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-rw-r--r--.gitignore122
-rw-r--r--COPYING361
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile101
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches298
-rw-r--r--Documentation/asciidoc.conf26
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/build-docdep.perl50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/cvs-migration.txt247
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-format.txt148
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt62
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diffcore.txt275
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt75
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt96
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-apply.txt104
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-applymbox.txt92
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-applypatch.txt50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-archimport.txt85
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt100
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt99
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt79
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone-pack.txt60
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt89
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt99
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-count-objects.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt112
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt83
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-files.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-index.txt133
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt141
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt68
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt93
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck-objects.txt144
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-hash-object.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt41
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-push.txt89
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-index-pack.txt44
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-init-db.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-local-fetch.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt62
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-lost-found.txt78
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt213
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt63
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-index.txt88
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mktag.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mv.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-name-rev.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-octopus.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt89
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-parse-remote.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-patch-id.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pull.txt126
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt281
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt95
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-relink.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repo-config.txt170
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-request-pull.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-resolve.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt150
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt174
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-revert.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt80
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-pack.txt110
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shell.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-branch.txt113
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-index.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ssh-fetch.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ssh-upload.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt45
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stripspace.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svnimport.txt137
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-unpack-file.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt166
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-ref.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-server-info.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-var.txt61
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt81
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-write-tree.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt573
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary.txt242
-rw-r--r--Documentation/hooks.txt127
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/howto-index.sh56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/isolate-bugs-with-bisect.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/make-dist.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt81
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt165
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt83
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt200
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt105
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/using-topic-branches.txt288
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/install-webdoc.sh25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pack-protocol.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt144
-rw-r--r--Documentation/repository-layout.txt128
-rw-r--r--Documentation/sort_glossary.pl70
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt121
-rw-r--r--Documentation/tutorial.txt1737
-rw-r--r--INSTALL89
-rw-r--r--Makefile495
-rw-r--r--README586
-rw-r--r--apply.c1858
-rw-r--r--arm/sha1.c82
-rw-r--r--arm/sha1.h18
-rw-r--r--arm/sha1_arm.S184
-rw-r--r--blob.c52
-rw-r--r--blob.h18
-rw-r--r--cache.h429
-rw-r--r--cat-file.c56
-rw-r--r--check-ref-format.c17
-rw-r--r--checkout-index.c169
-rw-r--r--clone-pack.c305
-rwxr-xr-xcmd-rename.sh62
-rw-r--r--commit-tree.c129
-rw-r--r--commit.c637
-rw-r--r--commit.h75
-rw-r--r--compat/mmap.c50
-rw-r--r--compat/strcasestr.c23
-rw-r--r--compat/subprocess.py1149
-rw-r--r--config.c588
-rw-r--r--connect.c654
-rw-r--r--convert-objects.c325
-rw-r--r--copy.c40
-rw-r--r--count-delta.c79
-rw-r--r--count-delta.h10
-rw-r--r--csum-file.c148
-rw-r--r--csum-file.h19
-rw-r--r--ctype.c23
-rw-r--r--daemon.c614
-rw-r--r--date.c646
-rw-r--r--debian/.gitignore6
-rw-r--r--debian/changelog111
-rw-r--r--debian/compat1
-rw-r--r--debian/control63
-rw-r--r--debian/copyright24
-rw-r--r--debian/docs1
-rw-r--r--debian/git-arch.files2
-rw-r--r--debian/git-core.doc-base13
-rw-r--r--debian/git-core.files1
-rw-r--r--debian/git-cvs.files2
-rw-r--r--debian/git-doc.files4
-rw-r--r--debian/git-email.files2
-rw-r--r--debian/git-svn.files2
-rw-r--r--debian/git-tk.files2
-rwxr-xr-xdebian/rules109
-rw-r--r--delta.h34
-rw-r--r--diff-delta.c334
-rw-r--r--diff-files.c132
-rw-r--r--diff-index.c247
-rw-r--r--diff-stages.c101
-rw-r--r--diff-tree.c266
-rw-r--r--diff.c1365
-rw-r--r--diff.h140
-rw-r--r--diffcore-break.c283
-rw-r--r--diffcore-order.c122
-rw-r--r--diffcore-pathspec.c67
-rw-r--r--diffcore-pickaxe.c104
-rw-r--r--diffcore-rename.c463
-rw-r--r--diffcore.h104
-rw-r--r--entry.c156
-rw-r--r--environment.c77
-rw-r--r--epoch.c639
-rw-r--r--epoch.h21
-rw-r--r--fetch-pack.c476
-rw-r--r--fetch.c238
-rw-r--r--fetch.h51
-rw-r--r--fsck-objects.c550
-rw-r--r--get-tar-commit-id.c30
-rwxr-xr-xgit-add.sh43
-rwxr-xr-xgit-am.sh407
-rwxr-xr-xgit-applymbox.sh118
-rwxr-xr-xgit-applypatch.sh197
-rwxr-xr-xgit-archimport.perl852
-rwxr-xr-xgit-bisect.sh223
-rwxr-xr-xgit-branch.sh117
-rwxr-xr-xgit-checkout.sh138
-rwxr-xr-xgit-cherry.sh91
-rwxr-xr-xgit-clone.sh224
-rwxr-xr-xgit-commit.sh247
-rwxr-xr-xgit-count-objects.sh31
-rwxr-xr-xgit-cvsexportcommit.perl225
-rwxr-xr-xgit-cvsimport.perl842
-rwxr-xr-xgit-diff.sh47
-rwxr-xr-xgit-fetch.sh343
-rwxr-xr-xgit-fmt-merge-msg.perl95
-rwxr-xr-xgit-format-patch.sh286
-rwxr-xr-xgit-grep.sh47
-rwxr-xr-xgit-log.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xgit-lost-found.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xgit-ls-remote.sh108
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-octopus.sh101
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-one-file.sh109
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-ours.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-recursive.py883
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-resolve.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-stupid.sh80
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge.sh294
-rwxr-xr-xgit-mv.perl224
-rwxr-xr-xgit-octopus.sh90
-rwxr-xr-xgit-parse-remote.sh191
-rwxr-xr-xgit-prune.sh40
-rwxr-xr-xgit-pull.sh108
-rwxr-xr-xgit-push.sh65
-rwxr-xr-xgit-rebase.sh29
-rwxr-xr-xgit-relink.perl173
-rwxr-xr-xgit-repack.sh81
-rwxr-xr-xgit-request-pull.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xgit-reset.sh105
-rwxr-xr-xgit-resolve.sh104
-rwxr-xr-xgit-revert.sh177
-rwxr-xr-xgit-send-email.perl368
-rwxr-xr-xgit-sh-setup.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xgit-shortlog.perl200
-rwxr-xr-xgit-status.sh106
-rwxr-xr-xgit-svnimport.perl780
-rwxr-xr-xgit-tag.sh104
-rwxr-xr-xgit-verify-tag.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xgit-whatchanged.sh7
-rw-r--r--git.c298
-rw-r--r--git.spec.in188
-rw-r--r--gitMergeCommon.py272
-rw-r--r--hash-object.c45
-rw-r--r--http-fetch.c969
-rw-r--r--http-push.c1426
-rw-r--r--http.c442
-rw-r--r--http.h95
-rw-r--r--ident.c197
-rw-r--r--index-pack.c462
-rw-r--r--index.c55
-rw-r--r--init-db.c281
-rw-r--r--local-fetch.c245
-rw-r--r--ls-files.c687
-rw-r--r--ls-tree.c252
-rw-r--r--mailinfo.c753
-rw-r--r--mailsplit.c157
-rw-r--r--merge-base.c256
-rw-r--r--merge-index.c135
-rw-r--r--mktag.c136
-rw-r--r--mozilla-sha1/sha1.c152
-rw-r--r--mozilla-sha1/sha1.h45
-rw-r--r--name-rev.c243
-rw-r--r--object.c249
-rw-r--r--object.h58
-rw-r--r--pack-check.c143
-rw-r--r--pack-objects.c560
-rw-r--r--pack-redundant.c692
-rw-r--r--pack.h32
-rw-r--r--patch-delta.c73
-rw-r--r--patch-id.c82
-rw-r--r--path.c207
-rw-r--r--peek-remote.c55
-rw-r--r--pkt-line.c117
-rw-r--r--pkt-line.h12
-rw-r--r--ppc/sha1.c72
-rw-r--r--ppc/sha1.h20
-rw-r--r--ppc/sha1ppc.S185
-rw-r--r--prune-packed.c77
-rw-r--r--quote.c257
-rw-r--r--quote.h47
-rw-r--r--read-cache.c591
-rw-r--r--read-tree.c728
-rw-r--r--receive-pack.c282
-rw-r--r--refs.c370
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-rw-r--r--rev-list.c882
-rw-r--r--rev-parse.c291
-rw-r--r--rsh.c112
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-rw-r--r--run-command.c58
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-rw-r--r--send-pack.c315
-rw-r--r--server-info.c534
-rw-r--r--setup.c178
-rw-r--r--sha1_file.c1579
-rw-r--r--sha1_name.c455
-rw-r--r--shell.c58
-rw-r--r--show-branch.c578
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-rw-r--r--ssh-pull.c4
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-rw-r--r--ssh-upload.c143
-rw-r--r--strbuf.c44
-rw-r--r--strbuf.h13
-rw-r--r--stripspace.c48
-rw-r--r--symbolic-ref.c35
-rw-r--r--t/Makefile28
-rw-r--r--t/README208
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t0000-basic.sh180
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t2002-checkout-cache-u.sh33
-rwxr-xr-xt/t2003-checkout-cache-mkdir.sh96
-rwxr-xr-xt/t2100-update-cache-badpath.sh51
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3000-ls-files-others.sh34
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3001-ls-files-others-exclude.sh82
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3002-ls-files-dashpath.sh69
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3010-ls-files-killed-modified.sh96
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3100-ls-tree-restrict.sh131
-rw-r--r--t/t3101-ls-tree-dirname.sh160
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3200-branch.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3300-funny-names.sh142
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4000-diff-format.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4001-diff-rename.sh67
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4002-diff-basic.sh247
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4003-diff-rename-1.sh128
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4004-diff-rename-symlink.sh67
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4005-diff-rename-2.sh86
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4006-diff-mode.sh34
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4007-rename-3.sh90
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t4009-diff-rename-4.sh95
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-rw-r--r--t/t4100/t-apply-1.expect11
-rw-r--r--t/t4100/t-apply-1.patch194
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-rw-r--r--tag.c108
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-rw-r--r--templates/.gitignore2
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-rw-r--r--templates/branches--1
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-rw-r--r--unpack-objects.c316
-rw-r--r--update-index.c521
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-rw-r--r--update-server-info.c23
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c283
-rw-r--r--usage.c39
-rw-r--r--var.c78
-rw-r--r--verify-pack.c57
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425 files changed, 69138 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8a6bd02
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1,122 @@
+git
+git-add
+git-am
+git-apply
+git-applymbox
+git-applypatch
+git-archimport
+git-bisect
+git-branch
+git-cat-file
+git-check-ref-format
+git-checkout
+git-checkout-index
+git-cherry
+git-cherry-pick
+git-clone
+git-clone-pack
+git-commit
+git-commit-tree
+git-convert-objects
+git-count-objects
+git-cvsexportcommit
+git-cvsimport
+git-daemon
+git-diff
+git-diff-files
+git-diff-index
+git-diff-stages
+git-diff-tree
+git-fetch
+git-fetch-pack
+git-findtags
+git-fmt-merge-msg
+git-format-patch
+git-fsck-objects
+git-get-tar-commit-id
+git-grep
+git-hash-object
+git-http-fetch
+git-http-push
+git-index-pack
+git-init-db
+git-local-fetch
+git-log
+git-lost-found
+git-ls-files
+git-ls-remote
+git-ls-tree
+git-mailinfo
+git-mailsplit
+git-merge
+git-merge-base
+git-merge-index
+git-merge-octopus
+git-merge-one-file
+git-merge-ours
+git-merge-recursive
+git-merge-resolve
+git-merge-stupid
+git-mktag
+git-name-rev
+git-mv
+git-octopus
+git-pack-redundant
+git-pack-objects
+git-parse-remote
+git-patch-id
+git-peek-remote
+git-prune
+git-prune-packed
+git-pull
+git-push
+git-read-tree
+git-rebase
+git-receive-pack
+git-relink
+git-repack
+git-repo-config
+git-request-pull
+git-reset
+git-resolve
+git-rev-list
+git-rev-parse
+git-revert
+git-send-email
+git-send-pack
+git-sh-setup
+git-shell
+git-shortlog
+git-show-branch
+git-show-index
+git-ssh-fetch
+git-ssh-pull
+git-ssh-push
+git-ssh-upload
+git-status
+git-stripspace
+git-svnimport
+git-symbolic-ref
+git-tag
+git-tar-tree
+git-unpack-file
+git-unpack-objects
+git-update-index
+git-update-ref
+git-update-server-info
+git-upload-pack
+git-var
+git-verify-pack
+git-verify-tag
+git-whatchanged
+git-write-tree
+git-core-*/?*
+test-date
+test-delta
+*.tar.gz
+*.dsc
+*.deb
+git-core.spec
+*.exe
+libgit.a
+*.o
diff --git a/COPYING b/COPYING
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6ff87c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/COPYING
@@ -0,0 +1,361 @@
+
+ Note that the only valid version of the GPL as far as this project
+ is concerned is _this_ particular version of the license (ie v2, not
+ v2.2 or v3.x or whatever), unless explicitly otherwise stated.
+
+ HOWEVER, in order to allow a migration to GPLv3 if that seems like
+ a good idea, I also ask that people involved with the project make
+ their preferences known. In particular, if you trust me to make that
+ decision, you might note so in your copyright message, ie something
+ like
+
+ This file is licensed under the GPL v2, or a later version
+ at the discretion of Linus.
+
+ might avoid issues. But we can also just decide to synchronize and
+ contact all copyright holders on record if/when the occasion arises.
+
+ Linus Torvalds
+
+----------------------------------------
+
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ Version 2, June 1991
+
+ Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+ 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
+ Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
+ of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
+
+ Preamble
+
+ The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
+freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
+License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
+software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
+General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
+Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
+using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
+the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
+your programs, too.
+
+ When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
+price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
+have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
+this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
+if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
+in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
+
+ To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
+anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
+These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
+distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
+
+ For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
+gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
+you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
+source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
+rights.
+
+ We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
+(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
+distribute and/or modify the software.
+
+ Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
+that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
+software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
+want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
+that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
+authors' reputations.
+
+ Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
+patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
+program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
+program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
+patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
+
+ The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
+modification follow.
+
+ GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
+ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
+
+ 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
+a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
+under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
+refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
+means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
+that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
+either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
+language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
+the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
+
+Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
+covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
+running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
+is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
+Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
+Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
+
+ 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
+source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
+conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
+copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
+notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
+and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
+along with the Program.
+
+You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
+you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
+
+ 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
+of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
+distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
+above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
+
+ a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
+ stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
+
+ b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
+ whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
+ part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
+ parties under the terms of this License.
+
+ c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
+ when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
+ interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
+ announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
+ notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
+ a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
+ these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
+ License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
+ does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
+ the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
+
+These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
+identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
+and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
+themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
+sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
+distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
+on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
+this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
+entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
+
+Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
+your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
+exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
+collective works based on the Program.
+
+In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
+with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
+a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
+the scope of this License.
+
+ 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
+under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
+Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
+
+ a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
+ source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
+ 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
+ years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
+ cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
+ machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
+ distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
+ customarily used for software interchange; or,
+
+ c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
+ to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
+ allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
+ received the program in object code or executable form with such
+ an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
+
+The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
+making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
+code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
+associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
+control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
+special exception, the source code distributed need not include
+anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
+form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
+operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
+itself accompanies the executable.
+
+If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
+access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
+access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
+distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
+compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
+
+ 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
+except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
+otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
+void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
+However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
+this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
+parties remain in full compliance.
