
+* Prepare `struct attr_check` using attr_check_initl()
+ function, enumerating the names of attributes whose values you are
+ interested in, terminated with a NULL pointer. Alternatively, an
+ empty `struct attr_check` can be prepared by calling
+ `attr_check_alloc()` function and then attributes you want to
+ ask about can be added to it with `attr_check_append()`
+ function.
* Call `git_check_attr()` to check the attributes for the path.
-* Inspect `git_attr_check` structure to see how each of the attribute in
- the array is defined for the path.
+* Inspect `attr_check` structure to see how each of the
+ attribute in the array is defined for the path.
Example
-------
-To see how attributes "crlf" and "indent" are set for different paths.
+To see how attributes "crlf" and "ident" are set for different paths.
-. Prepare an array of `struct git_attr_check` with two elements (because
- we are checking two attributes). Initialize their `attr` member with
- pointers to `struct git_attr` obtained by calling `git_attr()`:
+. Prepare a `struct attr_check` with two elements (because
+ we are checking two attributes):
------------
-static struct git_attr_check check[2];
+static struct attr_check *check;
static void setup_check(void)
{
- if (check[0].attr)
+ if (check)
return; /* already done */
- check[0].attr = git_attr("crlf");
- check[1].attr = git_attr("ident");
+ check = attr_check_initl("crlf", "ident", NULL);
}
------------
-. Call `git_check_attr()` with the prepared array of `struct git_attr_check`:
+. Call `git_check_attr()` with the prepared `struct attr_check`:
------------
const char *path;
setup_check();
- git_check_attr(path, ARRAY_SIZE(check), check);
+ git_check_attr(path, check);
------------
-. Act on `.value` member of the result, left in `check[]`:
+. Act on `.value` member of the result, left in `check->items[]`:
------------
- const char *value = check[0].value;
+ const char *value = check->items[0].value;
if (ATTR_TRUE(value)) {
The attribute is Set, by listing only the name of the
@@ -109,20 +116,39 @@ static void setup_check(void)
}
------------
+To see how attributes in argv[] are set for different paths, only
+the first step in the above would be different.
+
+------------
+static struct attr_check *check;
+static void setup_check(const char **argv)
+{
+ check = attr_check_alloc();
+ while (*argv) {
+ struct git_attr *attr = git_attr(*argv);
+ attr_check_append(check, attr);
+ argv++;
+ }
+}
+------------
+
Querying All Attributes
-----------------------
To get the values of all attributes associated with a file:
-* Call `git_all_attrs()`, which returns an array of `git_attr_check`
- structures.
+* Prepare an empty `attr_check` structure by calling
+ `attr_check_alloc()`.
+
+* Call `git_all_attrs()`, which populates the `attr_check`
+ with the attributes attached to the path.
-* Iterate over the `git_attr_check` array to examine the attribute
- names and values. The name of the attribute described by a
- `git_attr_check` object can be retrieved via
- `git_attr_name(check[i].attr)`. (Please note that no items will be
- returned for unset attributes, so `ATTR_UNSET()` will return false
- for all returned `git_array_check` objects.)
+* Iterate over the `attr_check.items[]` array to examine
+ the attribute names and values. The name of the attribute
+ described by a `attr_check.items[]` object can be retrieved via
+ `git_attr_name(check->items[i].attr)`. (Please note that no items
+ will be returned for unset attributes, so `ATTR_UNSET()` will return
+ false for all returned `attr_check.items[]` objects.)
-* Free the `git_array_check` array.
+* Free the `attr_check` struct by calling `attr_check_free()`.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index a3f020c..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,287 +0,0 @@
-hashmap API
-===========
-
-The hashmap API is a generic implementation of hash-based key-value mappings.
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct hashmap`::
-
- The hash table structure. Members can be used as follows, but should
- not be modified directly:
-+
-The `size` member keeps track of the total number of entries (0 means the
-hashmap is empty).
-+
-`tablesize` is the allocated size of the hash table. A non-0 value indicates
-that the hashmap is initialized. It may also be useful for statistical purposes
-(i.e. `size / tablesize` is the current load factor).
-+
-`cmpfn` stores the comparison function specified in `hashmap_init()`. In
-advanced scenarios, it may be useful to change this, e.g. to switch between
-case-sensitive and case-insensitive lookup.
-
-`struct hashmap_entry`::
-
- An opaque structure representing an entry in the hash table, which must
- be used as first member of user data structures. Ideally it should be
- followed by an int-sized member to prevent unused memory on 64-bit
- systems due to alignment.
-+
-The `hash` member is the entry's hash code and the `next` member points to the
-next entry in case of collisions (i.e. if multiple entries map to the same
-bucket).
-
-`struct hashmap_iter`::
-
- An iterator structure, to be used with hashmap_iter_* functions.
-
-Types
------
-
-`int (*hashmap_cmp_fn)(const void *entry, const void *entry_or_key, const void *keydata)`::
-
- User-supplied function to test two hashmap entries for equality. Shall
- return 0 if the entries are equal.
-+
-This function is always called with non-NULL `entry` / `entry_or_key`
-parameters that have the same hash code. When looking up an entry, the `key`
-and `keydata` parameters to hashmap_get and hashmap_remove are always passed
-as second and third argument, respectively. Otherwise, `keydata` is NULL.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`unsigned int strhash(const char *buf)`::
-`unsigned int strihash(const char *buf)`::
-`unsigned int memhash(const void *buf, size_t len)`::
-`unsigned int memihash(const void *buf, size_t len)`::
-
- Ready-to-use hash functions for strings, using the FNV-1 algorithm (see
- http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/comp/fnv).
-+
-`strhash` and `strihash` take 0-terminated strings, while `memhash` and
-`memihash` operate on arbitrary-length memory.
-+
-`strihash` and `memihash` are case insensitive versions.
-
-`unsigned int sha1hash(const unsigned char *sha1)`::
-
- Converts a cryptographic hash (e.g. SHA-1) into an int-sized hash code
- for use in hash tables. Cryptographic hashes are supposed to have
- uniform distribution, so in contrast to `memhash()`, this just copies
- the first `sizeof(int)` bytes without shuffling any bits. Note that
- the results will be different on big-endian and little-endian
- platforms, so they should not be stored or transferred over the net.
-
-`void hashmap_init(struct hashmap *map, hashmap_cmp_fn equals_function, size_t initial_size)`::
-
- Initializes a hashmap structure.
-+
-`map` is the hashmap to initialize.
-+
-The `equals_function` can be specified to compare two entries for equality.
-If NULL, entries are considered equal if their hash codes are equal.
-+
-If the total number of entries is known in advance, the `initial_size`
-parameter may be used to preallocate a sufficiently large table and thus
-prevent expensive resizing. If 0, the table is dynamically resized.
-
-`void hashmap_free(struct hashmap *map, int free_entries)`::
-
- Frees a hashmap structure and allocated memory.
-+
-`map` is the hashmap to free.
-+
-If `free_entries` is true, each hashmap_entry in the map is freed as well
-(using stdlib's free()).
-
-`void hashmap_entry_init(void *entry, unsigned int hash)`::
-
- Initializes a hashmap_entry structure.
-+
-`entry` points to the entry to initialize.
-+
-`hash` is the hash code of the entry.
-+
-The hashmap_entry structure does not hold references to external resources,
-and it is safe to just discard it once you are done with it (i.e. if
-your structure was allocated with xmalloc(), you can just free(3) it,
-and if it is on stack, you can just let it go out of scope).
-
-`void *hashmap_get(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
-
- Returns the hashmap entry for the specified key, or NULL if not found.
-+
-`map` is the hashmap structure.
