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-rw-r--r--.gitignore12
-rw-r--r--.mailmap5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines184
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt345
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-archive.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-blame.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt12
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-column.txt5
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt6
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-backend.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-imap-send.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-init.txt85
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt314
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-lost-found.txt74
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool.txt8
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-patch-id.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt65
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt53
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repo-config.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-request-pull.txt55
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt3
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt15
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt81
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt186
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt280
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt254
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-trace.txt97
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/bitmap-format.txt164
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt231
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt25
-rwxr-xr-xGIT-VERSION-GEN2
-rw-r--r--INSTALL14
-rw-r--r--Makefile353
-rw-r--r--README2
l---------RelNotes2
-rw-r--r--abspath.c140
-rw-r--r--advice.c15
-rw-r--r--advice.h1
-rw-r--r--alias.c24
-rw-r--r--alloc.c106
-rw-r--r--archive-tar.c3
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-rw-r--r--builtin.h5
-rw-r--r--builtin/add.c219
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t5550-http-fetch-dumb.sh (renamed from t/t5550-http-fetch.sh)36
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5551-http-fetch-smart.sh (renamed from t/t5551-http-fetch.sh)12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5560-http-backend-noserver.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5561-http-backend.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5570-git-daemon.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5572-pull-submodule.sh45
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5601-clone.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5602-clone-remote-exec.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5701-clone-local.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5704-bundle.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5801-remote-helpers.sh66
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6000-rev-list-misc.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6006-rev-list-format.sh129
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6010-merge-base.sh28
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6018-rev-list-glob.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6023-merge-file.sh91
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6031-merge-recursive.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6038-merge-text-auto.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6039-merge-ignorecase.sh53
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6041-bisect-submodule.sh32
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6050-replace.sh204
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6131-pathspec-icase.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6132-pathspec-exclude.sh184
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6300-for-each-ref.sh69
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6501-freshen-objects.sh132
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7001-mv.sh52
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7003-filter-branch.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7004-tag.sh105
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7006-pager.sh30
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7007-show.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7060-wtstatus.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7101-reset-empty-subdirs.sh (renamed from t/t7101-reset.sh)0
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7102-reset.sh43
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7104-reset-hard.sh (renamed from t/t7104-reset.sh)2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7112-reset-submodule.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7201-co.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7300-clean.sh16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7400-submodule-basic.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7406-submodule-update.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7407-submodule-foreach.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7500-commit.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7501-commit.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7502-commit.sh49
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7505-prepare-commit-msg-hook.sh33
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7508-status.sh77
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7509-commit.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7510-signed-commit.sh114
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7512-status-help.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7513-interpret-trailers.sh863
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7514-commit-patch.sh34
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7515-status-symlinks.sh43
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7600-merge.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7601-merge-pull-config.sh21
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7610-mergetool.sh933
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7613-merge-submodule.sh19
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7700-repack.sh34
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7701-repack-unpack-unreachable.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7702-repack-cyclic-alternate.sh24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7800-difftool.sh67
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7810-grep.sh75
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8003-blame-corner-cases.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8005-blame-i18n.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9001-send-email.sh47
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9107-git-svn-migrate.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9114-git-svn-dcommit-merge.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9116-git-svn-log.sh46
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9117-git-svn-init-clone.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9118-git-svn-funky-branch-names.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9119-git-svn-info.sh30
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9120-git-svn-clone-with-percent-escapes.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9125-git-svn-multi-glob-branch-names.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9128-git-svn-cmd-branch.sh18
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9130-git-svn-authors-file.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9135-git-svn-moved-branch-empty-file.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9138-git-svn-authors-prog.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9141-git-svn-multiple-branches.sh28
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9145-git-svn-master-branch.sh2
-rwxr-xr-x[-rw-r--r--]t/t9150/make-svk-dump0
-rwxr-xr-x[-rw-r--r--]t/t9151/make-svnmerge-dump0
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9154-git-svn-fancy-glob.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9155-git-svn-fetch-deleted-tag.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9156-git-svn-fetch-deleted-tag-2.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9161-git-svn-mergeinfo-push.sh22
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9163-git-svn-reset-clears-caches.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9165-git-svn-fetch-merge-branch-of-branch.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9166-git-svn-fetch-merge-branch-of-branch2.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9167-git-svn-cmd-branch-subproject.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9200-git-cvsexportcommit.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9300-fast-import.sh164
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9350-fast-export.sh18
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9351-fast-export-anonymize.sh112
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9800-git-p4-basic.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9802-git-p4-filetype.sh83
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9805-git-p4-skip-submit-edit.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9807-git-p4-submit.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9809-git-p4-client-view.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9812-git-p4-wildcards.sh64
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9813-git-p4-preserve-users.sh38
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9814-git-p4-rename.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9815-git-p4-submit-fail.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9816-git-p4-locked.sh145
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9902-completion.sh44
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9903-bash-prompt.sh42
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib-functions.sh131
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib.sh211
-rw-r--r--tag.c37
-rw-r--r--tag.h1
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--pre-push.sample2
-rw-r--r--test-chmtime.c2
-rw-r--r--test-config.c152
-rw-r--r--test-date.c10
-rw-r--r--test-dump-cache-tree.c11
-rw-r--r--test-dump-split-index.c34
-rw-r--r--test-hashmap.c264
-rw-r--r--test-line-buffer.c6
-rw-r--r--test-parse-options.c2
-rw-r--r--test-regex.c2
-rw-r--r--test-run-command.c4
-rw-r--r--test-scrap-cache-tree.c6
-rw-r--r--test-sha1-array.c34
-rw-r--r--test-sigchain.c2
-rw-r--r--test-string-list.c2
-rw-r--r--test-subprocess.c3
-rw-r--r--test-wildmatch.c79
-rw-r--r--thread-utils.h4
-rw-r--r--trace.c376
-rw-r--r--trace.h113
-rw-r--r--trailer.c851
-rw-r--r--trailer.h6
-rw-r--r--transport-helper.c208
-rw-r--r--transport.c123
-rw-r--r--transport.h21
-rw-r--r--tree-diff.c683
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.c97
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.h2
-rw-r--r--tree.c11
-rw-r--r--unicode_width.h323
-rw-r--r--unix-socket.c17
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.c133
-rwxr-xr-xupdate_unicode.sh37
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c54
-rw-r--r--url.c2
-rw-r--r--urlmatch.c11
-rw-r--r--userdiff.c16
-rw-r--r--utf8.c93
-rw-r--r--varint.c1
-rw-r--r--varint.h2
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/fast_export.c11
-rw-r--r--versioncmp.c93
-rw-r--r--walker.c82
-rw-r--r--wrapper.c151
-rw-r--r--write_or_die.c15
-rw-r--r--ws.c7
-rw-r--r--wt-status.c255
-rw-r--r--wt-status.h2
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xmerge.c4
967 files changed, 87605 insertions, 40263 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 66199ed..a052419 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
/GIT-CFLAGS
/GIT-LDFLAGS
/GIT-PREFIX
+/GIT-PERL-DEFINES
/GIT-PYTHON-VARS
/GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
/GIT-USER-AGENT
@@ -73,9 +74,9 @@
/git-index-pack
/git-init
/git-init-db
+/git-interpret-trailers
/git-instaweb
/git-log
-/git-lost-found
/git-ls-files
/git-ls-remote
/git-ls-tree
@@ -105,7 +106,6 @@
/git-pack-refs
/git-parse-remote
/git-patch-id
-/git-peek-remote
/git-prune
/git-prune-packed
/git-pull
@@ -131,7 +131,6 @@
/git-remote-testsvn
/git-repack
/git-replace
-/git-repo-config
/git-request-pull
/git-rerere
/git-reset
@@ -159,7 +158,6 @@
/git-svn
/git-symbolic-ref
/git-tag
-/git-tar-tree
/git-unpack-file
/git-unpack-objects
/git-update-index
@@ -168,6 +166,7 @@
/git-upload-archive
/git-upload-pack
/git-var
+/git-verify-commit
/git-verify-pack
/git-verify-tag
/git-web--browse
@@ -180,11 +179,14 @@
/gitweb/static/gitweb.min.*
/test-chmtime
/test-ctype
+/test-config
/test-date
/test-delta
/test-dump-cache-tree
+/test-dump-split-index
/test-scrap-cache-tree
/test-genrandom
+/test-hashmap
/test-index-version
/test-line-buffer
/test-match-trees
@@ -198,6 +200,7 @@
/test-revision-walking
/test-run-command
/test-sha1
+/test-sha1-array
/test-sigchain
/test-string-list
/test-subprocess
@@ -228,6 +231,7 @@
/config.mak.autogen
/config.mak.append
/configure
+/unicode
/tags
/TAGS
/cscope*
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index 11057cb..bb6f52e 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -85,6 +85,7 @@ Jeff King <peff@peff.net> <peff@github.com>
Jeff Muizelaar <jmuizelaar@mozilla.com> <jeff@infidigm.net>
Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> <axboe@suse.de>
Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> <jens.axboe@oracle.com>
+Jens Lindström <jl@opera.com> Jens Lindstrom <jl@opera.com>
Jim Meyering <jim@meyering.net> <meyering@redhat.com>
Joachim Berdal Haga <cjhaga@fys.uio.no>
Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de> <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de>
@@ -113,6 +114,7 @@ Karsten Blees <blees@dcon.de> <karsten.blees@dcon.de>
Karsten Blees <blees@dcon.de> <karsten.blees@gmail.com>
Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org> <kay.sievers@suse.de>
Kay Sievers <kay.sievers@vrfy.org> <kay@mam.(none)>
+Kazuki Saitoh <ksaitoh560@gmail.com> kazuki saitoh <ksaitoh560@gmail.com>
Keith Cascio <keith@CS.UCLA.EDU> <keith@cs.ucla.edu>
Kent Engstrom <kent@lysator.liu.se>
Kevin Leung <kevinlsk@gmail.com>
@@ -202,6 +204,8 @@ Seth Falcon <seth@userprimary.net> <sfalcon@fhcrc.org>
Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>
Simon Hausmann <hausmann@kde.org> <simon@lst.de>
Simon Hausmann <hausmann@kde.org> <shausman@trolltech.com>
+Stefan Beller <stefanbeller@gmail.com> <stefanbeller@googlemail.com>
+Stefan Beller <stefanbeller@gmail.com> <sbeller@google.com>
Stefan Naewe <stefan.naewe@gmail.com> <stefan.naewe@atlas-elektronik.com>
Stefan Naewe <stefan.naewe@gmail.com> <stefan.naewe@googlemail.com>
Stefan Sperling <stsp@elego.de> <stsp@stsp.name>
@@ -229,6 +233,7 @@ Tommi Virtanen <tv@debian.org> <tv@inoi.fi>
Tommy Thorn <tommy-git@thorn.ws> <tt1729@yahoo.com>
Tony Luck <tony.luck@intel.com>
Tor Arne Vestbø <torarnv@gmail.com> <tavestbo@trolltech.com>
+Trần Ngọc Quân <vnwildman@gmail.com> Tran Ngoc Quan <vnwildman@gmail.com>
Trent Piepho <tpiepho@gmail.com> <tpiepho@freescale.com>
Trent Piepho <tpiepho@gmail.com> <xyzzy@speakeasy.org>
Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de> <Uwe.Kleine-Koenig@digi.com>
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index ef67b53..894546d 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -18,6 +18,14 @@ code. For Git in general, three rough rules are:
judgement call, the decision based more on real world
constraints people face than what the paper standard says.
+ - Fixing style violations while working on a real change as a
+ preparatory clean-up step is good, but otherwise avoid useless code
+ churn for the sake of conforming to the style.
+
+ "Once it _is_ in the tree, it's not really worth the patch noise to
+ go and fix it up."
+ Cf. http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.kernel/943020
+
Make your code readable and sensible, and don't try to be clever.
As for more concrete guidelines, just imitate the existing code
@@ -34,7 +42,17 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
- We use tabs for indentation.
- - Case arms are indented at the same depth as case and esac lines.
+ - Case arms are indented at the same depth as case and esac lines,
+ like this:
+
+ case "$variable" in
+ pattern1)
+ do this
+ ;;
+ pattern2)
+ do that
+ ;;
+ esac
- Redirection operators should be written with space before, but no
space after them. In other words, write 'echo test >"$file"'
@@ -43,6 +61,14 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
redirection target in a variable (as shown above), our code does so
because some versions of bash issue a warning without the quotes.
+ (incorrect)
+ cat hello > world < universe
+ echo hello >$world
+
+ (correct)
+ cat hello >world <universe
+ echo hello >"$world"
+
- We prefer $( ... ) for command substitution; unlike ``, it
properly nests. It should have been the way Bourne spelled
it from day one, but unfortunately isn't.
@@ -81,23 +107,42 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
"then" should be on the next line for if statements, and "do"
should be on the next line for "while" and "for".
+ (incorrect)
+ if test -f hello; then
+ do this
+ fi
+
+ (correct)
+ if test -f hello
+ then
+ do this
+ fi
+
- We prefer "test" over "[ ... ]".
- We do not write the noiseword "function" in front of shell
functions.
- - We prefer a space between the function name and the parentheses. The
- opening "{" should also be on the same line.
- E.g.: my_function () {
+ - We prefer a space between the function name and the parentheses,
+ and no space inside the parentheses. The opening "{" should also
+ be on the same line.
+
+ (incorrect)
+ my_function(){
+ ...
+
+ (correct)
+ my_function () {
+ ...
- As to use of grep, stick to a subset of BRE (namely, no \{m,n\},
- [::], [==], nor [..]) for portability.
+ [::], [==], or [..]) for portability.
- We do not use \{m,n\};
- We do not use -E;
- - We do not use ? nor + (which are \{0,1\} and \{1,\}
+ - We do not use ? or + (which are \{0,1\} and \{1,\}
respectively in BRE) but that goes without saying as these
are ERE elements not BRE (note that \? and \+ are not even part
of BRE -- making them accessible from BRE is a GNU extension).
@@ -106,6 +151,19 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
interface translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in
po/README.
+ - We do not write our "test" command with "-a" and "-o" and use "&&"
+ or "||" to concatenate multiple "test" commands instead, because
+ the use of "-a/-o" is often error-prone. E.g.
+
+ test -n "$x" -a "$a" = "$b"
+
+ is buggy and breaks when $x is "=", but
+
+ test -n "$x" && test "$a" = "$b"
+
+ does not have such a problem.
+
+
For C programs:
- We use tabs to indent, and interpret tabs as taking up to
@@ -126,6 +184,17 @@ For C programs:
"char * string". This makes it easier to understand code
like "char *string, c;".
+ - Use whitespace around operators and keywords, but not inside
+ parentheses and not around functions. So:
+
+ while (condition)
+ func(bar + 1);
+
+ and not:
+
+ while( condition )
+ func (bar+1);
+
- We avoid using braces unnecessarily. I.e.
if (bla) {
@@ -138,7 +207,7 @@ For C programs:
of "else if" statements, it can make sense to add braces to
single line blocks.
- - We try to avoid assignments inside if().
+ - We try to avoid assignments in the condition of an "if" statement.
- Try to make your code understandable. You may put comments
in, but comments invariably tend to stale out when the code
@@ -153,9 +222,101 @@ For C programs:
* multi-line comment.
*/
+ Note however that a comment that explains a translatable string to
+ translators uses a convention of starting with a magic token
+ "TRANSLATORS: " immediately after the opening delimiter, even when
+ it spans multiple lines. We do not add an asterisk at the beginning
+ of each line, either. E.g.
+
+ /* TRANSLATORS: here is a comment that explains the string
+ to be translated, that follows immediately after it */
+ _("Here is a translatable string explained by the above.");
+
- Double negation is often harder to understand than no negation
at all.
+ - There are two schools of thought when it comes to comparison,
+ especially inside a loop. Some people prefer to have the less stable
+ value on the left hand side and the more stable value on the right hand
+ side, e.g. if you have a loop that counts variable i down to the
+ lower bound,
+
+ while (i > lower_bound) {
+ do something;
+ i--;
+ }
+
+ Other people prefer to have the textual order of values match the
+ actual order of values in their comparison, so that they can
+ mentally draw a number line from left to right and place these
+ values in order, i.e.
+
+ while (lower_bound < i) {
+ do something;
+ i--;
+ }
+
+ Both are valid, and we use both. However, the more "stable" the
+ stable side becomes, the more we tend to prefer the former
+ (comparison with a constant, "i > 0", is an extreme example).
+ Just do not mix styles in the same part of the code and mimic
+ existing styles in the neighbourhood.
+
+ - There are two schools of thought when it comes to splitting a long
+ logical line into multiple lines. Some people push the second and
+ subsequent lines far enough to the right with tabs and align them:
+
+ if (the_beginning_of_a_very_long_expression_that_has_to ||
+ span_more_than_a_single_line_of ||
+ the_source_text) {
+ ...
+
+ while other people prefer to align the second and the subsequent
+ lines with the column immediately inside the opening parenthesis,
+ with tabs and spaces, following our "tabstop is always a multiple
+ of 8" convention:
+
+ if (the_beginning_of_a_very_long_expression_that_has_to ||
+ span_more_than_a_single_line_of ||
+ the_source_text) {
+ ...
+
+ Both are valid, and we use both. Again, just do not mix styles in
+ the same part of the code and mimic existing styles in the
+ neighbourhood.
+
+ - When splitting a long logical line, some people change line before
+ a binary operator, so that the result looks like a parse tree when
+ you turn your head 90-degrees counterclockwise:
+
+ if (the_beginning_of_a_very_long_expression_that_has_to
+ || span_more_than_a_single_line_of_the_source_text) {
+
+ while other people prefer to leave the operator at the end of the
+ line:
+
+ if (the_beginning_of_a_very_long_expression_that_has_to ||
+ span_more_than_a_single_line_of_the_source_text) {
+
+ Both are valid, but we tend to use the latter more, unless the
+ expression gets fairly complex, in which case the former tends to
+ be easier to read. Again, just do not mix styles in the same part
+ of the code and mimic existing styles in the neighbourhood.
+
+ - When splitting a long logical line, with everything else being
+ equal, it is preferable to split after the operator at higher
+ level in the parse tree. That is, this is more preferable:
+
+ if (a_very_long_variable * that_is_used_in +
+ a_very_long_expression) {
+ ...
+
+ than
+
+ if (a_very_long_variable *
+ that_is_used_in + a_very_long_expression) {
+ ...
+
- Some clever tricks, like using the !! operator with arithmetic
constructs, can be extremely confusing to others. Avoid them,
unless there is a compelling reason to use them.
@@ -243,6 +404,15 @@ For Python scripts:
documentation for version 2.6 does not mention this prefix, it has
been supported since version 2.6.0.
+Error Messages
+
+ - Do not end error messages with a full stop.
+
+ - Do not capitalize ("unable to open %s", not "Unable to open %s")
+
+ - Say what the error is first ("cannot open %s", not "%s: cannot open")
+
+
Writing Documentation:
Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in the
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 91a12c7..2f6b6aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -2,6 +2,10 @@
MAN1_TXT =
MAN5_TXT =
MAN7_TXT =
+TECH_DOCS =
+ARTICLES =
+SP_ARTICLES =
+OBSOLETE_HTML =
MAN1_TXT += $(filter-out \
$(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
@@ -23,6 +27,7 @@ MAN7_TXT += gitcore-tutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitcredentials.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitcvs-migration.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitdiffcore.txt
+MAN7_TXT += giteveryday.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitglossary.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitnamespaces.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitrevisions.txt
@@ -34,15 +39,15 @@ MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
MAN_XML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
MAN_HTML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
-OBSOLETE_HTML = git-remote-helpers.html
+OBSOLETE_HTML += everyday.html
+OBSOLETE_HTML += git-remote-helpers.html
DOC_HTML = $(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
-ARTICLES = howto-index
-ARTICLES += everyday
+ARTICLES += howto-index
ARTICLES += git-tools
ARTICLES += git-bisect-lk2009
# with their own formatting rules.
-SP_ARTICLES = user-manual
+SP_ARTICLES += user-manual
SP_ARTICLES += howto/new-command
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-branch-rebase
SP_ARTICLES += howto/using-merge-subtree
@@ -56,11 +61,13 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object
SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebuild-from-update-hook
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebase-from-internal-branch
+SP_ARTICLES += howto/keep-canonical-history-correct
SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
-TECH_DOCS = technical/index-format
+TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
+TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
@@ -92,6 +99,13 @@ man7dir = $(mandir)/man7
ASCIIDOC = asciidoc
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA =
+ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml11
+ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook
+ASCIIDOC_CONF = -f asciidoc.conf
+ASCIIDOC_COMMON = $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) $(ASCIIDOC_CONF) \
+ -agit-version=$(GIT_VERSION)
+TXT_TO_HTML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_HTML)
+TXT_TO_XML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK)
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
XMLTO = xmlto
XMLTO_EXTRA =
@@ -299,14 +313,12 @@ clean:
$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf \
- $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
+ $(TXT_TO_HTML) -d manpage -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
- $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
+ $(TXT_TO_HTML) -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
@@ -318,13 +330,12 @@ manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
%.xml : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(ASCIIDOC) -b docbook -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf \
- $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
+ $(TXT_TO_XML) -d manpage -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b docbook -d book -o $@+ $< && \
+ $(TXT_TO_XML) -d article -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
@@ -333,8 +344,7 @@ technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
- $(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
- $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) $*.txt
+ $(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) $*.txt
XSLT = docbook.xsl
XSLTOPTS = --xinclude --stringparam html.stylesheet docbook-xsl.css
@@ -381,14 +391,15 @@ howto-index.txt: howto-index.sh $(wildcard howto/*.txt)
mv $@+ $@
$(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES)) : %.html : %.txt
- $(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b xhtml11 $*.txt
+ $(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) $*.txt
WEBDOC_DEST = /pub/software/scm/git/docs
howto/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
- sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $< | $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b xhtml11 - >$@+ && \
+ sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $< | \
+ $(TXT_TO_HTML) - >$@+ && \
mv $@+ $@
install-webdoc : html
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..752d791
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,345 @@
+Git v1.9.0 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+"git submodule foreach $cmd $args" used to treat "$cmd $args" the same
+way "ssh" did, concatenating them into a single string and letting the
+shell unquote. Careless users who forget to sufficiently quote $args
+get their argument split at $IFS whitespaces by the shell, and got
+unexpected results due to this. Starting from this release, the
+command line is passed directly to the shell, if it has an argument.
+
+Read-only support for experimental loose-object format, in which users
+could optionally choose to write their loose objects for a short
+while between v1.4.3 and v1.5.3 era, has been dropped.
+
+The meanings of the "--tags" option to "git fetch" has changed; the
+command fetches tags _in addition to_ what is fetched by the same
+command line without the option.
+
+The way "git push $there $what" interprets the $what part given on the
+command line, when it does not have a colon that explicitly tells us
+what ref at the $there repository is to be updated, has been enhanced.
+
+A handful of ancient commands that have long been deprecated are
+finally gone (repo-config, tar-tree, lost-found, and peek-remote).
+
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0.0)
+--------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics, which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
+change this. If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
+semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early, you
+can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.5
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * The HTTP transport, when talking GSS-Negotiate, uses "100
+ Continue" response to avoid having to rewind and resend a large
+ payload, which may not be always doable.
+
+ * Various bugfixes to remote-bzr and remote-hg (in contrib/).
+
+ * The build procedure is aware of MirBSD now.
+
+ * Various "git p4", "git svn" and "gitk" updates.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Fetching from a shallowly-cloned repository used to be forbidden,
+ primarily because the codepaths involved were not carefully vetted
+ and we did not bother supporting such usage. This release attempts
+ to allow object transfer out of a shallowly-cloned repository in a
+ more controlled way (i.e. the receiver becomes a shallow repository
+ with a truncated history).
+
+ * Just like we give a reasonable default for "less" via the LESS
+ environment variable, we now specify a reasonable default for "lv"
+ via the "LV" environment variable when spawning the pager.
+
+ * Two-level configuration variable names in "branch.*" and "remote.*"
+ hierarchies, whose variables are predominantly three-level, were
+ not completed by hitting a <TAB> in bash and zsh completions.
+
+ * Fetching a 'frotz' branch with "git fetch", while a 'frotz/nitfol'
+ remote-tracking branch from an earlier fetch was still there, would
+ error out, primarily because the command was not told that it is
+ allowed to lose any information on our side. "git fetch --prune"
+ now can be used to remove 'frotz/nitfol' to make room for fetching and
+ storing the 'frotz' remote-tracking branch.
+
+ * "diff.orderfile=<file>" configuration variable can be used to
+ pretend as if the "-O<file>" option were given from the command
+ line of "git diff", etc.
+
+ * The negative pathspec syntax allows "git log -- . ':!dir'" to tell
+ us "I am interested in everything but 'dir' directory".
+
+ * "git difftool" shows how many different paths there are in total,
+ and how many of them have been shown so far, to indicate progress.
+
+ * "git push origin master" used to push our 'master' branch to update
+ the 'master' branch at the 'origin' repository. This has been
+ enhanced to use the same ref mapping "git push origin" would use to
+ determine what ref at the 'origin' to be updated with our 'master'.
+ For example, with this configuration
+
+ [remote "origin"]
+ push = refs/heads/*:refs/review/*
+
+ that would cause "git push origin" to push out our local branches
+ to corresponding refs under refs/review/ hierarchy at 'origin',
+ "git push origin master" would update 'refs/review/master' over
+ there. Alternatively, if push.default is set to 'upstream' and our
+ 'master' is set to integrate with 'topic' from the 'origin' branch,
+ running "git push origin" while on our 'master' would update their
+ 'topic' branch, and running "git push origin master" while on any
+ of our branches does the same.
+
+ * "gitweb" learned to treat ref hierarchies other than refs/heads as
+ if they are additional branch namespaces (e.g. refs/changes/ in
+ Gerrit).
+
+ * "git for-each-ref --format=..." learned a few formatting directives;
+ e.g. "%(color:red)%(HEAD)%(color:reset) %(refname:short) %(subject)".
+
+ * The command string given to "git submodule foreach" is passed
+ directly to the shell, without being eval'ed. This is a backward
+ incompatible change that may break existing users.
+
+ * "git log" and friends learned the "--exclude=<glob>" option, to
+ allow people to say "list history of all branches except those that
+ match this pattern" with "git log --exclude='*/*' --branches".
+
+ * "git rev-parse --parseopt" learned a new "--stuck-long" option to
+ help scripts parse options with an optional parameter.
+
+ * The "--tags" option to "git fetch" no longer tells the command to
+ fetch _only_ the tags. It instead fetches tags _in addition to_
+ what are fetched by the same command line without the option.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * When parsing a 40-hex string into the object name, the string is
+ checked to see if it can be interpreted as a ref so that a warning
+ can be given for ambiguity. The code kicked in even when the
+ core.warnambiguousrefs is set to false to squelch this warning, in
+ which case the cycles spent to look at the ref namespace were an
+ expensive no-op, as the result was discarded without being used.
+
+ * The naming convention of the packfiles has been updated; it used to
+ be based on the enumeration of names of the objects that are
+ contained in the pack, but now it also depends on how the packed
+ result is represented---packing the same set of objects using
+ different settings (or delta order) would produce a pack with
+ different name.
+
+ * "git diff --no-index" mode used to unnecessarily attempt to read
+ the index when there is one.
+
+ * The deprecated parse-options macro OPT_BOOLEAN has been removed;
+ use OPT_BOOL or OPT_COUNTUP in new code.
+
+ * A few duplicate implementations of prefix/suffix string comparison
+ functions have been unified to starts_with() and ends_with().
+
+ * The new PERLLIB_EXTRA makefile variable can be used to specify
+ additional directories Perl modules (e.g. the ones necessary to run
+ git-svn) are installed on the platform when building.
+
+ * "git merge-base" learned the "--fork-point" mode, that implements
+ the same logic used in "git pull --rebase" to find a suitable fork
+ point out of the reflog entries for the remote-tracking branch the
+ work has been based on. "git rebase" has the same logic that can be
+ triggered with the "--fork-point" option.
+
+ * A third-party "receive-pack" (the responder to "git push") can
+ advertise the "no-thin" capability to tell "git push" not to use
+ the thin-pack optimization. Our receive-pack has always been
+ capable of accepting and fattening a thin-pack, and will continue
+ not to ask "git push" to use a non-thin pack.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.5
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.5 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes
+for details).
+
+ * The pathspec matching code, while comparing two trees (e.g. "git
+ diff A B -- path1 path2") was too aggressive and failed to match
+ some paths when multiple pathspecs were involved.
+
+ * "git repack --max-pack-size=8g" stopped being parsed correctly when
+ the command was reimplemented in C.
+
+ * An earlier update in v1.8.4.x to "git rev-list --objects" with
+ negative ref had a performance regression.
+ (merge 200abe7 jk/mark-edges-uninteresting later to maint).
+
+ * A recent update to "git send-email" broke platforms where
+ /etc/ssl/certs/ directory exists but cannot be used as SSL_ca_path
+ (e.g. Fedora rawhide).
+
+ * A handful of bugs around interpreting $branch@{upstream} notation
+ and its lookalike, when $branch part has interesting characters,
+ e.g. "@", and ":", have been fixed.
+
+ * "git clone" would fail to clone from a repository that has a ref
+ directly under "refs/", e.g. "refs/stash", because different
+ validation paths do different things on such a refname. Loosen the
+ client side's validation to allow such a ref.
+
+ * "git log --left-right A...B" lost the "leftness" of commits
+ reachable from A when A is a tag as a side effect of a recent
+ bugfix. This is a regression in 1.8.4.x series.
+
+ * documentations to "git pull" hinted there is an "-m" option because
+ it incorrectly shared the documentation with "git merge".
+
+ * "git diff A B submod" and "git diff A B submod/" ought to have done
+ the same for a submodule "submod", but didn't.
+
+ * "git clone $origin foo\bar\baz" on Windows failed to create the
+ leading directories (i.e. a moral-equivalent of "mkdir -p").
+
+ * "submodule.*.update=checkout", when propagated from .gitmodules to
+ .git/config, turned into a "submodule.*.update=none", which did not
+ make much sense.
+ (merge efa8fd7 fp/submodule-checkout-mode later to maint).
+
+ * The implementation of 'git stash $cmd "stash@{...}"' did not quote
+ the stash argument properly and left it split at IFS whitespace.
+
+ * The "--[no-]informative-errors" options to "git daemon" were parsed
+ a bit too loosely, allowing any other string after these option
+ names.
+
+ * There is no reason to have a hardcoded upper limit for the number of
+ parents of an octopus merge, created via the graft mechanism, but
+ there was.
+
+ * The basic test used to leave unnecessary trash directories in the
+ t/ directory.
+ (merge 738a8be jk/test-framework-updates later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-base --octopus" used to leave cleaning up suboptimal
+ result to the caller, but now it does the clean-up itself.
+
+ * A "gc" process running as a different user should be able to stop a
+ new "gc" process from starting, but it didn't.
+
+ * An earlier "clean-up" introduced an unnecessary memory leak.
+
+ * "git add -A" (no other arguments) in a totally empty working tree
+ used to emit an error.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" did not handle a tag pointed by another tag
+ nicely.
+
+ * When we figure out how many file descriptors to allocate for
+ keeping packfiles open, a system with non-working getrlimit() could
+ cause us to die(), but because we make this call only to get a
+ rough estimate of how many are available and we do not even attempt
+ to use up all available file descriptors ourselves, it is nicer to
+ fall back to a reasonable low value rather than dying.
+
+ * read_sha1_file(), that is the workhorse to read the contents given
+ an object name, honoured object replacements, but there was no
+ corresponding mechanism to sha1_object_info() that was used to
+ obtain the metainfo (e.g. type & size) about the object. This led
+ callers to weird inconsistencies.
+ (merge 663a856 cc/replace-object-info later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch=", an admittedly useless command, did not
+ behave very well.
+
+ * "git rev-parse <revs> -- <paths>" did not implement the usual
+ disambiguation rules the commands in the "git log" family used in
+ the same way.
+
+ * "git mv A B/", when B does not exist as a directory, should error
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+ * A workaround to an old bug in glibc prior to glibc 2.17 has been
+ retired; this would remove a side effect of the workaround that
+ corrupts system error messages in non-C locales.
+
+ * SSL-related options were not passed correctly to underlying socket
+ layer in "git send-email".
+
+ * "git commit -v" appends the patch to the log message before
+ editing, and then removes the patch when the editor returned
+ control. However, the patch was not stripped correctly when the
+ first modified path was a submodule.
+
+ * "git fetch --depth=0" was a no-op, and was silently ignored.
+ Diagnose it as an error.
+
+ * Remote repository URLs expressed in scp-style host:path notation are
+ parsed more carefully (e.g. "foo/bar:baz" is local, "[::1]:/~user" asks
+ to connect to user's home directory on host at address ::1.
+
+ * "git diff -- ':(icase)makefile'" was unnecessarily rejected at the
+ command line parser.
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-check=ok" did not check the existence of
+ the named object.
+
+ * "git am --abort" sometimes complained about not being able to write
+ a tree with an 0{40} object in it.
+
+ * Two processes creating loose objects at the same time could have
+ failed unnecessarily when the name of their new objects started
+ with the same byte value, due to a race condition.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5b06020
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+Git v1.9.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.9.0
+------------------
+
+ * "git clean -d pathspec" did not use the given pathspec correctly
+ and ended up cleaning too much.
+
+ * "git difftool" misbehaved when the repository is bound to the
+ working tree with the ".git file" mechanism, where a textual file
+ ".git" tells us where it is.
+
+ * "git push" did not pay attention to branch.*.pushremote if it is
+ defined earlier than remote.pushdefault; the order of these two
+ variables in the configuration file should not matter, but it did
+ by mistake.
+
+ * Codepaths that parse timestamps in commit objects have been
+ tightened.
+
+ * "git diff --external-diff" incorrectly fed the submodule directory
+ in the working tree to the external diff driver when it knew it is
+ the same as one of the versions being compared.
+
+ * "git reset" needs to refresh the index when working in a working
+ tree (it can also be used to match the index to the HEAD in an
+ otherwise bare repository), but it failed to set up the working
+ tree properly, causing GIT_WORK_TREE to be ignored.
+
+ * "git check-attr" when working on a repository with a working tree
+ did not work well when the working tree was specified via the
+ --work-tree (and obviously with --git-dir) option.
+
+ * "merge-recursive" was broken in 1.7.7 era and stopped working in
+ an empty (temporary) working tree, when there are renames
+ involved. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rev-parse" was loose in rejecting command line arguments
+ that do not make sense, e.g. "--default" without the required
+ value for that option.
+
+ * include.path variable (or any variable that expects a path that
+ can use ~username expansion) in the configuration file is not a
+ boolean, but the code failed to check it.