+
+ 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
+signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
+distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
+prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
+modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
+all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
+the Program or works based on it.
+
+ 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
+Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
+original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
+these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
+restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
+You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
+this License.
+
+ 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
+infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
+conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
+otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
+excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
+distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
+License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
+may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
+license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
+all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
+the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
+refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
+
+If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
+any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
+apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
+circumstances.
+
+It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
+patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
+such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
+integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
+implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
+generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
+through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
+system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
+to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
+impose that choice.
+
+This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
+be a consequence of the rest of this License.
+
+ 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
+certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
+original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
+may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
+those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
+countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
+the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
+
+ 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
+of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
+be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
+address new problems or concerns.
+
+Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
+specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
+later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
+either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
+Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
+this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
+Foundation.
+
+ 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
+programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
+to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
+Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
+make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
+of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
+of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
+
+ NO WARRANTY
+
+ 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
+FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
+OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
+PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
+OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
+MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
+TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
+PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
+REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
+
+ 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
+WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
+REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
+INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
+OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
+TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
+YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
+PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
+POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
+
+ END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
+
+ How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
+
+ If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
+possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
+free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
+
+ To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
+to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
+convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
+the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
+
+ <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
+ Copyright (C) <year> <name of author>
+
+ This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ (at your option) any later version.
+
+ This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
+ GNU General Public License for more details.
+
+ You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
+
+
+Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
+
+If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
+when it starts in an interactive mode:
+
+ Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) year name of author
+ Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
+ This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
+ under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
+
+The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
+parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
+be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
+mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
+
+You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
+school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
+necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
+
+ Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
+ `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
+
+ <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
+ Ty Coon, President of Vice
+
+This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
+proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
+consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
+library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
+Public License instead of this License.
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9fef490
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1,6 @@
+*.xml
+*.html
+*.1
+*.7
+howto-index.txt
+doc.dep
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..be4f3e1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,101 @@
+MAN1_TXT=$(wildcard git-*.txt) gitk.txt
+MAN7_TXT=git.txt
+
+DOC_HTML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT))
+
+ARTICLES = tutorial
+ARTICLES += cvs-migration
+ARTICLES += diffcore
+ARTICLES += howto-index
+ARTICLES += repository-layout
+ARTICLES += hooks
+# with their own formatting rules.
+SP_ARTICLES = glossary howto/revert-branch-rebase
+
+DOC_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
+
+DOC_MAN1=$(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
+DOC_MAN7=$(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
+
+prefix?=$(HOME)
+bin=$(prefix)/bin
+mandir=$(prefix)/man
+man1=$(mandir)/man1
+man7=$(mandir)/man7
+# DESTDIR=
+
+INSTALL?=install
+
+#
+# Please note that there is a minor bug in asciidoc.
+# The version after 6.0.3 _will_ include the patch found here:
+# http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=111558757202243&w=2
+#
+# Until that version is released you may have to apply the patch
+# yourself - yes, all 6 characters of it!
+#
+
+all: html man
+
+html: $(DOC_HTML)
+
+
+man: man1 man7
+man1: $(DOC_MAN1)
+man7: $(DOC_MAN7)
+
+install: man
+ $(INSTALL) -d -m755 $(DESTDIR)/$(man1) $(DESTDIR)/$(man7)
+ $(INSTALL) $(DOC_MAN1) $(DESTDIR)/$(man1)
+ $(INSTALL) $(DOC_MAN7) $(DESTDIR)/$(man7)
+
+
+#
+# Determine "include::" file references in asciidoc files.
+#
+doc.dep : $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
+ rm -f $@+ $@
+ perl ./build-docdep.perl >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+-include doc.dep
+
+git.7: ../README
+
+
+clean:
+ rm -f *.xml *.html *.1 *.7 howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
+
+%.html : %.txt
+ asciidoc -b xhtml11 -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf $<
+
+%.1 %.7 : %.xml
+ xmlto man $<
+
+%.xml : %.txt
+ asciidoc -b docbook -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf $<
+
+git.html: git.txt ../README
+
+glossary.html : glossary.txt sort_glossary.pl
+ cat $< | \
+ perl sort_glossary.pl | \
+ asciidoc -b xhtml11 - > glossary.html
+
+howto-index.txt: howto-index.sh $(wildcard howto/*.txt)
+ rm -f $@+ $@
+ sh ./howto-index.sh $(wildcard howto/*.txt) >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+$(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES)) : %.html : %.txt
+ asciidoc -b xhtml11 $*.txt
+
+WEBDOC_DEST = /pub/software/scm/git/docs
+
+$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
+ rm -f $@+ $@
+ sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $? | asciidoc -b xhtml11 - >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+install-webdoc : html
+ sh ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9ccb8f7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -0,0 +1,298 @@
+I started reading over the SubmittingPatches document for Linux
+kernel, primarily because I wanted to have a document similar to
+it for the core GIT to make sure people understand what they are
+doing when they write "Signed-off-by" line.
+
+But the patch submission requirements are a lot more relaxed
+here, because the core GIT is thousand times smaller ;-). So
+here is only the relevant bits.
+
+
+(1) Make separate commits for logically separate changes.
+
+Unless your patch is really trivial, you should not be sending
+out a patch that was generated between your working tree and
+your commit head. Instead, always make a commit with complete
+commit message and generate a series of patches from your
+repository. It is a good discipline.
+
+Describe the technical detail of the change(s).
+
+If your description starts to get long, that's a sign that you
+probably need to split up your commit to finer grained pieces.
+
+
+(2) Generate your patch using git/cogito out of your commits.
+
+git diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
+You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
+"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
+receiving end can handle them just fine.
+
+Please make sure your patch does not include any extra files
+which do not belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review
+your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
+sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
+branch head.
+
+
+(3) Sending your patches.
+
+People on the git mailing list needs to be able to read and
+comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
+a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
+e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
+your code. For this reason, all patches should be submitting
+e-mail "inline". WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
+corrupting your patch. Do not cut-n-paste your patch.
+
+It is common convention to prefix your subject line with
+[PATCH]. This lets people easily distinguish patches from other
+e-mail discussions.
+
+"git format-patch" command follows the best current practice to
+format the body of an e-mail message. At the beginning of the
+patch should come your commit message, ending with the
+Signed-off-by: lines, and a line that consists of three dashes,
+followed by the diffstat information and the patch itself. If
+you are forwarding a patch from somebody else, optionally, at
+the beginning of the e-mail message just before the commit
+message starts, you can put a "From: " line to name that person.
+
+You often want to add additional explanation about the patch,
+other than the commit message itself. Place such "cover letter"
+material between the three dash lines and the diffstat.
+
+Do not attach the patch as a MIME attachment, compressed or not.
+Do not let your e-mail client send quoted-printable. Many
+popular e-mail applications will not always transmit a MIME
+attachment as plain text, making it impossible to comment on
+your code. A MIME attachment also takes a bit more time to
+process. This does not decrease the likelihood of your
+MIME-attached change being accepted, but it makes it more likely
+that it will be postponed.
+
+Exception: If your mailer is mangling patches then someone may ask
+you to re-send them using MIME, that is OK.
+
+Do not PGP sign your patch, at least for now. Most likely, your
+maintainer or other people on the list would not have your PGP
+key and would not bother obtaining it anyway. Your patch is not
+judged by who you are; a good patch from an unknown origin has a
+far better chance of being accepted than a patch from a known,
+respected origin that is done poorly or does incorrect things.
+
+If you really really really really want to do a PGP signed
+patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
+that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
+not a text/plain, it's something else.
+
+Note that your maintainer does not necessarily read everything
+on the git mailing list. If your patch is for discussion first,
+send it "To:" the mailing list, and optionally "cc:" him. If it
+is trivially correct or after the list reached a consensus, send
+it "To:" the maintainer and optionally "cc:" the list.
+
+
+(6) Sign your work
+
+To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
+"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
+that are being emailed around. Although core GIT is a lot
+smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
+
+The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
+the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
+the right to pass it on as a open-source patch. The rules are
+pretty simple: if you can certify the below:
+
+ Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1
+
+ By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
+
+ (a) The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I
+ have the right to submit it under the open source license
+ indicated in the file; or
+
+ (b) The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best
+ of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source
+ license and I have the right under that license to submit that
+ work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part
+ by me, under the same open source license (unless I am
+ permitted to submit under a different license), as indicated
+ in the file; or
+
+ (c) The contribution was provided directly to me by some other
+ person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified
+ it.
+
+ (d) I understand and agree that this project and the contribution
+ are public and that a record of the contribution (including all
+ personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is
+ maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with
+ this project or the open source license(s) involved.
+
+then you just add a line saying
+
+ Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
+
+Some people also put extra tags at the end. They'll just be ignored for
+now, but you can do this to mark internal company procedures or just
+point out some special detail about the sign-off.
+
+
+------------------------------------------------
+MUA specific hints
+
+Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
+patterns of breakage. Please make sure your MUA is set up
+properly not to corrupt whitespaces. Here are two common ones
+I have seen:
+
+* Empty context lines that do not have _any_ whitespace.
+
+* Non empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the
+ beginning.
+
+One test you could do yourself if your MUA is set up correctly is:
+
+* Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except
+ To: and Cc: lines, which would not contain the list and
+ maintainer address.
+
+* Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it say
+ a.patch.
+
+* Try to apply to the tip of the "master" branch from the
+ git.git public repository:
+
+ $ git fetch http://kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master:test-apply
+ $ git checkout test-apply
+ $ git reset --hard
+ $ git applymbox a.patch
+
+If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.
+
+* Your patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is _bad_ but
+ does not have much to do with your MUA. Please rebase the
+ patch appropriately.
+
+* Your MUA corrupted your patch; applymbox would complain that
+ the patch does not apply. Look at .dotest/ subdirectory and
+ see what 'patch' file contains and check for the common
+ corruption patterns mentioned above.
+
+* While you are at it, check what are in 'info' and
+ 'final-commit' files as well. If what is in 'final-commit' is
+ not exactly what you would want to see in the commit log
+ message, it is very likely that your maintainer would end up
+ hand editing the log message when he applies your patch.
+ Things like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n", if you really
+ want to put in the patch e-mail, should come after the
+ three-dash line that signals the end of the commit message.
+
+
+Pine
+----
+
+(Johannes Schindelin)
+
+I don't know how many people still use pine, but for those poor
+souls it may be good to mention that the quell-flowed-text is
+needed for recent versions.
+
+... the "no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, too. AFAIK it
+was introduced in 4.60.
+
+(Linus Torvalds)
+
+And 4.58 needs at least this.
+
+---
+diff-tree 8326dd8350be64ac7fc805f6563a1d61ad10d32c (from e886a61f76edf5410573e92e38ce22974f9c40f1)
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@g5.osdl.org>
+Date: Mon Aug 15 17:23:51 2005 -0700
+
+ Fix pine whitespace-corruption bug
+
+ There's no excuse for unconditionally removing whitespace from
+ the pico buffers on close.
+
+diff --git a/pico/pico.c b/pico/pico.c
+--- a/pico/pico.c
++++ b/pico/pico.c
+@@ -219,7 +219,9 @@ PICO *pm;
+ switch(pico_all_done){ /* prepare for/handle final events */
+ case COMP_EXIT : /* already confirmed */
+ packheader();
++#if 0
+ stripwhitespace();
++#endif
+ c |= COMP_EXIT;
+ break;
+
+
+(Daniel Barkalow)
+
+> A patch to SubmittingPatches, MUA specific help section for
+> users of Pine 4.63 would be very much appreciated.
+
+Ah, it looks like a recent version changed the default behavior to do the
+right thing, and inverted the sense of the configuration option. (Either
+that or Gentoo did it.) So you need to set the
+"no-strip-whitespace-before-send" option, unless the option you have is
+"strip-whitespace-before-send", in which case you should avoid checking
+it.
+
+
+Thunderbird
+-----------
+
+(A Large Angry SCM)
+
+Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
+Thunderbird.
+
+This recipe appears to work with the current [*1*] Thunderbird from Suse.
+
+The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
+ AboutConfig 0.5
+ http://aboutconfig.mozdev.org/
+ External Editor 0.5.4
+ http://extensionroom.mozdev.org/more-info/exteditor
+
+1) Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.
+
+2) Before opening a compose window, use Edit->Account Settings to
+uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
+"Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to send the
+patch. [*2*]
+
+3) In the main Thunderbird window, _before_ you open the compose window
+for the patch, use Tools->about:config to set the following to the
+indicated values:
+ mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed => false
+ mailnews.wraplength => 0
+
+4) Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.
+
+5) In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit the
+editor normally.
+
+6) Back in the compose window: Add whatever other text you wish to the
+message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
+
+7) Optionally, undo the about:config/account settings changes made in
+steps 2 & 3.
+
+
+[Footnotes]
+*1* Version 1.0 (20041207) from the MozillaThunderbird-1.0-5 rpm of Suse
+9.3 professional updates.
+
+*2* It may be possible to do this with about:config and the following
+settings but I haven't tried, yet.
+ mail.html_compose => false
+ mail.identity.default.compose_html => false
+ mail.identity.id?.compose_html => false
+
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fa0877d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -0,0 +1,26 @@
+## gitlink: macro
+#
+# Usage: gitlink:command[manpage-section]
+#
+# Note, {0} is the manpage section, while {target} is the command.
+#
+# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
+# the command.
+
+[attributes]
+caret=^
+
+ifdef::backend-docbook[]
+[gitlink-inlinemacro]
+{0%{target}}
+{0#<citerefentry>}
+{0#<refentrytitle>{target}</refentrytitle><manvolnum>{0}</manvolnum>}
+{0#</citerefentry>}
+endif::backend-docbook[]
+
+ifdef::backend-xhtml11[]
+[gitlink-inlinemacro]
+<a href="{target}.html">{target}{0?({0})}</a>
+endif::backend-xhtml11[]
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/build-docdep.perl b/Documentation/build-docdep.perl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..489389c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/build-docdep.perl
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+#!/usr/bin/perl
+
+my %include = ();
+my %included = ();
+
+for my $text (<*.txt>) {
+ open I, '<', $text || die "cannot read: $text";
+ while (<I>) {
+ if (/^include::/) {
+ chomp;
+ s/^include::\s*//;
+ s/\[\]//;
+ $include{$text}{$_} = 1;
+ $included{$_} = 1;
+ }
+ }
+ close I;
+}
+
+# Do we care about chained includes???
+my $changed = 1;
+while ($changed) {
+ $changed = 0;
+ while (my ($text, $included) = each %include) {
+ for my $i (keys %$included) {
+ # $text has include::$i; if $i includes $j
+ # $text indirectly includes $j.
+ if (exists $include{$i}) {
+ for my $j (keys %{$include{$i}}) {
+ if (!exists $include{$text}{$j}) {
+ $include{$text}{$j} = 1;
+ $included{$j} = 1;
+ $changed = 1;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+while (my ($text, $included) = each %include) {
+ if (! exists $included{$text} &&
+ (my $base = $text) =~ s/\.txt$//) {
+ my ($suffix) = '1';
+ if ($base eq 'git') {
+ $suffix = '7'; # yuck...
+ }
+ print "$base.html $base.$suffix : ", join(" ", keys %$included), "\n";
+ }
+}
diff --git a/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..57436f0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/cvs-migration.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,247 @@
+git for CVS users
+=================
+
+Ok, so you're a CVS user. That's ok, it's a treatable condition, and the
+first step to recovery is admitting you have a problem. The fact that
+you are reading this file means that you may be well on that path
+already.
+
+The thing about CVS is that it absolutely sucks as a source control
+manager, and you'll thus be happy with almost anything else. git,
+however, may be a bit 'too' different (read: "good") for your taste, and
+does a lot of things differently.