-+
-`key` is a hashmap_entry structure (or user data structure that starts with
-hashmap_entry) that has at least been initialized with the proper hash code
-(via `hashmap_entry_init`).
-+
-If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are passed
-to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
-
-`void *hashmap_get_from_hash(const struct hashmap *map, unsigned int hash, const void *keydata)`::
-
- Returns the hashmap entry for the specified hash code and key data,
- or NULL if not found.
-+
-`map` is the hashmap structure.
-+
-`hash` is the hash code of the entry to look up.
-+
-If an entry with matching hash code is found, `keydata` is passed to
-`hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key. The
-`entry_or_key` parameter points to a bogus hashmap_entry structure that
-should not be used in the comparison.
-
-`void *hashmap_get_next(const struct hashmap *map, const void *entry)`::
-
- Returns the next equal hashmap entry, or NULL if not found. This can be
- used to iterate over duplicate entries (see `hashmap_add`).
-+
-`map` is the hashmap structure.
-+
-`entry` is the hashmap_entry to start the search from, obtained via a previous
-call to `hashmap_get` or `hashmap_get_next`.
-
-`void hashmap_add(struct hashmap *map, void *entry)`::
-
- Adds a hashmap entry. This allows to add duplicate entries (i.e.
- separate values with the same key according to hashmap_cmp_fn).
-+
-`map` is the hashmap structure.
-+
-`entry` is the entry to add.
-
-`void *hashmap_put(struct hashmap *map, void *entry)`::
-
- Adds or replaces a hashmap entry. If the hashmap contains duplicate
- entries equal to the specified entry, only one of them will be replaced.
-+
-`map` is the hashmap structure.
-+
-`entry` is the entry to add or replace.
-+
-Returns the replaced entry, or NULL if not found (i.e. the entry was added).
-
-`void *hashmap_remove(struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
-
- Removes a hashmap entry matching the specified key. If the hashmap
- contains duplicate entries equal to the specified key, only one of
- them will be removed.
-+
-`map` is the hashmap structure.
-+
-`key` is a hashmap_entry structure (or user data structure that starts with
-hashmap_entry) that has at least been initialized with the proper hash code
-(via `hashmap_entry_init`).
-+
-If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are
-passed to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
-+
-Returns the removed entry, or NULL if not found.
-
-`void hashmap_iter_init(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
-`void *hashmap_iter_next(struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
-`void *hashmap_iter_first(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
-
- Used to iterate over all entries of a hashmap. Note that it is
- not safe to add or remove entries to the hashmap while
- iterating.
-+
-`hashmap_iter_init` initializes a `hashmap_iter` structure.
-+
-`hashmap_iter_next` returns the next hashmap_entry, or NULL if there are no
-more entries.
-+
-`hashmap_iter_first` is a combination of both (i.e. initializes the iterator
-and returns the first entry, if any).
-
-`const char *strintern(const char *string)`::
-`const void *memintern(const void *data, size_t len)`::
-
- Returns the unique, interned version of the specified string or data,
- similar to the `String.intern` API in Java and .NET, respectively.
- Interned strings remain valid for the entire lifetime of the process.
-+
-Can be used as `[x]strdup()` or `xmemdupz` replacement, except that interned
-strings / data must not be modified or freed.
-+
-Interned strings are best used for short strings with high probability of
-duplicates.
-+
-Uses a hashmap to store the pool of interned strings.
-
-Usage example
--------------
-
-Here's a simple usage example that maps long keys to double values.
-------------
-struct hashmap map;
-
-struct long2double {
- struct hashmap_entry ent; /* must be the first member! */
- long key;
- double value;
-};
-
-static int long2double_cmp(const struct long2double *e1, const struct long2double *e2, const void *unused)
-{
- return !(e1->key == e2->key);
-}
-
-void long2double_init(void)
-{
- hashmap_init(&map, (hashmap_cmp_fn) long2double_cmp, 0);
-}
-
-void long2double_free(void)
-{
- hashmap_free(&map, 1);
-}
-
-static struct long2double *find_entry(long key)
-{
- struct long2double k;
- hashmap_entry_init(&k, memhash(&key, sizeof(long)));
- k.key = key;
- return hashmap_get(&map, &k, NULL);
-}
-
-double get_value(long key)
-{
- struct long2double *e = find_entry(key);
- return e ? e->value : 0;
-}
-
-void set_value(long key, double value)
-{
- struct long2double *e = find_entry(key);
- if (!e) {
- e = malloc(sizeof(struct long2double));
- hashmap_entry_init(e, memhash(&key, sizeof(long)));
- e->key = key;
- hashmap_add(&map, e);
- }
- e->value = value;
-}
-------------
-
-Using variable-sized keys
--------------------------
-
-The `hashmap_entry_get` and `hashmap_entry_remove` functions expect an ordinary
-`hashmap_entry` structure as key to find the correct entry. If the key data is
-variable-sized (e.g. a FLEX_ARRAY string) or quite large, it is undesirable
-to create a full-fledged entry structure on the heap and copy all the key data
-into the structure.
-
-In this case, the `keydata` parameter can be used to pass
-variable-sized key data directly to the comparison function, and the `key`
-parameter can be a stripped-down, fixed size entry structure allocated on the
-stack.
-
-See test-hashmap.c for an example using arbitrary-length strings as keys.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt
index dcc5294..b0c11f8 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-sha1-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
-sha1-array API
+oid-array API
==============
-The sha1-array API provides storage and manipulation of sets of SHA-1
+The oid-array API provides storage and manipulation of sets of object
identifiers. The emphasis is on storage and processing efficiency,
making them suitable for large lists. Note that the ordering of items is
not preserved over some operations.
@@ -9,10 +9,10 @@ not preserved over some operations.
Data Structures
---------------
-`struct sha1_array`::
+`struct oid_array`::
- A single array of SHA-1 hashes. This should be initialized by
- assignment from `SHA1_ARRAY_INIT`. The `sha1` member contains
+ A single array of object IDs. This should be initialized by
+ assignment from `OID_ARRAY_INIT`. The `oid` member contains
the actual data. The `nr` member contains the number of items in
the set. The `alloc` and `sorted` members are used internally,
and should not be needed by API callers.
@@ -20,22 +20,22 @@ Data Structures
Functions
---------
-`sha1_array_append`::
- Add an item to the set. The sha1 will be placed at the end of
+`oid_array_append`::
+ Add an item to the set. The object ID will be placed at the end of
the array (but note that some operations below may lose this
ordering).
-`sha1_array_lookup`::
- Perform a binary search of the array for a specific sha1.
+`oid_array_lookup`::
+ Perform a binary search of the array for a specific object ID.
If found, returns the offset (in number of elements) of the
- sha1. If not found, returns a negative integer. If the array is
- not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting it.
+ object ID. If not found, returns a negative integer. If the array
+ is not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting it.
-`sha1_array_clear`::
+`oid_array_clear`::
Free all memory associated with the array and return it to the
initial, empty state.
-`sha1_array_for_each_unique`::
+`oid_array_for_each_unique`::
Efficiently iterate over each unique element of the list,
executing the callback function for each one. If the array is
not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting it. If
@@ -47,25 +47,25 @@ Examples
--------
-----------------------------------------
-int print_callback(const unsigned char sha1[20],
+int print_callback(const struct object_id *oid,
void *data)
{
- printf("%s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+ printf("%s\n", oid_to_hex(oid));
return 0; /* always continue */
}
void some_func(void)
{
- struct sha1_array hashes = SHA1_ARRAY_INIT;
- unsigned char sha1[20];
+ struct sha1_array hashes = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
+ struct object_id oid;
/* Read objects into our set */
- while (read_object_from_stdin(sha1))
- sha1_array_append(&hashes, sha1);
+ while (read_object_from_stdin(oid.hash))
+ oid_array_append(&hashes, &oid);
/* Check if some objects are in our set */
- while (read_object_from_stdin(sha1)) {
- if (sha1_array_lookup(&hashes, sha1) >= 0)
+ while (read_object_from_stdin(oid.hash)) {
+ if (oid_array_lookup(&hashes, &oid) >= 0)
printf("it's in there!\n");
/*
@@ -75,6 +75,6 @@ void some_func(void)
* Instead, this will sort once and then skip duplicates
* in linear time.