+
+ * "git diff --quiet -- pathspec1 pathspec2" sometimes did not return
+ correct status value.
+
+ * Attempting to deepen a shallow repository by fetching over smart
+ HTTP transport failed in the protocol exchange, when no-done
+ extension was used. The fetching side waited for the list of
+ shallow boundary commits after the sending end stopped talking to
+ it.
+
+ * Allow "git cmd path/", when the 'path' is where a submodule is
+ bound to the top-level working tree, to match 'path', despite the
+ extra and unnecessary trailing slash (such a slash is often
+ given by command line completion).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..47a34ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,67 @@
+Git v1.9.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.9.1
+------------------
+
+ * Documentation and in-code comments had many instances of mistaken
+ use of "nor", which have been corrected.
+
+ * "git fetch --prune", when the right-hand-side of multiple fetch
+ refspecs overlap (e.g. storing "refs/heads/*" to
+ "refs/remotes/origin/*", while storing "refs/frotz/*" to
+ "refs/remotes/origin/fr/*"), aggressively thought that lack of
+ "refs/heads/fr/otz" on the origin site meant we should remove
+ "refs/remotes/origin/fr/otz" from us, without checking their
+ "refs/frotz/otz" first.
+
+ Note that such a configuration is inherently unsafe (think what
+ should happen when "refs/heads/fr/otz" does appear on the origin
+ site), but that is not a reason not to be extra careful.
+
+ * "git update-ref --stdin" did not fail a request to create a ref
+ when the ref already existed.
+
+ * "git diff --no-index -Mq a b" fell into an infinite loop.
+
+ * When it is not necessary to edit a commit log message (e.g. "git
+ commit -m" is given a message without specifying "-e"), we used to
+ disable the spawning of the editor by overriding GIT_EDITOR, but
+ this means all the uses of the editor, other than to edit the
+ commit log message, are also affected.
+
+ * "git status --porcelain --branch" showed its output with labels
+ "ahead/behind/gone" translated to the user's locale.
+
+ * "git mv" that moves a submodule forgot to adjust the array that
+ uses to keep track of which submodules were to be moved to update
+ its configuration.
+
+ * Length limit for the pathname used when removing a path in a deep
+ subdirectory has been removed to avoid buffer overflows.
+
+ * The test helper lib-terminal always run an actual test_expect_*
+ when included, which screwed up with the use of skil-all that may
+ have to be done later.
+
+ * "git index-pack" used a wrong variable to name the keep-file in an
+ error message when the file cannot be written or closed.
+
+ * "rebase -i" produced a broken insn sheet when the title of a commit
+ happened to contain '\n' (or ended with '\c') due to a careless use
+ of 'echo'.
+
+ * There were a few instances of 'git-foo' remaining in the
+ documentation that should have been spelled 'git foo'.
+
+ * Serving objects from a shallow repository needs to write a
+ new file to hold the temporary shallow boundaries but it was not
+ cleaned when we exit due to die() or a signal.
+
+ * When "git stash pop" stops after failing to apply the stash
+ (e.g. due to conflicting changes), the stash is not dropped. State
+ that explicitly in the output to let the users know.
+
+ * The labels in "git status" output that describe the nature of
+ conflicts (e.g. "both deleted") were limited to 20 bytes, which was
+ too short for some l10n (e.g. fr).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..17b05ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,21 @@
+Git v1.9.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.9.2
+------------------
+
+ * "git p4" dealing with changes in binary files were broken by a
+ change in 1.9 release.
+
+ * The shell prompt script (in contrib/), when using the PROMPT_COMMAND
+ interface, used an unsafe construct when showing the branch name in
+ $PS1.
+
+ * "git rebase" used a POSIX shell construct FreeBSD /bin/sh does not
+ work well with.
+
+ * Some more Unicode codepoints defined in Unicode 6.3 as having
+ zero width have been taught to our display column counting logic.
+
+ * Some tests used shell constructs that did not work well on
+ FreeBSD.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e1d1835
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+Git v1.9.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.9.3
+------------------
+
+ * Commands that take pathspecs on the command line misbehaved when
+ the pathspec is given as an absolute pathname (which is a
+ practice not particularly encouraged) that points at a symbolic
+ link in the working tree.
+
+ * An earlier fix to the shell prompt script (in contrib/) for using
+ the PROMPT_COMMAND interface did not correctly check if the extra
+ code path needs to trigger, causing the branch name not to appear
+ when 'promptvars' option is disabled in bash or PROMPT_SUBST is
+ unset in zsh.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2617372
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,364 @@
+Git v2.0 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default is now the "simple" semantics,
+which pushes:
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
+ when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
+ branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
+
+ - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
+ are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
+
+You can use the configuration variable "push.default" to change
+this. If you are an old-timer who wants to keep using the
+"matching" semantics, you can set the variable to "matching", for
+example. Read the documentation for other possibilities.
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A" are run inside a subdirectory
+without specifying which paths to add on the command line, they
+operate on the entire tree for consistency with "git commit -a" and
+other commands (these commands used to operate only on the current
+subdirectory). Say "git add -u ." or "git add -A ." if you want to
+limit the operation to the current directory.
+
+"git add <path>" is the same as "git add -A <path>" now, so that
+"git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory and
+record the removal. In older versions of Git, "git add <path>" used
+to ignore removals. You can say "git add --ignore-removal <path>" to
+add only added or modified paths in <path>, if you really want to.
+
+The "-q" option to "git diff-files", which does *NOT* mean "quiet",
+has been removed (it told Git to ignore deletion, which you can do
+with "git diff-files --diff-filter=d").
+
+"git request-pull" lost a few "heuristics" that often led to mistakes.
+
+The default prefix for "git svn" has changed in Git 2.0. For a long
+time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
+refs/remotes, but it now places them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
+it is told otherwise with its "--prefix" option.
+
+
+Updates since v1.9 series
+-------------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * The "multi-mail" post-receive hook (in contrib/) has been updated
+ to a more recent version from upstream.
+
+ * The "remote-hg/bzr" remote-helper interfaces (used to be in
+ contrib/) are no more. They are now maintained separately as
+ third-party plug-ins in their own repositories.
+
+ * "git gc --aggressive" learned "--depth" option and
+ "gc.aggressiveDepth" configuration variable to allow use of a less
+ insane depth than the built-in default value of 250.
+
+ * "git log" learned the "--show-linear-break" option to show where a
+ single strand-of-pearls is broken in its output.
+
+ * The "rev-parse --parseopt" mechanism used by scripted Porcelains to
+ parse command-line options and to give help text learned to take
+ the argv-help (the placeholder string for an option parameter,
+ e.g. "key-id" in "--gpg-sign=<key-id>").
+
+ * The pattern to find where the function begins in C/C++ used in
+ "diff" and "grep -p" has been updated to improve viewing C++
+ sources.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned to interpret a lone "-" as "@{-1}", the
+ branch that we were previously on.
+
+ * "git commit --cleanup=<mode>" learned a new mode, scissors.
+
+ * "git tag --list" output can be sorted using "version sort" with
+ "--sort=version:refname".
+
+ * Discard the accumulated "heuristics" to guess from which branch the
+ result wants to be pulled from and make sure that what the end user
+ specified is not second-guessed by "git request-pull", to avoid
+ mistakes. When you pushed out your 'master' branch to your public
+ repository as 'for-linus', use the new "master:for-linus" syntax to
+ denote the branch to be pulled.
+
+ * "git grep" learned to behave in a way similar to native grep when
+ "-h" (no header) and "-c" (count) options are given.
+
+ * "git push" via transport-helper interface has been updated to
+ allow forced ref updates in a way similar to the natively
+ supported transports.
+
+ * The "simple" mode is the default for "git push".
+
+ * "git add -u" and "git add -A", when run without any pathspec, is a
+ tree-wide operation even when run inside a subdirectory of a
+ working tree.
+
+ * "git add <path>" is the same as "git add -A <path>" now.
+
+ * "core.statinfo" configuration variable, which is a
+ never-advertised synonym to "core.checkstat", has been removed.
+
+ * The "-q" option to "git diff-files", which does *NOT* mean
+ "quiet", has been removed (it told Git to ignore deletion, which
+ you can do with "git diff-files --diff-filter=d").
+
+ * Server operators can loosen the "tips of refs only" restriction for
+ the remote archive service with the uploadarchive.allowUnreachable
+ configuration option.
+
+ * The progress indicators from various time-consuming commands have
+ been marked for i18n/l10n.
+
+ * "git notes -C <blob>" diagnoses as an error an attempt to use an
+ object that is not a blob.
+
+ * "git config" learned to read from the standard input when "-" is
+ given as the value to its "--file" parameter (attempting an
+ operation to update the configuration in the standard input is
+ rejected, of course).
+
+ * Trailing whitespaces in .gitignore files, unless they are quoted
+ for fnmatch(3), e.g. "path\ ", are warned and ignored. Strictly
+ speaking, this is a backward-incompatible change, but very unlikely
+ to bite any sane user and adjusting should be obvious and easy.
+
+ * Many commands that create commits, e.g. "pull" and "rebase",
+ learned to take the "--gpg-sign" option on the command line.
+
+ * "git commit" can be told to always GPG sign the resulting commit
+ by setting the "commit.gpgsign" configuration variable to "true"
+ (the command-line option "--no-gpg-sign" should override it).
+
+ * "git pull" can be told to only accept fast-forward by setting the
+ new "pull.ff" configuration variable.
+
+ * "git reset" learned the "-N" option, which does not reset the index
+ fully for paths the index knows about but the tree-ish the command
+ resets to does not (these paths are kept as intend-to-add entries).
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * The compilation options to port to AIX and to MSVC have been
+ updated.
+
+ * We started using wildmatch() in place of fnmatch(3) a few releases
+ ago; complete the process and stop using fnmatch(3).
+
+ * Uses of curl's "multi" interface and "easy" interface do not mix
+ well when we attempt to reuse outgoing connections. Teach the RPC
+ over HTTP code, used in the smart HTTP transport, not to use the
+ "easy" interface.
+
+ * The bitmap-index feature from JGit has been ported, which should
+ significantly improve performance when serving objects from a
+ repository that uses it.
+
+ * The way "git log --cc" shows a combined diff against multiple
+ parents has been optimized.
+
+ * The prefixcmp() and suffixcmp() functions are gone. Use
+ starts_with() and ends_with(), and also consider if skip_prefix()
+ suits your needs better when using the former.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups. Many
+of them came from flurry of activities as GSoC candidate microproject
+exercises.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.9 series
+-----------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.9 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git p4" was broken in 1.9 release to deal with changes in binary
+ files.
+ (merge 749b668 cl/p4-use-diff-tree later to maint).
+
+ * The shell prompt script (in contrib/), when using the PROMPT_COMMAND
+ interface, used an unsafe construct when showing the branch name in
+ $PS1.
+ (merge 1e4119c8 rh/prompt-pcmode-avoid-eval-on-refname later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" used a POSIX shell construct FreeBSD's /bin/sh does not
+ work well with.
+ (merge 8cd6596 km/avoid-non-function-return-in-rebase later to maint).
+
+ * zsh prompt (in contrib/) leaked unnecessary error messages.
+
+ * Bash completion (in contrib/) did not complete the refs and remotes
+ correctly given "git pu<TAB>" when "pu" is aliased to "push".
+
+ * Some more Unicode code points, defined in Unicode 6.3 as having zero
+ width, have been taught to our display column counting logic.
+ (merge d813ab9 tb/unicode-6.3-zero-width later to maint).
+
+ * Some tests used shell constructs that did not work well on FreeBSD
+ (merge ff7a1c6 km/avoid-bs-in-shell-glob later to maint).
+ (merge 00764ca km/avoid-cp-a later to maint).
+
+ * "git update-ref --stdin" did not fail a request to create a ref
+ when the ref already existed.
+ (merge b9d56b5 mh/update-ref-batch-create-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --no-index -Mq a b" fell into an infinite loop.
+ (merge ad1c3fb jc/fix-diff-no-index-diff-opt-parse later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --prune", when the right-hand side of multiple fetch
+ refspecs overlap (e.g. storing "refs/heads/*" to
+ "refs/remotes/origin/*", while storing "refs/frotz/*" to
+ "refs/remotes/origin/fr/*"), aggressively thought that lack of
+ "refs/heads/fr/otz" on the origin site meant we should remove
+ "refs/remotes/origin/fr/otz" from us, without checking their
+ "refs/frotz/otz" first.
+
+ Note that such a configuration is inherently unsafe (think what
+ should happen when "refs/heads/fr/otz" does appear on the origin
+ site), but that is not a reason not to be extra careful.
+ (merge e6f6371 cn/fetch-prune-overlapping-destination later to maint).
+
+ * "git status --porcelain --branch" showed its output with labels
+ "ahead/behind/gone" translated to the user's locale.
+ (merge 7a76c28 mm/status-porcelain-format-i18n-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A stray environment variable $prefix could have leaked into and
+ affected the behaviour of the "subtree" script (in contrib/).
+
+ * When it is not necessary to edit a commit log message (e.g. "git
+ commit -m" is given a message without specifying "-e"), we used to
+ disable the spawning of the editor by overriding GIT_EDITOR, but
+ this means all the uses of the editor, other than to edit the
+ commit log message, are also affected.
+ (merge b549be0 bp/commit-p-editor later to maint).
+
+ * "git mv" that moves a submodule forgot to adjust the array that
+ uses to keep track of which submodules were to be moved to update
+ its configuration.
+ (merge fb8a4e8 jk/mv-submodules-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Length limit for the pathname used when removing a path in a deep
+ subdirectory has been removed to avoid buffer overflows.
+ (merge 2f29e0c mh/remove-subtree-long-pathname-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The test helper lib-terminal always run an actual test_expect_*
+ when included, which screwed up with the use of skil-all that may
+ have to be done later.
+ (merge 7e27173 jk/lib-terminal-lazy later to maint).
+
+ * "git index-pack" used a wrong variable to name the keep-file in an
+ error message when the file cannot be written or closed.
+ (merge de983a0 nd/index-pack-error-message later to maint).
+
+ * "rebase -i" produced a broken insn sheet when the title of a commit
+ happened to contain '\n' (or ended with '\c') due to a careless use
+ of 'echo'.
+ (merge cb1aefd us/printf-not-echo later to maint).
+
+ * There were a few instances of 'git-foo' remaining in the
+ documentation that should have been spelled 'git foo'.
+ (merge 3c3e6f5 rr/doc-merge-strategies later to maint).
+
+ * Serving objects from a shallow repository needs to write a
+ new file to hold the temporary shallow boundaries, but it was not
+ cleaned when we exit due to die() or a signal.
+ (merge 7839632 jk/shallow-update-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When "git stash pop" stops after failing to apply the stash
+ (e.g. due to conflicting changes), the stash is not dropped. State
+ that explicitly in the output to let the users know.
+ (merge 2d4c993 jc/stash-pop-not-popped later to maint).
+
+ * The labels in "git status" output that describe the nature of
+ conflicts (e.g. "both deleted") were limited to 20 bytes, which was
+ too short for some l10n (e.g. fr).
+ (merge c7cb333 jn/wt-status later to maint).
+
+ * "git clean -d pathspec" did not use the given pathspec correctly
+ and ended up cleaning too much.
+ (merge 1f2e108 jk/clean-d-pathspec later to maint).
+
+ * "git difftool" misbehaved when the repository is bound to the
+ working tree with the ".git file" mechanism, where a textual file
+ ".git" tells us where it is.
+ (merge fcfec8b da/difftool-git-files later to maint).
+
+ * "git push" did not pay attention to "branch.*.pushremote" if it is
+ defined earlier than "remote.pushdefault"; the order of these two
+ variables in the configuration file should not matter, but it did
+ by mistake.
+ (merge 98b406f jk/remote-pushremote-config-reading later to maint).
+
+ * Code paths that parse timestamps in commit objects have been
+ tightened.
+ (merge f80d1f9 jk/commit-dates-parsing-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --external-diff" incorrectly fed the submodule directory
+ in the working tree to the external diff driver when it knew that it
+ is the same as one of the versions being compared.
+ (merge aba4727 tr/diff-submodule-no-reuse-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset" needs to refresh the index when working in a working
+ tree (it can also be used to match the index to the HEAD in an
+ otherwise bare repository), but it failed to set up the working
+ tree properly, causing GIT_WORK_TREE to be ignored.
+ (merge b7756d4 nd/reset-setup-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git check-attr" when working on a repository with a working tree
+ did not work well when the working tree was specified via the
+ "--work-tree" (and obviously with "--git-dir") option.
+ (merge cdbf623 jc/check-attr-honor-working-tree later to maint).
+
+ * "merge-recursive" was broken in 1.7.7 era and stopped working in
+ an empty (temporary) working tree, when there are renames
+ involved. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 6e2068a bk/refresh-missing-ok-in-merge-recursive later to maint.)
+
+ * "git rev-parse" was loose in rejecting command-line arguments
+ that do not make sense, e.g. "--default" without the required
+ value for that option.
+ (merge a43219f ds/rev-parse-required-args later to maint.)
+
+ * "include.path" variable (or any variable that expects a path that
+ can use ~username expansion) in the configuration file is not a
+ boolean, but the code failed to check it.
+ (merge 67beb60 jk/config-path-include-fix later to maint.)
+
+ * Commands that take pathspecs on the command line misbehaved when
+ the pathspec is given as an absolute pathname (which is a
+ practice not particularly encouraged) that points at a symbolic
+ link in the working tree.
+ (merge 6127ff6 mw/symlinks later to maint.)
+
+ * "git diff --quiet -- pathspec1 pathspec2" sometimes did not return
+ the correct status value.
+ (merge f34b205 nd/diff-quiet-stat-dirty later to maint.)
+
+ * Attempting to deepen a shallow repository by fetching over smart
+ HTTP transport failed in the protocol exchange, when the no-done
+ extension was used. The fetching side waited for the list of
+ shallow boundary commits after the sending side stopped talking to
+ it.
+ (merge 0232852 nd/http-fetch-shallow-fix later to maint.)
+
+ * Allow "git cmd path/", when the 'path' is where a submodule is
+ bound to the top-level working tree, to match 'path', despite the
+ extra and unnecessary trailing slash (such a slash is often
+ given by command-line completion).
+ (merge 2e70c01 nd/submodule-pathspec-ending-with-slash later to maint.)
+
+ * Documentation and in-code comments had many instances of mistaken
+ use of "nor", which have been corrected.
+ (merge 235e8d5 jl/nor-or-nand-and later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ce5579d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,115 @@
+Git v2.0.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * We used to unconditionally disable the pager in the pager process
+ we spawn to feed out output, but that prevented people who want to
+ run "less" within "less" from doing so.
+
+ * Tools that read diagnostic output in our standard error stream do
+ not want to see terminal control sequence (e.g. erase-to-eol).
+ Detect them by checking if the standard error stream is connected
+ to a tty.
+ * Reworded the error message given upon a failure to open an existing
+ loose object file due to e.g. permission issues; it was reported as
+ the object being corrupt, but that is not quite true.
+
+ * "git log -2master" is a common typo that shows two commits starting
+ from whichever random branch that is not 'master' that happens to
+ be checked out currently.
+
+ * The "%<(10,trunc)%s" pretty format specifier in the log family of
+ commands is used to truncate the string to a given length (e.g. 10
+ in the example) with padding to column-align the output, but did
+ not take into account that number of bytes and number of display
+ columns are different.
+
+ * The "mailmap.file" configuration option did not support the tilde
+ expansion (i.e. ~user/path and ~/path).
+
+ * The completion scripts (in contrib/) did not know about quite a few
+ options that are common between "git merge" and "git pull", and a
+ couple of options unique to "git merge".
+
+ * "--ignore-space-change" option of "git apply" ignored the spaces
+ at the beginning of line too aggressively, which is inconsistent
+ with the option of the same name "diff" and "git diff" have.
+
+ * "git blame" miscounted number of columns needed to show localized
+ timestamps, resulting in jaggy left-side-edge of the source code
+ lines in its output.
+
+ * "git blame" assigned the blame to the copy in the working-tree if
+ the repository is set to core.autocrlf=input and the file used CRLF
+ line endings.
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -C $commit" did not work when the
+ commit did not have any log message.
+
+ * "git diff --find-copies-harder" sometimes pretended as if the mode
+ bits have changed for paths that are marked with assume-unchanged
+ bit.
+
+ * "git format-patch" did not enforce the rule that the "--follow"
+ option from the log/diff family of commands must be used with
+ exactly one pathspec.
+
+ * "git gc --auto" was recently changed to run in the background to
+ give control back early to the end-user sitting in front of the
+ terminal, but it forgot that housekeeping involving reflogs should
+ be done without other processes competing for accesses to the refs.
+
+ * "git grep -O" to show the lines that hit in the pager did not work
+ well with case insensitive search. We now spawn "less" with its
+ "-I" option when it is used as the pager (which is the default).
+
+ * We used to disable threaded "git index-pack" on platforms without
+ thread-safe pread(); use a different workaround for such
+ platforms to allow threaded "git index-pack".
+
+ * The error reporting from "git index-pack" has been improved to
+ distinguish missing objects from type errors.
+
+ * "git mailinfo" used to read beyond the end of header string while
+ parsing an incoming e-mail message to extract the patch.
+
+ * On a case insensitive filesystem, merge-recursive incorrectly
+ deleted the file that is to be renamed to a name that is the same
+ except for case differences.
+
+ * "git pack-objects" unnecessarily copied the previous contents when
+ extending the hashtable, even though it will populate the table
+ from scratch anyway.
+
+ * "git rerere forget" did not work well when merge.conflictstyle
+ was set to a non-default value.
+
+ * "git remote rm" and "git remote prune" can involve removing many
+ refs at once, which is not a very efficient thing to do when very
+ many refs exist in the packed-refs file.
+
+ * "git log --exclude=<glob> --all | git shortlog" worked as expected,
+ but "git shortlog --exclude=<glob> --all", which is supposed to be
+ identical to the above pipeline, was not accepted at the command
+ line argument parser level.
+
+ * The autostash mode of "git rebase -i" did not restore the dirty
+ working tree state if the user aborted the interactive rebase by
+ emptying the insn sheet.
+
+ * "git show -s" (i.e. show log message only) used to incorrectly emit
+ an extra blank line after a merge commit.
+
+ * "git status", even though it is a read-only operation, tries to
+ update the index with refreshed lstat(2) info to optimize future
+ accesses to the working tree opportunistically, but this could
+ race with a "read-write" operation that modify the index while it
+ is running. Detect such a race and avoid overwriting the index.
+
+ * "git status" (and "git commit") behaved as if changes in a modified
+ submodule are not there if submodule.*.ignore configuration is set,
+ which was misleading. The configuration is only to unclutter diff
+ output during the course of development, and should not to hide
+ changes in the "status" output to cause the users forget to commit
+ them.
+
+ * The mode to run tests with HTTP server tests disabled was broken.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8e8321b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+Git v2.0.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * Documentation for "git submodule sync" forgot to say that the subcommand
+ can take the "--recursive" option.
+
+ * Mishandling of patterns in .gitignore that has trailing SPs quoted
+ with backslashes (e.g. ones that end with "\ ") have been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Recent updates to "git repack" started to duplicate objects that
+ are in packfiles marked with .keep flag into the new packfile by
+ mistake.
+
+ * "git clone -b brefs/tags/bar" would have mistakenly thought we were
+ following a single tag, even though it was a name of the branch,
+ because it incorrectly used strstr().
+
+ * "%G" (nothing after G) is an invalid pretty format specifier, but
+ the parser did not notice it as garbage.
+
+ * Code to avoid adding the same alternate object store twice was
+ subtly broken for a long time, but nobody seems to have noticed.
+
+ * A handful of code paths had to read the commit object more than
+ once when showing header fields that are usually not parsed. The
+ internal data structure to keep track of the contents of the commit
+ object has been updated to reduce the need for this double-reading,
+ and to allow the caller find the length of the object.
+
+ * During "git rebase --merge", a conflicted patch could not be
+ skipped with "--skip" if the next one also conflicted.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4047b46
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,17 @@
+Git v2.0.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * An ancient rewrite passed a wrong pointer to a curl library
+ function in a rarely used code path.
+
+ * "filter-branch" left an empty single-parent commit that results when
+ all parents of a merge commit gets mapped to the same commit, even
+ under "--prune-empty".
+
+ * "log --show-signature" incorrectly decided the color to paint a
+ mergetag that was and was not correctly validated.
+
+ * "log --show-signature" did not pay attention to "--graph" option.
+
+Also a lot of fixes to the tests and some updates to the docs are
+included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7e34092
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.0.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+Git v2.0.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * An earlier update to v2.0.2 broken output from "git diff-tree",
+ which is fixed in this release.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ae47537
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,391 @@
+Git v2.1 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+ * The default value we give to the environment variable LESS has been
+ changed from "FRSX" to "FRX", losing "S" (chop long lines instead
+ of wrapping). Existing users who prefer not to see line-wrapped
+ output may want to set
+
+ $ git config core.pager "less -S"
+
+ to restore the traditional behaviour. It is expected that people
+ find output from most subcommands easier to read with the new
+ default, except for "blame" which tends to produce really long
+ lines. To override the new default only for "git blame", you can
+ do this:
+
+ $ git config pager.blame "less -S"
+
+ * A few disused directories in contrib/ have been retired.
+
+
+Updates since v2.0
+------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Since the very beginning of Git, we gave the LESS environment a
+ default value "FRSX" when we spawn "less" as the pager. "S" (chop
+ long lines instead of wrapping) has been removed from this default
+ set of options, because it is more or less a personal taste thing,
+ as opposed to the others that have good justifications (i.e. "R" is
+ very much justified because many kinds of output we produce are
+ colored and "FX" is justified because output we produce is often
+ shorter than a page).
+
+ * The logic and data used to compute the display width needed for
+ UTF-8 strings have been updated to match Unicode 7.0 better.
+
+ * HTTP-based transports learned to better propagate the error messages from
+ the webserver to the client coming over the HTTP transport.
+
+ * The completion script for bash (in contrib/) has been updated to
+ better handle aliases that define a complex sequence of commands.
+
+ * The "core.preloadindex" configuration variable is enabled by default,
+ allowing modern platforms to take advantage of their
+ multiple cores.
+
+ * "git clone" applies the "if cloning from a local disk, physically
+ copy the repository using hardlinks, unless otherwise told not to with
+ --no-local" optimization when the url.*.insteadOf mechanism rewrites a
+ remote-repository "git clone $URL" into a
+ clone from a local disk.
+
+ * "git commit --date=<date>" option learned more
+ timestamp formats, including "--date=now".
+
+ * The `core.commentChar` configuration variable is used to specify a
+ custom comment character (other than the default "#") for
+ the commit message editor. This can be set to `auto` to attempt to
+ choose a different character that does not conflict with any that
+ already starts a line in the message being edited, for cases like
+ "git commit --amend".
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned --signature-file=<file> to add the contents
+ of a file as a signature to the mail message it produces.
+
+ * "git grep" learned the grep.fullname configuration variable to force
+ "--full-name" to be the default. This may cause regressions for
+ scripted users who do not expect this new behaviour.
+
+ * "git imap-send" learned to ask the credential helper for auth
+ material.
+
+ * "git log" and friends now understand the value "auto" for the
+ "log.decorate" configuration variable to enable the "--decorate"
+ option automatically when the output is sent to tty.
+
+ * "git merge" without an argument, even when there is an upstream
+ defined for the current branch, refused to run until
+ merge.defaultToUpstream is set to true. Flip the default of that
+ configuration variable to true.
+
+ * "git mergetool" learned to drive the vimdiff3 backend.
+
+ * mergetool.prompt used to default to 'true', always asking "do you
+ really want to run the tool on this path?". The default has been
+ changed to 'false'. However, the prompt will still appear if
+ mergetool used its autodetection system to guess which tool to use.
+ Users who explicitly specify or configure a tool will no longer see
+ the prompt by default.
+
+ Strictly speaking, this is a backward incompatible change and
+ users need to explicitly set the variable to 'true' if they want
+ to be prompted to confirm running the tool on each path.
+
+ * "git replace" learned the "--edit" subcommand to create a
+ replacement by editing an existing object.
+
+ * "git replace" learned a "--graft" option to rewrite the parents of a
+ commit.
+
+ * "git send-email" learned "--to-cover" and "--cc-cover" options, to
+ tell it to copy To: and Cc: headers found in the first input file
+ when emitting later input files.
+
+ * "git svn" learned to cope with malformed timestamps with only one
+ digit in the hour part, e.g. 2014-01-07T5:01:02.048176Z, emitted
+ by some broken subversion server implementations.
+
+ * "git tag" when editing the tag message shows the name of the tag
+ being edited as a comment in the editor.
+
+ * "git tag" learned to pay attention to "tag.sort" configuration, to
+ be used as the default sort order when no --sort=<value> option
+ is given.
+
+ * A new "git verify-commit" command, to check GPG signatures in signed
+ commits, in a way similar to "git verify-tag" is used to check
+ signed tags, was added.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * Build procedure for 'subtree' (in contrib/) has been cleaned up.
+
+ * Support for the profile-feedback build, which has
+ bit-rotted for quite a while, has been updated.
+
+ * An experimental format to use two files (the base file and
+ incremental changes relative to it) to represent the index has been
+ introduced; this may reduce I/O cost of rewriting a large index
+ when only small part of the working tree changes.
+
+ * Effort to shrink the size of patches Windows folks maintain on top
+ by upstreaming them continues. More tests that are not applicable
+ to the Windows environment are identified and either skipped or
+ made more portable.
+
+ * Eradication of "test $condition -a $condition" from our scripts
+ continues.
+
+ * The `core.deltabasecachelimit` used to default to 16 MiB , but this
+ proved to be too small, and has been bumped to 96 MiB.
+
+ * "git blame" has been optimized greatly by reorganising the data
+ structure that is used to keep track of the work to be done.
+
+ * "git diff" that compares 3-or-more trees (e.g. parents and the
+ result of a merge) has been optimized.
+
+ * The API to update/delete references are being converted to handle
+ updates to multiple references in a transactional way. As an
+ example, "update-ref --stdin [-z]" has been updated to use this
+ API.
+
+ * skip_prefix() and strip_suffix() API functions are used a lot more
+ widely throughout the codebase now.
+
+ * Parts of the test scripts can be skipped by using a range notation,
+ e.g. "sh t1234-test.sh --run='1-4 6 8-'" to omit test piece 5 and 7
+ and run everything else.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.0
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.0 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * We used to unconditionally disable the pager in the pager process
+ we spawn to feed out output, but that prevented people who want to
+ run "less" within "less" from doing so.
+ (merge c0459ca je/pager-do-not-recurse later to maint).
+
+ * Tools that read diagnostic output in our standard error stream do
+ not want to see terminal control sequence (e.g. erase-to-eol).
+ Detect them by checking if the standard error stream is connected
+ to a tty.
+ (merge 38de156 mn/sideband-no-ansi later to maint).
+
+ * Mishandling of patterns in .gitignore that have trailing SPs quoted
+ with backslashes (e.g. ones that end with "\ ") has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 97c1364be6b pb/trim-trailing-spaces later to maint).
+
+ * Reworded the error message given upon a failure to open an existing
+ loose object file due to e.g. permission issues; it was reported as
+ the object being corrupt, but that is not quite true.
+ (merge d6c8a05 jk/report-fail-to-read-objects-better later to maint).
+
+ * "git log -2master" is a common typo that shows two commits starting
+ from whichever random branch that is not 'master' that happens to
+ be checked out currently.
+ (merge e3fa568 jc/revision-dash-count-parsing later to maint).
+
+ * Code to avoid adding the same alternate object store twice was
+ subtly broken for a long time, but nobody seems to have noticed.
+ (merge 80b4785 rs/fix-alt-odb-path-comparison later to maint).
+ (merge 539e750 ek/alt-odb-entry-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The "%<(10,trunc)%s" pretty format specifier in the log family of
+ commands is used to truncate the string to a given length (e.g. 10
+ in the example) with padding to column-align the output, but did
+ not take into account that number of bytes and number of display
+ columns are different.
+ (merge 7d50987 as/pretty-truncate later to maint).
+
+ * "%G" (nothing after G) is an invalid pretty format specifier, but
+ the parser did not notice it as garbage.
+ (merge 958b2eb jk/pretty-G-format-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * A handful of code paths had to read the commit object more than
+ once when showing header fields that are usually not parsed. The
+ internal data structure to keep track of the contents of the commit
+ object has been updated to reduce the need for this double-reading,
+ and to allow the caller find the length of the object.
+ (merge 218aa3a jk/commit-buffer-length later to maint).
+
+ * The "mailmap.file" configuration option did not support tilde
+ expansion (i.e. ~user/path and ~/path).
+ (merge 9352fd5 ow/config-mailmap-pathname later to maint).
+
+ * The completion scripts (in contrib/) did not know about quite a few
+ options that are common between "git merge" and "git pull", and a
+ couple of options unique to "git merge".
+ (merge 8fee872 jk/complete-merge-pull later to maint).
+
+ * The unix-domain socket used by the sample credential cache daemon
+ tried to unlink an existing stale one at a wrong path, if the path
+ to the socket was given as an overlong path that does not fit in
+ the sun_path member of the sockaddr_un structure.
+ (merge 2869b3e rs/fix-unlink-unix-socket later to maint).
+
+ * An ancient rewrite passed a wrong pointer to a curl library
+ function in a rarely used code path.
+ (merge 479eaa8 ah/fix-http-push later to maint).
+
+ * "--ignore-space-change" option of "git apply" ignored the spaces
+ at the beginning of lines too aggressively, which is inconsistent
+ with the option of the same name that "diff" and "git diff" have.
+ (merge 14d3bb4 jc/apply-ignore-whitespace later to maint).
+
+ * "git blame" miscounted the number of columns needed to show localized
+ timestamps, resulting in a jaggy left-side-edge for the source code
+ lines in its output.
+ (merge dd75553 jx/blame-align-relative-time later to maint).
+
+ * "git blame" assigned the blame to the copy in the working-tree if
+ the repository is set to core.autocrlf=input and the file used CRLF
+ line endings.
+ (merge 4d4813a bc/blame-crlf-test later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone -b brefs/tags/bar" would have mistakenly thought we were
+ following a single tag, even though it was a name of the branch,
+ because it incorrectly used strstr().
+ (merge 60a5f5f jc/fix-clone-single-starting-at-a-tag later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -C $commit" did not work when the
+ commit did not have any log message.
+ (merge 076cbd6 jk/commit-C-pick-empty later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --find-copies-harder" sometimes pretended as if the mode
+ bits have changed for paths that are marked with the assume-unchanged
+ bit.
+ (merge 5304810 jk/diff-files-assume-unchanged later to maint).
+
+ * "filter-branch" left an empty single-parent commit that results when
+ all parents of a merge commit get mapped to the same commit, even
+ under "--prune-empty".
