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-rw-r--r--.clang-format2
-rw-r--r--.gitattributes10
-rw-r--r--.gitignore10
-rw-r--r--.mailmap15
-rw-r--r--.travis.yml11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.7.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.4.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt49
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.4.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt398
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.1.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt583
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt615
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt476
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-config.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt72
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/doc-diff130
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-annotate.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-apply.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bundle.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-attr.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt104
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt108
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential-store.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-index.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-import.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt57
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-push.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-imap-send.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-index-pack.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mktree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-name-rev.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt134
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pull.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-range-diff.txt252
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt316
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-request-pull.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rerere.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-pack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shell.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-branch.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-index.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-ref.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt69
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-ref.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-var.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-web--browse.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-worktree.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt163
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/giteveryday.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt122
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitignore.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmodules.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrevisions.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt112
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitworkflows.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-object-harder.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-config.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/revisions.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt97
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt160
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt115
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt240
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/long-running-process-protocol.txt50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt109
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt169
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt208
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/rerere.txt186
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/shallow.txt20
-rwxr-xr-xGIT-VERSION-GEN2
-rw-r--r--INSTALL25
-rw-r--r--Makefile538
-rw-r--r--README.md3
-rw-r--r--[l---------]RelNotes113
-rw-r--r--advice.c104
-rw-r--r--advice.h3
-rw-r--r--alias.c22
-rw-r--r--alias.h12
-rw-r--r--alloc.c67
-rw-r--r--alloc.h21
-rw-r--r--apply.c269
-rw-r--r--apply.h31
-rw-r--r--archive-tar.c39
-rw-r--r--archive-zip.c34
-rw-r--r--archive.c89
-rw-r--r--archive.h27
-rw-r--r--argv-array.c26
-rw-r--r--argv-array.h6
-rw-r--r--attr.c66
-rw-r--r--attr.h32
-rw-r--r--banned.h30
-rw-r--r--bisect.c74
-rw-r--r--bisect.h2
-rw-r--r--blame.c203
-rw-r--r--blame.h25
-rw-r--r--blob.c11
-rw-r--r--blob.h2
-rw-r--r--branch.c27
-rw-r--r--branch.h13
-rw-r--r--builtin.h4
-rw-r--r--builtin/add.c23
-rw-r--r--builtin/am.c181
-rw-r--r--builtin/apply.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin/archive.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin/blame.c166
-rw-r--r--builtin/branch.c70
-rw-r--r--builtin/cat-file.c152
-rw-r--r--builtin/check-attr.c7
-rw-r--r--builtin/check-ignore.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/checkout-index.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin/checkout.c424
-rw-r--r--builtin/clean.c33
-rw-r--r--builtin/clone.c88
-rw-r--r--builtin/column.c1
-rw-r--r--builtin/commit-graph.c210
-rw-r--r--builtin/commit-tree.c11
-rw-r--r--builtin/commit.c457
-rw-r--r--builtin/config.c218
-rw-r--r--builtin/count-objects.c9
-rw-r--r--builtin/describe.c57
-rw-r--r--builtin/diff-tree.c19
-rw-r--r--builtin/diff.c18
-rw-r--r--builtin/difftool.c30
-rw-r--r--builtin/fast-export.c127
-rw-r--r--builtin/fetch-pack.c18
-rw-r--r--builtin/fetch.c478
-rw-r--r--builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c40
-rw-r--r--builtin/fsck.c145
-rw-r--r--builtin/gc.c197
-rw-r--r--builtin/grep.c106
-rw-r--r--builtin/hash-object.c6
-rw-r--r--builtin/help.c68
-rw-r--r--builtin/index-pack.c315
-rw-r--r--builtin/init-db.c37
-rw-r--r--builtin/interpret-trailers.c1
-rw-r--r--builtin/log.c206
-rw-r--r--builtin/ls-files.c29
-rw-r--r--builtin/ls-remote.c39
-rw-r--r--builtin/ls-tree.c9
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge-base.c8
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge-recursive.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge-tree.c13
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge.c221
-rw-r--r--builtin/mktag.c28
-rw-r--r--builtin/mktree.c37
-rw-r--r--builtin/multi-pack-index.c47
-rw-r--r--builtin/mv.c18
-rw-r--r--builtin/name-rev.c38
-rw-r--r--builtin/notes.c52
-rw-r--r--builtin/pack-objects.c978
-rw-r--r--builtin/pack-redundant.c118
-rw-r--r--builtin/pack-refs.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/prune-packed.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/prune.c19
-rw-r--r--builtin/pull.c63
-rw-r--r--builtin/push.c134
-rw-r--r--builtin/range-diff.c101
-rw-r--r--builtin/read-tree.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin/rebase--helper.c17
-rw-r--r--builtin/receive-pack.c71
-rw-r--r--builtin/reflog.c29
-rw-r--r--builtin/remote.c134
-rw-r--r--builtin/repack.c222
-rw-r--r--builtin/replace.c312
-rw-r--r--builtin/rerere.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin/reset.c38
-rw-r--r--builtin/rev-list.c95
-rw-r--r--builtin/rev-parse.c56
-rw-r--r--builtin/revert.c13
-rw-r--r--builtin/rm.c20
-rw-r--r--builtin/send-pack.c30
-rw-r--r--builtin/shortlog.c14
-rw-r--r--builtin/show-branch.c59
-rw-r--r--builtin/show-index.c (renamed from show-index.c)3
-rw-r--r--builtin/show-ref.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin/submodule--helper.c766
-rw-r--r--builtin/tag.c40
-rw-r--r--builtin/unpack-file.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/unpack-objects.c55
-rw-r--r--builtin/update-index.c87
-rw-r--r--builtin/update-ref.c25
-rw-r--r--builtin/update-server-info.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin/upload-archive.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/upload-pack.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin/verify-commit.c9
-rw-r--r--builtin/verify-tag.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin/worktree.c442
-rw-r--r--builtin/write-tree.c11
-rw-r--r--bulk-checkin.c52
-rw-r--r--bulk-checkin.h4
-rw-r--r--bundle.c48
-rw-r--r--cache-tree.c148
-rw-r--r--cache-tree.h22
-rw-r--r--cache.h546
-rw-r--r--chdir-notify.c93
-rw-r--r--chdir-notify.h73
-rw-r--r--checkout.c42
-rw-r--r--checkout.h4
-rwxr-xr-xci/lib-travisci.sh75
-rwxr-xr-xci/print-test-failures.sh62
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-build-and-tests.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-build.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-linux32-build.sh50
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-linux32-docker.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-static-analysis.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-tests.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-windows-build.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xci/test-documentation.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xci/util/extract-trash-dirs.sh50
-rw-r--r--color.c34
-rw-r--r--color.h45
-rw-r--r--column.c2
-rw-r--r--column.h1
-rw-r--r--combine-diff.c27
-rw-r--r--command-list.txt113
-rw-r--r--commit-graph.c1062
-rw-r--r--commit-graph.h73
-rw-r--r--commit-reach.c665
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-rw-r--r--commit-slab-decl.h43
-rw-r--r--commit-slab-impl.h94
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-rw-r--r--commit.c651
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-rw-r--r--common-main.c8
-rw-r--r--compat/mingw.c87
-rw-r--r--compat/mingw.h3
-rw-r--r--compat/precompose_utf8.h3
-rw-r--r--compat/vcbuild/README4
-rw-r--r--config.c684
-rw-r--r--config.h66
-rw-r--r--config.mak.dev48
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-rw-r--r--configure.ac29
-rw-r--r--connect.c91
-rw-r--r--connect.h2
-rw-r--r--connected.c8
-rw-r--r--connected.h8
-rw-r--r--contrib/coccinelle/commit.cocci28
-rw-r--r--contrib/coccinelle/object_id.cocci50
-rw-r--r--contrib/coccinelle/strbuf.cocci20
-rw-r--r--contrib/completion/git-completion.bash1189
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-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/convert-grafts-to-replace-refs.sh28
-rw-r--r--contrib/credential/netrc/Makefile7
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-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/credential/netrc/test.command-option-gpg2
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/credential/netrc/test.git-config-gpg2
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-rw-r--r--contrib/diff-highlight/DiffHighlight.pm85
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/diff-highlight/t/t9400-diff-highlight.sh81
-rw-r--r--contrib/emacs/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--contrib/emacs/Makefile21
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-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-clone.sh525
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-commit.sh639
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-difftool.perl481
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-fetch.sh379
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-gc.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-log.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-ls-remote.sh142
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-merge-ours.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-merge.sh620
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-notes.sh121
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-pull.sh381
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-remote.perl474
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-repack.sh194
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-rerere.perl284
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-reset.sh106
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-resolve.sh112
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-revert.sh207
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t9300-fast-import.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9302-fast-import-unpack-limit.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9350-fast-export.sh68
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9402-git-cvsserver-refs.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9600-cvsimport.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9800-git-p4-basic.sh29
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9802-git-p4-filetype.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9803-git-p4-shell-metachars.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9806-git-p4-options.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9807-git-p4-submit.sh64
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9810-git-p4-rcs.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9811-git-p4-label-import.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9813-git-p4-preserve-users.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9814-git-p4-rename.sh18
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9815-git-p4-submit-fail.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9818-git-p4-block.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9820-git-p4-editor-handling.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9830-git-p4-symlink-dir.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9831-git-p4-triggers.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9832-unshelve.sh138
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9833-errors.sh80
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9902-completion.sh267
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9903-bash-prompt.sh37
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib-functions.sh181
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib.sh155
-rw-r--r--tag.c60
-rw-r--r--tag.h8
-rw-r--r--tempfile.c14
-rw-r--r--tempfile.h39
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--pre-commit.sample2
-rw-r--r--tmp-objdir.c3
-rw-r--r--trace.c92
-rw-r--r--trace.h16
-rw-r--r--trailer.c112
-rw-r--r--trailer.h6
-rw-r--r--transport-helper.c136
-rw-r--r--transport.c175
-rw-r--r--transport.h47
-rw-r--r--tree-diff.c6
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.c57
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.h6
-rw-r--r--tree.c44
-rw-r--r--tree.h4
-rw-r--r--unicode-width.h (renamed from unicode_width.h)41
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.c379
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.h18
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c221
-rw-r--r--url.h2
-rw-r--r--urlmatch.h2
-rw-r--r--usage.c6
-rw-r--r--userdiff.c16
-rw-r--r--utf8.c135
-rw-r--r--utf8.h45
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/fast_export.c6
-rw-r--r--walker.c36
-rw-r--r--walker.h3
-rw-r--r--worktree.c102
-rw-r--r--worktree.h19
-rw-r--r--wrap-for-bin.sh21
-rw-r--r--wrapper.c44
-rw-r--r--write-or-die.c (renamed from write_or_die.c)0
-rw-r--r--ws.c44
-rw-r--r--wt-status.c206
-rw-r--r--wt-status.h17
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.c5
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiff.h8
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiffi.c29
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xhistogram.c133
-rw-r--r--zlib.c4
1292 files changed, 141015 insertions, 70918 deletions
diff --git a/.clang-format b/.clang-format
index 611ab47..12a89f9 100644
--- a/.clang-format
+++ b/.clang-format
@@ -163,7 +163,7 @@ PenaltyBreakComment: 10
PenaltyBreakFirstLessLess: 0
PenaltyBreakString: 10
PenaltyExcessCharacter: 100
-PenaltyReturnTypeOnItsOwnLine: 5
+PenaltyReturnTypeOnItsOwnLine: 60
# Don't sort #include's
SortIncludes: false
diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 8ce9c6b..49b3051 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -1,9 +1,15 @@
* whitespace=!indent,trail,space
*.[ch] whitespace=indent,trail,space diff=cpp
*.sh whitespace=indent,trail,space eol=lf
-*.perl eol=lf
-*.pm eol=lf
+*.perl eol=lf diff=perl
+*.pl eof=lf diff=perl
+*.pm eol=lf diff=perl
+*.py eol=lf diff=python
/Documentation/git-*.txt eol=lf
/command-list.txt eol=lf
/GIT-VERSION-GEN eol=lf
/mergetools/* eol=lf
+/Documentation/git-merge.txt conflict-marker-size=32
+/Documentation/gitk.txt conflict-marker-size=32
+/Documentation/user-manual.txt conflict-marker-size=32
+/t/t????-*.sh conflict-marker-size=32
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 2d0450c..9d1363a 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
/GIT-LDFLAGS
/GIT-PREFIX
/GIT-PERL-DEFINES
+/GIT-PERL-HEADER
/GIT-PYTHON-VARS
/GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
/GIT-USER-AGENT
@@ -34,6 +35,7 @@
/git-clone
/git-column
/git-commit
+/git-commit-graph
/git-commit-tree
/git-config
/git-count-objects
@@ -97,8 +99,9 @@
/git-mergetool--lib
/git-mktag
/git-mktree
-/git-name-rev
+/git-multi-pack-index
/git-mv
+/git-name-rev
/git-notes
/git-p4
/git-pack-redundant
@@ -111,12 +114,14 @@
/git-pull
/git-push
/git-quiltimport
+/git-range-diff
/git-read-tree
/git-rebase
/git-rebase--am
/git-rebase--helper
/git-rebase--interactive
/git-rebase--merge
+/git-rebase--preserve-merges
/git-receive-pack
/git-reflog
/git-remote
@@ -180,7 +185,7 @@
/gitweb/gitweb.cgi
/gitweb/static/gitweb.js
/gitweb/static/gitweb.min.*
-/common-cmds.h
+/command-list.h
*.tar.gz
*.dsc
*.deb
@@ -204,6 +209,7 @@
/config.mak.autogen
/config.mak.append
/configure
+/.vscode/
/tags
/TAGS
/cscope*
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index 7c71e88..f165222 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -25,8 +25,8 @@ Ben Walton <bdwalton@gmail.com> <bwalton@artsci.utoronto.ca>
Benoit Sigoure <tsunanet@gmail.com> <tsuna@lrde.epita.fr>
Bernt Hansen <bernt@norang.ca> <bernt@alumni.uwaterloo.ca>
Brandon Casey <drafnel@gmail.com> <casey@nrlssc.navy.mil>
-brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx> Brian M. Carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
-brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx> <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net>
+brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> Brian M. Carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
+brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryan.larsen@gmail.com>
Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryanlarsen@yahoo.com>
Cheng Renquan <crquan@gmail.com>
@@ -35,11 +35,13 @@ Chris Wright <chrisw@sous-sol.org> <chrisw@osdl.org>
Cord Seele <cowose@gmail.com> <cowose@googlemail.com>
Christian Couder <chriscool@tuxfamily.org> <christian.couder@gmail.com>
Christian Stimming <stimming@tuhh.de> <chs@ckiste.goetheallee>
+Christopher Díaz Riveros <chrisadr@gentoo.org> Christopher Diaz Riveros
Csaba Henk <csaba@gluster.com> <csaba@lowlife.hu>
Dan Johnson <computerdruid@gmail.com>
Dana L. How <danahow@gmail.com> <how@deathvalley.cswitch.com>
Dana L. How <danahow@gmail.com> Dana How
Daniel Barkalow <barkalow@iabervon.org>
+Daniel Knittl-Frank <knittl89@googlemail.com> knittl
Daniel Trstenjak <daniel.trstenjak@gmail.com> <daniel.trstenjak@online.de>
Daniel Trstenjak <daniel.trstenjak@gmail.com> <trsten@science-computing.de>
David Brown <git@davidb.org> <davidb@quicinc.com>
@@ -57,6 +59,7 @@ Eric S. Raymond <esr@thyrsus.com>
Eric Wong <e@80x24.org> <normalperson@yhbt.net>
Erik Faye-Lund <kusmabite@gmail.com> <kusmabite@googlemail.com>
Eyvind Bernhardsen <eyvind.bernhardsen@gmail.com> <eyvind-git@orakel.ntnu.no>
+Fangyi Zhou <fangyi.zhou@yuriko.moe> Zhou Fangyi
Florian Achleitner <florian.achleitner.2.6.31@gmail.com> <florian.achleitner2.6.31@gmail.com>
Franck Bui-Huu <vagabon.xyz@gmail.com> <fbuihuu@gmail.com>
Frank Lichtenheld <frank@lichtenheld.de> <djpig@debian.org>
@@ -86,6 +89,8 @@ Jason McMullan <mcmullan@netapp.com>
Jason Riedy <ejr@eecs.berkeley.edu> <ejr@EECS.Berkeley.EDU>
Jason Riedy <ejr@eecs.berkeley.edu> <ejr@cs.berkeley.edu>
Jay Soffian <jaysoffian@gmail.com> <jaysoffian+git@gmail.com>
+Jean-Noël Avila <jn.avila@free.fr> Jean-Noel Avila
+Jean-Noël Avila <jn.avila@free.fr> Jean-Noël AVILA
Jeff King <peff@peff.net> <peff@github.com>
Jeff Muizelaar <jmuizelaar@mozilla.com> <jeff@infidigm.net>
Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> <axboe@suse.de>
@@ -149,6 +154,7 @@ Matt Draisey <matt@draisey.ca> <mattdraisey@sympatico.ca>
Matt Kraai <kraai@ftbfs.org> <matt.kraai@amo.abbott.com>
Matt McCutchen <matt@mattmccutchen.net> <hashproduct@gmail.com>
Matthias Kestenholz <matthias@spinlock.ch> <mk@spinlock.ch>
+Matthias Rüster <matthias.ruester@gmail.com> Matthias Ruester
Matthias Urlichs <matthias@urlichs.de> <smurf@kiste.(none)>
Matthias Urlichs <matthias@urlichs.de> <smurf@smurf.noris.de>
Michael Coleman <tutufan@gmail.com>
@@ -213,6 +219,8 @@ Sean Estabrooks <seanlkml@sympatico.ca>
Sebastian Schuberth <sschuberth@gmail.com> <sschuberth@visageimaging.com>
Seth Falcon <seth@userprimary.net> <sfalcon@fhcrc.org>
Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>
+Wei Shuyu <wsy@dogben.com> Shuyu Wei
+Sidhant Sharma <tigerkid001@gmail.com> Sidhant Sharma [:tk]
Simon Hausmann <hausmann@kde.org> <simon@lst.de>
Simon Hausmann <hausmann@kde.org> <shausman@trolltech.com>
Stefan Beller <stefanbeller@gmail.com> <stefanbeller@googlemail.com>
@@ -253,7 +261,8 @@ Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de> <ukleinek@informatik.uni-frei
Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de> <uzeisberger@io.fsforth.de>
Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de> <zeisberg@informatik.uni-freiburg.de>
Ville Skyttä <ville.skytta@iki.fi> <scop@xemacs.org>
-Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <public_vi@tut.by>
+Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <vi0oss@gmail.com> <public_vi@tut.by>
+Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <vi0oss@gmail.com> Vitaly _Vi Shukela
W. Trevor King <wking@tremily.us> <wking@drexel.edu>
William Pursell <bill.pursell@gmail.com>
YONETANI Tomokazu <y0n3t4n1@gmail.com> <qhwt+git@les.ath.cx>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index 7c9aa05..4d4e26c 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -16,10 +16,13 @@ compiler:
addons:
apt:
+ sources:
+ - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
packages:
- language-pack-is
- git-svn
- apache2
+ - gcc-8
matrix:
include:
@@ -33,7 +36,6 @@ matrix:
compiler:
addons:
before_install:
- before_script:
script:
- >
test "$TRAVIS_REPO_SLUG" != "git/git" ||
@@ -42,10 +44,10 @@ matrix:
- env: jobname=Linux32
os: linux
compiler:
+ addons:
services:
- docker
before_install:
- before_script:
script: ci/run-linux32-docker.sh
- env: jobname=StaticAnalysis
os: linux
@@ -55,7 +57,6 @@ matrix:
packages:
- coccinelle
before_install:
- before_script:
script: ci/run-static-analysis.sh
after_failure:
- env: jobname=Documentation
@@ -67,13 +68,11 @@ matrix:
- asciidoc
- xmlto
before_install:
- before_script:
script: ci/test-documentation.sh
after_failure:
before_install: ci/install-dependencies.sh
-before_script: ci/run-build.sh
-script: ci/run-tests.sh
+script: ci/run-build-and-tests.sh
after_failure: ci/print-test-failures.sh
notifications:
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index c7096f1..3ef54e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -12,3 +12,4 @@ cmds-*.txt
mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
SubmittingPatches.txt
+tmp-doc-diff/
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index c4cb5ff..48aa4ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -386,6 +386,11 @@ For C programs:
- Use Git's gettext wrappers to make the user interface
translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in po/README.
+ - Variables and functions local to a given source file should be marked
+ with "static". Variables that are visible to other source files
+ must be declared with "extern" in header files. However, function
+ declarations should not use "extern", as that is already the default.
+
For Perl programs:
- Most of the C guidelines above apply.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index b105775..95f6a32 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -72,9 +72,11 @@ TECH_DOCS += SubmittingPatches
TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/index-format
+TECH_DOCS += technical/long-running-process-protocol
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
+TECH_DOCS += technical/partial-clone
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-capabilities
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-common
TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-v2
@@ -184,7 +186,7 @@ ASCIIDOC = asciidoctor
ASCIIDOC_CONF =
ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml5
ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook45
-ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode
+ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode -atabsize=8
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
DBLATEX_COMMON =
@@ -342,7 +344,7 @@ $(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
mv $@+ $@
manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
- sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
+ $(QUIET_GEN)sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
%.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl
$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt
index e7e79d9..e743a2a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.11.6
references" nor "Reload" did not update what is shown as the
contents of it, when the user overwrote the tag with "git tag -f".
- * "git for-each-ref" did not currectly support more than one --sort
+ * "git for-each-ref" did not correctly support more than one --sort
option.
* "git log .." errored out saying it is both rev range and a path
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.7.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..09fc014
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.7.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,20 @@
+Git v2.13.7 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.13.6
+-------------------
+
+ * Submodule "names" come from the untrusted .gitmodules file, but we
+ blindly append them to $GIT_DIR/modules to create our on-disk repo
+ paths. This means you can do bad things by putting "../" into the
+ name. We now enforce some rules for submodule names which will cause
+ Git to ignore these malicious names (CVE-2018-11235).
+
+ Credit for finding this vulnerability and the proof of concept from
+ which the test script was adapted goes to Etienne Stalmans.
+
+ * It was possible to trick the code that sanity-checks paths on NTFS
+ into reading random piece of memory (CVE-2018-11233).
+
+Credit for fixing for these bugs goes to Jeff King, Johannes
+Schindelin and others.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..97755a8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+Git v2.14.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release is to forward-port the fixes made in the v2.13.7 version
+of Git. See its release notes for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt
index 9f7e28f..b480e56 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.15.2.txt
@@ -43,5 +43,8 @@ Fixes since v2.15.1
* Clarify and enhance documentation for "merge-base --fork-point", as
it was clear what it computed but not why/what for.
+ * This release also contains the fixes made in the v2.13.7 version of
+ Git. See its release notes for details.
+
Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
index 8f0461e..0c81c59 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -62,8 +62,11 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
* The SubmittingPatches document has been converted to produce an
HTML version via AsciiDoc/Asciidoctor.
- * We learned to talk to watchman to speed up "git status" and other
- operations that need to see which paths have been modified.
+ * We learned to optionally talk to a file system monitor via new
+ fsmonitor extension to speed up "git status" and other operations
+ that need to see which paths have been modified. Currently we only
+ support "watchman". See File System Monitor section of
+ git-update-index(1) for more detail.
* The "diff" family of commands learned to ignore differences in
carriage return at the end of line.
@@ -341,7 +344,7 @@ Fixes since v2.15
* Command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught about the
"--copy" option of "git branch".
- * When "git rebase" prepared an mailbox of changes and fed it to "git
+ * When "git rebase" prepared a mailbox of changes and fed it to "git
am" to replay them, it was confused when a stray "From " happened
to be in the log message of one of the replayed changes. This has
been corrected.
@@ -433,6 +436,23 @@ Fixes since v2.15
from strings read from various "state" files.
(merge 041fe8fc83 ra/prompt-eread-fix later to maint).
+ * "git merge -s recursive" did not correctly abort when the index is
+ dirty, if the merged tree happened to be the same as the current
+ HEAD, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Bytes with high-bit set were encoded incorrectly and made
+ credential helper fail.
+ (merge 4c267f2ae3 jd/fix-strbuf-add-urlencode-bytes later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -p -X<option>" did not propagate the option properly
+ down to underlying merge strategy backend.
+ (merge dd6fb0053c js/fix-merge-arg-quoting-in-rebase-p later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge -s recursive" did not correctly abort when the index is
+ dirty, if the merged tree happened to be the same as the current
+ HEAD, which has been fixed.
+ (merge f309e8e768 ew/empty-merge-with-dirty-index-maint later to maint).
+
* Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
(merge 1a1fc2d5b5 rd/man-prune-progress later to maint).
(merge 0ba014035a rd/man-reflog-add-n later to maint).
@@ -456,3 +476,7 @@ Fixes since v2.15
(merge c07b3adff1 bw/path-doc later to maint).
(merge bf9d7df950 tz/lib-git-svn-svnserve-tests later to maint).
(merge dec366c9a8 sr/http-sslverify-config-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 3f824e91c8 jk/test-suite-tracing later to maint).
+ (merge 1feb061701 db/doc-config-section-names-with-bs later to maint).
+ (merge 74dea0e13c jh/memihash-opt later to maint).
+ (merge 2e9fdc795c ma/bisect-leakfix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..66e6436
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+Git v2.16.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.16
+-----------------
+
+ * "git clone" segfaulted when cloning a project that happens to
+ track two paths that differ only in case on a case insensitive
+ filesystem.
+
+Does not contain any other documentation updates or code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a216466
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+Git v2.16.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.16.1
+-------------------
+
+ * An old regression in "git describe --all $annotated_tag^0" has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git svn dcommit" did not take into account the fact that a
+ svn+ssh:// URL with a username@ (typically used for pushing) refers
+ to the same SVN repository without the username@ and failed when
+ svn.pushmergeinfo option is set.
+
+ * "git merge -Xours/-Xtheirs" learned to use our/their version when
+ resolving a conflicting updates to a symbolic link.
+
+ * "git clone $there $here" is allowed even when here directory exists
+ as long as it is an empty directory, but the command incorrectly
+ removed it upon a failure of the operation.
+
+ * "git stash -- <pathspec>" incorrectly blew away untracked files in
+ the directory that matched the pathspec, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git add -p" was taught to ignore local changes to submodules as
+ they do not interfere with the partial addition of regular changes
+ anyway.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..64a0bcb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,49 @@
+Git v2.16.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.16.2
+-------------------
+
+ * "git status" after moving a path in the working tree (hence making
+ it appear "removed") and then adding with the -N option (hence
+ making that appear "added") detected it as a rename, but did not
+ report the old and new pathnames correctly.
+
+ * "git commit --fixup" did not allow "-m<message>" option to be used
+ at the same time; allow it to annotate resulting commit with more
+ text.
+
+ * When resetting the working tree files recursively, the working tree
+ of submodules are now also reset to match.
+
+ * Fix for a commented-out code to adjust it to a rather old API change
+ around object ID.
+
+ * When there are too many changed paths, "git diff" showed a warning
+ message but in the middle of a line.
+
+ * The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
+ learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
+ so that it can be more safely sharable.
+
+ * Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
+ what it did not acquire lock on.
+
+ * The split-index mode had a few corner case bugs fixed.
+
+ * Assorted fixes to "git daemon".
+
+ * Completion of "git merge -s<strategy>" (in contrib/) did not work
+ well in non-C locale.
+
+ * Workaround for segfault with more recent versions of SVN.
+
+ * Recently introduced leaks in fsck have been plugged.
+
+ * Travis CI integration now builds the executable in 'script' phase
+ to follow the established practice, rather than during
+ 'before_script' phase. This allows the CI categorize the failures
+ better ('failed' is project's fault, 'errored' is build
+ environment's).