*/
- sha1_array_for_each_unique(&hashes, print_callback, NULL);
+ oid_array_for_each_unique(&hashes, print_callback, NULL);
}
-----------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 27bd701..829b558 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -168,6 +168,11 @@ There are some macros to easily define options:
Introduce an option with string argument.
The string argument is put into `str_var`.
+`OPT_STRING_LIST(short, long, &struct string_list, arg_str, description)`::
+ Introduce an option with string argument.
+ The string argument is stored as an element in `string_list`.
+ Use of `--no-option` will clear the list of preceding values.
+
`OPT_INTEGER(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
Introduce an option with integer argument.
The integer is put into `int_var`.
@@ -178,13 +183,13 @@ There are some macros to easily define options:
scale the provided value by 1024, 1024^2 or 1024^3 respectively.
The scaled value is put into `unsigned_long_var`.
-`OPT_DATE(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
+`OPT_DATE(short, long, &timestamp_t_var, description)`::
Introduce an option with date argument, see `approxidate()`.
- The timestamp is put into `int_var`.
+ The timestamp is put into `timestamp_t_var`.
-`OPT_EXPIRY_DATE(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
+`OPT_EXPIRY_DATE(short, long, &timestamp_t_var, description)`::
Introduce an option with expiry date argument, see `parse_expiry_date()`.
- The timestamp is put into `int_var`.
+ The timestamp is put into `timestamp_t_var`.
`OPT_CALLBACK(short, long, &var, arg_str, description, func_ptr)`::
Introduce an option with argument.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
index 37379d8..46c3d5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
@@ -32,11 +32,8 @@ Iteration functions
* `for_each_glob_ref_in()` the previous and `for_each_ref_in()` combined.
-* `head_ref_submodule()`, `for_each_ref_submodule()`,
- `for_each_ref_in_submodule()`, `for_each_tag_ref_submodule()`,
- `for_each_branch_ref_submodule()`, `for_each_remote_ref_submodule()`
- do the same as the functions described above but for a specified
- submodule.
+* Use `refs_` API for accessing submodules. The submodule ref store could
+ be obtained with `get_submodule_ref_store()`.
* `for_each_rawref()` can be used to learn about broken ref and symref.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index c08402b..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,209 +0,0 @@
-string-list API
-===============
-
-The string_list API offers a data structure and functions to handle
-sorted and unsorted string lists. A "sorted" list is one whose
-entries are sorted by string value in `strcmp()` order.
-
-The 'string_list' struct used to be called 'path_list', but was renamed
-because it is not specific to paths.
-
-The caller:
-
-. Allocates and clears a `struct string_list` variable.
-
-. Initializes the members. You might want to set the flag `strdup_strings`
- if the strings should be strdup()ed. For example, this is necessary
- when you add something like git_path("..."), since that function returns
- a static buffer that will change with the next call to git_path().
-+
-If you need something advanced, you can manually malloc() the `items`
-member (you need this if you add things later) and you should set the
-`nr` and `alloc` members in that case, too.
-
-. Adds new items to the list, using `string_list_append`,
- `string_list_append_nodup`, `string_list_insert`,
- `string_list_split`, and/or `string_list_split_in_place`.
-
-. Can check if a string is in the list using `string_list_has_string` or
- `unsorted_string_list_has_string` and get it from the list using
- `string_list_lookup` for sorted lists.
-
-. Can sort an unsorted list using `string_list_sort`.
-
-. Can remove duplicate items from a sorted list using
- `string_list_remove_duplicates`.
-
-. Can remove individual items of an unsorted list using
- `unsorted_string_list_delete_item`.
-
-. Can remove items not matching a criterion from a sorted or unsorted
- list using `filter_string_list`, or remove empty strings using
- `string_list_remove_empty_items`.
-
-. Finally it should free the list using `string_list_clear`.
-
-Example:
-
-----
-struct string_list list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
-int i;
-
-string_list_append(&list, "foo");
-string_list_append(&list, "bar");
-for (i = 0; i < list.nr; i++)
- printf("%s\n", list.items[i].string)
-----
-
-NOTE: It is more efficient to build an unsorted list and sort it
-afterwards, instead of building a sorted list (`O(n log n)` instead of
-`O(n^2)`).
-+
-However, if you use the list to check if a certain string was added
-already, you should not do that (using unsorted_string_list_has_string()),
-because the complexity would be quadratic again (but with a worse factor).
-
-Functions
----------
-
-* General ones (works with sorted and unsorted lists as well)
-
-`string_list_init`::
-
- Initialize the members of the string_list, set `strdup_strings`
- member according to the value of the second parameter.
-
-`filter_string_list`::
-
- Apply a function to each item in a list, retaining only the
- items for which the function returns true. If free_util is
- true, call free() on the util members of any items that have
- to be deleted. Preserve the order of the items that are
- retained.
-
-`string_list_remove_empty_items`::
-
- Remove any empty strings from the list. If free_util is true,
- call free() on the util members of any items that have to be
- deleted. Preserve the order of the items that are retained.
-
-`print_string_list`::
-
- Dump a string_list to stdout, useful mainly for debugging purposes. It
- can take an optional header argument and it writes out the
- string-pointer pairs of the string_list, each one in its own line.
-
-`string_list_clear`::
-
- Free a string_list. The `string` pointer of the items will be freed in
- case the `strdup_strings` member of the string_list is set. The second
- parameter controls if the `util` pointer of the items should be freed
- or not.
-
-* Functions for sorted lists only
-
-`string_list_has_string`::
-
- Determine if the string_list has a given string or not.
-
-`string_list_insert`::
-
- Insert a new element to the string_list. The returned pointer can be
- handy if you want to write something to the `util` pointer of the
- string_list_item containing the just added string. If the given
- string already exists the insertion will be skipped and the
- pointer to the existing item returned.
-+
-Since this function uses xrealloc() (which die()s if it fails) if the
-list needs to grow, it is safe not to check the pointer. I.e. you may
-write `string_list_insert(...)->util = ...;`.
-
-`string_list_lookup`::
-
- Look up a given string in the string_list, returning the containing
- string_list_item. If the string is not found, NULL is returned.
-
-`string_list_remove_duplicates`::
-
- Remove all but the first of consecutive entries that have the
- same string value. If free_util is true, call free() on the
- util members of any items that have to be deleted.
-
-* Functions for unsorted lists only
-
-`string_list_append`::
-
- Append a new string to the end of the string_list. If
- `strdup_string` is set, then the string argument is copied;
- otherwise the new `string_list_entry` refers to the input
- string.
-
-`string_list_append_nodup`::
-
- Append a new string to the end of the string_list. The new
- `string_list_entry` always refers to the input string, even if
- `strdup_string` is set. This function can be used to hand
- ownership of a malloc()ed string to a `string_list` that has
- `strdup_string` set.
-
-`string_list_sort`::
-
- Sort the list's entries by string value in `strcmp()` order.
-
-`unsorted_string_list_has_string`::
-
- It's like `string_list_has_string()` but for unsorted lists.
-
-`unsorted_string_list_lookup`::
-
- It's like `string_list_lookup()` but for unsorted lists.
-+
-The above two functions need to look through all items, as opposed to their
-counterpart for sorted lists, which performs a binary search.