+ (merge 79bc4ef cb/filter-branch-prune-empty-degenerate-merges later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch" did not enforce the rule that the "--follow"
+ option from the log/diff family of commands must be used with
+ exactly one pathspec.
+ (merge dd63f16 jk/diff-follow-must-take-one-pathspec later to maint).
+
+ * "git gc --auto" was recently changed to run in the background to
+ give control back early to the end-user sitting in front of the
+ terminal, but it forgot that housekeeping involving reflogs should
+ be done without other processes competing for accesses to the refs.
+ (merge 62aad18 nd/daemonize-gc later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep -O" to show the lines that hit in the pager did not work
+ well with case insensitive search. We now spawn "less" with its
+ "-I" option when it is used as the pager (which is the default).
+ (merge f7febbe sk/spawn-less-case-insensitively-from-grep-O-i later to maint).
+
+ * We used to disable threaded "git index-pack" on platforms without
+ thread-safe pread(); use a different workaround for such
+ platforms to allow threaded "git index-pack".
+ (merge 3953949 nd/index-pack-one-fd-per-thread later to maint).
+
+ * The error reporting from "git index-pack" has been improved to
+ distinguish missing objects from type errors.
+ (merge 77583e7 jk/index-pack-report-missing later to maint).
+
+ * "log --show-signature" incorrectly decided the color to paint a
+ mergetag that was and was not correctly validated.
+ (merge 42c55ce mg/fix-log-mergetag-color later to maint).
+
+ * "log --show-signature" did not pay attention to the "--graph" option.
+ (merge cf3983d zk/log-graph-showsig later to maint).
+
+ * "git mailinfo" used to read beyond the ends of header strings while
+ parsing an incoming e-mail message to extract the patch.
+ (merge b1a013d rs/mailinfo-header-cmp later to maint).
+
+ * On a case insensitive filesystem, merge-recursive incorrectly
+ deleted the file that is to be renamed to a name that is the same
+ except for case differences.
+ (merge baa37bf dt/merge-recursive-case-insensitive later to maint).
+
+ * Merging changes into a file that ends in an incomplete line made the
+ last line into a complete one, even when the other branch did not
+ change anything around the end of file.
+ (merge ba31180 mk/merge-incomplete-files later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-objects" unnecessarily copied the previous contents when
+ extending the hashtable, even though it will populate the table
+ from scratch anyway.
+ (merge fb79947 rs/pack-objects-no-unnecessary-realloc later to maint).
+
+ * Recent updates to "git repack" started to duplicate objects that
+ are in packfiles marked with the .keep flag into the new packfile by
+ mistake.
+ (merge d078d85 jk/repack-pack-keep-objects later to maint).
+
+ * "git rerere forget" did not work well when merge.conflictstyle
+ was set to a non-default value.
+ (merge de3d8bb fc/rerere-conflict-style later to maint).
+
+ * "git remote rm" and "git remote prune" can involve removing many
+ refs at once, which is not a very efficient thing to do when very
+ many refs exist in the packed-refs file.
+ (merge e6bea66 jl/remote-rm-prune later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --exclude=<glob> --all | git shortlog" worked as expected,
+ but "git shortlog --exclude=<glob> --all", which is supposed to be
+ identical to the above pipeline, was not accepted at the command
+ line argument parser level.
+ (merge eb07774 jc/shortlog-ref-exclude later to maint).
+
+ * The autostash mode of "git rebase -i" did not restore the dirty
+ working tree state if the user aborted the interactive rebase by
+ emptying the insn sheet.
+ (merge ddb5432 rr/rebase-autostash-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --fork-point" did not filter out patch-identical
+ commits correctly.
+
+ * During "git rebase --merge", a conflicted patch could not be
+ skipped with "--skip" if the next one also conflicted.
+ (merge 95104c7 bc/fix-rebase-merge-skip later to maint).
+
+ * "git show -s" (i.e. show log message only) used to incorrectly emit
+ an extra blank line after a merge commit.
+ (merge ad2f725 mk/show-s-no-extra-blank-line-for-merges later to maint).
+
+ * "git status", even though it is a read-only operation, tries to
+ update the index with refreshed lstat(2) info to optimize future
+ accesses to the working tree opportunistically, but this could
+ race with a "read-write" operation that modifies the index while it
+ is running. Detect such a race and avoid overwriting the index.
+ (merge 426ddee ym/fix-opportunistic-index-update-race later to maint).
+
+ * "git status" (and "git commit") behaved as if changes in a modified
+ submodule are not there if submodule.*.ignore configuration is set,
+ which was misleading. The configuration is only to unclutter diff
+ output during the course of development, and not to hide
+ changes in the "status" output to cause the users forget to commit
+ them.
+ (merge c215d3d jl/status-added-submodule-is-never-ignored later to maint).
+
+ * Documentation for "git submodule sync" forgot to say that the subcommand
+ can take the "--recursive" option.
+ (merge 9393ae7 mc/doc-submodule-sync-recurse later to maint).
+
+ * "git update-index --cacheinfo" in 2.0 release crashed on a
+ malformed command line.
+ (merge c8e1ee4 jc/rev-parse-argh-dashed-multi-words later to maint).
+
+ * The mode to run tests with HTTP server tests disabled was broken.
+ (merge afa53fe na/no-http-test-in-the-middle later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..830fc3c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+Git v2.1.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * Git 2.0 had a regression where "git fetch" into a shallowly
+ cloned repository from a repository with bitmap object index
+ enabled did not work correctly. This has been corrected.
+
+ * Git 2.0 had a regression which broke (rarely used) "git diff-tree
+ -t". This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git log --pretty/format=" with an empty format string did not
+ mean the more obvious "No output whatsoever" but "Use default
+ format", which was counterintuitive. Now it means "nothing shown
+ for the log message part".
+
+ * "git -c section.var command" and "git -c section.var= command"
+ should pass the configuration differently (the former should be a
+ boolean true, the latter should be an empty string), but they
+ didn't work that way. Now it does.
+
+ * Applying a patch not generated by Git in a subdirectory used to
+ check the whitespace breakage using the attributes for incorrect
+ paths. Also whitespace checks were performed even for paths
+ excluded via "git apply --exclude=<path>" mechanism.
+
+ * "git bundle create" with date-range specification were meant to
+ exclude tags outside the range, but it did not work correctly.
+
+ * "git add x" where x that used to be a directory has become a
+ symbolic link to a directory misbehaved.
+
+ * The prompt script checked $GIT_DIR/ref/stash file to see if there
+ is a stash, which was a no-no.
+
+ * "git checkout -m" did not switch to another branch while carrying
+ the local changes forward when a path was deleted from the index.
+
+ * With sufficiently long refnames, fast-import could have overflown
+ an on-stack buffer.
+
+ * After "pack-refs --prune" packed refs at the top-level, it failed
+ to prune them.
+
+ * "git gc --auto" triggered from "git fetch --quiet" was not quiet.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..abc3b89
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Git v2.1.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * "git push" over HTTP transport had an artificial limit on number of
+ refs that can be pushed imposed by the command line length.
+
+ * When receiving an invalid pack stream that records the same object
+ twice, multiple threads got confused due to a race.
+
+ * An attempt to remove the entire tree in the "git fast-import" input
+ stream caused it to misbehave.
+
+ * Reachability check (used in "git prune" and friends) did not add a
+ detached HEAD as a starting point to traverse objects still in use.
+
+ * "git config --add section.var val" used to lose existing
+ section.var whose value was an empty string.
+
+ * "git fsck" failed to report that it found corrupt objects via its
+ exit status in some cases.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..acc9ebb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,26 @@
+Git v2.1.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+ * Some MUAs mangled a line in a message that begins with "From " to
+ ">From " when writing to a mailbox file and feeding such an input to
+ "git am" used to lose such a line.
+
+ * "git daemon" (with NO_IPV6 build configuration) used to incorrectly
+ use the hostname even when gethostbyname() reported that the given
+ hostname is not found.
+
+ * Newer versions of 'meld' breaks the auto-detection we use to see if
+ they are new enough to support the `--output` option.
+
+ * "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate
+ object recheability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
+ pack.
+
+ * "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from
+ CGI.pm as of 4.04; use CGI::start_from instead.
+
+ * "git log" documentation had an example section marked up not
+ quite correctly, which passed AsciiDoc but failed with
+ AsciiDoctor.
+
+Also contains some documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.2.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.2.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..826b0e4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.2.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,291 @@
+Git v2.2 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.1
+------------------
+
+Ports
+
+ * Building on older MacOS X systems automatically sets
+ the necessary NO_APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO build-time option.
+
+ * The support to build with NO_PTHREADS has been resurrected.
+
+ * Compilation options has been updated a bit to support z/OS port
+ better.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git archive" learned to filter what gets archived with pathspec.
+
+ * "git config --edit --global" starts from a skeletal per-user
+ configuration file contents, instead of a total blank, when the
+ user does not already have any. This immediately reduces the
+ need for a later "Have you forgotten setting core.user?" and we
+ can add more to the template as we gain more experience.
+
+ * "git stash list -p" used to be almost always a no-op because each
+ stash entry is represented as a merge commit. It learned to show
+ the difference between the base commit version and the working tree
+ version, which is in line with what "git show" gives.
+
+ * Sometimes users want to report a bug they experience on their
+ repository, but they are not at liberty to share the contents of
+ the repository. "fast-export" was taught an "--anonymize" option
+ to replace blob contents, names of people and paths and log
+ messages with bland and simple strings to help them.
+
+ * "git difftool" learned an option to stop feeding paths to the
+ diff backend when it exits with a non-zero status.
+
+ * "log --date=iso" uses a slight variant of ISO 8601 format that is
+ made more human readable. A new "--date=iso-strict" option gives
+ datetime output that is more strictly conformant.
+
+ * The logic "git prune" uses is more resilient against various corner
+ cases.
+
+ * A broken reimplementation of Git could write an invalid index that
+ records both stage #0 and higher stage entries for the same path.
+ We now notice and reject such an index, as there is no sensible
+ fallback (we do not know if the broken tool wanted to resolve and
+ forgot to remove higher stage entries, or if it wanted to unresolve
+ and forgot to remove the stage#0 entry).
+
+ * The temporary files "git mergetool" uses are named to avoid too
+ many dots in them (e.g. a temporary file for "hello.c" used to be
+ named e.g. "hello.BASE.4321.c" but now uses underscore instead,
+ e.g. "hello_BASE_4321.c").
+
+ * The temporary files "git mergetools" uses can be placed in a newly
+ creted temporary directory, instead of the current directory, by
+ setting the mergetool.writeToTemp configuration variable.
+
+ * "git mergetool" understands "--tool bc" now, as version 4 of
+ BeyondCompare can be driven the same way as its version 3 and it
+ feels awkward to say "--tool bc3".
+
+ * The "pre-receive" and "post-receive" hooks are no longer required
+ to consume their input fully (not following this requirement used
+ to result in intermittent errors in "git push").
+
+ * The pretty-format specifier "%d", which expanded to " (tagname)"
+ for a tagged commit, gained a cousin "%D" that just gives the
+ "tagname" without frills.
+
+ * "git push" learned "--signed" push, that allows a push (i.e.
+ request to update the refs on the other side to point at a new
+ history, together with the transmission of necessary objects) to be
+ signed, so that it can be verified and audited, using the GPG
+ signature of the person who pushed, that the tips of branches at a
+ public repository really point the commits the pusher wanted to,
+ without having to "trust" the server.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" is a new filter to programatically edit
+ the tail end of the commit log messages.
+
+ * "git help everyday" shows the "Everyday Git in 20 commands or so"
+ document, whose contents have been updated to more modern Git
+ practice.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * The API to manipulate the "refs" has been restructured to make it
+ more transactional, with the eventual goal to allow all-or-none
+ atomic updates and migrating the storage to something other than
+ the traditional filesystem based one (e.g. databases).
+
+ * The lockfile API and its users have been cleaned up.
+
+ * We no longer attempt to keep track of individual dependencies to
+ the header files in the build procedure, relying on automated
+ dependency generation support from modern compilers.
+
+ * In tests, we have been using NOT_{MINGW,CYGWIN} test prerequisites
+ long before negated prerequisites e.g. !MINGW were invented.
+ The former has been converted to the latter to avoid confusion.
+
+ * Looking up remotes configuration in a repository with very many
+ remotes defined has been optimized.
+
+ * There are cases where you lock and open to write a file, close it
+ to show the updated contents to external processes, and then have
+ to update the file again while still holding the lock, but the
+ lockfile API lacked support for such an access pattern.
+
+ * The API to allocate the structure to keep track of commit
+ decoration has been updated to make it less cumbersome to use.
+
+ * An in-core caching layer to let us avoid reading the same
+ configuration files number of times has been added. A few commands
+ have been converted to use this subsystem.
+
+ * Various code paths have been cleaned up and simplified by using
+ "strbuf", "starts_with()", and "skip_prefix()" APIs more.
+
+ * A few codepaths that died when large blobs that would not fit in
+ core are involved in their operation have been taught to punt
+ instead, by e.g. marking too large a blob as not to be diffed.
+
+ * A few more code paths in "commit" and "checkout" have been taught
+ to repopulate the cache-tree in the index, to help speed up later
+ "write-tree" (used in "commit") and "diff-index --cached" (used in
+ "status").
+
+ * A common programming mistake to assign the same short option name
+ to two separate options is detected by parse_options() API to help
+ developers.
+
+ * The code path to write out the packed-refs file has been optimized,
+ which especially matters in a repository with a large number of
+ refs.
+
+ * The check to see if a ref $F can be created by making sure no
+ existing ref has $F/ as its prefix has been optimized, which
+ especially matters in a repository with a large number of existing
+ refs.
+
+ * "git fsck" was taught to check contents of tag objects a bit more.
+
+ * "git hash-object" was taught a "--literally" option to help
+ debugging.
+
+ * When running a required clean filter, we do not have to mmap the
+ original before feeding the filter. Instead, stream the file
+ contents directly to the filter and process its output.
+
+ * The scripts in the test suite can be run with "-x" option to show
+ a shell-trace of each command run in them.
+
+ * The "run-command" API learned to manage the argv and environment
+ array for child process, alleviating the need for the callers to
+ allocate and deallocate them.
+
+ * Some people use AsciiDoctor, instead of AsciiDoc, to format our
+ documentation set; the documentation has been adjusted, as
+ AsciiDoctor is pickier than AsciiDoc in its input mark-up.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.1
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.1 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git log --pretty/format=" with an empty format string did not
+ mean the more obvious "No output whatsoever" but "Use default
+ format", which was counterintuitive.
+
+ * "git -c section.var command" and "git -c section.var= command"
+ should pass the configuration differently (the former should be a
+ boolean true, the latter should be an empty string).
+
+ * Applying a patch not generated by Git in a subdirectory used to
+ check the whitespace breakage using the attributes for incorrect
+ paths. Also whitespace checks were performed even for paths
+ excluded via "git apply --exclude=<path>" mechanism.
+
+ * "git bundle create" with date-range specification were meant to
+ exclude tags outside the range, but it didn't.
+
+ * "git add x" where x that used to be a directory has become a
+ symbolic link to a directory misbehaved.
+
+ * The prompt script checked $GIT_DIR/ref/stash file to see if there
+ is a stash, which was a no-no.
+
+ * Pack-protocol documentation had a minor typo.
+
+ * "git checkout -m" did not switch to another branch while carrying
+ the local changes forward when a path was deleted from the index.
+
+ * "git daemon" (with NO_IPV6 build configuration) used to incorrectly
+ use the hostname even when gethostbyname() reported that the given
+ hostname is not found.
+ (merge 107efbe rs/daemon-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * With sufficiently long refnames, "git fast-import" could have
+ overflown an on-stack buffer.
+
+ * After "pack-refs --prune" packed refs at the top-level, it failed
+ to prune them.
+
+ * Progress output from "git gc --auto" was visible in "git fetch -q".
+
+ * We used to pass -1000 to poll(2), expecting it to also mean "no
+ timeout", which should be spelled as -1.
+
+ * "git rebase" documentation was unclear that it is required to
+ specify on what <upstream> the rebase is to be done when telling it
+ to first check out <branch>.
+ (merge 95c6826 so/rebase-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "git push" over HTTP transport had an artificial limit on number of
+ refs that can be pushed imposed by the command line length.
+ (merge 26be19b jk/send-pack-many-refspecs later to maint).
+
+ * When receiving an invalid pack stream that records the same object
+ twice, multiple threads got confused due to a race.
+ (merge ab791dd jk/index-pack-threading-races later to maint).
+
+ * An attempt to remove the entire tree in the "git fast-import" input
+ stream caused it to misbehave.
+ (merge 2668d69 mb/fast-import-delete-root later to maint).
+
+ * Reachability check (used in "git prune" and friends) did not add a
+ detached HEAD as a starting point to traverse objects still in use.
+ (merge c40fdd0 mk/reachable-protect-detached-head later to maint).
+
+ * "git config --add section.var val" used to lose existing
+ section.var whose value was an empty string.
+ (merge c1063be ta/config-add-to-empty-or-true-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git fsck" failed to report that it found corrupt objects via its
+ exit status in some cases.
+ (merge 30d1038 jk/fsck-exit-code-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Use of "--verbose" option used to break "git branch --merged".
+ (merge 12994dd jk/maint-branch-verbose-merged later to maint).
+
+ * Some MUAs mangled a line in a message that begins with "From " to
+ ">From " when writing to a mailbox file and feeding such an input
+ to "git am" used to lose such a line.
+ (merge 85de86a jk/mbox-from-line later to maint).
+
+ * "rev-parse --verify --quiet $name" is meant to quietly exit with a
+ non-zero status when $name is not a valid object name, but still
+ gave error messages in some cases.
+
+ * A handful of C source files have been updated to include
+ "git-compat-util.h" as the first thing, to conform better to our
+ coding guidelines.
+ (merge 1c4b660 da/include-compat-util-first-in-c later to maint).
+
+ * t7004 test, which tried to run Git with small stack space, has been
+ updated to give a bit larger stack to avoid false breakage on some
+ platforms.
+ (merge b9a1907 sk/tag-contains-wo-recursion later to maint).
+
+ * A few documentation pages had example sections marked up not quite
+ correctly, which passed AsciiDoc but failed with AsciiDoctor.
+ (merge c30c43c bc/asciidoc-pretty-formats-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f8a48af bc/asciidoc later to maint).
+
+ * "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from
+ CGI.pm as of 4.04; use CGI::start_from instead.
+ (merge 4750f4b rm/gitweb-start-form later to maint).
+
+ * Newer versions of 'meld' breaks the auto-detection we use to see if
+ they are new enough to support the `--output` option.
+ (merge b12d045 da/mergetool-meld later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate
+ object recheability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
+ pack.
+ (merge 2113471 jk/pack-objects-no-bitmap-when-splitting later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index aa881fc..7a3294d 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -78,8 +78,8 @@ be escaped: use `\"` for `"` and `\\` for `\`.
The following escape sequences (beside `\"` and `\\`) are recognized:
`\n` for newline character (NL), `\t` for horizontal tabulation (HT, TAB)
-and `\b` for backspace (BS). No other char escape sequence, nor octal
-char sequences are valid.
+and `\b` for backspace (BS). Other char escape sequences (including octal
+escape sequences) are invalid.
Variable values ending in a `\` are continued on the next line in the
customary UNIX fashion.
@@ -131,8 +131,13 @@ Variables
Note that this list is non-comprehensive and not necessarily complete.
For command-specific variables, you will find a more detailed description
-in the appropriate manual page. You will find a description of non-core
-porcelain configuration variables in the respective porcelain documentation.
+in the appropriate manual page.
+
+Other git-related tools may and do use their own variables. When
+inventing new variables for use in your own tool, make sure their
+names do not conflict with those that are used by Git itself and
+other popular tools, and describe them in your documentation.
+
advice.*::
These variables control various optional help messages designed to
@@ -142,19 +147,13 @@ advice.*::
--
pushUpdateRejected::
Set this variable to 'false' if you want to disable
- 'pushNonFFCurrent', 'pushNonFFDefault',
+ 'pushNonFFCurrent',
'pushNonFFMatching', 'pushAlreadyExists',
'pushFetchFirst', and 'pushNeedsForce'
simultaneously.
pushNonFFCurrent::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-push[1] fails due to a
non-fast-forward update to the current branch.
- pushNonFFDefault::
- Advice to set 'push.default' to 'upstream' or 'current'
- when you ran linkgit:git-push[1] and pushed 'matching
- refs' by default (i.e. you did not provide an explicit
- refspec, and no 'push.default' configuration was set)
- and it resulted in a non-fast-forward error.
pushNonFFMatching::
Advice shown when you ran linkgit:git-push[1] and pushed
'matching refs' explicitly (i.e. you used ':', or
@@ -205,13 +204,26 @@ advice.*::
--
core.fileMode::
- If false, the executable bit differences between the index and
- the working tree are ignored; useful on broken filesystems like FAT.
- See linkgit:git-update-index[1].
+ Tells Git if the executable bit of files in the working tree
+ is to be honored.
+
-The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
-will probe and set core.fileMode false if appropriate when the
-repository is created.
+Some filesystems lose the executable bit when a file that is
+marked as executable is checked out, or checks out an
+non-executable file with executable bit on.
+linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1] probe the filesystem
+to see if it handles the executable bit correctly
+and this variable is automatically set as necessary.
++
+A repository, however, may be on a filesystem that handles
+the filemode correctly, and this variable is set to 'true'
+when created, but later may be made accessible from another
+environment that loses the filemode (e.g. exporting ext4 via
+CIFS mount, visiting a Cygwin created repository with
+Git for Windows or Eclipse).
+In such a case it may be necessary to set this variable to 'false'.
+See linkgit:git-update-index[1].
++
+The default is true (when core.filemode is not specified in the config file).
core.ignorecase::
If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
@@ -382,7 +394,7 @@ false), while all other repositories are assumed to be bare (bare
core.worktree::
Set the path to the root of the working tree.
This can be overridden by the GIT_WORK_TREE environment
- variable and the '--work-tree' command line option.
+ variable and the '--work-tree' command-line option.
The value can be an absolute path or relative to the path to
the .git directory, which is either specified by --git-dir
or GIT_DIR, or automatically discovered.
@@ -490,7 +502,7 @@ core.deltaBaseCacheLimit::
to avoid unpacking and decompressing frequently used base
objects multiple times.
+
-Default is 16 MiB on all platforms. This should be reasonable
+Default is 96 MiB on all platforms. This should be reasonable
for all users/operating systems, except on the largest projects.
You probably do not need to adjust this value.
+
@@ -500,7 +512,8 @@ core.bigFileThreshold::
Files larger than this size are stored deflated, without
attempting delta compression. Storing large files without
delta compression avoids excessive memory usage, at the
- slight expense of increased disk usage.
+ slight expense of increased disk usage. Additionally files
+ larger than this size are always treated as binary.
+
Default is 512 MiB on all platforms. This should be reasonable
for most projects as source code and other text files can still
@@ -524,7 +537,7 @@ core.askpass::
environment variable. If not set, fall back to the value of the
'SSH_ASKPASS' environment variable or, failing that, a simple password
prompt. The external program shall be given a suitable prompt as
- command line argument and write the password on its STDOUT.
+ command-line argument and write the password on its STDOUT.
core.attributesfile::
In addition to '.gitattributes' (per-directory) and
@@ -545,6 +558,9 @@ core.commentchar::
messages consider a line that begins with this character
commented, and removes them after the editor returns
(default '#').
++
+If set to "auto", `git-commit` would select a character that is not
+the beginning character of any line in existing commit messages.
sequence.editor::
Text editor used by `git rebase -i` for editing the rebase instruction file.
@@ -559,14 +575,23 @@ core.pager::
configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then the default chosen at
compile time (usually 'less').
+
-When the `LESS` environment variable is unset, Git sets it to `FRSX`
+When the `LESS` environment variable is unset, Git sets it to `FRX`
(if `LESS` environment variable is set, Git does not change it at
all). If you want to selectively override Git's default setting
-for `LESS`, you can set `core.pager` to e.g. `less -+S`. This will
+for `LESS`, you can set `core.pager` to e.g. `less -S`. This will
be passed to the shell by Git, which will translate the final
-command to `LESS=FRSX less -+S`. The environment tells the command
-to set the `S` option to chop long lines but the command line
-resets it to the default to fold long lines.
+command to `LESS=FRX less -S`. The environment does not set the
+`S` option but the command line does, instructing less to truncate
+long lines. Similarly, setting `core.pager` to `less -+F` will
+deactivate the `F` option specified by the environment from the
+command-line, deactivating the "quit if one screen" behavior of
+`less`. One can specifically activate some flags for particular
+commands: for example, setting `pager.blame` to `less -S` enables
+line truncation only for `git blame`.
++
+Likewise, when the `LV` environment variable is unset, Git sets it
+to `-c`. You can override this setting by exporting `LV` with
+another value or setting `core.pager` to `lv +c`.
core.whitespace::
A comma separated list of common whitespace problems to
@@ -610,9 +635,9 @@ core.preloadindex::
+
This can speed up operations like 'git diff' and 'git status' especially
on filesystems like NFS that have weak caching semantics and thus
-relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', Git will do the
+relatively high IO latencies. When enabled, Git will do the
index comparison to the filesystem data in parallel, allowing
-overlapping IO's.
+overlapping IO's. Defaults to true.
core.createObject::
You can set this to 'link', in which case a hardlink followed by
@@ -823,7 +848,7 @@ color.diff::
commands will only use color when output is to the terminal.
Defaults to false.
+
-This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] nor the
+This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or the
'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands. Can be overridden on the
command line with the `--color[=<when>]` option.
@@ -992,6 +1017,14 @@ commit.cleanup::
have to remove the help lines that begin with `#` in the commit log
template yourself, if you do this).
+commit.gpgsign::
+
+ A boolean to specify whether all commits should be GPG signed.
+ Use of this option when doing operations such as rebase can
+ result in a large number of commits being signed. It may be
+ convenient to use an agent to avoid typing your GPG passphrase
+ several times.
+
commit.status::
A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
@@ -1107,6 +1140,10 @@ format.signature::
Set this variable to the empty string ("") to suppress
signature generation.
+format.signaturefile::
+ Works just like format.signature except the contents of the
+ file specified by this variable will be used as the signature.
+
format.suffix::
The default for format-patch is to output files with the suffix
`.patch`. Use this variable to change that suffix (make sure to
@@ -1149,6 +1186,11 @@ filter.<driver>.smudge::
object to a worktree file upon checkout. See
linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
+gc.aggressiveDepth::
+ The depth parameter used in the delta compression
+ algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'. This defaults
+ to 250.
+
gc.aggressiveWindow::
The window size parameter used in the delta compression
algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'. This defaults
@@ -1167,6 +1209,10 @@ gc.autopacklimit::
--auto` consolidates them into one larger pack. The
default value is 50. Setting this to 0 disables it.
+gc.autodetach::
+ Make `git gc --auto` return immediately andrun in background
+ if the system supports it. Default is true.
+
gc.packrefs::
Running `git pack-refs` in a repository renders it
unclonable by Git versions prior to 1.5.1.2 over dumb
@@ -1308,7 +1354,7 @@ grep.extendedRegexp::
gpg.program::
Use this custom program instead of "gpg" found on $PATH when
making or verifying a PGP signature. The program must support the
- same command line interface as GPG, namely, to verify a detached
+ same command-line interface as GPG, namely, to verify a detached
signature, "gpg --verify $file - <$signature" is run, and the
program is expected to signal a good signature by exiting with
code 0, and to generate an ascii-armored detached signature, the
@@ -1324,6 +1370,10 @@ gui.diffcontext::
Specifies how many context lines should be used in calls to diff
made by the linkgit:git-gui[1]. The default is "5".
+gui.displayuntracked::
+ Determines if linkgit::git-gui[1] shows untracked files
+ in the file list. The default is "true".
+
gui.encoding::
Specifies the default encoding to use for displaying of
file contents in linkgit:git-gui[1] and linkgit:gitk[1].
@@ -1601,6 +1651,10 @@ imap::
The configuration variables in the 'imap' section are described
in linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
+index.version::
+ Specify the version with which new index files should be
+ initialized. This does not affect existing repositories.
+
init.templatedir::
Specify the directory from which templates will be copied.
(See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section of linkgit:git-init[1].)
@@ -1633,7 +1687,7 @@ interactive.singlekey::
linkgit:git-add[1], linkgit:git-checkout[1], linkgit:git-commit[1],
linkgit:git-reset[1], and linkgit:git-stash[1]. Note that this
setting is silently ignored if portable keystroke input
- is not available.
+ is not available; requires the Perl module Term::ReadKey.
log.abbrevCommit::
If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
@@ -1718,6 +1772,15 @@ mergetool.<tool>.trustExitCode::
if the file has been updated, otherwise the user is prompted to
indicate the success of the merge.
+mergetool.meld.hasOutput::
+ Older versions of `meld` do not support the `--output` option.
+ Git will attempt to detect whether `meld` supports `--output`
+ by inspecting the output of `meld --help`. Configuring
+ `mergetool.meld.hasOutput` will make Git skip these checks and
+ use the configured value instead. Setting `mergetool.meld.hasOutput`
+ to `true` tells Git to unconditionally use the `--output` option,
+ and `false` avoids using `--output`.
+
mergetool.keepBackup::
After performing a merge, the original file with conflict markers
can be saved as a file with a `.orig` extension. If this variable
@@ -1731,6 +1794,12 @@ mergetool.keepTemporaries::
preserved, otherwise they will be removed after the tool has
exited. Defaults to `false`.
+mergetool.writeToTemp::
+ Git writes temporary 'BASE', 'LOCAL', and 'REMOTE' versions of
+ conflicting files in the worktree by default. Git will attempt
+ to use a temporary directory for these files when set `true`.
+ Defaults to `false`.
+
mergetool.prompt::
Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program.
@@ -1791,10 +1860,11 @@ pack.depth::
maximum depth is given on the command line. Defaults to 50.
pack.windowMemory::
- The window memory size limit used by linkgit:git-pack-objects[1]
- when no limit is given on the command line. The value can be
- suffixed with "k", "m", or "g". Defaults to 0, meaning no
- limit.
+ The maximum size of memory that is consumed by each thread
+ in linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] for pack window memory when
+ no limit is given on the command line. The value can be
+ suffixed with "k", "m", or "g". When left unconfigured (or
+ set explicitly to 0), there will be no limit.
pack.compression::
An integer -1..9, indicating the compression level for objects
@@ -1862,6 +1932,26 @@ pack.packSizeLimit::
Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are
supported.
+pack.useBitmaps::
+ When true, git will use pack bitmaps (if available) when packing
+ to stdout (e.g., during the server side of a fetch). Defaults to
+ true. You should not generally need to turn this off unless
+ you are debugging pack bitmaps.
+
+pack.writebitmaps::
+ This is a deprecated synonym for `repack.writeBitmaps`.
+
+pack.writeBitmapHashCache::
+ When true, git will include a "hash cache" section in the bitmap
+ index (if one is written). This cache can be used to feed git's
+ delta heuristics, potentially leading to better deltas between
+ bitmapped and non-bitmapped objects (e.g., when serving a fetch
+ between an older, bitmapped pack and objects that have been
+ pushed since the last gc). The downside is that it consumes 4
+ bytes per object of disk space, and that JGit's bitmap
+ implementation does not understand it, causing it to complain if
+ Git and JGit are used on the same repository. Defaults to false.
+
pager.<cmd>::
If the value is boolean, turns on or off pagination of the
output of a particular Git subcommand when writing to a tty.
@@ -1881,6 +1971,16 @@ pretty.<name>::
Note that an alias with the same name as a built-in format
will be silently ignored.
+pull.ff::
+ By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
+ a commit that is a descendant of the current commit. Instead, the
+ tip of the current branch is fast-forwarded. When set to `false`,
+ this variable tells Git to create an extra merge commit in such
+ a case (equivalent to giving the `--no-ff` option from the command
+ line). When set to `only`, only such fast-forward merges are
+ allowed (equivalent to giving the `--ff-only` option from the
+ command line).
+
pull.rebase::
When true, rebase branches on top of the fetched branch, instead
of merging the default branch from the default remote when "git
@@ -1933,7 +2033,7 @@ When pushing to a remote that is different from the remote you normally
pull from, work as `current`. This is the safest option and is suited
for beginners.
+
-This mode will become the default in Git 2.0.
+This mode has become the default in Git 2.0.
* `matching` - push all branches having the same name on both ends.
This makes the repository you are pushing to remember the set of
@@ -1952,8 +2052,8 @@ suitable for pushing into a shared central repository, as other
people may add new branches there, or update the tip of existing
branches outside your control.
+
-This is currently the default, but Git 2.0 will change the default
-to `simple`.
+This used to be the default, but not since Git 2.0 (`simple` is the
+new default).
--
@@ -1977,6 +2077,25 @@ receive.autogc::
receiving data from git-push and updating refs. You can stop
it by setting this variable to false.
+receive.certnonceseed::
+ By setting this variable to a string, `git receive-pack`
+ will accept a `git push --signed` and verifies it by using
+ a "nonce" protected by HMAC using this string as a secret
+ key.
+
+receive.certnonceslop::
+ When a `git push --signed` sent a push certificate with a
+ "nonce" that was issued by a receive-pack serving the same
+ repository within this many seconds, export the "nonce"
+ found in the certificate to `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE` to the
+ hooks (instead of what the receive-pack asked the sending
+ side to include). This may allow writing checks in
+ `pre-receive` and `post-receive` a bit easier. Instead of
+ checking `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_SLOP` environment variable
+ that records by how many seconds the nonce is stale to
+ decide if they want to accept the certificate, they only
+ can check `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_STATUS` is `OK`.
+
receive.fsckObjects::
If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
@@ -2030,6 +2149,10 @@ receive.updateserverinfo::
If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
after receiving data from git-push and updating refs.
+receive.shallowupdate::
+ If set to true, .git/shallow can be updated when new refs
+ require new shallow roots. Otherwise those refs are rejected.
+
remote.pushdefault::
The remote to push to by default. Overrides
`branch.<name>.remote` for all branches, and is overridden by
@@ -2091,8 +2214,8 @@ remote.<name>.vcs::
remote.<name>.prune::
When set to true, fetching from this remote by default will also
- remove any remote-tracking branches which no longer exist on the
- remote (as if the `--prune` option was give on the command line).
+ remove any remote-tracking references that no longer exist on the
+ remote (as if the `--prune` option was given on the command line).
Overrides `fetch.prune` settings, if any.
remotes.<group>::
@@ -2107,6 +2230,21 @@ repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
"false" and repack. Access from old Git versions over the
native protocol are unaffected by this option.