+
+One particular suckage of CVS is very hard to work around: CVS is
+basically a tool for tracking 'file' history, while git is a tool for
+tracking 'project' history. This sometimes causes problems if you are
+used to doing very strange things in CVS, in particular if you're doing
+things like making branches of just a subset of the project. git can't
+track that, since git never tracks things on the level of an individual
+file, only on the whole project level.
+
+The good news is that most people don't do that, and in fact most sane
+people think it's a bug in CVS that makes it tag (and check in changes)
+one file at a time. So most projects you'll ever see will use CVS
+'as if' it was sane. In which case you'll find it very easy indeed to
+move over to git.
+
+First off: this is not a git tutorial. See
+link:tutorial.html[Documentation/tutorial.txt] for how git
+actually works. This is more of a random collection of gotcha's
+and notes on converting from CVS to git.
+
+Second: CVS has the notion of a "repository" as opposed to the thing
+that you're actually working in (your working directory, or your
+"checked out tree"). git does not have that notion at all, and all git
+working directories 'are' the repositories. However, you can easily
+emulate the CVS model by having one special "global repository", which
+people can synchronize with. See details later, but in the meantime
+just keep in mind that with git, every checked out working tree will
+have a full revision control history of its own.
+
+
+Importing a CVS archive
+-----------------------
+
+Ok, you have an old project, and you want to at least give git a chance
+to see how it performs. The first thing you want to do (after you've
+gone through the git tutorial, and generally familiarized yourself with
+how to commit stuff etc in git) is to create a git'ified version of your
+CVS archive.
+
+Happily, that's very easy indeed. git will do it for you, although git
+will need the help of a program called "cvsps":
+
+ http://www.cobite.com/cvsps/
+
+which is not actually related to git at all, but which makes CVS usage
+look almost sane (ie you almost certainly want to have it even if you
+decide to stay with CVS). However, git will want 'at least' version 2.1
+of cvsps (available at the address above), and in fact will currently
+refuse to work with anything else.
+
+Once you've gotten (and installed) cvsps, you may or may not want to get
+any more familiar with it, but make sure it is in your path. After that,
+the magic command line is
+
+ git cvsimport -v -d <cvsroot> -C <destination> <module>
+
+which will do exactly what you'd think it does: it will create a git
+archive of the named CVS module. The new archive will be created in the
+subdirectory named <destination>; it'll be created if it doesn't exist.
+Default is the local directory.
+
+It can take some time to actually do the conversion for a large archive
+since it involves checking out from CVS every revision of every file,
+and the conversion script is reasonably chatty unless you omit the '-v'
+option, but on some not very scientific tests it averaged about twenty
+revisions per second, so a medium-sized project should not take more
+than a couple of minutes. For larger projects or remote repositories,
+the process may take longer.
+
+After the (initial) import is done, the CVS archive's current head
+revision will be checked out -- thus, you can start adding your own
+changes right away.
+
+The import is incremental, i.e. if you call it again next month it'll
+fetch any CVS updates that have been happening in the meantime. The
+cut-off is date-based, so don't change the branches that were imported
+from CVS.
+
+You can merge those updates (or, in fact, a different CVS branch) into
+your main branch:
+
+ git resolve HEAD origin "merge with current CVS HEAD"
+
+The HEAD revision from CVS is named "origin", not "HEAD", because git
+already uses "HEAD". (If you don't like 'origin', use cvsimport's
+'-o' option to change it.)
+
+
+Emulating CVS behaviour
+-----------------------
+
+
+So, by now you are convinced you absolutely want to work with git, but
+at the same time you absolutely have to have a central repository.
+Step back and think again. Okay, you still need a single central
+repository? There are several ways to go about that:
+
+1. Designate a person responsible to pull all branches. Make the
+repository of this person public, and make every team member
+pull regularly from it.
+
+2. Set up a public repository with read/write access for every team
+member. Use "git pull/push" as you used "cvs update/commit". Be
+sure that your repository is up to date before pushing, just
+like you used to do with "cvs commit"; your push will fail if
+what you are pushing is not up to date.
+
+3. Make the repository of every team member public. It is the
+responsibility of each single member to pull from every other
+team member.
+
+
+CVS annotate
+------------
+
+So, something has gone wrong, and you don't know whom to blame, and
+you're an ex-CVS user and used to do "cvs annotate" to see who caused
+the breakage. You're looking for the "git annotate", and it's just
+claiming not to find such a script. You're annoyed.
+
+Yes, that's right. Core git doesn't do "annotate", although it's
+technically possible, and there are at least two specialized scripts out
+there that can be used to get equivalent information (see the git
+mailing list archives for details).
+
+git has a couple of alternatives, though, that you may find sufficient
+or even superior depending on your use. One is called "git-whatchanged"
+(for obvious reasons) and the other one is called "pickaxe" ("a tool for
+the software archeologist").
+
+The "git-whatchanged" script is a truly trivial script that can give you
+a good overview of what has changed in a file or a directory (or an
+arbitrary list of files or directories). The "pickaxe" support is an
+additional layer that can be used to further specify exactly what you're
+looking for, if you already know the specific area that changed.
+
+Let's step back a bit and think about the reason why you would
+want to do "cvs annotate a-file.c" to begin with.
+
+You would use "cvs annotate" on a file when you have trouble
+with a function (or even a single "if" statement in a function)
+that happens to be defined in the file, which does not do what
+you want it to do. And you would want to find out why it was
+written that way, because you are about to modify it to suit
+your needs, and at the same time you do not want to break its
+current callers. For that, you are trying to find out why the
+original author did things that way in the original context.
+
+Many times, it may be enough to see the commit log messages of
+commits that touch the file in question, possibly along with the
+patches themselves, like this:
+
+ $ git-whatchanged -p a-file.c
+
+This will show log messages and patches for each commit that
+touches a-file.
+
+This, however, may not be very useful when this file has many
+modifications that are not related to the piece of code you are
+interested in. You would see many log messages and patches that
+do not have anything to do with the piece of code you are
+interested in. As an example, assuming that you have this piece
+of code that you are interested in in the HEAD version:
+
+ if (frotz) {
+ nitfol();
+ }
+
+you would use git-rev-list and git-diff-tree like this:
+
+ $ git-rev-list HEAD |
+ git-diff-tree --stdin -v -p -S'if (frotz) {
+ nitfol();
+ }'
+
+We have already talked about the "\--stdin" form of git-diff-tree
+command that reads the list of commits and compares each commit
+with its parents. The git-whatchanged command internally runs
+the equivalent of the above command, and can be used like this:
+
+ $ git-whatchanged -p -S'if (frotz) {
+ nitfol();
+ }'
+
+When the -S option is used, git-diff-tree command outputs
+differences between two commits only if one tree has the
+specified string in a file and the corresponding file in the
+other tree does not. The above example looks for a commit that
+has the "if" statement in it in a file, but its parent commit
+does not have it in the same shape in the corresponding file (or
+the other way around, where the parent has it and the commit
+does not), and the differences between them are shown, along
+with the commit message (thanks to the -v flag). It does not
+show anything for commits that do not touch this "if" statement.
+
+Also, in the original context, the same statement might have
+appeared at first in a different file and later the file was
+renamed to "a-file.c". CVS annotate would not help you to go
+back across such a rename, but git would still help you in such
+a situation. For that, you can give the -C flag to
+git-diff-tree, like this:
+
+ $ git-whatchanged -p -C -S'if (frotz) {
+ nitfol();
+ }'
+
+When the -C flag is used, file renames and copies are followed.
+So if the "if" statement in question happens to be in "a-file.c"
+in the current HEAD commit, even if the file was originally
+called "o-file.c" and then renamed in an earlier commit, or if
+the file was created by copying an existing "o-file.c" in an
+earlier commit, you will not lose track. If the "if" statement
+did not change across such a rename or copy, then the commit that
+does rename or copy would not show in the output, and if the
+"if" statement was modified while the file was still called
+"o-file.c", it would find the commit that changed the statement
+when it was in "o-file.c".
+
+NOTE: The current version of "git-diff-tree -C" is not eager
+ enough to find copies, and it will miss the fact that a-file.c
+ was created by copying o-file.c unless o-file.c was somehow
+ changed in the same commit.
+
+You can use the --pickaxe-all flag in addition to the -S flag.
+This causes the differences from all the files contained in
+those two commits, not just the differences between the files
+that contain this changed "if" statement:
+
+ $ git-whatchanged -p -C -S'if (frotz) {
+ nitfol();
+ }' --pickaxe-all
+
+NOTE: This option is called "--pickaxe-all" because -S
+ option is internally called "pickaxe", a tool for software
+ archaeologists.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..97756ec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,148 @@
+The output format from "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree" and
+"git-diff-files" are very similar.
+
+These commands all compare two sets of things; what is
+compared differs:
+
+git-diff-index <tree-ish>::
+ compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.
+
+git-diff-index --cached <tree-ish>::
+ compares the <tree-ish> and the index.
+
+git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]::
+ compares the trees named by the two arguments.
+
+git-diff-files [<pattern>...]::
+ compares the index and the files on the filesystem.
+
+
+An output line is formatted this way:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
+copy-edit :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... C68 file1 file2
+rename-edit :100644 100644 abcd123... 1234567... R86 file1 file3
+create :000000 100644 0000000... 1234567... A file4
+delete :100644 000000 1234567... 0000000... D file5
+unmerged :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6
+------------------------------------------------
+
+That is, from the left to the right:
+
+. a colon.
+. mode for "src"; 000000 if creation or unmerged.
+. a space.
+. mode for "dst"; 000000 if deletion or unmerged.
+. a space.
+. sha1 for "src"; 0\{40\} if creation or unmerged.
+. a space.
+. sha1 for "dst"; 0\{40\} if creation, unmerged or "look at work tree".
+. a space.
+. status, followed by optional "score" number.
+. a tab or a NUL when '-z' option is used.
+. path for "src"
+. a tab or a NUL when '-z' option is used; only exists for C or R.
+. path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.
+. an LF or a NUL when '-z' option is used, to terminate the record.
+
+<sha1> is shown as all 0's if a file is new on the filesystem
+and it is out of sync with the index.
+
+Example:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 5be4a4...... 000000...... M file.c
+------------------------------------------------
+
+When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
+in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
+respectively.
+
+
+Generating patches with -p
+--------------------------
+
+When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
+with a '-p' option, they do not produce the output described above;
+instead they produce a patch file.
+
+The patch generation can be customized at two levels.
+
+1. When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is not set,
+ these commands internally invoke "diff" like this:
+
+ diff -L a/<path> -L b/<path> -pu <old> <new>
++
+For added files, `/dev/null` is used for <old>. For removed
+files, `/dev/null` is used for <new>
++
+The "diff" formatting options can be customized via the
+environment variable 'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'. For example, if you
+prefer context diff:
+
+ GIT_DIFF_OPTS=-c git-diff-index -p HEAD
+
+
+2. When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
+ program named by it is called, instead of the diff invocation
+ described above.
++
+For a path that is added, removed, or modified,
+'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 7 parameters:
+
+ path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
++
+where:
+
+ <old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
+ contents of <old|new>,
+ <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
+ <old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
+
++
+The file parameters can point at the user's working file
+(e.g. `new-file` in "git-diff-files"), `/dev/null` (e.g. `old-file`
+when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. `old-file` in the
+index). 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' should not worry about unlinking the
+temporary file --- it is removed when 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' exits.
+
+For a path that is unmerged, 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is called with 1
+parameter, <path>.
+
+
+git specific extension to diff format
+-------------------------------------
+
+What -p option produces is slightly different from the
+traditional diff format.
+
+1. It is preceeded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
+ this:
+
+ diff --git a/file1 b/file2
++
+The `a/` and `b/` filenames are the same unless rename/copy is
+involved. Especially, even for a creation or a deletion,
+`/dev/null` is _not_ used in place of `a/` or `b/` filenames.
++
+When rename/copy is involved, `file1` and `file2` show the
+name of the source file of the rename/copy and the name of
+the file that rename/copy produces, respectively.
+
+2. It is followed by one or more extended header lines:
+
+ old mode <mode>
+ new mode <mode>
+ deleted file mode <mode>
+ new file mode <mode>
+ copy from <path>
+ copy to <path>
+ rename from <path>
+ rename to <path>
+ similarity index <number>
+ dissimilarity index <number>
+ index <hash>..<hash> <mode>
+
+3. TAB, LF, and backslash characters in pathnames are
+ represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`, respectively.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6b496ed
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+-p::
+ Generate patch (see section on generating patches)
+
+-u::
+ Synonym for "-p".
+
+-z::
+ \0 line termination on output
+
+--name-only::
+ Show only names of changed files.
+
+--name-status::
+ Show only names and status of changed files.
+
+--full-index::
+ Instead of the first handful characters, show full
+ object name of pre- and post-image blob on the "index"
+ line when generating a patch format output.
+
+-B::
+ Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
+
+-M::
+ Detect renames.
+
+-C::
+ Detect copies as well as renames.
+
+--find-copies-harder::
+ For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only
+ if the original file of the copy was modified in the same
+ changeset. This flag makes the command
+ inspect unmodified files as candidates for the source of
+ copy. This is a very expensive operation for large
+ projects, so use it with caution.
+
+-l<num>::
+ -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n
+ is the number of potential rename/copy targets. This
+ option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
+ the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
+ number.
+
+-S<string>::
+ Look for differences that contain the change in <string>.
+
+--pickaxe-all::
+ When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that
+ changeset, not just the files that contain the change
+ in <string>.
+
+-O<orderfile>::
+ Output the patch in the order specified in the
+ <orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
+
+-R::
+ Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
+ on-disk file to tree contents.
+
+For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also
+link:diffcore.html[diffcore documentation].
diff --git a/Documentation/diffcore.txt b/Documentation/diffcore.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cb4e562
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/diffcore.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,275 @@
+Tweaking diff output
+====================
+June 2005
+
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+The diff commands git-diff-index, git-diff-files, git-diff-tree, and
+git-diff-stages can be told to manipulate differences they find in
+unconventional ways before showing diff(1) output. The manipulation
+is collectively called "diffcore transformation". This short note
+describes what they are and how to use them to produce diff outputs
+that are easier to understand than the conventional kind.
+
+
+The chain of operation
+----------------------
+
+The git-diff-* family works by first comparing two sets of
+files:
+
+ - git-diff-index compares contents of a "tree" object and the
+ working directory (when '\--cached' flag is not used) or a
+ "tree" object and the index file (when '\--cached' flag is
+ used);
+
+ - git-diff-files compares contents of the index file and the
+ working directory;
+
+ - git-diff-tree compares contents of two "tree" objects;
+
+ - git-diff-stages compares contents of blobs at two stages in an
+ unmerged index file.
+
+In all of these cases, the commands themselves compare
+corresponding paths in the two sets of files. The result of
+comparison is passed from these commands to what is internally
+called "diffcore", in a format similar to what is output when
+the -p option is not used. E.g.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
+create :000000 100644 0000000... 1234567... A file4
+delete :100644 000000 1234567... 0000000... D file5
+unmerged :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The diffcore mechanism is fed a list of such comparison results
+(each of which is called "filepair", although at this point each
+of them talks about a single file), and transforms such a list
+into another list. There are currently 6 such transformations:
+
+- diffcore-pathspec
+- diffcore-break
+- diffcore-rename
+- diffcore-merge-broken
+- diffcore-pickaxe
+- diffcore-order
+
+These are applied in sequence. The set of filepairs git-diff-\*
+commands find are used as the input to diffcore-pathspec, and
+the output from diffcore-pathspec is used as the input to the
+next transformation. The final result is then passed to the
+output routine and generates either diff-raw format (see Output
+format sections of the manual for git-diff-\* commands) or
+diff-patch format.
+
+
+diffcore-pathspec: For Ignoring Files Outside Our Consideration
+---------------------------------------------------------------
+
+The first transformation in the chain is diffcore-pathspec, and
+is controlled by giving the pathname parameters to the
+git-diff-* commands on the command line. The pathspec is used
+to limit the world diff operates in. It removes the filepairs
+outside the specified set of pathnames. E.g. If the input set
+of filepairs included:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M junkfile
+------------------------------------------------
+
+but the command invocation was "git-diff-files myfile", then the
+junkfile entry would be removed from the list because only "myfile"
+is under consideration.