-
-`unsorted_string_list_delete_item`::
-
- Remove an item from a string_list. The `string` pointer of the items
- will be freed in case the `strdup_strings` member of the string_list
- is set. The third parameter controls if the `util` pointer of the
- items should be freed or not.
-
-`string_list_split`::
-`string_list_split_in_place`::
-
- Split a string into substrings on a delimiter character and
- append the substrings to a `string_list`. If `maxsplit` is
- non-negative, then split at most `maxsplit` times. Return the
- number of substrings appended to the list.
-+
-`string_list_split` requires a `string_list` that has `strdup_strings`
-set to true; it leaves the input string untouched and makes copies of
-the substrings in newly-allocated memory.
-`string_list_split_in_place` requires a `string_list` that has
-`strdup_strings` set to false; it splits the input string in place,
-overwriting the delimiter characters with NULs and creating new
-string_list_items that point into the original string (the original
-string must therefore not be modified or freed while the `string_list`
-is in use).
-
-
-Data structures
----------------
-
-* `struct string_list_item`
-
-Represents an item of the list. The `string` member is a pointer to the
-string, and you may use the `util` member for any purpose, if you want.
-
-* `struct string_list`
-
-Represents the list itself.
-
-. The array of items are available via the `items` member.
-. The `nr` member contains the number of items stored in the list.
-. The `alloc` member is used to avoid reallocating at every insertion.
- You should not tamper with it.
-. Setting the `strdup_strings` member to 1 will strdup() the strings
- before adding them, see above.
-. The `compare_strings_fn` member is used to specify a custom compare
- function, otherwise `strcmp()` is used as the default function.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
index 14af37c..bde1862 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
@@ -55,9 +55,9 @@ Initializing
`fill_tree_descriptor`::
- Initialize a `tree_desc` and decode its first entry given the sha1 of
- a tree. Returns the `buffer` member if the sha1 is a valid tree
- identifier and NULL otherwise.
+ Initialize a `tree_desc` and decode its first entry given the
+ object ID of a tree. Returns the `buffer` member if the latter
+ is a valid tree identifier and NULL otherwise.
`setup_traverse_info`::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..417ba49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,797 @@
+Git hash function transition
+============================
+
+Objective
+---------
+Migrate Git from SHA-1 to a stronger hash function.
+
+Background
+----------
+At its core, the Git version control system is a content addressable
+filesystem. It uses the SHA-1 hash function to name content. For
+example, files, directories, and revisions are referred to by hash
+values unlike in other traditional version control systems where files
+or versions are referred to via sequential numbers. The use of a hash
+function to address its content delivers a few advantages:
+
+* Integrity checking is easy. Bit flips, for example, are easily
+ detected, as the hash of corrupted content does not match its name.
+* Lookup of objects is fast.
+
+Using a cryptographically secure hash function brings additional
+advantages:
+
+* Object names can be signed and third parties can trust the hash to
+ address the signed object and all objects it references.
+* Communication using Git protocol and out of band communication
+ methods have a short reliable string that can be used to reliably
+ address stored content.
+
+Over time some flaws in SHA-1 have been discovered by security
+researchers. https://shattered.io demonstrated a practical SHA-1 hash
+collision. As a result, SHA-1 cannot be considered cryptographically
+secure any more. This impacts the communication of hash values because
+we cannot trust that a given hash value represents the known good
+version of content that the speaker intended.
+
+SHA-1 still possesses the other properties such as fast object lookup
+and safe error checking, but other hash functions are equally suitable
+that are believed to be cryptographically secure.
+
+Goals
+-----
+Where NewHash is a strong 256-bit hash function to replace SHA-1 (see
+"Selection of a New Hash", below):
+
+1. The transition to NewHash can be done one local repository at a time.
+ a. Requiring no action by any other party.
+ b. A NewHash repository can communicate with SHA-1 Git servers
+ (push/fetch).
+ c. Users can use SHA-1 and NewHash identifiers for objects
+ interchangeably (see "Object names on the command line", below).
+ d. New signed objects make use of a stronger hash function than
+ SHA-1 for their security guarantees.
+2. Allow a complete transition away from SHA-1.
+ a. Local metadata for SHA-1 compatibility can be removed from a
+ repository if compatibility with SHA-1 is no longer needed.
+3. Maintainability throughout the process.
+ a. The object format is kept simple and consistent.
+ b. Creation of a generalized repository conversion tool.
+
+Non-Goals
+---------
+1. Add NewHash support to Git protocol. This is valuable and the
+ logical next step but it is out of scope for this initial design.
+2. Transparently improving the security of existing SHA-1 signed
+ objects.
+3. Intermixing objects using multiple hash functions in a single
+ repository.
+4. Taking the opportunity to fix other bugs in Git's formats and
+ protocols.
+5. Shallow clones and fetches into a NewHash repository. (This will
+ change when we add NewHash support to Git protocol.)
+6. Skip fetching some submodules of a project into a NewHash
+ repository. (This also depends on NewHash support in Git
+ protocol.)
+
+Overview
+--------
+We introduce a new repository format extension. Repositories with this
+extension enabled use NewHash instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
+This affects both object names and object content --- both the names
+of objects and all references to other objects within an object are
+switched to the new hash function.
+
+NewHash repositories cannot be read by older versions of Git.
+
+Alongside the packfile, a NewHash repository stores a bidirectional
+mapping between NewHash and SHA-1 object names. The mapping is generated
+locally and can be verified using "git fsck". Object lookups use this
+mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and NewHash names
+interchangeably.
+
+"git cat-file" and "git hash-object" gain options to display an object
+in its sha1 form and write an object given its sha1 form. This
+requires all objects referenced by that object to be present in the
+object database so that they can be named using the appropriate name
+(using the bidirectional hash mapping).
+
+Fetches from a SHA-1 based server convert the fetched objects into
+NewHash form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
+(see below for details). Pushes to a SHA-1 based server convert the
+objects being pushed into sha1 form so the server does not have to be
+aware of the hash function the client is using.
+
+Detailed Design
+---------------
+Repository format extension
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+A NewHash repository uses repository format version `1` (see
+Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt) with extensions
+`objectFormat` and `compatObjectFormat`:
+
+ [core]
+ repositoryFormatVersion = 1
+ [extensions]
+ objectFormat = newhash
+ compatObjectFormat = sha1
+
+Specifying a repository format extension ensures that versions of Git
+not aware of NewHash do not try to operate on these repositories,
+instead producing an error message:
+
+ $ git status
+ fatal: unknown repository extensions found:
+ objectformat
+ compatobjectformat
+
+See the "Transition plan" section below for more details on these
+repository extensions.
+
+Object names
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Objects can be named by their 40 hexadecimal digit sha1-name or 64
+hexadecimal digit newhash-name, plus names derived from those (see
+gitrevisions(7)).
+
+The sha1-name of an object is the SHA-1 of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha1-content. This is the
+traditional <sha1> used in Git to name objects.
+
+The newhash-name of an object is the NewHash of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's newhash-content.
+
+Object format
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The content as a byte sequence of a tag, commit, or tree object named
+by sha1 and newhash differ because an object named by newhash-name refers to
+other objects by their newhash-names and an object named by sha1-name
+refers to other objects by their sha1-names.
+
+The newhash-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
+that objects referenced by the object are named using their newhash-names
+instead of sha1-names. Because a blob object does not refer to any
+other object, its sha1-content and newhash-content are the same.
+
+The format allows round-trip conversion between newhash-content and
+sha1-content.
+
+Object storage
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Loose objects use zlib compression and packed objects use the packed
+format described in Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt, just like
+today. The content that is compressed and stored uses newhash-content
+instead of sha1-content.