+repack.packKeptObjects::
+ If set to true, makes `git repack` act as if
+ `--pack-kept-objects` was passed. See linkgit:git-repack[1] for
+ details. Defaults to `false` normally, but `true` if a bitmap
+ index is being written (either via `--write-bitmap-index` or
+ `repack.writeBitmaps`).
+
+repack.writeBitmaps::
+ When true, git will write a bitmap index when packing all
+ objects to disk (e.g., when `git repack -a` is run). This
+ index can speed up the "counting objects" phase of subsequent
+ packs created for clones and fetches, at the cost of some disk
+ space and extra time spent on the initial repack. Defaults to
+ false.
+
rerere.autoupdate::
When set to true, `git-rerere` updates the index with the
resulting contents after it cleanly resolves conflicts using
@@ -2223,9 +2361,11 @@ status.submodulesummary::
--summary-limit option of linkgit:git-submodule[1]). Please note
that the summary output command will be suppressed for all
submodules when `diff.ignoreSubmodules` is set to 'all' or only
- for those submodules where `submodule.<name>.ignore=all`. To
+ for those submodules where `submodule.<name>.ignore=all`. The only
+ exception to that rule is that status and commit will show staged
+ submodule changes. To
also view the summary for ignored submodules you can either use
- the --ignore-submodules=dirty command line option or the 'git
+ the --ignore-submodules=dirty command-line option or the 'git
submodule summary' command, which shows a similar output but does
not honor these settings.
@@ -2247,14 +2387,16 @@ submodule.<name>.branch::
submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
This option can be used to control recursive fetching of this
submodule. It can be overridden by using the --[no-]recurse-submodules
- command line option to "git fetch" and "git pull".
+ command-line option to "git fetch" and "git pull".
This setting will override that from in the linkgit:gitmodules[5]
file.
submodule.<name>.ignore::
Defines under what circumstances "git status" and the diff family show
a submodule as modified. When set to "all", it will never be considered
- modified, "dirty" will ignore all changes to the submodules work tree and
+ modified (but it will nonetheless show up in the output of status and
+ commit when it has been staged), "dirty" will ignore all changes
+ to the submodules work tree and
takes only differences between the HEAD of the submodule and the commit
recorded in the superproject into account. "untracked" will additionally
let submodules with modified tracked files in their work tree show up.
@@ -2265,6 +2407,11 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
"--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
affected by this setting.
+tag.sort::
+ This variable controls the sort ordering of tags when displayed by
+ linkgit:git-tag[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
+ value of this variable will be used as the default.
+
tar.umask::
This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
tar archive entries. The default is 0002, which turns off the
@@ -2287,6 +2434,13 @@ transfer.unpackLimit::
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
The default value is 100.
+uploadarchive.allowUnreachable::
+ If true, allow clients to use `git archive --remote` to request
+ any tree, whether reachable from the ref tips or not. See the
+ discussion in the `SECURITY` section of
+ linkgit:git-upload-archive[1] for more details. Defaults to
+ `false`.
+
uploadpack.hiderefs::
String(s) `upload-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 223b931..b001779 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@ diff.ignoreSubmodules::
this setting when reporting uncommitted changes. Setting it to
'all' disables the submodule summary normally shown by 'git commit'
and 'git status' when 'status.submodulesummary' is set unless it is
- overridden by using the --ignore-submodules command line option.
+ overridden by using the --ignore-submodules command-line option.
The 'git submodule' commands are not affected by this setting.
diff.mnemonicprefix::
@@ -98,6 +98,11 @@ diff.mnemonicprefix::
diff.noprefix::
If set, 'git diff' does not show any source or destination prefix.
+diff.orderfile::
+ File indicating how to order files within a diff, using
+ one shell glob pattern per line.
+ Can be overridden by the '-O' option to linkgit:git-diff[1].
+
diff.renameLimit::
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index 55f499a..843a20b 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -174,7 +174,7 @@ added, from the point of view of that parent).
In the above example output, the function signature was changed
from both files (hence two `-` removals from both file1 and
file2, plus `++` to mean one line that was added does not appear
-in either file1 nor file2). Also eight other lines are the same
+in either file1 or file2). Also eight other lines are the same
from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with `+`).
When shown by `git diff-tree -c`, it compares the parents of a
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index bbed2cd..6cb083a 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -358,7 +358,7 @@ endif::git-log[]
--irreversible-delete::
Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
the diff between the preimage and `/dev/null`. The resulting patch
- is not meant to be applied with `patch` nor `git apply`; this is
+ is not meant to be applied with `patch` or `git apply`; this is
solely for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the
text after the change. In addition, the output obviously lack
enough information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually,
@@ -432,6 +432,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
Output the patch in the order specified in the
<orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+ This overrides the `diff.orderfile` configuration variable
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). To cancel `diff.orderfile`,
+ use `-O/dev/null`.
ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-R::
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txto b/Documentation/everyday.txto
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c5047d8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txto
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
+===================================
+
+This document has been moved to linkgit:giteveryday[1].
+
+Please let the owners of the referring site know so that they can update the
+link you clicked to get here.
+
+Thanks.
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index ba1fe49..b09a783 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,18 @@
branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
--unshallow::
- Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all
- the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.
+ If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
+ repository to a complete one, removing all the limitations
+ imposed by shallow repositories.
++
+If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so that
+the current repository has the same history as the source repository.
+
+--update-shallow::
+ By default when fetching from a shallow repository,
+ `git fetch` refuses refs that require updating
+ .git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such
+ refs.
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
@@ -41,17 +51,20 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
-p::
--prune::
- After fetching, remove any remote-tracking branches which
- no longer exist on the remote.
+ After fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
+ longer exist on the remote. Tags are not subject to pruning
+ if they are fetched only because of the default tag
+ auto-following or due to a --tags option. However, if tags
+ are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command
+ line or in the remote configuration, for example if the remote
+ was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are also
+ subject to pruning.
endif::git-pull[]
-ifdef::git-pull[]
---no-tags::
-endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
-n::
---no-tags::
endif::git-pull[]
+--no-tags::
By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded
from the remote repository are fetched and stored locally.
This option disables this automatic tag following. The default
@@ -59,13 +72,22 @@ endif::git-pull[]
setting. See linkgit:git-config[1].
ifndef::git-pull[]
+--refmap=<refspec>::
+ When fetching refs listed on the command line, use the
+ specified refspec (can be given more than once) to map the
+ refs to remote-tracking branches, instead of the values of
+ `remote.*.fetch` configuration variables for the remote
+ repository. See section on "Configured Remote-tracking
+ Branches" for details.
+
-t::
--tags::
- This is a short-hand for giving `refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*`
- refspec from the command line, to ask all tags to be fetched
- and stored locally. Because this acts as an explicit
- refspec, the default refspecs (configured with the
- remote.$name.fetch variable) are overridden and not used.
+ Fetch all tags from the remote (i.e., fetch remote tags
+ `refs/tags/*` into local tags with the same name), in addition
+ to whatever else would otherwise be fetched. Using this
+ option alone does not subject tags to pruning, even if --prune
+ is used (though tags may be pruned anyway if they are also the
+ destination of an explicit refspec; see '--prune').
--recurse-submodules[=yes|on-demand|no]::
This option controls if and under what conditions new commits of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 48754cb..9631526 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -53,8 +53,14 @@ OPTIONS
Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
be given to add all matching files. Also a
leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
- and `dir/file2`) can be given to add all files in the
- directory, recursively.
+ and `dir/file2`) can be given to update the index to
+ match the current state of the directory as a whole (e.g.
+ specifying `dir` will record not just a file `dir/file1`
+ modified in the working tree, a file `dir/file2` added to
+ the working tree, but also a file `dir/file3` removed from
+ the working tree. Note that older versions of Git used
+ to ignore removed files; use `--no-all` option if you want
+ to add modified or new files but ignore removed ones.
-n::
--dry-run::
@@ -104,10 +110,10 @@ apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
<pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
match the working tree, but adds no new files.
+
-If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
-"."; in other words, update all tracked files in the current directory
-and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
-of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
+If no <pathspec> is given when `-u` option is used, all
+tracked files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
+of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
+subdirectories).
-A::
--all::
@@ -117,10 +123,10 @@ of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
match the working tree.
+
-If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
-"."; in other words, update all files in the current directory
-and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
-of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
+If no <pathspec> is given when `-A` option is used, all
+files in the entire working tree are updated (old versions
+of Git used to limit the update to the current directory and its
+subdirectories).
--no-all::
--ignore-removal::
@@ -129,11 +135,9 @@ of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
files that have been removed from the working tree. This
option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.
+
-This option is primarily to help the current users of Git, whose
-"git add <pathspec>..." ignores removed files. In future versions
-of Git, "git add <pathspec>..." will be a synonym to "git add -A
-<pathspec>..." and "git add --ignore-removal <pathspec>..." will behave like
-today's "git add <pathspec>...", ignoring removed files.
+This option is primarily to help users who are used to older
+versions of Git, whose "git add <pathspec>..." was a synonym
+for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
-N::
--intent-to-add::
@@ -296,9 +300,9 @@ patch::
y - stage this hunk
n - do not stage this hunk
- q - quit; do not stage this hunk nor any of the remaining ones
+ q - quit; do not stage this hunk or any of the remaining ones
a - stage this hunk and all later hunks in the file
- d - do not stage this hunk nor any of the later hunks in the file
+ d - do not stage this hunk or any of the later hunks in the file
g - select a hunk to go to
/ - search for a hunk matching the given regex
j - leave this hunk undecided, see next undecided hunk
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 54d8461..9adce37 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--ignore-date] [--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace]
[--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
- [--[no-]scissors]
+ [--[no-]scissors] [-S[<keyid>]] [--patch-format=<format>]
[(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
@@ -97,6 +97,12 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
program that applies
the patch.
+--patch-format::
+ By default the command will try to detect the patch format
+ automatically. This option allows the user to bypass the automatic
+ detection and specify the patch format that the patch(es) should be
+ interpreted as. Valid formats are mbox, stgit, stgit-series and hg.
+
-i::
--interactive::
Run interactively.
@@ -119,6 +125,10 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
restarting an aborted patch.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
--continue::
-r::
--resolved::
@@ -189,6 +199,11 @@ commits, like running 'git am' on the wrong branch or an error in the
commits that is more easily fixed by changing the mailbox (e.g.
errors in the "From:" lines).
+HOOKS
+-----
+This command can run `applypatch-msg`, `pre-applypatch`,
+and `post-applypatch` hooks. See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
+information.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index b97aaab..cfa1e4e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -65,7 +65,10 @@ OPTIONS
--remote=<repo>::
Instead of making a tar archive from the local repository,
- retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
+ retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository. Note that the
+ remote repository may place restrictions on which sha1
+ expressions may be allowed in `<tree-ish>`. See
+ linkgit:git-upload-archive[1] for details.
--exec=<git-upload-archive>::
Used with --remote to specify the path to the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index f986c5c..4cb52a7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ $ git bisect visualize
`view` may also be used as a synonym for `visualize`.
If the 'DISPLAY' environment variable is not set, 'git log' is used
-instead. You can also give command line options such as `-p` and
+instead. You can also give command-line options such as `-p` and
`--stat`.
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 8e70a61..9f23a86 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,8 @@ Apart from supporting file annotation, Git also supports searching the
development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This makes it
possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
-a text string in the diff. A small example:
+a text string in the diff. A small example of the pickaxe interface
+that searches for `blame_usage`:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
$ git log --pretty=oneline -S'blame_usage'
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 322f5ed..f6a16f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -109,6 +109,11 @@ newline. The available atoms are:
The size, in bytes, that the object takes up on disk. See the
note about on-disk sizes in the `CAVEATS` section below.
+`deltabase`::
+ If the object is stored as a delta on-disk, this expands to the
+ 40-hex sha1 of the delta base object. Otherwise, expands to the
+ null sha1 (40 zeroes). See `CAVEATS` below.
+
`rest`::
If this atom is used in the output string, input lines are split
at the first whitespace boundary. All characters before that
@@ -152,10 +157,11 @@ should be taken in drawing conclusions about which refs or objects are
responsible for disk usage. The size of a packed non-delta object may be
much larger than the size of objects which delta against it, but the
choice of which object is the base and which is the delta is arbitrary
-and is subject to change during a repack. Note also that multiple copies
-of an object may be present in the object database; in this case, it is
-undefined which copy's size will be reported.
+and is subject to change during a repack.
+Note also that multiple copies of an object may be present in the object
+database; in this case, it is undefined which copy's size or delta base
+will be reported.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 91294f8..33ad2ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -232,8 +232,8 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
commit, your HEAD becomes "detached" and you are no longer on
any branch (see below for details).
+
-As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
-checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
+As a special case, the `"@{-N}"` syntax for the N-th last branch/commit
+checks out branches (instead of detaching). You may also specify
`-` which is synonymous with `"@{-1}"`.
+
As a further special case, you may use `"A...B"` as a shortcut for the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index c205d23..1c03c79 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,8 @@ git-cherry-pick - Apply the changes introduced by some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff] <commit>...
+'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff]
+ [-S[<key-id>]] <commit>...
'git cherry-pick' --continue
'git cherry-pick' --quit
'git cherry-pick' --abort
@@ -100,6 +101,10 @@ effect to your index in a row.
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+-S[<key-id>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<key-id>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
--ff::
If the current HEAD is the same as the parent of the
cherry-pick'ed commit, then a fast forward to this commit will
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 450f158..0363d00 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -55,15 +55,12 @@ repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
never use the local optimizations). Specifying `--no-local` will
override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
Git transport instead.
-+
-To force copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable if you
-are trying to make a back-up of your repository), but still avoid the
-usual "Git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
--no-hardlinks::
- Optimize the cloning process from a repository on a
- local filesystem by copying files under `.git/objects`
- directory.
+ Force the cloning process from a repository on a local
+ filesystem to copy the files under the `.git/objects`
+ directory instead of using hardlinks. This may be desirable
+ if you are trying to make a back-up of your repository.
--shared::
-s::
@@ -181,12 +178,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--depth <depth>::
Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
- specified number of revisions. A shallow repository has a
- number of limitations (you cannot clone or fetch from
- it, nor push from nor into it), but is adequate if you
- are only interested in the recent history of a large project
- with a long history, and would want to send in fixes
- as patches.
+ specified number of revisions.
--[no-]single-branch::
Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
@@ -213,7 +205,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
- then make a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
+ then make a filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
The result is Git repository can be separated from working
tree.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-column.txt b/Documentation/git-column.txt
index 5d6f1cc..03d1846 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-column.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-column.txt
@@ -43,11 +43,6 @@ OPTIONS
--padding=<N>::
The number of spaces between columns. One space by default.
-
-Author
-------
-Written by Nguyen Thai Ngoc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index cafdc96..a469eab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -55,8 +55,13 @@ OPTIONS
from the standard input.
-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
GPG-sign commit.
+--no-gpg-sign::
+ Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
+ set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+
Commit Information
------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 1a7616c..0bbc8f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
[--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
- [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
+ [-i | -o] [-S[<key-id>]] [--] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -176,7 +176,7 @@ OPTIONS
--cleanup=<mode>::
This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
- `whitespace`, `verbatim`, or `default`.
+ `whitespace`, `verbatim`, `scissors` or `default`.
+
--
strip::
@@ -186,6 +186,12 @@ whitespace::
Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
verbatim::
Do not change the message at all.
+scissors::
+ Same as `whitespace`, except that everything from (and
+ including) the line
+ "`# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------`"
+ is truncated if the message is to be edited. "`#`" can be
+ customized with core.commentChar.
default::
Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
Otherwise `whitespace`.
@@ -302,6 +308,10 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
GPG-sign commit.
+--no-gpg-sign::
+ Countermand `commit.gpgsign` configuration variable that is
+ set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index e9917b8..9dfa1a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -256,7 +256,7 @@ All writing options will per default write to the repository specific
configuration file. Note that this also affects options like '--replace-all'
and '--unset'. *'git config' will only ever change one file at a time*.
-You can override these rules either by command line options or by environment
+You can override these rules either by command-line options or by environment
variables. The '--global' and the '--system' options will limit the file used
to the global or system-wide file respectively. The GIT_CONFIG environment
variable has a similar effect, but you can specify any filename you want.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index b300e84..2ff3568 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -33,8 +33,8 @@ size-pack: disk space consumed by the packs, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
prune-packable: the number of loose objects that are also present in
the packs. These objects could be pruned using `git prune-packed`.
+
-garbage: the number of files in object database that are not valid
-loose objects nor valid packs
+garbage: the number of files in object database that are neither valid loose
+objects nor valid packs
+
size-garbage: disk space consumed by garbage files, in KiB (unless -H is
specified)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt
index d15db42..7051c6b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-credential-cache--daemon - Temporarily store user credentials in memory
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-git credential-cache--daemon <socket>
+git credential-cache--daemon [--debug] <socket>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -21,6 +21,10 @@ for `git-credential-cache` clients. Clients may store and retrieve
credentials. Each credential is held for a timeout specified by the
client; once no credentials are held, the daemon exits.
+If the `--debug` option is specified, the daemon does not close its
+stderr stream, and may output extra diagnostics to it even after it has
+begun listening for clients.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index 2df9953..260f39f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -21,8 +21,8 @@ DESCRIPTION
*WARNING:* `git cvsimport` uses cvsps version 2, which is considered
deprecated; it does not work with cvsps version 3 and later. If you are
performing a one-shot import of a CVS repository consider using
-link:http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
-link:https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
+http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
+https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
Imports a CVS repository into Git. It will either create a new
repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 223f731..a69b361 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -169,7 +169,7 @@ Git configuration files in that directory are readable by `<user>`.
--forbid-override=<service>::
Allow/forbid overriding the site-wide default with per
repository configuration. By default, all the services
- are overridable.
+ may be overridden.
--[no-]informative-errors::
When informative errors are turned on, git-daemon will report
@@ -184,7 +184,7 @@ Git configuration files in that directory are readable by `<user>`.
Every time a client connects, first run an external command
specified by the <path> with service name (e.g. "upload-pack"),
path to the repository, hostname (%H), canonical hostname
- (%CH), ip address (%IP), and tcp port (%P) as its command line
+ (%CH), IP address (%IP), and TCP port (%P) as its command-line
arguments. The external command can decide to decline the
service by exiting with a non-zero status (or to allow it by
exiting with a zero status). It can also look at the $REMOTE_ADDR
@@ -204,7 +204,7 @@ SERVICES
--------
These services can be globally enabled/disabled using the
-command line options of this command. If a finer-grained
+command-line options of this command. If finer-grained
control is desired (e.g. to allow 'git archive' to be run
against only in a few selected repositories the daemon serves),
the per-repository configuration file can be used to enable or
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index 33fbd8c..bbab35f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
would want comparison with the latest commit, so if you
do not give <commit>, it defaults to HEAD.
- If HEAD does not exist (e.g. unborned branches) and
+ If HEAD does not exist (e.g. unborn branches) and
<commit> is not given, it shows all staged changes.
--staged is a synonym of --cached.
@@ -158,8 +158,8 @@ $ git diff --name-status <2>
$ git diff arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <3>
------------
+
-<1> Show only modification, rename and copy, but not addition
-nor deletion.
+<1> Show only modification, rename, and copy, but not addition
+or deletion.
<2> Show only names and the nature of change, but not actual
diff output.
<3> Limit diff output to named subtrees.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 11887e6..333cf6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -91,6 +91,15 @@ instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
the default diff tool will be read from the configured
`diff.guitool` variable instead of `diff.tool`.
+--[no-]trust-exit-code::
+ 'git-difftool' invokes a diff tool individually on each file.
+ Errors reported by the diff tool are ignored by default.
+ Use `--trust-exit-code` to make 'git-difftool' exit when an
+ invoked diff tool returns a non-zero exit code.
++
+'git-difftool' will forward the exit code of the invoked tool when
+'--trust-exit-code' is used.
+
See linkgit:git-diff[1] for the full list of supported options.
CONFIG VARIABLES
@@ -116,6 +125,11 @@ See the `--tool=<tool>` option above for more details.
difftool.prompt::
Prompt before each invocation of the diff tool.
+difftool.trustExitCode::
+ Exit difftool if the invoked diff tool returns a non-zero exit status.
++
+See the `--trust-exit-code` option above for more details.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-diff[1]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index 85f1f30..dbe9a46 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -105,6 +105,15 @@ marks the same across runs.
in the commit (as opposed to just listing the files which are
different from the commit's first parent).
+--anonymize::
+ Anonymize the contents of the repository while still retaining
+ the shape of the history and stored tree. See the section on
+ `ANONYMIZING` below.
+
+--refspec::
+ Apply the specified refspec to each ref exported. Multiple of them can
+ be specified.
+
[<git-rev-list-args>...]::
A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
@@ -137,6 +146,62 @@ referenced by that revision range contains the string
'refs/heads/master'.
+ANONYMIZING
+-----------
+
+If the `--anonymize` option is given, git will attempt to remove all
+identifying information from the repository while still retaining enough
+of the original tree and history patterns to reproduce some bugs. The
+goal is that a git bug which is found on a private repository will
+persist in the anonymized repository, and the latter can be shared with
+git developers to help solve the bug.
+
+With this option, git will replace all refnames, paths, blob contents,
+commit and tag messages, names, and email addresses in the output with
+anonymized data. Two instances of the same string will be replaced
+equivalently (e.g., two commits with the same author will have the same
+anonymized author in the output, but bear no resemblance to the original
+author string). The relationship between commits, branches, and tags is
+retained, as well as the commit timestamps (but the commit messages and
+refnames bear no resemblance to the originals). The relative makeup of
+the tree is retained (e.g., if you have a root tree with 10 files and 3
+trees, so will the output), but their names and the contents of the
+files will be replaced.
+
+If you think you have found a git bug, you can start by exporting an
+anonymized stream of the whole repository:
+
+---------------------------------------------------
+$ git fast-export --anonymize --all >anon-stream
+---------------------------------------------------
+
+Then confirm that the bug persists in a repository created from that
+stream (many bugs will not, as they really do depend on the exact
+repository contents):
+
+---------------------------------------------------
+$ git init anon-repo
+$ cd anon-repo
+$ git fast-import <../anon-stream
+$ ... test your bug ...
+---------------------------------------------------
+
+If the anonymized repository shows the bug, it may be worth sharing
+`anon-stream` along with a regular bug report. Note that the anonymized
+stream compresses very well, so gzipping it is encouraged. If you want
+to examine the stream to see that it does not contain any private data,
+you can peruse it directly before sending. You may also want to try:
+
+---------------------------------------------------
+$ perl -pe 's/\d+/X/g' <anon-stream | sort -u | less
+---------------------------------------------------
+
+which shows all of the unique lines (with numbers converted to "X", to
+collapse "User 0", "User 1", etc into "User X"). This produces a much
+smaller output, and it is usually easy to quickly confirm that there is
+no private data in the stream.
+
+
Limitations
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index fd22a9a..377eeaa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -231,7 +231,7 @@ Date Formats
~~~~~~~~~~~~
The following date formats are supported. A frontend should select
the format it will use for this import by passing the format name
-in the \--date-format=<fmt> command line option.
+in the \--date-format=<fmt> command-line option.
`raw`::
This is the Git native format and is `<time> SP <offutc>`.
@@ -348,7 +348,7 @@ and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
`done`::
Marks the end of the stream. This command is optional
unless the `done` feature was requested using the
- `--done` command line option or `feature done` command.
+ `--done` command-line option or `feature done` command.
`cat-blob`::
Causes fast-import to print a blob in 'cat-file --batch'
@@ -437,7 +437,7 @@ the email address from the other fields in the line. Note that
of bytes, except `LT`, `GT` and `LF`. `<name>` is typically UTF-8 encoded.
The time of the change is specified by `<when>` using the date format
-that was selected by the \--date-format=<fmt> command line option.
+that was selected by the \--date-format=<fmt> command-line option.
See ``Date Formats'' above for the set of supported formats, and
their syntax.
@@ -483,6 +483,9 @@ Marks must be declared (via `mark`) before they can be used.
* Any valid Git SHA-1 expression that resolves to a commit. See
``SPECIFYING REVISIONS'' in linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for details.
+* The special null SHA-1 (40 zeros) specifies that the branch is to be
+ removed.
+
The special case of restarting an incremental import from the
current branch value should be written as:
----
@@ -1085,7 +1088,7 @@ Option commands must be the first commands on the input (not counting
feature commands), to give an option command after any non-option
command is an error.
-The following commandline options change import semantics and may therefore
+The following command-line options change import semantics and may therefore
not be passed as option:
* date-format
@@ -1099,7 +1102,7 @@ not be passed as option:
If the `done` feature is not in use, treated as if EOF was read.
This can be used to tell fast-import to finish early.
-If the `--done` command line option or `feature done` command is
+If the `--done` command-line option or `feature done` command is
in use, the `done` command is mandatory and marks the end of the
stream.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index e08a028..8deb614 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -17,26 +17,31 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Fetches named heads or tags from one or more other repositories,
-along with the objects necessary to complete them.
-
-The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
-in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information is left for a later merge
-operation done by 'git merge'.
-
-When <refspec> stores the fetched result in remote-tracking branches,
-the tags that point at these branches are automatically
-followed. This is done by first fetching from the remote using
-the given <refspec>s, and if the repository has objects that are
-pointed by remote tags that it does not yet have, then fetch
-those missing tags. If the other end has tags that point at
-branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.
-
-'git fetch' can fetch from either a single named repository,
+Fetch branches and/or tags (collectively, "refs") from one or more
+other repositories, along with the objects necessary to complete their
+histories. Remote-tracking branches are updated (see the description
+of <refspec> below for ways to control this behavior).
+
+By default, any tag that points into the histories being fetched is
+also fetched; the effect is to fetch tags that
+point at branches that you are interested in. This default behavior
+can be changed by using the --tags or --no-tags options or by
+configuring remote.<name>.tagopt. By using a refspec that fetches tags
+explicitly, you can fetch tags that do not point into branches you
+are interested in as well.
+
+'git fetch' can fetch from either a single named repository or URL,
or from several repositories at once if <group> is given and
there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file.
(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+When no remote is specified, by default the `origin` remote will be used,
+unless there's an upstream branch configured for the current branch.
+
+The names of refs that are fetched, together with the object names
+they point at, are written to `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information
+may be used by scripts or other git commands, such as linkgit:git-pull[1].
+
OPTIONS
-------
include::fetch-options.txt[]
@@ -46,6 +51,55 @@ include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
include::urls-remotes.txt[]
+CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES[[CRTB]]
+-------------------------------------------
+
+You often interact with the same remote repository by
+regularly and repeatedly fetching from it. In order to keep track
+of the progress of such a remote repository, `git fetch` allows you
+to configure `remote.<repository>.fetch` configuration variables.
+
+Typically such a variable may look like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+[remote "origin"]
+ fetch = +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
+------------------------------------------------
+
+This configuration is used in two ways:
+
+* When `git fetch` is run without specifying what branches
+ and/or tags to fetch on the command line, e.g. `git fetch origin`
+ or `git fetch`, `remote.<repository>.fetch` values are used as
+ the refspecs---they specify which refs to fetch and which local refs
+ to update. The example above will fetch
+ all branches that exist in the `origin` (i.e. any ref that matches
+ the left-hand side of the value, `refs/heads/*`) and update the
+ corresponding remote-tracking branches in the `refs/remotes/origin/*`
+ hierarchy.
+
+* When `git fetch` is run with explicit branches and/or tags
+ to fetch on the command line, e.g. `git fetch origin master`, the
+ <refspec>s given on the command line determine what are to be
+ fetched (e.g. `master` in the example,
+ which is a short-hand for `master:`, which in turn means
+ "fetch the 'master' branch but I do not explicitly say what
+ remote-tracking branch to update with it from the command line"),
+ and the example command will
+ fetch _only_ the 'master' branch. The `remote.<repository>.fetch`
+ values determine which
+ remote-tracking branch, if any, is updated. When used in this
+ way, the `remote.<repository>.fetch` values do not have any
+ effect in deciding _what_ gets fetched (i.e. the values are not
+ used as refspecs when the command-line lists refspecs); they are
+ only used to decide _where_ the refs that are fetched are stored
+ by acting as a mapping.
+
+The latter use of the `remote.<repository>.fetch` values can be
+overridden by giving the `--refmap=<refspec>` parameter(s) on the
+command line.
+
+
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -73,6 +127,19 @@ the local repository by fetching from the branches (respectively)
The `pu` branch will be updated even if it is does not fast-forward,
because it is prefixed with a plus sign; `tmp` will not be.
+* Peek at a remote's branch, without configuring the remote in your local
+repository:
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git fetch git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git maint
+$ git log FETCH_HEAD
+------------------------------------------------
++
+The first command fetches the `maint` branch from the repository at
+`git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git` and the second command uses
+`FETCH_HEAD` to examine the branch with linkgit:git-log[1]. The fetched
+objects will eventually be removed by git's built-in housekeeping (see
+linkgit:git-gc[1]).
BUGS
----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index e4c8e82..09535f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -393,7 +393,7 @@ git filter-branch --index-filter \
Checklist for Shrinking a Repository
------------------------------------
-git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
+git-filter-branch can be used to get rid of a subset of files,
usually with some combination of `--index-filter` and
`--subdirectory-filter`. People expect the resulting repository to
be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to
@@ -429,6 +429,37 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
+Notes
+-----
+
+git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
+of your Git history, but you probably don't need this flexibility if
+you're simply _removing unwanted data_ like large files or passwords.
+For those operations you may want to consider
+http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/[The BFG Repo-Cleaner],
+a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least
+10-50x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different
+characteristics:
+
+* Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly _once_. The BFG,
+ unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to
+ handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed
+ within your history. This constraint gives the core performance
+ benefit of The BFG, and is well-suited to the task of cleansing bad
+ data - you don't care _where_ the bad data is, you just want it
+ _gone_.
+
+* By default The BFG takes full advantage of multi-core machines,
+ cleansing commit file-trees in parallel. git-filter-branch cleans
+ commits sequentially (ie in a single-threaded manner), though it
+ _is_ possible to write filters that include their own parallellism,
+ in the scripts executed against each commit.
+
+* The http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/#examples[command options]
+ are much more restrictive than git-filter branch, and dedicated just
+ to the tasks of removing unwanted data- e.g:
+ `--strip-blobs-bigger-than 1M`.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index f2e08d1..4240875 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -91,7 +91,19 @@ objectname::
upstream::
The name of a local ref which can be considered ``upstream''
from the displayed ref. Respects `:short` in the same way as
- `refname` above.
+ `refname` above. Additionally respects `:track` to show
+ "[ahead N, behind M]" and `:trackshort` to show the terse
+ version: ">" (ahead), "<" (behind), "<>" (ahead and behind),
+ or "=" (in sync). Has no effect if the ref does not have
+ tracking information associated with it.
+
+HEAD::
+ '*' if HEAD matches current ref (the checked out branch), ' '
+ otherwise.
+
+color::
+ Change output color. Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
+ are described in `color.branch.*`.
In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
@@ -207,13 +219,9 @@ eval=`git for-each-ref --shell --format="$fmt" \
eval "$eval"
------------
-Author
-------
-Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>.
-
-Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-show-ref[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 5c0a4ab..c0fd470 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
[-s | --signoff]
[--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
+ [--signature-file=<file>]
[-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
[--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
@@ -233,6 +234,9 @@ configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
number.
+--signature-file=<file>::
+ Works just like --signature except the signature is read from a file.
+
--suffix=.<sfx>::
Instead of using `.patch` as the suffix for generated
filenames, use specified suffix. A common alternative is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index e158a3b..273c466 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -124,6 +124,9 @@ the value, the more time is spent optimizing the delta compression. See
the documentation for the --window' option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
more details. This defaults to 250.
+Similarly, the optional configuration variable 'gc.aggressiveDepth'
+controls --depth option in linkgit:git-repack[1]. This defaults to 250.
+
The optional configuration variable 'gc.pruneExpire' controls how old
the unreferenced loose objects have to be before they are pruned. The
default is "2 weeks ago".
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index f837334..31811f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -53,6 +53,9 @@ grep.extendedRegexp::
option is ignored when the 'grep.patternType' option is set to a value
other than 'default'.
+grep.fullName::
+ If set to true, enable '--full-name' option by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index b21e9d7..3956525 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -80,9 +80,9 @@ CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
help.format
~~~~~~~~~~~
-If no command line option is passed, the 'help.format' configuration
+If no command-line option is passed, the 'help.format' configuration
variable will be checked. The following values are supported for this
-variable; they make 'git help' behave as their corresponding command
+variable; they make 'git help' behave as their corresponding command-
line option:
* "man" corresponds to '-m|--man',
@@ -93,15 +93,15 @@ help.browser, web.browser and browser.<tool>.path
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The 'help.browser', 'web.browser' and 'browser.<tool>.path' will also
-be checked if the 'web' format is chosen (either by command line
+be checked if the 'web' format is chosen (either by command-line
option or configuration variable). See '-w|--web' in the OPTIONS
section above and linkgit:git-web{litdd}browse[1].
man.viewer
~~~~~~~~~~
-The 'man.viewer' config variable will be checked if the 'man' format
-is chosen. The following values are currently supported:
+The 'man.viewer' configuration variable will be checked if the 'man'
+format is chosen. The following values are currently supported:
* "man": use the 'man' program as usual,
* "woman": use 'emacsclient' to launch the "woman" mode in emacs
@@ -124,7 +124,7 @@ For example, this configuration:
viewer = woman
------------------------------------------------
-will try to use konqueror first. But this may fail (for example if
+will try to use konqueror first. But this may fail (for example, if
DISPLAY is not set) and in that case emacs' woman mode will be tried.
If everything fails, or if no viewer is configured, the viewer specified
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
index e3bcdb5..d422ba4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -191,7 +191,7 @@ ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
----------------------------------------------------------------
Lighttpd::
- Ensure that `mod_cgi`, `mod_alias, `mod_auth`, `mod_setenv` are
+ Ensure that `mod_cgi`, `mod_alias`, `mod_auth`, `mod_setenv` are
loaded, then set `GIT_PROJECT_ROOT` appropriately and redirect
all requests to the CGI:
+
@@ -263,14 +263,6 @@ identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.
All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks
invoked by the 'git-receive-pack'.
-Author
-------
-Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
-
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index 875d283..c7c0d21 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -38,18 +38,17 @@ Variables
imap.folder::
The folder to drop the mails into, which is typically the Drafts
folder. For example: "INBOX.Drafts", "INBOX/Drafts" or
- "[Gmail]/Drafts". Required to use imap-send.
+ "[Gmail]/Drafts". Required.
imap.tunnel::
Command used to setup a tunnel to the IMAP server through which
commands will be piped instead of using a direct network connection
- to the server. Required when imap.host is not set to use imap-send.