+
+Implementation note. For performance reasons, git-diff-tree
+uses the pathname parameters on the command line to cull set of
+filepairs it feeds the diffcore mechanism itself, and does not
+use diffcore-pathspec, but the end result is the same.
+
+
+diffcore-break: For Splitting Up "Complete Rewrites"
+----------------------------------------------------
+
+The second transformation in the chain is diffcore-break, and is
+controlled by the -B option to the git-diff-* commands. This is
+used to detect a filepair that represents "complete rewrite" and
+break such filepair into two filepairs that represent delete and
+create. E.g. If the input contained this filepair:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and if it detects that the file "file0" is completely rewritten,
+it changes it to:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 000000 bcd1234... 0000000... D file0
+:000000 100644 0000000... 0123456... A file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+For the purpose of breaking a filepair, diffcore-break examines
+the extent of changes between the contents of the files before
+and after modification (i.e. the contents that have "bcd1234..."
+and "0123456..." as their SHA1 content ID, in the above
+example). The amount of deletion of original contents and
+insertion of new material are added together, and if it exceeds
+the "break score", the filepair is broken into two. The break
+score defaults to 50% of the size of the smaller of the original
+and the result (i.e. if the edit shrinks the file, the size of
+the result is used; if the edit lengthens the file, the size of
+the original is used), and can be customized by giving a number
+after "-B" option (e.g. "-B75" to tell it to use 75%).
+
+
+diffcore-rename: For Detection Renames and Copies
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation is used to detect renames and copies, and is
+controlled by the -M option (to detect renames) and the -C option
+(to detect copies as well) to the git-diff-* commands. If the
+input contained these filepairs:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 000000 0123456... 0000000... D fileX
+:000000 100644 0000000... 0123456... A file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and the contents of the deleted file fileX is similar enough to
+the contents of the created file file0, then rename detection
+merges these filepairs and creates:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 0123456... 0123456... R100 fileX file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+When the "-C" option is used, the original contents of modified files,
+and deleted files (and also unmodified files, if the
+"\--find-copies-harder" option is used) are considered as candidates
+of the source files in rename/copy operation. If the input were like
+these filepairs, that talk about a modified file fileY and a newly
+created file file0:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 0123456... 1234567... M fileY
+:000000 100644 0000000... bcd3456... A file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+the original contents of fileY and the resulting contents of
+file0 are compared, and if they are similar enough, they are
+changed to:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 0123456... 1234567... M fileY
+:100644 100644 0123456... bcd3456... C100 fileY file0
+------------------------------------------------
+
+In both rename and copy detection, the same "extent of changes"
+algorithm used in diffcore-break is used to determine if two
+files are "similar enough", and can be customized to use
+a similarity score different from the default of 50% by giving a
+number after the "-M" or "-C" option (e.g. "-M8" to tell it to use
+8/10 = 80%).
+
+Note. When the "-C" option is used with `\--find-copies-harder`
+option, git-diff-\* commands feed unmodified filepairs to
+diffcore mechanism as well as modified ones. This lets the copy
+detector consider unmodified files as copy source candidates at
+the expense of making it slower. Without `\--find-copies-harder`,
+git-diff-\* commands can detect copies only if the file that was
+copied happened to have been modified in the same changeset.
+
+
+diffcore-merge-broken: For Putting "Complete Rewrites" Back Together
+--------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation is used to merge filepairs broken by
+diffcore-break, and not transformed into rename/copy by
+diffcore-rename, back into a single modification. This always
+runs when diffcore-break is used.
+
+For the purpose of merging broken filepairs back, it uses a
+different "extent of changes" computation from the ones used by
+diffcore-break and diffcore-rename. It counts only the deletion
+from the original, and does not count insertion. If you removed
+only 10 lines from a 100-line document, even if you added 910
+new lines to make a new 1000-line document, you did not do a
+complete rewrite. diffcore-break breaks such a case in order to
+help diffcore-rename to consider such filepairs as candidate of
+rename/copy detection, but if filepairs broken that way were not
+matched with other filepairs to create rename/copy, then this
+transformation merges them back into the original
+"modification".
+
+The "extent of changes" parameter can be tweaked from the
+default 80% (that is, unless more than 80% of the original
+material is deleted, the broken pairs are merged back into a
+single modification) by giving a second number to -B option,
+like these:
+
+* -B50/60 (give 50% "break score" to diffcore-break, use 60%
+ for diffcore-merge-broken).
+
+* -B/60 (the same as above, since diffcore-break defaults to 50%).
+
+Note that earlier implementation left a broken pair as a separate
+creation and deletion patches. This was an unnecessary hack and
+the latest implementation always merges all the broken pairs
+back into modifications, but the resulting patch output is
+formatted differently for easier review in case of such
+a complete rewrite by showing the entire contents of old version
+prefixed with '-', followed by the entire contents of new
+version prefixed with '+'.
+
+
+diffcore-pickaxe: For Detecting Addition/Deletion of Specified String
+---------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+This transformation is used to find filepairs that represent
+changes that touch a specified string, and is controlled by the
+-S option and the `\--pickaxe-all` option to the git-diff-*
+commands.
+
+When diffcore-pickaxe is in use, it checks if there are
+filepairs whose "original" side has the specified string and
+whose "result" side does not. Such a filepair represents "the
+string appeared in this changeset". It also checks for the
+opposite case that loses the specified string.
+
+When `\--pickaxe-all` is not in effect, diffcore-pickaxe leaves
+only such filepairs that touch the specified string in its
+output. When `\--pickaxe-all` is used, diffcore-pickaxe leaves all
+filepairs intact if there is such a filepair, or makes the
+output empty otherwise. The latter behaviour is designed to
+make reviewing of the changes in the context of the whole
+changeset easier.
+
+
+diffcore-order: For Sorting the Output Based on Filenames
+---------------------------------------------------------
+
+This is used to reorder the filepairs according to the user's
+(or project's) taste, and is controlled by the -O option to the
+git-diff-* commands.
+
+This takes a text file each of whose lines is a shell glob
+pattern. Filepairs that match a glob pattern on an earlier line
+in the file are output before ones that match a later line, and
+filepairs that do not match any glob pattern are output last.
+
+As an example, a typical orderfile for the core git probably
+would look like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+README
+Makefile
+Documentation
+*.h
+*.c
+t
+------------------------------------------------
+
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a25d04a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+-a, \--append::
+ Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the
+ existing contents of `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. Without this
+ option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
+
+-f, \--force::
+
+-t, \--tags::
+ By default, the git core utilities will not fetch and store
+ tags under the same name as the remote repository; ask it
+ to do so using `--tags`. Using this option will bound the
+ list of objects pulled to the remote tags. Commits in branches
+ beyond the tags will be ignored.
+
+-u, \--update-head-ok::
+ By default `git-fetch` refuses to update the head which
+ corresponds to the current branch. This flag disables the
+ check. Note that fetching into the current branch will not
+ update the index and working directory, so use it with care.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4cae412
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,75 @@
+git-add(1)
+==========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-add - Add files to the index file.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-add' [-n] [-v] <file>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A simple wrapper for git-update-index to add files to the index,
+for people used to do "cvs add".
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<file>...::
+ Files to add to the index.
+
+-n::
+ Don't actually add the file(s), just show if they exist.
+
+-v::
+ Be verbose.
+
+
+DISCUSSION
+----------
+
+The list of <file> given to the command is fed to `git-ls-files`
+command to list files that are not registerd in the index and
+are not ignored/excluded by `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude` file or
+`.gitignore` file in each directory. This means two things:
+
+. You can put the name of a directory on the command line, and
+ the command will add all files in it and its subdirectories;
+
+. Giving the name of a file that is already in index does not
+ run `git-update-index` on that path.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+git-add Documentation/\\*.txt::
+
+ Adds all `\*.txt` files that are not in the index under
+ `Documentation` directory and its subdirectories.
++
+Note that the asterisk `\*` is quoted from the shell in this
+example; this lets the command to include the files from
+subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
+
+git-add git-*.sh::
+
+ Adds all git-*.sh scripts that are not in the index.
+ Because this example lets shell expand the asterisk
+ (i.e. you are listing the files explicitly), it does not
+ add `subdir/git-foo.sh` to the index.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1ceed11
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+git-am(1)
+=========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-am - Apply a series of patches in a mailbox
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-am' [--signoff] [--dotest=<dir>] [--utf8] [--binary] [--3way] <mbox>...
+'git-am' [--skip | --resolved]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Splits mail messages in a mailbox into commit log message,
+authorship information and patches, and applies them to the
+current branch.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--signoff::
+ Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
+ the committer identity of yourself.
+
+--dotest=<dir>::
+ Instead of `.dotest` directory, use <dir> as a working
+ area to store extracted patches.
+
+--utf8, --keep::
+ Pass `--utf8` and `--keep` flags to `git-mailinfo` (see
+ gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]).
+
+--binary::
+ Pass `--allow-binary-replacement` flag to `git-apply`
+ (see gitlink:git-apply[1]).
+
+--3way::
+ When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on
+ 3-way merge, if the patch records the identity of blobs
+ it is supposed to apply to, and we have those blobs
+ locally.
+
+--skip::
+ Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
+ restarting an aborted patch.
+
+--interactive::
+ Run interactively, just like git-applymbox.
+
+--resolved::
+ After a patch failure (e.g. attempting to apply
+ conflicting patch), the user has applied it by hand and
+ the index file stores the result of the application.
+ Make a commit using the authorship and commit log
+ extracted from the e-mail message and the current index
+ file, and continue.
+
+DISCUSSION
+----------
+
+When initially invoking it, you give it names of the mailboxes
+to crunch. Upon seeing the first patch that does not apply, it
+aborts in the middle, just like 'git-applymbox' does. You can
+recover from this in one of two ways:
+
+. skip the current one by re-running the command with '--skip'
+ option.
+
+. hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
+ the index file to bring it in a state that the patch should
+ have produced. Then run the command with '--resume' option.
+
+The command refuses to process new mailboxes while `.dotest`
+directory exists, so if you decide to start over from scratch,
+run `rm -f .dotest` before running the command with mailbox
+names.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-applymbox[1], gitlink:git-applypatch[1].
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Petr Baudis, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..626e281
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,104 @@
+git-apply(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-apply - Apply patch on a git index file and a work tree
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--apply] [--no-add] [--index-info] [--allow-binary-replacement] [-z] [<patch>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads supplied diff output and applies it on a git index file
+and a work tree.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<patch>...::
+ The files to read patch from. '-' can be used to read
+ from the standard input.
+
+--stat::
+ Instead of applying the patch, output diffstat for the
+ input. Turns off "apply".
+
+--numstat::
+ Similar to \--stat, but shows number of added and
+ deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
+ abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. Turns
+ off "apply".
+
+--summary::
+ Instead of applying the patch, output a condensed
+ summary of information obtained from git diff extended
+ headers, such as creations, renames and mode changes.
+ Turns off "apply".
+
+--check::
+ Instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is
+ applicable to the current work tree and/or the index
+ file and detects errors. Turns off "apply".
+
+--index::
+ When --check is in effect, or when applying the patch
+ (which is the default when none of the options that
+ disables it is in effect), make sure the patch is
+ applicable to what the current index file records. If
+ the file to be patched in the work tree is not
+ up-to-date, it is flagged as an error. This flag also
+ causes the index file to be updated.
+
+--index-info::
+ Newer git-diff output has embedded 'index information'
+ for each blob to help identify the original version that
+ the patch applies to. When this flag is given, and if
+ the original version of the blob is available locally,
+ outputs information about them to the standard output.
+
+-z::
+ When showing the index information, do not munge paths,
+ but use NUL terminated machine readable format. Without
+ this flag, the pathnames output will have TAB, LF, and
+ backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
+ respectively.
+
+--apply::
+ If you use any of the options marked ``Turns off
+ "apply"'' above, git-apply reads and outputs the
+ information you asked without actually applying the
+ patch. Give this flag after those flags to also apply
+ the patch.
+
+--no-add::
+ When applying a patch, ignore additions made by the
+ patch. This can be used to extract common part between
+ two files by first running `diff` on them and applying
+ the result with this option, which would apply the
+ deletion part but not addition part.
+
+--allow-binary-replacement::
+ When applying a patch, which is a git-enhanced patch
+ that was prepared to record the pre- and post-image object
+ name in full, and the path being patched exactly matches
+ the object the patch applies to (i.e. "index" line's
+ pre-image object name is what is in the working tree),
+ and the post-image object is available in the object
+ database, use the post-image object as the patch
+ result. This allows binary files to be patched in a
+ very limited way.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-applymbox.txt b/Documentation/git-applymbox.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f74c6a4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-applymbox.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,92 @@
+git-applymbox(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-applymbox - Apply a series of patches in a mailbox
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-applymbox' [-u] [-k] [-q] [-m] ( -c .dotest/<num> | <mbox> ) [ <signoff> ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Splits mail messages in a mailbox into commit log message,
+authorship information and patches, and applies them to the
+current branch.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q::
+ Apply patches interactively. The user will be given
+ opportunity to edit the log message and the patch before
+ attempting to apply it.
+
+-k::
+ Usually the program 'cleans up' the Subject: header line
+ to extract the title line for the commit log message,
+ among which (1) remove 'Re:' or 're:', (2) leading
+ whitespaces, (3) '[' up to ']', typically '[PATCH]', and
+ then prepends "[PATCH] ". This flag forbids this
+ munging, and is most useful when used to read back 'git
+ format-patch --mbox' output.
+
+-m::
+ Patches are applied with `git-apply` command, and unless
+ it cleanly applies without fuzz, the processing fails.
+ With this flag, if a tree that the patch applies cleanly
+ is found in a repository, the patch is applied to the
+ tree and then a 3-way merge between the resulting tree
+ and the current tree.
+
+-u::
+ By default, the commit log message, author name and
+ author email are taken from the e-mail without any
+ charset conversion, after minimally decoding MIME
+ transfer encoding. This flag causes the resulting
+ commit to be encoded in utf-8 by transliterating them.
+ Note that the patch is always used as is without charset
+ conversion, even with this flag.
+
+-c .dotest/<num>::
+ When the patch contained in an e-mail does not cleanly
+ apply, the command exits with an error message. The
+ patch and extracted message are found in .dotest/, and
+ you could re-run 'git applymbox' with '-c .dotest/<num>'
+ flag to restart the process after inspecting and fixing
+ them.
+
+<mbox>::
+ The name of the file that contains the e-mail messages
+ with patches. This file should be in the UNIX mailbox
+ format. See 'SubmittingPatches' document to learn about
+ the formatting convention for e-mail submission.
+
+<signoff>::
+ The name of the file that contains your "Signed-off-by"
+ line. See 'SubmittingPatches' document to learn what
+ "Signed-off-by" line means. You can also just say
+ 'yes', 'true', 'me', or 'please' to use an automatically
+ generated "Signed-off-by" line based on your committer
+ identity.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-am[1], gitlink:git-applypatch[1].
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-applypatch.txt b/Documentation/git-applypatch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5b9037d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-applypatch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+git-applypatch(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-applypatch - Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-applypatch' <msg> <patch> <info> [<signoff>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Takes three files <msg>, <patch>, and <info> prepared from an
+e-mail message by 'git-mailinfo', and creates a commit. It is
+usually not necessary to use this command directly.
+
+This command can run `applypatch-msg`, `pre-applypatch`, and
+`post-applypatch` hooks. See link:hooks.html[hooks] for more
+information.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<msg>::
+ Commit log message (sans the first line, which comes
+ from e-mail Subject stored in <info>).
+
+<patch>::
+ The patch to apply.