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6be538b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+Git v2.16.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release is to forward-port the fixes made in the v2.13.7 version
+of Git. See its release notes for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2cf891
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,398 @@
+Git 2.17 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.16
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "diff" family of commands learned "--find-object=<object-id>" option
+ to limit the findings to changes that involve the named object.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned to give 72-cols to diffstat, which is
+ consistent with other line length limits the subcommand uses for
+ its output meant for e-mails.
+
+ * The log from "git daemon" can be redirected with a new option; one
+ relevant use case is to send the log to standard error (instead of
+ syslog) when running it from inetd.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned to take "--allow-empty-message" option.
+
+ * "git am" has learned the "--quit" option, in addition to the
+ existing "--abort" option; having the pair mirrors a few other
+ commands like "rebase" and "cherry-pick".
+
+ * "git worktree add" learned to run the post-checkout hook, just like
+ "git clone" runs it upon the initial checkout.
+
+ * "git tag" learned an explicit "--edit" option that allows the
+ message given via "-m" and "-F" to be further edited.
+
+ * "git fetch --prune-tags" may be used as a handy short-hand for
+ getting rid of stale tags that are locally held.
+
+ * The new "--show-current-patch" option gives an end-user facing way
+ to get the diff being applied when "git rebase" (and "git am")
+ stops with a conflict.
+
+ * "git add -p" used to offer "/" (look for a matching hunk) as a
+ choice, even there was only one hunk, which has been corrected.
+ Also the single-key help is now given only for keys that are
+ enabled (e.g. help for '/' won't be shown when there is only one
+ hunk).
+
+ * Since Git 1.7.9, "git merge" defaulted to --no-ff (i.e. even when
+ the side branch being merged is a descendant of the current commit,
+ create a merge commit instead of fast-forwarding) when merging a
+ tag object. This was appropriate default for integrators who pull
+ signed tags from their downstream contributors, but caused an
+ unnecessary merges when used by downstream contributors who
+ habitually "catch up" their topic branches with tagged releases
+ from the upstream. Update "git merge" to default to --no-ff only
+ when merging a tag object that does *not* sit at its usual place in
+ refs/tags/ hierarchy, and allow fast-forwarding otherwise, to
+ mitigate the problem.
+
+ * "git status" can spend a lot of cycles to compute the relation
+ between the current branch and its upstream, which can now be
+ disabled with "--no-ahead-behind" option.
+
+ * "git diff" and friends learned funcname patterns for Go language
+ source files.
+
+ * "git send-email" learned "--reply-to=<address>" option.
+
+ * Funcname pattern used for C# now recognizes "async" keyword.
+
+ * In a way similar to how "git tag" learned to honor the pager
+ setting only in the list mode, "git config" learned to ignore the
+ pager setting when it is used for setting values (i.e. when the
+ purpose of the operation is not to "show").
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * More perf tests for threaded grep
+
+ * "perf" test output can be sent to codespeed server.
+
+ * The build procedure for perl/ part has been greatly simplified by
+ weaning ourselves off of MakeMaker.
+
+ * Perl 5.8 or greater has been required since Git 1.7.4 released in
+ 2010, but we continued to assume some core modules may not exist and
+ used a conditional "eval { require <<module>> }"; we no longer do
+ this. Some platforms (Fedora/RedHat/CentOS, for example) ship Perl
+ without all core modules by default (e.g. Digest::MD5, File::Temp,
+ File::Spec, Net::Domain, Net::SMTP). Users on such platforms may
+ need to install these additional modules.
+
+ * As a convenience, we install copies of Perl modules we require which
+ are not part of the core Perl distribution (e.g. Error and
+ Mail::Address). Users and packagers whose operating system provides
+ these modules can set NO_PERL_CPAN_FALLBACKS to avoid installing the
+ bundled modules.
+
+ * In preparation for implementing narrow/partial clone, the machinery
+ for checking object connectivity used by gc and fsck has been
+ taught that a missing object is OK when it is referenced by a
+ packfile specially marked as coming from trusted repository that
+ promises to make them available on-demand and lazily.
+
+ * The machinery to clone & fetch, which in turn involves packing and
+ unpacking objects, has been told how to omit certain objects using
+ the filtering mechanism introduced by another topic. It now knows
+ to mark the resulting pack as a promisor pack to tolerate missing
+ objects, laying foundation for "narrow" clones.
+
+ * The first step to getting rid of mru API and using the
+ doubly-linked list API directly instead.
+
+ * Retire mru API as it does not give enough abstraction over
+ underlying list API to be worth it.
+
+ * Rewrite two more "git submodule" subcommands in C.
+
+ * The tracing machinery learned to report tweaking of environment
+ variables as well.
+
+ * Update Coccinelle rules to catch and optimize strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s", str)
+
+ * Prevent "clang-format" from breaking line after function return type.
+
+ * The sequencer infrastructure is shared across "git cherry-pick",
+ "git rebase -i", etc., and has always spawned "git commit" when it
+ needs to create a commit. It has been taught to do so internally,
+ when able, by reusing the codepath "git commit" itself uses, which
+ gives performance boost for a few tens of percents in some sample
+ scenarios.
+
+ * Push the submodule version of collision-detecting SHA-1 hash
+ implementation a bit harder on builders.
+
+ * Avoid mmapping small files while using packed refs (especially ones
+ with zero size, which would cause later munmap() to fail).
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * More tests for wildmatch functions.
+
+ * The code to binary search starting from a fan-out table (which is
+ how the packfile is indexed with object names) has been refactored
+ into a reusable helper.
+
+ * We now avoid using identifiers that clash with C++ keywords. Even
+ though it is not a goal to compile Git with C++ compilers, changes
+ like this help use of code analysis tools that targets C++ on our
+ codebase.
+
+ * The executable is now built in 'script' phase in Travis CI integration,
+ to follow the established practice, rather than during 'before_script'
+ phase. This allows the CI categorize the failures better ('failed'
+ is project's fault, 'errored' is build environment's).
+ (merge 3c93b82920 sg/travis-build-during-script-phase later to maint).
+
+ * Writing out the index file when the only thing that changed in it
+ is the untracked cache information is often wasteful, and this has
+ been optimized out.
+
+ * Various pieces of Perl code we have have been cleaned up.
+
+ * Internal API clean-up to allow write_locked_index() optionally skip
+ writing the in-core index when it is not modified.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.16
+-----------------
+
+ * An old regression in "git describe --all $annotated_tag^0" has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * "git status" after moving a path in the working tree (hence making
+ it appear "removed") and then adding with the -N option (hence
+ making that appear "added") detected it as a rename, but did not
+ report the old and new pathnames correctly.
+
+ * "git svn dcommit" did not take into account the fact that a
+ svn+ssh:// URL with a username@ (typically used for pushing) refers
+ to the same SVN repository without the username@ and failed when
+ svn.pushmergeinfo option is set.
+
+ * API clean-up around revision traversal.
+
+ * "git merge -Xours/-Xtheirs" learned to use our/their version when
+ resolving a conflicting updates to a symbolic link.
+
+ * "git clone $there $here" is allowed even when here directory exists
+ as long as it is an empty directory, but the command incorrectly
+ removed it upon a failure of the operation.
+
+ * "git commit --fixup" did not allow "-m<message>" option to be used
+ at the same time; allow it to annotate resulting commit with more
+ text.
+
+ * When resetting the working tree files recursively, the working tree
+ of submodules are now also reset to match.
+
+ * "git stash -- <pathspec>" incorrectly blew away untracked files in
+ the directory that matched the pathspec, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Instead of maintaining home-grown email address parsing code, ship
+ a copy of reasonably recent Mail::Address to be used as a fallback
+ in 'git send-email' when the platform lacks it.
+ (merge d60be8acab mm/send-email-fallback-to-local-mail-address later to maint).
+
+ * "git add -p" was taught to ignore local changes to submodules as
+ they do not interfere with the partial addition of regular changes
+ anyway.
+
+ * Avoid showing a warning message in the middle of a line of "git
+ diff" output.
+ (merge 4e056c989f nd/diff-flush-before-warning later to maint).
+
+ * The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
+ learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
+ so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ (merge 8ba18e6fa4 jt/http-redact-cookies later to maint).
+
+ * Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
+ what it did not acquire lock on.
+ (merge 81fcb698e0 mr/packed-ref-store-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The split-index mode had a few corner case bugs fixed.
+ (merge ae59a4e44f tg/split-index-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Assorted fixes to "git daemon".
+ (merge ed15e58efe jk/daemon-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Completion of "git merge -s<strategy>" (in contrib/) did not work
+ well in non-C locale.
+ (merge 7cc763aaa3 nd/list-merge-strategy later to maint).
+
+ * Workaround for segfault with more recent versions of SVN.
+ (merge 7f6f75e97a ew/svn-branch-segfault-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Plug recently introduced leaks in fsck.
+ (merge ba3a08ca0e jt/fsck-code-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" did not pass verbosity setting down when
+ recursing into a submodule.
+ (merge a56771a668 sb/pull-rebase-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * The way "git reset --hard" reports the commit the updated HEAD
+ points at is made consistent with the way how the commit title is
+ generated by the other parts of the system. This matters when the
+ title is spread across physically multiple lines.
+ (merge 1cf823fb68 tg/reset-hard-show-head-with-pretty later to maint).
+
+ * Test fixes.
+ (merge 63b1a175ee sg/test-i18ngrep later to maint).
+
+ * Some bugs around "untracked cache" feature have been fixed. This
+ will notice corrupt data in the untracked cache left by old and
+ buggy code and issue a warning---the index can be fixed by clearing
+ the untracked cache from it.
+ (merge 0cacebf099 nd/fix-untracked-cache-invalidation later to maint).
+ (merge 7bf0be7501 ab/untracked-cache-invalidation-docs later to maint).
+
+ * "git blame HEAD COPYING" in a bare repository failed to run, while
+ "git blame HEAD -- COPYING" run just fine. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git add" files in the same directory, but spelling the directory
+ path in different cases on case insensitive filesystem, corrupted
+ the name hash data structure and led to unexpected results. This
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge c95525e90d bp/name-hash-dirname-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -p" mangled log messages of a merge commit, which is
+ now fixed.
+ (merge ed5144d7eb js/fix-merge-arg-quoting-in-rebase-p later to maint).
+
+ * Some low level protocol codepath could crash when they get an
+ unexpected flush packet, which is now fixed.
+ (merge bb1356dc64 js/packet-read-line-check-null later to maint).
+
+ * "git check-ignore" with multiple paths got confused when one is a
+ file and the other is a directory, which has been fixed.
+ (merge d60771e930 rs/check-ignore-multi later to maint).
+
+ * "git describe $garbage" stopped giving any errors when the garbage
+ happens to be a string with 40 hexadecimal letters.
+ (merge a8e7a2bf0f sb/describe-blob later to maint).
+
+ * Code to unquote single-quoted string (used in the parser for
+ configuration files, etc.) did not diagnose bogus input correctly
+ and produced bogus results instead.
+ (merge ddbbf8eb25 jk/sq-dequote-on-bogus-input later to maint).
+
+ * Many places in "git apply" knew that "/dev/null" that signals
+ "there is no such file on this side of the diff" can be followed by
+ whitespace and garbage when parsing a patch, except for one, which
+ made an otherwise valid patch (e.g. ones from subversion) rejected.
+ (merge e454ad4bec tk/apply-dev-null-verify-name-fix later to maint).
+
+ * We no longer create any *.spec file, so "make clean" should not
+ remove it.
+ (merge 4321bdcabb tz/do-not-clean-spec-file later to maint).
+
+ * "git push" over http transport did not unquote the push-options
+ correctly.
+ (merge 90dce21eb0 jk/push-options-via-transport-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-email" learned to complain when the batch-size option is
+ not defined when the relogin-delay option is, since these two are
+ mutually required.
+ (merge 9caa70697b xz/send-email-batch-size later to maint).
+
+ * Y2k20 fix ;-) for our perl scripts.
+ (merge a40e06ee33 bw/perl-timegm-timelocal-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Threaded "git grep" has been optimized to avoid allocation in code
+ section that is covered under a mutex.
+ (merge 38ef24dccf rv/grep-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git subtree" script (in contrib/) scripted around "git log", whose
+ output got affected by end-user configuration like log.showsignature
+ (merge 8841b5222c sg/subtree-signed-commits later to maint).
+
+ * While finding unique object name abbreviation, the code may
+ accidentally have read beyond the end of the array of object names
+ in a pack.
+ (merge 21abed500c ds/find-unique-abbrev-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Micro optimization in revision traversal code.
+ (merge ebbed3ba04 ds/mark-parents-uninteresting-optim later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit" used to run "gc --auto" near the end, which was lost
+ when the command was reimplemented in C by mistake.
+ (merge 095c741edd ab/gc-auto-in-commit later to maint).
+
+ * Allow running a couple of tests with "sh -x".
+ (merge c20bf94abc sg/cvs-tests-with-x later to maint).
+
+ * The codepath to replace an existing entry in the index had a bug in
+ updating the name hash structure, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 0e267b7a24 bp/refresh-cache-ent-rehash-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The transfer.fsckobjects configuration tells "git fetch" to
+ validate the data and connected-ness of objects in the received
+ pack; the code to perform this check has been taught about the
+ narrow clone's convention that missing objects that are reachable
+ from objects in a pack that came from a promisor remote is OK.
+
+ * There was an unused file-scope static variable left in http.c when
+ building for versions of libCURL that is older than 7.19.4, which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge b8fd6008ec rj/http-code-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Shell script portability fix.
+ (merge 206a6ae013 ml/filter-branch-portability-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge e2a5a028c7 bw/oidmap-autoinit later to maint).
+ (merge ec3b4b06f8 cl/t9001-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge e1b3f3dd38 ks/submodule-doc-updates later to maint).
+ (merge fbac558a9b rs/describe-unique-abbrev later to maint).
+ (merge 8462ff43e4 tb/crlf-conv-flags later to maint).
+ (merge 7d68bb0766 rb/hashmap-h-compilation-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 3449847168 cc/sha1-file-name later to maint).
+ (merge ad622a256f ds/use-get-be64 later to maint).
+ (merge f919ffebed sg/cocci-move-array later to maint).
+ (merge 4e801463c7 jc/mailinfo-cleanup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ef5b3a6c5e nd/shared-index-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 9f5258cbb8 tz/doc-show-defaults-to-head later to maint).
+ (merge b780e4407d jc/worktree-add-short-help later to maint).
+ (merge ae239fc8e5 rs/cocci-strbuf-addf-to-addstr later to maint).
+ (merge 2e22a85e5c nd/ignore-glob-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 3738031581 jk/gettext-poison later to maint).
+ (merge 54360a1956 rj/sparse-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 12e31a6b12 sg/doc-test-must-fail-args later to maint).
+ (merge 760f1ad101 bc/doc-interpret-trailers-grammofix later to maint).
+ (merge 4ccf461f56 bp/fsmonitor later to maint).
+ (merge a6119f82b1 jk/test-hashmap-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 5aea9fe6cc rd/typofix later to maint).
+ (merge e4e5da2796 sb/status-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 7976e901c8 gs/test-unset-xdg-cache-home later to maint).
+ (merge d023df1ee6 tg/worktree-create-tracking later to maint).
+ (merge 4cbe92fd41 sm/mv-dry-run-update later to maint).
+ (merge 75e5e9c3f7 sb/color-h-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 2708ef4af6 sg/t6300-modernize later to maint).
+ (merge d88e92d4e0 bw/doc-submodule-recurse-config-with-clone later to maint).
+ (merge f74bbc8dd2 jk/cached-commit-buffer later to maint).
+ (merge 1316416903 ms/non-ascii-ticks later to maint).
+ (merge 878056005e rs/strbuf-read-file-or-whine later to maint).
+ (merge 79f0ba1547 jk/strbuf-read-file-close-error later to maint).
+ (merge edfb8ba068 ot/ref-filter-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 11395a3b4b jc/test-must-be-empty later to maint).
+ (merge 768b9d6db7 mk/doc-pretty-fill later to maint).
+ (merge 2caa7b8d27 ab/man-sec-list later to maint).
+ (merge 40c17eb184 ks/t3200-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge bd9958c358 dp/merge-strategy-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 9ee0540a40 js/ming-strftime later to maint).
+ (merge 1775e990f7 tz/complete-tag-delete-tagname later to maint).
+ (merge 00a4b03501 rj/warning-uninitialized-fix later to maint).
+ (merge b635ed97a0 jk/attributes-path-doc later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e01384f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+Git v2.17.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.17
+-----------------
+
+ * This release contains the same fixes made in the v2.13.7 version of
+ Git, covering CVE-2018-11233 and 11235, and forward-ported to
+ v2.14.4, v2.15.2 and v2.16.4 releases. See release notes to
+ v2.13.7 for details.
+
+ * In addition to the above fixes, this release has support on the
+ server side to reject pushes to repositories that attempt to create
+ such problematic .gitmodules file etc. as tracked contents, to help
+ hosting sites protect their customers by preventing malicious
+ contents from spreading.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3ea280c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,583 @@
+Git 2.18 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.17
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Rename detection logic that is used in "merge" and "cherry-pick" has
+ learned to guess when all of x/a, x/b and x/c have moved to z/a,
+ z/b and z/c, it is likely that x/d added in the meantime would also
+ want to move to z/d by taking the hint that the entire directory
+ 'x' moved to 'z'. A bug causing dirty files involved in a rename
+ to be overwritten during merge has also been fixed as part of this
+ work. Incidentally, this also avoids updating a file in the
+ working tree after a (non-trivial) merge whose result matches what
+ our side originally had.
+
+ * "git filter-branch" learned to use a different exit code to allow
+ the callers to tell the case where there was no new commits to
+ rewrite from other error cases.
+
+ * When built with more recent cURL, GIT_SSL_VERSION can now specify
+ "tlsv1.3" as its value.
+
+ * "git gui" learned that "~/.ssh/id_ecdsa.pub" and
+ "~/.ssh/id_ed25519.pub" are also possible SSH key files.
+ (merge 2e2f0288ef bb/git-gui-ssh-key-files later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" performs commit upon CTRL/CMD+ENTER but the
+ CTRL/CMD+KP_ENTER (i.e. enter key on the numpad) did not have the
+ same key binding. It now does.
+ (merge 28a1d94a06 bp/git-gui-bind-kp-enter later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" has been taught to work with old versions of tk (like
+ 8.5.7) that do not support "ttk::style theme use" as a way to query
+ the current theme.
+ (merge 4891961105 cb/git-gui-ttk-style later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" has learned to honor "--signoff" option when using
+ backends other than "am" (but not "--preserve-merges").
+
+ * "git branch --list" during an interrupted "rebase -i" now lets
+ users distinguish the case where a detached HEAD is being rebased
+ and a normal branch is being rebased.
+
+ * "git mergetools" learned talking to guiffy.
+
+ * The scripts in contrib/emacs/ have outlived their usefulness and
+ have been replaced with a stub that errors out and tells the user
+ there are replacements.
+
+ * The new "working-tree-encoding" attribute can ask Git to convert the
+ contents to the specified encoding when checking out to the working
+ tree (and the other way around when checking in).
+
+ * The "git config" command uses separate options e.g. "--int",
+ "--bool", etc. to specify what type the caller wants the value to
+ be interpreted as. A new "--type=<typename>" option has been
+ introduced, which would make it cleaner to define new types.
+
+ * "git config --get" learned the "--default" option, to help the
+ calling script. Building on top of the above changes, the
+ "git config" learns "--type=color" type. Taken together, you can
+ do things like "git config --get foo.color --default blue" and get
+ the ANSI color sequence for the color given to foo.color variable,
+ or "blue" if the variable does not exist.
+
+ * "git ls-remote" learned an option to allow sorting its output based
+ on the refnames being shown.
+
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught that "git
+ stash save" has been deprecated ("git stash push" is the preferred
+ spelling in the new world) and does not offer it as a possible
+ completion candidate when "git stash push" can be.
+
+ * "git gc --prune=nonsense" spent long time repacking and then
+ silently failed when underlying "git prune --expire=nonsense"
+ failed to parse its command line. This has been corrected.
+
+ * Error messages from "git push" can be painted for more visibility.
+
+ * "git http-fetch" (deprecated) had an optional and experimental
+ "feature" to fetch only commits and/or trees, which nobody used.
+ This has been removed.
+
+ * The functionality of "$GIT_DIR/info/grafts" has been superseded by
+ the "refs/replace/" mechanism for some time now, but the internal
+ code had support for it in many places, which has been cleaned up
+ in order to drop support of the "grafts" mechanism.
+
+ * "git worktree add" learned to check out an existing branch.
+
+ * "git --no-pager cmd" did not have short-and-sweet single letter
+ option. Now it does as "-P".
+ (merge 7213c28818 js/no-pager-shorthand later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" learned "--rebase-merges" to transplant the whole
+ topology of commit graph elsewhere.
+
+ * "git status" learned to pay attention to UI related diff
+ configuration variables such as diff.renames.
+
+ * The command line completion mechanism (in contrib/) learned to load
+ custom completion file for "git $command" where $command is a
+ custom "git-$command" that the end user has on the $PATH when using
+ newer version of bash-completion.
+
+ * "git send-email" can sometimes offer confirmation dialog "Send this
+ email?" with choices 'Yes', 'No', 'Quit', and 'All'. A new action
+ 'Edit' has been added to this dialog's choice.
+
+ * With merge.renames configuration set to false, the recursive merge
+ strategy can be told not to spend cycles trying to find renamed
+ paths and merge them accordingly.
+
+ * "git status" learned to honor a new status.renames configuration to
+ skip rename detection, which could be useful for those who want to
+ do so without disabling the default rename detection done by the
+ "git diff" command.
+
+ * Command line completion (in contrib/) learned to complete pathnames
+ for various commands better.
+
+ * "git blame" learns to unhighlight uninteresting metadata from the
+ originating commit on lines that are the same as the previous one,
+ and also paint lines in different colors depending on the age of
+ the commit.
+
+ * Transfer protocol v2 learned to support the partial clone.
+
+ * When a short hexadecimal string is used to name an object but there
+ are multiple objects that share the string as the prefix of their
+ names, the code lists these ambiguous candidates in a help message.
+ These object names are now sorted according to their types for
+ easier eyeballing.
+
+ * "git fetch $there $refspec" that talks over protocol v2 can take
+ advantage of server-side ref filtering; the code has been extended
+ so that this mechanism triggers also when fetching with configured
+ refspec.
+
+ * Our HTTP client code used to advertise that we accept gzip encoding
+ from the other side; instead, just let cURL library to advertise
+ and negotiate the best one.
+
+ * "git p4" learned to "unshelve" shelved commit from P4.
+ (merge 123f631761 ld/p4-unshelve later to maint).
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * A "git fetch" from a repository with insane number of refs into a
+ repository that is already up-to-date still wasted too many cycles
+ making many lstat(2) calls to see if these objects at the tips
+ exist as loose objects locally. These lstat(2) calls are optimized
+ away by enumerating all loose objects beforehand.
+ It is unknown if the new strategy negatively affects existing use
+ cases, fetching into a repository with many loose objects from a
+ repository with small number of refs.
+
+ * Git can be built to use either v1 or v2 of the PCRE library, and so
+ far, the build-time configuration USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease instructed
+ the build procedure to use v1, but now it means v2. USE_LIBPCRE1
+ and USE_LIBPCRE2 can be used to explicitly choose which version to
+ use, as before.
+
+ * The build procedure learned to optionally use symbolic links
+ (instead of hardlinks and copies) to install "git-foo" for built-in
+ commands, whose binaries are all identical.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * The way "git worktree prune" worked internally has been simplified,
+ by assuming how "git worktree move" moves an existing worktree to a
+ different place.
+
+ * Code clean-up for the "repository" abstraction.
+ (merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
+
+ * Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ optimized to use the same fan-out table.
+
+ * The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
+ completion continues to get extended and polished.
+
+ * Copies of old scripted Porcelain commands in contrib/examples/ have
+ been removed.
+
+ * Some tests that rely on the exact hardcoded values of object names
+ have been updated in preparation for hash function migration.
+
+ * Perf-test update.
+
+ * Test helper update.
+
+ * The effort continues to refactor the internal global data structure
+ to make it possible to open multiple repositories, work with and
+ then close them,
+
+ * Small test-helper programs have been consolidated into a single
+ binary.
+
+ * API clean-up around ref-filter code.
+
+ * Shell completion (in contrib) that gives list of paths have been
+ optimized somewhat.
+
+ * The index file is updated to record the fsmonitor section after a
+ full scan was made, to avoid wasting the effort that has already
+ spent.
+
+ * Performance measuring framework in t/perf learned to help bisecting
+ performance regressions.
+
+ * Some multi-word source filenames are being renamed to separate
+ words with dashes instead of underscores.
+
+ * An reusable "memory pool" implementation has been extracted from
+ fast-import.c, which in turn has become the first user of the
+ mem-pool API.
+
+ * A build-time option has been added to allow Git to be told to refer
+ to its associated files relative to the main binary, in the same
+ way that has been possible on Windows for quite some time, for
+ Linux, BSDs and Darwin.
+
+ * Precompute and store information necessary for ancestry traversal
+ in a separate file to optimize graph walking.
+
+ * The effort to pass the repository in-core structure throughout the
+ API continues. This round deals with the code that implements the
+ refs/replace/ mechanism.
+
+ * The build procedure "make DEVELOPER=YesPlease" learned to enable a
+ bit more warning options depending on the compiler used to help
+ developers more. There also is "make DEVOPTS=tokens" knob
+ available now, for those who want to help fixing warnings we
+ usually ignore, for example.
+
+ * A new version of the transport protocol is being worked on.
+
+ * The code to interface to GPG has been restructured somewhat to make
+ it cleaner to integrate with other types of signature systems later.
+
+ * The code has been taught to use the duplicated information stored
+ in the commit-graph file to learn the tree object name for a commit
+ to avoid opening and parsing the commit object when it makes sense
+ to do so.
+
+ * "git gc" in a large repository takes a lot of time as it considers
+ to repack all objects into one pack by default. The command has
+ been taught to pretend as if the largest existing packfile is
+ marked with ".keep" so that it is left untouched while objects in
+ other packs and loose ones are repacked.
+
+ * The transport protocol v2 is getting updated further.
+
+ * The codepath around object-info API has been taught to take the
+ repository object (which in turn tells the API which object store
+ the objects are to be located).
+
+ * "git pack-objects" needs to allocate tons of "struct object_entry"
+ while doing its work, and shrinking its size helps the performance
+ quite a bit.
+
+ * The implementation of "git rebase -i --root" has been updated to use
+ the sequencer machinery more.
+
+ * Developer support update, by using BUG() macro instead of die() to
+ mark codepaths that should not happen more clearly.
+
+ * Developer support. Use newer GCC on one of the builds done at
+ TravisCI.org to get more warnings and errors diagnosed.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * By code restructuring of submodule merge in merge-recursive,
+ informational messages from the codepath are now given using the
+ same mechanism as other output, and honor the merge.verbosity
+ configuration. The code also learned to give a few new messages
+ when a submodule three-way merge resolves cleanly when one side
+ records a descendant of the commit chosen by the other side.
+
+ * Avoid unchecked snprintf() to make future code auditing easier.
+ (merge ac4896f007 jk/snprintf-truncation later to maint).
+
+ * Many tests hardcode the raw object names, which would change once
+ we migrate away from SHA-1. While some of them must test against
+ exact object names, most of them do not have to use hardcoded
+ constants in the test. The latter kind of tests have been updated
+ to test the moral equivalent of the original without hardcoding the
+ actual object names.
+
+ * The list of commands with their various attributes were spread
+ across a few places in the build procedure, but it now is getting a
+ bit more consolidated to allow more automation.