+
+Pack index
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Pack index (.idx) files use a new v3 format that supports multiple
+hash functions. They have the following format (all integers are in
+network byte order):
+
+- A header appears at the beginning and consists of the following:
+ - The 4-byte pack index signature: '\377t0c'
+ - 4-byte version number: 3
+ - 4-byte length of the header section, including the signature and
+ version number
+ - 4-byte number of objects contained in the pack
+ - 4-byte number of object formats in this pack index: 2
+ - For each object format:
+ - 4-byte format identifier (e.g., 'sha1' for SHA-1)
+ - 4-byte length in bytes of shortened object names. This is the
+ shortest possible length needed to make names in the shortened
+ object name table unambiguous.
+ - 4-byte integer, recording where tables relating to this format
+ are stored in this index file, as an offset from the beginning.
+ - 4-byte offset to the trailer from the beginning of this file.
+ - Zero or more additional key/value pairs (4-byte key, 4-byte
+ value). Only one key is supported: 'PSRC'. See the "Loose objects
+ and unreachable objects" section for supported values and how this
+ is used. All other keys are reserved. Readers must ignore
+ unrecognized keys.
+- Zero or more NUL bytes. This can optionally be used to improve the
+ alignment of the full object name table below.
+- Tables for the first object format:
+ - A sorted table of shortened object names. These are prefixes of
+ the names of all objects in this pack file, packed together
+ without offset values to reduce the cache footprint of the binary
+ search for a specific object name.
+
+ - A table of full object names in pack order. This allows resolving
+ a reference to "the nth object in the pack file" (from a
+ reachability bitmap or from the next table of another object
+ format) to its object name.
+
+ - A table of 4-byte values mapping object name order to pack order.
+ For an object in the table of sorted shortened object names, the
+ value at the corresponding index in this table is the index in the
+ previous table for that same object.
+
+ This can be used to look up the object in reachability bitmaps or
+ to look up its name in another object format.
+
+ - A table of 4-byte CRC32 values of the packed object data, in the
+ order that the objects appear in the pack file. This is to allow
+ compressed data to be copied directly from pack to pack during
+ repacking without undetected data corruption.
+
+ - A table of 4-byte offset values. For an object in the table of
+ sorted shortened object names, the value at the corresponding
+ index in this table indicates where that object can be found in
+ the pack file. These are usually 31-bit pack file offsets, but
+ large offsets are encoded as an index into the next table with the
+ most significant bit set.
+
+ - A table of 8-byte offset entries (empty for pack files less than
+ 2 GiB). Pack files are organized with heavily used objects toward
+ the front, so most object references should not need to refer to
+ this table.
+- Zero or more NUL bytes.
+- Tables for the second object format, with the same layout as above,
+ up to and not including the table of CRC32 values.
+- Zero or more NUL bytes.
+- The trailer consists of the following:
+ - A copy of the 20-byte NewHash checksum at the end of the
+ corresponding packfile.
+
+ - 20-byte NewHash checksum of all of the above.
+
+Loose object index
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+A new file $GIT_OBJECT_DIR/loose-object-idx contains information about
+all loose objects. Its format is
+
+ # loose-object-idx
+ (newhash-name SP sha1-name LF)*
+
+where the object names are in hexadecimal format. The file is not
+sorted.
+
+The loose object index is protected against concurrent writes by a
+lock file $GIT_OBJECT_DIR/loose-object-idx.lock. To add a new loose
+object:
+
+1. Write the loose object to a temporary file, like today.
+2. Open loose-object-idx.lock with O_CREAT | O_EXCL to acquire the lock.
+3. Rename the loose object into place.
+4. Open loose-object-idx with O_APPEND and write the new object
+5. Unlink loose-object-idx.lock to release the lock.
+
+To remove entries (e.g. in "git pack-refs" or "git-prune"):
+
+1. Open loose-object-idx.lock with O_CREAT | O_EXCL to acquire the
+ lock.
+2. Write the new content to loose-object-idx.lock.
+3. Unlink any loose objects being removed.
+4. Rename to replace loose-object-idx, releasing the lock.
+
+Translation table
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The index files support a bidirectional mapping between sha1-names
+and newhash-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
+lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a newhash-name:
+
+ 1. Look for the object in idx files. If a match is present in the
+ idx's sorted list of truncated sha1-names, then:
+ a. Read the corresponding entry in the sha1-name order to pack
+ name order mapping.
+ b. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha1-name table to
+ verify we found the right object. If it is, then
+ c. Read the corresponding entry in the full newhash-name table.
+ That is the object's newhash-name.
+ 2. Check for a loose object. Read lines from loose-object-idx until
+ we find a match.
+
+Step (1) takes the same amount of time as an ordinary object lookup:
+O(number of packs * log(objects per pack)). Step (2) takes O(number of
+loose objects) time. To maintain good performance it will be necessary
+to keep the number of loose objects low. See the "Loose objects and
+unreachable objects" section below for more details.
+
+Since all operations that make new objects (e.g., "git commit") add
+the new objects to the corresponding index, this mapping is possible
+for all objects in the object store.
+
+Reading an object's sha1-content
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all newhash-names
+its newhash-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
+
+Fetch
+~~~~~
+Fetching from a SHA-1 based server requires translating between SHA-1
+and NewHash based representations on the fly.
+
+SHA-1s named in the ref advertisement that are present on the client
+can be translated to NewHash and looked up as local objects using the
+translation table.
+
+Negotiation proceeds as today. Any "have"s generated locally are
+converted to SHA-1 before being sent to the server, and SHA-1s
+mentioned by the server are converted to NewHash when looking them up
+locally.
+
+After negotiation, the server sends a packfile containing the
+requested objects. We convert the packfile to NewHash format using
+the following steps:
+
+1. index-pack: inflate each object in the packfile and compute its
+ SHA-1. Objects can contain deltas in OBJ_REF_DELTA format against
+ objects the client has locally. These objects can be looked up
+ using the translation table and their sha1-content read as
+ described above to resolve the deltas.
+2. topological sort: starting at the "want"s from the negotiation
+ phase, walk through objects in the pack and emit a list of them,
+ excluding blobs, in reverse topologically sorted order, with each
+ object coming later in the list than all objects it references.
+ (This list only contains objects reachable from the "wants". If the
+ pack from the server contained additional extraneous objects, then
+ they will be discarded.)
+3. convert to newhash: open a new (newhash) packfile. Read the topologically
+ sorted list just generated. For each object, inflate its
+ sha1-content, convert to newhash-content, and write it to the newhash
+ pack. Record the new sha1<->newhash mapping entry for use in the idx.
+4. sort: reorder entries in the new pack to match the order of objects
+ in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a newhash idx
+ file
+5. clean up: remove the SHA-1 based pack file, index, and
+ topologically sorted list obtained from the server in steps 1
+ and 2.
+
+Step 3 requires every object referenced by the new object to be in the
+translation table. This is why the topological sort step is necessary.
+
+As an optimization, step 1 could write a file describing what non-blob
+objects each object it has inflated from the packfile references. This
+makes the topological sort in step 2 possible without inflating the
+objects in the packfile for a second time. The objects need to be
+inflated again in step 3, for a total of two inflations.
+
+Step 4 is probably necessary for good read-time performance. "git
+pack-objects" on the server optimizes the pack file for good data
+locality (see Documentation/technical/pack-heuristics.txt).
+
+Details of this process are likely to change. It will take some
+experimenting to get this to perform well.
+
+Push
+~~~~
+Push is simpler than fetch because the objects referenced by the
+pushed objects are already in the translation table. The sha1-content
+of each object being pushed can be read as described in the "Reading
+an object's sha1-content" section to generate the pack written by git
+send-pack.