+
+<info>::
+ Author and subject information extracted from e-mail,
+ used on "author" line and as the first line of the
+ commit log message.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fcda012
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,85 @@
+git-archimport(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into git
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+`git-archimport` [ -h ] [ -v ] [ -T ] [ -t tempdir ]
+ <archive/branch> [ <archive/branch> ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Imports a project from one or more Arch repositories. It will follow branches
+and repositories within the namespaces defined by the <archive/branch>
+parameters suppplied. If it cannot find the remote branch a merge comes from
+it will just import it as a regular commit. If it can find it, it will mark it
+as a merge whenever possible (see discussion below).
+
+The script expects you to provide the key roots where it can start the import
+from an 'initial import' or 'tag' type of Arch commit. It will follow and
+import new branches within the provided roots.
+
+It expects to be dealing with one project only. If it sees
+branches that have different roots, it will refuse to run. In that case,
+edit your <archive/branch> parameters to define clearly the scope of the
+import.
+
+`git-archimport` uses `tla` extensively in the background to access the
+Arch repository.
+Make sure you have a recent version of `tla` available in the path. `tla` must
+know about the repositories you pass to `git-archimport`.
+
+For the initial import `git-archimport` expects to find itself in an empty
+directory. To follow the development of a project that uses Arch, rerun
+`git-archimport` with the same parameters as the initial import to perform
+incremental imports.
+
+MERGES
+------
+Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in git as well. git
+does not care much about tracking patches, and only considers a merge when a
+branch incorporates all the commits since the point they forked. The end result
+is that git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
+import process does lose some patch-trading metadata.
+
+Fortunately, when you try and merge branches imported from Arch,
+git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
+patches that have been traded out-of-sequence between the branches.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-h::
+ Display usage.
+
+-v::
+ Verbose output.
+
+-T::
+ Many tags. Will create a tag for every commit, reflecting the commit
+ name in the Arch repository.
+
+-t <tmpdir>::
+ Override the default tempdir.
+
+
+<archive/branch>::
+ Archive/branch identifier in a format that `tla log` understands.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano, Martin Langhoff and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..39fa665
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,100 @@
+git-bisect(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-bisect - Find the change that introduced a bug
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git bisect' start
+'git bisect' bad <rev>
+'git bisect' good <rev>
+'git bisect' reset [<branch>]
+'git bisect' visualize
+'git bisect' replay <logfile>
+'git bisect' log
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This command uses 'git-rev-list --bisect' option to help drive
+the binary search process to find which change introduced a bug,
+given an old "good" commit object name and a later "bad" commit
+object name.
+
+The way you use it is:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect start
+git bisect bad # Current version is bad
+git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2 # v2.6.13-rc2 was the last version
+ # tested that was good
+------------------------------------------------
+
+When you give at least one bad and one good versions, it will
+bisect the revision tree and say something like:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+Bisecting: 675 revisions left to test after this
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and check out the state in the middle. Now, compile that kernel, and boot
+it. Now, let's say that this booted kernel works fine, then just do
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect good # this one is good
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which will now say
+
+------------------------------------------------
+Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and you continue along, compiling that one, testing it, and depending on
+whether it is good or bad, you say "git bisect good" or "git bisect bad",
+and ask for the next bisection.
+
+Until you have no more left, and you'll have been left with the first bad
+kernel rev in "refs/bisect/bad".
+
+Oh, and then after you want to reset to the original head, do a
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect reset
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to get back to the master branch, instead of being in one of the bisection
+branches ("git bisect start" will do that for you too, actually: it will
+reset the bisection state, and before it does that it checks that you're
+not using some old bisection branch).
+
+During the bisection process, you can say
+
+ git bisect visualize
+
+to see the currently remaining suspects in `gitk`.
+
+The good/bad input is logged, and `git bisect
+log` shows what you have done so far. You can truncate its
+output somewhere and save it in a file, and run
+
+ git bisect replay that-file
+
+if you find later you made a mistake telling good/bad about a
+revision.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..98014f6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+git-branch(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-branch - Create a new branch, or remove an old one.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-branch' [-d | -D] [<branchname> [start-point]]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+If no argument is provided, show available branches and mark current
+branch with star. Otherwise, create a new branch of name <branchname>.
+
+If a starting point is also specified, that will be where the branch is
+created, otherwise it will be created at the current HEAD.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-d::
+ Delete a branch. The branch must be fully merged.
+
+-D::
+ Delete a branch irrespective of its index status.
+
+<branchname>::
+ The name of the branch to create or delete.
+
+start-point::
+ Where to create the branch; defaults to HEAD. This
+ option has no meaning with -d and -D.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ab4dcae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+git-cat-file(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cat-file - Provide content or type information for repository objects
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cat-file' (-t | -s | <type>) <object>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Provides content or type of objects in the repository. The type
+is required unless '-t' is used to find the object type,
+or '-s' is used to find the object size.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<object>::
+ The sha1 identifier of the object.
+
+-t::
+ Instead of the content, show the object type identified by
+ <object>.
+
+-s::
+ Instead of the content, show the object size identified by
+ <object>.
+
+<type>::
+ Typically this matches the real type of <object> but asking
+ for a type that can trivially be dereferenced from the given
+ <object> is also permitted. An example is to ask for a
+ "tree" with <object> being a commit object that contains it,
+ or to ask for a "blob" with <object> being a tag object that
+ points at it.
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+If '-t' is specified, one of the <type>. If '-s' is specified,
+the size of the <object> in bytes.
+
+Otherwise the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object> will
+be returned.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..636e951
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,50 @@
+git-check-ref-format(1)
+=======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-ref-format - Make sure ref name is well formed.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-check-ref-format' <refname>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits non-zero if
+it is not.
+
+A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
+branch head is stored under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` directory, and
+a tag is stored under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` directory. git
+imposes the following rules on how refs are named:
+
+. It could be named hierarchically (i.e. separated with slash
+ `/`), but each of its component cannot begin with a dot `.`;
+
+. It cannot have two consecutive dots `..` anywhere;
+
+. It cannot have ASCII control character (i.e. bytes whose
+ values are lower than \040, or \177 `DEL`), space, tilde `~`,
+ caret `{caret}`, or colon `:` anywhere;
+
+. It cannot end with a slash `/`.
+
+These rules makes it easy for shell script based tools to parse
+refnames, and also avoids ambiguities in certain refname
+expressions (see gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]). Namely:
+
+. double-dot `..` are often used as in `ref1..ref2`, and in some
+ context this notation means `{caret}ref1 ref2` (i.e. not in
+ ref1 and in ref2).
+
+. tilde `~` and caret `{caret}` are used to introduce postfix
+ 'nth parent' and 'peel onion' operation.
+
+. colon `:` is used as in `srcref:dstref` to mean "use srcref\'s
+ value and store it in dstref" in fetch and push operations.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5bff486
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,99 @@
+git-checkout-index(1)
+=====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-checkout-index - Copy files from the index to the working directory
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-checkout-index' [-u] [-q] [-a] [-f] [-n] [--prefix=<string>]
+ [--] <file>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Will copy all files listed from the index to the working directory
+(not overwriting existing files).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-u|--index::
+ update stat information for the checked out entries in
+ the index file.
+
+-q|--quiet::
+ be quiet if files exist or are not in the index
+
+-f|--force::
+ forces overwrite of existing files
+
+-a|--all::
+ checks out all files in the index. Cannot be used
+ together with explicit filenames.
+
+-n|--no-create::
+ Don't checkout new files, only refresh files already checked
+ out.
+
+--prefix=<string>::
+ When creating files, prepend <string> (usually a directory
+ including a trailing /)
+
+--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+The order of the flags used to matter, but not anymore.
+
+Just doing "git-checkout-index" does nothing. You probably meant
+"git-checkout-index -a". And if you want to force it, you want
+"git-checkout-index -f -a".
+
+Intuitiveness is not the goal here. Repeatability is. The reason for
+the "no arguments means no work" thing is that from scripts you are
+supposed to be able to do things like:
+
+ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 git-checkout-index -f --
+
+which will force all existing `*.h` files to be replaced with their
+cached copies. If an empty command line implied "all", then this would
+force-refresh everything in the index, which was not the point.
+
+To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
+
+ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
+
+Oh, and the "--" is just a good idea when you know the rest will be
+filenames. Just so that you wouldn't have a filename of "-a" causing
+problems (not possible in the above example, but get used to it in
+scripting!).
+
+The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use
+git-checkout-index as an "export as tree" function. Just read the
+desired tree into the index, and do a
+
+ git-checkout-index --prefix=git-export-dir/ -a
+
+and git-checkout-index will "export" the index into the specified
+directory.
+
+NOTE The final "/" is important. The exported name is literally just
+prefixed with the specified string, so you can also do something like
+
+ git-checkout-index --prefix=.merged- Makefile
+
+to check out the currently cached copy of `Makefile` into the file
+`.merged-Makefile`
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b7bb1b4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,79 @@
+git-checkout(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-checkout - Checkout and switch to a branch.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-checkout' [-f] [-b <new_branch>] [<branch>] [<paths>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+When <paths> are not given, this command switches branches, by
+updating the index and working tree to reflect the specified
+branch, <branch>, and updating HEAD to be <branch> or, if
+specified, <new_branch>.
+
+When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
+branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
+the index file (i.e. it runs `git-checkout-index -f -u`). In
+this case, `-f` and `-b` options are meaningless and giving
+either of them results in an error. <branch> argument can be
+used to specify a specific tree-ish to update the index for the
+given paths before updating the working tree.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-f::
+ Force an re-read of everything.
+
+-b::
+ Create a new branch and start it at <branch>.
+
+<new_branch>::
+ Name for the new branch.
+
+<branch>::
+ Branch to checkout; may be any object ID that resolves to a
+ commit. Defaults to HEAD.
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+The following sequence checks out the `master` branch, reverts
+the `Makefile` to two revisions back, deletes hello.c by
+mistake, and gets it back from the index.
+
+------------
+$ git checkout master
+$ git checkout master~2 Makefile
+$ rm -f hello.c
+$ git checkout hello.c
+------------
+
+If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, the
+last step above would be confused as an instruction to switch to
+that branch. You should instead write:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -- hello.c
+------------
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..26e0467
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-cherry-pick(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cherry-pick - Apply the change introduced by an existing commit.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cherry-pick' [-n] [-r] <commit>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Given one existing commit, apply the change the patch introduces, and record a
+new commit that records it. This requires your working tree to be clean (no
+modifications from the HEAD commit).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<commit>::
+ Commit to cherry-pick.
+
+-r::
+ Usually the command appends which commit was
+ cherry-picked after the original commit message when
+ making a commit. This option, '--replay', causes it to
+ use the original commit message intact. This is useful
+ when you are reordering the patches in your private tree
+ before publishing, and is used by 'git rebase'.
+
+-n::
+ Usually the command automatically creates a commit with
+ a commit log message stating which commit was
+ cherry-picked. This flag applies the change necessary
+ to cherry-pick the named commit to your working tree,
+ but does not make the commit. In addition, when this
+ option is used, your working tree does not have to match
+ the HEAD commit. The cherry-pick is done against the
+ beginning state of your working tree.
++
+This is useful when cherry-picking more than one commits'
+effect to your working tree in a row.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..af87966
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+git-cherry(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cherry - Find commits not merged upstream.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cherry' [-v] <upstream> [<head>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Each commit between the fork-point and <head> is examined, and compared against
+the change each commit between the fork-point and <upstream> introduces.
+Commits already included in upstream are prefixed with '-' (meaning "drop from
+my local pull"), while commits missing from upstream are prefixed with '+'
+(meaning "add to the updated upstream").
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-v::
+ Verbose.
+
+<upstream>::
+ Upstream branch to compare against.
+
+<head>::
+ Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-clone-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cfc7b62
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+git-clone-pack(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-clone-pack - Clones a repository by receiving packed objects.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-clone-pack' [--exec=<git-upload-pack>] [<host>:]<directory> [<head>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Clones a repository into the current repository by invoking
+'git-upload-pack', possibly on the remote host via ssh, in
+the named repository, and stores the sent pack in the local
+repository.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--exec=<git-upload-pack>::
+ Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
+ remote side, if it is not found on your $PATH.
+ Installations of sshd ignore the user's environment
+ setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
+ your privately installed git may not be found on the system
+ default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
+ up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
+ who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
+ shells by having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
+ the things up in .bash_profile).
+
+<host>::
+ A remote host that houses the repository. When this
+ part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
+ ssh.
+
+<directory>::
+ The repository to sync from.
+
+<head>...::
+ The heads to update. This is relative to $GIT_DIR
+ (e.g. "HEAD", "refs/heads/master"). When unspecified,
+ all heads are updated to match the remote repository.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..83f58ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@
+git-clone(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-clone - Clones a repository.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-clone' [-l [-s]] [-q] [-n] [-u <upload-pack>] <repository> [<directory>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Clones a repository into a newly created directory. All remote
+branch heads are copied under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/`, except
+that the remote `master` is also copied to `origin` branch.
+
+In addition, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/origin` file is set up to have
+this line:
+
+ Pull: master:origin
+
+This is to help the typical workflow of working off of the
+remote `master` branch. Every time `git pull` without argument
+is run, the progress on the remote `master` branch is tracked by
+copying it into the local `origin` branch, and merged into the
+branch you are currently working on. Remote branches other than
+`master` are also added there to be tracked.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--local::
+-l::
+ When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
+ this flag bypasses normal "git aware" transport
+ mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
+ HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
+ The files under .git/objects/ directory are hardlinked
+ to save space when possible.
+
+--shared::
+-s::
+ When the repository to clone is on the local machine,
+ instead of using hard links, automatically setup
+ .git/objects/info/alternatives to share the objects
+ with the source repository. The resulting repository
+ starts out without any object of its own.
+
+--quiet::
+-q::
+ Operate quietly. This flag is passed to "rsync" and
+ "git-clone-pack" commands when given.
+
+-n::
+ No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
+
+--upload-pack <upload-pack>::
+-u <upload-pack>::
+ When given, and the repository to clone from is handled
+ by 'git-clone-pack', '--exec=<upload-pack>' is passed to
+ the command to specify non-default path for the command
+ run on the other end.
+
+<repository>::
+ The (possibly remote) repository to clone from. It can
+ be any URL git-fetch supports.
+
+<directory>::
+ The name of a new directory to clone into. The "humanish"
+ part of the source repository is used if no directory is
+ explicitly given ("repo" for "/path/to/repo.git" and "foo"
+ for "host.xz:foo/.git"). Cloning into an existing directory
+ is not allowed.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a794192
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,99 @@
+git-commit-tree(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-commit-tree - Creates a new commit object
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-commit-tree' <tree> [-p <parent commit>]\* < changelog
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
+emits the new commit object id on stdout. If no parent is given then
+it is considered to be an initial tree.
+
+A commit object usually has 1 parent (a commit after a change) or up
+to 16 parents. More than one parent represents a merge of branches
+that led to them.
+
+While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
+directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
+to get there.
+
+Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git
+doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
+tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
+`.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see what the last committed
+state was.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<tree>::
+ An existing tree object
+
+-p <parent commit>::
+ Each '-p' indicates the id of a parent commit object.
+
+
+Commit Information
+------------------
+
+A commit encapsulates:
+
+- all parent object ids
+- author name, email and date
+- committer name and email and the commit time.
+
+If not provided, "git-commit-tree" uses your name, hostname and domain to
+provide author and committer info. This can be overridden by
+either `.git/config` file, or using the following environment variables.
+
+ GIT_AUTHOR_NAME
+ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
+ GIT_AUTHOR_DATE
+ GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
+ GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
+
+(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
+
+In `.git/config` file, the following items are used:
+
+ [user]
+ name = "Your Name"
+ email = "your@email.address.xz"
+
+A commit comment is read from stdin (max 999 chars). If a changelog
+entry is not provided via "<" redirection, "git-commit-tree" will just wait
+for one to be entered and terminated with ^D.