+
+ * Quite a many tests assumed that newly created refs are made as
+ loose refs using the files backend, which have been updated to use
+ proper plumbing like rev-parse and update-ref, to avoid breakage
+ once we start using different ref backends.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.17
+-----------------
+
+ * "git shortlog cruft" aborted with a BUG message when run outside a
+ Git repository. The command has been taught to complain about
+ extra and unwanted arguments on its command line instead in such a
+ case.
+ (merge 4aa0161e83 ma/shortlog-revparse later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash push -u -- <pathspec>" gave an unnecessary and confusing
+ error message when there was no tracked files that match the
+ <pathspec>, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 353278687e tg/stash-untracked-with-pathspec-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git tag --contains no-such-commit" gave a full list of options
+ after giving an error message.
+ (merge 3bb0923f06 ps/contains-id-error-message later to maint).
+
+ * "diff-highlight" filter (in contrib/) learned to understand "git log
+ --graph" output better.
+ (merge 4551fbba14 jk/diff-highlight-graph-fix later to maint).
+
+ * when refs that do not point at committish are given, "git
+ filter-branch" gave a misleading error messages. This has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge f78ab355e7 yk/filter-branch-non-committish-refs later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule status" misbehaved on a submodule that has been
+ removed from the working tree.
+ (merge 74b6bda32f rs/status-with-removed-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * When credential helper exits very quickly without reading its
+ input, it used to cause Git to die with SIGPIPE, which has been
+ fixed.
+ (merge a0d51e8d0e eb/cred-helper-ignore-sigpipe later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --keep-empty" still removed an empty commit if the
+ other side contained an empty commit (due to the "does an
+ equivalent patch exist already?" check), which has been corrected.
+ (merge 3d946165e1 pw/rebase-keep-empty-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Some codepaths, including the refs API, get and keep relative
+ paths, that go out of sync when the process does chdir(2). The
+ chdir-notify API is introduced to let these codepaths adjust these
+ cached paths to the new current directory.
+ (merge fb9c2d2703 jk/relative-directory-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "cd sub/dir && git commit ../path" ought to record the changes to
+ the file "sub/path", but this regressed long time ago.
+ (merge 86238e07ef bw/commit-partial-from-subdirectory-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Recent introduction of "--log-destination" option to "git daemon"
+ did not work well when the daemon was run under "--inetd" mode.
+ (merge e67d906d73 lw/daemon-log-destination later to maint).
+
+ * Small fix to the autoconf build procedure.
+ (merge 249482daf0 es/fread-reads-dir-autoconf-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an unexploitable (because the oversized contents are not under
+ attacker's control) buffer overflow.
+ (merge d8579accfa bp/fsmonitor-bufsize-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Recent simplification of build procedure forgot a bit of tweak to
+ the build procedure of contrib/mw-to-git/
+ (merge d8698987f3 ab/simplify-perl-makefile later to maint).
+
+ * Moving a submodule that itself has submodule in it with "git mv"
+ forgot to make necessary adjustment to the nested sub-submodules;
+ now the codepath learned to recurse into the submodules.
+
+ * "git config --unset a.b", when "a.b" is the last variable in an
+ otherwise empty section "a", left an empty section "a" behind, and
+ worse yet, a subsequent "git config a.c value" did not reuse that
+ empty shell and instead created a new one. These have been
+ (partially) corrected.
+ (merge c71d8bb38a js/empty-config-section-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git worktree remove" learned that "-f" is a shorthand for
+ "--force" option, just like for "git worktree add".
+ (merge d228eea514 sb/worktree-remove-opt-force later to maint).
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to clear cached list of
+ command line options upon dot-sourcing it again in a more efficient
+ way.
+ (merge 94408dc71c sg/completion-clear-cached later to maint).
+
+ * "git svn" had a minor thinko/typo which has been fixed.
+ (merge 51db271587 ab/git-svn-get-record-typofix later to maint).
+
+ * During a "rebase -i" session, the code could give older timestamp
+ to commits created by later "pick" than an earlier "reword", which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 12f7babd6b js/ident-date-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule status" did not check the symbolic revision name it
+ computed for the submodule HEAD is not the NULL, and threw it at
+ printf routines, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0b5e2ea7cf nd/submodule-status-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When fed input that already has In-Reply-To: and/or References:
+ headers and told to add the same information, "git send-email"
+ added these headers separately, instead of appending to an existing
+ one, which is a violation of the RFC. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 256be1d3f0 sa/send-email-dedup-some-headers later to maint).
+
+ * "git fast-export" had a regression in v2.15.0 era where it skipped
+ some merge commits in certain cases, which has been corrected.
+ (merge be011bbe00 ma/fast-export-skip-merge-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The code did not propagate the terminal width to subprocesses via
+ COLUMNS environment variable, which it now does. This caused
+ trouble to "git column" helper subprocess when "git tag --column=row"
+ tried to list the existing tags on a display with non-default width.
+ (merge b5d5a567fb nd/term-columns later to maint).
+
+ * We learned that our source files with ".pl" and ".py" extensions
+ are Perl and Python files respectively and changes to them are
+ better viewed as such with appropriate diff drivers.
+ (merge 7818b619e2 ab/perl-python-attrs later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" sometimes left intermediate "# This is a
+ combination of N commits" message meant for the human consumption
+ inside an editor in the final result in certain corner cases, which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge 15ef69314d js/rebase-i-clean-msg-after-fixup-continue later to maint).
+
+ * A test to see if the filesystem normalizes UTF-8 filename has been
+ updated to check what we need to know in a more direct way, i.e. a
+ path created in NFC form can be accessed with NFD form (or vice
+ versa) to cope with APFS as well as HFS.
+ (merge 742ae10e35 tb/test-apfs-utf8-normalization later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch --cover --attach" created a broken MIME multipart
+ message for the cover letter, which has been fixed by keeping the
+ cover letter as plain text file.
+ (merge 50cd54ef4e bc/format-patch-cover-no-attach later to maint).
+
+ * The split-index feature had a long-standing and dormant bug in
+ certain use of the in-core merge machinery, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 7db118303a en/unpack-trees-split-index-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Asciidoctor gives a reasonable imitation for AsciiDoc, but does not
+ render illustration in a literal block correctly when indented with
+ HT by default. The problem is fixed by forcing 8-space tabs.
+ (merge 379805051d bc/asciidoctor-tab-width later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to adjust to a more recent lockfile API convention that
+ allows lockfile instances kept on the stack.
+ (merge 0fa5a2ed8d ma/lockfile-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * the_repository->index is not a allocated piece of memory but
+ repo_clear() indiscriminately attempted to free(3) it, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 74373b5f10 nd/repo-clear-keep-the-index later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid non-standard-conformant pointer arithmetic.
+ (merge c112084af9 rs/no-null-ptr-arith-in-fast-export later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to turn history traversal more robust in a
+ semi-corrupt repository.
+ (merge 8702b30fd7 jk/unavailable-can-be-missing later to maint).
+
+ * "git update-ref A B" is supposed to ensure that ref A does not yet
+ exist when B is a NULL OID, but this check was not done correctly
+ for pseudo-refs outside refs/ hierarchy, e.g. MERGE_HEAD.
+
+ * "git submodule update" and "git submodule add" supported the
+ "--reference" option to borrow objects from a neighbouring local
+ repository like "git clone" does, but lacked the more recent
+ invention "--dissociate". Also "git submodule add" has been taught
+ to take the "--progress" option.
+ (merge a0ef29341a cf/submodule-progress-dissociate later to maint).
+
+ * Update credential-netrc helper (in contrib/) to allow customizing
+ the GPG used to decrypt the encrypted .netrc file.
+ (merge 786ef50a23 lm/credential-netrc later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule update" attempts two different kinds of "git fetch"
+ against the upstream repository to grab a commit bound at the
+ submodule's path, but it incorrectly gave up if the first kind
+ (i.e. a normal fetch) failed, making the second "last resort" one
+ (i.e. fetching an exact commit object by object name) ineffective.
+ This has been corrected.
+ (merge e30d833671 sb/submodule-update-try-harder later to maint).
+
+ * Error behaviour of "git grep" when it cannot read the index was
+ inconsistent with other commands that uses the index, which has
+ been corrected to error out early.
+ (merge b2aa84c789 sb/grep-die-on-unreadable-index later to maint).
+
+ * We used to call regfree() after regcomp() failed in some codepaths,
+ which have been corrected.
+ (merge 17154b1576 ma/regex-no-regfree-after-comp-fail later to maint).
+
+ * The import-tars script (in contrib/) has been taught to handle
+ tarballs with overly long paths that use PAX extended headers.
+ (merge 12ecea46e3 pa/import-tars-long-names later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse Y..." etc. misbehaved when given endpoints were
+ not committishes.
+ (merge 0ed556d38f en/rev-parse-invalid-range later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull --recurse-submodules --rebase", when the submodule
+ repository's history did not have anything common between ours and
+ the upstream's, failed to execute. We need to fetch from them to
+ continue even in such a case.
+ (merge 4d36f88be7 jt/submodule-pull-recurse-rebase later to maint).
+
+ * "git remote update" can take both a single remote nickname and a
+ nickname for remote groups, but only one of them was documented.
+ (merge a97447a42a nd/remote-update-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "index-pack --strict" has been taught to make sure that it runs the
+ final object integrity checks after making the freshly indexed
+ packfile available to itself.
+ (merge 3737746120 jk/index-pack-maint later to maint).
+
+ * Make zlib inflate codepath more robust against versions of zlib
+ that clobber unused portion of outbuf.
+ (merge b611396e97 jl/zlib-restore-nul-termination later to maint).
+
+ * Fix old merge glitch in Documentation during v2.13-rc0 era.
+ (merge 28cb06020b mw/doc-merge-enumfix later to maint).
+
+ * The code to read compressed bitmap was not careful to avoid reading
+ past the end of the file, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 1140bf01ec jk/ewah-bounds-check later to maint).
+
+ * "make NO_ICONV=NoThanks" did not override NEEDS_LIBICONV
+ (i.e. linkage of -lintl, -liconv, etc. that are platform-specific
+ tweaks), which has been corrected.
+ (merge fdb1fbbc7d es/make-no-iconv later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
+ (merge 248f66ed8e nd/trace-with-env later to maint).
+ (merge 14ced5562c ys/bisect-object-id-missing-conversion-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5988eb631a ab/doc-hash-brokenness later to maint).
+ (merge a4d4e32a70 pk/test-avoid-pipe-hiding-exit-status later to maint).
+ (merge 05e293c1ac jk/flockfile-stdio later to maint).
+ (merge e9184b0789 jk/t5561-missing-curl later to maint).
+ (merge b1801b85a3 nd/worktree-move later to maint).
+ (merge bbd374dd20 ak/bisect-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 4855f06fb3 mn/send-email-credential-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 8523b1e355 en/doc-typoes later to maint).
+ (merge 43b44ccfe7 js/t5404-path-fix later to maint).
+ (merge decf711fc1 ps/test-chmtime-get later to maint).
+ (merge 22d11a6e8e es/worktree-docs later to maint).
+ (merge 92a5dbbc22 tg/use-git-contacts later to maint).
+ (merge adc887221f tq/t1510 later to maint).
+ (merge bed21a8ad6 sg/doc-gc-quote-mismatch-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 73364e4f10 tz/doc-git-urls-reference later to maint).
+ (merge cd1e606bad bc/mailmap-self later to maint).
+ (merge f7997e3682 ao/config-api-doc later to maint).
+ (merge ee930754d8 jk/apply-p-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 011b648646 nd/pack-format-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 87a6bb701a sg/t5310-jgit-bitmap-test later to maint).
+ (merge f6b82970aa sg/t5516-fixes later to maint).
+ (merge 4362da078e sg/t7005-spaces-in-filenames-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 7d0ee47c11 js/test-unset-prereq later to maint).
+ (merge 5356a3c354 ah/misc-doc-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 92c4a7a129 nd/completion-aliasfiletype-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 58bd77b66a nd/pack-unreachable-objects-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 4ed79d5203 sg/t6500-no-redirect-of-stdin later to maint).
+ (merge 17b8a2d6cd jk/config-blob-sans-repo later to maint).
+ (merge 590551ca2c rd/tag-doc-lightweight later to maint).
+ (merge 44f560fc16 rd/init-typo later to maint).
+ (merge f156a0934a rd/p4-doc-markup-env later to maint).
+ (merge 2a00502b14 tg/doc-sec-list later to maint).
+ (merge 47cc91310a jk/submodule-fsck-loose-fixup later to maint).
+ (merge efde7b725c rd/comment-typofix-in-sha1-file later to maint).
+ (merge 7eedad15df rd/diff-options-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 58ebd936cc km/doc-workflows-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 30aa96cdf8 rd/doc-remote-tracking-with-hyphen later to maint).
+ (merge cf317877e3 ks/branch-set-upstream later to maint).
+ (merge 8de19d6be8 sg/t7406-chain-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a06ccf6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,615 @@
+Git 2.19 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.18
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git diff" compares the index and the working tree. For paths
+ added with intent-to-add bit, the command shows the full contents
+ of them as added, but the paths themselves were not marked as new
+ files. They are now shown as new by default.
+
+ "git apply" learned the "--intent-to-add" option so that an
+ otherwise working-tree-only application of a patch will add new
+ paths to the index marked with the "intent-to-add" bit.
+
+ * "git grep" learned the "--column" option that gives not just the
+ line number but the column number of the hit.
+
+ * The "-l" option in "git branch -l" is an unfortunate short-hand for
+ "--create-reflog", but many users, both old and new, somehow expect
+ it to be something else, perhaps "--list". This step warns when "-l"
+ is used as a short-hand for "--create-reflog" and warns about the
+ future repurposing of the it when it is used.
+
+ * The userdiff pattern for .php has been updated.
+
+ * The content-transfer-encoding of the message "git send-email" sends
+ out by default was 8bit, which can cause trouble when there is an
+ overlong line to bust RFC 5322/2822 limit. A new option 'auto' to
+ automatically switch to quoted-printable when there is such a line
+ in the payload has been introduced and is made the default.
+
+ * "git checkout" and "git worktree add" learned to honor
+ checkout.defaultRemote when auto-vivifying a local branch out of a
+ remote tracking branch in a repository with multiple remotes that
+ have tracking branches that share the same names.
+ (merge 8d7b558bae ab/checkout-default-remote later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep" learned the "--only-matching" option.
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" mode now handles octopus merges as
+ well.
+
+ * Add a server-side knob to skip commits in exponential/fibbonacci
+ stride in an attempt to cover wider swath of history with a smaller
+ number of iterations, potentially accepting a larger packfile
+ transfer, instead of going back one commit a time during common
+ ancestor discovery during the "git fetch" transaction.
+ (merge 42cc7485a2 jt/fetch-negotiator-skipping later to maint).
+
+ * A new configuration variable core.usereplacerefs has been added,
+ primarily to help server installations that want to ignore the
+ replace mechanism altogether.
+
+ * Teach "git tag -s" etc. a few configuration variables (gpg.format
+ that can be set to "openpgp" or "x509", and gpg.<format>.program
+ that is used to specify what program to use to deal with the format)
+ to allow x.509 certs with CMS via "gpgsm" to be used instead of
+ openpgp via "gnupg".
+
+ * Many more strings are prepared for l10n.
+
+ * "git p4 submit" learns to ask its own pre-submit hook if it should
+ continue with submitting.
+
+ * The test performed at the receiving end of "git push" to prevent
+ bad objects from entering repository can be customized via
+ receive.fsck.* configuration variables; we now have gained a
+ counterpart to do the same on the "git fetch" side, with
+ fetch.fsck.* configuration variables.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase=interactive" learned "i" as a short-hand for
+ "interactive".
+
+ * "git instaweb" has been adjusted to run better with newer Apache on
+ RedHat based distros.
+
+ * "git range-diff" is a reimplementation of "git tbdiff" that lets us
+ compare individual patches in two iterations of a topic.
+
+ * The sideband code learned to optionally paint selected keywords at
+ the beginning of incoming lines on the receiving end.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to take the default sort order from the
+ 'branch.sort' configuration variable, just like "git tag --list"
+ pays attention to 'tag.sort'.
+
+ * "git worktree" command learned "--quiet" option to make it less
+ verbose.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The bulk of "git submodule foreach" has been rewritten in C.
+
+ * The in-core "commit" object had an all-purpose "void *util" field,
+ which was tricky to use especially in library-ish part of the
+ code. All of the existing uses of the field has been migrated to a
+ more dedicated "commit-slab" mechanism and the field is eliminated.
+
+ * A less often used command "git show-index" has been modernized.
+ (merge fb3010c31f jk/show-index later to maint).
+
+ * The conversion to pass "the_repository" and then "a_repository"
+ throughout the object access API continues.
+
+ * Continuing with the idea to programatically enumerate various
+ pieces of data required for command line completion, teach the
+ codebase to report the list of configuration variables
+ subcommands care about to help complete them.
+
+ * Separate "rebase -p" codepath out of "rebase -i" implementation to
+ slim down the latter and make it easier to manage.
+
+ * Make refspec parsing codepath more robust.
+
+ * Some flaky tests have been fixed.
+
+ * Continuing with the idea to programmatically enumerate various
+ pieces of data required for command line completion, the codebase
+ has been taught to enumerate options prefixed with "--no-" to
+ negate them.
+
+ * Build and test procedure for netrc credential helper (in contrib/)
+ has been updated.
+
+ * Remove unused function definitions and declarations from ewah
+ bitmap subsystem.
+
+ * Code preparation to make "git p4" closer to be usable with Python 3.
+
+ * Tighten the API to make it harder to misuse in-tree .gitmodules
+ file, even though it shares the same syntax with configuration
+ files, to read random configuration items from it.
+
+ * "git fast-import" has been updated to avoid attempting to create
+ delta against a zero-byte-long string, which is pointless.
+
+ * The codebase has been updated to compile cleanly with -pedantic
+ option.
+ (merge 2b647a05d7 bb/pedantic later to maint).
+
+ * The character display width table has been updated to match the
+ latest Unicode standard.
+ (merge 570951eea2 bb/unicode-11-width later to maint).
+
+ * test-lint now looks for broken use of "VAR=VAL shell_func" in test
+ scripts.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[40] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Recent "security fix" to pay attention to contents of ".gitmodules"
+ while accepting "git push" was a bit overly strict than necessary,
+ which has been adjusted.
+
+ * "git fsck" learns to make sure the optional commit-graph file is in
+ a sane state.
+
+ * "git diff --color-moved" feature has further been tweaked.
+
+ * Code restructuring and a small fix to transport protocol v2 during
+ fetching.
+
+ * Parsing of -L[<N>][,[<M>]] parameters "git blame" and "git log"
+ take has been tweaked.
+
+ * lookup_commit_reference() and friends have been updated to find
+ in-core object for a specific in-core repository instance.
+
+ * Various glitches in the heuristics of merge-recursive strategy have
+ been documented in new tests.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned a new option "--negotiation-tip" to limit the
+ set of commits it tells the other end as "have", to reduce wasted
+ bandwidth and cycles, which would be helpful when the receiving
+ repository has a lot of refs that have little to do with the
+ history at the remote it is fetching from.
+
+ * For a large tree, the index needs to hold many cache entries
+ allocated on heap. These cache entries are now allocated out of a
+ dedicated memory pool to amortize malloc(3) overhead.
+
+ * Tests to cover various conflicting cases have been added for
+ merge-recursive.
+
+ * Tests to cover conflict cases that involve submodules have been
+ added for merge-recursive.
+
+ * Look for broken "&&" chains that are hidden in subshell, many of
+ which have been found and corrected.
+
+ * The singleton commit-graph in-core instance is made per in-core
+ repository instance.
+
+ * "make DEVELOPER=1 DEVOPTS=pedantic" allows developers to compile
+ with -pedantic option, which may catch more problematic program
+ constructs and potential bugs.
+
+ * Preparatory code to later add json output for telemetry data has
+ been added.
+
+ * Update the way we use Coccinelle to find out-of-style code that
+ need to be modernised.
+
+ * It is too easy to misuse system API functions such as strcat();
+ these selected functions are now forbidden in this codebase and
+ will cause a compilation failure.
+
+ * Add a script (in contrib/) to help users of VSCode work better with
+ our codebase.
+
+ * The Travis CI scripts were taught to ship back the test data from
+ failed tests.
+ (merge aea8879a6a sg/travis-retrieve-trash-upon-failure later to maint).
+
+ * The parse-options machinery learned to refrain from enclosing
+ placeholder string inside a "<bra" and "ket>" pair automatically
+ without PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP. Existing help text for option
+ arguments that are not formatted correctly have been identified and
+ fixed.
+ (merge 5f0df44cd7 rs/parse-opt-lithelp later to maint).
+
+ * Noiseword "extern" has been removed from function decls in the
+ header files.
+
+ * A few atoms like %(objecttype) and %(objectsize) in the format
+ specifier of "for-each-ref --format=<format>" can be filled without
+ getting the full contents of the object, but just with the object
+ header. These cases have been optimized by calling
+ oid_object_info() API (instead of reading and inspecting the data).
+
+ * The end result of documentation update has been made to be
+ inspected more easily to help developers.
+
+ * The API to iterate over all objects learned to optionally list
+ objects in the order they appear in packfiles, which helps locality
+ of access if the caller accesses these objects while as objects are
+ enumerated.
+
+ * Improve built-in facility to catch broken &&-chain in the tests.
+
+ * The more library-ish parts of the codebase learned to work on the
+ in-core index-state instance that is passed in by their callers,
+ instead of always working on the singleton "the_index" instance.
+
+ * A test prerequisite defined by various test scripts with slightly
+ different semantics has been consolidated into a single copy and
+ made into a lazily defined one.
+ (merge 6ec633059a wc/make-funnynames-shared-lazy-prereq later to maint).
+
+ * After a partial clone, repeated fetches from promisor remote would
+ have accumulated many packfiles marked with .promisor bit without
+ getting them coalesced into fewer packfiles, hurting performance.
+ "git repack" now learned to repack them.
+
+ * Partially revert the support for multiple hash functions to regain
+ hash comparison performance; we'd think of a way to do this better
+ in the next cycle.
+
+ * "git help --config" (which is used in command line completion)
+ missed the configuration variables not described in the main
+ config.txt file but are described in another file that is included
+ by it, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The test linter code has learned that the end of here-doc mark
+ "EOF" can be quoted in a double-quote pair, not just in a
+ single-quote pair.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.18
+-----------------
+
+ * "git remote update" can take both a single remote nickname and a
+ nickname for remote groups, and the completion script (in contrib/)
+ has been taught about it.
+ (merge 9cd4382ad5 ls/complete-remote-update-names later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --shallow-since=<cutoff>" that specifies the cut-off
+ point that is newer than the existing history used to end up
+ grabbing the entire history. Such a request now errors out.
+ (merge e34de73c56 nd/reject-empty-shallow-request later to maint).
+
+ * Fix for 2.17-era regression around `core.safecrlf`.
+ (merge 6cb09125be as/safecrlf-quiet-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The recent addition of "partial clone" experimental feature kicked
+ in when it shouldn't, namely, when there is no partial-clone filter
+ defined even if extensions.partialclone is set.
+ (merge cac1137dc4 jh/partial-clone later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-pack --signed" (hence "git push --signed" over the http
+ transport) did not read user ident from the config mechanism to
+ determine whom to sign the push certificate as, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge d067d98887 ms/send-pack-honor-config later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch-pack --all" used to unnecessarily fail upon seeing an
+ annotated tag that points at an object other than a commit.
+ (merge c12c9df527 jk/fetch-all-peeled-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When user edits the patch in "git add -p" and the user's editor is
+ set to strip trailing whitespaces indiscriminately, an empty line
+ that is unchanged in the patch would become completely empty
+ (instead of a line with a sole SP on it). The code introduced in
+ Git 2.17 timeframe failed to parse such a patch, but now it learned
+ to notice the situation and cope with it.
+ (merge f4d35a6b49 pw/add-p-recount later to maint).
+
+ * The code to try seeing if a fetch is necessary in a submodule
+ during a fetch with --recurse-submodules got confused when the path
+ to the submodule was changed in the range of commits in the
+ superproject, sometimes showing "(null)". This has been corrected.
+
+ * Bugfix for "rebase -i" corner case regression.
+ (merge a9279c6785 pw/rebase-i-keep-reword-after-conflict later to maint).
+
+ * Recently added "--base" option to "git format-patch" command did
+ not correctly generate prereq patch ids.
+ (merge 15b76c1fb3 xy/format-patch-prereq-patch-id-fix later to maint).
+
+ * POSIX portability fix in Makefile to fix a glitch introduced a few
+ releases ago.
+ (merge 6600054e9b dj/runtime-prefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git filter-branch" when used with the "--state-branch" option
+ still attempted to rewrite the commits whose filtered result is
+ known from the previous attempt (which is recorded on the state
+ branch); the command has been corrected not to waste cycles doing
+ so.
+ (merge 709cfe848a mb/filter-branch-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Clarify that setting core.ignoreCase to deviate from reality would
+ not turn a case-incapable filesystem into a case-capable one.
+ (merge 48294b512a ms/core-icase-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "fsck.skipList" did not prevent a blob object listed there from
+ being inspected for is contents (e.g. we recently started to
+ inspect the contents of ".gitmodules" for certain malicious
+ patterns), which has been corrected.
+ (merge fb16287719 rj/submodule-fsck-skip later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout --recurse-submodules another-branch" did not report
+ in which submodule it failed to update the working tree, which
+ resulted in an unhelpful error message.
+ (merge ba95d4e4bd sb/submodule-move-head-error-msg later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" behaved slightly differently depending on which one of
+ the three backends gets used; this has been documented and an
+ effort to make them more uniform has begun.
+ (merge b00bf1c9a8 en/rebase-consistency later to maint).
+
+ * The "--ignore-case" option of "git for-each-ref" (and its friends)
+ did not work correctly, which has been fixed.
+ (merge e674eb2528 jk/for-each-ref-icase later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" failed to correctly validate the set of objects it
+ received when making a shallow history deeper, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge cf1e7c0770 jt/connectivity-check-after-unshallow later to maint).
+
+ * Partial clone support of "git clone" has been updated to correctly
+ validate the objects it receives from the other side. The server
+ side has been corrected to send objects that are directly
+ requested, even if they may match the filtering criteria (e.g. when
+ doing a "lazy blob" partial clone).
+ (merge a7e67c11b8 jt/partial-clone-fsck-connectivity later to maint).
+
+ * Handling of an empty range by "git cherry-pick" was inconsistent
+ depending on how the range ended up to be empty, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge c5e358d073 jk/empty-pick-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset --merge" (hence "git merge ---abort") and "git reset --hard"
+ had trouble working correctly in a sparsely checked out working
+ tree after a conflict, which has been corrected.
+ (merge b33fdfc34c mk/merge-in-sparse-checkout later to maint).
+
+ * Correct a broken use of "VAR=VAL shell_func" in a test.
+ (merge 650161a277 jc/t3404-one-shot-export-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse ':/substring'" did not consider the history leading
+ only to HEAD when looking for a commit with the given substring,
+ when the HEAD is detached. This has been fixed.
+ (merge 6b3351e799 wc/find-commit-with-pattern-on-detached-head later to maint).
+
+ * Build doc update for Windows.
+ (merge ede8d89bb1 nd/command-list later to maint).
+
+ * core.commentchar is now honored when preparing the list of commits
+ to replay in "rebase -i".
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" on a corrupt HEAD caused a segfault. In
+ general we substitute an empty tree object when running the in-core
+ equivalent of the diff-index command, and the codepath has been
+ corrected to do so as well to fix this issue.
+ (merge 3506dc9445 jk/has-uncommitted-changes-fix later to maint).
+
+ * httpd tests saw occasional breakage due to the way its access log
+ gets inspected by the tests, which has been updated to make them
+ less flaky.