+
+Signed Commits
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the commit object format to allow
+signing commits without relying on SHA-1. It is similar to the
+existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the newhash-content of the
+commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-newhash" fields removed.
+
+This means commits can be signed
+1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed commit objects
+2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using both gpgsig-newhash and gpgsig
+ fields.
+3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+
+Old versions of "git verify-commit" can verify the gpgsig signature in
+cases (1) and (2) without modifications and view case (3) as an
+ordinary unsigned commit.
+
+Signed Tags
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the tag object format to allow
+signing tags without relying on SHA-1. Its signed payload is the
+newhash-content of the tag with its gpgsig-newhash field and "-----BEGIN PGP
+SIGNATURE-----" delimited in-body signature removed.
+
+This means tags can be signed
+1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed tag objects
+2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using gpgsig-newhash and an in-body
+ signature.
+3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+
+Mergetag embedding
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The mergetag field in the sha1-content of a commit contains the
+sha1-content of a tag that was merged by that commit.
+
+The mergetag field in the newhash-content of the same commit contains the
+newhash-content of the same tag.
+
+Submodules
+~~~~~~~~~~
+To convert recorded submodule pointers, you need to have the converted
+submodule repository in place. The translation table of the submodule
+can be used to look up the new hash.
+
+Loose objects and unreachable objects
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Fast lookups in the loose-object-idx require that the number of loose
+objects not grow too high.
+
+"git gc --auto" currently waits for there to be 6700 loose objects
+present before consolidating them into a packfile. We will need to
+measure to find a more appropriate threshold for it to use.
+
+"git gc --auto" currently waits for there to be 50 packs present
+before combining packfiles. Packing loose objects more aggressively
+may cause the number of pack files to grow too quickly. This can be
+mitigated by using a strategy similar to Martin Fick's exponential
+rolling garbage collection script:
+https://gerrit-review.googlesource.com/c/gerrit/+/35215
+
+"git gc" currently expels any unreachable objects it encounters in
+pack files to loose objects in an attempt to prevent a race when
+pruning them (in case another process is simultaneously writing a new
+object that refers to the about-to-be-deleted object). This leads to
+an explosion in the number of loose objects present and disk space
+usage due to the objects in delta form being replaced with independent
+loose objects. Worse, the race is still present for loose objects.
+
+Instead, "git gc" will need to move unreachable objects to a new
+packfile marked as UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE (using the PSRC field; see
+below). To avoid the race when writing new objects referring to an
+about-to-be-deleted object, code paths that write new objects will
+need to copy any objects from UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE packs that they
+refer to to new, non-UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE packs (or loose objects).
+UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE are then safe to delete if their creation time (as
+indicated by the file's mtime) is long enough ago.
+
+To avoid a proliferation of UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE packs, they can be
+combined under certain circumstances. If "gc.garbageTtl" is set to
+greater than one day, then packs created within a single calendar day,
+UTC, can be coalesced together. The resulting packfile would have an
+mtime before midnight on that day, so this makes the effective maximum
+ttl the garbageTtl + 1 day. If "gc.garbageTtl" is less than one day,
+then we divide the calendar day into intervals one-third of that ttl
+in duration. Packs created within the same interval can be coalesced
+together. The resulting packfile would have an mtime before the end of
+the interval, so this makes the effective maximum ttl equal to the
+garbageTtl * 4/3.
+
+This rule comes from Thirumala Reddy Mutchukota's JGit change
+https://git.eclipse.org/r/90465.
+
+The UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE setting goes in the PSRC field of the pack
+index. More generally, that field indicates where a pack came from:
+
+ - 1 (PACK_SOURCE_RECEIVE) for a pack received over the network
+ - 2 (PACK_SOURCE_AUTO) for a pack created by a lightweight
+ "gc --auto" operation
+ - 3 (PACK_SOURCE_GC) for a pack created by a full gc
+ - 4 (PACK_SOURCE_UNREACHABLE_GARBAGE) for potential garbage
+ discovered by gc
+ - 5 (PACK_SOURCE_INSERT) for locally created objects that were
+ written directly to a pack file, e.g. from "git add ."
+
+This information can be useful for debugging and for "gc --auto" to
+make appropriate choices about which packs to coalesce.
+
+Caveats
+-------
+Invalid objects
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The conversion from sha1-content to newhash-content retains any
+brokenness in the original object (e.g., tree entry modes encoded with
+leading 0, tree objects whose paths are not sorted correctly, and
+commit objects without an author or committer). This is a deliberate
+feature of the design to allow the conversion to round-trip.
+
+More profoundly broken objects (e.g., a commit with a truncated "tree"
+header line) cannot be converted but were not usable by current Git
+anyway.
+
+Shallow clone and submodules
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Because it requires all referenced objects to be available in the
+locally generated translation table, this design does not support
+shallow clone or unfetched submodules. Protocol improvements might
+allow lifting this restriction.
+
+Alternates
+~~~~~~~~~~
+For the same reason, a newhash repository cannot borrow objects from a
+sha1 repository using objects/info/alternates or
+$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_REPOSITORIES.
+
+git notes
+~~~~~~~~~
+The "git notes" tool annotates objects using their sha1-name as key.
+This design does not describe a way to migrate notes trees to use
+newhash-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
+example using a file at the root of the notes tree to describe which
+hash it uses).
+
+Server-side cost
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Until Git protocol gains NewHash support, using NewHash based storage
+on public-facing Git servers is strongly discouraged. Once Git
+protocol gains NewHash support, NewHash based servers are likely not
+to support SHA-1 compatibility, to avoid what may be a very expensive
+hash reencode during clone and to encourage peers to modernize.
+
+The design described here allows fetches by SHA-1 clients of a
+personal NewHash repository because it's not much more difficult than
+allowing pushes from that repository. This support needs to be guarded
+by a configuration option --- servers like git.kernel.org that serve a
+large number of clients would not be expected to bear that cost.
+
+Meaning of signatures
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The signed payload for signed commits and tags does not explicitly
+name the hash used to identify objects. If some day Git adopts a new
+hash function with the same length as the current SHA-1 (40
+hexadecimal digit) or NewHash (64 hexadecimal digit) objects then the
+intent behind the PGP signed payload in an object signature is
+unclear:
+
+ object e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7
+ type commit
+ tag v2.12.0
+ tagger Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> 1487962205 -0800
+
+ Git 2.12
+
+Does this mean Git v2.12.0 is the commit with sha1-name
+e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7 or the commit with
+new-40-digit-hash-name e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7?
+
+Fortunately NewHash and SHA-1 have different lengths. If Git starts
+using another hash with the same length to name objects, then it will
+need to change the format of signed payloads using that hash to
+address this issue.
+
+Object names on the command line
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+To support the transition (see Transition plan below), this design
+supports four different modes of operation:
+
+ 1. ("dark launch") Treat object names input by the user as SHA-1 and
+ convert any object names written to output to SHA-1, but store
+ objects using NewHash. This allows users to test the code with no
+ visible behavior change except for performance. This allows
+ allows running even tests that assume the SHA-1 hash function, to
+ sanity-check the behavior of the new mode.
+
+ 2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
+ input. Any object names written to output use SHA-1. This allows
+ users to continue to make use of SHA-1 to communicate with peers
+ (e.g. by email) that have not migrated yet and prepares for mode 3.
+
+ 3. ("late transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
+ input. Any object names written to output use NewHash. In this
+ mode, users are using a more secure object naming method by
+ default. The disruption is minimal as long as most of their peers
+ are in mode 2 or mode 3.
+
+ 4. ("post-transition") Treat object names input by the user as
+ NewHash and write output using NewHash. This is safer than mode 3
+ because there is less risk that input is incorrectly interpreted
+ using the wrong hash function.