+
+
+Diagnostics
+-----------
+You don't exist. Go away!::
+ The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
+Your parents must have hated you!::
+ The password(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+Your sysadmin must hate you!::
+ The password(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-write-tree[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1edc278
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+git-commit(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-commit - Record your changes
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-commit' [-a] [-s] [-v] [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg>] [-e] <file>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Updates the index file for given paths, or all modified files if
+'-a' is specified, and makes a commit object. The command
+VISUAL and EDITOR environment variables to edit the commit log
+message.
+
+This command can run `commit-msg`, `pre-commit`, and
+`post-commit` hooks. See link:hooks.html[hooks] for more
+information.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-a::
+ Update all paths in the index file.
+
+-c or -C <commit>::
+ Take existing commit object, and reuse the log message
+ and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
+ when creating the commit. With '-C', the editor is not
+ invoked; with '-c' the user can further edit the commit
+ message.
+
+-F <file>::
+ Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
+ read the message from the standard input.
+
+-m <msg>::
+ Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
+
+-s::
+ Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+
+-v::
+ Look for suspicious lines the commit introduces, and
+ abort committing if there is one. The definition of
+ 'suspicious lines' is currently the lines that has
+ trailing whitespaces, and the lines whose indentation
+ has a SP character immediately followed by a TAB
+ character.
+
+-e::
+ The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
+ `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
+ commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
+ further edit the message taken from these sources.
+
+<file>...::
+ Update specified paths in the index file before committing.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b1220c0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-convert-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,29 @@
+git-convert-objects(1)
+======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-convert-objects - Converts old-style git repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-convert-objects'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Converts old-style git repository to the latest format
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..36888d9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,28 @@
+git-count-objects(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-count-objects - Reports on unpacked objects.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-count-objects'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This counts the number of unpacked object files and disk space consumed by
+them, to help you decide when it is a good time to repack.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c3da73d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-cvsexportcommit(1)
+======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cvsexportcommit - Export a commit to a CVS checkout
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+git-cvsapplycommmit.perl
+ [ -h ] [ -v ] [ -c ] [ -p ] [PARENTCOMMIT] COMMITID
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Exports a commit from GIT to a CVS checkout, making it easier
+to merge patches from a git repository into a CVS repository.
+
+Execute it from the root of the CVS working copy. GIT_DIR must be defined.
+
+It does its best to do the safe thing, it will check that the files are
+unchanged and up to date in the CVS checkout, and it will not autocommit
+by default.
+
+Supports file additions, removals, and commits that affect binary files.
+
+If the commit is a merge commit, you must tell git-cvsapplycommit what parent
+should the changeset be done against.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-c::
+ Commit automatically if the patch applied cleanly. It will not
+ commit if any hunks fail to apply or there were other problems.
+
+-p::
+ Be pedantic (paranoid) when applying patches. Invokes patch with
+ --fuzz=0
+
+-v::
+ Verbose.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Martin Langhoff <martin@catalyst.net.nz>
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..88bd3b0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,112 @@
+git-cvsimport(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-cvsimport - Import a CVS repository into git
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-cvsimport' [ -o <branch-for-HEAD> ] [ -h ] [ -v ]
+ [ -d <CVSROOT> ] [ -p <options-for-cvsps> ]
+ [ -C <git_repository> ] [ -i ] [ -P <file> ] [ -k ]
+ [ -s <subst> ] [ -m ] [ -M regex ] [ <CVS_module> ]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Imports a CVS repository into git. It will either create a new
+repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
+
+Splitting the CVS log into patch sets is done by 'cvsps'.
+At least version 2.1 is required.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-d <CVSROOT>::
+ The root of the CVS archive. May be local (a simple path) or remote;
+ currently, only the :local:, :ext: and :pserver: access methods
+ are supported.
+
+-C <target-dir>::
+ The git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
+ exist, it will be created. Default is the current directory.
+
+-i::
+ Import-only: don't perform a checkout after importing. This option
+ ensures the working directory and index remain untouched and will
+ not create them if they do not exist.
+
+-k::
+ Kill keywords: will extract files with -kk from the CVS archive
+ to avoid noisy changesets. Highly recommended, but off by default
+ to preserve compatibility with early imported trees.
+
+-u::
+ Convert underscores in tag and branch names to dots.
+
+-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
+ The 'HEAD' branch from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within
+ the git repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for git.
+ Use this option if you want to import into a different branch.
++
+Use '-o master' for continuing an import that was initially done by
+the old cvs2git tool.
+
+-p <options-for-cvsps>::
+ Additional options for cvsps.
+ The options '-u' and '-A' are implicit and should not be used here.
++
+If you need to pass multiple options, separate them with a comma.
+
+-P:: <cvsps-output-file>
+ Instead of calling cvsps, read the provided cvsps output file. Useful
+ for debugging or when cvsps is being handled outside cvsimport.
+
+-m::
+ Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message. This option
+ will enable default regexes that try to capture the name source
+ branch name from the commit message.
+
+-M <regex>::
+ Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message with a custom
+ regex. It can be used with -m to also see the default regexes.
+ You must escape forward slashes.
+
+-v::
+ Verbosity: let 'cvsimport' report what it is doing.
+
+<CVS_module>::
+ The CVS module you want to import. Relative to <CVSROOT>.
+
+-h::
+ Print a short usage message and exit.
+
+-z <fuzz>::
+ Pass the timestamp fuzz factor to cvsps.
+
+-s <subst>::
+ Substitute the character "/" in branch names with <subst>
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+If '-v' is specified, the script reports what it is doing.
+
+Otherwise, success is indicated the Unix way, i.e. by simply exiting with
+a zero exit status.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>, with help from
+various participants of the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2a8f371
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+git-daemon(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-daemon' [--verbose] [--syslog] [--inetd | --port=n] [--export-all]
+ [--timeout=n] [--init-timeout=n] [--strict-paths] [directory...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A really simple TCP git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
+aka 9418. It waits for a connection, and will just execute "git-upload-pack"
+when it gets one.
+
+It's careful in that there's a magic request-line that gives the command and
+what directory to upload, and it verifies that the directory is ok.
+
+It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
+it will refuse to export any git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
+for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
+pass some directory paths as 'git-daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
+the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
+
+This is ideally suited for read-only updates, ie pulling from git repositories.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--strict-paths::
+ Match paths exactly (i.e. don't allow "/foo/repo" when the real path is
+ "/foo/repo.git" or "/foo/repo/.git") and don't do user-relative paths.
+ git-daemon will refuse to start when this option is enabled and no
+ whitelist is specified.
+
+--export-all::
+ Allow pulling from all directories that look like GIT repositories
+ (have the 'objects' and 'refs' subdirectories), even if they
+ do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
+
+--inetd::
+ Have the server run as an inetd service. Implies --syslog.
+
+--port::
+ Listen on an alternative port.
+
+--init-timeout::
+ Timeout between the moment the connection is established and the
+ client request is received (typically a rather low value, since
+ that should be basically immediate).
+
+--timeout::
+ Timeout for specific client sub-requests. This includes the time
+ it takes for the server to process the sub-request and time spent
+ waiting for next client's request.
+
+--syslog::
+ Log to syslog instead of stderr. Note that this option does not imply
+ --verbose, thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
+
+--verbose::
+ Log details about the incoming connections and requested files.
+
+<directory>::
+ A directory to add to the whitelist of allowed directories. Unless
+ --strict-paths is specified this will also include subdirectories
+ of each named directory.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>, YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
+<yoshfuji@linux-ipv6.org> and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3b04bfe
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,43 @@
+git-diff-files(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-files - Compares files in the working tree and the index
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-files' [-q] [<common diff options>] [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the files in the working tree and the index. When paths
+are specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
+entries in the index are compared. The output format is the
+same as "git-diff-index" and "git-diff-tree".
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+-q::
+ Remain silent even on nonexisting files
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dba6d30
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,133 @@
+git-diff-index(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-index - Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-index' [-m] [--cached] [<common diff options>] <tree-ish> [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree
+object with the content of the current index and, optionally
+ignoring the stat state of the file on disk. When paths are
+specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
+entries in the index are compared.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<tree-ish>::
+ The id of a tree object to diff against.
+
+--cached::
+ do not consider the on-disk file at all
+
+-m::
+ By default, files recorded in the index but not checked
+ out are reported as deleted. This flag makes
+ "git-diff-index" say that all non-checked-out files are up
+ to date.
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+Operating Modes
+---------------
+You can choose whether you want to trust the index file entirely
+(using the '--cached' flag) or ask the diff logic to show any files
+that don't match the stat state as being "tentatively changed". Both
+of these operations are very useful indeed.
+
+Cached Mode
+-----------
+If '--cached' is specified, it allows you to ask:
+
+ show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
+ contents (the ones I'd write with a "git-write-tree")
+
+For example, let's say that you have worked on your working directory, updated
+some files in the index and are ready to commit. You want to see eactly
+*what* you are going to commit is without having to write a new tree
+object and compare it that way, and to do that, you just do
+
+ git-diff-index --cached HEAD
+
+Example: let's say I had renamed `commit.c` to `git-commit.c`, and I had
+done an "git-update-index" to make that effective in the index file.
+"git-diff-files" wouldn't show anything at all, since the index file
+matches my working directory. But doing a "git-diff-index" does:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git-diff-index --cached HEAD
+ -100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 commit.c
+ +100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 git-commit.c
+
+You can trivially see that the above is a rename.
+
+In fact, "git-diff-index --cached" *should* always be entirely equivalent to
+actually doing a "git-write-tree" and comparing that. Except this one is much
+nicer for the case where you just want to check where you are.
+
+So doing a "git-diff-index --cached" is basically very useful when you are
+asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
+what's the difference to a previous tree".
+
+Non-cached Mode
+---------------
+The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
+the more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with
+a "git-write-tree" + "git-diff-tree". Thus that's the default mode.
+The non-cached version asks the question:
+
+ show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
+ tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up-to-date
+
+which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
+you *could* commit. Again, the output matches the "git-diff-tree -r"
+output to a tee, but with a twist.
+
+The twist is that if some file doesn't match the index, we don't have
+a backing store thing for it, and we use the magic "all-zero" sha1 to
+show that. So let's say that you have edited `kernel/sched.c`, but
+have not actually done a "git-update-index" on it yet - there is no
+"object" associated with the new state, and you get:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> git-diff-index HEAD
+ *100644->100664 blob 7476bb......->000000...... kernel/sched.c
+
+ie it shows that the tree has changed, and that `kernel/sched.c` has is
+not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
+get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
+directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
+
+NOTE: As with other commands of this type, "git-diff-index" does not
+actually look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe
+`kernel/sched.c` hasn't actually changed, and it's just that you
+touched it. In either case, it's a note that you need to
+"git-upate-index" it to make the index be in sync.
+
+NOTE: You can have a mixture of files show up as "has been updated"
+and "is still dirty in the working directory" together. You can always
+tell which file is in which state, since the "has been updated" ones
+show a valid sha1, and the "not in sync with the index" ones will
+always have the special all-zero sha1.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..28c60fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-stages.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+git-diff-stages(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-stages - Compares content and mode of blobs between stages in an unmerged index file.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-stages' [<common diff options>] <stage1> <stage2> [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs in two stages in an
+unmerged index file.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<stage1>,<stage2>::
+ The stage number to be compared.
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9a2947e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,141 @@
+git-diff-tree(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff-tree - Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff-tree' [--stdin] [-m] [-s] [-v] [--no-commit-id] [--pretty] [-t] [-r] [--root] [<common diff options>] <tree-ish> [<tree-ish>] [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two tree objects.
+
+If there is only one <tree-ish> given, the commit is compared with its parents
+(see --stdin below).
+
+Note that "git-diff-tree" can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::diff-options.txt[]
+
+<tree-ish>::
+ The id of a tree object.
+
+<path>...::
+ If provided, the results are limited to a subset of files
+ matching one of these prefix strings.
+ ie file matches `/^<pattern1>|<pattern2>|.../`
+ Note that this parameter does not provide any wildcard or regexp
+ features.
+
+-r::
+ recurse into sub-trees
+
+-t::
+ show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.
+
+--root::
+ When '--root' is specified the initial commit will be showed as a big
+ creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against the NULL tree.
+
+--stdin::
+ When '--stdin' is specified, the command does not take
+ <tree-ish> arguments from the command line. Instead, it
+ reads either one <commit> or a pair of <tree-ish>
+ separated with a single space from its standard input.
++
+When a single commit is given on one line of such input, it compares
+the commit with its parents. The following flags further affects its
+behaviour. This does not apply to the case where two <tree-ish>
+separated with a single space are given.
+
+-m::
+ By default, "git-diff-tree --stdin" does not show
+ differences for merge commits. With this flag, it shows
+ differences to that commit from all of its parents.
+
+-s::
+ By default, "git-diff-tree --stdin" shows differences,
+ either in machine-readable form (without '-p') or in patch
+ form (with '-p'). This output can be supressed. It is
+ only useful with '-v' flag.
+
+-v::
+ This flag causes "git-diff-tree --stdin" to also show
+ the commit message before the differences.
+
+--pretty[=(raw|medium|short)]::
+ This is used to control "pretty printing" format of the
+ commit message. Without "=<style>", it defaults to
+ medium.
+
+--no-commit-id::
+ git-diff-tree outputs a line with the commit ID when
+ applicable. This flag suppressed the commit ID output.
+
+
+Limiting Output
+---------------
+If you're only interested in differences in a subset of files, for
+example some architecture-specific files, you might do:
+
+ git-diff-tree -r <tree-ish> <tree-ish> arch/ia64 include/asm-ia64
+
+and it will only show you what changed in those two directories.
+
+Or if you are searching for what changed in just `kernel/sched.c`, just do
+
+ git-diff-tree -r <tree-ish> <tree-ish> kernel/sched.c
+
+and it will ignore all differences to other files.
+
+The pattern is always the prefix, and is matched exactly. There are no
+wildcards. Even stricter, it has to match a complete path component.
+I.e. "foo" does not pick up `foobar.h`. "foo" does match `foo/bar.h`
+so it can be used to name subdirectories.
+
+An example of normal usage is:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git-diff-tree 5319e4......
+ *100664->100664 blob ac348b.......->a01513....... git-fsck-objects.c
+
+which tells you that the last commit changed just one file (it's from
+this one:
+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+commit 3c6f7ca19ad4043e9e72fa94106f352897e651a8
+tree 5319e4d609cdd282069cc4dce33c1db559539b03
+parent b4e628ea30d5ab3606119d2ea5caeab141d38df7
+author Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
+committer Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
+
+Make "git-fsck-objects" print out all the root commits it finds.
+
+Once I do the reference tracking, I'll also make it print out all the
+HEAD commits it finds, which is even more interesting.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+in case you care).
+
+Output format
+-------------
+include::diff-format.txt[]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cadaf59
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+git-diff(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-diff - Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-diff' [ --diff-options ] <ent>{0,2} [<path>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Show changes between two ents, an ent and the working tree, an
+ent and the index file, or the index file and the working tree.
+The combination of what is compared with what is determined by
+the number of ents given to the command.
+
+`----------------`--------`-----------------------------`------------------
+Number of ents Options What's Compared Underlying command
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+0 - index file and working tree git-diff-files
+1 --cached ent and index file git-diff-index
+1 - ent and working tree git-diff-index
+2 - two ents git-diff-tree
+---------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--diff-options::
+ '--diff-options' are passed to the `git-diff-files`,
+ `git-diff-index`, and `git-diff-tree` commands. See the
+ documentation for these commands for description.
+
+<path>...::
+ The <path> arguments are also passed to `git-diff-\*`
+ commands.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ea6faab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,68 @@
+git-fetch-pack(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fetch-pack - Receive missing objects from another repository.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+git-fetch-pack [-q] [--exec=<git-upload-pack>] [<host>:]<directory> [<refs>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Invokes 'git-upload-pack' on a potentially remote repository,
+and asks it to send objects missing from this repository, to
+update the named heads. The list of commits available locally
+is found out by scanning local $GIT_DIR/refs/ and sent to
+'git-upload-pack' running on the other end.