+ (merge e8b3b2e275 sg/httpd-test-unflake later to maint).
+
+ * Tests to cover more D/F conflict cases have been added for
+ merge-recursive.
+
+ * "git gc --auto" opens file descriptors for the packfiles before
+ spawning "git repack/prune", which would upset Windows that does
+ not want a process to work on a file that is open by another
+ process. The issue has been worked around.
+ (merge 12e73a3ce4 kg/gc-auto-windows-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * The recursive merge strategy did not properly ensure there was no
+ change between HEAD and the index before performing its operation,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge 55f39cf755 en/dirty-merge-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" started exporting GIT_DIR environment variable and
+ exposing it to hook scripts when part of it got rewritten in C.
+ Instead of matching the old scripted Porcelains' behaviour,
+ compensate by also exporting GIT_WORK_TREE environment as well to
+ lessen the damage. This can harm existing hooks that want to
+ operate on different repository, but the current behaviour is
+ already broken for them anyway.
+ (merge ab5e67d751 bc/sequencer-export-work-tree-as-well later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-email" when using in a batched mode that limits the
+ number of messages sent in a single SMTP session lost the contents
+ of the variable used to choose between tls/ssl, unable to send the
+ second and later batches, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 636f3d7ac5 jm/send-email-tls-auth-on-batch later to maint).
+
+ * The lazy clone support had a few places where missing but promised
+ objects were not correctly tolerated, which have been fixed.
+
+ * One of the "diff --color-moved" mode "dimmed_zebra" that was named
+ in an unusual way has been deprecated and replaced by
+ "dimmed-zebra".
+ (merge e3f2f5f9cd es/diff-color-moved-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The wire-protocol v2 relies on the client to send "ref prefixes" to
+ limit the bandwidth spent on the initial ref advertisement. "git
+ clone" when learned to speak v2 forgot to do so, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 402c47d939 bw/clone-ref-prefixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --histogram" had a bad memory usage pattern, which has
+ been rearranged to reduce the peak usage.
+ (merge 79cb2ebb92 sb/histogram-less-memory later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to use size_t/ssize_t when they are the right type.
+ (merge 7726d360b5 jk/size-t later to maint).
+
+ * The wire-protocol v2 relies on the client to send "ref prefixes" to
+ limit the bandwidth spent on the initial ref advertisement. "git
+ fetch $remote branch:branch" that asks tags that point into the
+ history leading to the "branch" automatically followed sent to
+ narrow prefix and broke the tag following, which has been fixed.
+ (merge 2b554353a5 jt/tag-following-with-proto-v2-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When the sparse checkout feature is in use, "git cherry-pick" and
+ other mergy operations lost the skip_worktree bit when a path that
+ is excluded from checkout requires content level merge, which is
+ resolved as the same as the HEAD version, without materializing the
+ merge result in the working tree, which made the path appear as
+ deleted. This has been corrected by preserving the skip_worktree
+ bit (and not materializing the file in the working tree).
+ (merge 2b75fb601c en/merge-recursive-skip-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The "author-script" file "git rebase -i" creates got broken when
+ we started to move the command away from shell script, which is
+ getting fixed now.
+ (merge 5522bbac20 es/rebase-i-author-script-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The automatic tree-matching in "git merge -s subtree" was broken 5
+ years ago and nobody has noticed since then, which is now fixed.
+ (merge 2ec4150713 jk/merge-subtree-heuristics later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch $there refs/heads/s" ought to fetch the tip of the
+ branch 's', but when "refs/heads/refs/heads/s", i.e. a branch whose
+ name is "refs/heads/s" exists at the same time, fetched that one
+ instead by mistake. This has been corrected to honor the usual
+ disambiguation rules for abbreviated refnames.
+ (merge 60650a48c0 jt/refspec-dwim-precedence-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Futureproofing a helper function that can easily be misused.
+ (merge 65bb21e77e es/want-color-fd-defensive later to maint).
+
+ * The http-backend (used for smart-http transport) used to slurp the
+ whole input until EOF, without paying attention to CONTENT_LENGTH
+ that is supplied in the environment and instead expecting the Web
+ server to close the input stream. This has been fixed.
+ (merge eebfe40962 mk/http-backend-content-length later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge --abort" etc. did not clean things up properly when
+ there were conflicted entries in the index in certain order that
+ are involved in D/F conflicts. This has been corrected.
+ (merge ad3762042a en/abort-df-conflict-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --indent-heuristic" had a bad corner case performance.
+ (merge 301ef85401 sb/indent-heuristic-optim later to maint).
+
+ * The "--exec" option to "git rebase --rebase-merges" placed the exec
+ commands at wrong places, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git verify-tag" and "git verify-commit" have been taught to use
+ the exit status of underlying "gpg --verify" to signal bad or
+ untrusted signature they found.
+ (merge 4e5dc9ca17 jc/gpg-status later to maint).
+
+ * "git mergetool" stopped and gave an extra prompt to continue after
+ the last path has been handled, which did not make much sense.
+ (merge d651a54b8a ng/mergetool-lose-final-prompt later to maint).
+
+ * Among the three codepaths we use O_APPEND to open a file for
+ appending, one used for writing GIT_TRACE output requires O_APPEND
+ implementation that behaves sensibly when multiple processes are
+ writing to the same file. POSIX emulation used in the Windows port
+ has been updated to improve in this area.
+ (merge d641097589 js/mingw-o-append later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull --rebase -v" in a repository with a submodule barfed as
+ an intermediate process did not understand what "-v(erbose)" flag
+ meant, which has been fixed.
+ (merge e84c3cf3dc sb/pull-rebase-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * Recent update to "git config" broke updating variable in a
+ subsection, which has been corrected.
+ (merge bff7df7a87 sb/config-write-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When "git rebase -i" is told to squash two or more commits into
+ one, it labeled the log message for each commit with its number.
+ It correctly called the first one "1st commit", but the next one
+ was "commit #1", which was off-by-one. This has been corrected.
+ (merge dd2e36ebac pw/rebase-i-squash-number-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i", when a 'merge <branch>' insn in its todo list
+ fails, segfaulted, which has been (minimally) corrected.
+ (merge bc9238bb09 pw/rebase-i-merge-segv-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick --quit" failed to remove CHERRY_PICK_HEAD even
+ though we won't be in a cherry-pick session after it returns, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 3e7dd99208 nd/cherry-pick-quit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * In a recent update in 2.18 era, "git pack-objects" started
+ producing a larger than necessary packfiles by missing
+ opportunities to use large deltas. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The meaning of the possible values the "core.checkStat"
+ configuration variable can take were not adequately documented,
+ which has been fixed.
+ (merge 9bf5d4c4e2 nd/config-core-checkstat-doc later to maint).
+
+ * Recent "git rebase -i" update started to write bogusly formatted
+ author-script, with a matching broken reading code. These are
+ fixed.
+
+ * Recent addition of "directory rename" heuristics to the
+ merge-recursive backend makes the command susceptible to false
+ positives and false negatives. In the context of "git am -3",
+ which does not know about surrounding unmodified paths and thus
+ cannot inform the merge machinery about the full trees involved,
+ this risk is particularly severe. As such, the heuristic is
+ disabled for "git am -3" to keep the machinery "more stupid but
+ predictable".
+
+ * "git merge-base" in 2.19-rc1 has performance regression when the
+ (experimental) commit-graph feature is in use, which has been
+ mitigated.
+
+ * Code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge aee9be2ebe sg/update-ref-stdin-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 037714252f jc/clean-after-sanity-tests later to maint).
+ (merge 5b26c3c941 en/merge-recursive-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 0dcbc0392e bw/config-refer-to-gitsubmodules-doc later to maint).
+ (merge bb4d000e87 bw/protocol-v2 later to maint).
+ (merge 928f0ab4ba vs/typofixes later to maint).
+ (merge d7f590be84 en/rebase-i-microfixes later to maint).
+ (merge 81d395cc85 js/rebase-recreate-merge later to maint).
+ (merge 51d1863168 tz/exclude-doc-smallfixes later to maint).
+ (merge a9aa3c0927 ds/commit-graph later to maint).
+ (merge 5cf8e06474 js/enhanced-version-info later to maint).
+ (merge 6aaded5509 tb/config-default later to maint).
+ (merge 022d2ac1f3 sb/blame-color later to maint).
+ (merge 5a06a20e0c bp/test-drop-caches-for-windows later to maint).
+ (merge dd61cc1c2e jk/ui-color-always-to-auto later to maint).
+ (merge 1e83b9bfdd sb/trailers-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge ab29f1b329 sg/fast-import-dump-refs-on-checkpoint-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6a8ad880f0 jn/subtree-test-fixes later to maint).
+ (merge ffbd51cc60 nd/pack-objects-threading-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e9dac7be60 es/mw-to-git-chain-fix later to maint).
+ (merge fe583c6c7a rs/remote-mv-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge 69885ab015 en/t3031-title-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 8578037bed nd/config-blame-sort later to maint).
+ (merge 8ad169c4ba hn/config-in-code-comment later to maint).
+ (merge b7446fcfdf ar/t4150-am-scissors-test-fix later to maint).
+ (merge a8132410ee js/typofixes later to maint).
+ (merge 388d0ff6e5 en/update-index-doc later to maint).
+ (merge e05aa688dd jc/update-index-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 10c600172c sg/t5310-empty-input-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5641eb9465 jh/partial-clone-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 2711b1ad5e ab/submodule-relative-url-tests later to maint).
+ (merge ce528de023 ab/unconditional-free-and-null later to maint).
+ (merge bbc072f5d8 rs/opt-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 69d846f053 jk/use-compat-util-in-test-tool later to maint).
+ (merge 1820703045 js/larger-timestamps later to maint).
+ (merge c8b35b95e1 sg/t4051-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 30612cb670 sg/t0020-conversion-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 15da753709 sg/t7501-thinkofix later to maint).
+ (merge 79b04f9b60 sg/t3903-missing-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 2745817028 sg/t3420-autostash-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 7afb0d6777 sg/test-rebase-editor-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6c6ce21baa es/freebsd-iconv-portability later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 3ef3092..ec8b205 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -80,7 +80,9 @@ GitHub-Travis CI hints section for details.
Do not forget to update the documentation to describe the updated
behavior and make sure that the resulting documentation set formats
-well. It is currently a liberal mixture of US and UK English norms for
+well (try the Documentation/doc-diff script).
+
+We currently have a liberal mixture of US and UK English norms for
spelling and grammar, which is somewhat unfortunate. A huge patch that
touches the files all over the place only to correct the inconsistency
is not welcome, though. Potential clashes with other changes that can
@@ -176,6 +178,12 @@ that is fine, but please mark it as such.
[[send-patches]]
=== Sending your patches.
+:security-ml: footnoteref:[security-ml,The Git Security mailing list: git-security@googlegroups.com]
+
+Before sending any patches, please note that patches that may be
+security relevant should be submitted privately to the Git Security
+mailing list{security-ml}, instead of the public mailing list.
+
Learn to use format-patch and send-email if possible. These commands
are optimized for the workflow of sending patches, avoiding many ways
your existing e-mail client that is optimized for "multipart/*" mime
@@ -259,17 +267,24 @@ patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
that starts with `-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----`. That is
not a text/plain, it's something else.
+:security-ml-ref: footnoteref:[security-ml]
+
+As mentioned at the beginning of the section, patches that may be
+security relevant should not be submitted to the public mailing list
+mentioned below, but should instead be sent privately to the Git
+Security mailing list{security-ml-ref}.
+
Send your patch with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
-people who are involved in the area you are touching (the output from
-+git blame _$path_+ and +git shortlog {litdd}no-merges _$path_+ would help to
+people who are involved in the area you are touching (the `git
+contacts` command in `contrib/contacts/` can help to
identify them), to solicit comments and reviews.
-:1: footnote:[The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com]
-:2: footnote:[The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org]
+:current-maintainer: footnote:[The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com]
+:git-ml: footnote:[The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org]
After the list reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the
-patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer{1} and "cc:" the
-list{2} for inclusion.
+patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer{current-maintainer} and "cc:" the
+list{git-ml} for inclusion.
Do not forget to add trailers such as `Acked-by:`, `Reviewed-by:` and
`Tested-by:` lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
@@ -285,7 +300,7 @@ smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
-the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
+the right to pass it on as an open-source patch. The rules are
pretty simple: if you can certify the below D-C-O:
[[dco]]
@@ -390,7 +405,7 @@ don't demand). +git log -p {litdd} _$area_you_are_modifying_+ would
help you find out who they are.
. You get comments and suggestions for improvements. You may
- even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
+ even get them in an "on top of your change" patch form.
. Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
spend their time to improve your patch. Go back to step (2).
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 5105a39..ad0f451 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -41,11 +41,13 @@ in the section header, like in the example below:
--------
Subsection names are case sensitive and can contain any characters except
-newline (doublequote `"` and backslash can be included by escaping them
-as `\"` and `\\`, respectively). Section headers cannot span multiple
-lines. Variables may belong directly to a section or to a given subsection.
-You can have `[section]` if you have `[section "subsection"]`, but you
-don't need to.
+newline and the null byte. Doublequote `"` and backslash can be included
+by escaping them as `\"` and `\\`, respectively. Backslashes preceding
+other characters are dropped when reading; for example, `\t` is read as
+`t` and `\0` is read as `0` Section headers cannot span multiple lines.
+Variables may belong directly to a section or to a given subsection. You
+can have `[section]` if you have `[section "subsection"]`, but you don't
+need to.
There is also a deprecated `[section.subsection]` syntax. With this
syntax, the subsection name is converted to lower-case and is also
@@ -342,6 +344,16 @@ advice.*::
Advice shown when you used linkgit:git-checkout[1] to
move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to create
a local branch after the fact.
+ checkoutAmbiguousRemoteBranchName::
+ Advice shown when the argument to
+ linkgit:git-checkout[1] ambiguously resolves to a
+ remote tracking branch on more than one remote in
+ situations where an unambiguous argument would have
+ otherwise caused a remote-tracking branch to be
+ checked out. See the `checkout.defaultRemote`
+ configuration variable for how to set a given remote
+ to used by default in some situations where this
+ advice would be printed.
amWorkDir::
Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
@@ -352,7 +364,7 @@ advice.*::
Advice on what to do when you've accidentally added one
git repo inside of another.
ignoredHook::
- Advice shown if an hook is ignored because the hook is not
+ Advice shown if a hook is ignored because the hook is not
set as executable.
waitingForEditor::
Print a message to the terminal whenever Git is waiting for
@@ -388,16 +400,19 @@ core.hideDotFiles::
default mode is 'dotGitOnly'.
core.ignoreCase::
- If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
+ Internal variable which enables various workarounds to enable
Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
- like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
- "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
+ like APFS, HFS+, FAT, NTFS, etc. For example, if a directory listing
+ finds "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
"Makefile".
+
The default is false, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
will probe and set core.ignoreCase true if appropriate when the repository
is created.
++
+Git relies on the proper configuration of this variable for your operating
+and file system. Modifying this value may result in unexpected behavior.
core.precomposeUnicode::
This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of Git.
@@ -447,10 +462,20 @@ core.untrackedCache::
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default.
core.checkStat::
- Determines which stat fields to match between the index
- and work tree. The user can set this to 'default' or
- 'minimal'. Default (or explicitly 'default'), is to check
- all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
+ When missing or is set to `default`, many fields in the stat
+ structure are checked to detect if a file has been modified
+ since Git looked at it. When this configuration variable is
+ set to `minimal`, sub-second part of mtime and ctime, the
+ uid and gid of the owner of the file, the inode number (and
+ the device number, if Git was compiled to use it), are
+ excluded from the check among these fields, leaving only the
+ whole-second part of mtime (and ctime, if `core.trustCtime`
+ is set) and the filesize to be checked.
++
+There are implementations of Git that do not leave usable values in
+some fields (e.g. JGit); by excluding these fields from the
+comparison, the `minimal` mode may help interoperability when the
+same repository is used by these other systems at the same time.
core.quotePath::
Commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files', 'diff'), will
@@ -528,6 +553,12 @@ core.autocrlf::
This variable can be set to 'input',
in which case no output conversion is performed.
+core.checkRoundtripEncoding::
+ A comma and/or whitespace separated list of encodings that Git
+ performs UTF-8 round trip checks on if they are used in an
+ `working-tree-encoding` attribute (see linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
+ The default value is `SHIFT-JIS`.
+
core.symlinks::
If false, symbolic links are checked out as small plain files that
contain the link text. linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
@@ -896,6 +927,21 @@ core.notesRef::
This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and it can be overridden by
the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable. See linkgit:git-notes[1].
+core.commitGraph::
+ If true, then git will read the commit-graph file (if it exists)
+ to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to false. See
+ linkgit:git-commit-graph[1] for more information.
+
+core.useReplaceRefs::
+ If set to `false`, behave as if the `--no-replace-objects`
+ option was given on the command line. See linkgit:git[1] and
+ linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
+
+core.multiPackIndex::
+ Use the multi-pack-index file to track multiple packfiles using a
+ single index. See link:technical/multi-pack-index.html[the
+ multi-pack-index design document].
+
core.sparseCheckout::
Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
@@ -962,23 +1008,28 @@ apply.whitespace::
Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
as the `--whitespace` option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
-blame.showRoot::
- Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
- This option defaults to false.
-
blame.blankBoundary::
Show blank commit object name for boundary commits in
linkgit:git-blame[1]. This option defaults to false.
-blame.showEmail::
- Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
- This option defaults to false.
+blame.coloring::
+ This determines the coloring scheme to be applied to blame
+ output. It can be 'repeatedLines', 'highlightRecent',
+ or 'none' which is the default.
blame.date::
Specifies the format used to output dates in linkgit:git-blame[1].
If unset the iso format is used. For supported values,
see the discussion of the `--date` option at linkgit:git-log[1].
+blame.showEmail::
+ Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.showRoot::
+ Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+ This option defaults to false.
+
branch.autoSetupMerge::
Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
@@ -1006,6 +1057,12 @@ branch.autoSetupRebase::
branch to track another branch.
This option defaults to never.
+branch.sort::
+ This variable controls the sort ordering of branches when displayed by
+ linkgit:git-branch[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
+ value of this variable will be used as the default.
+ See linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1] field names for valid values.
+
branch.<name>.remote::
When on branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push'
which remote to fetch from/push to. The remote to push to
@@ -1056,6 +1113,10 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
"git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
branch-specific manner.
+
+When `merges`, pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
+so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
+linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
++
When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
by running 'git pull'.
@@ -1082,10 +1143,66 @@ browser.<tool>.path::
browse HTML help (see `-w` option in linkgit:git-help[1]) or a
working repository in gitweb (see linkgit:git-instaweb[1]).
+checkout.defaultRemote::
+ When you run 'git checkout <something>' and only have one
+ remote, it may implicitly fall back on checking out and
+ tracking e.g. 'origin/<something>'. This stops working as soon
+ as you have more than one remote with a '<something>'
+ reference. This setting allows for setting the name of a
+ preferred remote that should always win when it comes to
+ disambiguation. The typical use-case is to set this to
+ `origin`.
++
+Currently this is used by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when 'git checkout
+<something>' will checkout the '<something>' branch on another remote,
+and by linkgit:git-worktree[1] when 'git worktree add' refers to a
+remote branch. This setting might be used for other checkout-like
+commands or functionality in the future.
+
+checkout.optimizeNewBranch::
+ Optimizes the performance of "git checkout -b <new_branch>" when
+ using sparse-checkout. When set to true, git will not update the
+ repo based on the current sparse-checkout settings. This means it
+ will not update the skip-worktree bit in the index nor add/remove
+ files in the working directory to reflect the current sparse checkout
+ settings nor will it show the local changes.
+
clean.requireForce::
A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f,
-i or -n. Defaults to true.
+color.advice::
+ A boolean to enable/disable color in hints (e.g. when a push
+ failed, see `advice.*` for a list). May be set to `always`,
+ `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which case colors
+ are used only when the error output goes to a terminal. If
+ unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+
+color.advice.hint::
+ Use customized color for hints.
+
+color.blame.highlightRecent::
+ This can be used to color the metadata of a blame line depending
+ on age of the line.
++
+This setting should be set to a comma-separated list of color and date settings,
+starting and ending with a color, the dates should be set from oldest to newest.
+The metadata will be colored given the colors if the the line was introduced
+before the given timestamp, overwriting older timestamped colors.
++
+Instead of an absolute timestamp relative timestamps work as well, e.g.
+2.weeks.ago is valid to address anything older than 2 weeks.
++
+It defaults to 'blue,12 month ago,white,1 month ago,red', which colors
+everything older than one year blue, recent changes between one month and
+one year old are kept white, and lines introduced within the last month are
+colored red.
+
+color.blame.repeatedLines::
+ Use the customized color for the part of git-blame output that
+ is repeated meta information per line (such as commit id,
+ author name, date and timezone). Defaults to cyan.
+
color.branch::
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
linkgit:git-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1113,13 +1230,6 @@ This does not affect linkgit:git-format-patch[1] or the
'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands. Can be overridden on the
command line with the `--color[=<when>]` option.
-diff.colorMoved::
- If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
- in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
- see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
- true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
- moved lines are not colored.
-
color.diff.<slot>::
Use customized color for diff colorization. `<slot>` specifies
which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
@@ -1130,13 +1240,16 @@ color.diff.<slot>::
(highlighting whitespace errors), `oldMoved` (deleted lines),
`newMoved` (added lines), `oldMovedDimmed`, `oldMovedAlternative`,
`oldMovedAlternativeDimmed`, `newMovedDimmed`, `newMovedAlternative`
- and `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
- setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details).
+ `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
+ setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details),
+ `contextDimmed`, `oldDimmed`, `newDimmed`, `contextBold`,
+ `oldBold`, and `newBold` (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1] for details).
color.decorate.<slot>::
Use customized color for 'git log --decorate' output. `<slot>` is one
of `branch`, `remoteBranch`, `tag`, `stash` or `HEAD` for local
- branches, remote-tracking branches, tags, stash and HEAD, respectively.
+ branches, remote-tracking branches, tags, stash and HEAD, respectively
+ and `grafted` for grafted commits.
color.grep::
When set to `always`, always highlight matches. When `false` (or
@@ -1155,8 +1268,10 @@ color.grep.<slot>::
filename prefix (when not using `-h`)
`function`;;
function name lines (when using `-p`)
-`linenumber`;;
+`lineNumber`;;
line number prefix (when using `-n`)
+`column`;;
+ column number prefix (when using `--column`)
`match`;;
matching text (same as setting `matchContext` and `matchSelected`)
`matchContext`;;
@@ -1188,6 +1303,27 @@ color.pager::
A boolean to enable/disable colored output when the pager is in
use (default is true).
+color.push::
+ A boolean to enable/disable color in push errors. May be set to
+ `always`, `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which
+ case colors are used only when the error output goes to a terminal.
+ If unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+
+color.push.error::
+ Use customized color for push errors.
+
+color.remote::
+ If set, keywords at the start of the line are highlighted. The
+ keywords are "error", "warning", "hint" and "success", and are
+ matched case-insensitively. May be set to `always`, `false` (or
+ `never`) or `auto` (or `true`). If unset, then the value of
+ `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+
+color.remote.<slot>::
+ Use customized color for each remote keyword. `<slot>` may be
+ `hint`, `warning`, `success` or `error` which match the
+ corresponding keyword.
+
color.showBranch::
A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
linkgit:git-show-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1216,6 +1352,15 @@ color.status.<slot>::
status short-format), or
`unmerged` (files which have unmerged changes).
+color.transport::
+ A boolean to enable/disable color when pushes are rejected. May be
+ set to `always`, `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which
+ case colors are used only when the error output goes to a terminal.
+ If unset, then the value of `color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+
+color.transport.rejected::
+ Use customized color when a push was rejected.
+
color.ui::
This variable determines the default value for variables such
as `color.diff` and `color.grep` that control the use of color
@@ -1341,6 +1486,14 @@ credential.<url>.*::
credentialCache.ignoreSIGHUP::
Tell git-credential-cache--daemon to ignore SIGHUP, instead of quitting.
+completion.commands::
+ This is only used by git-completion.bash to add or remove
+ commands from the list of completed commands. Normally only
+ porcelain commands and a few select others are completed. You
+ can add more commands, separated by space, in this
+ variable. Prefixing the command with '-' will remove it from
+ the existing list.
+
include::diff-config.txt[]
difftool.<tool>.path::
@@ -1378,10 +1531,19 @@ fetch.recurseSubmodules::
fetch.fsckObjects::
If it is set to true, git-fetch-pack will check all fetched
- objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
- broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
- Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
- is used instead.
+ objects. See `transfer.fsckObjects` for what's
+ checked. Defaults to false. If not set, the value of
+ `transfer.fsckObjects` is used instead.
+
+fetch.fsck.<msg-id>::
+ Acts like `fsck.<msg-id>`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1] instead of linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See
+ the `fsck.<msg-id>` documentation for details.
+
+fetch.fsck.skipList::
+ Acts like `fsck.skipList`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1] instead of linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See
+ the `fsck.skipList` documentation for details.
fetch.unpackLimit::
If the number of objects fetched over the Git native
@@ -1396,13 +1558,34 @@ fetch.unpackLimit::
fetch.prune::
If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the `--prune`
- option was given on the command line. See also `remote.<name>.prune`.
+ option was given on the command line. See also `remote.<name>.prune`
+ and the PRUNING section of linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
+fetch.pruneTags::
+ If true, fetch will automatically behave as if the
+ `refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*` refspec was provided when pruning,
+ if not set already. This allows for setting both this option
+ and `fetch.prune` to maintain a 1=1 mapping to upstream
+ refs. See also `remote.<name>.pruneTags` and the PRUNING
+ section of linkgit:git-fetch[1].
fetch.output::
Control how ref update status is printed. Valid values are
`full` and `compact`. Default value is `full`. See section
OUTPUT in linkgit:git-fetch[1] for detail.
+fetch.negotiationAlgorithm::
+ Control how information about the commits in the local repository is
+ sent when negotiating the contents of the packfile to be sent by the
+ server. Set to "skipping" to use an algorithm that skips commits in an
+ effort to converge faster, but may result in a larger-than-necessary
+ packfile; The default is "default" which instructs Git to use the default algorithm
+ that never skips commits (unless the server has acknowledged it or one
+ of its descendants).
+ Unknown values will cause 'git fetch' to error out.
++
+See also the `--negotiation-tip` option for linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
format.attach::
Enable multipart/mixed attachments as the default for
'format-patch'. The value can also be a double quoted string
@@ -1502,15 +1685,42 @@ filter.<driver>.smudge::
linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
fsck.<msg-id>::
- Allows overriding the message type (error, warn or ignore) of a
- specific message ID such as `missingEmail`.
-+
-For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning with the message ID,
-e.g. "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line - missing email" means
-that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
-+
-This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
-which cannot be repaired without disruptive changes.
+ During fsck git may find issues with legacy data which
+ wouldn't be generated by current versions of git, and which
+ wouldn't be sent over the wire if `transfer.fsckObjects` was
+ set. This feature is intended to support working with legacy
+ repositories containing such data.
++
+Setting `fsck.<msg-id>` will be picked up by linkgit:git-fsck[1], but
+to accept pushes of such data set `receive.fsck.<msg-id>` instead, or
+to clone or fetch it set `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>`.
++
+The rest of the documentation discusses `fsck.*` for brevity, but the
+same applies for the corresponding `receive.fsck.*` and
+`fetch.<msg-id>.*`. variables.
++
+Unlike variables like `color.ui` and `core.editor` the
+`receive.fsck.<msg-id>` and `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>` variables will not
+fall back on the `fsck.<msg-id>` configuration if they aren't set. To
+uniformly configure the same fsck settings in different circumstances
+all three of them they must all set to the same values.