+ to the server. Required when imap.host is not set.
imap.host::
A URL identifying the server. Use a `imap://` prefix for non-secure
connections and a `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
- Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required to use imap-send
- otherwise.
+ Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required otherwise.
imap.user::
The username to use when logging in to the server.
@@ -76,7 +75,8 @@ imap.preformattedHTML::
imap.authMethod::
Specify authenticate method for authentication with IMAP server.
- Current supported method is 'CRAM-MD5' only.
+ Current supported method is 'CRAM-MD5' only. If this is not set
+ then 'git imap-send' uses the basic IMAP plaintext LOGIN command.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ Using direct mode:
host = imap://imap.example.com
user = bob
pass = p4ssw0rd
-..........................
+.........................
Using direct mode with SSL:
@@ -109,7 +109,7 @@ Using direct mode with SSL:
pass = p4ssw0rd
port = 123
sslverify = false
-..........................
+.........................
EXAMPLE
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index afd721e..369f889 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
-q::
--quiet::
-Only print error and warning messages, all other output will be suppressed.
+Only print error and warning messages; all other output will be suppressed.
--bare::
@@ -57,12 +57,12 @@ DIRECTORY" section below.)
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
-Instead of initializing the repository where it is supposed to be,
-place a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link there, pointing to the
-specified path, and initialize a Git repository at the path. The
-result is Git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
-is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified
-path.
+Instead of initializing the repository as a directory to either `$GIT_DIR` or
+`./.git/`, create a text file there containing the path to the actual
+repository. This file acts as filesystem-agnostic Git symbolic link to the
+repository.
++
+If this is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified path.
--shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody|0xxx)]::
@@ -72,60 +72,65 @@ repository. When specified, the config variable "core.sharedRepository" is
set so that files and directories under `$GIT_DIR` are created with the
requested permissions. When not specified, Git will use permissions reported
by umask(2).
-
++
The option can have the following values, defaulting to 'group' if no value
is given:
++
+--
+'umask' (or 'false')::
- - 'umask' (or 'false'): Use permissions reported by umask(2). The default,
- when `--shared` is not specified.
+Use permissions reported by umask(2). The default, when `--shared` is not
+specified.
- - 'group' (or 'true'): Make the repository group-writable, (and g+sx, since
- the git group may be not the primary group of all users).
- This is used to loosen the permissions of an otherwise safe umask(2) value.
- Note that the umask still applies to the other permission bits (e.g. if
- umask is '0022', using 'group' will not remove read privileges from other
- (non-group) users). See '0xxx' for how to exactly specify the repository
- permissions.
+'group' (or 'true')::
- - 'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody'): Same as 'group', but make the repository
- readable by all users.
+Make the repository group-writable, (and g+sx, since the git group may be not
+the primary group of all users). This is used to loosen the permissions of an
+otherwise safe umask(2) value. Note that the umask still applies to the other
+permission bits (e.g. if umask is '0022', using 'group' will not remove read
+privileges from other (non-group) users). See '0xxx' for how to exactly specify
+the repository permissions.
- - '0xxx': '0xxx' is an octal number and each file will have mode '0xxx'.
- '0xxx' will override users' umask(2) value (and not only loosen permissions
- as 'group' and 'all' does). '0640' will create a repository which is
- group-readable, but not group-writable or accessible to others. '0660' will
- create a repo that is readable and writable to the current user and group,
- but inaccessible to others.
+'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody')::
-By default, the configuration flag receive.denyNonFastForwards is enabled
+Same as 'group', but make the repository readable by all users.
+
+'0xxx'::
+
+'0xxx' is an octal number and each file will have mode '0xxx'. '0xxx' will
+override users' umask(2) value (and not only loosen permissions as 'group' and
+'all' does). '0640' will create a repository which is group-readable, but not
+group-writable or accessible to others. '0660' will create a repo that is
+readable and writable to the current user and group, but inaccessible to others.
+--
+
+By default, the configuration flag `receive.denyNonFastForwards` is enabled
in shared repositories, so that you cannot force a non fast-forwarding push
into it.
-If you name a (possibly non-existent) directory at the end of the command
-line, the command is run inside the directory (possibly after creating it).
+If you provide a 'directory', the command is run inside it. If this directory
+does not exist, it will be created.
--
-
TEMPLATE DIRECTORY
------------------
The template directory contains files and directories that will be copied to
the `$GIT_DIR` after it is created.
-The template directory used will (in order):
+The template directory will be one of the following (in order):
- - The argument given with the `--template` option.
+ - the argument given with the `--template` option;
- - The contents of the `$GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR` environment variable.
+ - the contents of the `$GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR` environment variable;
- - The `init.templatedir` configuration variable.
+ - the `init.templatedir` configuration variable; or
- - The default template directory: `/usr/share/git-core/templates`.
+ - the default template directory: `/usr/share/git-core/templates`.
-The default template directory includes some directory structure, some
-suggested "exclude patterns", and copies of sample "hook" files.
-The suggested patterns and hook files are all modifiable and extensible.
+The default template directory includes some directory structure, suggested
+"exclude patterns" (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), and sample hook files (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -136,10 +141,12 @@ Start a new Git repository for an existing code base::
$ cd /path/to/my/codebase
$ git init <1>
$ git add . <2>
+$ git commit <3>
----------------
+
-<1> prepare /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory
-<2> add all existing file to the index
+<1> Create a /path/to/my/codebase/.git directory.
+<2> Add all existing files to the index.
+<3> Record the pristine state as the first commit in the history.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..81fac3d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,314 @@
+git-interpret-trailers(1)
+=========================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-interpret-trailers - help add stuctured information into commit messages
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git interpret-trailers' [--trim-empty] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Help adding 'trailers' lines, that look similar to RFC 822 e-mail
+headers, at the end of the otherwise free-form part of a commit
+message.
+
+This command reads some patches or commit messages from either the
+<file> arguments or the standard input if no <file> is specified. Then
+this command applies the arguments passed using the `--trailer`
+option, if any, to the commit message part of each input file. The
+result is emitted on the standard output.
+
+Some configuration variables control the way the `--trailer` arguments
+are applied to each commit message and the way any existing trailer in
+the commit message is changed. They also make it possible to
+automatically add some trailers.
+
+By default, a '<token>=<value>' or '<token>:<value>' argument given
+using `--trailer` will be appended after the existing trailers only if
+the last trailer has a different (<token>, <value>) pair (or if there
+is no existing trailer). The <token> and <value> parts will be trimmed
+to remove starting and trailing whitespace, and the resulting trimmed
+<token> and <value> will appear in the message like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+token: value
+------------------------------------------------
+
+This means that the trimmed <token> and <value> will be separated by
+`': '` (one colon followed by one space).
+
+By default the new trailer will appear at the end of all the existing
+trailers. If there is no existing trailer, the new trailer will appear
+after the commit message part of the ouput, and, if there is no line
+with only spaces at the end of the commit message part, one blank line
+will be added before the new trailer.
+
+Existing trailers are extracted from the input message by looking for
+a group of one or more lines that contain a colon (by default), where
+the group is preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
+The group must either be at the end of the message or be the last
+non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---'. Such three
+minus signs start the patch part of the message.
+
+When reading trailers, there can be whitespaces before and after the
+token, the separator and the value. There can also be whitespaces
+indide the token and the value.
+
+Note that 'trailers' do not follow and are not intended to follow many
+rules for RFC 822 headers. For example they do not follow the line
+folding rules, the encoding rules and probably many other rules.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--trim-empty::
+ If the <value> part of any trailer contains only whitespace,
+ the whole trailer will be removed from the resulting message.
+ This apply to existing trailers as well as new trailers.
+
+--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>]::
+ Specify a (<token>, <value>) pair that should be applied as a
+ trailer to the input messages. See the description of this
+ command.
+
+CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
+-----------------------
+
+trailer.separators::
+ This option tells which characters are recognized as trailer
+ separators. By default only ':' is recognized as a trailer
+ separator, except that '=' is always accepted on the command
+ line for compatibility with other git commands.
++
+The first character given by this option will be the default character
+used when another separator is not specified in the config for this
+trailer.
++
+For example, if the value for this option is "%=$", then only lines
+using the format '<token><sep><value>' with <sep> containing '%', '='
+or '$' and then spaces will be considered trailers. And '%' will be
+the default separator used, so by default trailers will appear like:
+'<token>% <value>' (one percent sign and one space will appear between
+the token and the value).
+
+trailer.where::
+ This option tells where a new trailer will be added.
++
+This can be `end`, which is the default, `start`, `after` or `before`.
++
+If it is `end`, then each new trailer will appear at the end of the
+existing trailers.
++
+If it is `start`, then each new trailer will appear at the start,
+instead of the end, of the existing trailers.
++
+If it is `after`, then each new trailer will appear just after the
+last trailer with the same <token>.
++
+If it is `before`, then each new trailer will appear just before the
+first trailer with the same <token>.
+
+trailer.ifexists::
+ This option makes it possible to choose what action will be
+ performed when there is already at least one trailer with the
+ same <token> in the message.
++
+The valid values for this option are: `addIfDifferentNeighbor` (this
+is the default), `addIfDifferent`, `add`, `overwrite` or `doNothing`.
++
+With `addIfDifferentNeighbor`, a new trailer will be added only if no
+trailer with the same (<token>, <value>) pair is above or below the line
+where the new trailer will be added.
++
+With `addIfDifferent`, a new trailer will be added only if no trailer
+with the same (<token>, <value>) pair is already in the message.
++
+With `add`, a new trailer will be added, even if some trailers with
+the same (<token>, <value>) pair are already in the message.
++
+With `replace`, an existing trailer with the same <token> will be
+deleted and the new trailer will be added. The deleted trailer will be
+the closest one (with the same <token>) to the place where the new one
+will be added.
++
+With `doNothing`, nothing will be done; that is no new trailer will be
+added if there is already one with the same <token> in the message.
+
+trailer.ifmissing::
+ This option makes it possible to choose what action will be
+ performed when there is not yet any trailer with the same
+ <token> in the message.
++
+The valid values for this option are: `add` (this is the default) and
+`doNothing`.
++
+With `add`, a new trailer will be added.
++
+With `doNothing`, nothing will be done.
+
+trailer.<token>.key::
+ This `key` will be used instead of <token> in the trailer. At
+ the end of this key, a separator can appear and then some
+ space characters. By default the only valid separator is ':',
+ but this can be changed using the `trailer.separators` config
+ variable.
++
+If there is a separator, then the key will be used instead of both the
+<token> and the default separator when adding the trailer.
+
+trailer.<token>.where::
+ This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.where'
+ configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
+ that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
+
+trailer.<token>.ifexist::
+ This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifexist'
+ configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
+ that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
+
+trailer.<token>.ifmissing::
+ This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifmissing'
+ configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
+ that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
+
+trailer.<token>.command::
+ This option can be used to specify a shell command that will
+ be called to automatically add or modify a trailer with the
+ specified <token>.
++
+When this option is specified, the behavior is as if a special
+'<token>=<value>' argument were added at the beginning of the command
+line, where <value> is taken to be the standard output of the
+specified command with any leading and trailing whitespace trimmed
+off.
++
+If the command contains the `$ARG` string, this string will be
+replaced with the <value> part of an existing trailer with the same
+<token>, if any, before the command is launched.
++
+If some '<token>=<value>' arguments are also passed on the command
+line, when a 'trailer.<token>.command' is configured, the command will
+also be executed for each of these arguments. And the <value> part of
+these arguments, if any, will be used to replace the `$ARG` string in
+the command.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Configure a 'sign' trailer with a 'Signed-off-by' key, and then
+ add two of these trailers to a message:
++
+------------
+$ git config trailer.sign.key "Signed-off-by"
+$ cat msg.txt
+subject
+
+message
+$ cat msg.txt | git interpret-trailers --trailer 'sign: Alice <alice@example.com>' --trailer 'sign: Bob <bob@example.com>'
+subject
+
+message
+
+Signed-off-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
+Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
+------------
+
+* Extract the last commit as a patch, and add a 'Cc' and a
+ 'Reviewed-by' trailer to it:
++
+------------
+$ git format-patch -1
+0001-foo.patch
+$ git interpret-trailers --trailer 'Cc: Alice <alice@example.com>' --trailer 'Reviewed-by: Bob <bob@example.com>' 0001-foo.patch >0001-bar.patch
+------------
+
+* Configure a 'sign' trailer with a command to automatically add a
+ 'Signed-off-by: ' with the author information only if there is no
+ 'Signed-off-by: ' already, and show how it works:
++
+------------
+$ git config trailer.sign.key "Signed-off-by: "
+$ git config trailer.sign.ifmissing add
+$ git config trailer.sign.ifexists doNothing
+$ git config trailer.sign.command 'echo "$(git config user.name) <$(git config user.email)>"'
+$ git interpret-trailers <<EOF
+> EOF
+
+Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
+$ git interpret-trailers <<EOF
+> Signed-off-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
+> EOF
+
+Signed-off-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
+------------
+
+* Configure a 'fix' trailer with a key that contains a '#' and no
+ space after this character, and show how it works:
++
+------------
+$ git config trailer.separators ":#"
+$ git config trailer.fix.key "Fix #"
+$ echo "subject" | git interpret-trailers --trailer fix=42
+subject
+
+Fix #42
+------------
+
+* Configure a 'see' trailer with a command to show the subject of a
+ commit that is related, and show how it works:
++
+------------
+$ git config trailer.see.key "See-also: "
+$ git config trailer.see.ifExists "replace"
+$ git config trailer.see.ifMissing "doNothing"
+$ git config trailer.see.command "git log -1 --oneline --format=\"%h (%s)\" --abbrev-commit --abbrev=14 \$ARG"
+$ git interpret-trailers <<EOF
+> subject
+>
+> message
+>
+> see: HEAD~2
+> EOF
+subject
+
+message
+
+See-also: fe3187489d69c4 (subject of related commit)
+------------
+
+* Configure a commit template with some trailers with empty values
+ (using sed to show and keep the trailing spaces at the end of the
+ trailers), then configure a commit-msg hook that uses
+ 'git interpret-trailers' to remove trailers with empty values and
+ to add a 'git-version' trailer:
++
+------------
+$ sed -e 's/ Z$/ /' >commit_template.txt <<EOF
+> ***subject***
+>
+> ***message***
+>
+> Fixes: Z
+> Cc: Z
+> Reviewed-by: Z
+> Signed-off-by: Z
+> EOF
+$ git config commit.template commit_template.txt
+$ cat >.git/hooks/commit-msg <<EOF
+> #!/bin/sh
+> git interpret-trailers --trim-empty --trailer "git-version: \$(git describe)" "\$1" > "\$1.new"
+> mv "\$1.new" "\$1"
+> EOF
+$ chmod +x .git/hooks/commit-msg
+------------
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-commit[1], linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-config[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index d549328..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,74 +0,0 @@
-git-lost-found(1)
-=================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-lost-found - Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git lost-found'
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-*NOTE*: this command is deprecated. Use linkgit:git-fsck[1] with
-the option '--lost-found' instead.
-
-Finds dangling commits and tags from the object database, and
-creates refs to them in the .git/lost-found/ directory. Commits and
-tags that dereference to commits are stored in .git/lost-found/commit,
-and other objects are stored in .git/lost-found/other.
-
-
-OUTPUT
-------
-Prints to standard output the object names and one-line descriptions
-of any commits or tags found.
-
-EXAMPLE
--------
-
-Suppose you run 'git tag -f' and mistype the tag to overwrite.
-The ref to your tag is overwritten, but until you run 'git
-prune', the tag itself is still there.
-
-------------
-$ git lost-found
-[1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6] GIT 0.99.9c
-...
-------------
-
-Also you can use gitk to browse how any tags found relate to each
-other.
-
-------------
-$ gitk $(cd .git/lost-found/commit && echo ??*)
-------------
-
-After making sure you know which the object is the tag you are looking
-for, you can reconnect it to your regular `refs` hierarchy by using
-the `update-ref` command.
-
-------------
-$ git cat-file -t 1ef2b196
-tag
-$ git cat-file tag 1ef2b196
-object fa41bbce8e38c67a218415de6cfa510c7e50032a
-type commit
-tag v0.99.9c
-tagger Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> 1131059594 -0800
-
-GIT 0.99.9c
-
-This contains the following changes from the "master" branch, since
-...
-$ git update-ref refs/tags/not-lost-anymore 1ef2b196
-$ git rev-parse not-lost-anymore
-1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6
-------------
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index c0856a6..e26f01f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -185,15 +185,15 @@ specifies the format of exclude patterns.
These exclude patterns come from these places, in order:
- 1. The command line flag --exclude=<pattern> specifies a
+ 1. The command-line flag --exclude=<pattern> specifies a
single pattern. Patterns are ordered in the same order
they appear in the command line.
- 2. The command line flag --exclude-from=<file> specifies a
+ 2. The command-line flag --exclude-from=<file> specifies a
file containing a list of patterns. Patterns are ordered
in the same order they appear in the file.
- 3. The command line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies
+ 3. The command-line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies
a name of the file in each directory 'git ls-files'
examines, normally `.gitignore`. Files in deeper
directories take precedence. Patterns are ordered in the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 87842e3..808426f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git merge-base' [-a|--all] --octopus <commit>...
'git merge-base' --is-ancestor <commit> <commit>
'git merge-base' --independent <commit>...
+'git merge-base' --fork-point <ref> [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -24,8 +25,8 @@ that does not have any better common ancestor is a 'best common
ancestor', i.e. a 'merge base'. Note that there can be more than one
merge base for a pair of commits.
-OPERATION MODE
---------------
+OPERATION MODES
+---------------
As the most common special case, specifying only two commits on the
command line means computing the merge base between the given two commits.
@@ -56,6 +57,14 @@ from linkgit:git-show-branch[1] when used with the `--merge-base` option.
and exit with status 0 if true, or with status 1 if not.
Errors are signaled by a non-zero status that is not 1.
+--fork-point::
+ Find the point at which a branch (or any history that leads
+ to <commit>) forked from another branch (or any reference)
+ <ref>. This does not just look for the common ancestor of
+ the two commits, but also takes into account the reflog of
+ <ref> to see if the history leading to <commit> forked from
+ an earlier incarnation of the branch <ref> (see discussion
+ on this mode below).
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -137,6 +146,31 @@ In modern git, you can say this in a more direct way:
instead.
+Discussion on fork-point mode
+-----------------------------
+
+After working on the `topic` branch created with `git checkout -b
+topic origin/master`, the history of remote-tracking branch
+`origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
+history of this shape:
+
+ o---B1
+ /
+ ---o---o---B2--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \
+ B3
+ \
+ Derived (topic)
+
+where `origin/master` used to point at commits B3, B2, B1 and now it
+points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
+when `origin/master` was at B3. This mode uses the reflog of
+`origin/master` to find B3 as the fork point, so that the `topic`
+can be rebased on top of the updated `origin/master` by:
+
+ $ fork_point=$(git merge-base --fork-point origin/master topic)
+ $ git rebase --onto origin/master $fork_point topic
+
See also
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 4395459..cf2c374 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
- [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
+ [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<key-id>]]
[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
'git merge' --abort
@@ -101,9 +101,8 @@ commit or stash your changes before running 'git merge'.
Specifying more than one commit will create a merge with
more than two parents (affectionately called an Octopus merge).
+
-If no commit is given from the command line, and if `merge.defaultToUpstream`
-configuration variable is set, merge the remote-tracking branches
-that the current branch is configured to use as its upstream.
+If no commit is given from the command line, merge the remote-tracking
+branches that the current branch is configured to use as its upstream.
See also the configuration section of this manual page.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 07137f2..e846c2e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -71,11 +71,13 @@ success of the resolution after the custom tool has exited.
--no-prompt::
Don't prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution
program.
+ This is the default if the merge resolution program is
+ explicitly specified with the `--tool` option or with the
+ `merge.tool` configuration variable.
--prompt::
- Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program.
- This is the default behaviour; the option is provided to
- override any configuration settings.
+ Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program
+ to give the user a chance to skip the path.
TEMPORARY FILES
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
index b1f7988..e453132 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -52,6 +52,18 @@ core.worktree setting to make the submodule work in the new location.
It also will attempt to update the submodule.<name>.path setting in
the linkgit:gitmodules[5] file and stage that file (unless -n is used).
+BUGS
+----
+Each time a superproject update moves a populated submodule (e.g. when
+switching between commits before and after the move) a stale submodule
+checkout will remain in the old location and an empty directory will
+appear in the new location. To populate the submodule again in the new
+location the user will have to run "git submodule update"
+afterwards. Removing the old directory is only safe when it uses a
+gitfile, as otherwise the history of the submodule will be deleted
+too. Both steps will be obsolete when recursive submodule update has
+been implemented.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index 46ef046..310f0a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git notes' append [-F <file> | -m <msg> | (-c | -C) <object>] [<object>]
'git notes' edit [<object>]
'git notes' show [<object>]
-'git notes' merge [-v | -q] [-s <strategy> ] <notes_ref>
+'git notes' merge [-v | -q] [-s <strategy> ] <notes-ref>
'git notes' merge --commit [-v | -q]
'git notes' merge --abort [-v | -q]
'git notes' remove [--ignore-missing] [--stdin] [<object>...]
@@ -375,16 +375,6 @@ does not match any refs is silently ignored.
If not set in the environment, the list of notes to copy depends
on the `notes.rewrite.<command>` and `notes.rewriteRef` settings.
-
-Author
-------
-Written by Johannes Schindelin <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de> and
-Johan Herland <johan@herland.net>
-
-Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Johannes Schindelin and Johan Herland
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 8cba16d..6ab5f94 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -168,7 +168,8 @@ All commands except clone accept these options.
--git-dir <dir>::
Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable. See linkgit:git[1].
---verbose, -v::
+-v::
+--verbose::
Provide more progress information.
Sync options
@@ -279,7 +280,8 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
to the perforce working directory.
---dry-run, -n::
+-n::
+--dry-run::
Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
state in Git or p4.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index d94edcd..d2d8f47 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -51,8 +51,7 @@ base-name::
<base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
When this option is used, the two files are written in
<base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA-1> is a hash
- of the sorted object names to make the resulting filename
- based on the pack content, and written to the standard
+ based on the pack content and is written to the standard
output of the command.
--stdout::
@@ -65,6 +64,8 @@ base-name::
the same way as 'git rev-list' with the `--objects` flag
uses its `commit` arguments to build the list of objects it
outputs. The objects on the resulting list are packed.
+ Besides revisions, `--not` or `--shallow <SHA-1>` lines are
+ also accepted.
--unpacked::
This implies `--revs`. When processing the list of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 312c3b1..31efc58 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -8,14 +8,14 @@ git-patch-id - Compute unique ID for a patch
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git patch-id' < <patch>
+'git patch-id' [--stable | --unstable] < <patch>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A "patch ID" is nothing but a SHA-1 of the diff associated with a patch, with
-whitespace and line numbers ignored. As such, it's "reasonably stable", but at
-the same time also reasonably unique, i.e., two patches that have the same "patch
-ID" are almost guaranteed to be the same thing.
+A "patch ID" is nothing but a sum of SHA-1 of the file diffs associated with a
+patch, with whitespace and line numbers ignored. As such, it's "reasonably
+stable", but at the same time also reasonably unique, i.e., two patches that
+have the same "patch ID" are almost guaranteed to be the same thing.
IOW, you can use this thing to look for likely duplicate commits.
@@ -27,6 +27,33 @@ This can be used to make a mapping from patch ID to commit ID.
OPTIONS
-------
+
+--stable::
+ Use a "stable" sum of hashes as the patch ID. With this option:
+ - Reordering file diffs that make up a patch does not affect the ID.
+ In particular, two patches produced by comparing the same two trees
+ with two different settings for "-O<orderfile>" result in the same
+ patch ID signature, thereby allowing the computed result to be used
+ as a key to index some meta-information about the change between
+ the two trees;
+
+ - Result is different from the value produced by git 1.9 and older
+ or produced when an "unstable" hash (see --unstable below) is
+ configured - even when used on a diff output taken without any use
+ of "-O<orderfile>", thereby making existing databases storing such
+ "unstable" or historical patch-ids unusable.
+
+ This is the default if patchid.stable is set to true.
+
+--unstable::
+ Use an "unstable" hash as the patch ID. With this option,
+ the result produced is compatible with the patch-id value produced
+ by git 1.9 and older. Users with pre-existing databases storing
+ patch-ids produced by git 1.9 and older (who do not deal with reordered
+ patches) may want to use this option.
+
+ This is the default.
+
<patch>::
The diff to create the ID of.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 87ea3fb..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,43 +0,0 @@
-git-peek-remote(1)
-==================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-peek-remote - List the references in a remote repository
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git peek-remote' [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>] [<host>:]<directory>
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-This command is deprecated; use 'git ls-remote' instead.
-
-OPTIONS
--------
---upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>::
- Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
- remote side, if it is not found on your $PATH. Some
- installations of sshd ignores the user's environment
- setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
- your privately installed git may not be found on the system
- default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
- up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
- who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
- shells, but prefer having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
- the things up in .bash_profile).
-
-<host>::
- A remote host that houses the repository. When this
- part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
- ssh.
-
-<directory>::
- The repository to sync from.
-
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
index 6738055..9fed59a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
git-prune-packed(1)
-=====================
+===================
NAME
----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index bf82410..7a493c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -24,6 +24,8 @@ objects unreachable from any of these head objects from the object database.
In addition, it
prunes the unpacked objects that are also found in packs by
running 'git prune-packed'.
+It also removes entries from .git/shallow that are not reachable by
+any ref.
Note that unreachable, packed objects will remain. If this is
not desired, see linkgit:git-repack[1].
@@ -54,7 +56,7 @@ OPTIONS
EXAMPLE
-------
-To prune objects not used by your repository nor another that
+To prune objects not used by your repository or another that
borrows from your repository via its
`.git/objects/info/alternates`:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 9eec740..21b3f29 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
- [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
+ [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
+ [-u | --set-upstream] [--signed]
[--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
@@ -56,8 +57,13 @@ it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
+
The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
-be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
-updated.
+be named.
+If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
+update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
+`remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
+be omitted---such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
+without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
+`:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
@@ -78,8 +84,8 @@ the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side.
--all::
- Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
- refs under `refs/heads/` be pushed.
+ Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
+ used with other <refspec>.
--prune::
Remove remote branches that don't have a local counterpart. For example
@@ -124,6 +130,12 @@ already exists on the remote side.
from the remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are
reachable from the refs being pushed.
+--signed::
+ GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
+ side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
+ logged. See linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details
+ on the receiving end.
+
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
@@ -380,7 +392,7 @@ will now start building on top of B.
The command by default does not allow an update that is not a fast-forward
to prevent such loss of history.
-If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work by
+If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) or the work by
the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first fetch the
history from the repository, create a history that contains changes done
by both parties, and push the result back.
@@ -437,8 +449,10 @@ Examples
configured for the current branch).
`git push origin`::
- Without additional configuration, works like
- `git push origin :`.
+ Without additional configuration, pushes the current branch to
+ the configured upstream (`remote.origin.merge` configuration
+ variable) if it has the same name as the current branch, and
+ errors out without pushing otherwise.
+
The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
configured by setting the `push` option of the remote, or the `push.default`
diff --git a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
index a356196..d64388c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
git-quiltimport(1)
-================
+==================
NAME
----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index c4bde65..fa1d557 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ OPTIONS
-n::
--dry-run::
Check if the command would error out, without updating the index
- nor the files in the working tree for real.
+ or the files in the working tree for real.
-v::
Show the progress of checking files out.
@@ -283,7 +283,7 @@ merge. The different stages represent the "result tree" (stage 0, aka
you are trying to merge (stage 2 and 3 respectively).
The order of stages 1, 2 and 3 (hence the order of three
-<tree-ish> command line arguments) are significant when you
+<tree-ish> command-line arguments) are significant when you
start a 3-way merge with an index file that is already
populated. Here is an outline of how the algorithm works:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 94e07fd..924827d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
- [<upstream>] [<branch>]
+ [<upstream> [<branch>]]
'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
--root [<branch>]
'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --edit-todo
@@ -21,15 +21,17 @@ If <branch> is specified, 'git rebase' will perform an automatic
it remains on the current branch.
If <upstream> is not specified, the upstream configured in
-branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options will be used; see
-linkgit:git-config[1] for details. If you are currently not on any
-branch or if the current branch does not have a configured upstream,
-the rebase will abort.
+branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options will be used (see
+linkgit:git-config[1] for details) and the `--fork-point` option is
+assumed. If you are currently not on any branch or if the current
+branch does not have a configured upstream, the rebase will abort.
All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not
in <upstream> are saved to a temporary area. This is the same set
-of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD` (or
-`git log HEAD`, if --root is specified).
+of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD`; or by
+`git log 'fork_point'..HEAD`, if `--fork-point` is active (see the
+description on `--fork-point` below); or by `git log HEAD`, if the
+`--root` option is specified.
The current branch is reset to <upstream>, or <newbase> if the
--onto option was supplied. This has the exact same effect as
@@ -281,6 +283,10 @@ which makes little sense.
specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
-q::
--quiet::
Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.
@@ -312,11 +318,8 @@ which makes little sense.
-f::
--force-rebase::
- Force the rebase even if the current branch is a descendant
- of the commit you are rebasing onto. Normally non-interactive rebase will
- exit with the message "Current branch is up to date" in such a
- situation.
- Incompatible with the --interactive option.
+ Force a rebase even if the current branch is up-to-date and
+ the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
+
You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
@@ -324,6 +327,21 @@ fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
the reversion" (see the
link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+--fork-point::
+--no-fork-point::
+ Use reflog to find a better common ancestor between <upstream>
+ and <branch> when calculating which commits have been
+ introduced by <branch>.
++
+When --fork-point is active, 'fork_point' will be used instead of
+<upstream> to calculate the set of commits to rebase, where
+'fork_point' is the result of `git merge-base --fork-point <upstream>
+<branch>` command (see linkgit:git-merge-base[1]). If 'fork_point'
+ends up being empty, the <upstream> will be used as a fallback.
++
+If either <upstream> or --root is given on the command line, then the
+default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
+
--ignore-whitespace::
--whitespace=<option>::
These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index b1f7dc6..9016960 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -53,6 +53,56 @@ the update. Refs to be created will have sha1-old equal to 0\{40},
while refs to be deleted will have sha1-new equal to 0\{40}, otherwise
sha1-old and sha1-new should be valid objects in the repository.
+When accepting a signed push (see linkgit:git-push[1]), the signed
+push certificate is stored in a blob and an environment variable
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT` can be consulted for its object name. See the
+description of `post-receive` hook for an example. In addition, the
+certificate is verified using GPG and the result is exported with
+the following environment variables:
+
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT_SIGNER`::
+ The name and the e-mail address of the owner of the key that
+ signed the push certificate.
+
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT_KEY`::
+ The GPG key ID of the key that signed the push certificate.
+
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT_STATUS`::
+ The status of GPG verification of the push certificate,
+ using the same mnemonic as used in `%G?` format of `git log`
+ family of commands (see linkgit:git-log[1]).
+
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE`::
+ The nonce string the process asked the signer to include
+ in the push certificate. If this does not match the value
+ recorded on the "nonce" header in the push certificate, it
+ may indicate that the certificate is a valid one that is
+ being replayed from a separate "git push" session.
+
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_STATUS`::
+`UNSOLICITED`;;
+ "git push --signed" sent a nonce when we did not ask it to
+ send one.
+`MISSING`;;
+ "git push --signed" did not send any nonce header.
+`BAD`;;
+ "git push --signed" sent a bogus nonce.
+`OK`;;
+ "git push --signed" sent the nonce we asked it to send.
+`SLOP`;;
+ "git push --signed" sent a nonce different from what we
+ asked it to send now, but in a previous session. See
+ `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_SLOP` environment variable.
+
+`GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_SLOP`::
+ "git push --signed" sent a nonce different from what we
+ asked it to send now, but in a different session whose
+ starting time is different by this many seconds from the
+ current session. Only meaningful when
+ `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_STATUS` says `SLOP`.
+ Also read about `receive.certnonceslop` variable in
+ linkgit:git-config[1].
+
This hook is called before any refname is updated and before any
fast-forward checks are performed.
@@ -101,9 +151,14 @@ the update. Refs that were created will have sha1-old equal to
0\{40}, otherwise sha1-old and sha1-new should be valid objects in
the repository.
+The `GIT_PUSH_CERT*` environment variables can be inspected, just as
+in `pre-receive` hook, after accepting a signed push.
+
Using this hook, it is easy to generate mails describing the updates
to the repository. This example script sends one mail message per
-ref listing the commits pushed to the repository:
+ref listing the commits pushed to the repository, and logs the push
+certificates of signed pushes with good signatures to a logger
+service:
#!/bin/sh
# mail out commit update information.
@@ -119,6 +174,14 @@ ref listing the commits pushed to the repository:
fi |
mail -s "Changes to ref $ref" commit-list@mydomain
done
+ # log signed push certificate, if any
+ if test -n "${GIT_PUSH_CERT-}" && test ${GIT_PUSH_CERT_STATUS} = G
+ then
+ (
+ echo expected nonce is ${GIT_PUSH_NONCE}
+ git cat-file blob ${GIT_PUSH_CERT}
+ ) | mail -s "push certificate from $GIT_PUSH_CERT_SIGNER" push-log@mydomain
+ fi
exit 0
The exit code from this hook invocation is ignored, however a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index 8cfc748..cd0bb77 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -116,11 +116,6 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
determined by the helper using environment variables (see
above).
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the Git list
-<git@vger.kernel.org>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
index 933c2ad..bcd3766 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
@@ -50,10 +50,6 @@ EXAMPLES
`git push fd::7,8/bar master`::
Same as above.
-Documentation
---------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the Git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
-
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 2507c8b..cb103c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-remote(1)
NAME
----
-git-remote - manage set of tracked repositories
+git-remote - Manage set of tracked repositories
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index 509cf73..4786a78 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-repack - Pack unpacked objects in a repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
+'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -110,6 +110,21 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
+-b::
+--write-bitmap-index::
+ Write a reachability bitmap index as part of the repack. This
+ only makes sense when used with `-a` or `-A`, as the bitmaps
+ must be able to refer to all reachable objects. This option
+ overrides the setting of `pack.writebitmaps`.
+
+--pack-kept-objects::
+ Include objects in `.keep` files when repacking. Note that we
+ still do not delete `.keep` packs after `pack-objects` finishes.
+ This means that we may duplicate objects, but this makes the
+ option safe to use when there are concurrent pushes or fetches.
+ This option is generally only useful if you are writing bitmaps
+ with `-b` or `pack.writebitmaps`, as it ensures that the
+ bitmapped packfile has the necessary objects.