+
+This command degenerates to download everything to complete the
+asked refs from the remote side when the local side does not
+have a common ancestor commit.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q::
+ Pass '-q' flag to 'git-unpack-objects'; this makes the
+ cloning process less verbose.
+
+--exec=<git-upload-pack>::
+ Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
+ remote side, if is not found on your $PATH.
+ Installations of sshd ignores the user's environment
+ setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
+ your privately installed git may not be found on the system
+ default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
+ up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
+ who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
+ shells by having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
+ the things up in .bash_profile).
+
+<host>::
+ A remote host that houses the repository. When this
+ part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
+ ssh.
+
+<directory>::
+ The repository to sync from.
+
+<refs>...::
+ The remote heads to update from. This is relative to
+ $GIT_DIR (e.g. "HEAD", "refs/heads/master"). When
+ unspecified, update from all heads the remote side has.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..438240c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+git-fetch(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fetch - Download objects and a head from another repository.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-fetch' <options> <repository> <refspec>...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Fetches named heads or tags from another repository, along with
+the objects necessary to complete them.
+
+The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
+in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`. This information is left for a later merge
+operation done by "git resolve" or "git octopus".
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::fetch-options.txt[]
+
+include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
+
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-pull[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a70eb39
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+git-fmt-merge-msg(1)
+====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fmt-merge-msg - Produce a merge commit message
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-fmt-merge-msg' <$GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Takes the list of merged objects on stdin and produces a suitable
+commit message to be used for the merge commit, usually to be
+passed as the '<merge-message>' argument of `git-merge`.
+
+This script is intended mostly for internal use by scripts
+automatically invoking `git-merge`.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-merge[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Petr Baudis, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7a3abec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+git-format-patch(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-format-patch' [-n][-o <dir>|--stdout][-k][--mbox][--diff-options] <his> [<mine>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Prepare each commit with its patch since <mine> head forked from
+<his> head, one file per patch, for e-mail submission. Each
+output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the first
+line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as the
+filename.
+
+When -o is specified, output files are created in that
+directory; otherwise in the current working directory.
+
+When -n is specified, instead of "[PATCH] Subject", the first
+line is formatted as "[PATCH N/M] Subject", unless you have only
+one patch.
+
+When --mbox is specified, the output is formatted to resemble
+UNIX mailbox format, and can be concatenated together for
+processing with applymbox.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-o <dir>::
+ Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the
+ current working directory.
+
+-n::
+ Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format.
+
+-k::
+ Do not strip/add '[PATCH]' from the first line of the
+ commit log message.
+
+--author, --date::
+ Output From: and Date: headers for commits made by
+ yourself as well. Usually these are output only for
+ commits made by people other than yourself.
+
+--mbox::
+ Format the output files for closer to mbox format by
+ adding a phony Unix "From " line, so they can be
+ concatenated together and fed to `git-applymbox`.
+ Implies --author and --date.
+
+--stdout::
+ This flag generates the mbox formatted output to the
+ standard output, instead of saving them into a file per
+ patch and implies --mbox.
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+git-format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git-am -3 -k::
+ Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply
+ them on top of the current branch using `git-am` to
+ cherry-pick them.
+
+git-format-patch origin::
+ Extract commits the current branch accumulated since it
+ pulled from origin the last time in a patch form for
+ e-mail submission.
+
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-am[1], gitlink:git-send-email
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bab1f60
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,144 @@
+git-fsck-objects(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-fsck-objects - Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-fsck-objects' [--tags] [--root] [--unreachable] [--cache] [--standalone | --full] [--strict] [<object>*]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<object>::
+ An object to treat as the head of an unreachability trace.
++
+If no objects are given, git-fsck-objects defaults to using the
+index file and all SHA1 references in .git/refs/* as heads.
+
+--unreachable::
+ Print out objects that exist but that aren't readable from any
+ of the reference nodes.
+
+--root::
+ Report root nodes.
+
+--tags::
+ Report tags.
+
+--cache::
+ Consider any object recorded in the index also as a head node for
+ an unreachability trace.
+
+--standalone::
+ Limit checks to the contents of GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
+ ($GIT_DIR/objects), making sure that it is consistent and
+ complete without referring to objects found in alternate
+ object pools listed in GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES,
+ nor packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack;
+ cannot be used with --full.
+
+--full::
+ Check not just objects in GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY
+ ($GIT_DIR/objects), but also the ones found in alternate
+ object pools listed in GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES,
+ and in packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
+ and corresponding pack subdirectories in alternate
+ object pools; cannot be used with --standalone.
+
+--strict::
+ Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
+ recorded with g+w bit set, which was created by older
+ versions of git. Existing repositories, including the
+ Linux kernel, git itself, and sparse repository have old
+ objects that triggers this check, but it is recommended
+ to check new projects with this flag.
+
+It tests SHA1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking of
+the resulting reachability and everything else. It prints out any
+corruption it finds (missing or bad objects), and if you use the
+'--unreachable' flag it will also print out objects that exist but
+that aren't readable from any of the specified head nodes.
+
+So for example
+
+ git-fsck-objects --unreachable HEAD $(cat .git/refs/heads/*)
+
+will do quite a _lot_ of verification on the tree. There are a few
+extra validity tests to be added (make sure that tree objects are
+sorted properly etc), but on the whole if "git-fsck-objects" is happy, you
+do have a valid tree.
+
+Any corrupt objects you will have to find in backups or other archives
+(ie you can just remove them and do an "rsync" with some other site in
+the hopes that somebody else has the object you have corrupted).
+
+Of course, "valid tree" doesn't mean that it wasn't generated by some
+evil person, and the end result might be crap. git is a revision
+tracking system, not a quality assurance system ;)
+
+Extracted Diagnostics
+---------------------
+
+expect dangling commits - potential heads - due to lack of head information::
+ You haven't specified any nodes as heads so it won't be
+ possible to differentiate between un-parented commits and
+ root nodes.
+
+missing sha1 directory '<dir>'::
+ The directory holding the sha1 objects is missing.
+
+unreachable <type> <object>::
+ The <type> object <object>, isn't actually referred to directly
+ or indirectly in any of the trees or commits seen. This can
+ mean that there's another root node that you're not specifying
+ or that the tree is corrupt. If you haven't missed a root node
+ then you might as well delete unreachable nodes since they
+ can't be used.
+
+missing <type> <object>::
+ The <type> object <object>, is referred to but isn't present in
+ the database.
+
+dangling <type> <object>::
+ The <type> object <object>, is present in the database but never
+ 'directly' used. A dangling commit could be a root node.
+
+warning: git-fsck-objects: tree <tree> has full pathnames in it::
+ And it shouldn't...
+
+sha1 mismatch <object>::
+ The database has an object who's sha1 doesn't match the
+ database value.
+ This indicates a serious data integrity problem.
+
+Environment Variables
+---------------------
+
+GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY::
+ used to specify the object database root (usually $GIT_DIR/objects)
+
+GIT_INDEX_FILE::
+ used to specify the index file of the index
+
+GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES::
+ used to specify additional object database roots (usually unset)
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..30b1fbf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+git-get-tar-commit-id(1)
+========================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-get-tar-commit-id - Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-get-tar-commit-id' < <tarfile>
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Acts as a filter, extracting the commit ID stored in archives created by
+git-tar-tree. It reads only the first 1024 bytes of input, thus its
+runtime is not influenced by the size of <tarfile> very much.
+
+If no commit ID is found, git-get-tar-commit-id quietly exists with a
+return code of 1. This can happen if <tarfile> had not been created
+using git-tar-tree or if the first parameter of git-tar-tree had been
+a tree ID instead of a commit ID or tag.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Rene Scharfe <rene.scharfe@lsrfire.ath.cx>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0175793
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+git-grep(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-grep - print lines matching a pattern
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-grep' <option>... <pattern> <path>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Searches list of files `git-ls-files` produces for lines
+containing a match to the given pattern.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<option>...::
+ Either an option to pass to `grep` or `git-ls-files`.
+ Some `grep` options, such as `-C` and `-m`, that take
+ parameters are known to `git-grep`.
+
+<pattern>::
+ The pattern to look for.
+
+<path>...::
+
+ Optional paths to limit the set of files to be searched;
+ passed to `git-ls-files`.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..07d2c42
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,43 @@
+git-hash-object(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-hash-object - Computes object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] <any-file-on-the-filesystem>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Computes the object ID value for an object with specified type
+with the contents of the named file (which can be outside of the
+work tree), and optionally writes the resulting object into the
+object database. Reports its object ID to its standard output.
+This is used by "git-cvsimport" to update the index
+without modifying files in the work tree. When <type> is not
+specified, it defaults to "blob".
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-t <type>::
+ Specify the type (default: "blob").
+
+-w::
+ Actually write the object into the object database.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..088624f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,41 @@
+git-http-fetch(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-http-fetch - Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-http-fetch' [-c] [-t] [-a] [-d] [-v] [-w filename] [--recover] commit-id url
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP.
+
+-c::
+ Get the commit objects.
+-t::
+ Get trees associated with the commit objects.
+-a::
+ Get all the objects.
+-v::
+ Report what is downloaded.
+
+-w <filename>::
+ Writes the commit-id into the filename under $GIT_DIR/refs/<filename> on
+ the local end after the transfer is complete.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c7066d6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@
+git-http-push(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-http-push - Push missing objects using HTTP/DAV.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-http-push' [--complete] [--force] [--verbose] <url> <ref> [<ref>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Sends missing objects to remote repository, and updates the
+remote branch.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--complete::
+ Do not assume that the remote repository is complete in its
+ current state, and verify all objects in the entire local
+ ref's history exist in the remote repository.
+
+--force::
+ Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that
+ is not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
+ This flag disables the check. What this means is that
+ the remote repository can lose commits; use it with
+ care.
+
+--verbose::
+ Report the list of objects being walked locally and the
+ list of objects successfully sent to the remote repository.
+
+<ref>...:
+ The remote refs to update.
+
+
+Specifying the Refs
+-------------------
+
+A '<ref>' specification can be either a single pattern, or a pair
+of such patterns separated by a colon ":" (this means that a ref name
+cannot have a colon in it). A single pattern '<name>' is just a
+shorthand for '<name>:<name>'.
+
+Each pattern pair consists of the source side (before the colon)
+and the destination side (after the colon). The ref to be
+pushed is determined by finding a match that matches the source
+side, and where it is pushed is determined by using the
+destination side.
+
+ - It is an error if <src> does not match exactly one of the
+ local refs.
+
+ - If <dst> does not match any remote ref, either
+
+ * it has to start with "refs/"; <dst> is used as the
+ destination literally in this case.
+
+ * <src> == <dst> and the ref that matched the <src> must not
+ exist in the set of remote refs; the ref matched <src>
+ locally is used as the name of the destination.
+
+Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
+<dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
+ancestor) of <src>. This check, known as "fast forward check",
+is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
+remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
+
+With '--force', the fast forward check is disabled for all refs.
+
+Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
+to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Nick Hengeveld <nickh@reactrix.com>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Nick Hengeveld
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..71ce557
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,44 @@
+git-index-pack(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-index-pack - Build pack index file for an existing packed archive
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-index-pack' [-o <index-file>] <pack-file>
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads a packed archive (.pack) from the specified file, and
+builds a pack index file (.idx) for it. The packed archive
+together with the pack index can then be placed in the
+objects/pack/ directory of a git repository.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-o <index-file>::
+ Write the generated pack index into the specified
+ file. Without this option the name of pack index
+ file is constructed from the name of packed archive
+ file by replacing .pack with .idx (and the program
+ fails if the name of packed archive does not end
+ with .pack).
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Sergey Vlasov <vsu@altlinux.ru>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Sergey Vlasov
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ef1826a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+git-init-db(1)
+==============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-init-db - Creates an empty git repository
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-init-db'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This simply creates an empty git repository - basically a `.git` directory
+and `.git/object/??/`, `.git/refs/heads` and `.git/refs/tags` directories,
+and links `.git/HEAD` symbolically to `.git/refs/heads/master`.
+
+If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies a path
+to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the repository.
+
+If the object storage directory is specified via the 'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'
+environment variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
+otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects` directory is used.
+
+"git-init-db" won't hurt an existing repository.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-local-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-local-fetch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..87abec1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-local-fetch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,43 @@
+git-local-fetch(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-local-fetch - Duplicates another git repository on a local system
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-local-fetch' [-c] [-t] [-a] [-d] [-v] [-w filename] [--recover] [-l] [-s] [-n] commit-id path
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Duplicates another git repository on a local system.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-c::
+ Get the commit objects.
+-t::
+ Get trees associated with the commit objects.
+-a::
+ Get all the objects.
+-v::
+ Report what is downloaded.
+
+-w <filename>::
+ Writes the commit-id into the filename under $GIT_DIR/refs/<filename> on
+ the local end after the transfer is complete.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e995d1b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+git-log(1)
+==========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-log - Show commit logs
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-log' <option>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Shows the commit logs. This command internally invokes
+'git-rev-list', and the command line options are passed to that
+command.
+
+This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--pretty=<format>::
+ Controls the way the commit log is formatted.
+
+--max-count=<n>::
+ Limits the number of commits to show.
+
+<since>..<until>::
+ Show only commits between the named two commits.
+
+
+Examples
+--------
+git log --no-merges::
+
+ Show the whole commit history, but skip any merges
+
+git log v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi::
+
+ Show all commits since version 'v2.6.12' that changed any file
+ in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
+
+git log --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk::
+
+ Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
+ The "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ 'gitk'
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..03156f2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,78 @@
+git-lost-found(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-lost-found - Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-lost-found'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Finds dangling commits and tags from the object database, and
+creates refs to them in .git/lost-found/ directory. Commits and
+tags that dereference to commits go to .git/lost-found/commit
+and others are stored in .git/lost-found/other directory.
+
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+One line description from the commit and tag found along with
+their object name are printed on the standard output.
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+Suppose you run 'git tag -f' and mistyped the tag to overwrite.
+The ref to your tag is overwritten, but until you run 'git
+prune', it is still there.
+
+------------
+$ git lost-found
+[1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6] GIT 0.99.9c
+...
+------------
+
+Also you can use gitk to browse how they relate to each other
+and existing (probably old) tags.
+
+------------
+$ gitk $(cd .git/lost-found/commit && echo ??*)
+------------
+
+After making sure that it is the object you are looking for, you
+can reconnect it to your regular .git/refs hierarchy.
+
+------------
+$ git cat-file -t 1ef2b196
+tag
+$ git cat-file tag 1ef2b196
+object fa41bbce8e38c67a218415de6cfa510c7e50032a
+type commit
+tag v0.99.9c
+tagger Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> 1131059594 -0800
+
+GIT 0.99.9c
+
+This contains the following changes from the "master" branch, since
+...
+$ git update-ref refs/tags/not-lost-anymore 1ef2b196
+$ git rev-parse not-lost-anymore
+1ef2b196d909eed523d4f3c9bf54b78cdd6843c6
+------------
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano 濱野 純 <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2f308ec
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,213 @@
+git-ls-files(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-ls-files - Information about files in the index/working directory
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-ls-files' [-z] [-t]
+ (--[cached|deleted|others|ignored|stage|unmerged|killed|modified])\*
+ (-[c|d|o|i|s|u|k|m])\*
+ [-x <pattern>|--exclude=<pattern>]
+ [-X <file>|--exclude-from=<file>]
+ [--exclude-per-directory=<file>] [--] [<file>]\*
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This merges the file listing in the directory cache index with the
+actual working directory list, and shows different combinations of the
+two.
+
+One or more of the options below may be used to determine the files
+shown:
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-c|--cached::
+ Show cached files in the output (default)
+
+-d|--deleted::
+ Show deleted files in the output
+
+-m|--modified::
+ Show modified files in the output
+
+-o|--others::
+ Show other files in the output
+
+-i|--ignored::
+ Show ignored files in the output
+ Note the this also reverses any exclude list present.