++
+When `fsck.<msg-id>` is set, errors can be switched to warnings and
+vice versa by configuring the `fsck.<msg-id>` setting where the
+`<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value is one of `error`,
+`warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning
+with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line
+- missing email" means that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will
+hide that issue.
++
+In general, it is better to enumerate existing objects with problems
+with `fsck.skipList`, instead of listing the kind of breakages these
+problematic objects share to be ignored, as doing the latter will
+allow new instances of the same breakages go unnoticed.
++
+Setting an unknown `fsck.<msg-id>` value will cause fsck to die, but
+doing the same for `receive.fsck.<msg-id>` and `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>`
+will only cause git to warn.
fsck.skipList::
The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
@@ -1519,6 +1729,15 @@ fsck.skipList::
should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
++
+Like `fsck.<msg-id>` this variable has corresponding
+`receive.fsck.skipList` and `fetch.fsck.skipList` variants.
++
+Unlike variables like `color.ui` and `core.editor` the
+`receive.fsck.skipList` and `fetch.fsck.skipList` variables will not
+fall back on the `fsck.skipList` configuration if they aren't set. To
+uniformly configure the same fsck settings in different circumstances
+all three of them they must all set to the same values.
gc.aggressiveDepth::
The depth parameter used in the delta compression
@@ -1547,6 +1766,25 @@ gc.autoDetach::
Make `git gc --auto` return immediately and run in background
if the system supports it. Default is true.
+gc.bigPackThreshold::
+ If non-zero, all packs larger than this limit are kept when
+ `git gc` is run. This is very similar to `--keep-base-pack`
+ except that all packs that meet the threshold are kept, not
+ just the base pack. Defaults to zero. Common unit suffixes of
+ 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
++
+Note that if the number of kept packs is more than gc.autoPackLimit,
+this configuration variable is ignored, all packs except the base pack
+will be repacked. After this the number of packs should go below
+gc.autoPackLimit and gc.bigPackThreshold should be respected again.
+
+gc.writeCommitGraph::
+ If true, then gc will rewrite the commit-graph file when
+ linkgit:git-gc[1] is run. When using linkgit:git-gc[1]
+ '--auto' the commit-graph will be updated if housekeeping is
+ required. Default is false. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
+ for details.
+
gc.logExpiry::
If the file gc.log exists, then `git gc --auto` won't run
unless that file is more than 'gc.logExpiry' old. Default is
@@ -1697,6 +1935,9 @@ gitweb.snapshot::
grep.lineNumber::
If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
+grep.column::
+ If set to true, enable the `--column` option by default.
+
grep.patternType::
Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
@@ -1727,6 +1968,16 @@ gpg.program::
signed, and the program is expected to send the result to its
standard output.
+gpg.format::
+ Specifies which key format to use when signing with `--gpg-sign`.
+ Default is "openpgp" and another possible value is "x509".
+
+gpg.<format>.program::
+ Use this to customize the program used for the signing format you
+ chose. (see `gpg.program` and `gpg.format`) `gpg.program` can still
+ be used as a legacy synonym for `gpg.openpgp.program`. The default
+ value for `gpg.x509.program` is "gpgsm".
+
gui.commitMsgWidth::
Defines how wide the commit message window is in the
linkgit:git-gui[1]. "75" is the default.
@@ -1946,6 +2197,7 @@ http.sslVersion::
- tlsv1.0
- tlsv1.1
- tlsv1.2
+ - tlsv1.3
+
Can be overridden by the `GIT_SSL_VERSION` environment variable.
@@ -2410,6 +2662,7 @@ pack.window::
pack.depth::
The maximum delta depth used by linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] when no
maximum depth is given on the command line. Defaults to 50.
+ Maximum value is 4095.
pack.windowMemory::
The maximum size of memory that is consumed by each thread
@@ -2431,6 +2684,21 @@ Note that changing the compression level will not automatically recompress
all existing objects. You can force recompression by passing the -F option
to linkgit:git-repack[1].
+pack.island::
+ An extended regular expression configuring a set of delta
+ islands. See "DELTA ISLANDS" in linkgit:git-pack-objects[1]
+ for details.
+
+pack.islandCore::
+ Specify an island name which gets to have its objects be
+ packed first. This creates a kind of pseudo-pack at the front
+ of one pack, so that the objects from the specified island are
+ hopefully faster to copy into any pack that should be served
+ to a user requesting these objects. In practice this means
+ that the island specified should likely correspond to what is
+ the most commonly cloned in the repo. See also "DELTA ISLANDS"
+ in linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
+
pack.deltaCacheSize::
The maximum memory in bytes used for caching deltas in
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] before writing them out to a pack.
@@ -2446,7 +2714,8 @@ pack.deltaCacheLimit::
The maximum size of a delta, that is cached in
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1]. This cache is used to speed up the
writing object phase by not having to recompute the final delta
- result once the best match for all objects is found. Defaults to 1000.
+ result once the best match for all objects is found.
+ Defaults to 1000. Maximum value is 65535.
pack.threads::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when searching for best
@@ -2607,6 +2876,10 @@ pull.rebase::
pull" is run. See "branch.<name>.rebase" for setting this on a
per-branch basis.
+
+When `merges`, pass the `--rebase-merges` option to 'git rebase'
+so that the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
+linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
++
When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
by running 'git pull'.
@@ -2775,32 +3048,21 @@ receive.certNonceSlop::
receive.fsckObjects::
If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
- objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
- broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
- Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
- is used instead.
+ objects. See `transfer.fsckObjects` for what's checked.
+ Defaults to false. If not set, the value of
+ `transfer.fsckObjects` is used instead.
receive.fsck.<msg-id>::
- When `receive.fsckObjects` is set to true, errors can be switched
- to warnings and vice versa by configuring the `receive.fsck.<msg-id>`
- setting where the `<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value
- is one of `error`, `warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes
- the error/warning with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid
- author/committer line - missing email" means that setting
- `receive.fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
-+
-This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
-which would not pass pushing when `receive.fsckObjects = true`, allowing
-the host to accept repositories with certain known issues but still catch
-other issues.
+ Acts like `fsck.<msg-id>`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] instead of
+ linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See the `fsck.<msg-id>` documentation for
+ details.
receive.fsck.skipList::
- The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
- line) that are known to be broken in a non-fatal way and should
- be ignored. This feature is useful when an established project
- should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
- can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
- Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
+ Acts like `fsck.skipList`, but is used by
+ linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] instead of
+ linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See the `fsck.skipList` documentation for
+ details.
receive.keepAlive::
After receiving the pack from the client, `receive-pack` may
@@ -2945,6 +3207,15 @@ remote.<name>.prune::
remote (as if the `--prune` option was given on the command line).
Overrides `fetch.prune` settings, if any.
+remote.<name>.pruneTags::
+ When set to true, fetching from this remote by default will also
+ remove any local tags that no longer exist on the remote if pruning
+ is activated in general via `remote.<name>.prune`, `fetch.prune` or
+ `--prune`. Overrides `fetch.pruneTags` settings, if any.
++
+See also `remote.<name>.prune` and the PRUNING section of
+linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
remotes.<group>::
The list of remotes which are fetched by "git remote update
<group>". See linkgit:git-remote[1].
@@ -2964,6 +3235,10 @@ repack.packKeptObjects::
index is being written (either via `--write-bitmap-index` or
`repack.writeBitmaps`).
+repack.useDeltaIslands::
+ If set to true, makes `git repack` act as if `--delta-islands`
+ was passed. Defaults to `false`.
+
repack.writeBitmaps::
When true, git will write a bitmap index when packing all
objects to disk (e.g., when `git repack -a` is run). This
@@ -3100,6 +3375,18 @@ status.displayCommentPrefix::
behavior of linkgit:git-status[1] in Git 1.8.4 and previous.
Defaults to false.
+status.renameLimit::
+ The number of files to consider when performing rename detection
+ in linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-commit[1]. Defaults to
+ the value of diff.renameLimit.
+
+status.renames::
+ Whether and how Git detects renames in linkgit:git-status[1] and
+ linkgit:git-commit[1] . If set to "false", rename detection is
+ disabled. If set to "true", basic rename detection is enabled.
+ If set to "copies" or "copy", Git will detect copies, as well.
+ Defaults to the value of diff.renames.
+
status.showStash::
If set to true, linkgit:git-status[1] will display the number of
entries currently stashed away.
@@ -3201,16 +3488,18 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
submodule.<name>.active::
Boolean value indicating if the submodule is of interest to git
commands. This config option takes precedence over the
- submodule.active config option.
+ submodule.active config option. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for
+ details.
submodule.active::
A repeated field which contains a pathspec used to match against a
submodule's path to determine if the submodule is of interest to git
- commands.
+ commands. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for details.
submodule.recurse::
Specifies if commands recurse into submodules by default. This
- applies to all commands that have a `--recurse-submodules` option.
+ applies to all commands that have a `--recurse-submodules` option,
+ except `clone`.
Defaults to false.
submodule.fetchJobs::
@@ -3252,6 +3541,40 @@ transfer.fsckObjects::
When `fetch.fsckObjects` or `receive.fsckObjects` are
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
Defaults to false.
++
+When set, the fetch or receive will abort in the case of a malformed
+object or a link to a nonexistent object. In addition, various other
+issues are checked for, including legacy issues (see `fsck.<msg-id>`),
+and potential security issues like the existence of a `.GIT` directory
+or a malicious `.gitmodules` file (see the release notes for v2.2.1
+and v2.17.1 for details). Other sanity and security checks may be
+added in future releases.
++
+On the receiving side, failing fsckObjects will make those objects
+unreachable, see "QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENT" in
+linkgit:git-receive-pack[1]. On the fetch side, malformed objects will
+instead be left unreferenced in the repository.
++
+Due to the non-quarantine nature of the `fetch.fsckObjects`
+implementation it can not be relied upon to leave the object store
+clean like `receive.fsckObjects` can.
++
+As objects are unpacked they're written to the object store, so there
+can be cases where malicious objects get introduced even though the
+"fetch" failed, only to have a subsequent "fetch" succeed because only
+new incoming objects are checked, not those that have already been
+written to the object store. That difference in behavior should not be
+relied upon. In the future, such objects may be quarantined for
+"fetch" as well.
++
+For now, the paranoid need to find some way to emulate the quarantine
+environment if they'd like the same protection as "push". E.g. in the
+case of an internal mirror do the mirroring in two steps, one to fetch
+the untrusted objects, and then do a second "push" (which will use the
+quarantine) to another internal repo, and have internal clients
+consume this pushed-to repository, or embargo internal fetches and
+only allow them once a full "fsck" has run (and no new fetches have
+happened in the meantime).
transfer.hideRefs::
String(s) `receive-pack` and `upload-pack` use to decide which
@@ -3343,11 +3666,22 @@ uploadpack.packObjectsHook::
was run. I.e., `upload-pack` will feed input intended for
`pack-objects` to the hook, and expects a completed packfile on
stdout.
+
+uploadpack.allowFilter::
+ If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support partial
+ clone and partial fetch object filtering.
+
Note that this configuration variable is ignored if it is seen in the
repository-level config (this is a safety measure against fetching from
untrusted repositories).
+uploadpack.allowRefInWant::
+ If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support the `ref-in-want`
+ feature of the protocol version 2 `fetch` command. This feature
+ is intended for the benefit of load-balanced servers which may
+ not have the same view of what OIDs their refs point to due to
+ replication delay.
+
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 5ca942a..85bca83 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -112,7 +112,8 @@ diff.orderFile::
diff.renameLimit::
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
- detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option `-l`.
+ detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option `-l`. This setting
+ has no effect if rename detection is turned off.
diff.renames::
Whether and how Git detects renames. If set to "false",
@@ -207,3 +208,15 @@ diff.wsErrorHighlight::
whitespace errors are colored with `color.diff.whitespace`.
The command line option `--ws-error-highlight=<kind>`
overrides this setting.
+
+diff.colorMoved::
+ If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
+ in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
+ see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
+ true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
+ moved lines are not colored.
+
+diff.colorMovedWS::
+ When moved lines are colored using e.g. the `diff.colorMoved` setting,
+ this option controls the `<mode>` how spaces are treated
+ for details of valid modes see '--color-moved-ws' in linkgit:git-diff[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 9d1586b..0378cd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
endif::git-format-patch[]
--indent-heuristic::
- Enable the heuristic that shift diff hunk boundaries to make patches
+ Enable the heuristic that shifts diff hunk boundaries to make patches
easier to read. This is the default.
--no-indent-heuristic::
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ diff" algorithm internally.
low-occurrence common elements".
--
+
-For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
+For instance, if you configured the `diff.algorithm` variable to a
non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
@@ -128,6 +128,14 @@ have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
These parameters can also be set individually with `--stat-width=<width>`,
`--stat-name-width=<name-width>` and `--stat-count=<count>`.
+--compact-summary::
+ Output a condensed summary of extended header information such
+ as file creations or deletions ("new" or "gone", optionally "+l"
+ if it's a symlink) and mode changes ("+x" or "-x" for adding
+ or removing executable bit respectively) in diffstat. The
+ information is put between the filename part and the graph
+ part. Implies `--stat`.
+
--numstat::
Similar to `--stat`, but shows number of added and
deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
@@ -268,16 +276,46 @@ plain::
that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
if a block of code was moved without permutation.
-zebra::
+blocks::
Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
- painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
+ painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color.
+ Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.
+zebra::
+ Blocks of moved text are detected as in 'blocks' mode. The blocks
+ are painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
'color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative'. The change between
the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
-dimmed_zebra::
+dimmed-zebra::
Similar to 'zebra', but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
+ `dimmed_zebra` is a deprecated synonym.
+--
+
+--color-moved-ws=<modes>::
+ This configures how white spaces are ignored when performing the
+ move detection for `--color-moved`.
+ifdef::git-diff[]
+ It can be set by the `diff.colorMovedWS` configuration setting.
+endif::git-diff[]
+ These modes can be given as a comma separated list:
++
+--
+ignore-space-at-eol::
+ Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
+ignore-space-change::
+ Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
+ at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
+ more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
+ignore-all-space::
+ Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
+ even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
+allow-indentation-change::
+ Initially ignore any white spaces in the move detection, then
+ group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
+ whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
+ other modes.
--
--word-diff[=<mode>]::
@@ -342,7 +380,7 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
Warn if changes introduce conflict markers or whitespace errors.
What are considered whitespace errors is controlled by `core.whitespace`
configuration. By default, trailing whitespaces (including
- lines that solely consist of whitespaces) and a space character
+ lines that consist solely of whitespaces) and a space character
that is immediately followed by a tab character inside the
initial indent of the line are considered whitespace errors.
Exits with non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible
@@ -356,7 +394,7 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
this option is not given, and the configuration variable
`diff.wsErrorHighlight` is not set, only whitespace errors in
`new` lines are highlighted. The whitespace errors are colored
- whith `color.diff.whitespace`.
+ with `color.diff.whitespace`.
endif::git-format-patch[]
@@ -469,6 +507,12 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
+
Also, these upper-case letters can be downcased to exclude. E.g.
`--diff-filter=ad` excludes added and deleted paths.
++
+Note that not all diffs can feature all types. For instance, diffs
+from the index to the working tree can never have Added entries
+(because the set of paths included in the diff is limited by what is in
+the index). Similarly, copied and renamed entries cannot appear if
+detection for those types is disabled.
-S<string>::
Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
@@ -502,6 +546,15 @@ occurrences of that string did not change).
See the 'pickaxe' entry in linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more
information.
+--find-object=<object-id>::
+ Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
+ the specified object. Similar to `-S`, just the argument is different
+ in that it doesn't search for a specific string but for a specific
+ object id.
++
+The object can be a blob or a submodule commit. It implies the `-t` option in
+`git-log` to also find trees.
+
--pickaxe-all::
When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
changeset, not just the files that contain the change
@@ -510,6 +563,7 @@ information.
--pickaxe-regex::
Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
expression to match.
+
endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
@@ -544,7 +598,7 @@ the normal order.
--
+
Patterns have the same syntax and semantics as patterns used for
-fnmantch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
+fnmatch(3) without the FNM_PATHNAME flag, except a pathname also
matches a pattern if removing any number of the final pathname
components matches the pattern. For example, the pattern "`foo*bar`"
matches "`fooasdfbar`" and "`foo/bar/baz/asdf`" but not "`foobarx`".
@@ -568,7 +622,7 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Treat all files as text.
--ignore-cr-at-eol::
- Ignore carrige-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
+ Ignore carriage-return at the end of line when doing a comparison.
--ignore-space-at-eol::
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
diff --git a/Documentation/doc-diff b/Documentation/doc-diff
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..dfd9418
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/doc-diff
@@ -0,0 +1,130 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+#
+# Build two documentation trees and diff the resulting formatted output.
+# Compared to a source diff, this can reveal mistakes in the formatting.
+# For example:
+#
+# ./doc-diff origin/master HEAD
+#
+# would show the differences introduced by a branch based on master.
+
+OPTIONS_SPEC="\
+doc-diff [options] <from> <to> [-- <diff-options>]
+doc-diff (-c|--clean)
+--
+j=n parallel argument to pass to make
+f force rebuild; do not rely on cached results
+c,clean cleanup temporary working files
+"
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK=1
+. "$(git --exec-path)/git-sh-setup"
+
+parallel=
+force=
+clean=
+while test $# -gt 0
+do
+ case "$1" in
+ -j)
+ parallel=$2; shift ;;
+ -c|--clean)
+ clean=t ;;
+ -f)
+ force=t ;;
+ --)
+ shift; break ;;
+ *)
+ usage ;;
+ esac
+ shift
+done
+
+cd_to_toplevel
+tmp=Documentation/tmp-doc-diff
+
+if test -n "$clean"
+then
+ test $# -eq 0 || usage
+ git worktree remove --force "$tmp/worktree" 2>/dev/null
+ rm -rf "$tmp"
+ exit 0
+fi
+
+if test -z "$parallel"
+then
+ parallel=$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN 2>/dev/null)
+ if test $? != 0 || test -z "$parallel"
+ then
+ parallel=1
+ fi
+fi
+
+test $# -gt 1 || usage
+from=$1; shift
+to=$1; shift
+
+from_oid=$(git rev-parse --verify "$from") || exit 1
+to_oid=$(git rev-parse --verify "$to") || exit 1
+
+if test -n "$force"
+then
+ rm -rf "$tmp"
+fi
+
+# We'll do both builds in a single worktree, which lets "make" reuse
+# results that don't differ between the two trees.
+if ! test -d "$tmp/worktree"
+then
+ git worktree add -f --detach "$tmp/worktree" "$from" &&
+ dots=$(echo "$tmp/worktree" | sed 's#[^/]*#..#g') &&
+ ln -s "$dots/config.mak" "$tmp/worktree/config.mak"
+fi
+
+# generate_render_makefile <srcdir> <dstdir>
+generate_render_makefile () {
+ find "$1" -type f |
+ while read src
+ do
+ dst=$2/${src#$1/}
+ printf 'all:: %s\n' "$dst"
+ printf '%s: %s\n' "$dst" "$src"
+ printf '\t@echo >&2 " RENDER $(notdir $@)" && \\\n'
+ printf '\tmkdir -p $(dir $@) && \\\n'
+ printf '\tMANWIDTH=80 man $< >$@+ && \\\n'
+ printf '\tmv $@+ $@\n'
+ done
+}
+
+# render_tree <committish_oid>
+render_tree () {
+ # Skip install-man entirely if we already have an installed directory.
+ # We can't rely on make here, since "install-man" unconditionally
+ # copies the files (spending effort, but also updating timestamps that
+ # we then can't rely on during the render step). We use "mv" to make
+ # sure we don't get confused by a previous run that failed partway
+ # through.
+ if ! test -d "$tmp/installed/$1"
+ then
+ git -C "$tmp/worktree" checkout --detach "$1" &&
+ make -j$parallel -C "$tmp/worktree" \
+ GIT_VERSION=omitted \
+ SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH=0 \
+ DESTDIR="$PWD/$tmp/installed/$1+" \
+ install-man &&
+ mv "$tmp/installed/$1+" "$tmp/installed/$1"
+ fi &&
+
+ # As with "installed" above, we skip the render if it's already been
+ # done. So using make here is primarily just about running in
+ # parallel.
+ if ! test -d "$tmp/rendered/$1"
+ then
+ generate_render_makefile "$tmp/installed/$1" "$tmp/rendered/$1+" |
+ make -j$parallel -f - &&
+ mv "$tmp/rendered/$1+" "$tmp/rendered/$1"
+ fi
+}
+
+render_tree $from_oid &&
+render_tree $to_oid &&
+git -C $tmp/rendered diff --no-index "$@" $from_oid $to_oid
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index fb6bebb..fa0a315 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -42,6 +42,25 @@ the current repository has the same history as the source repository.
.git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such
refs.
+--negotiation-tip=<commit|glob>::
+ By default, Git will report, to the server, commits reachable
+ from all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to
+ reduce the size of the to-be-received packfile. If specified,
+ Git will only report commits reachable from the given tips.
+ This is useful to speed up fetches when the user knows which
+ local ref is likely to have commits in common with the
+ upstream ref being fetched.
++
+This option may be specified more than once; if so, Git will report
+commits reachable from any of the given commits.
++
+The argument to this option may be a glob on ref names, a ref, or the (possibly
+abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is equivalent to specifying
+this option multiple times, one for each matching ref name.
++
+See also the `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm` configuration variable
+documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
Show what would be done, without making any changes.
@@ -49,11 +68,16 @@ endif::git-pull[]
-f::
--force::
- When 'git fetch' is used with `<rbranch>:<lbranch>`
- refspec, it refuses to update the local branch
- `<lbranch>` unless the remote branch `<rbranch>` it
- fetches is a descendant of `<lbranch>`. This option
- overrides that check.
+ When 'git fetch' is used with `<src>:<dst>` refspec it may
+ refuse to update the local branch as discussed
+ifdef::git-pull[]
+ in the `<refspec>` part of the linkgit:git-fetch[1]
+ documentation.
+endif::git-pull[]
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+ in the `<refspec>` part below.
+endif::git-pull[]
+ This option overrides that check.
-k::
--keep::
@@ -73,7 +97,22 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
are fetched due to an explicit refspec (either on the command
line or in the remote configuration, for example if the remote
was cloned with the --mirror option), then they are also
- subject to pruning.
+ subject to pruning. Supplying `--prune-tags` is a shorthand for
+ providing the tag refspec.
++
+See the PRUNING section below for more details.
+
+-P::
+--prune-tags::
+ Before fetching, remove any local tags that no longer exist on
+ the remote if `--prune` is enabled. This option should be used
+ more carefully, unlike `--prune` it will remove any local
+ references (local tags) that have been created. This option is
+ a shorthand for providing the explicit tag refspec along with
+ `--prune`, see the discussion about that in its documentation.
++
+See the PRUNING section below for more details.
+
endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
@@ -173,6 +212,14 @@ endif::git-pull[]
is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
+-o <option>::
+--server-option=<option>::
+ Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
+ protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
+ character.
+ When multiple `--server-option=<option>` are given, they are all
+ sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.
+
-4::
--ipv4::
Use IPv4 addresses only, ignoring IPv6 addresses.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index d50fa33..45652fe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -193,7 +193,7 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
for command-line options).
-Configuration
+CONFIGURATION
-------------
The optional configuration variable `core.excludesFile` indicates a path to a
@@ -226,7 +226,7 @@ Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
`subdir/git-foo.sh`.
-Interactive mode
+INTERACTIVE MODE
----------------
When the command enters the interactive mode, it shows the
output of the 'status' subcommand, and then goes into its
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 12879e4..6f6c34b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
[--[no-]scissors] [-S[<keyid>]] [--patch-format=<format>]
[(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
-'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
+'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --show-current-patch)
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -167,6 +167,14 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--abort::
Restore the original branch and abort the patching operation.
+--quit::
+ Abort the patching operation but keep HEAD and the index
+ untouched.
+
+--show-current-patch::
+ Show the patch being applied when "git am" is stopped because
+ of conflicts.
+
DISCUSSION
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
index 05fd482..e44a831 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-annotate - Annotate file lines with commit information
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git annotate' [options] file [revision]
+'git annotate' [<options>] <file> [<revision>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 4ebc3d3..b9aa390 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-apply - Apply a patch to files and/or to the index
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--3way]
+'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index | --intent-to-add] [--3way]
[--apply] [--no-add] [--build-fake-ancestor=<file>] [-R | --reverse]
[--allow-binary-replacement | --binary] [--reject] [-z]
[-p<n>] [-C<n>] [--inaccurate-eof] [--recount] [--cached]
@@ -74,6 +74,14 @@ OPTIONS
cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
without using the working tree. This implies `--index`.
+--intent-to-add::
+ When applying the patch only to the working tree, mark new
+ files to be added to the index later (see `--intent-to-add`
+ option in linkgit:git-add[1]). This option is ignored unless
+ running in a Git repository and `--index` is not specified.
+ Note that `--index` could be implied by other options such
+ as `--cached` or `--3way`.
+
-3::
--3way::
When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on 3-way merge if
@@ -113,8 +121,10 @@ explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath` (see
linkgit:git-config[1]).
-p<n>::
- Remove <n> leading slashes from traditional diff paths. The
- default is 1.
+ Remove <n> leading path components (separated by slashes) from
+ traditional diff paths. E.g., with `-p2`, a patch against
+ `a/dir/file` will be applied directly to `file`. The default is
+ 1.
-C<n>::
Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
@@ -240,7 +250,7 @@ When `git apply` is used as a "better GNU patch", the user can pass
the `--unsafe-paths` option to override this safety check. This option
has no effect when `--index` or `--cached` is in use.
-Configuration
+CONFIGURATION
-------------
apply.ignoreWhitespace::
@@ -251,7 +261,7 @@ apply.whitespace::
When no `--whitespace` flag is given from the command
line, this configuration item is used as the default.
-Submodules
+SUBMODULES
----------
If the patch contains any changes to submodules then 'git apply'
treats these changes as follows.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index 78479b0..0f9ef2f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -1103,7 +1103,7 @@ _____________
Combining test suites, git bisect and other systems together
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-We have seen that test suites an git bisect are very powerful when
+We have seen that test suites and git bisect are very powerful when
used together. It can be even more powerful if you can combine them
with other systems.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 4a1417b..4b45d83 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -165,8 +165,8 @@ To get a reminder of the currently used terms, use
git bisect terms
------------------------------------------------
-You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect term
---term-old` or `git bisect term --term-good`.
+You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect terms
+--term-old` or `git bisect terms --term-good`.
If you would like to use your own terms instead of "bad"/"good" or
"new"/"old", you can choose any names you like (except existing bisect
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index b3084c9..bf5316f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--merged | --no-merged) [<commit>]]
[--contains [<commit]] [--no-contains [<commit>]]
[--points-at <object>] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
-'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
+'git branch' [--track | --no-track] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
@@ -91,7 +91,6 @@ OPTIONS
-D::
Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
--l::
--create-reflog::
Create the branch's reflog. This activates recording of
all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
@@ -155,14 +154,11 @@ This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
--all::
List both remote-tracking branches and local branches.
+-l::
--list::
List branches. With optional `<pattern>...`, e.g. `git
branch --list 'maint-*'`, list only the branches that match
the pattern(s).
-+
-This should not be confused with `git branch -l <branchname>`,
-which creates a branch named `<branchname>` with a reflog.
-See `--create-reflog` above for details.
-v::
-vv::
@@ -267,10 +263,11 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
- for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
+ for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to the value configured for the
+ `branch.sort` variable if exists, or to sorting based on the
full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
- finally remote-tracking branches.
+ finally remote-tracking branches. See linkgit:git-config[1].
--points-at <object>::
@@ -287,7 +284,7 @@ CONFIGURATION
`--list` is used or implied. The default is to use a pager.
See linkgit:git-config[1].