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index f373ab4..8fff598 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git replace' [-f] <object> <replacement>
+'git replace' [-f] --edit <object>
+'git replace' [-f] --graft <commit> [<parent>...]
'git replace' -d <object>...
-'git replace' -l [<pattern>]
+'git replace' [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -63,6 +65,32 @@ OPTIONS
--delete::
Delete existing replace refs for the given objects.
+--edit <object>::
+ Edit an object's content interactively. The existing content
+ for <object> is pretty-printed into a temporary file, an
+ editor is launched on the file, and the result is parsed to
+ create a new object of the same type as <object>. A
+ replacement ref is then created to replace <object> with the
+ newly created object. See linkgit:git-var[1] for details about
+ how the editor will be chosen.
+
+--raw::
+ When editing, provide the raw object contents rather than
+ pretty-printed ones. Currently this only affects trees, which
+ will be shown in their binary form. This is harder to work with,
+ but can help when repairing a tree that is so corrupted it
+ cannot be pretty-printed. Note that you may need to configure
+ your editor to cleanly read and write binary data.
+
+--graft <commit> [<parent>...]::
+ Create a graft commit. A new commit is created with the same
+ content as <commit> except that its parents will be
+ [<parent>...] instead of <commit>'s parents. A replacement ref
+ is then created to replace <commit> with the newly created
+ commit. See contrib/convert-grafts-to-replace-refs.sh for an
+ example script based on this option that can convert grafts to
+ replace refs.
+
-l <pattern>::
--list <pattern>::
List replace refs for objects that match the given pattern (or
@@ -70,12 +98,31 @@ OPTIONS
Typing "git replace" without arguments, also lists all replace
refs.
+--format=<format>::
+ When listing, use the specified <format>, which can be one of
+ 'short', 'medium' and 'long'. When omitted, the format
+ defaults to 'short'.
+
+FORMATS
+-------
+
+The following format are available:
+
+* 'short':
+ <replaced sha1>
+* 'medium':
+ <replaced sha1> -> <replacement sha1>
+* 'long':
+ <replaced sha1> (<replaced type>) -> <replacement sha1> (<replacement type>)
+
CREATING REPLACEMENT OBJECTS
----------------------------
linkgit:git-filter-branch[1], linkgit:git-hash-object[1] and
linkgit:git-rebase[1], among other git commands, can be used to create
-replacement objects from existing objects.
+replacement objects from existing objects. The `--edit` option can
+also be used with 'git replace' to create a replacement object by
+editing an existing object.
If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part of a
string of commits, you may just want to create a replacement string of
@@ -100,6 +147,8 @@ linkgit:git-filter-branch[1]
linkgit:git-rebase[1]
linkgit:git-tag[1]
linkgit:git-branch[1]
+linkgit:git-commit[1]
+linkgit:git-var[1]
linkgit:git[1]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt b/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 9ec115b..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,23 +0,0 @@
-git-repo-config(1)
-==================
-
-NAME
-----
-git-repo-config - Get and set repository or global options
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git repo-config' ...
-
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-This is a synonym for linkgit:git-config[1]. Please refer to the
-documentation of that command.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
index b99681c..283577b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
@@ -13,22 +13,65 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Summarizes the changes between two commits to the standard output, and includes
-the given URL in the generated summary.
+Generate a request asking your upstream project to pull changes into
+their tree. The request, printed to the standard output, summarizes
+the changes and indicates from where they can be pulled.
+
+The upstream project is expected to have the commit named by
+`<start>` and the output asks it to integrate the changes you made
+since that commit, up to the commit named by `<end>`, by visiting
+the repository named by `<url>`.
+
OPTIONS
-------
-p::
- Show patch text
+ Include patch text in the output.
<start>::
- Commit to start at.
+ Commit to start at. This names a commit that is already in
+ the upstream history.
<url>::
- URL to include in the summary.
+ The repository URL to be pulled from.
<end>::
- Commit to end at; defaults to HEAD.
+ Commit to end at (defaults to HEAD). This names the commit
+ at the tip of the history you are asking to be pulled.
++
+When the repository named by `<url>` has the commit at a tip of a
+ref that is different from the ref you have locally, you can use the
+`<local>:<remote>` syntax, to have its local name, a colon `:`, and
+its remote name.
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+Imagine that you built your work on your `master` branch on top of
+the `v1.0` release, and want it to be integrated to the project.
+First you push that change to your public repository for others to
+see:
+
+ git push https://git.ko.xz/project master
+
+Then, you run this command:
+
+ git request-pull v1.0 https://git.ko.xz/project master
+
+which will produce a request to the upstream, summarizing the
+changes between the `v1.0` release and your `master`, to pull it
+from your public repository.
+
+If you pushed your change to a branch whose name is different from
+the one you have locally, e.g.
+
+ git push https://git.ko.xz/project master:for-linus
+
+then you can ask that to be pulled with
+
+ git request-pull v1.0 https://git.ko.xz/project master:for-linus
+
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index f445cb3..25432d9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
-'git reset' [--soft | --mixed | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
+'git reset' [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ to HEAD in all forms.
'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...::
This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their
- state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
+ state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the working tree or
the current branch.)
+
This means that `git reset <paths>` is the opposite of `git add
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
+
--
--soft::
- Does not touch the index file nor the working tree at all (but
+ Does not touch the index file or the working tree at all (but
resets the head to <commit>, just like all modes do). This leaves
all your changed files "Changes to be committed", as 'git status'
would put it.
@@ -60,6 +60,9 @@ section of linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate the `--patch` mode.
Resets the index but not the working tree (i.e., the changed files
are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not
been updated. This is the default action.
++
+If `-N` is specified, removed paths are marked as intent-to-add (see
+linkgit:git-add[1]).
--hard::
Resets the index and working tree. Any changes to tracked files in the
@@ -115,7 +118,7 @@ and changes with these files are distracting.
<2> Somebody asks you to pull, and the changes sounds worthy of merging.
<3> However, you already dirtied the index (i.e. your index does
not match the HEAD commit). But you know the pull you are going
-to make does not affect frotz.c nor filfre.c, so you revert the
+to make does not affect frotz.c or filfre.c, so you revert the
index changes for these two files. Your changes in working tree
remain there.
<4> Then you can pull and merge, leaving frotz.c and filfre.c
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 045b37b..fd7f8b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
[ \--extended-regexp | -E ]
[ \--fixed-strings | -F ]
- [ \--date=(local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short) ]
+ [ \--date=(local|relative|default|iso|iso-strict|rfc|short) ]
[ [\--objects | \--objects-edge] [ \--unpacked ] ]
[ \--pretty | \--header ]
[ \--bisect ]
@@ -55,6 +55,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--reverse ]
[ \--walk-reflogs ]
[ \--no-walk ] [ \--do-walk ]
+ [ \--use-bitmap-index ]
<commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 3cf0ce8..fa4a8c3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -50,6 +50,10 @@ Options for --parseopt
the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse sub-commands
that take options themselves.
+--stuck-long::
+ Only meaningful in `--parseopt` mode. Output the options in their
+ long form if available, and with their arguments stuck.
+
Options for Filtering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -110,6 +114,7 @@ can be used.
Only meaningful in `--verify` mode. Do not output an error
message if the first argument is not a valid object name;
instead exit with non-zero status silently.
+ SHA-1s for valid object names are printed to stdout on success.
--sq::
Usually the output is made one line per flag and
@@ -173,6 +178,20 @@ shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
character (`?`, `*`, or `[`), it is turned into a prefix
match by appending `/*`.
+--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
+ Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
+ `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
+ consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
+ up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
+ `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
+ accumlated patterns).
++
+The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
+`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
+respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
+or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
+explicitly.
+
--disambiguate=<prefix>::
Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix.
The <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to
@@ -227,6 +246,10 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--show-toplevel::
Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+--shared-index-path::
+ Show the path to the shared index file in split index mode, or
+ empty if not in split-index mode.
+
Other Options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -266,26 +289,28 @@ Input Format
'git rev-parse --parseopt' input format is fully text based. It has two parts,
separated by a line that contains only `--`. The lines before the separator
-(should be more than one) are used for the usage.
+(should be one or more) are used for the usage.
The lines after the separator describe the options.
Each line of options has this format:
------------
-<opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF
+<opt-spec><flags>*<arg-hint>? SP+ help LF
------------
-`<opt_spec>`::
+`<opt-spec>`::
its format is the short option character, then the long option name
separated by a comma. Both parts are not required, though at least one
is necessary. `h,help`, `dry-run` and `f` are all three correct
- `<opt_spec>`.
+ `<opt-spec>`.
`<flags>`::
`<flags>` are of `*`, `=`, `?` or `!`.
* Use `=` if the option takes an argument.
- * Use `?` to mean that the option is optional (though its use is discouraged).
+ * Use `?` to mean that the option takes an optional argument. You
+ probably want to use the `--stuck-long` mode to be able to
+ unambiguously parse the optional argument.
* Use `*` to mean that this option should not be listed in the usage
generated for the `-h` argument. It's shown for `--help-all` as
@@ -293,6 +318,12 @@ Each line of options has this format:
* Use `!` to not make the corresponding negated long option available.
+`<arg-hint>`::
+ `<arg-hint>`, if specified, is used as a name of the argument in the
+ help output, for options that take arguments. `<arg-hint>` is
+ terminated by the first whitespace. It is customary to use a
+ dash to separate words in a multi-word argument hint.
+
The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used
as the help associated to the option.
@@ -313,6 +344,8 @@ h,help show the help
foo some nifty option --foo
bar= some cool option --bar with an argument
+baz=arg another cool option --baz with a named argument
+qux?path qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself
An option group Header
C? option C with an optional argument"
@@ -320,6 +353,28 @@ C? option C with an optional argument"
eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"
------------
+
+Usage text
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When `"$@"` is `-h` or `--help` in the above example, the following
+usage text would be shown:
+
+------------
+usage: some-command [options] <args>...
+
+ some-command does foo and bar!
+
+ -h, --help show the help
+ --foo some nifty option --foo
+ --bar ... some cool option --bar with an argument
+ --baz <arg> another cool option --baz with a named argument
+ --qux[=<path>] qux may take a path argument but has meaning by itself
+
+An option group Header
+ -C[...] option C with an optional argument
+------------
+
SQ-QUOTE
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 2de67a5..cceb5f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-revert - Revert some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] <commit>...
+'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-S[<key-id>]] <commit>...
'git revert' --continue
'git revert' --quit
'git revert' --abort
@@ -80,6 +80,10 @@ more details.
This is useful when reverting more than one commits'
effect to your index in a row.
+-S[<key-id>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<key-id>]::
+ GPG-sign commits.
+
-s::
--signoff::
Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 9d731b4..f1efc11 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -170,6 +170,15 @@ of files and subdirectories under the `Documentation/` directory.
(i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it
does not remove `subdir/git-foo.sh`.
+BUGS
+----
+Each time a superproject update removes a populated submodule
+(e.g. when switching between commits before and after the removal) a
+stale submodule checkout will remain in the old location. Removing the
+old directory is only safe when it uses a gitfile, as otherwise the
+history of the submodule will be deleted too. This step will be
+obsolete when recursive submodule update has been implemented.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-add[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index f0e57a5..a60776e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ files in the directory), or directly as a revision list. In the
last case, any format accepted by linkgit:git-format-patch[1] can
be passed to git send-email.
-The header of the email is configurable by command line options. If not
+The header of the email is configurable via command-line options. If not
specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
@@ -68,7 +68,7 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
(what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
-(or Git: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
+(or Git: prefixed) lines, the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
+
Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@ See the CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiedit'.
--from=<address>::
Specify the sender of the emails. If not specified on the command line,
the value of the 'sendemail.from' configuration option is used. If
- neither the command line option nor 'sendemail.from' are set, then the
+ neither the command-line option nor 'sendemail.from' are set, then the
user will be prompted for the value. The default for the prompt will be
the value of GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT, or GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT if that is not
set, as returned by "git var -l".
@@ -248,6 +248,18 @@ Automating
cc list. Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffbycc' configuration
value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
+--[no-]cc-cover::
+ If this is set, emails found in Cc: headers in the first patch of
+ the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the cc list
+ for each email set. Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccover'
+ configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-cc-cover.
+
+--[no-]to-cover::
+ If this is set, emails found in To: headers in the first patch of
+ the series (typically the cover letter) are added to the to list
+ for each email set. Default is the value of 'sendemail.tocover'
+ configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-to-cover.
+
--suppress-cc=<category>::
Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
auto-cc of:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index dc3a568..2a0de42 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -35,6 +35,16 @@ OPTIONS
Instead of explicitly specifying which refs to update,
update all heads that locally exist.
+--stdin::
+ Take the list of refs from stdin, one per line. If there
+ are refs specified on the command line in addition to this
+ option, then the refs from stdin are processed after those
+ on the command line.
++
+If '--stateless-rpc' is specified together with this option then
+the list of refs must be in packet format (pkt-line). Each ref must
+be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
+
--dry-run::
Do everything except actually send the updates.
@@ -77,7 +87,8 @@ this flag.
Without '--all' and without any '<ref>', the heads that exist
both on the local side and on the remote side are updated.
-When one or more '<ref>' are specified explicitly, it can be either a
+When one or more '<ref>' are specified explicitly (whether on the
+command line or via `--stdin`), it can be either a
single pattern, or a pair of such pattern separated by a colon
":" (this means that a ref name cannot have a colon in it). A
single pattern '<name>' is just a shorthand for '<name>:<name>'.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index c35051b..e4bdd22 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ EXAMPLE
-------
To disable interactive logins, displaying a greeting instead:
-+
+
----------------
$ chsh -s /usr/bin/git-shell
$ mkdir $HOME/git-shell-commands
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index a515648..b91d4e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ and/or refs/tags) semi-visually.
It cannot show more than 29 branches and commits at a time.
It uses `showbranch.default` multi-valued configuration items if
-no <rev> nor <glob> is given on the command line.
+no <rev> or <glob> is given on the command line.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index b0a309b..2a6f89b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ OPTIONS
Show references matching one or more patterns. Patterns are matched from
the end of the full name, and only complete parts are matched, e.g.
'master' matches 'refs/heads/master', 'refs/remotes/origin/master',
- 'refs/tags/jedi/master' but not 'refs/heads/mymaster' nor
+ 'refs/tags/jedi/master' but not 'refs/heads/mymaster' or
'refs/remotes/master/jedi'.
OUTPUT
@@ -175,6 +175,7 @@ FILES
SEE ALSO
--------
+linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1],
linkgit:git-ls-remote[1],
linkgit:git-update-ref[1],
linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stage.txt b/Documentation/git-stage.txt
index ba3fe0d..25bcda9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stage.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stage.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
git-stage(1)
-==============
+============
NAME
----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index db7e803..375213f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@ is also possible).
OPTIONS
-------
-save [-p|--patch] [--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
+save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
Save your local modifications to a new 'stash', and run `git reset
--hard` to revert them. The <message> part is optional and gives
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index a4acaa0..4d8d530 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -97,7 +97,7 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
OUTPUT
------
The output from this command is designed to be used as a commit
-template comment, and all the output lines are prefixed with '#'.
+template comment.
The default, long format, is designed to be human readable,
verbose and descriptive. Its contents and format are subject to change
at any time.
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ In the short-format, the status of each path is shown as
where `PATH1` is the path in the `HEAD`, and the " `-> PATH2`" part is
shown only when `PATH1` corresponds to a different path in the
-index/worktree (i.e. the file is renamed). The 'XY' is a two-letter
+index/worktree (i.e. the file is renamed). The `XY` is a two-letter
status code.
The fields (including the `->`) are separated from each other by a
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ characters, that field will be quoted in the manner of a C string
literal: surrounded by ASCII double quote (34) characters, and with
interior special characters backslash-escaped.
-For paths with merge conflicts, `X` and 'Y' show the modification
+For paths with merge conflicts, `X` and `Y` show the modification
states of each side of the merge. For paths that do not have merge
conflicts, `X` shows the status of the index, and `Y` shows the status
of the work tree. For untracked paths, `XY` are `??`. Other status
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index bfef8a0..8e6af65 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -15,12 +15,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] [--] <path>...
'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
- [-f|--force] [--rebase] [--reference <repository>] [--depth <depth>]
- [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+ [-f|--force] [--rebase|--merge] [--reference <repository>]
+ [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
[commit] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
-'git submodule' [--quiet] sync [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@ OPTIONS
-b::
--branch::
Branch of repository to add as submodule.
- The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<path>.branch` in
+ The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<name>.branch` in
`.gitmodules` for `update --remote`.
-f::
@@ -281,12 +281,31 @@ In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, `update --remote`
fetches the submodule's remote repository before calculating the
SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use `submodule update
--remote --no-fetch`.
++
+Use this option to integrate changes from the upstream subproject with
+your submodule's current HEAD. Alternatively, you can run `git pull`
+from the submodule, which is equivalent except for the remote branch
+name: `update --remote` uses the default upstream repository and
+`submodule.<name>.branch`, while `git pull` uses the submodule's
+`branch.<name>.merge`. Prefer `submodule.<name>.branch` if you want
+to distribute the default upstream branch with the superproject and
+`branch.<name>.merge` if you want a more native feel while working in
+the submodule itself.
-N::
--no-fetch::
This option is only valid for the update command.
Don't fetch new objects from the remote site.
+--checkout::
+ This option is only valid for the update command.
+ Checkout the commit recorded in the superproject on a detached HEAD
+ in the submodule. This is the default behavior, the main use of
+ this option is to override `submodule.$name.update` when set to
+ `merge`, `rebase` or `none`.
+ If the key `submodule.$name.update` is either not explicitly set or
+ set to `checkout`, this option is implicit.
+
--merge::
This option is only valid for the update command.
Merge the commit recorded in the superproject into the current branch
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 30c5ee2..ef8ef1c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -86,13 +86,14 @@ COMMANDS
(refs/remotes/$remote/*). Setting a prefix is also useful
if you wish to track multiple projects that share a common
repository.
+ By default, the prefix is set to 'origin/'.
+
-NOTE: In Git v2.0, the default prefix will CHANGE from "" (no prefix)
-to "origin/". This is done to put SVN-tracking refs at
-"refs/remotes/origin/*" instead of "refs/remotes/*", and make them
-more compatible with how Git's own remote-tracking refs are organized
-(i.e. refs/remotes/$remote/*). You can enjoy the same benefits today,
-by using the --prefix option.
+NOTE: Before Git v2.0, the default prefix was "" (no prefix). This
+meant that SVN-tracking refs were put at "refs/remotes/*", which is
+incompatible with how Git's own remote-tracking refs are organized.
+If you still want the old default, you can get it by passing
+`--prefix ""` on the command line (`--prefix=""` may not work if
+your Perl's Getopt::Long is < v2.37).
--ignore-paths=<regex>;;
When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
@@ -147,8 +148,8 @@ the same local time zone.
[verse]
config key: svn-remote.<name>.ignore-paths
+
-If the ignore-paths config key is set and the command line option is
-also given, both regular expressions will be used.
+If the ignore-paths configuration key is set, and the command-line
+option is also given, both regular expressions will be used.
+
Examples:
+
@@ -385,11 +386,13 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.
+
+-B;;
--before;;
Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find
the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the
current branch) at the specified revision.
+
+-A;;
--after;;
Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is
not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the
@@ -607,21 +610,6 @@ config key: svn.authorsfile
Make 'git svn' less verbose. Specify a second time to make it
even less verbose.
---repack[=<n>]::
---repack-flags=<flags>::
- These should help keep disk usage sane for large fetches with
- many revisions.
-+
---repack takes an optional argument for the number of revisions
-to fetch before repacking. This defaults to repacking every
-1000 commits fetched if no argument is specified.
-+
---repack-flags are passed directly to 'git repack'.
-+
-[verse]
-config key: svn.repack
-config key: svn.repackflags
-
-m::
--merge::
-s<strategy>::
@@ -994,16 +982,6 @@ without giving any repository layout options. If the full history with
branches and tags is required, the options '--trunk' / '--branches' /
'--tags' must be used.
-When using the options for describing the repository layout (--trunk,
---tags, --branches, --stdlayout), please also specify the --prefix
-option (e.g. '--prefix=origin/') to cause your SVN-tracking refs to be
-placed at refs/remotes/origin/* rather than the default refs/remotes/*.
-The former is more compatible with the layout of Git's "regular"
-remote-tracking refs (refs/remotes/$remote/*), and may potentially
-prevent similarly named SVN branches and Git remotes from clobbering
-each other. In Git v2.0 the default prefix used (i.e. when no --prefix
-is given) will change from "" (no prefix) to "origin/".
-
When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index a82d2e2..e953ba4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -95,6 +95,14 @@ OPTIONS
using fnmatch(3)). Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
them matches, the tag is shown.
+--sort=<type>::
+ Sort in a specific order. Supported type is "refname"
+ (lexicographic order), "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag
+ names are treated as versions). Prepend "-" to reverse sort
+ order. When this option is not given, the sort order defaults to the
+ value configured for the 'tag.sort' variable if it exists, or
+ lexicographic order otherwise. See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
--column[=<options>]::
--no-column::
Display tag listing in columns. See configuration variable
@@ -103,8 +111,9 @@ OPTIONS
+
This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
---contains <commit>::
- Only list tags which contain the specified commit.
+--contains [<commit>]::
+ Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
+ specified).
--points-at <object>::
Only list tags of the given object.
@@ -310,6 +319,7 @@ include::date-formats.txt[]
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1].
+linkgit:git-config[1].
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index f7362dc..0000000
--- a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,82 +0,0 @@
-git-tar-tree(1)
-===============
-
-NAME
-----
-git-tar-tree - Create a tar archive of the files in the named tree object
-
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-[verse]
-'git tar-tree' [--remote=<repo>] <tree-ish> [ <base> ]
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-THIS COMMAND IS DEPRECATED. Use 'git archive' with `--format=tar`
-option instead (and move the <base> argument to `--prefix=base/`).
-
-Creates a tar archive containing the tree structure for the named tree.
-When <base> is specified it is added as a leading path to the files in the
-generated tar archive.
-
-'git tar-tree' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when given
-a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is used as
-modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter case the
-commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is used instead.
-Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global extended pax header.
-It can be extracted using 'git get-tar-commit-id'.
-
-OPTIONS
--------
-
-<tree-ish>::
- The tree or commit to produce tar archive for. If it is
- the object name of a commit object.
-
-<base>::
- Leading path to the files in the resulting tar archive.
-
---remote=<repo>::
- Instead of making a tar archive from local repository,
- retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
-
-CONFIGURATION
--------------
-
-tar.umask::
- This variable can be used to restrict the permission bits of
- tar archive entries. The default is 0002, which turns off the
- world write bit. The special value "user" indicates that the
- archiving user's umask will be used instead. See umask(2) for
- details.
-
-EXAMPLES
---------
-`git tar-tree HEAD junk | (cd /var/tmp/ && tar xf -)`::
-
- Create a tar archive that contains the contents of the
- latest commit on the current branch, and extracts it in
- `/var/tmp/junk` directory.
-
-`git tar-tree v1.4.0 git-1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz`::
-
- Create a tarball for v1.4.0 release.
-
-`git tar-tree v1.4.0^{tree} git-1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz`::
-
- Create a tarball for v1.4.0 release, but without a
- global extended pax header.
-
-`git tar-tree --remote=example.com:git.git v1.4.0 >git-1.4.0.tar`::
-
- Get a tarball v1.4.0 from example.com.
-
-`git tar-tree HEAD:Documentation/ git-docs > git-1.4.0-docs.tar`::
-
- Put everything in the current head's Documentation/ directory
- into 'git-1.4.0-docs.tar', with the prefix 'git-docs/'.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index e0a8702..82eca6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git update-index'
[--add] [--remove | --force-remove] [--replace]
[--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
- [(--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>)...]
+ [(--cacheinfo <mode>,<object>,<file>)...]
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
[--[no-]assume-unchanged]
[--[no-]skip-worktree]
@@ -68,8 +68,12 @@ OPTIONS
--ignore-missing::
Ignores missing files during a --refresh
+--cacheinfo <mode>,<object>,<path>::
--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>::
- Directly insert the specified info into the index.
+ Directly insert the specified info into the index. For
+ backward compatibility, you can also give these three
+ arguments as three separate parameters, but new users are
+ encouraged to use a single-parameter form.
--index-info::
Read index information from stdin.
@@ -157,6 +161,17 @@ may not support it yet.
Only meaningful with `--stdin` or `--index-info`; paths are
separated with NUL character instead of LF.
+--split-index::
+--no-split-index::
+ Enable or disable split index mode. If enabled, the index is
+ split into two files, $GIT_DIR/index and $GIT_DIR/sharedindex.<SHA-1>.
+ Changes are accumulated in $GIT_DIR/index while the shared
+ index file contains all index entries stays unchanged. If
+ split-index mode is already enabled and `--split-index` is
+ given again, all changes in $GIT_DIR/index are pushed back to
+ the shared index file. This mode is designed for very large
+ indexes that take a signficant amount of time to read or write.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
@@ -187,7 +202,7 @@ merging.
To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
----------------
-$ git update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
+$ git update-index --cacheinfo <mode>,<sha1>,<path>
----------------
'--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index 0a0a551..c8f5ae5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -68,7 +68,12 @@ performs all modifications together. Specify commands of the form:
option SP <opt> LF
Quote fields containing whitespace as if they were strings in C source
-code. Alternatively, use `-z` to specify commands without quoting:
+code; i.e., surrounded by double-quotes and with backslash escapes.
+Use 40 "0" characters or the empty string to specify a zero value. To
+specify a missing value, omit the value and its preceding SP entirely.
+
+Alternatively, use `-z` to specify in NUL-terminated format, without
+quoting:
update SP <ref> NUL <newvalue> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
create SP <ref> NUL <newvalue> NUL
@@ -76,8 +81,12 @@ code. Alternatively, use `-z` to specify commands without quoting:
verify SP <ref> NUL [<oldvalue>] NUL
option SP <opt> NUL
-Lines of any other format or a repeated <ref> produce an error.
-Command meanings are:
+In this format, use 40 "0" to specify a zero value, and use the empty
+string to specify a missing value.
+
+In either format, values can be specified in any form that Git
+recognizes as an object name. Commands in any other format or a
+repeated <ref> produce an error. Command meanings are:
update::
Set <ref> to <newvalue> after verifying <oldvalue>, if given.
@@ -102,9 +111,6 @@ option::
The only valid option is `no-deref` to avoid dereferencing
a symbolic ref.
-Use 40 "0" or the empty string to specify a zero value, except that
-with `-z` an empty <oldvalue> is considered missing.
-
If all <ref>s can be locked with matching <oldvalue>s
simultaneously, all modifications are performed. Otherwise, no
modifications are performed. Note that while each individual
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index d09bbb5..cbef61b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -20,6 +20,38 @@ This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user. The UI
for the protocol is on the 'git archive' side, and the program pair
is meant to be used to get an archive from a remote repository.
+SECURITY
+--------
+
+In order to protect the privacy of objects that have been removed from
+history but may not yet have been pruned, `git-upload-archive` avoids
+serving archives for commits and trees that are not reachable from the
+repository's refs. However, because calculating object reachability is
+computationally expensive, `git-upload-archive` implements a stricter
+but easier-to-check set of rules:
+
+ 1. Clients may request a commit or tree that is pointed to directly by
+ a ref. E.g., `git archive --remote=origin v1.0`.
+
+ 2. Clients may request a sub-tree within a commit or tree using the
+ `ref:path` syntax. E.g., `git archive --remote=origin v1.0:Documentation`.
+
+ 3. Clients may _not_ use other sha1 expressions, even if the end
+ result is reachable. E.g., neither a relative commit like `master^`
+ nor a literal sha1 like `abcd1234` is allowed, even if the result
+ is reachable from the refs.
+
+Note that rule 3 disallows many cases that do not have any privacy
+implications. These rules are subject to change in future versions of
+git, and the server accessed by `git archive --remote` may or may not
+follow these exact rules.
+
+If the config option `uploadArchive.allowUnreachable` is true, these
+rules are ignored, and clients may use arbitrary sha1 expressions.
+This is useful if you do not care about the privacy of unreachable
+objects, or if your object database is already publicly available for
+access via non-smart-http.
+
OPTIONS
-------
<directory>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9413e28
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+git-verify-commit(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-verify-commit - Check the GPG signature of commits
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git verify-commit' <commit>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Validates the gpg signature created by 'git commit -S'.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-v::
+--verbose::
+ Print the contents of the commit object before validating it.
+
+<commit>...::
+ SHA-1 identifiers of Git commit objects.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index 2de575f..16ede5b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@ CONF.VAR (from -c option) and web.browser
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The web browser can be specified using a configuration variable passed
-with the -c (or --config) command line option, or the 'web.browser'
+with the -c (or --config) command-line option, or the 'web.browser'
configuration variable if the former is not used.
browser.<tool>.path
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ the URLs passed as arguments.
Note about konqueror
--------------------
-When 'konqueror' is specified by a command line option or a
+When 'konqueror' is specified by a command-line option or a
configuration variable, we launch 'kfmclient' to try to open the HTML
man page on an already opened konqueror in a new tab if possible.
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 64da795..9202010 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -22,14 +22,14 @@ unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
and full access to internals.
See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
+linkgit:giteveryday[7] for a useful minimum set of
commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
in-depth introduction.
After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
-manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
+manual page gives you an overview of the command-line command syntax.
Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
@@ -39,10 +39,36 @@ ifdef::stalenotes[]
============
You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
-unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
+unreleased) version of Git, that is available from the 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
+* link:v2.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 2.1.3]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/2.1.3.txt[2.1.3],
+ link:RelNotes/2.1.2.txt[2.1.2],
+ link:RelNotes/2.1.1.txt[2.1.1],
+ link:RelNotes/2.1.0.txt[2.1].
+
+* link:v2.0.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.0.4]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/2.0.4.txt[2.0.4],
+ link:RelNotes/2.0.3.txt[2.0.3],
+ link:RelNotes/2.0.2.txt[2.0.2],
+ link:RelNotes/2.0.1.txt[2.0.1],
+ link:RelNotes/2.0.0.txt[2.0.0].
+
+* link:v1.9.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.9.4]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.4.txt[1.9.4],
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.3.txt[1.9.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.2.txt[1.9.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.1.txt[1.9.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.9.0.txt[1.9.0].
+
* link:v1.8.5.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.5.5]
* release notes for
@@ -429,6 +455,11 @@ example the following invocations are equivalent:
given will override values from configuration files.
The <name> is expected in the same format as listed by
'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
++
+Note that omitting the `=` in `git -c foo.bar ...` is allowed and sets
+`foo.bar` to the boolean true value (just like `[foo]bar` would in a
+config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like `git -c
+foo.bar= ...`) sets `foo.bar` to the empty string.
--exec-path[=<path>]::
Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
@@ -715,6 +746,11 @@ Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
is used.
+'GIT_INDEX_VERSION'::
+ This environment variable allows the specification of an index
+ version for new repositories. It won't affect existing index
+ files. By default index file version [23] is used.
+
'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
If the object storage directory is specified via this
environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
@@ -736,7 +772,7 @@ Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
Set the path to the root of the working tree.
- This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
+ This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command-line
option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
@@ -810,6 +846,15 @@ temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
+
For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
parameter, <path>.
++
+For each path 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called, two environment variables,
+'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER' and 'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL' are set.
+
+'GIT_DIFF_PATH_COUNTER'::
+ A 1-based counter incremented by one for every path.
+
+'GIT_DIFF_PATH_TOTAL'::
+ The total number of paths.
other
~~~~~
@@ -852,7 +897,7 @@ for further details.
'GIT_ASKPASS'::
If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
- will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
+ will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line argument
and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
option in linkgit:git-config[1].
@@ -876,31 +921,54 @@ for further details.
based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
'GIT_TRACE'::
- If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
- is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
- stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
- execution and external command execution.
- If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
- and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
- value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
- trace messages into this file descriptor.
- Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
- (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
- as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
- into it.
+ Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias expansion, built-in
+ command execution and external command execution.
++
+If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
+is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to
+stderr.
++
+If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2
+and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
+value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
+trace messages into this file descriptor.
++
+Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
+(starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
+as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
+into it.
++
+Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
+"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
- If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
- the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
+ Enables trace messages for all accesses to any packs. For each
access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
pack-related performance problems.
+ See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
- If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
- coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
- debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
- is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
+ Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
+ given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
+ or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
+ starting with "PACK".
+ See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+
+'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
+ Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
+ time of each Git command.
+ See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+
+'GIT_TRACE_SETUP'::
+ Enables trace messages printing the .git, working tree and current
+ working directory after Git has completed its setup phase.
+ See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
+
+'GIT_TRACE_SHALLOW'::
+ Enables trace messages that can help debugging fetching /
+ cloning of shallow repositories.
+ See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
@@ -1014,7 +1082,7 @@ Authors
-------
Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
-<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
+<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.openhub.net/p/git/contributors/summary
gives you a more complete list of contributors.
If you have a clone of git.git itself, the
@@ -1031,7 +1099,7 @@ subscribed to the list to send a message there.
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
+linkgit:giteveryday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7], linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitcli[7], link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual],
linkgit:gitworkflows[7]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index b322a26..9b45bda 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -440,8 +440,8 @@ Unspecified::
A path to which the `diff` attribute is unspecified
first gets its contents inspected, and if it looks like
- text, it is treated as text. Otherwise it would
- generate `Binary files differ`.
+ text and is smaller than core.bigFileThreshold, it is treated
+ as text. Otherwise it would generate `Binary files differ`.
String::
@@ -930,9 +930,12 @@ state.
DEFINING MACRO ATTRIBUTES
-------------------------
-Custom macro attributes can be defined only in the `.gitattributes`
-file at the toplevel (i.e. not in any subdirectory). The built-in
-macro attribute "binary" is equivalent to:
+Custom macro attributes can be defined only in top-level gitattributes
+files (`$GIT_DIR/info/attributes`, the `.gitattributes` file at the
+top level of the working tree, or the global or system-wide
+gitattributes files), not in `.gitattributes` files in working tree
+subdirectories. The built-in macro attribute "binary" is equivalent
+to:
------------
[attr]binary -diff -merge -text
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index 41bed29..dfe7d83 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcli(7)
NAME
----
-gitcli - Git command line interface and conventions
+gitcli - Git command-line interface and conventions
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ arguments. Here are the rules:
they can be disambiguated by placing `--` between them.
E.g. `git diff -- HEAD` is, "I have a file called HEAD in my work
tree. Please show changes between the version I staged in the index
- and what I have in the work tree for that file". not "show difference
+ and what I have in the work tree for that file", not "show difference
between the HEAD commit and the work tree as a whole". You can say
`git diff HEAD --` to ask for the latter.
@@ -66,17 +66,17 @@ you will.