+
+The mode is specified in configuration.
+
+The user can also explicitly specify which format to use for a
+particular revision specifier and for output, overriding the mode. For
+example:
+
+git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{newhash}
+
+Selection of a New Hash
+-----------------------
+In early 2005, around the time that Git was written, Xiaoyun Wang,
+Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu announced an attack finding SHA-1
+collisions in 2^69 operations. In August they published details.
+Luckily, no practical demonstrations of a collision in full SHA-1 were
+published until 10 years later, in 2017.
+
+The hash function NewHash to replace SHA-1 should be stronger than
+SHA-1 was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice
+for at least 10 years.
+
+Some other relevant properties:
+
+1. A 256-bit hash (long enough to match common security practice; not
+ excessively long to hurt performance and disk usage).
+
+2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g. in
+ OpenSSL).
+
+3. The hash function's properties should match Git's needs (e.g. Git
+ requires collision and 2nd preimage resistance and does not require
+ length extension resistance).
+
+4. As a tiebreaker, the hash should be fast to compute (fortunately
+ many contenders are faster than SHA-1).
+
+Some hashes under consideration are SHA-256, SHA-512/256, SHA-256x16,
+K12, and BLAKE2bp-256.
+
+Transition plan
+---------------
+Some initial steps can be implemented independently of one another:
+- adding a hash function API (vtable)
+- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-newhash field
+- excluding gpgsig-* from the fields copied by "git commit --amend"
+- annotating tests that depend on SHA-1 values with a SHA1 test
+ prerequisite
+- using "struct object_id", GIT_MAX_RAWSZ, and GIT_MAX_HEXSZ
+ consistently instead of "unsigned char *" and the hardcoded
+ constants 20 and 40.
+- introducing index v3
+- adding support for the PSRC field and safer object pruning
+
+
+The first user-visible change is the introduction of the objectFormat
+extension (without compatObjectFormat). This requires:
+- implementing the loose-object-idx
+- teaching fsck about this mode of operation
+- using the hash function API (vtable) when computing object names
+- signing objects and verifying signatures
+- rejecting attempts to fetch from or push to an incompatible
+ repository
+
+Next comes introduction of compatObjectFormat:
+- translating object names between object formats
+- translating object content between object formats
+- generating and verifying signatures in the compat format
+- adding appropriate index entries when adding a new object to the
+ object store
+- --output-format option
+- ^{sha1} and ^{newhash} revision notation
+- configuration to specify default input and output format (see
+ "Object names on the command line" above)
+
+The next step is supporting fetches and pushes to SHA-1 repositories:
+- allow pushes to a repository using the compat format
+- generate a topologically sorted list of the SHA-1 names of fetched
+ objects
+- convert the fetched packfile to newhash format and generate an idx
+ file
+- re-sort to match the order of objects in the fetched packfile
+
+The infrastructure supporting fetch also allows converting an existing
+repository. In converted repositories and new clones, end users can
+gain support for the new hash function without any visible change in
+behavior (see "dark launch" in the "Object names on the command line"
+section). In particular this allows users to verify NewHash signatures
+on objects in the repository, and it should ensure the transition code
+is stable in production in preparation for using it more widely.
+
+Over time projects would encourage their users to adopt the "early
+transition" and then "late transition" modes to take advantage of the
+new, more futureproof NewHash object names.
+
+When objectFormat and compatObjectFormat are both set, commands
+generating signatures would generate both SHA-1 and NewHash signatures
+by default to support both new and old users.
+
+In projects using NewHash heavily, users could be encouraged to adopt
+the "post-transition" mode to avoid accidentally making implicit use
+of SHA-1 object names.
+
+Once a critical mass of users have upgraded to a version of Git that
+can verify NewHash signatures and have converted their existing
+repositories to support verifying them, we can add support for a
+setting to generate only NewHash signatures. This is expected to be at
+least a year later.
+
+That is also a good moment to advertise the ability to convert
+repositories to use NewHash only, stripping out all SHA-1 related
+metadata. This improves performance by eliminating translation
+overhead and security by avoiding the possibility of accidentally
+relying on the safety of SHA-1.
+
+Updating Git's protocols to allow a server to specify which hash
+functions it supports is also an important part of this transition. It
+is not discussed in detail in this document but this transition plan
+assumes it happens. :)
+
+Alternatives considered
+-----------------------
+Upgrading everyone working on a particular project on a flag day
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Projects like the Linux kernel are large and complex enough that
+flipping the switch for all projects based on the repository at once
+is infeasible.
+
+Not only would all developers and server operators supporting
+developers have to switch on the same flag day, but supporting tooling
+(continuous integration, code review, bug trackers, etc) would have to
+be adapted as well. This also makes it difficult to get early feedback
+from some project participants testing before it is time for mass
+adoption.
+
+Using hash functions in parallel
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+(e.g. https://public-inbox.org/git/22708.8913.864049.452252@chiark.greenend.org.uk/ )
+Objects newly created would be addressed by the new hash, but inside
+such an object (e.g. commit) it is still possible to address objects
+using the old hash function.
+* You cannot trust its history (needed for bisectability) in the
+ future without further work
+* Maintenance burden as the number of supported hash functions grows
+ (they will never go away, so they accumulate). In this proposal, by
+ comparison, converted objects lose all references to SHA-1.
+
+Signed objects with multiple hashes
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Instead of introducing the gpgsig-newhash field in commit and tag objects
+for newhash-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
+added "hash newhash <newhash-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
+sha1-content based signatures.
+
+In other words, a single signature was used to attest to the object
+content using both hash functions. This had some advantages:
+* Using one signature instead of two speeds up the signing process.
+* Having one signed payload with both hashes allows the signer to
+ attest to the sha1-name and newhash-name referring to the same object.
+* All users consume the same signature. Broken signatures are likely
+ to be detected quickly using current versions of git.
+
+However, it also came with disadvantages:
+* Verifying a signed object requires access to the sha1-names of all
+ objects it references, even after the transition is complete and
+ translation table is no longer needed for anything else. To support
+ this, the design added fields such as "hash sha1 tree <sha1-name>"
+ and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the newhash-content of a signed
+ commit, complicating the conversion process.
+* Allowing signed objects without a sha1 (for after the transition is
+ complete) complicated the design further, requiring a "nohash sha1"
+ field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the newhash-content
+ and signed payload.
+
+Lazily populated translation table
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Some of the work of building the translation table could be deferred to
+push time, but that would significantly complicate and slow down pushes.
+Calculating the sha1-name at object creation time at the same time it is
+being streamed to disk and having its newhash-name calculated should be
+an acceptable cost.
+
+Document History
+----------------
+
+2017-03-03
+bmwill@google.com, jonathantanmy@google.com, jrnieder@gmail.com,
+sbeller@google.com
+
+Initial version sent to
+http://public-inbox.org/git/20170304011251.GA26789@aiede.mtv.corp.google.com
+
+2017-03-03 jrnieder@gmail.com
+Incorporated suggestions from jonathantanmy and sbeller:
+* describe purpose of signed objects with each hash type
+* redefine signed object verification using object content under the
+ first hash function
+
+2017-03-06 jrnieder@gmail.com
+* Use SHA3-256 instead of SHA2 (thanks, Linus and brian m. carlson).[1][2]
+* Make sha3-based signatures a separate field, avoiding the need for
+ "hash" and "nohash" fields (thanks to peff[3]).
+* Add a sorting phase to fetch (thanks to Junio for noticing the need
+ for this).
+* Omit blobs from the topological sort during fetch (thanks to peff).
+* Discuss alternates, git notes, and git servers in the caveats
+ section (thanks to Junio Hamano, brian m. carlson[4], and Shawn
+ Pearce).