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
Start development from a known tag::
@@ -318,7 +315,7 @@ See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
-Notes
+NOTES
-----
If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 3a8120c..7d6c9dc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -92,8 +92,8 @@ It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file
to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored
when unpacking at the destination.
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on machine A
to another repository R2 on machine B.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index fb09cd6..7401333 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -42,8 +42,9 @@ OPTIONS
<object>.
-e::
- Suppress all output; instead exit with zero status if <object>
- exists and is a valid object.
+ Exit with zero status if <object> exists and is a valid
+ object. If <object> is of an invalid format exit with non-zero and
+ emits an error on stderr.
-p::
Pretty-print the contents of <object> based on its type.
@@ -103,6 +104,16 @@ OPTIONS
buffering; this is much more efficient when invoking
`--batch-check` on a large number of objects.
+--unordered::
+ When `--batch-all-objects` is in use, visit objects in an
+ order which may be more efficient for accessing the object
+ contents than hash order. The exact details of the order are
+ unspecified, but if you do not require a specific order, this
+ should generally result in faster output, especially with
+ `--batch`. Note that `cat-file` will still show each object
+ only once, even if it is stored multiple times in the
+ repository.
+
--allow-unknown-type::
Allow -s or -t to query broken/corrupt objects of unknown type.
@@ -168,7 +179,7 @@ If `-t` is specified, one of the <type>.
If `-s` is specified, the size of the <object> in bytes.
-If `-e` is specified, no output.
+If `-e` is specified, no output, unless the <object> is malformed.
If `-p` is specified, the contents of <object> are pretty-printed.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index aa3b2bf..3c05782 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ git-check-attr - Display gitattributes information
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git check-attr' [-a | --all | attr...] [--] pathname...
-'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | attr...]
+'git check-attr' [-a | --all | <attr>...] [--] <pathname>...
+'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | <attr>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
index 611754f..8b42cb3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ git-check-ignore - Debug gitignore / exclude files
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git check-ignore' [options] pathname...
-'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin
+'git check-ignore' [<options>] <pathname>...
+'git check-ignore' [<options>] --stdin
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
index 39028ee..aa2055d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-mailmap.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-check-mailmap - Show canonical names and email addresses of contacts
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git check-mailmap' [options] <contact>...
+'git check-mailmap' [<options>] <contact>...
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index ca5fc9c..9db0292 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -38,6 +38,15 @@ equivalent to
$ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>
------------
+
+If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
+the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
+one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
+unique across all remotes. Set it to
+e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
+branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
+'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
+linkgit:git-config[1].
++
You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
"check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with
rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking information,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 42ca7b5..a55536f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -260,7 +260,7 @@ or `--mirror` is given)
<repository>::
The (possibly remote) repository to clone from. See the
- <<URLS,URLS>> section below for more information on specifying
+ <<URLS,GIT URLS>> section below for more information on specifying
repositories.
<directory>::
@@ -273,7 +273,7 @@ or `--mirror` is given)
:git-clone: 1
include::urls.txt[]
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
* Clone from upstream:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dececb7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,104 @@
+git-commit-graph(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit graph files
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Manage the serialized commit graph file.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--object-dir::
+ Use given directory for the location of packfiles and commit graph
+ file. This parameter exists to specify the location of an alternate
+ that only has the objects directory, not a full .git directory. The
+ commit graph file is expected to be at <dir>/info/commit-graph and
+ the packfiles are expected to be in <dir>/pack.
+
+
+COMMANDS
+--------
+'write'::
+
+Write a commit graph file based on the commits found in packfiles.
++
+With the `--stdin-packs` option, generate the new commit graph by
+walking objects only in the specified pack-indexes. (Cannot be combined
+with `--stdin-commits` or `--reachable`.)
++
+With the `--stdin-commits` option, generate the new commit graph by
+walking commits starting at the commits specified in stdin as a list
+of OIDs in hex, one OID per line. (Cannot be combined with
+`--stdin-packs` or `--reachable`.)
++
+With the `--reachable` option, generate the new commit graph by walking
+commits starting at all refs. (Cannot be combined with `--stdin-commits`
+or `--stdin-packs`.)
++
+With the `--append` option, include all commits that are present in the
+existing commit-graph file.
+
+'read'::
+
+Read a graph file given by the commit-graph file and output basic
+details about the graph file. Used for debugging purposes.
+
+'verify'::
+
+Read the commit-graph file and verify its contents against the object
+database. Used to check for corrupted data.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Write a commit graph file for the packed commits in your local .git folder.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit-graph write
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a graph file, extending the current graph file using commits
+* in <pack-index>.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ echo <pack-index> | git commit-graph write --stdin-packs
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a graph file containing all reachable commits.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-ref -s | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a graph file containing all commits in the current
+* commit-graph file along with those reachable from HEAD.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git rev-parse HEAD | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits --append
+------------------------------------------------
+
+* Read basic information from the commit-graph file.
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit-graph read
+------------------------------------------------
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 8c74a2c..f970a43 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -144,6 +144,8 @@ OPTIONS
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
concatenated as separate paragraphs.
++
+The `-m` option is mutually exclusive with `-c`, `-C`, and `-F`.
-t <file>::
--template=<file>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 14da5fc..8e24043 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -9,13 +9,13 @@ git-config - Get and set repository or global options
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --add name value
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] --add name value
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [--show-origin] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [--type=<type>] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --unset-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] --rename-section old_name new_name
@@ -38,12 +38,10 @@ existing values that match the regexp are updated or unset. If
you want to handle the lines that do *not* match the regex, just
prepend a single exclamation mark in front (see also <<EXAMPLES>>).
-The type specifier can be either `--int` or `--bool`, to make
-'git config' ensure that the variable(s) are of the given type and
-convert the value to the canonical form (simple decimal number for int,
-a "true" or "false" string for bool), or `--path`, which does some
-path expansion (see `--path` below). If no type specifier is passed, no
-checks or transformations are performed on the value.
+The `--type=<type>` option instructs 'git config' to ensure that incoming and
+outgoing values are canonicalize-able under the given <type>. If no
+`--type=<type>` is given, no canonicalization will be performed. Callers may
+unset an existing `--type` specifier with `--no-type`.
When reading, the values are read from the system, global and
repository local configuration files by default, and options
@@ -160,30 +158,43 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
--list::
List all variables set in config file, along with their values.
---bool::
- 'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false"
+--type <type>::
+ 'git config' will ensure that any input or output is valid under the given
+ type constraint(s), and will canonicalize outgoing values in `<type>`'s
+ canonical form.
++
+Valid `<type>`'s include:
++
+- 'bool': canonicalize values as either "true" or "false".
+- 'int': canonicalize values as simple decimal numbers. An optional suffix of
+ 'k', 'm', or 'g' will cause the value to be multiplied by 1024, 1048576, or
+ 1073741824 upon input.
+- 'bool-or-int': canonicalize according to either 'bool' or 'int', as described
+ above.
+- 'path': canonicalize by adding a leading `~` to the value of `$HOME` and
+ `~user` to the home directory for the specified user. This specifier has no
+ effect when setting the value (but you can use `git config section.variable
+ ~/` from the command line to let your shell do the expansion.)
+- 'expiry-date': canonicalize by converting from a fixed or relative date-string
+ to a timestamp. This specifier has no effect when setting the value.
+- 'color': When getting a value, canonicalize by converting to an ANSI color
+ escape sequence. When setting a value, a sanity-check is performed to ensure
+ that the given value is canonicalize-able as an ANSI color, but it is written
+ as-is.
++
+--bool::
--int::
- 'git config' will ensure that the output is a simple
- decimal number. An optional value suffix of 'k', 'm', or 'g'
- in the config file will cause the value to be multiplied
- by 1024, 1048576, or 1073741824 prior to output.
-
--bool-or-int::
- 'git config' will ensure that the output matches the format of
- either --bool or --int, as described above.
-
--path::
- `git config` will expand a leading `~` to the value of
- `$HOME`, and `~user` to the home directory for the
- specified user. This option has no effect when setting the
- value (but you can use `git config section.variable ~/`
- from the command line to let your shell do the expansion).
-
--expiry-date::
- `git config` will ensure that the output is converted from
- a fixed or relative date-string to a timestamp. This option
- has no effect when setting the value.
+ Historical options for selecting a type specifier. Prefer instead `--type`,
+ (see: above).
+
+--no-type::
+ Un-sets the previously set type specifier (if one was previously set). This
+ option requests that 'git config' not canonicalize the retrieved variable.
+ `--no-type` has no effect without `--type=<type>` or `--<type>`.
-z::
--null::
@@ -221,6 +232,8 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
output it as the ANSI color escape sequence to the standard
output. The optional `default` parameter is used instead, if
there is no color configured for `name`.
++
+`--type=color [--default=<default>]` is preferred over `--get-color`.
-e::
--edit::
@@ -233,6 +246,16 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
using `--file`, `--global`, etc) and `on` when searching all
config files.
+--default <value>::
+ When using `--get`, and the requested variable is not found, behave as if
+ <value> were the value assigned to the that variable.
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+`pager.config` is only respected when listing configuration, i.e., when
+using `--list` or any of the `--get-*` which may return multiple results.
+The default is to use a pager.
+
[[FILES]]
FILES
-----
@@ -430,6 +453,27 @@ http.sslverify false
include::config.txt[]
+BUGS
+----
+When using the deprecated `[section.subsection]` syntax, changing a value
+will result in adding a multi-line key instead of a change, if the subsection
+is given with at least one uppercase character. For example when the config
+looks like
+
+--------
+ [section.subsection]
+ key = value1
+--------
+
+and running `git config section.Subsection.key value2` will result in
+
+--------
+ [section.subsection]
+ key = value1
+ key = value2
+--------
+
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
index 2b85826..0216c18 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-credential-cache - Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory
SYNOPSIS
--------
-----------------------------
-git config credential.helper 'cache [options]'
+git config credential.helper 'cache [<options>]'
-----------------------------
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
index 25fb963..693dd9d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-credential-store - Helper to store credentials on disk
SYNOPSIS
--------
-------------------
-git config credential.helper 'store [options]'
+git config credential.helper 'store [<options>]'
-------------------
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index ba90066..f98b7c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ cvspserver stream tcp nowait nobody /usr/bin/git-cvsserver git-cvsserver pserver
Usage:
[verse]
-'git-cvsserver' [options] [pserver|server] [<directory> ...]
+'git-cvsserver' [<options>] [pserver|server] [<directory> ...]
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -207,7 +207,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
------
[[dbbackend]]
-Database Backend
+DATABASE BACKEND
----------------
'git-cvsserver' uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to
@@ -321,7 +321,7 @@ git-cvsserver, as described above.
When these environment variables are set, the corresponding
command-line arguments may not be used.
-Eclipse CVS Client Notes
+ECLIPSE CVS CLIENT NOTES
------------------------
To get a checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:
@@ -346,7 +346,7 @@ offer. In that case CVS_SERVER is ignored, and you will have to replace
the cvs utility on the server with 'git-cvsserver' or manipulate your `.bashrc`
so that calling 'cvs' effectively calls 'git-cvsserver'.
-Clients known to work
+CLIENTS KNOWN TO WORK
---------------------
- CVS 1.12.9 on Debian
@@ -354,7 +354,7 @@ Clients known to work
- Eclipse 3.0, 3.1.2 on MacOSX (see Eclipse CVS Client Notes)
- TortoiseCVS
-Operations supported
+OPERATIONS SUPPORTED
--------------------
All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
@@ -424,7 +424,7 @@ For best consistency with 'cvs', it is probably best to override the
defaults by setting `gitcvs.usecrlfattr` to true,
and `gitcvs.allBinary` to "guess".
-Dependencies
+DEPENDENCIES
------------
'git-cvsserver' depends on DBD::SQLite.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 3c91db7..56d54a4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--inetd |
[--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>]
[--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]]
+ [--log-destination=(stderr|syslog|none)]
[<directory>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -80,7 +81,8 @@ OPTIONS
do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
--inetd::
- Have the server run as an inetd service. Implies --syslog.
+ Have the server run as an inetd service. Implies --syslog (may be
+ overridden with `--log-destination=`).
Incompatible with --detach, --port, --listen, --user and --group
options.
@@ -110,8 +112,28 @@ OPTIONS
zero for no limit.
--syslog::
- Log to syslog instead of stderr. Note that this option does not imply
- --verbose, thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
+ Short for `--log-destination=syslog`.
+
+--log-destination=<destination>::
+ Send log messages to the specified destination.
+ Note that this option does not imply --verbose,
+ thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
+ The <destination> must be one of:
++
+--
+stderr::
+ Write to standard error.
+ Note that if `--detach` is specified,
+ the process disconnects from the real standard error,
+ making this destination effectively equivalent to `none`.
+syslog::
+ Write to syslog, using the `git-daemon` identifier.
+none::
+ Disable all logging.
+--
++
+The default destination is `syslog` if `--inetd` or `--detach` is specified,
+otherwise `stderr`.
--user-path::
--user-path=<path>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index b380677..f4bd815 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -37,14 +37,14 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
include::diff-format.txt[]
-Operating Modes
+OPERATING MODES
---------------
You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely
(using the `--cached` flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
that don't match the stat state as being "tentatively changed". Both
of these operations are very useful indeed.
-Cached Mode
+CACHED MODE
-----------
If `--cached` is specified, it allows you to ask:
@@ -77,7 +77,7 @@ So doing a `git diff-index --cached` is basically very useful when you are
asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
what's the difference to a previous tree".
-Non-cached Mode
+NON-CACHED MODE
---------------
The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
the more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
index 7870e17..2319b2b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
include::pretty-formats.txt[]
-Limiting Output
+LIMITING OUTPUT
---------------
If you're only interested in differences in a subset of files, for
example some architecture-specific files, you might do:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index b0c1bb9..b180f1f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -9,11 +9,11 @@ git-diff - Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git diff' [options] [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
-'git diff' [options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
-'git diff' [options] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]
-'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>
-'git diff' [options] [--no-index] [--] <path> <path>
+'git diff' [<options>] [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
+'git diff' [<options>] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]
+'git diff' [<options>] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]
+'git diff' [<options>] <blob> <blob>
+'git diff' [<options>] --no-index [--] <path> <path>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ Show changes between the working tree and the index or a tree, changes
between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, changes between
two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
-'git diff' [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] [--] [<path>...]::
This form is to view the changes you made relative to
the index (staging area for the next commit). In other
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
further add to the index but you still haven't. You can
stage these changes by using linkgit:git-add[1].
-'git diff' --no-index [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] --no-index [--] <path> <path>::
This form is to compare the given two paths on the
filesystem. You can omit the `--no-index` option when
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
or when running the command outside a working tree
controlled by Git.
-'git diff' [--options] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
This form is to view the changes you staged for the next
commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
<commit> is not given, it shows all staged changes.
--staged is a synonym of --cached.
-'git diff' [--options] <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This form is to view the changes you have in your
working tree relative to the named <commit>. You can
@@ -56,18 +56,18 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
branch name to compare with the tip of a different
branch.
-'git diff' [--options] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] <commit> <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This is to view the changes between two arbitrary
<commit>.
-'git diff' [--options] <commit>..<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] <commit>..<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This is synonymous to the previous form. If <commit> on
one side is omitted, it will have the same effect as
using HEAD instead.
-'git diff' [--options] <commit>\...<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
+'git diff' [<options>] <commit>\...<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This form is to view the changes on the branch containing
and up to the second <commit>, starting at a common ancestor
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ and the range notations ("<commit>..<commit>" and
"<commit>\...<commit>") do not mean a range as defined in the
"SPECIFYING RANGES" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
+'git diff' [<options>] <blob> <blob>::
This form is to view the differences between the raw
contents of two blob objects.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index ed57c68..ce954be 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-fast-export - Git data exporter
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git fast-export [options]' | 'git fast-import'
+'git fast-export [<options>]' | 'git fast-import'
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ smaller output, and it is usually easy to quickly confirm that there is
no private data in the stream.
-Limitations
+LIMITATIONS
-----------
Since 'git fast-import' cannot tag trees, you will not be
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 3d3d219..e81117d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-fast-import - Backend for fast Git data importers
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-frontend | 'git fast-import' [options]
+frontend | 'git fast-import' [<options>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -139,7 +139,7 @@ Performance and Compression Tuning
fastimport.unpackLimit::
See linkgit:git-config[1]
-Performance
+PERFORMANCE
-----------
The design of fast-import allows it to import large projects in a minimum
amount of memory usage and processing time. Assuming the frontend
@@ -155,7 +155,7 @@ faster if the source data is stored on a different drive than the
destination Git repository (due to less IO contention).
-Development Cost
+DEVELOPMENT COST
----------------
A typical frontend for fast-import tends to weigh in at approximately 200
lines of Perl/Python/Ruby code. Most developers have been able to
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@ an ideal situation, given that most conversion tools are throw-away
(use once, and never look back).
-Parallel Operation
+PARALLEL OPERATION
------------------
Like 'git push' or 'git fetch', imports handled by fast-import are safe to
run alongside parallel `git repack -a -d` or `git gc` invocations,
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@ this only be used on an otherwise quiet repository. Using --force
is not necessary for an initial import into an empty repository.
-Technical Discussion
+TECHNICAL DISCUSSION
--------------------
fast-import tracks a set of branches in memory. Any branch can be created
or modified at any point during the import process by sending a
@@ -204,7 +204,7 @@ directory also allows fast-import to run very quickly, as it does not
need to perform any costly file update operations when switching
between branches.
-Input Format
+INPUT FORMAT
------------
With the exception of raw file data (which Git does not interpret)
the fast-import input format is text (ASCII) based. This text based
@@ -1131,7 +1131,7 @@ If the `--done` command-line option or `feature done` command is
in use, the `done` command is mandatory and marks the end of the
stream.
-Responses To Commands
+RESPONSES TO COMMANDS
---------------------
New objects written by fast-import are not available immediately.
Most fast-import commands have no visible effect until the next
@@ -1160,7 +1160,7 @@ To avoid deadlock, such frontends must completely consume any
pending output from `progress`, `ls`, `get-mark`, and `cat-blob` before
performing writes to fast-import that might block.
-Crash Reports
+CRASH REPORTS
-------------
If fast-import is supplied invalid input it will terminate with a
non-zero exit status and create a crash report in the top level of
@@ -1247,7 +1247,7 @@ An example crash:
END OF CRASH REPORT
====
-Tips and Tricks
+TIPS AND TRICKS
---------------
The following tips and tricks have been collected from various
users of fast-import, and are offered here as suggestions.
@@ -1349,7 +1349,7 @@ Your users will feel better knowing how much of the data stream
has been processed.
-Packfile Optimization
+PACKFILE OPTIMIZATION
---------------------
When packing a blob fast-import always attempts to deltify against the last
blob written. Unless specifically arranged for by the frontend,
@@ -1380,7 +1380,7 @@ to force recomputation of all deltas can significantly reduce the
final packfile size (30-50% smaller can be quite typical).
-Memory Utilization
+MEMORY UTILIZATION
------------------
There are a number of factors which affect how much memory fast-import
requires to perform an import. Like critical sections of core
@@ -1458,7 +1458,7 @@ and lazy loading of subtrees, allows fast-import to efficiently import
projects with 2,000+ branches and 45,114+ files in a very limited
memory footprint (less than 2.7 MiB per active branch).
-Signals
+SIGNALS
-------
Sending *SIGUSR1* to the 'git fast-import' process ends the current
packfile early, simulating a `checkpoint` command. The impatient
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index f7ebe36..c975884 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -88,7 +88,7 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
--shallow-since=<date>::
- Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow'repository to
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository to
include all reachable commits after <date>.
--shallow-exclude=<revision>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index b153aef..e319935 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -99,6 +99,93 @@ The latter use of the `remote.<repository>.fetch` values can be
overridden by giving the `--refmap=<refspec>` parameter(s) on the
command line.
+PRUNING
+-------
+
+Git has a default disposition of keeping data unless it's explicitly
+thrown away; this extends to holding onto local references to branches
+on remotes that have themselves deleted those branches.
+
+If left to accumulate, these stale references might make performance
+worse on big and busy repos that have a lot of branch churn, and
+e.g. make the output of commands like `git branch -a --contains
+<commit>` needlessly verbose, as well as impacting anything else
+that'll work with the complete set of known references.
+
+These remote-tracking references can be deleted as a one-off with
+either of:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+# While fetching
+$ git fetch --prune <name>
+
+# Only prune, don't fetch
+$ git remote prune <name>
+------------------------------------------------
+
+To prune references as part of your normal workflow without needing to
+remember to run that, set `fetch.prune` globally, or
+`remote.<name>.prune` per-remote in the config. See
+linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+Here's where things get tricky and more specific. The pruning feature
+doesn't actually care about branches, instead it'll prune local <->
+remote-references as a function of the refspec of the remote (see
+`<refspec>` and <<CRTB,CONFIGURED REMOTE-TRACKING BRANCHES>> above).
+
+Therefore if the refspec for the remote includes
+e.g. `refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*`, or you manually run e.g. `git fetch
+--prune <name> "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"` it won't be stale remote
+tracking branches that are deleted, but any local tag that doesn't
+exist on the remote.
+
+This might not be what you expect, i.e. you want to prune remote
+`<name>`, but also explicitly fetch tags from it, so when you fetch
+from it you delete all your local tags, most of which may not have
+come from the `<name>` remote in the first place.
+
+So be careful when using this with a refspec like
+`refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*`, or any other refspec which might map
+references from multiple remotes to the same local namespace.
+
+Since keeping up-to-date with both branches and tags on the remote is
+a common use-case the `--prune-tags` option can be supplied along with
+`--prune` to prune local tags that don't exist on the remote, and
+force-update those tags that differ. Tag pruning can also be enabled
+with `fetch.pruneTags` or `remote.<name>.pruneTags` in the config. See
+linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+The `--prune-tags` option is equivalent to having
+`refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*` declared in the refspecs of the remote. This
+can lead to some seemingly strange interactions:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+# These both fetch tags
+$ git fetch --no-tags origin 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
+$ git fetch --no-tags --prune-tags origin
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The reason it doesn't error out when provided without `--prune` or its
+config versions is for flexibility of the configured versions, and to
+maintain a 1=1 mapping between what the command line flags do, and
+what the configuration versions do.
+
+It's reasonable to e.g. configure `fetch.pruneTags=true` in
+`~/.gitconfig` to have tags pruned whenever `git fetch --prune` is
+run, without making every invocation of `git fetch` without `--prune`
+an error.
+
+Pruning tags with `--prune-tags` also works when fetching a URL
+instead of a named remote. These will all prune tags not found on
+origin:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git fetch origin --prune --prune-tags
+$ git fetch origin --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
+$ git fetch <url of origin> --prune --prune-tags
+$ git fetch <url of origin> --prune 'refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*'
+------------------------------------------------
+
OUTPUT
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 3a52e4d..e6f08ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -222,7 +222,15 @@ this purpose, they are instead rewritten to point at the nearest ancestor that
was not excluded.
-Examples
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+On success, the exit status is `0`. If the filter can't find any commits to
+rewrite, the exit status is `2`. On any other error, the exit status may be
+any other non-zero value.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
--------
Suppose you want to remove a file (containing confidential information
@@ -280,7 +288,7 @@ git filter-branch --parent-filter \
or even simpler:
-----------------------------------------------
-echo "$commit-id $graft-id" >> .git/info/grafts
+git replace --graft $commit-id $graft-id
git filter-branch $graft-id..HEAD
-----------------------------------------------
@@ -398,7 +406,7 @@ git filter-branch --index-filter \
-Checklist for Shrinking a Repository
+CHECKLIST FOR SHRINKING A REPOSITORY
------------------------------------
git-filter-branch can be used to get rid of a subset of files,
@@ -437,7 +445,7 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
-Notes
+NOTES
-----
git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 44892c4..423b6e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -57,8 +57,8 @@ merge.summary::
Synonym to `merge.log`; this is deprecated and will be removed in
the future.
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
---------
$ git fetch origin master
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index dffa14a..901faef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ OPTIONS
`xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
`%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
---color[=<when>]:
+--color[=<when>]::
Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
`<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
`<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@ refname::
stripping with positive <N>, or it becomes the full refname if
stripping with negative <N>. Neither is an error.
+
-`strip` can be used as a synomym to `lstrip`.
+`strip` can be used as a synonym to `lstrip`.
objecttype::
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 6cbe462..aba4c5f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -23,6 +23,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
[--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--interdiff=<previous>]
+ [--range-diff=<previous> [--creation-factor=<percent>]]
[--progress]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -47,7 +49,7 @@ There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.
The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
-history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
+history up until <commit>, use the `--root` option: `git format-patch
--root <commit>`. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
@@ -228,6 +230,33 @@ feeding the result to `git send-email`.
containing the branch description, shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
+--interdiff=<previous>::
+ As a reviewer aid, insert an interdiff into the cover letter,
+ or as commentary of the lone patch of a 1-patch series, showing
+ the differences between the previous version of the patch series and
+ the series currently being formatted. `previous` is a single revision
+ naming the tip of the previous series which shares a common base with
+ the series being formatted (for example `git format-patch
+ --cover-letter --interdiff=feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
+
+--range-diff=<previous>::
+ As a reviewer aid, insert a range-diff (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
+ into the cover letter, or as commentary of the lone patch of a
+ 1-patch series, showing the differences between the previous
+ version of the patch series and the series currently being formatted.
+ `previous` can be a single revision naming the tip of the previous
+ series if it shares a common base with the series being formatted (for
+ example `git format-patch --cover-letter --range-diff=feature/v1 -3
+ feature/v2`), or a revision range if the two versions of the series are
+ disjoint (for example `git format-patch --cover-letter
+ --range-diff=feature/v1~3..feature/v1 -3 feature/v2`).
+
+--creation-factor=<percent>::
+ Used with `--range-diff`, tweak the heuristic which matches up commits
+ between the previous and current series of patches by adjusting the
+ creation/deletion cost fudge factor. See linkgit:git-range-diff[1])
+ for details.
+
--notes[=<ref>]::
Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
after the three-dash line.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index b9f060e..ab9a93f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -110,6 +110,9 @@ Any corrupt objects you will have to find in backups or other archives
(i.e., you can just remove them and do an 'rsync' with some other site in
the hopes that somebody else has the object you have corrupted).
+If core.commitGraph is true, the commit-graph file will also be inspected
+using 'git commit-graph verify'. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1].
+
Extracted Diagnostics
---------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 571b5a7..f5bc98c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -9,14 +9,15 @@ git-gc - Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune] [--force]
+'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune] [--force] [--keep-largest-pack]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Runs a number of housekeeping tasks within the current repository,
such as compressing file revisions (to reduce disk space and increase
-performance) and removing unreachable objects which may have been
-created from prior invocations of 'git add'.
+performance), removing unreachable objects which may have been
+created from prior invocations of 'git add', packing refs, pruning
+reflog, rerere metadata or stale working trees.
Users are encouraged to run this task on a regular basis within
each repository to maintain good disk space utilization and good
@@ -45,20 +46,31 @@ OPTIONS
With this option, 'git gc' checks whether any housekeeping is
required; if not, it exits without performing any work.
Some git commands run `git gc --auto` after performing
- operations that could create many loose objects.
+ operations that could create many loose objects. Housekeeping
+ is required if there are too many loose objects or too many
+ packs in the repository.
+
-Housekeeping is required if there are too many loose objects or
-too many packs in the repository. If the number of loose objects
-exceeds the value of the `gc.auto` configuration variable, then
-all loose objects are combined into a single pack using
-`git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of `gc.auto` to 0
-disables automatic packing of loose objects.
+If the number of loose objects exceeds the value of the `gc.auto`
+configuration variable, then all loose objects are combined into a
+single pack using `git repack -d -l`. Setting the value of `gc.auto`
+to 0 disables automatic packing of loose objects.