Here are the rules regarding the "flags" that you should follow when you are
scripting Git:
- * it's preferred to use the non dashed form of Git commands, which means that
+ * it's preferred to use the non-dashed form of Git commands, which means that
you should prefer `git foo` to `git-foo`.
* splitting short options to separate words (prefer `git foo -a -b`
to `git foo -ab`, the latter may not even work).
- * when a command line option takes an argument, use the 'sticked' form. In
+ * when a command-line option takes an argument, use the 'stuck' form. In
other words, write `git foo -oArg` instead of `git foo -o Arg` for short
options, and `git foo --long-opt=Arg` instead of `git foo --long-opt Arg`
for long options. An option that takes optional option-argument must be
- written in the 'sticked' form.
+ written in the 'stuck' form.
* when you give a revision parameter to a command, make sure the parameter is
not ambiguous with a name of a file in the work tree. E.g. do not write
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@ Here is a list of the facilities provided by this option parser.
Magic Options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Commands which have the enhanced option parser activated all understand a
-couple of magic command line options:
+couple of magic command-line options:
-h::
gives a pretty printed usage of the command.
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ $ git foo -o Arg
----------------------------
However, this is *NOT* allowed for switches with an optional value, where the
-'sticked' form must be used:
+'stuck' form must be used:
----------------------------
$ git describe --abbrev HEAD # correct
$ git describe --abbrev=10 HEAD # correct
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 058a352..8475c07 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -1443,7 +1443,7 @@ Although Git is a truly distributed system, it is often
convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in
-link:http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
+http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
There is nothing fundamental in Git that enforces the "chain of
@@ -1667,7 +1667,7 @@ linkgit:gittutorial[7],
linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+linkgit:giteveryday[7],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
index 5ea94cb..b06e852 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ Importing a CVS archive
-----------------------
First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
-link:http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
+http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/[http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/] and make
sure it is in your path. Then cd to a checked out CVS working directory
of the project you are interested in and run linkgit:git-cvsimport[1]:
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@ linkgit:gittutorial[7],
linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
+linkgit:giteveryday[7],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
index 2a18c1f..7be6e64 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
@@ -1,22 +1,37 @@
+giteveryday(7)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+giteveryday - A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
-===================================
-<<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential for
-anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
-If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
-the <<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
+Git users can broadly be grouped into four categories for the purposes of
+describing here a small set of useful command for everyday Git.
-People who play the <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
-commands in addition to the above.
+* <<STANDALONE,Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential
+ for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.
-<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
-administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
-of Git repositories.
+* If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
+ the <<PARTICIPANT,Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
+* People who play the <<INTEGRATOR,Integrator>> role need to learn some
+ more commands in addition to the above.
-Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+* <<ADMINISTRATION,Repository Administration>> commands are for system
+ administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
+ of Git repositories.
+
+
+Individual Developer (Standalone)[[STANDALONE]]
+-----------------------------------------------
A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
other people, and works alone in a single repository, using the
@@ -24,8 +39,6 @@ following commands.
* linkgit:git-init[1] to create a new repository.
- * linkgit:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
-
* linkgit:git-log[1] to see what happened.
* linkgit:git-checkout[1] and linkgit:git-branch[1] to switch
@@ -45,7 +58,7 @@ following commands.
* linkgit:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
- * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
+ * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark a known point.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -75,14 +88,12 @@ $ edit/compile/test
$ git diff HEAD <4>
$ git commit -a -s <5>
$ edit/compile/test
-$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
-$ edit/compile/test
-$ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
-$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
-$ git checkout master <9>
-$ git merge alsa-audio <10>
-$ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
-$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+$ git diff HEAD^ <6>
+$ git commit -a --amend <7>
+$ git checkout master <8>
+$ git merge alsa-audio <9>
+$ git log --since='3 days ago' <10>
+$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <11>
------------
+
<1> create a new topic branch.
@@ -90,22 +101,21 @@ $ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
<4> to see what changes you are committing.
-<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
-<6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
-<7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
-<8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
-you originally wrote.
-<9> switch to the master branch.
-<10> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
-<11> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
-combined and include `--max-count=10` (show 10 commits),
+<5> commit everything, as you have tested, with your sign-off.
+<6> look at all your changes including the previous commit.
+<7> amend the previous commit, adding all your new changes,
+using your original message.
+<8> switch to the master branch.
+<9> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
+<10> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
+combined and include `-10` (to show up to 10 commits),
`--until=2005-12-10`, etc.
-<12> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
+<11> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
directory, since `v2.43` tag.
-Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Individual Developer (Participant)[[PARTICIPANT]]
+-------------------------------------------------
A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
@@ -123,6 +133,13 @@ addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
* linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
+ * linkgit:git-send-email[1] to send your e-mail submission without
+ corruption by your MUA.
+
+ * linkgit:git-request-pull[1] to create a summary of changes
+ for your upstream to pull.
+
+
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -131,28 +148,34 @@ Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.::
------------
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
$ cd my2.6
-$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
-$ git format-patch origin <2>
-$ git pull <3>
-$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
-$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
-$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
-$ git gc <7>
-$ git fetch --tags <8>
+$ git checkout -b mine master <1>
+$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <2>
+$ git format-patch master <3>
+$ git send-email --to="person <email@example.com>" 00*.patch <4>
+$ git checkout master <5>
+$ git pull <6>
+$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <7>
+$ git ls-remote --heads http://git.kernel.org/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git <8>
+$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <9>
+$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <10>
+$ git gc <11>
------------
+
-<1> repeat as needed.
-<2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
-<3> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
+<1> checkout a new branch `mine` from master.
+<2> repeat as needed.
+<3> extract patches from your branch, relative to master,
+<4> and email them.
+<5> return to `master`, ready to see what's new
+<6> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
current branch.
-<4> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
+<7> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
since last time we checked, only in the
area we are interested in.
-<5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and merge.
-<6> revert the pull.
-<7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
-<8> from time to time, obtain official tags from the `origin`
-and store them under `.git/refs/tags/`.
+<8> check the branch names in an external repository (if not known).
+<9> fetch from a specific branch `ALL` from a specific repository
+and merge it.
+<10> revert the pull.
+<11> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
Push into another repository.::
@@ -166,7 +189,7 @@ remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
branch.master.remote origin
branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
- master:refs/remotes/satellite/master <3>
+ +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/satellite/* <3>
satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
satellite$ git push origin <4>
@@ -181,11 +204,12 @@ machine.
<2> clone sets these configuration variables by default.
It arranges `git pull` to fetch and store the branches of mothership
machine to local `remotes/origin/*` remote-tracking branches.
-<3> arrange `git push` to push local `master` branch to
-`remotes/satellite/master` branch of the mothership machine.
-<4> push will stash our work away on `remotes/satellite/master`
-remote-tracking branch on the mothership machine. You could use this
-as a back-up method.
+<3> arrange `git push` to push all local branches to
+their corresponding branch of the mothership machine.
+<4> push will stash all our work away on `remotes/satellite/*`
+remote-tracking branches on the mothership machine. You could use this
+as a back-up method. Likewise, you can pretend that mothership
+"fetched" from you (useful when access is one sided).
<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
machine into the master branch.
@@ -195,17 +219,22 @@ Branch off of a specific tag.::
$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
$ git checkout master
-$ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
- git am -3 -k <2>
+$ git cherry-pick v2.6.14..private2.6.14 <2>
------------
+
<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
tag.
<2> forward port all changes in `private2.6.14` branch to `master` branch
-without a formal "merging".
+without a formal "merging". Or longhand +
+`git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
+ git am -3 -k`
+An alternate participant submission mechanism is using the
+`git request-pull` or pull-request mechanisms (e.g as used on
+GitHub (www.github.com) to notify your upstream of your
+contribution.
-Integrator[[Integrator]]
+Integrator[[INTEGRATOR]]
------------------------
A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
@@ -213,6 +242,13 @@ project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
+This section can also be used by those who respond to `git
+request-pull` or pull-request on GitHub (www.github.com) to
+integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
+lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and
+as an integrator.
+
+
* linkgit:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
contributors.
@@ -229,19 +265,19 @@ commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
-My typical Git day.::
+A typical integrator's Git day.::
+
------------
$ git status <1>
-$ git show-branch <2>
+$ git branch --no-merged master <2>
$ mailx <3>
& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
& q
$ git checkout -b topic/one master
-$ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
+$ git am -3 -i -s ./+to-apply <4>
$ compile/test
-$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
+$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s ./+hold-linus <5>
$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next <7>
$ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus <8>
@@ -249,51 +285,51 @@ $ git checkout maint
$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
$ compile/test
$ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x <10>
-$ git fetch ko && git show-branch master maint 'tags/ko-*' <11>
-$ git push ko <12>
-$ git push ko v0.99.9x <13>
+$ git fetch ko && for branch in master maint next pu <11>
+ do
+ git show-branch ko/$branch $branch <12>
+ done
+$ git push --follow-tags ko <13>
------------
+
-<1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
-<2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
-they are.
+<1> see what you were in the middle of doing, if anything.
+<2> see which branches haven't been merged into `master` yet.
+Likewise for any other integration branches e.g. `maint`, `next`
+and `pu` (potential updates).
<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
-that are not quite ready.
-<4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
-<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
-sign-offs.
+that are not quite ready (other mail readers are available).
+<4> apply them, interactively, with your sign-offs.
+<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with sign-offs.
<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
-master, nor exposed as a part of a stable branch.
+master or exposed as a part of a stable branch.
<7> restart `pu` every time from the next.
<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
<9> backport a critical fix.
<10> create a signed tag.
-<11> make sure I did not accidentally rewind master beyond what I
-already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the repository I have
-at kernel.org, and looks like this:
+<11> make sure master was not accidentally rewound beyond that
+already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the Git maintainer's
+repository at kernel.org, and looks like this:
+
------------
-$ cat .git/remotes/ko
-URL: kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
-Pull: master:refs/tags/ko-master
-Pull: next:refs/tags/ko-next
-Pull: maint:refs/tags/ko-maint
-Push: master
-Push: next
-Push: +pu
-Push: maint
+(in .git/config)
+[remote "ko"]
+ url = kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
+ fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/ko/*
+ push = refs/heads/master
+ push = refs/heads/next
+ push = +refs/heads/pu
+ push = refs/heads/maint
------------
+
-In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
-everything `ko-master` has, and `next` should have
-everything `ko-next` has.
-
-<12> push out the bleeding edge.
-<13> push the tag out, too.
+<12> In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
+everything `ko/master` has, and `next` should have
+everything `ko/next` has, etc.
+<13> push out the bleeding edge, together with new tags that point
+into the pushed history.
-Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
-------------------------------------------------------
+Repository Administration[[ADMINISTRATION]]
+-------------------------------------------
A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
and maintain access to the repository by developers.
@@ -304,9 +340,19 @@ and maintain access to the repository by developers.
* linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
for shared central repository users.
+ * linkgit:git-http-backend[1] provides a server side implementation
+ of Git-over-HTTP ("Smart http") allowing both fetch and push services.
+
+ * linkgit:gitweb[1] provides a web front-end to Git repositories,
+ which can be set-up using the linkgit:git-instaweb[1] script.
+
link:howto/update-hook-example.html[update hook howto] has a good
example of managing a shared central repository.
+In addition there are a number of other widely deployed hosting, browsing
+and reviewing solutions such as:
+
+ * gitolite, gerrit code review, cgit and others.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -335,22 +381,25 @@ $ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
# description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
service git
{
- disable = no
- type = UNLISTED
- port = 9418
- socket_type = stream
- wait = no
- user = nobody
- server = /usr/bin/git-daemon
- server_args = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
- log_on_failure += USERID
+ disable = no
+ type = UNLISTED
+ port = 9418
+ socket_type = stream
+ wait = no
+ user = nobody
+ server = /usr/bin/git-daemon
+ server_args = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
+ log_on_failure += USERID
}
------------
+
Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system.
Others might be different.
-Give push/pull only access to developers.::
+Give push/pull only access to developers using git-over-ssh.::
+
+e.g. those using:
+`$ git push/pull ssh://host.xz/pub/scm/project`
+
------------
$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
@@ -363,8 +412,8 @@ $ grep git /etc/shells <2>
------------
+
<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
-allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users should
-get an ssh access to the machine.
+allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users require
+ssh access to the machine.
<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
as the login shell.
@@ -401,13 +450,6 @@ for branch policy control.
david is the release manager and is the only person who can
create and push version tags.
-HTTP server to support dumb protocol transfer.::
-+
-------------
-dev$ git update-server-info <1>
-dev$ ftp user@isp.example.com <2>
-ftp> cp -r .git /home/user/myproject.git
-------------
-+
-<1> make sure your info/refs and objects/info/packs are up-to-date
-<2> upload to public HTTP server hosted by your ISP.
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
index e52de7d..212e254 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ SEE ALSO
linkgit:gittutorial[7],
linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
+linkgit:giteveryday[7],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index d48bf4d..d954bf6 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ three parameters:
- the name of the ref being updated,
- the old object name stored in the ref,
- - and the new objectname to be stored in the ref.
+ - and the new object name to be stored in the ref.
A zero exit from the update hook allows the ref to be updated.
Exiting with a non-zero status prevents 'git-receive-pack'
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index f971960..8734c15 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore
SYNOPSIS
--------
-$GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
+$HOME/.config/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -77,10 +77,15 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first hash for patterns
that begin with a hash.
+ - Trailing spaces are ignored unless they are quoted with backlash
+ ("`\`").
+
- An optional prefix "`!`" which negates the pattern; any
matching file excluded by a previous pattern will become
- included again. If a negated pattern matches, this will
- override lower precedence patterns sources.
+ included again. It is not possible to re-include a file if a parent
+ directory of that file is excluded. Git doesn't list excluded
+ directories for performance reasons, so any patterns on contained
+ files have no effect, no matter where they are defined.
Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first "`!`" for patterns
that begin with a literal "`!`", for example, "`\!important!.txt`".
@@ -182,6 +187,19 @@ Another example:
The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
`arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S`.
+Example to exclude everything except a specific directory `foo/bar`
+(note the `/*` - without the slash, the wildcard would also exclude
+everything within `foo/bar`):
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+ $ cat .gitignore
+ # exclude everything except directory foo/bar
+ /*
+ !/foo
+ /foo/*
+ !/foo/bar
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-rm[1],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index d44e14c..7ae50aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ gitk-specific options.
gitk generally only understands options with arguments in the
'sticked' form (see linkgit:gitcli[7]) due to limitations in the
-command line parser.
+command-line parser.
rev-list options and arguments
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -98,6 +98,22 @@ linkgit:git-rev-list[1] for a complete list.
(See "History simplification" in linkgit:git-log[1] for a more
detailed explanation.)
+-L<start>,<end>:<file>::
+-L:<regex>:<file>::
+
+ Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>"
+ (or the funcname regex <regex>) within the <file>. You may
+ not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
+ a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments.
+ You can specify this option more than once.
++
+*Note:* gitk (unlike linkgit:git-log[1]) currently only understands
+this option if you specify it "glued together" with its argument. Do
+*not* put a space after `-L`.
++
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
+
<revision range>::
Limit the revisions to show. This can be either a single revision
@@ -150,8 +166,14 @@ gitk --max-count=100 --all \-- Makefile::
Files
-----
-Gitk creates the .gitk file in your $HOME directory to store preferences
-such as display options, font, and colors.
+User configuration and preferences are stored at:
+
+* '$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/gitk' if it exists, otherwise
+* '$HOME/.gitk' if it exists
+
+If neither of the above exist then '$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/gitk' is created and
+used by default. If '$XDG_CONFIG_HOME' is not set it defaults to
+'$HOME/.config' in all cases.
History
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index 347a9f7..f6c0dfd 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -67,7 +67,9 @@ submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
submodule.<name>.ignore::
Defines under what circumstances "git status" and the diff family show
a submodule as modified. When set to "all", it will never be considered
- modified, "dirty" will ignore all changes to the submodules work tree and
+ modified (but will nonetheless show up in the output of status and
+ commit when it has been staged), "dirty" will ignore all changes
+ to the submodules work tree and
takes only differences between the HEAD of the submodule and the commit
recorded in the superproject into account. "untracked" will additionally
let submodules with modified tracked files in their work tree show up.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index f1f4ca9..64f7ad2 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -437,6 +437,17 @@ set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
'option check-connectivity' \{'true'|'false'\}::
Request the helper to check connectivity of a clone.
+'option force' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Request the helper to perform a force update. Defaults to
+ 'false'.
+
+'option cloning \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Notify the helper this is a clone request (i.e. the current
+ repository is guaranteed empty).
+
+'option update-shallow \{'true'|'false'\}::
+ Allow to extend .git/shallow if the new refs require it.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-remote[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index aa03882..79653f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -155,6 +155,10 @@ index::
The current index file for the repository. It is
usually not found in a bare repository.
+sharedindex.<SHA-1>::
+ The shared index part, to be referenced by $GIT_DIR/index and
+ other temporary index files. Only valid in split index mode.
+
info::
Additional information about the repository is recorded
in this directory.
@@ -176,6 +180,10 @@ info/grafts::
per line describes a commit and its fake parents by
listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object names separated
by a space and terminated by a newline.
++
+Note that the grafts mechanism is outdated and can lead to problems
+transferring objects between repositories; see linkgit:git-replace[1]
+for a more flexible and robust system to do the same thing.
info/exclude::
This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
index 3109ea8..f6fbf81 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
@@ -403,7 +403,7 @@ What next?
At this point you should know everything necessary to read the man
pages for any of the git commands; one good place to start would be
-with the commands mentioned in link:everyday.html[Everyday Git]. You
+with the commands mentioned in linkgit:giteveryday[7]. You
should be able to find any unknown jargon in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] provides a more
@@ -427,7 +427,7 @@ linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
+linkgit:giteveryday[7],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index 8262196..af9f709 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -656,7 +656,7 @@ digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
* linkgit:gitworkflows[7]: Gives an overview of recommended
workflows.
- * link:everyday.html[Everyday Git with 20 Commands Or So]
+ * linkgit:giteveryday[7]: Everyday Git with 20 Commands Or So.
* linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]: Git for CVS users.
@@ -668,7 +668,7 @@ linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
linkgit:gitworkflows[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
+linkgit:giteveryday[7],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index e2113d9..ebe7a6c 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -630,13 +630,13 @@ need to set this element to empty list i.e. `[]`.
override::
If this field has a true value then the given feature is
- overriddable, which means that it can be configured
+ overridable, which means that it can be configured
(or enabled/disabled) on a per-repository basis.
+
Usually given "<feature>" is configurable via the `gitweb.<feature>`
config variable in the per-repository Git configuration file.
+
-*Note* that no feature is overriddable by default.
+*Note* that no feature is overridable by default.
sub::
Internal detail of implementation. What is important is that
@@ -849,6 +849,43 @@ time zones in the form of "+/-HHMM", such as "+0200".
+
Project specific override is not supported.
+extra-branch-refs::
+ List of additional directories under "refs" which are going to
+ be used as branch refs. For example if you have a gerrit setup
+ where all branches under refs/heads/ are official,
+ push-after-review ones and branches under refs/sandbox/,
+ refs/wip and refs/other are user ones where permissions are
+ much wider, then you might want to set this variable as
+ follows:
++
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$feature{'extra-branch-refs'}{'default'} =
+ ['sandbox', 'wip', 'other'];
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+This feature can be configured on per-repository basis after setting
+$feature{'extra-branch-refs'}{'override'} to true, via repository's
+`gitweb.extraBranchRefs` configuration variable, which contains a
+space separated list of refs. An example:
++
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[gitweb]
+ extraBranchRefs = sandbox wip other
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+The gitweb.extraBranchRefs is actually a multi-valued configuration
+variable, so following example is also correct and the result is the
+same as of the snippet above:
++
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[gitweb]
+ extraBranchRefs = sandbox
+ extraBranchRefs = wip other
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+It is an error to specify a ref that does not pass "git check-ref-format"
+scrutiny. Duplicated values are filtered.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -867,7 +904,7 @@ the following in your GITWEB_CONFIG file:
$feature{'snapshot'}{'override'} = 1;
If you allow overriding for the snapshot feature, you can specify which
-snapshot formats are globally disabled. You can also add any command line
+snapshot formats are globally disabled. You can also add any command-line
options you want (such as setting the compression level). For instance, you
can disable Zip compressed snapshots and set *gzip*(1) to run at level 6 by
adding the following lines to your gitweb configuration file:
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
index cca14b8..cd9c895 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@ separator (rules for Perl's "`split(" ", $line)`").
* Fields use modified URI encoding, defined in RFC 3986, section 2.1
(Percent-Encoding), or rather "Query string encoding" (see
-link:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string#URL_encoding[]), the difference
+http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Query_string#URL_encoding[]), the difference
being that SP (" ") can be encoded as "{plus}" (and therefore "{plus}" has to be
also percent-encoded).
+
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index aa1c888..4e0b971 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
[[def_alternate_object_database]]alternate object database::
Via the alternates mechanism, a <<def_repository,repository>>
can inherit part of its <<def_object_database,object database>>
- from another object database, which is called "alternate".
+ from another object database, which is called an "alternate".
[[def_bare_repository]]bare repository::
A bare repository is normally an appropriately
@@ -176,6 +176,10 @@ current branch integrates with) obviously do not work, as there is no
you can make Git pretend the set of <<def_parent,parents>> a <<def_commit,commit>> has
is different from what was recorded when the commit was
created. Configured via the `.git/info/grafts` file.
++
+Note that the grafts mechanism is outdated and can lead to problems
+transferring objects between repositories; see linkgit:git-replace[1]
+for a more flexible and robust system to do the same thing.
[[def_hash]]hash::
In Git's context, synonym for <<def_object_name,object name>>.
@@ -323,24 +327,26 @@ including Documentation/chapter_1/figure_1.jpg.
A pathspec that begins with a colon `:` has special meaning. In the
short form, the leading colon `:` is followed by zero or more "magic
signature" letters (which optionally is terminated by another colon `:`),
-and the remainder is the pattern to match against the path. The optional
-colon that terminates the "magic signature" can be omitted if the pattern
-begins with a character that cannot be a "magic signature" and is not a
-colon.
+and the remainder is the pattern to match against the path.
+The "magic signature" consists of ASCII symbols that are neither
+alphanumeric, glob, regex special charaters nor colon.
+The optional colon that terminates the "magic signature" can be
+omitted if the pattern begins with a character that does not belong to
+"magic signature" symbol set and is not a colon.
+
In the long form, the leading colon `:` is followed by a open
parenthesis `(`, a comma-separated list of zero or more "magic words",
and a close parentheses `)`, and the remainder is the pattern to match
against the path.
+
-The "magic signature" consists of an ASCII symbol that is not
-alphanumeric.
+A pathspec with only a colon means "there is no pathspec". This form
+should not be combined with other pathspec.
+
--
-top `/`;;
- The magic word `top` (mnemonic: `/`) makes the pattern match
- from the root of the working tree, even when you are running
- the command from inside a subdirectory.
+top;;
+ The magic word `top` (magic signature: `/`) makes the pattern
+ match from the root of the working tree, even when you are
+ running the command from inside a subdirectory.
literal;;
Wildcards in the pattern such as `*` or `?` are treated
@@ -377,14 +383,12 @@ full pathname may have special meaning:
- Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
+
Glob magic is incompatible with literal magic.
+
+exclude;;
+ After a path matches any non-exclude pathspec, it will be run
+ through all exclude pathspec (magic signature: `!`). If it
+ matches, the path is ignored.
--
-+
-Currently only the slash `/` is recognized as the "magic signature",
-but it is envisioned that we will support more types of magic in later
-versions of Git.
-+
-A pathspec with only a colon means "there is no pathspec". This form
-should not be combined with other pathspec.
[[def_parent]]parent::
A <<def_commit_object,commit object>> contains a (possibly empty) list
diff --git a/Documentation/howto-index.sh b/Documentation/howto-index.sh
index a234086..167b363 100755
--- a/Documentation/howto-index.sh
+++ b/Documentation/howto-index.sh
@@ -11,8 +11,8 @@ EOF
for txt
do
- title=`expr "$txt" : '.*/\(.*\)\.txt$'`
- from=`sed -ne '
+ title=$(expr "$txt" : '.*/\(.*\)\.txt$')
+ from=$(sed -ne '
/^$/q
/^From:[ ]/{
s///
@@ -21,9 +21,9 @@ do
s/^/by /
p
}
- ' "$txt"`
+ ' "$txt")
- abstract=`sed -ne '
+ abstract=$(sed -ne '
/^Abstract:[ ]/{
s/^[^ ]*//
x
@@ -39,11 +39,11 @@ do
x
p
q
- }' "$txt"`
+ }' "$txt")
if grep 'Content-type: text/asciidoc' >/dev/null $txt
then
- file=`expr "$txt" : '\(.*\)\.txt$'`.html
+ file=$(expr "$txt" : '\(.*\)\.txt$').html
else
file="$txt"
fi
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/keep-canonical-history-correct.txt b/Documentation/howto/keep-canonical-history-correct.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..35d48ef
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/keep-canonical-history-correct.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,216 @@
+From: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
+Date: Wed, 07 May 2014 13:15:39 -0700
+Subject: Beginner question on "Pull is mostly evil"
+Abstract: This how-to explains a method for keeping a
+ project's history correct when using git pull.
+Content-type: text/asciidoc
+
+Keep authoritative canonical history correct with git pull
+==========================================================
+
+Sometimes a new project integrator will end up with project history
+that appears to be "backwards" from what other project developers
+expect. This howto presents a suggested integration workflow for
+maintaining a central repository.
+
+Suppose that that central repository has this history:
+
+------------
+ ---o---o---A
+------------
+
+which ends at commit `A` (time flows from left to right and each node
+in the graph is a commit, lines between them indicating parent-child
+relationship).
+
+Then you clone it and work on your own commits, which leads you to
+have this history in *your* repository:
+
+------------
+ ---o---o---A---B---C
+------------
+
+Imagine your coworker did the same and built on top of `A` in *his*
+repository in the meantime, and then pushed it to the
+central repository:
+
+------------
+ ---o---o---A---X---Y---Z
+------------
+
+Now, if you `git push` at this point, because your history that leads
+to `C` lacks `X`, `Y` and `Z`, it will fail. You need to somehow make
+the tip of your history a descendant of `Z`.
+
+One suggested way to solve the problem is "fetch and then merge", aka
+`git pull`. When you fetch, your repository will have a history like
+this:
+
+------------
+ ---o---o---A---B---C
+ \
+ X---Y---Z
+------------
+
+Once you run merge after that, while still on *your* branch, i.e. `C`,
+you will create a merge `M` and make the history look like this:
+
+------------
+ ---o---o---A---B---C---M
+ \ /
+ X---Y---Z
+------------
+
+`M` is a descendant of `Z`, so you can push to update the central
+repository. Such a merge `M` does not lose any commit in both
+histories, so in that sense it may not be wrong, but when people want
+to talk about "the authoritative canonical history that is shared
+among the project participants", i.e. "the trunk", they often view
+it as "commits you see by following the first-parent chain", and use
+this command to view it:
+
+------------
+ $ git log --first-parent
+------------
+
+For all other people who observed the central repository after your
+coworker pushed `Z` but before you pushed `M`, the commit on the trunk
+used to be `o-o-A-X-Y-Z`. But because you made `M` while you were on
+`C`, `M`'s first parent is `C`, so by pushing `M` to advance the
+central repository, you made `X-Y-Z` a side branch, not on the trunk.
+
+You would rather want to have a history of this shape:
+
+------------
+ ---o---o---A---X---Y---Z---M'
+ \ /
+ B-----------C
+------------
+
+so that in the first-parent chain, it is clear that the project first
+did `X` and then `Y` and then `Z` and merged a change that consists of
+two commits `B` and `C` that achieves a single goal. You may have
+worked on fixing the bug #12345 with these two patches, and the merge
+`M'` with swapped parents can say in its log message "Merge
+fix-bug-12345". Having a way to tell `git pull` to create a merge
+but record the parents in reverse order may be a way to do so.
+
+Note that I said "achieves a single goal" above, because this is
+important. "Swapping the merge order" only covers a special case
+where the project does not care too much about having unrelated
+things done on a single merge but cares a lot about first-parent
+chain.
+
+There are multiple schools of thought about the "trunk" management.
+
+ 1. Some projects want to keep a completely linear history without any
+ merges. Obviously, swapping the merge order would not match their
+ taste. You would need to flatten your history on top of the
+ updated upstream to result in a history of this shape instead:
++
+------------
+ ---o---o---A---X---Y---Z---B---C
+------------
++
+with `git pull --rebase` or something.
+
+ 2. Some projects tolerate merges in their history, but do not worry
+ too much about the first-parent order, and allow fast-forward
+ merges. To them, swapping the merge order does not hurt, but
+ it is unnecessary.
+
+ 3. Some projects want each commit on the "trunk" to do one single
+ thing. The output of `git log --first-parent` in such a project
+ would show either a merge of a side branch that completes a single
+ theme, or a single commit that completes a single theme by itself.
+ If your two commits `B` and `C` (or they may even be two groups of
+ commits) were solving two independent issues, then the merge `M'`
+ we made in the earlier example by swapping the merge order is
+ still not up to the project standard. It merges two unrelated
+ efforts `B` and `C` at the same time.
+
+For projects in the last category (Git itself is one of them),
+individual developers would want to prepare a history more like
+this:
+
+------------
+ C0--C1--C2 topic-c
+ /
+ ---o---o---A master
+ \
+ B0--B1--B2 topic-b
+------------
+
+That is, keeping separate topics on separate branches, perhaps like
+so:
+
+------------
+ $ git clone $URL work && cd work
+ $ git checkout -b topic-b master
+ $ ... work to create B0, B1 and B2 to complete one theme
+ $ git checkout -b topic-c master
+ $ ... same for the theme of topic-c
+------------
+
+And then
+
+------------
+ $ git checkout master
+ $ git pull --ff-only
+------------
+
+would grab `X`, `Y` and `Z` from the upstream and advance your master
+branch:
+
+------------
+ C0--C1--C2 topic-c
+ /
+ ---o---o---A---X---Y---Z master
+ \
+ B0--B1--B2 topic-b
+------------
+
+And then you would merge these two branches separately:
+
+------------
+ $ git merge topic-b
+ $ git merge topic-c
+------------
+
+to result in
+
+------------
+ C0--C1---------C2
+ / \
+ ---o---o---A---X---Y---Z---M---N
+ \ /
+ B0--B1-----B2
+------------
+
+and push it back to the central repository.
+
+It is very much possible that while you are merging topic-b and
+topic-c, somebody again advanced the history in the central repository
+to put `W` on top of `Z`, and make your `git push` fail.
+
+In such a case, you would rewind to discard `M` and `N`, update the
+tip of your 'master' again and redo the two merges:
+
+------------
+ $ git reset --hard origin/master
+ $ git pull --ff-only
+ $ git merge topic-b
+ $ git merge topic-c
+------------
+
+The procedure will result in a history that looks like this:
+
+------------
+ C0--C1--------------C2
+ / \
+ ---o---o---A---X---Y---Z---W---M'--N'
+ \ /
+ B0--B1---------B2
+------------
+
+See also http://git-blame.blogspot.com/2013/09/fun-with-first-parent-history.html
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
index 33ae69c..ca43787 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
@@ -39,26 +39,26 @@ The policy on Integration is informally mentioned in "A Note
from the maintainer" message, which is periodically posted to
this mailing list after each feature release is made.
- - Feature releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z and are meant to
+ - Feature releases are numbered as vX.Y.0 and are meant to
contain bugfixes and enhancements in any area, including
functionality, performance and usability, without regression.
- One release cycle for a feature release is expected to last for
eight to ten weeks.
- - Maintenance releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z.W and are meant
- to contain only bugfixes for the corresponding vX.Y.Z feature
- release and earlier maintenance releases vX.Y.Z.V (V < W).
+ - Maintenance releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z and are meant
+ to contain only bugfixes for the corresponding vX.Y.0 feature
+ release and earlier maintenance releases vX.Y.W (W < Z).
- 'master' branch is used to prepare for the next feature
release. In other words, at some point, the tip of 'master'
- branch is tagged with vX.Y.Z.
+ branch is tagged with vX.Y.0.
- 'maint' branch is used to prepare for the next maintenance
- release. After the feature release vX.Y.Z is made, the tip
+ release. After the feature release vX.Y.0 is made, the tip
of 'maint' branch is set to that release, and bugfixes will
accumulate on the branch, and at some point, the tip of the
- branch is tagged with vX.Y.Z.1, vX.Y.Z.2, and so on.
+ branch is tagged with vX.Y.1, vX.Y.2, and so on.
- 'next' branch is used to publish changes (both enhancements
and fixes) that (1) have worthwhile goal, (2) are in a fairly
@@ -86,6 +86,10 @@ this mailing list after each feature release is made.
users are encouraged to test it so that regressions and bugs
are found before new topics are merged to 'master'.
+Note that before v1.9.0 release, the version numbers used to be
+structured slightly differently. vX.Y.Z were feature releases while
+vX.Y.Z.W were maintenance releases for vX.Y.Z.
+
A Typical Git Day
-----------------
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
index 19ab604..02cb5f7 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
@@ -139,7 +139,7 @@ You fetch from upstream, but not merge.
$ git fetch upstream
This leaves the updated upstream head in .git/FETCH_HEAD but
-does not touch your .git/HEAD nor .git/refs/heads/master.
+does not touch your .git/HEAD or .git/refs/heads/master.
You run "git rebase" now.
$ git rebase FETCH_HEAD master
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
index acf3e47..462255e 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@ where C and D are to fix what was broken in A and B, and you may already
have some other changes on the mainline after W.
If you merge the updated side branch (with D at its tip), none of the
-changes made in A nor B will be in the result, because they were reverted
+changes made in A or B will be in the result, because they were reverted
by W. That is what Alan saw.
Linus explains the situation:
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@ with:
$ git revert W
This history would (ignoring possible conflicts between what W and W..Y
-changed) be equivalent to not having W nor Y at all in the history:
+changed) be equivalent to not having W or Y at all in the history:
---o---o---o---M---x---x-------x----
/
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
index 85f69db..149508e 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@ $ make clean test ;# make sure it did not cause other breakage.
------------------------------------------------
Everything is in the good order. I do not need the temporary branch
-nor tag anymore, so remove them:
+or tag anymore, so remove them:
------------------------------------------------
$ rm -f .git/refs/tags/pu-anchor
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
index 6de4f3c..f44e5e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@ On Debian:
Most tests should pass.