+* Clarify language throughout (thanks to various commenters,
+ especially Junio).
+
+2017-09-27 jrnieder@gmail.com, sbeller@google.com
+* use placeholder NewHash instead of SHA3-256
+* describe criteria for picking a hash function.
+* include a transition plan (thanks especially to Brandon Williams
+ for fleshing these ideas out)
+* define the translation table (thanks, Shawn Pearce[5], Jonathan
+ Tan, and Masaya Suzuki)
+* avoid loose object overhead by packing more aggressively in
+ "git gc --auto"
+
+[1] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
+[2] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
+[3] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+[4] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170304224936.rqqtkdvfjgyezsht@genre.crustytoothpaste.net
+[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/CAJo=hJtoX9=AyLHHpUJS7fueV9ciZ_MNpnEPHUz8Whui6g9F0A@mail.gmail.com/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index c59ac99..ed1eae8 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@ After reference and capabilities discovery, the client can decide to
terminate the connection by sending a flush-pkt, telling the server it can
now gracefully terminate, and disconnect, when it does not need any pack
data. This can happen with the ls-remote command, and also can happen when
-the client already is up-to-date.
+the client already is up to date.
Otherwise, it enters the negotiation phase, where the client and
server determine what the minimal packfile necessary for transport is,
@@ -351,14 +351,19 @@ ACK after 'done' if there is at least one common base and multi_ack or
multi_ack_detailed is enabled. The server always sends NAK after 'done'
if there is no common base found.
+Instead of 'ACK' or 'NAK', the server may send an error message (for
+example, if it does not recognize an object in a 'want' line received
+from the client).
+
Then the server will start sending its packfile data.
----
- server-response = *ack_multi ack / nak
+ server-response = *ack_multi ack / nak / error-line
ack_multi = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id ack_status)
ack_status = "continue" / "common" / "ready"
ack = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id)
nak = PKT-LINE("NAK")
+ error-line = PKT-LINE("ERR" SP explanation-text)
----
A simple clone may look like this (with no 'have' lines):
@@ -468,13 +473,10 @@ that it wants to update, it sends a line listing the obj-id currently on
the server, the obj-id the client would like to update it to and the name
of the reference.
-This list is followed by a flush-pkt. Then the push options are transmitted
-one per packet followed by another flush-pkt. After that the packfile that
-should contain all the objects that the server will need to complete the new
-references will be sent.
+This list is followed by a flush-pkt.
----
- update-request = *shallow ( command-list | push-cert ) [packfile]
+ update-requests = *shallow ( command-list | push-cert )
shallow = PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id)
@@ -495,12 +497,35 @@ references will be sent.
PKT-LINE("pusher" SP ident LF)
PKT-LINE("pushee" SP url LF)
PKT-LINE("nonce" SP nonce LF)
+ *PKT-LINE("push-option" SP push-option LF)
PKT-LINE(LF)
*PKT-LINE(command LF)
*PKT-LINE(gpg-signature-lines LF)
PKT-LINE("push-cert-end" LF)
- packfile = "PACK" 28*(OCTET)
+ push-option = 1*( VCHAR | SP )
+----
+
+If the server has advertised the 'push-options' capability and the client has
+specified 'push-options' as part of the capability list above, the client then
+sends its push options followed by a flush-pkt.
+
+----
+ push-options = *PKT-LINE(push-option) flush-pkt
+----
+
+For backwards compatibility with older Git servers, if the client sends a push
+cert and push options, it MUST send its push options both embedded within the
+push cert and after the push cert. (Note that the push options within the cert
+are prefixed, but the push options after the cert are not.) Both these lists
+MUST be the same, modulo the prefix.
+
+After that the packfile that
+should contain all the objects that the server will need to complete the new
+references will be sent.
+
+----
+ packfile = "PACK" 28*(OCTET)
----
If the receiving end does not support delete-refs, the sending end MUST
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt b/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
index c79d4a7..1f1c33d 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ or the result.
If multiple cases apply, the one used is listed first.
A result which changes the index is an error if the index is not empty
-and not up-to-date.
+and not up to date.
Entries marked '+' have stat information. Spaces marked '*' don't
affect the result.
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ empty, no entry is left for that stage). Otherwise, the given entry is
left in stage 0, and there are no other entries.
A result of "no merge" is an error if the index is not empty and not
-up-to-date.
+up to date.
*empty* means that the tree must not have a directory-file conflict
with the entry.
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index bc29298..3a03e63 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1556,7 +1556,7 @@ so on a different branch and then coming back), unstash the
work-in-progress changes.
------------------------------------------------
-$ git stash save "work in progress for foo feature"
+$ git stash push -m "work in progress for foo feature"
------------------------------------------------
This command will save your changes away to the `stash`, and
@@ -2044,10 +2044,12 @@ If a push would not result in a <<fast-forwards,fast-forward>> of the
remote branch, then it will fail with an error like:
-------------------------------------------------
-error: remote 'refs/heads/master' is not an ancestor of
- local 'refs/heads/master'.
- Maybe you are not up-to-date and need to pull first?
-error: failed to push to 'ssh://yourserver.com/~you/proj.git'
+ ! [rejected] master -> master (non-fast-forward)
+error: failed to push some refs to '...'
+hint: Updates were rejected because the tip of your current branch is behind
+hint: its remote counterpart. Integrate the remote changes (e.g.
+hint: 'git pull ...') before pushing again.
+hint: See the 'Note about fast-forwards' in 'git push --help' for details.
-------------------------------------------------
This can happen, for example, if you:
@@ -2193,7 +2195,7 @@ $ cd work
Linus's tree will be stored in the remote-tracking branch named origin/master,
and can be updated using linkgit:git-fetch[1]; you can track other
public trees using linkgit:git-remote[1] to set up a "remote" and
-linkgit:git-fetch[1] to keep them up-to-date; see
+linkgit:git-fetch[1] to keep them up to date; see
<<repositories-and-branches>>.
Now create the branches in which you are going to work; these start out
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index 5a6193a..c1906f0 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
#!/bin/sh
GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v2.12.5
+DEF_VER=v2.15.GIT
LF='
'
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index d5454ca..ee9d5eb 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -19,16 +19,34 @@ all::
# have been written to the final string if enough space had been available.
#
# Define FREAD_READS_DIRECTORIES if you are on a system which succeeds
-# when attempting to read from an fopen'ed directory.
+# when attempting to read from an fopen'ed directory (or even to fopen
+# it at all).
#
# Define NO_OPENSSL environment variable if you do not have OpenSSL.
# This also implies BLK_SHA1.
#
-# Define USE_LIBPCRE if you have and want to use libpcre. git-grep will be
-# able to use Perl-compatible regular expressions.
-#
-# Define LIBPCREDIR=/foo/bar if your libpcre header and library files are in
-# /foo/bar/include and /foo/bar/lib directories.
+# Define USE_LIBPCRE if you have and want to use libpcre. Various
+# commands such as log and grep offer runtime options to use
+# Perl-compatible regular expressions instead of standard or extended
+# POSIX regular expressions.
+#
+# Currently USE_LIBPCRE is a synonym for USE_LIBPCRE1, define
+# USE_LIBPCRE2 instead if you'd like to use version 2 of the PCRE
+# library. The USE_LIBPCRE flag will likely be changed to mean v2 by
+# default in future releases.
+#
+# When using USE_LIBPCRE1, define NO_LIBPCRE1_JIT if the PCRE v1
+# library is compiled without --enable-jit. We will auto-detect
+# whether the version of the PCRE v1 library in use has JIT support at
+# all, but we unfortunately can't auto-detect whether JIT support
+# hasn't been compiled in in an otherwise JIT-supporting version. If
+# you have link-time errors about a missing `pcre_jit_exec` define