+
If the number of packs exceeds the value of `gc.autoPackLimit`,
-then existing packs (except those marked with a `.keep` file)
+then existing packs (except those marked with a `.keep` file
+or over `gc.bigPackThreshold` limit)
are consolidated into a single pack by using the `-A` option of
-'git repack'. Setting `gc.autoPackLimit` to 0 disables
-automatic consolidation of packs.
+'git repack'.
+If the amount of memory is estimated not enough for `git repack` to
+run smoothly and `gc.bigPackThreshold` is not set, the largest
+pack will also be excluded (this is the equivalent of running `git gc`
+with `--keep-base-pack`).
+Setting `gc.autoPackLimit` to 0 disables automatic consolidation of
+packs.
++
+If houskeeping is required due to many loose objects or packs, all
+other housekeeping tasks (e.g. rerere, working trees, reflog...) will
+be performed as well.
+
--prune=<date>::
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
@@ -78,7 +90,12 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
Force `git gc` to run even if there may be another `git gc`
instance running on this repository.
-Configuration
+--keep-largest-pack::
+ All packs except the largest pack and those marked with a
+ `.keep` files are consolidated into a single pack. When this
+ option is used, `gc.bigPackThreshold` is ignored.
+
+CONFIGURATION
-------------
The optional configuration variable `gc.reflogExpire` can be
@@ -119,11 +136,15 @@ The optional configuration variable `gc.packRefs` determines if
it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a boolean value.
This defaults to true.
+The optional configuration variable `gc.commitGraph` determines if
+'git gc' should run 'git commit-graph write'. This can be set to a
+boolean value. This defaults to false.
+
The optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveWindow` controls how
much time is spent optimizing the delta compression of the objects in
the repository when the --aggressive option is specified. The larger
the value, the more time is spent optimizing the delta compression. See
-the documentation for the --window' option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
+the documentation for the --window option in linkgit:git-repack[1] for
more details. This defaults to 250.
Similarly, the optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveDepth`
@@ -133,8 +154,12 @@ The optional configuration variable `gc.pruneExpire` controls how old
the unreferenced loose objects have to be before they are pruned. The
default is "2 weeks ago".
+Optional configuration variable `gc.worktreePruneExpire` controls how
+old a stale working tree should be before `git worktree prune` deletes
+it. Default is "3 months ago".
+
-Notes
+NOTES
-----
'git gc' tries very hard not to delete objects that are referenced
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 18b4947..a3049af 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-v | --invert-match] [-h|-H] [--full-name]
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-P | --perl-regexp]
- [-F | --fixed-strings] [-n | --line-number]
+ [-F | --fixed-strings] [-n | --line-number] [--column]
[-l | --files-with-matches] [-L | --files-without-match]
[(-O | --open-files-in-pager) [<pager>]]
[-z | --null]
- [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
+ [ -o | --only-matching ] [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
[--max-depth <depth>]
[--color[=<when>] | --no-color]
[--break] [--heading] [-p | --show-function]
@@ -44,6 +44,9 @@ CONFIGURATION
grep.lineNumber::
If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
+grep.column::
+ If set to true, enable the `--column` option by default.
+
grep.patternType::
Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
@@ -169,6 +172,10 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
--line-number::
Prefix the line number to matching lines.
+--column::
+ Prefix the 1-indexed byte-offset of the first match from the start of the
+ matching line.
+
-l::
--files-with-matches::
--name-only::
@@ -194,6 +201,11 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
Output \0 instead of the character that normally follows a
file name.
+-o::
+--only-matching::
+ Print only the matched (non-empty) parts of a matching line, with each such
+ part on a separate output line.
+
-c::
--count::
Instead of showing every matched line, show the number of
@@ -293,7 +305,7 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
For more details about the <pathspec> syntax, see the 'pathspec' entry
in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
`git grep 'time_t' -- '*.[ch]'`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index 40d328a..83d25d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-help - Display help information about Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git help' [-a|--all] [-g|--guide]
+'git help' [-a|--all [--verbose]] [-g|--guide]
[-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND|GUIDE]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -42,6 +42,13 @@ OPTIONS
--all::
Prints all the available commands on the standard output. This
option overrides any given command or guide name.
+ When used with `--verbose` print description for all recognized
+ commands.
+
+-c::
+--config::
+ List all available configuration variables. This is a short
+ summary of the list in linkgit:git-config[1].
-g::
--guides::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index 21a33d2..666b042 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Downloads a remote Git repository via HTTP.
-*NOTE*: use of this command without -a is deprecated. The -a
-behaviour will become the default in a future release.
+This command always gets all objects. Historically, there were three options
+`-a`, `-c` and `-t` for choosing which objects to download. They are now
+silently ignored.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -24,12 +25,8 @@ commit-id::
Either the hash or the filename under [URL]/refs/ to
pull.
--c::
- Get the commit objects.
--t::
- Get trees associated with the commit objects.
--a::
- Get all the objects.
+-a, -c, -t::
+ These options are ignored for historical reasons.
-v::
Report what is downloaded.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
index 2aceb6f..ea03a4e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ OPTIONS
The remote refs to update.
-Specifying the Refs
+SPECIFYING THE REFS
-------------------
A '<ref>' specification can be either a single pattern, or a pair
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index 5d1e4c8..7b15744 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -68,8 +68,8 @@ imap.tunnel::
to the server. Required when imap.host is not set.
imap.host::
- A URL identifying the server. Use a `imap://` prefix for non-secure
- connections and a `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
+ A URL identifying the server. Use an `imap://` prefix for non-secure
+ connections and an `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required otherwise.
imap.user::
@@ -136,8 +136,8 @@ Using direct mode with SSL:
.........................
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
To submit patches using GMail's IMAP interface, first, edit your ~/.gitconfig
to specify your account settings:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 1b4b65d..d5b7560 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -77,6 +77,9 @@ OPTIONS
--check-self-contained-and-connected::
Die if the pack contains broken links. For internal use only.
+--fsck-objects::
+ Die if the pack contains broken objects. For internal use only.
+
--threads=<n>::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
deltas. This requires that index-pack be compiled with
@@ -90,8 +93,8 @@ OPTIONS
--max-input-size=<size>::
Die, if the pack is larger than <size>.
-Note
-----
+NOTES
+-----
Once the index has been created, the list of object names is sorted
and the SHA-1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index 9dd19a1..a5e8b36 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-interpret-trailers - add or parse structured information in commit messages
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git interpret-trailers' [options] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
-'git interpret-trailers' [options] [--parse] [<file>...]
+'git interpret-trailers' [<options>] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
+'git interpret-trailers' [<options>] [--parse] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -51,13 +51,14 @@ with only spaces at the end of the commit message part, one blank line
will be added before the new trailer.
Existing trailers are extracted from the input message by looking for
-a group of one or more lines that (i) are all trailers, or (ii) contains at
+a group of one or more lines that (i) is all trailers, or (ii) contains at
least one Git-generated or user-configured trailer and consists of at
least 25% trailers.
The group must be preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
The group must either be at the end of the message or be the last
-non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---'. Such three
-minus signs start the patch part of the message.
+non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---' (followed by a
+space or the end of the line). Such three minus signs start the patch
+part of the message. See also `--no-divider` below.
When reading trailers, there can be whitespaces after the
token, the separator and the value. There can also be whitespaces
@@ -88,7 +89,8 @@ OPTIONS
Specify where all new trailers will be added. A setting
provided with '--where' overrides all configuration variables
and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
- '--where' or '--no-where'.
+ '--where' or '--no-where'. Possible values are `after`, `before`,
+ `end` or `start`.
--if-exists <action>::
--no-if-exists::
@@ -96,7 +98,8 @@ OPTIONS
least one trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
provided with '--if-exists' overrides all configuration variables
and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
- '--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'.
+ '--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'. Possible actions are `addIfDifferent`,
+ `addIfDifferentNeighbor`, `add`, `replace` and `doNothing`.
--if-missing <action>::
--no-if-missing::
@@ -104,7 +107,8 @@ OPTIONS
trailer with the same <token> in the message. A setting
provided with '--if-missing' overrides all configuration variables
and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
- '--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'.
+ '--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'. Possible actions are `doNothing`
+ or `add`.
--only-trailers::
Output only the trailers, not any other parts of the input.
@@ -122,6 +126,11 @@ OPTIONS
A convenience alias for `--only-trailers --only-input
--unfold`.
+--no-divider::
+ Do not treat `---` as the end of the commit message. Use this
+ when you know your input contains just the commit message itself
+ (and not an email or the output of `git format-patch`).
+
CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
-----------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 5437f8b..90761f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
+'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -90,13 +90,13 @@ include::line-range-format.txt[]
ways to spell <revision range>, see the 'Specifying Ranges'
section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-[\--] <path>...::
+[--] <path>...::
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be. See 'History
Simplification' below for details and other simplification
modes.
+
-Paths may need to be prefixed with ``\-- '' to separate them from
+Paths may need to be prefixed with `--` to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
include::rev-list-options.txt[]
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ EXAMPLES
`git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk`::
Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
- The ``--'' is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ The `--` is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
'gitk'
`git log --name-status release..test`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 3ac3e3a..5298f1b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -53,7 +53,8 @@ OPTIONS
Show only ignored files in the output. When showing files in the
index, print only those matched by an exclude pattern. When
showing "other" files, show only those matched by an exclude
- pattern.
+ pattern. Standard ignore rules are not automatically activated,
+ therefore at least one of the `--exclude*` options is required.
-s::
--stage::
@@ -183,7 +184,7 @@ followed by the ("attr/<eolattr>").
Files to show. If no files are given all files which match the other
specified criteria are shown.
-Output
+OUTPUT
------
'git ls-files' just outputs the filenames unless `--stage` is specified in
which case it outputs:
@@ -208,7 +209,7 @@ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
verbatim and the line is terminated by a NUL byte.
-Exclude Patterns
+EXCLUDE PATTERNS
----------------
'git ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 5f2628c..b9fd377 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git ls-remote' [--heads] [--tags] [--refs] [--upload-pack=<exec>]
- [-q | --quiet] [--exit-code] [--get-url]
+ [-q | --quiet] [--exit-code] [--get-url] [--sort=<key>]
[--symref] [<repository> [<refs>...]]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -60,6 +60,24 @@ OPTIONS
upload-pack only shows the symref HEAD, so it will be the only
one shown by ls-remote.
+--sort=<key>::
+ Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending order
+ of the value. Supports "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag names
+ are treated as versions). The "version:refname" sort order can also
+ be affected by the "versionsort.suffix" configuration variable.
+ See linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1] for more sort options, but be aware
+ keys like `committerdate` that require access to the objects
+ themselves will not work for refs whose objects have not yet been
+ fetched from the remote, and will give a `missing object` error.
+
+-o <option>::
+--server-option=<option>::
+ Transmit the given string to the server when communicating using
+ protocol version 2. The given string must not contain a NUL or LF
+ character.
+ When multiple `--server-option=<option>` are given, they are all
+ sent to the other side in the order listed on the command line.
+
<repository>::
The "remote" repository to query. This parameter can be
either a URL or the name of a remote (see the GIT URLS and
@@ -90,6 +108,10 @@ EXAMPLES
c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1].
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index d5dfd84..eb36837 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
- [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
+ [--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [-F <file>] [<commit>...]
'git merge' --abort
'git merge' --continue
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ reconstruct the original (pre-merge) changes. Therefore:
discouraged: while possible, it may leave you in a state that is hard to
back out of in the case of a conflict.
-The fourth syntax ("`git merge --continue`") can only be run after the
+The third syntax ("`git merge --continue`") can only be run after the
merge has resulted in conflicts.
OPTIONS
@@ -75,6 +75,14 @@ The 'git fmt-merge-msg' command can be
used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
invocations. The automated message can include the branch description.
+-F <file>::
+--file=<file>::
+ Read the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
+ case one is created).
++
+If `--log` is specified, a shortlog of the commits being merged
+will be appended to the specified message.
+
--[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
@@ -122,9 +130,9 @@ merge' may need to update.
To avoid recording unrelated changes in the merge commit,
'git pull' and 'git merge' will also abort if there are any changes
-registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit. (One
-exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that
-would result from the merge already.)
+registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit. (Special
+narrow exceptions to this rule may exist depending on which merge
+strategy is in use, but generally, the index must match HEAD.)
If all named commits are already ancestors of `HEAD`, 'git merge'
will exit early with the message "Already up to date."
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
index c3616e7..27fe2b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktree.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads standard input in non-recursive `ls-tree` output format, and creates
-a tree object. The order of the tree entries is normalised by mktree so
+a tree object. The order of the tree entries is normalized by mktree so
pre-sorting the input is not required. The object name of the tree object
built is written to the standard output.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt b/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1f97e79
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-multi-pack-index(1)
+=======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-multi-pack-index - Write and verify multi-pack-indexes
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git multi-pack-index' [--object-dir=<dir>] <verb>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Write or verify a multi-pack-index (MIDX) file.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--object-dir=<dir>::
+ Use given directory for the location of Git objects. We check
+ `<dir>/packs/multi-pack-index` for the current MIDX file, and
+ `<dir>/packs` for the pack-files to index.
+
+write::
+ When given as the verb, write a new MIDX file to
+ `<dir>/packs/multi-pack-index`.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+* Write a MIDX file for the packfiles in the current .git folder.
++
+-----------------------------------------------
+$ git multi-pack-index write
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+* Write a MIDX file for the packfiles in an alternate object store.
++
+-----------------------------------------------
+$ git multi-pack-index --object-dir <alt> write
+-----------------------------------------------
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+See link:technical/multi-pack-index.html[The Multi-Pack-Index Design
+Document] and link:technical/pack-format.html[The Multi-Pack-Index
+Format] for more information on the multi-pack-index feature.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index e8e68f5..5cb0eb0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -61,8 +61,8 @@ OPTIONS
--always::
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
Given a commit, find out where it is relative to the local refs. Say somebody
wrote you about that fantastic commit 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index e8dec1b..df2b64d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@ OPTIONS
.git/NOTES_MERGE_REF symref is updated to the resulting commit.
--abort::
- Abort/reset a in-progress 'git notes merge', i.e. a notes merge
+ Abort/reset an in-progress 'git notes merge', i.e. a notes merge
with conflicts. This simply removes all files related to the
notes merge.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 7436c64..41780a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -29,8 +29,8 @@ Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
the updated p4 remote branch.
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
* Clone a repository:
+
------------
@@ -149,6 +149,12 @@ To specify a branch other than the current one, use:
$ git p4 submit topicbranch
------------
+To specify a single commit or a range of commits, use:
+------------
+$ git p4 submit --commit <sha1>
+$ git p4 submit --commit <sha1..sha1>
+------------
+
The upstream reference is generally 'refs/remotes/p4/master', but can
be overridden using the `--origin=` command-line option.
@@ -157,6 +163,37 @@ The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
+To shelve changes instead of submitting, use `--shelve` and `--update-shelve`:
+
+----
+$ git p4 submit --shelve
+$ git p4 submit --update-shelve 1234 --update-shelve 2345
+----
+
+
+Unshelve
+~~~~~~~~
+Unshelving will take a shelved P4 changelist, and produce the equivalent git commit
+in the branch refs/remotes/p4/unshelved/<changelist>.
+
+The git commit is created relative to the current origin revision (HEAD by default).
+If the shelved changelist's parent revisions differ, git-p4 will refuse to unshelve;
+you need to be unshelving onto an equivalent tree.
+
+The origin revision can be changed with the "--origin" option.
+
+If the target branch in refs/remotes/p4/unshelved already exists, the old one will
+be renamed.
+
+----
+$ git p4 sync
+$ git p4 unshelve 12345
+$ git show refs/remotes/p4/unshelved/12345
+<submit more changes via p4 to the same files>
+$ git p4 unshelve 12345
+<refuses to unshelve until git is in sync with p4 again>
+
+----
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -310,7 +347,7 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
--update-shelve CHANGELIST::
Update an existing shelved changelist with this commit. Implies
- --shelve.
+ --shelve. Repeat for multiple shelved changelists.
--conflict=(ask|skip|quit)::
Conflicts can occur when applying a commit to p4. When this
@@ -324,6 +361,27 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
information.
+--commit <sha1>|<sha1..sha1>::
+ Submit only the specified commit or range of commits, instead of the full
+ list of changes that are in the current Git branch.
+
+--disable-rebase::
+ Disable the automatic rebase after all commits have been successfully
+ submitted. Can also be set with git-p4.disableRebase.
+
+--disable-p4sync::
+ Disable the automatic sync of p4/master from Perforce after commits have
+ been submitted. Implies --disable-rebase. Can also be set with
+ git-p4.disableP4Sync. Sync with origin/master still goes ahead if possible.
+
+Hook for submit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The `p4-pre-submit` hook is executed if it exists and is executable.
+The hook takes no parameters and nothing from standard input. Exiting with
+non-zero status from this script prevents `git-p4 submit` from launching.
+
+One usage scenario is to run unit tests in the hook.
+
Rebase options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
@@ -331,6 +389,13 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
--import-labels::
Import p4 labels.
+Unshelve options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+--origin::
+ Sets the git refspec against which the shelved P4 changelist is compared.
+ Defaults to p4/master.
+
DEPOT PATH SYNTAX
-----------------
The p4 depot path argument to 'git p4 sync' and 'git p4 clone' can
@@ -386,7 +451,7 @@ dedicating a client spec just for 'git p4'.
The name of the client can be given to 'git p4' in multiple ways. The
variable 'git-p4.client' takes precedence if it exists. Otherwise,
normal p4 mechanisms of determining the client are used: environment
-variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
+variable `P4CLIENT`, a file referenced by `P4CONFIG`, or the local host name.
BRANCH DETECTION
@@ -455,22 +520,22 @@ General variables
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
git-p4.user::
User specified as an option to all p4 commands, with '-u <user>'.
- The environment variable 'P4USER' can be used instead.
+ The environment variable `P4USER` can be used instead.
git-p4.password::
Password specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
'-P <password>'.
- The environment variable 'P4PASS' can be used instead.
+ The environment variable `P4PASS` can be used instead.
git-p4.port::
Port specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
'-p <port>'.
- The environment variable 'P4PORT' can be used instead.
+ The environment variable `P4PORT` can be used instead.
git-p4.host::
Host specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
'-h <host>'.
- The environment variable 'P4HOST' can be used instead.
+ The environment variable `P4HOST` can be used instead.
git-p4.client::
Client specified as an option to all p4 commands, with
@@ -638,6 +703,12 @@ git-p4.conflict::
Specify submit behavior when a conflict with p4 is found, as per
--conflict. The default behavior is 'ask'.
+git-p4.disableRebase::
+ Do not rebase the tree against p4/master following a submit.
+
+git-p4.disableP4Sync::
+ Do not sync p4/master with Perforce following a submit. Implies git-p4.disableRebase.
+
IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
----------------------
* Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index aa403d0..40c825c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git pack-objects' [-q | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied]
[--no-reuse-delta] [--delta-base-offset] [--non-empty]
[--local] [--incremental] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>]
- [--revs [--unpacked | --all]]
+ [--revs [--unpacked | --all]] [--keep-pack=<pack-name>]
[--stdout [--filter=<filter-spec>] | base-name]
[--shallow] [--keep-true-parents] < object-list
@@ -96,7 +96,9 @@ base-name::
it too deep affects the performance on the unpacker
side, because delta data needs to be applied that many
times to get to the necessary object.
- The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50.
++
+The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50. The maximum
+depth is 4095.
--window-memory=<n>::
This option provides an additional limit on top of `--window`;
@@ -126,6 +128,13 @@ base-name::
has a .keep file to be ignored, even if it would have
otherwise been packed.
+--keep-pack=<pack-name>::
+ This flag causes an object already in the given pack to be
+ ignored, even if it would have otherwise been
+ packed. `<pack-name>` is the the pack file name without
+ leading directory (e.g. `pack-123.pack`). The option could be
+ specified multiple times to keep multiple packs.
+
--incremental::
This flag causes an object already in a pack to be ignored
even if it would have otherwise been packed.
@@ -255,6 +264,127 @@ a missing object is encountered. This is the default action.
The form '--missing=allow-any' will allow object traversal to continue
if a missing object is encountered. Missing objects will silently be
omitted from the results.
++
+The form '--missing=allow-promisor' is like 'allow-any', but will only
+allow object traversal to continue for EXPECTED promisor missing objects.
+Unexpected missing object will raise an error.
+
+--exclude-promisor-objects::
+ Omit objects that are known to be in the promisor remote. (This
+ option has the purpose of operating only on locally created objects,
+ so that when we repack, we still maintain a distinction between
+ locally created objects [without .promisor] and objects from the
+ promisor remote [with .promisor].) This is used with partial clone.
+
+--keep-unreachable::
+ Objects unreachable from the refs in packs named with
+ --unpacked= option are added to the resulting pack, in
+ addition to the reachable objects that are not in packs marked
+ with *.keep files. This implies `--revs`.
+
+--pack-loose-unreachable::
+ Pack unreachable loose objects (and their loose counterparts
+ removed). This implies `--revs`.
+
+--unpack-unreachable::
+ Keep unreachable objects in loose form. This implies `--revs`.
+
+--delta-islands::
+ Restrict delta matches based on "islands". See DELTA ISLANDS
+ below.
+
+
+DELTA ISLANDS
+-------------
+
+When possible, `pack-objects` tries to reuse existing on-disk deltas to
+avoid having to search for new ones on the fly. This is an important
+optimization for serving fetches, because it means the server can avoid
+inflating most objects at all and just send the bytes directly from
+disk. This optimization can't work when an object is stored as a delta
+against a base which the receiver does not have (and which we are not
+already sending). In that case the server "breaks" the delta and has to
+find a new one, which has a high CPU cost. Therefore it's important for
+performance that the set of objects in on-disk delta relationships match
+what a client would fetch.
+
+In a normal repository, this tends to work automatically. The objects
+are mostly reachable from the branches and tags, and that's what clients
+fetch. Any deltas we find on the server are likely to be between objects
+the client has or will have.
+
+But in some repository setups, you may have several related but separate
+groups of ref tips, with clients tending to fetch those groups
+independently. For example, imagine that you are hosting several "forks"
+of a repository in a single shared object store, and letting clients
+view them as separate repositories through `GIT_NAMESPACE` or separate
+repos using the alternates mechanism. A naive repack may find that the
+optimal delta for an object is against a base that is only found in
+another fork. But when a client fetches, they will not have the base
+object, and we'll have to find a new delta on the fly.
+
+A similar situation may exist if you have many refs outside of
+`refs/heads/` and `refs/tags/` that point to related objects (e.g.,
+`refs/pull` or `refs/changes` used by some hosting providers). By
+default, clients fetch only heads and tags, and deltas against objects
+found only in those other groups cannot be sent as-is.
+
+Delta islands solve this problem by allowing you to group your refs into
+distinct "islands". Pack-objects computes which objects are reachable
+from which islands, and refuses to make a delta from an object `A`
+against a base which is not present in all of `A`'s islands. This
+results in slightly larger packs (because we miss some delta
+opportunities), but guarantees that a fetch of one island will not have
+to recompute deltas on the fly due to crossing island boundaries.
+
+When repacking with delta islands the delta window tends to get
+clogged with candidates that are forbidden by the config. Repacking
+with a big --window helps (and doesn't take as long as it otherwise
+might because we can reject some object pairs based on islands before
+doing any computation on the content).
+
+Islands are configured via the `pack.island` option, which can be
+specified multiple times. Each value is a left-anchored regular
+expressions matching refnames. For example:
+
+-------------------------------------------
+[pack]
+island = refs/heads/
+island = refs/tags/
+-------------------------------------------
+
+puts heads and tags into an island (whose name is the empty string; see
+below for more on naming). Any refs which do not match those regular
+expressions (e.g., `refs/pull/123`) is not in any island. Any object
+which is reachable only from `refs/pull/` (but not heads or tags) is
+therefore not a candidate to be used as a base for `refs/heads/`.
+
+Refs are grouped into islands based on their "names", and two regexes
+that produce the same name are considered to be in the same
+island. The names are computed from the regexes by concatenating any
+capture groups from the regex, with a '-' dash in between. (And if
+there are no capture groups, then the name is the empty string, as in
+the above example.) This allows you to create arbitrary numbers of
+islands. Only up to 14 such capture groups are supported though.
+
+For example, imagine you store the refs for each fork in
+`refs/virtual/ID`, where `ID` is a numeric identifier. You might then
+configure:
+
+-------------------------------------------
+[pack]
+island = refs/virtual/([0-9]+)/heads/
+island = refs/virtual/([0-9]+)/tags/
+island = refs/virtual/([0-9]+)/(pull)/
+-------------------------------------------
+
+That puts the heads and tags for each fork in their own island (named
+"1234" or similar), and the pull refs for each go into their own
+"1234-pull".
+
+Note that we pick a single island for each regex to go into, using "last
+one wins" ordering (which allows repo-specific config to take precedence
+over user-wide config, and so forth).
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index a37c0af..03552dd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ OPTIONS
reachable from any of our references, keep objects
reachable from listed <head>s.
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
To prune objects not used by your repository or another that
borrows from your repository via its
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ borrows from your repository via its
$ git prune $(cd ../another && git rev-parse --all)
------------
-Notes
+NOTES
-----
In most cases, users will not need to call 'git prune' directly, but
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index ce05b7a..118d9d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local branch
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git pull' [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
+'git pull' [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -101,13 +101,17 @@ Options related to merging
include::merge-options.txt[]
-r::
---rebase[=false|true|preserve|interactive]::
+--rebase[=false|true|merges|preserve|interactive]::
When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream
branch after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch
corresponding to the upstream branch and the upstream branch
was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
to avoid rebasing non-local changes.
+
+When set to `merges`, rebase using `git rebase --rebase-merges` so that
+the local merge commits are included in the rebase (see
+linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details).
++
When set to preserve, rebase with the `--preserve-merges` option passed
to `git rebase` so that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 5b08302..a5fc54a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-d | --delete] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
- [-u | --set-upstream] [--push-option=<string>]
+ [-u | --set-upstream] [-o <string> | --push-option=<string>]
[--[no-]signed|--signed=(true|false|if-asked)]
[--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
@@ -74,22 +74,57 @@ without any `<refspec>` on the command line. Otherwise, missing
`:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
-on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
-a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
-<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
-the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
-fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
-EXAMPLES below for details.
-+
-`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
-+
-Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
-the remote repository.
+on the remote side. Whether this is allowed depends on where in
+`refs/*` the <dst> reference lives as described in detail below, in
+those sections "update" means any modifications except deletes, which
+as noted after the next few sections are treated differently.
++
+The `refs/heads/*` namespace will only accept commit objects, and
+updates only if they can be fast-forwarded.
++
+The `refs/tags/*` namespace will accept any kind of object (as
+commits, trees and blobs can be tagged), and any updates to them will
+be rejected.
++
+It's possible to push any type of object to any namespace outside of
+`refs/{tags,heads}/*`. In the case of tags and commits, these will be
+treated as if they were the commits inside `refs/heads/*` for the
+purposes of whether the update is allowed.
++
+I.e. a fast-forward of commits and tags outside `refs/{tags,heads}/*`
+is allowed, even in cases where what's being fast-forwarded is not a
+commit, but a tag object which happens to point to a new commit which
+is a fast-forward of the commit the last tag (or commit) it's
+replacing. Replacing a tag with an entirely different tag is also
+allowed, if it points to the same commit, as well as pushing a peeled
+tag, i.e. pushing the commit that existing tag object points to, or a
+new tag object which an existing commit points to.
++
+Tree and blob objects outside of `refs/{tags,heads}/*` will be treated
+the same way as if they were inside `refs/tags/*`, any update of them
+will be rejected.
++
+All of the rules described above about what's not allowed as an update
+can be overridden by adding an the optional leading `+` to a refspec
+(or using `--force` command line option). The only exception to this
+is that no amount of forcing will make the `refs/heads/*` namespace
+accept a non-commit object. Hooks and configuration can also override
+or amend these rules, see e.g. `receive.denyNonFastForwards` in
+linkgit:git-config[1] and `pre-receive` and `update` in
+linkgit:githooks[5].