-A command line tool to test WebDAV is cadaver. If you prefer GUIs, for
+A command-line tool to test WebDAV is cadaver. If you prefer GUIs, for
example, konqueror can open WebDAV URLs as "webdav://..." or
"webdavs://...".
diff --git a/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh b/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh
index 76d69a9..ed8b4ff 100755
--- a/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh
+++ b/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh
@@ -18,17 +18,17 @@ do
else
echo >&2 "# install $h $T/$h"
rm -f "$T/$h"
- mkdir -p `dirname "$T/$h"`
+ mkdir -p $(dirname "$T/$h")
cp "$h" "$T/$h"
fi
done
-strip_leading=`echo "$T/" | sed -e 's|.|.|g'`
+strip_leading=$(echo "$T/" | sed -e 's|.|.|g')
for th in \
"$T"/*.html "$T"/*.txt \
"$T"/howto/*.txt "$T"/howto/*.html \
"$T"/technical/*.txt "$T"/technical/*.html
do
- h=`expr "$th" : "$strip_leading"'\(.*\)'`
+ h=$(expr "$th" : "$strip_leading"'\(.*\)')
case "$h" in
RelNotes-*.txt | index.html) continue ;;
esac
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index e134315..f08e9b8 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -63,14 +63,13 @@ merge.
--squash::
--no-squash::
- Produce the working tree and index state as if a real
- merge happened (except for the merge information),
- but do not actually make a commit or
- move the `HEAD`, nor record `$GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD` to
- cause the next `git commit` command to create a merge
- commit. This allows you to create a single commit on
- top of the current branch whose effect is the same as
- merging another branch (or more in case of an octopus).
+ Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
+ happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually
+ make a commit, move the `HEAD`, or record `$GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD`
+ (to cause the next `git commit` command to create a merge
+ commit). This allows you to create a single commit on top of
+ the current branch whose effect is the same as merging another
+ branch (or more in case of an octopus).
+
With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This
option can be used to override --squash.
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index 49a9a7d..7bbd19b 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -1,10 +1,10 @@
MERGE STRATEGIES
----------------
-The merge mechanism ('git-merge' and 'git-pull' commands) allows the
+The merge mechanism (`git merge` and `git pull` commands) allows the
backend 'merge strategies' to be chosen with `-s` option. Some strategies
can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving `-X<option>`
-arguments to 'git-merge' and/or 'git-pull'.
+arguments to `git merge` and/or `git pull`.
resolve::
This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ recursive::
merged tree of the common ancestors and uses that as
the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without
- causing mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits
+ causing mismerges by tests done on actual merge commits
taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history.
Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving
renames. This is the default merge strategy when
@@ -113,3 +113,11 @@ subtree::
match the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at
the same level. This adjustment is also done to the common
ancestor tree.
+
+With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default, 'recursive'),
+if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted on one of the
+branches, that change will be present in the merged result; some people find
+this behavior confusing. It occurs because only the heads and the merge base
+are considered when performing a merge, not the individual commits. The merge
+algorithm therefore considers the reverted change as no change at all, and
+substitutes the changed version instead.
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 1d174fd..dcf7429 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@ The 'raw' format shows the entire commit exactly as
stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are
displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and 'parents' information show the
-true parent commits, without taking grafts nor history
+true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
simplification into account.
* 'format:<string>'
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ would show something like this:
The author of fe6e0ee was Junio C Hamano, 23 hours ago
The title was >>t4119: test autocomputing -p<n> for traditional diff input.<<
---------
+-------
+
The placeholders are:
@@ -115,19 +115,22 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%aD': author date, RFC2822 style
- '%ar': author date, relative
- '%at': author date, UNIX timestamp
-- '%ai': author date, ISO 8601 format
+- '%ai': author date, ISO 8601-like format
+- '%aI': author date, strict ISO 8601 format
- '%cn': committer name
- '%cN': committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ce': committer email
- '%cE': committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
-- '%cd': committer date
+- '%cd': committer date (format respects --date= option)
- '%cD': committer date, RFC2822 style
- '%cr': committer date, relative
- '%ct': committer date, UNIX timestamp
-- '%ci': committer date, ISO 8601 format
+- '%ci': committer date, ISO 8601-like format
+- '%cI': committer date, strict ISO 8601 format
- '%d': ref names, like the --decorate option of linkgit:git-log[1]
+- '%D': ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.
- '%e': encoding
- '%s': subject
- '%f': sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
@@ -182,8 +185,9 @@ The placeholders are:
NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
-`git log -g`). The `%d` placeholder will use the "short" decoration
-format if `--decorate` was not already provided on the command line.
+`git log -g`). The `%d` and `%D` placeholders will use the "short"
+decoration format if `--decorate` was not already provided on the command
+line.
If you add a `+` (plus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, a line-feed
is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index eea0e30..8569e29 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ people using 80-column terminals.
Show the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) that annotate the
commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default
for `git log`, `git show` and `git whatchanged` commands when
- there is no `--pretty`, `--format` nor `--oneline` option given
+ there is no `--pretty`, `--format`, or `--oneline` option given
on the command line.
+
By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index 18cffc2..1ebbf1d 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -12,9 +12,23 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
endif::git-pull[]
<refspec>::
- The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
- `+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
- by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
+ Specifies which refs to fetch and which local refs to update.
+ When no <refspec>s appear on the command line, the refs to fetch
+ are read from `remote.<repository>.fetch` variables instead
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+ (see <<CRTB,CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES>> below).
+endif::git-pull[]
+ifdef::git-pull[]
+ (see linkgit:git-fetch[1]).
+endif::git-pull[]
++
+The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
+`+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
+The colon can be omitted when <dst> is empty.
++
+`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`;
+it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
+
The remote ref that matches <src>
is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local
@@ -24,55 +38,34 @@ is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward
update.
+
[NOTE]
-If the remote branch from which you want to pull is
-modified in non-linear ways such as being rewound and
-rebased frequently, then a pull will attempt a merge with
-an older version of itself, likely conflict, and fail.
-It is under these conditions that you would want to use
-the `+` sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will
-be needed. There is currently no easy way to determine
-or declare that a branch will be made available in a
-repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply
+When the remote branch you want to fetch is known to
+be rewound and rebased regularly, it is expected that
+its new tip will not be descendant of its previous tip
+(as stored in your remote-tracking branch the last time
+you fetched). You would want
+to use the `+` sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates
+will be needed for such branches. There is no way to
+determine or declare that a branch will be made available
+in a repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply
must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.
-+
-[NOTE]
-You never do your own development on branches that appear
-on the right hand side of a <refspec> colon on `Pull:` lines;
-they are to be updated by 'git fetch'. If you intend to do
-development derived from a remote branch `B`, have a `Pull:`
-line to track it (i.e. `Pull: B:remote-B`), and have a separate
-branch `my-B` to do your development on top of it. The latter
-is created by `git branch my-B remote-B` (or its equivalent `git
-checkout -b my-B remote-B`). Run `git fetch` to keep track of
-the progress of the remote side, and when you see something new
-on the remote branch, merge it into your development branch with
-`git pull . remote-B`, while you are on `my-B` branch.
+ifdef::git-pull[]
+
[NOTE]
There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
directly on 'git pull' command line and having multiple
-`Pull:` <refspec> lines for a <repository> and running
+`remote.<repository>.fetch` entries in your configuration
+for a <repository> and running a
'git pull' command without any explicit <refspec> parameters.
-<refspec> listed explicitly on the command line are always
+<refspec>s listed explicitly on the command line are always
merged into the current branch after fetching. In other words,
-if you list more than one remote refs, you would be making
-an Octopus. While 'git pull' run without any explicit <refspec>
-parameter takes default <refspec>s from `Pull:` lines, it
-merges only the first <refspec> found into the current branch,
-after fetching all the remote refs. This is because making an
+if you list more than one remote ref, 'git pull' will create
+an Octopus merge. On the other hand, if you do not list any
+explicit <refspec> parameter on the command line, 'git pull'
+will fetch all the <refspec>s it finds in the
+`remote.<repository>.fetch` configuration and merge
+only the first <refspec> found into the current branch.
+This is because making an
Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track
of multiple remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one
is often useful.
-+
-Some short-cut notations are also supported.
-+
-* `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`;
- it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
-ifndef::git-pull[]
-* A parameter <ref> without a colon fetches that ref into FETCH_HEAD,
-endif::git-pull[]
-ifdef::git-pull[]
-* A parameter <ref> without a colon merges <ref> into the current
- branch,
endif::git-pull[]
- and updates the remote-tracking branches (if any).
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 2991d70..3301fde 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -153,6 +153,30 @@ parents) and `--max-parents=-1` (negative numbers denote no upper limit).
is automatically prepended if missing. If pattern lacks '?', '{asterisk}',
or '[', '/{asterisk}' at the end is implied.
+--exclude=<glob-pattern>::
+
+ Do not include refs matching '<glob-pattern>' that the next `--all`,
+ `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or `--glob` would otherwise
+ consider. Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns
+ up to the next `--all`, `--branches`, `--tags`, `--remotes`, or
+ `--glob` option (other options or arguments do not clear
+ accumlated patterns).
++
+The patterns given should not begin with `refs/heads`, `refs/tags`, or
+`refs/remotes` when applied to `--branches`, `--tags`, or `--remotes`,
+respectively, and they must begin with `refs/` when applied to `--glob`
+or `--all`. If a trailing '/{asterisk}' is intended, it must be given
+explicitly.
+
+--reflog::
+ Pretend as if all objects mentioned by reflogs are listed on the
+ command line as `<commit>`.
+
+--indexed-objects::
+ Pretend as if all trees and blobs used by the index are listed
+ on the command line. Note that you probably want to use
+ `--objects`, too.
+
--ignore-missing::
Upon seeing an invalid object name in the input, pretend as if
the bad input was not given.
@@ -222,7 +246,7 @@ list.
reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones.
When this option is used you cannot specify commits to
exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
- nor 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
+ and 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
+
With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
@@ -242,6 +266,14 @@ See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
Output excluded boundary commits. Boundary commits are
prefixed with `-`.
+ifdef::git-rev-list[]
+--use-bitmap-index::
+
+ Try to speed up the traversal using the pack bitmap index (if
+ one is available). Note that when traversing with `--objects`,
+ trees and blobs will not have their associated path printed.
+endif::git-rev-list[]
+
--
History Simplification
@@ -654,7 +686,7 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
--relative-date::
Synonym for `--date=relative`.
---date=(relative|local|default|iso|rfc|short|raw)::
+--date=(relative|local|default|iso|iso-strict|rfc|short|raw)::
Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
value for the log command's `--date` option.
@@ -664,7 +696,16 @@ e.g. ``2 hours ago''.
+
`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local time zone.
+
-`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.
+`--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format.
+The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:
+
+ - a space instead of the `T` date/time delimiter
+ - a space between time and time zone
+ - no colon between hours and minutes of the time zone
+
++
+`--date=iso-strict` (or `--date=iso8601-strict`) shows timestamps in strict
+ISO 8601 format.
+
`--date=rfc` (or `--date=rfc2822`) shows timestamps in RFC 2822
format, often found in email messages.
@@ -735,6 +776,13 @@ This enables parent rewriting, see 'History Simplification' below.
This implies the `--topo-order` option by default, but the
`--date-order` option may also be specified.
+--show-linear-break[=<barrier>]::
+ When --graph is not used, all history branches are flattened
+ which can make it hard to see that the two consecutive commits
+ do not belong to a linear branch. This option puts a barrier
+ in between them in that case. If `<barrier>` is specified, it
+ is the string that will be shown instead of the default one.
+
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--count::
Print a number stating how many commits would have been
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 2c06ed3..0796118 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -88,13 +88,15 @@ some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
branch 'blabla' then '@\{1\}' means the same as 'blabla@\{1\}'.
'@\{-<n>\}', e.g. '@\{-1\}'::
- The construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
+ The construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
before the current one.
'<branchname>@\{upstream\}', e.g. 'master@\{upstream\}', '@\{u\}'::
The suffix '@\{upstream\}' to a branchname (short form '<branchname>@\{u\}')
refers to the branch that the branch specified by branchname is set to build on
- top of. A missing branchname defaults to the current one.
+ top of (configured with `branch.<name>.remote` and
+ `branch.<name>.merge`). A missing branchname defaults to the
+ current one.
'<rev>{caret}', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}, v1.5.1{caret}0'::
A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
index 542946b..5a59b54 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
@@ -34,3 +34,6 @@ item[nr++] = value you like;
------------
You are responsible for updating the `nr` variable.
+
+If you need to specify the number of elements to allocate explicitly
+then use the macro `REALLOC_ARRAY(item, alloc)` instead of `ALLOC_GROW`.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
index a6b7d83..1a79781 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
@@ -53,11 +53,3 @@ Functions
`argv_array_clear`::
Free all memory associated with the array and return it to the
initial, empty state.
-
-`argv_array_detach`::
- Detach the argv array from the `struct argv_array`, transferring
- ownership of the allocated array and strings.
-
-`argv_array_free_detached`::
- Free the memory allocated by a `struct argv_array` that was later
- detached and is now no longer needed.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
index f3c1357..22a39b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
@@ -14,19 +14,22 @@ Git:
. Add the external declaration for the function to `builtin.h`.
-. Add the command to `commands[]` table in `handle_internal_command()`,
- defined in `git.c`. The entry should look like:
+. Add the command to the `commands[]` table defined in `git.c`.
+ The entry should look like:
{ "foo", cmd_foo, <options> },
+
where options is the bitwise-or of:
`RUN_SETUP`::
-
- Make sure there is a Git directory to work on, and if there is a
- work tree, chdir to the top of it if the command was invoked
- in a subdirectory. If there is no work tree, no chdir() is
- done.
+ If there is not a Git directory to work on, abort. If there
+ is a work tree, chdir to the top of it if the command was
+ invoked in a subdirectory. If there is no work tree, no
+ chdir() is done.
+
+`RUN_SETUP_GENTLY`::
+ If there is a Git directory, chdir as per RUN_SETUP, otherwise,
+ don't chdir anywhere.
`USE_PAGER`::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
index 230b3a0..0d8b99b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
@@ -77,6 +77,99 @@ To read a specific file in git-config format, use
`git_config_from_file`. This takes the same callback and data parameters
as `git_config`.
+Querying For Specific Variables
+-------------------------------
+
+For programs wanting to query for specific variables in a non-callback
+manner, the config API provides two functions `git_config_get_value`
+and `git_config_get_value_multi`. They both read values from an internal
+cache generated previously from reading the config files.
+
+`int git_config_get_value(const char *key, const char **value)`::
+
+ Finds the highest-priority value for the configuration variable `key`,
+ stores the pointer to it in `value` and returns 0. When the
+ configuration variable `key` is not found, returns 1 without touching
+ `value`. The caller should not free or modify `value`, as it is owned
+ by the cache.
+
+`const struct string_list *git_config_get_value_multi(const char *key)`::
+
+ Finds and returns the value list, sorted in order of increasing priority
+ for the configuration variable `key`. When the configuration variable
+ `key` is not found, returns NULL. The caller should not free or modify
+ the returned pointer, as it is owned by the cache.
+
+`void git_config_clear(void)`::
+
+ Resets and invalidates the config cache.
+
+The config API also provides type specific API functions which do conversion
+as well as retrieval for the queried variable, including:
+
+`int git_config_get_int(const char *key, int *dest)`::
+
+ Finds and parses the value to an integer for the configuration variable
+ `key`. Dies on error; otherwise, stores the value of the parsed integer in
+ `dest` and returns 0. When the configuration variable `key` is not found,
+ returns 1 without touching `dest`.
+
+`int git_config_get_ulong(const char *key, unsigned long *dest)`::
+
+ Similar to `git_config_get_int` but for unsigned longs.
+
+`int git_config_get_bool(const char *key, int *dest)`::
+
+ Finds and parses the value into a boolean value, for the configuration
+ variable `key` respecting keywords like "true" and "false". Integer
+ values are converted into true/false values (when they are non-zero or
+ zero, respectively). Other values cause a die(). If parsing is successful,
+ stores the value of the parsed result in `dest` and returns 0. When the
+ configuration variable `key` is not found, returns 1 without touching
+ `dest`.
+
+`int git_config_get_bool_or_int(const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest)`::
+
+ Similar to `git_config_get_bool`, except that integers are copied as-is,
+ and `is_bool` flag is unset.
+
+`int git_config_get_maybe_bool(const char *key, int *dest)`::
+
+ Similar to `git_config_get_bool`, except that it returns -1 on error
+ rather than dying.
+
+`int git_config_get_string_const(const char *key, const char **dest)`::
+
+ Allocates and copies the retrieved string into the `dest` parameter for
+ the configuration variable `key`; if NULL string is given, prints an
+ error message and returns -1. When the configuration variable `key` is
+ not found, returns 1 without touching `dest`.
+
+`int git_config_get_string(const char *key, char **dest)`::
+
+ Similar to `git_config_get_string_const`, except that retrieved value
+ copied into the `dest` parameter is a mutable string.
+
+`int git_config_get_pathname(const char *key, const char **dest)`::
+
+ Similar to `git_config_get_string`, but expands `~` or `~user` into
+ the user's home directory when found at the beginning of the path.
+
+`git_die_config(const char *key, const char *err, ...)`::
+
+ First prints the error message specified by the caller in `err` and then
+ dies printing the line number and the file name of the highest priority
+ value for the configuration variable `key`.
+
+`void git_die_config_linenr(const char *key, const char *filename, int linenr)`::
+
+ Helper function which formats the die error message according to the
+ parameters entered. Used by `git_die_config()`. It can be used by callers
+ handling `git_config_get_value_multi()` to print the correct error message
+ for the desired value.
+
+See test-config.c for usage examples.
+
Value Parsing Helpers
---------------------
@@ -134,7 +227,98 @@ int read_file_with_include(const char *file, config_fn_t fn, void *data)
`git_config` respects includes automatically. The lower-level
`git_config_from_file` does not.
+Custom Configsets
+-----------------
+
+A `config_set` can be used to construct an in-memory cache for
+config-like files that the caller specifies (i.e., files like `.gitmodules`,
+`~/.gitconfig` etc.). For example,
+
+---------------------------------------
+struct config_set gm_config;
+git_configset_init(&gm_config);
+int b;
+/* we add config files to the config_set */
+git_configset_add_file(&gm_config, ".gitmodules");
+git_configset_add_file(&gm_config, ".gitmodules_alt");
+
+if (!git_configset_get_bool(gm_config, "submodule.frotz.ignore", &b)) {
+ /* hack hack hack */
+}
+
+/* when we are done with the configset */
+git_configset_clear(&gm_config);
+----------------------------------------
+
+Configset API provides functions for the above mentioned work flow, including:
+
+`void git_configset_init(struct config_set *cs)`::
+
+ Initializes the config_set `cs`.
+
+`int git_configset_add_file(struct config_set *cs, const char *filename)`::
+
+ Parses the file and adds the variable-value pairs to the `config_set`,
+ dies if there is an error in parsing the file. Returns 0 on success, or
+ -1 if the file does not exist or is inaccessible. The user has to decide
+ if he wants to free the incomplete configset or continue using it when
+ the function returns -1.
+
+`int git_configset_get_value(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **value)`::
+
+ Finds the highest-priority value for the configuration variable `key`
+ and config set `cs`, stores the pointer to it in `value` and returns 0.
+ When the configuration variable `key` is not found, returns 1 without
+ touching `value`. The caller should not free or modify `value`, as it
+ is owned by the cache.
+
+`const struct string_list *git_configset_get_value_multi(struct config_set *cs, const char *key)`::
+
+ Finds and returns the value list, sorted in order of increasing priority
+ for the configuration variable `key` and config set `cs`. When the
+ configuration variable `key` is not found, returns NULL. The caller
+ should not free or modify the returned pointer, as it is owned by the cache.
+
+`void git_configset_clear(struct config_set *cs)`::
+
+ Clears `config_set` structure, removes all saved variable-value pairs.
+
+In addition to above functions, the `config_set` API provides type specific
+functions in the vein of `git_config_get_int` and family but with an extra
+parameter, pointer to struct `config_set`.
+They all behave similarly to the `git_config_get*()` family described in
+"Querying For Specific Variables" above.
+
Writing Config Files
--------------------
-TODO
+Git gives multiple entry points in the Config API to write config values to
+files namely `git_config_set_in_file` and `git_config_set`, which write to
+a specific config file or to `.git/config` respectively. They both take a
+key/value pair as parameter.
+In the end they both call `git_config_set_multivar_in_file` which takes four
+parameters:
+
+- the name of the file, as a string, to which key/value pairs will be written.
+
+- the name of key, as a string. This is in canonical "flat" form: the section,
+ subsection, and variable segments will be separated by dots, and the section
+ and variable segments will be all lowercase.
+ E.g., `core.ignorecase`, `diff.SomeType.textconv`.
+
+- the value of the variable, as a string. If value is equal to NULL, it will
+ remove the matching key from the config file.
+
+- the value regex, as a string. It will disregard key/value pairs where value
+ does not match.
+
+- a multi_replace value, as an int. If value is equal to zero, nothing or only
+ one matching key/value is replaced, else all matching key/values (regardless
+ how many) are removed, before the new pair is written.
+
+It returns 0 on success.
+
+Also, there are functions `git_config_rename_section` and
+`git_config_rename_section_in_file` with parameters `old_name` and `new_name`
+for renaming or removing sections in the config files. If NULL is passed
+through `new_name` parameter, the section will be removed from the config file.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
index ce363b6..2602668 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ static void setup_check(void)
The attribute is Unset, by listing the name of the
attribute prefixed with a dash - for the path.
} else if (ATTR_UNSET(value)) {
- The attribute is not set nor unset for the path.
+ The attribute is neither set nor unset for the path.
} else if (!strcmp(value, "input")) {
If none of ATTR_TRUE(), ATTR_FALSE(), or ATTR_UNSET() is
true, the value is a string set in the gitattributes
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index e5061e0..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-hash.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,52 +0,0 @@
-hash API
-========
-
-The hash API is a collection of simple hash table functions. Users are expected
-to implement their own hashing.
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct hash_table`::
-
- The hash table structure. The `array` member points to the hash table
- entries. The `size` member counts the total number of valid and invalid
- entries in the table. The `nr` member keeps track of the number of
- valid entries.
-
-`struct hash_table_entry`::
-
- An opaque structure representing an entry in the hash table. The `hash`
- member is the entry's hash key and the `ptr` member is the entry's
- value.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`init_hash`::
-
- Initialize the hash table.
-
-`free_hash`::
-
- Release memory associated with the hash table.
-
-`insert_hash`::
-
- Insert a pointer into the hash table. If an entry with that hash
- already exists, a pointer to the existing entry's value is returned.
- Otherwise NULL is returned. This allows callers to implement
- chaining, etc.
-
-`lookup_hash`::
-
- Lookup an entry in the hash table. If an entry with that hash exists
- the entry's value is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned.
-
-`for_each_hash`::
-
- Call a function for each entry in the hash table. The function is
- expected to take the entry's value as its only argument and return an
- int. If the function returns a negative int the loop is aborted
- immediately. Otherwise, the return value is accumulated and the sum
- returned upon completion of the loop.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ad7a5bd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-hashmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,280 @@
+hashmap API
+===========
+
+The hashmap API is a generic implementation of hash-based key-value mappings.
+
+Data Structures
+---------------
+
+`struct hashmap`::
+
+ The hash table structure. Members can be used as follows, but should
+ not be modified directly:
++
+The `size` member keeps track of the total number of entries (0 means the
+hashmap is empty).
++
+`tablesize` is the allocated size of the hash table. A non-0 value indicates
+that the hashmap is initialized. It may also be useful for statistical purposes
+(i.e. `size / tablesize` is the current load factor).
++
+`cmpfn` stores the comparison function specified in `hashmap_init()`. In
+advanced scenarios, it may be useful to change this, e.g. to switch between
+case-sensitive and case-insensitive lookup.
+
+`struct hashmap_entry`::
+
+ An opaque structure representing an entry in the hash table, which must
+ be used as first member of user data structures. Ideally it should be
+ followed by an int-sized member to prevent unused memory on 64-bit
+ systems due to alignment.
++
+The `hash` member is the entry's hash code and the `next` member points to the
+next entry in case of collisions (i.e. if multiple entries map to the same
+bucket).
+
+`struct hashmap_iter`::
+
+ An iterator structure, to be used with hashmap_iter_* functions.
+
+Types
+-----
+
+`int (*hashmap_cmp_fn)(const void *entry, const void *entry_or_key, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ User-supplied function to test two hashmap entries for equality. Shall
+ return 0 if the entries are equal.
++
+This function is always called with non-NULL `entry` / `entry_or_key`
+parameters that have the same hash code. When looking up an entry, the `key`
+and `keydata` parameters to hashmap_get and hashmap_remove are always passed
+as second and third argument, respectively. Otherwise, `keydata` is NULL.
+
+Functions
+---------
+
+`unsigned int strhash(const char *buf)`::
+`unsigned int strihash(const char *buf)`::
+`unsigned int memhash(const void *buf, size_t len)`::
+`unsigned int memihash(const void *buf, size_t len)`::
+
+ Ready-to-use hash functions for strings, using the FNV-1 algorithm (see
+ http://www.isthe.com/chongo/tech/comp/fnv).
++
+`strhash` and `strihash` take 0-terminated strings, while `memhash` and
+`memihash` operate on arbitrary-length memory.
++
+`strihash` and `memihash` are case insensitive versions.
+
+`unsigned int sha1hash(const unsigned char *sha1)`::
+
+ Converts a cryptographic hash (e.g. SHA-1) into an int-sized hash code
+ for use in hash tables. Cryptographic hashes are supposed to have
+ uniform distribution, so in contrast to `memhash()`, this just copies
+ the first `sizeof(int)` bytes without shuffling any bits. Note that
+ the results will be different on big-endian and little-endian
+ platforms, so they should not be stored or transferred over the net.
+
+`void hashmap_init(struct hashmap *map, hashmap_cmp_fn equals_function, size_t initial_size)`::
+
+ Initializes a hashmap structure.
++
+`map` is the hashmap to initialize.
++
+The `equals_function` can be specified to compare two entries for equality.
+If NULL, entries are considered equal if their hash codes are equal.
++
+If the total number of entries is known in advance, the `initial_size`
+parameter may be used to preallocate a sufficiently large table and thus
+prevent expensive resizing. If 0, the table is dynamically resized.
+
+`void hashmap_free(struct hashmap *map, int free_entries)`::
+
+ Frees a hashmap structure and allocated memory.
++
+`map` is the hashmap to free.
++
+If `free_entries` is true, each hashmap_entry in the map is freed as well
+(using stdlib's free()).
+
+`void hashmap_entry_init(void *entry, unsigned int hash)`::
+
+ Initializes a hashmap_entry structure.
++
+`entry` points to the entry to initialize.
++
+`hash` is the hash code of the entry.
+
+`void *hashmap_get(const struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ Returns the hashmap entry for the specified key, or NULL if not found.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`key` is a hashmap_entry structure (or user data structure that starts with
+hashmap_entry) that has at least been initialized with the proper hash code
+(via `hashmap_entry_init`).
++
+If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are passed
+to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
+
+`void *hashmap_get_from_hash(const struct hashmap *map, unsigned int hash, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ Returns the hashmap entry for the specified hash code and key data,
+ or NULL if not found.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`hash` is the hash code of the entry to look up.
++
+If an entry with matching hash code is found, `keydata` is passed to
+`hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key. The
+`entry_or_key` parameter points to a bogus hashmap_entry structure that
+should not be used in the comparison.
+
+`void *hashmap_get_next(const struct hashmap *map, const void *entry)`::
+
+ Returns the next equal hashmap entry, or NULL if not found. This can be
+ used to iterate over duplicate entries (see `hashmap_add`).
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`entry` is the hashmap_entry to start the search from, obtained via a previous
+call to `hashmap_get` or `hashmap_get_next`.
+
+`void hashmap_add(struct hashmap *map, void *entry)`::
+
+ Adds a hashmap entry. This allows to add duplicate entries (i.e.
+ separate values with the same key according to hashmap_cmp_fn).
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`entry` is the entry to add.
+
+`void *hashmap_put(struct hashmap *map, void *entry)`::
+
+ Adds or replaces a hashmap entry. If the hashmap contains duplicate
+ entries equal to the specified entry, only one of them will be replaced.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`entry` is the entry to add or replace.
++
+Returns the replaced entry, or NULL if not found (i.e. the entry was added).
+
+`void *hashmap_remove(struct hashmap *map, const void *key, const void *keydata)`::
+
+ Removes a hashmap entry matching the specified key. If the hashmap
+ contains duplicate entries equal to the specified key, only one of
+ them will be removed.
++
+`map` is the hashmap structure.
++
+`key` is a hashmap_entry structure (or user data structure that starts with
+hashmap_entry) that has at least been initialized with the proper hash code
+(via `hashmap_entry_init`).
++
+If an entry with matching hash code is found, `key` and `keydata` are
+passed to `hashmap_cmp_fn` to decide whether the entry matches the key.
++
+Returns the removed entry, or NULL if not found.
+
+`void hashmap_iter_init(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
+`void *hashmap_iter_next(struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
+`void *hashmap_iter_first(struct hashmap *map, struct hashmap_iter *iter)`::
+
+ Used to iterate over all entries of a hashmap.
++
+`hashmap_iter_init` initializes a `hashmap_iter` structure.
++
+`hashmap_iter_next` returns the next hashmap_entry, or NULL if there are no
+more entries.
++
+`hashmap_iter_first` is a combination of both (i.e. initializes the iterator
+and returns the first entry, if any).
+
+`const char *strintern(const char *string)`::
+`const void *memintern(const void *data, size_t len)`::
+
+ Returns the unique, interned version of the specified string or data,
+ similar to the `String.intern` API in Java and .NET, respectively.
+ Interned strings remain valid for the entire lifetime of the process.
++
+Can be used as `[x]strdup()` or `xmemdupz` replacement, except that interned
+strings / data must not be modified or freed.
++
+Interned strings are best used for short strings with high probability of
+duplicates.
++
+Uses a hashmap to store the pool of interned strings.
+
+Usage example
+-------------
+
+Here's a simple usage example that maps long keys to double values.
+------------
+struct hashmap map;
+
+struct long2double {
+ struct hashmap_entry ent; /* must be the first member! */
+ long key;
+ double value;
+};
+
+static int long2double_cmp(const struct long2double *e1, const struct long2double *e2, const void *unused)
+{
+ return !(e1->key == e2->key);
+}
+
+void long2double_init(void)
+{
+ hashmap_init(&map, (hashmap_cmp_fn) long2double_cmp, 0);
+}
+
+void long2double_free(void)
+{
+ hashmap_free(&map, 1);
+}
+
+static struct long2double *find_entry(long key)
+{
+ struct long2double k;
+ hashmap_entry_init(&k, memhash(&key, sizeof(long)));
+ k.key = key;
+ return hashmap_get(&map, &k, NULL);
+}
+
+double get_value(long key)
+{
+ struct long2double *e = find_entry(key);
+ return e ? e->value : 0;
+}
+
+void set_value(long key, double value)
+{
+ struct long2double *e = find_entry(key);
+ if (!e) {
+ e = malloc(sizeof(struct long2double));
+ hashmap_entry_init(e, memhash(&key, sizeof(long)));
+ e->key = key;
+ hashmap_add(&map, e);
+ }
+ e->value = value;
+}
+------------
+
+Using variable-sized keys
+-------------------------
+
+The `hashmap_entry_get` and `hashmap_entry_remove` functions expect an ordinary
+`hashmap_entry` structure as key to find the correct entry. If the key data is
+variable-sized (e.g. a FLEX_ARRAY string) or quite large, it is undesirable
+to create a full-fledged entry structure on the heap and copy all the key data
+into the structure.
+
+In this case, the `keydata` parameter can be used to pass
+variable-sized key data directly to the comparison function, and the `key`
+parameter can be a stripped-down, fixed size entry structure allocated on the
+stack.
+
+See test-hashmap.c for an example using arbitrary-length strings as keys.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt
index dd89404..93b5f23 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt
@@ -3,20 +3,132 @@ lockfile API
The lockfile API serves two purposes:
-* Mutual exclusion. When we write out a new index file, first
- we create a new file `$GIT_DIR/index.lock`, write the new
- contents into it, and rename it to the final destination
- `$GIT_DIR/index`. We try to create the `$GIT_DIR/index.lock`
- file with O_EXCL so that we can notice and fail when somebody
- else is already trying to update the index file.
-
-* Automatic cruft removal. After we create the "lock" file, we
- may decide to `die()`, and we would want to make sure that we
- remove the file that has not been committed to its final
- destination. This is done by remembering the lockfiles we
- created in a linked list and cleaning them up from an
- `atexit(3)` handler. Outstanding lockfiles are also removed
- when the program dies on a signal.
+* Mutual exclusion and atomic file updates. When we want to change a
+ file, we create a lockfile `<filename>.lock`, write the new file
+ contents into it, and then rename the lockfile to its final
+ destination `<filename>`. We create the `<filename>.lock` file with
+ `O_CREAT|O_EXCL` so that we can notice and fail if somebody else has
+ already locked the file, then atomically rename the lockfile to its
+ final destination to commit the changes and unlock the file.
+
+* Automatic cruft removal. If the program exits after we lock a file
+ but before the changes have been committed, we want to make sure
+ that we remove the lockfile. This is done by remembering the
+ lockfiles we have created in a linked list and setting up an
+ `atexit(3)` handler and a signal handler that clean up the
+ lockfiles. This mechanism ensures that outstanding lockfiles are
+ cleaned up if the program exits (including when `die()` is called)
+ or if the program dies on a signal.
+
+Please note that lockfiles only block other writers. Readers do not
+block, but they are guaranteed to see either the old contents of the
+file or the new contents of the file (assuming that the filesystem
+implements `rename(2)` atomically).
+
+
+Calling sequence
+----------------
+
+The caller:
+
+* Allocates a `struct lock_file` either as a static variable or on the
+ heap, initialized to zeros. Once you use the structure to call the
+ `hold_lock_file_*` family of functions, it belongs to the lockfile
+ subsystem and its storage must remain valid throughout the life of
+ the program (i.e. you cannot use an on-stack variable to hold this
+ structure).
+
+* Attempts to create a lockfile by passing that variable and the path
+ of the final destination (e.g. `$GIT_DIR/index`) to
+ `hold_lock_file_for_update` or `hold_lock_file_for_append`.
+
+* Writes new content for the destination file by either:
+
+ * writing to the file descriptor returned by the `hold_lock_file_*`
+ functions (also available via `lock->fd`).
+
+ * calling `fdopen_lock_file` to get a `FILE` pointer for the open
+ file and writing to the file using stdio.
+
+When finished writing, the caller can:
+
+* Close the file descriptor and rename the lockfile to its final
+ destination by calling `commit_lock_file` or `commit_lock_file_to`.
+
+* Close the file descriptor and remove the lockfile by calling
+ `rollback_lock_file`.
+
+* Close the file descriptor without removing or renaming the lockfile