++
+Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
+remote repository. Deletions are always accepted without a leading `+`
+in the refspec (or `--force`), except when forbidden by configuration
+or hooks. See `receive.denyDeletes` in linkgit:git-config[1] and
+`pre-receive` and `update` in linkgit:githooks[5].
+
The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side.
++
+`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
--all::
Push all branches (i.e. refs under `refs/heads/`); cannot be
@@ -123,6 +158,7 @@ already exists on the remote side.
will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The full
symbolic names of the refs will be given.
+-d::
--delete::
All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is
the same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
@@ -300,7 +336,7 @@ origin +master` to force a push to the `master` branch). See the
These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
- \--thin.
+ `--thin`.
-q::
--quiet::
@@ -423,7 +459,7 @@ reason::
refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
failure is described.
-Note about fast-forwards
+NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS
------------------------
When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used to
@@ -510,7 +546,7 @@ overwrite it. In other words, "git push --force" is a method reserved for
a case where you do mean to lose history.
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
`git push`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f693930
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,252 @@
+git-range-diff(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-range-diff - Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch)
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git range-diff' [--color=[<when>]] [--no-color] [<diff-options>]
+ [--no-dual-color] [--creation-factor=<factor>]
+ ( <range1> <range2> | <rev1>...<rev2> | <base> <rev1> <rev2> )
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This command shows the differences between two versions of a patch
+series, or more generally, two commit ranges (ignoring merge commits).
+
+To that end, it first finds pairs of commits from both commit ranges
+that correspond with each other. Two commits are said to correspond when
+the diff between their patches (i.e. the author information, the commit
+message and the commit diff) is reasonably small compared to the
+patches' size. See ``Algorithm`` below for details.
+
+Finally, the list of matching commits is shown in the order of the
+second commit range, with unmatched commits being inserted just after
+all of their ancestors have been shown.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--no-dual-color::
+ When the commit diffs differ, `git range-diff` recreates the
+ original diffs' coloring, and adds outer -/+ diff markers with
+ the *background* being red/green to make it easier to see e.g.
+ when there was a change in what exact lines were added.
++
+Additionally, the commit diff lines that are only present in the first commit
+range are shown "dimmed" (this can be overridden using the `color.diff.<slot>`
+config setting where `<slot>` is one of `contextDimmed`, `oldDimmed` and
+`newDimmed`), and the commit diff lines that are only present in the second
+commit range are shown in bold (which can be overridden using the config
+settings `color.diff.<slot>` with `<slot>` being one of `contextBold`,
+`oldBold` or `newBold`).
++
+This is known to `range-diff` as "dual coloring". Use `--no-dual-color`
+to revert to color all lines according to the outer diff markers
+(and completely ignore the inner diff when it comes to color).
+
+--creation-factor=<percent>::
+ Set the creation/deletion cost fudge factor to `<percent>`.
+ Defaults to 60. Try a larger value if `git range-diff` erroneously
+ considers a large change a total rewrite (deletion of one commit
+ and addition of another), and a smaller one in the reverse case.
+ See the ``Algorithm`` section below for an explanation why this is
+ needed.
+
+<range1> <range2>::
+ Compare the commits specified by the two ranges, where
+ `<range1>` is considered an older version of `<range2>`.
+
+<rev1>...<rev2>::
+ Equivalent to passing `<rev2>..<rev1>` and `<rev1>..<rev2>`.
+
+<base> <rev1> <rev2>::
+ Equivalent to passing `<base>..<rev1>` and `<base>..<rev2>`.
+ Note that `<base>` does not need to be the exact branch point
+ of the branches. Example: after rebasing a branch `my-topic`,
+ `git range-diff my-topic@{u} my-topic@{1} my-topic` would
+ show the differences introduced by the rebase.
+
+`git range-diff` also accepts the regular diff options (see
+linkgit:git-diff[1]), most notably the `--color=[<when>]` and
+`--no-color` options. These options are used when generating the "diff
+between patches", i.e. to compare the author, commit message and diff of
+corresponding old/new commits. There is currently no means to tweak the
+diff options passed to `git log` when generating those patches.
+
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+This command uses the `diff.color.*` and `pager.range-diff` settings
+(the latter is on by default).
+See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+When a rebase required merge conflicts to be resolved, compare the changes
+introduced by the rebase directly afterwards using:
+
+------------
+$ git range-diff @{u} @{1} @
+------------
+
+
+A typical output of `git range-diff` would look like this:
+
+------------
+-: ------- > 1: 0ddba11 Prepare for the inevitable!
+1: c0debee = 2: cab005e Add a helpful message at the start
+2: f00dbal ! 3: decafe1 Describe a bug
+ @@ -1,3 +1,3 @@
+ Author: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+
+ -TODO: Describe a bug
+ +Describe a bug
+ @@ -324,5 +324,6
+ This is expected.
+
+ -+What is unexpected is that it will also crash.
+ ++Unexpectedly, it also crashes. This is a bug, and the jury is
+ ++still out there how to fix it best. See ticket #314 for details.
+
+ Contact
+3: bedead < -: ------- TO-UNDO
+------------
+
+In this example, there are 3 old and 3 new commits, where the developer
+removed the 3rd, added a new one before the first two, and modified the
+commit message of the 2nd commit as well its diff.
+
+When the output goes to a terminal, it is color-coded by default, just
+like regular `git diff`'s output. In addition, the first line (adding a
+commit) is green, the last line (deleting a commit) is red, the second
+line (with a perfect match) is yellow like the commit header of `git
+show`'s output, and the third line colors the old commit red, the new
+one green and the rest like `git show`'s commit header.
+
+A naive color-coded diff of diffs is actually a bit hard to read,
+though, as it colors the entire lines red or green. The line that added
+"What is unexpected" in the old commit, for example, is completely red,
+even if the intent of the old commit was to add something.
+
+To help with that, `range` uses the `--dual-color` mode by default. In
+this mode, the diff of diffs will retain the original diff colors, and
+prefix the lines with -/+ markers that have their *background* red or
+green, to make it more obvious that they describe how the diff itself
+changed.
+
+
+Algorithm
+---------
+
+The general idea is this: we generate a cost matrix between the commits
+in both commit ranges, then solve the least-cost assignment.
+
+The cost matrix is populated thusly: for each pair of commits, both
+diffs are generated and the "diff of diffs" is generated, with 3 context
+lines, then the number of lines in that diff is used as cost.
+
+To avoid false positives (e.g. when a patch has been removed, and an
+unrelated patch has been added between two iterations of the same patch
+series), the cost matrix is extended to allow for that, by adding
+fixed-cost entries for wholesale deletes/adds.
+
+Example: Let commits `1--2` be the first iteration of a patch series and
+`A--C` the second iteration. Let's assume that `A` is a cherry-pick of
+`2,` and `C` is a cherry-pick of `1` but with a small modification (say,
+a fixed typo). Visualize the commits as a bipartite graph:
+
+------------
+ 1 A
+
+ 2 B
+
+ C
+------------
+
+We are looking for a "best" explanation of the new series in terms of
+the old one. We can represent an "explanation" as an edge in the graph:
+
+
+------------
+ 1 A
+ /
+ 2 --------' B
+
+ C
+------------
+
+This explanation comes for "free" because there was no change. Similarly
+`C` could be explained using `1`, but that comes at some cost c>0
+because of the modification:
+
+------------
+ 1 ----. A
+ | /
+ 2 ----+---' B
+ |
+ `----- C
+ c>0
+------------
+
+In mathematical terms, what we are looking for is some sort of a minimum
+cost bipartite matching; `1` is matched to `C` at some cost, etc. The
+underlying graph is in fact a complete bipartite graph; the cost we
+associate with every edge is the size of the diff between the two
+commits' patches. To explain also new commits, we introduce dummy nodes
+on both sides:
+
+------------
+ 1 ----. A
+ | /
+ 2 ----+---' B
+ |
+ o `----- C
+ c>0
+ o o
+
+ o o
+------------
+
+The cost of an edge `o--C` is the size of `C`'s diff, modified by a
+fudge factor that should be smaller than 100%. The cost of an edge
+`o--o` is free. The fudge factor is necessary because even if `1` and
+`C` have nothing in common, they may still share a few empty lines and
+such, possibly making the assignment `1--C`, `o--o` slightly cheaper
+than `1--o`, `o--C` even if `1` and `C` have nothing in common. With the
+fudge factor we require a much larger common part to consider patches as
+corresponding.
+
+The overall time needed to compute this algorithm is the time needed to
+compute n+m commit diffs and then n*m diffs of patches, plus the time
+needed to compute the least-cost assigment between n and m diffs. Git
+uses an implementation of the Jonker-Volgenant algorithm to solve the
+assignment problem, which has cubic runtime complexity. The matching
+found in this case will look like this:
+
+------------
+ 1 ----. A
+ | /
+ 2 ----+---' B
+ .--+-----'
+ o -' `----- C
+ c>0
+ o ---------- o
+
+ o ---------- o
+------------
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-log[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index 72bd809..5c70bc2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -81,12 +81,11 @@ OPTIONS
* when both sides add a path identically. The resolution
is to add that path.
---prefix=<prefix>/::
+--prefix=<prefix>::
Keep the current index contents, and read the contents
of the named tree-ish under the directory at `<prefix>`.
The command will refuse to overwrite entries that already
- existed in the original index file. Note that the `<prefix>/`
- value must end with a slash.
+ existed in the original index file.
--exclude-per-directory=<gitignore>::
When running the command with `-u` and `-m` options, the
@@ -133,7 +132,7 @@ OPTIONS
The id of the tree object(s) to be read/merged.
-Merging
+MERGING
-------
If `-m` is specified, 'git read-tree' can perform 3 kinds of
merge, a single tree merge if only 1 tree is given, a
@@ -383,7 +382,7 @@ middle of doing, and when your working tree is ready (i.e. you
have finished your work-in-progress), attempt the merge again.
-Sparse checkout
+SPARSE CHECKOUT
---------------
"Sparse checkout" allows populating the working directory sparsely.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 8a861c1..1fbc6eb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -8,11 +8,11 @@ git-rebase - Reapply commits on top of another base tip
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
[<upstream> [<branch>]]
-'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
--root [<branch>]
-'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --edit-todo
+'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --edit-todo | --show-current-patch
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -243,6 +243,15 @@ leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
--keep-empty::
Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
parents in the result.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
+
+--allow-empty-message::
+ By default, rebasing commits with an empty message will fail.
+ This option overrides that behavior, allowing commits with empty
+ messages to be rebased.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--skip::
Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
@@ -250,6 +259,11 @@ leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
--edit-todo::
Edit the todo list during an interactive rebase.
+--show-current-patch::
+ Show the current patch in an interactive rebase or when rebase
+ is stopped because of conflicts. This is the equivalent of
+ `git show REBASE_HEAD`.
+
-m::
--merge::
Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
@@ -261,6 +275,8 @@ branch on top of the <upstream> branch. Because of this, when a merge
conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch. In
other words, the sides are swapped.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-s <strategy>::
--strategy=<strategy>::
@@ -270,8 +286,10 @@ other words, the sides are swapped.
+
Because 'git rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
-the 'ours' strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>,
+the 'ours' strategy simply empties all patches from the <branch>,
which makes little sense.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-X <strategy-option>::
--strategy-option=<strategy-option>::
@@ -279,6 +297,8 @@ which makes little sense.
This implies `--merge` and, if no strategy has been
specified, `-s recursive`. Note the reversal of 'ours' and
'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-S[<keyid>]::
--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
@@ -314,17 +334,21 @@ which makes little sense.
and after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding
context exist they all must match. By default no context is
ever ignored.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--f::
+--no-ff::
--force-rebase::
- Force a rebase even if the current branch is up to date and
- the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
+-f::
+ Individually replay all rebased commits instead of fast-forwarding
+ over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the entire history of
+ the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
+
-You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
-reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
-fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
-the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
+recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
+successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+details).
--fork-point::
--no-fork-point::
@@ -345,18 +369,22 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
--whitespace=<option>::
These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
(see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
- Incompatible with the --interactive option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--committer-date-is-author-date::
--ignore-date::
These flags are passed to 'git am' to easily change the dates
of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
- Incompatible with the --interactive option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--signoff::
- This flag is passed to 'git am' to sign off all the rebased
- commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]). Incompatible with the
- --interactive option.
+ Add a Signed-off-by: trailer to all the rebased commits. Note
+ that if `--interactive` is given then only commits marked to be
+ picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-i::
--interactive::
@@ -367,6 +395,35 @@ default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
The commit list format can be changed by setting the configuration option
rebase.instructionFormat. A customized instruction format will automatically
have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
+
+-r::
+--rebase-merges[=(rebase-cousins|no-rebase-cousins)]::
+ By default, a rebase will simply drop merge commits from the todo
+ list, and put the rebased commits into a single, linear branch.
+ With `--rebase-merges`, the rebase will instead try to preserve
+ the branching structure within the commits that are to be rebased,
+ by recreating the merge commits. Any resolved merge conflicts or
+ manual amendments in these merge commits will have to be
+ resolved/re-applied manually.
++
+By default, or when `no-rebase-cousins` was specified, commits which do not
+have `<upstream>` as direct ancestor will keep their original branch point,
+i.e. commits that would be excluded by gitlink:git-log[1]'s
+`--ancestry-path` option will keep their original ancestry by default. If
+the `rebase-cousins` mode is turned on, such commits are instead rebased
+onto `<upstream>` (or `<onto>`, if specified).
++
+The `--rebase-merges` mode is similar in spirit to `--preserve-merges`, but
+in contrast to that option works well in interactive rebases: commits can be
+reordered, inserted and dropped at will.
++
+It is currently only possible to recreate the merge commits using the
+`recursive` merge strategy; Different merge strategies can be used only via
+explicit `exec git merge -s <strategy> [...]` commands.
++
+See also REBASING MERGES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-p::
--preserve-merges::
@@ -377,6 +434,8 @@ have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but combining it
with the `--interactive` option explicitly is generally not a good
idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
-x <cmd>::
--exec <cmd>::
@@ -399,6 +458,8 @@ squash/fixup series.
+
This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but it can be run
without an explicit `--interactive`.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--root::
Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
@@ -409,6 +470,8 @@ without an explicit `--interactive`.
When used together with both --onto and --preserve-merges,
'all' root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
instead.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--autosquash::
--no-autosquash::
@@ -423,11 +486,11 @@ without an explicit `--interactive`.
too. The recommended way to create fixup/squash commits is by using
the `--fixup`/`--squash` options of linkgit:git-commit[1].
+
-This option is only valid when the `--interactive` option is used.
-+
If the `--autosquash` option is enabled by default using the
configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
used to override and disable this setting.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
--autostash::
--no-autostash::
@@ -437,17 +500,73 @@ used to override and disable this setting.
with care: the final stash application after a successful
rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
---no-ff::
- With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
- fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
- entire history of the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
-+
-Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.
-+
-You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
-recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
-successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS
+--------------------
+
+git-rebase has many flags that are incompatible with each other,
+predominantly due to the fact that it has three different underlying
+implementations:
+
+ * one based on linkgit:git-am[1] (the default)
+ * one based on git-merge-recursive (merge backend)
+ * one based on linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1] (interactive backend)
+
+Flags only understood by the am backend:
+
+ * --committer-date-is-author-date
+ * --ignore-date
+ * --whitespace
+ * --ignore-whitespace
+ * -C
+
+Flags understood by both merge and interactive backends:
+
+ * --merge
+ * --strategy
+ * --strategy-option
+ * --allow-empty-message
+
+Flags only understood by the interactive backend:
+
+ * --[no-]autosquash
+ * --rebase-merges
+ * --preserve-merges
+ * --interactive
+ * --exec
+ * --keep-empty
+ * --autosquash
+ * --edit-todo
+ * --root when used in combination with --onto
+
+Other incompatible flag pairs:
+
+ * --preserve-merges and --interactive
+ * --preserve-merges and --signoff
+ * --preserve-merges and --rebase-merges
+ * --rebase-merges and --strategy
+ * --rebase-merges and --strategy-option
+
+BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES
+-----------------------
+
+ * empty commits:
+
+ am-based rebase will drop any "empty" commits, whether the
+ commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
+ start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
+ upstream in other commits).
+
+ merge-based rebase does the same.
+
+ interactive-based rebase will by default drop commits that
+ started empty and halt if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
+ The `--keep-empty` option exists for interactive rebases to allow
+ it to keep commits that started empty.
+
+ * directory rename detection:
+
+ merge-based and interactive-based rebases work fine with
+ directory rename detection. am-based rebases sometimes do not.
include::merge-strategies.txt[]
@@ -765,12 +884,147 @@ The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
case" recovery too!
+REBASING MERGES
+---------------
+
+The interactive rebase command was originally designed to handle
+individual patch series. As such, it makes sense to exclude merge
+commits from the todo list, as the developer may have merged the
+then-current `master` while working on the branch, only to rebase
+all the commits onto `master` eventually (skipping the merge
+commits).
+
+However, there are legitimate reasons why a developer may want to
+recreate merge commits: to keep the branch structure (or "commit
+topology") when working on multiple, inter-related branches.
+
+In the following example, the developer works on a topic branch that
+refactors the way buttons are defined, and on another topic branch
+that uses that refactoring to implement a "Report a bug" button. The
+output of `git log --graph --format=%s -5` may look like this:
+
+------------
+* Merge branch 'report-a-bug'
+|\
+| * Add the feedback button
+* | Merge branch 'refactor-button'
+|\ \
+| |/
+| * Use the Button class for all buttons
+| * Extract a generic Button class from the DownloadButton one
+------------
+
+The developer might want to rebase those commits to a newer `master`
+while keeping the branch topology, for example when the first topic
+branch is expected to be integrated into `master` much earlier than the
+second one, say, to resolve merge conflicts with changes to the
+DownloadButton class that made it into `master`.
+
+This rebase can be performed using the `--rebase-merges` option.
+It will generate a todo list looking like this:
+
+------------
+label onto
+
+# Branch: refactor-button
+reset onto
+pick 123456 Extract a generic Button class from the DownloadButton one
+pick 654321 Use the Button class for all buttons
+label refactor-button
+
+# Branch: report-a-bug
+reset refactor-button # Use the Button class for all buttons
+pick abcdef Add the feedback button
+label report-a-bug
+
+reset onto
+merge -C a1b2c3 refactor-button # Merge 'refactor-button'
+merge -C 6f5e4d report-a-bug # Merge 'report-a-bug'
+------------
+
+In contrast to a regular interactive rebase, there are `label`, `reset`
+and `merge` commands in addition to `pick` ones.
+
+The `label` command associates a label with the current HEAD when that
+command is executed. These labels are created as worktree-local refs
+(`refs/rewritten/<label>`) that will be deleted when the rebase
+finishes. That way, rebase operations in multiple worktrees linked to
+the same repository do not interfere with one another. If the `label`
+command fails, it is rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how
+to proceed.
+
+The `reset` command resets the HEAD, index and worktree to the specified
+revision. It is isimilar to an `exec git reset --hard <label>`, but
+refuses to overwrite untracked files. If the `reset` command fails, it is
+rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how to edit the todo list
+(this typically happens when a `reset` command was inserted into the todo
+list manually and contains a typo).
+
+The `merge` command will merge the specified revision(s) into whatever
+is HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
+the specified merge commit will be used. When the `-C` is changed to
+a lower-case `-c`, the message will be opened in an editor after a
+successful merge so that the user can edit the message.
+
+If a `merge` command fails for any reason other than merge conflicts (i.e.
+when the merge operation did not even start), it is rescheduled immediately.
+
+At this time, the `merge` command will *always* use the `recursive`
+merge strategy for regular merges, and `octopus` for octopus merges,
+strategy, with no way to choose a different one. To work around
+this, an `exec` command can be used to call `git merge` explicitly,
+using the fact that the labels are worktree-local refs (the ref
+`refs/rewritten/onto` would correspond to the label `onto`, for example).
+
+Note: the first command (`label onto`) labels the revision onto which
+the commits are rebased; The name `onto` is just a convention, as a nod
+to the `--onto` option.
+
+It is also possible to introduce completely new merge commits from scratch
+by adding a command of the form `merge <merge-head>`. This form will
+generate a tentative commit message and always open an editor to let the
+user edit it. This can be useful e.g. when a topic branch turns out to
+address more than a single concern and wants to be split into two or
+even more topic branches. Consider this todo list:
+
+------------
+pick 192837 Switch from GNU Makefiles to CMake
+pick 5a6c7e Document the switch to CMake
+pick 918273 Fix detection of OpenSSL in CMake
+pick afbecd http: add support for TLS v1.3
+pick fdbaec Fix detection of cURL in CMake on Windows
+------------
+
+The one commit in this list that is not related to CMake may very well
+have been motivated by working on fixing all those bugs introduced by
+switching to CMake, but it addresses a different concern. To split this
+branch into two topic branches, the todo list could be edited like this:
+
+------------
+label onto
+
+pick afbecd http: add support for TLS v1.3
+label tlsv1.3
+
+reset onto
+pick 192837 Switch from GNU Makefiles to CMake
+pick 918273 Fix detection of OpenSSL in CMake
+pick fdbaec Fix detection of cURL in CMake on Windows
+pick 5a6c7e Document the switch to CMake
+label cmake
+
+reset onto
+merge tlsv1.3
+merge cmake
+------------
+
BUGS
----
The todo list presented by `--preserve-merges --interactive` does not
represent the topology of the revision graph. Editing commits and
rewording their commit messages should work fine, but attempts to
-reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results.
+reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results. Use
+`--rebase-merges` in such scenarios instead.
For example, an attempt to rearrange
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 86a4b32..dedf97e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ OPTIONS
<directory>::
The repository to sync into.
-pre-receive Hook
+PRE-RECEIVE HOOK
----------------
Before any ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/pre-receive file exists
and is executable, it will be invoked once with no parameters. The
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@ bail out if the update is not to be supported.
See the notes on the quarantine environment below.
-update Hook
+UPDATE HOOK
-----------
Before each ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/update file exists
and is executable, it is invoked once per ref, with three parameters:
@@ -138,7 +138,7 @@ ensure the ref will actually be updated, it is only a prerequisite.
As such it is not a good idea to send notices (e.g. email) from
this hook. Consider using the post-receive hook instead.
-post-receive Hook
+POST-RECEIVE HOOK
-----------------
After all refs were updated (or attempted to be updated), if any
ref update was successful, and if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-receive
@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ after it was updated by 'git-receive-pack', but before the hook was able
to evaluate it. It is recommended that hooks rely on sha1-new
rather than the current value of refname.
-post-update Hook
+POST-UPDATE HOOK
----------------
After all other processing, if at least one ref was updated, and
if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update file exists and is executable, then
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ if the repository is packed and is served via a dumb transport.
exec git update-server-info
-Quarantine Environment
+QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENT
----------------------
When `receive-pack` takes in objects, they are placed into a temporary
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index b25d0b5..3fc5d94 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -55,14 +55,14 @@ some tunnel.
the vhost field in the git:// service request (to rest of the argument).
Default is not to send vhost in such request (if sent).
-ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES:
-----------------------
+ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
+---------------------
GIT_TRANSLOOP_DEBUG::
If set, prints debugging information about various reads/writes.
-ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES PASSED TO COMMAND:
-----------------------------------------
+ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES PASSED TO COMMAND
+---------------------------------------
GIT_EXT_SERVICE::
Set to long name (git-upload-pack, etc...) of service helper needs
@@ -73,8 +73,8 @@ GIT_EXT_SERVICE_NOPREFIX::
to invoke.
-EXAMPLES:
----------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
This remote helper is transparently used by Git when
you use commands such as "git fetch <URL>", "git clone <URL>",
, "git push <URL>" or "git remote add <nick> <URL>", where <URL>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 577b969..0cad37f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -172,24 +172,28 @@ With `-n` option, the remote heads are not queried first with
'prune'::
-Deletes all stale remote-tracking branches under <name>.
-These stale branches have already been removed from the remote repository
-referenced by <name>, but are still locally available in
-"remotes/<name>".
+Deletes stale references associated with <name>. By default, stale
+remote-tracking branches under <name> are deleted, but depending on
+global configuration and the configuration of the remote we might even
+prune local tags that haven't been pushed there. Equivalent to `git
+fetch --prune <name>`, except that no new references will be fetched.
++
+See the PRUNING section of linkgit:git-fetch[1] for what it'll prune
+depending on various configuration.
+
With `--dry-run` option, report what branches will be pruned, but do not
actually prune them.
'update'::
-Fetch updates for a named set of remotes in the repository as defined by
-remotes.<group>. If a named group is not specified on the command line,
+Fetch updates for remotes or remote groups in the repository as defined by
+remotes.<group>. If neither group nor remote is specified on the command line,
the configuration parameter remotes.default will be used; if
remotes.default is not defined, all remotes which do not have the
configuration parameter remote.<name>.skipDefaultUpdate set to true will
be updated. (See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
-With `--prune` option, prune all the remotes that are updated.
+With `--prune` option, run pruning against all the remotes that are updated.
DISCUSSION
@@ -199,7 +203,7 @@ The remote configuration is achieved using the `remote.origin.url` and
`remote.origin.fetch` configuration variables. (See
linkgit:git-config[1]).
-Examples
+EXAMPLES
--------
* Add a new remote, fetch, and check out a branch from it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index ae750e9..aa0cc8b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-repack - Pack unpacked objects in a repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>] [--threads=<n>]
+'git repack' [-a] [-A] [-d] [-f] [-F] [-l] [-n] [-q] [-b] [--window=<n>] [--depth=<n>] [--threads=<n>] [--keep-pack=<pack-name>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -40,6 +40,11 @@ OPTIONS
Note that users fetching over dumb protocols will have to fetch the
whole new pack in order to get any contained object, no matter how many
other objects in that pack they already have locally.
++
+Promisor packfiles are repacked separately: if there are packfiles that
+have an associated ".promisor" file, these packfiles will be repacked
+into another separate pack, and an empty ".promisor" file corresponding
+to the new separate pack will be written.
-A::
Same as `-a`, unless `-d` is used. Then any unreachable
@@ -90,7 +95,9 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
space. `--depth` limits the maximum delta depth; making it too deep
affects the performance on the unpacker side, because delta data needs
to be applied that many times to get to the necessary object.
- The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50.
++
+The default value for --window is 10 and --depth is 50. The maximum
+depth is 4095.
--threads=<n>::
This option is passed through to `git pack-objects`.
@@ -133,6 +140,13 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
with `-b` or `repack.writeBitmaps`, as it ensures that the
bitmapped packfile has the necessary objects.
+--keep-pack=<pack-name>::
+ Exclude the given pack from repacking. This is the equivalent
+ of having `.keep` file on the pack. `<pack-name>` is the the
+ pack file name without leading directory (e.g. `pack-123.pack`).
+ The option could be specified multiple times to keep multiple
+ packs.
+
--unpack-unreachable=<when>::
When loosening unreachable objects, do not bother loosening any
objects older than `<when>`. This can be used to optimize out
@@ -146,6 +160,11 @@ other objects in that pack they already have locally.
being removed. In addition, any unreachable loose objects will
be packed (and their loose counterparts removed).
+-i::
+--delta-islands::
+ Pass the `--delta-islands` option to `git-pack-objects`, see
+ linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
+
Configuration
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index e5c57ae..246dc99 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git replace' [-f] <object> <replacement>
'git replace' [-f] --edit <object>
'git replace' [-f] --graft <commit> [<parent>...]
+'git replace' [-f] --convert-graft-file
'git replace' -d <object>...
'git replace' [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
@@ -87,9 +88,13 @@ OPTIONS
content as <commit> except that its parents will be