+
+-s|--stage::
+ Show stage files in the output
+
+-u|--unmerged::
+ Show unmerged files in the output (forces --stage)
+
+-k|--killed::
+ Show files on the filesystem that need to be removed due
+ to file/directory conflicts for checkout-index to
+ succeed.
+
+-z::
+ \0 line termination on output.
+
+-x|--exclude=<pattern>::
+ Skips files matching pattern.
+ Note that pattern is a shell wildcard pattern.
+
+-X|--exclude-from=<file>::
+ exclude patterns are read from <file>; 1 per line.
+
+--exclude-per-directory=<file>::
+ read additional exclude patterns that apply only to the
+ directory and its subdirectories in <file>.
+
+-t::
+ Identify the file status with the following tags (followed by
+ a space) at the start of each line:
+ H:: cached
+ M:: unmerged
+ R:: removed/deleted
+ C:: modifed/changed
+ K:: to be killed
+ ? other
+
+--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+<file>::
+ Files to show. If no files are given all files which match the other
+ specified criteria are shown.
+
+Output
+------
+show files just outputs the filename unless '--stage' is specified in
+which case it outputs:
+
+ [<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>
+
+"git-ls-files --unmerged" and "git-ls-files --stage" can be used to examine
+detailed information on unmerged paths.
+
+For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA1 pair,
+the dircache records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage
+1, A in stage 2, and B in stage 3. This information can be used by
+the user (or the porcelain) to see what should eventually be recorded at the
+path. (see git-read-tree for more information on state)
+
+When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
+in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
+respectively.
+
+
+Exclude Patterns
+----------------
+
+'git-ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
+traversing the directory tree and finding files to show when the
+flags --others or --ignored are specified.
+
+These exclude patterns come from these places:
+
+ 1. command line flag --exclude=<pattern> specifies a single
+ pattern.
+
+ 2. command line flag --exclude-from=<file> specifies a list of
+ patterns stored in a file.
+
+ 3. command line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies
+ a name of the file in each directory 'git-ls-files'
+ examines, and if exists, its contents are used as an
+ additional list of patterns.
+
+An exclude pattern file used by (2) and (3) contains one pattern
+per line. A line that starts with a '#' can be used as comment
+for readability.
+
+There are three lists of patterns that are in effect at a given
+time. They are built and ordered in the following way:
+
+ * --exclude=<pattern> from the command line; patterns are
+ ordered in the same order as they appear on the command line.
+
+ * lines read from --exclude-from=<file>; patterns are ordered
+ in the same order as they appear in the file.
+
+ * When --exclude-per-directory=<name> is specified, upon
+ entering a directory that has such a file, its contents are
+ appended at the end of the current "list of patterns". They
+ are popped off when leaving the directory.
+
+Each pattern in the pattern list specifies "a match pattern" and
+optionally the fate; either a file that matches the pattern is
+considered excluded or included. A filename is matched against
+the patterns in the three lists; the --exclude-from list is
+checked first, then the --exclude-per-directory list, and then
+finally the --exclude list. The last match determines its fate.
+If there is no match in the three lists, the fate is "included".
+
+A pattern specified on the command line with --exclude or read
+from the file specified with --exclude-from is relative to the
+top of the directory tree. A pattern read from a file specified
+by --exclude-per-directory is relative to the directory that the
+pattern file appears in.
+
+An exclude pattern is of the following format:
+
+ - an optional prefix '!' which means that the fate this pattern
+ specifies is "include", not the usual "exclude"; the
+ remainder of the pattern string is interpreted according to
+ the following rules.
+
+ - if it does not contain a slash '/', it is a shell glob
+ pattern and used to match against the filename without
+ leading directories (i.e. the same way as the current
+ implementation).
+
+ - otherwise, it is a shell glob pattern, suitable for
+ consumption by fnmatch(3) with FNM_PATHNAME flag. I.e. a
+ slash in the pattern must match a slash in the pathname.
+ "Documentation/\*.html" matches "Documentation/git.html" but
+ not "ppc/ppc.html". As a natural exception, "/*.c" matches
+ "cat-file.c" but not "mozilla-sha1/sha1.c".
+
+An example:
+
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+ $ cat .git/ignore
+ # ignore objects and archives, anywhere in the tree.
+ *.[oa]
+ $ cat Documentation/.gitignore
+ # ignore generated html files,
+ *.html
+ # except foo.html which is maintained by hand
+ !foo.html
+ $ git-ls-files --ignored \
+ --exclude='Documentation/*.[0-9]' \
+ --exclude-from=.git/ignore \
+ --exclude-per-directory=.gitignore
+--------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-read-tree[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c0a80d4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
+git-ls-remote(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-ls-remote - Look at references other repository has.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-ls-remote' [--heads] [--tags] <repository> <refs>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Displays the references other repository has.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--heads --tags::
+ Limit to only refs/heads and refs/tags, respectively.
+ These options are _not_ mutually exclusive; when given
+ both, references stored in refs/heads and refs/tags are
+ displayed.
+
+<repository>::
+ Location of the repository. The shorthand defined in
+ $GIT_DIR/branches/ can be used.
+
+<refs>...::
+ When unspecified, all references, after filtering done
+ with --heads and --tags, are shown. When <refs>... are
+ specified, only references matching the given patterns
+ are displayed.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+ $ git ls-remote --tags ./.
+ d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
+ f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
+ 7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
+ c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
+ 0918385dbd9656cab0d1d81ba7453d49bbc16250 refs/tags/junio-gpg-pub
+ $ git ls-remote http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master pu rc
+ 5fe978a5381f1fbad26a80e682ddd2a401966740 refs/heads/master
+ c781a84b5204fb294c9ccc79f8b3baceeb32c061 refs/heads/pu
+ b1d096f2926c4e37c9c0b6a7bf2119bedaa277cb refs/heads/rc
+ $ echo http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git >.git/branches/public
+ $ git ls-remote --tags public v\*
+ d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
+ f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
+ c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
+ 7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ba0438e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+git-ls-tree(1)
+==============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-ls-tree - Lists the contents of a tree object.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-ls-tree' [-d] [-r] [-z] <tree-ish> [paths...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Lists the contents of a tree object, like what "/bin/ls -a" does
+in the current working directory.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<tree-ish>::
+ Id of a tree-ish.
+
+-d::
+ show only the named tree entry itself, not its children
+
+-r::
+ recurse into sub-trees
+
+-z::
+ \0 line termination on output
+
+paths::
+ When paths are given, show them. Otherwise implicitly
+ uses the root level of the tree as the sole path argument.
+
+
+Output Format
+-------------
+ <mode> SP <type> SP <object> TAB <file>
+
+When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
+in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
+respectively.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+Completely rewritten from scratch by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dc7d725
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
+git-mailinfo(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-mailinfo - Extracts patch from a single e-mail message.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-mailinfo' [-k] [-u] <msg> <patch>
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reading a single e-mail message from the standard input, and
+writes the commit log message in <msg> file, and the patches in
+<patch> file. The author name, e-mail and e-mail subject are
+written out to the standard output to be used by git-applypatch
+to create a commit. It is usually not necessary to use this
+command directly.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-k::
+ Usually the program 'cleans up' the Subject: header line
+ to extract the title line for the commit log message,
+ among which (1) remove 'Re:' or 're:', (2) leading
+ whitespaces, (3) '[' up to ']', typically '[PATCH]', and
+ then prepends "[PATCH] ". This flag forbids this
+ munging, and is most useful when used to read back 'git
+ format-patch --mbox' output.
+
+-u::
+ By default, the commit log message, author name and
+ author email are taken from the e-mail without any
+ charset conversion, after minimally decoding MIME
+ transfer encoding. This flag causes the resulting
+ commit to be encoded in utf-8 by transliterating them.
+ Note that the patch is always used as is without charset
+ conversion, even with this flag.
+
+<msg>::
+ The commit log message extracted from e-mail, usually
+ except the title line which comes from e-mail Subject.
+
+<patch>::
+ The patch extracted from e-mail.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt b/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..03a9477
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailsplit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+git-mailsplit(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-mailsplit - Totally braindamaged mbox splitter program.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-mailsplit' [-d<prec>] [<mbox>] <directory>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Splits a mbox file into a list of files: "0001" "0002" .. in the specified
+directory so you can process them further from there.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<mbox>::
+ Mbox file to split. If not given, the mbox is read from
+ the standard input.
+
+<directory>::
+ Directory in which to place the individual messages.
+
+-d<prec>::
+ Instead of the default 4 digits with leading zeros,
+ different precision can be specified for the generated
+ filenames.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d1d56f1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+git-merge-base(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-merge-base - Finds as good a common ancestor as possible for a merge
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-merge-base' <commit> <commit>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+"git-merge-base" finds as good a common ancestor as possible. Given a
+selection of equally good common ancestors it should not be relied on
+to decide in any particular way.
+
+The "git-merge-base" algorithm is still in flux - use the source...
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6030642
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,88 @@
+git-merge-index(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-merge-index - Runs a merge for files needing merging
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-merge-index' [-o] [-q] <merge-program> (-a | -- | <file>\*)
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This looks up the <file>(s) in the index and, if there are any merge
+entries, passes the SHA1 hash for those files as arguments 1, 2, 3 (empty
+argument if no file), and <file> as argument 4. File modes for the three
+files are passed as arguments 5, 6 and 7.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--::
+ Interpret all following arguments as filenames.
+
+-a::
+ Run merge against all files in the index that need merging.
+
+-o::
+ Instead of stopping at the first failed merge, do all of them
+ in one shot - continue with merging even when previous merges
+ returned errors, and only return the error code after all the
+ merges are over.
+
+-q::
+ Do not complain about failed merge program (the merge program
+ failure usually indicates conflicts during merge). This is for
+ porcelains which might want to emit custom messages.
+
+If "git-merge-index" is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
+processes them in turn only stopping if merge returns a non-zero exit
+code.
+
+Typically this is run with the a script calling the merge command from
+the RCS package.
+
+A sample script called "git-merge-one-file" is included in the
+distribution.
+
+ALERT ALERT ALERT! The git "merge object order" is different from the
+RCS "merge" program merge object order. In the above ordering, the
+original is first. But the argument order to the 3-way merge program
+"merge" is to have the original in the middle. Don't ask me why.
+
+Examples:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git-merge-index cat MM
+ This is MM from the original tree. # original
+ This is modified MM in the branch A. # merge1
+ This is modified MM in the branch B. # merge2
+ This is modified MM in the branch B. # current contents
+
+or
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git-merge-index cat AA MM
+ cat: : No such file or directory
+ This is added AA in the branch A.
+ This is added AA in the branch B.
+ This is added AA in the branch B.
+ fatal: merge program failed
+
+where the latter example shows how "git-merge-index" will stop trying to
+merge once anything has returned an error (ie "cat" returned an error
+for the AA file, because it didn't exist in the original, and thus
+"git-merge-index" didn't even try to merge the MM thing).
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+One-shot merge by Petr Baudis <pasky@ucw.cz>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..86aad37
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-one-file.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+git-merge-one-file(1)
+=====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-merge-one-file - The standard helper program to use with "git-merge-index"
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-merge-one-file'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This is the standard helper program to use with "git-merge-index"
+to resolve a merge after the trivial merge done with "git-read-tree -m".
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>,
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> and Petr Baudis <pasky@suse.cz>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..904e2fc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-merge(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-merge - Grand Unified Merge Driver
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-merge' [-n] [--no-commit] [-s <strategy>]... <msg> <head> <remote> <remote>...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This is the top-level user interface to the merge machinery
+which drives multiple merge strategy scripts.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::merge-options.txt[]
+
+<msg>::
+ The commit message to be used for the merge commit (in case
+ it is created). The `git-fmt-merge-msg` script can be used
+ to give a good default for automated `git-merge` invocations.
+
+<head>::
+ our branch head commit.
+
+<remote>::
+ other branch head merged into our branch. You need at
+ least one <remote>. Specifying more than one <remote>
+ obviously means you are trying an Octopus.
+
+include::merge-strategies.txt[]
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-fmt-merge-msg[1], gitlink:git-pull[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2860a3d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+git-mktag(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-mktag - Creates a tag object
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-mktag' < signature_file
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads a tag contents on standard input and creates a tag object
+that can also be used to sign other objects.
+
+The output is the new tag's <object> identifier.
+
+Tag Format
+----------
+A tag signature file has a very simple fixed format: three lines of
+
+ object <sha1>
+ type <typename>
+ tag <tagname>
+
+followed by some 'optional' free-form signature that git itself
+doesn't care about, but that can be verified with gpg or similar.
+
+The size of the full object is artificially limited to 8kB. (Just
+because I'm a lazy bastard, and if you can't fit a signature in that
+size, you're doing something wrong)
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3013b8d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,51 @@
+git-mv(1)
+=========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-mv - Script used to move or rename a file, directory or symlink.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+ 'git-mv' [-f] [-n] <source> <destination>
+ 'git-mv' [-f] [-n] [-k] <source> ... <destination directory>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This script is used to move or rename a file, directory or symlink.
+In the first form, it renames <source>, which must exist and be either
+a file, symlink or directory, to <destination>.
+In the second form, the last argument has to be an existing
+directory; the given sources will be moved into this directory.
+
+The index is updated after successful completion, but the change must still be
+committed.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-f::
+ Force renaming or moving of a file even if the target exists
+-k::
+ Skip move or rename actions which would lead to an error
+ condition. An error happens when a source is neither existing nor
+ controlled by GIT, or when it would overwrite an existing
+ file unless '-f' is given.
+-n::
+ Do nothing; only show what would happen
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+Rewritten by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>
+Move functionality added by Josef Weidendorfer <Josef.Weidendorfer@gmx.de>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e37b0b8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,66 @@
+git-name-rev(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-name-rev - Find symbolic names for given revs.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-name-rev' [--tags] ( --all | --stdin | <commitish>... )
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Finds symbolic names suitable for human digestion for revisions given in any
+format parsable by git-rev-parse.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--tags::
+ Do not use branch names, but only tags to name the commits
+
+--all::
+ List all commits reachable from all refs
+
+--stdin::
+ Read from stdin, append "(<rev_name>)" to all sha1's of name'able
+ commits, and pass to stdout
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+Given a commit, find out where it is relative to the local refs. Say somebody
+wrote you about that phantastic commit 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a.
+Of course, you look into the commit, but that only tells you what happened, but
+not the context.
+
+Enter git-name-rev:
+
+------------
+% git name-rev 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a
+------------
+
+Now you are wiser, because you know that it happened 940 revisions before v0.99.
+
+Another nice thing you can do is:
+
+------------
+% git log | git name-rev --stdin
+------------
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Johannes Schindelin.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-octopus.txt b/Documentation/git-octopus.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6e32ea3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-octopus.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+git-octopus(1)
+==============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-octopus - Merge more than two commits.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-octopus'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+After running 'git fetch', $GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD contains the
+following information, one line per remote ref:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+<object name> <ref name> from <repository>
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Using this information, create and commit an Octopus merge on
+top of the current HEAD.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d1e93db
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@
+git-pack-objects(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-pack-objects - Create a packed archive of objects.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-pack-objects' [--local] [--incremental] [--window=N] [--depth=N] {--stdout | base-name} < object-list
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads list of objects from the standard input, and writes a packed
+archive with specified base-name, or to the standard output.
+
+A packed archive is an efficient way to transfer set of objects
+between two repositories, and also is an archival format which
+is efficient to access. The packed archive format (.pack) is
+designed to be unpackable without having anything else, but for
+random access, accompanied with the pack index file (.idx).
+
+'git-unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
+expand the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
+one-object" format; this is typically done by the smart-pull
+commands when a pack is created on-the-fly for efficient network
+transport by their peers.
+
+Placing both in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
+any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES)
+enables git to read from such an archive.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+base-name::
+ Write into a pair of files (.pack and .idx), using
+ <base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
+ When this option is used, the two files are written in
+ <base-name>-<SHA1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA1> is a hash
+ of object names (currently in random order so it does
+ not have any useful meaning) to make the resulting
+ filename reasonably unique, and written to the standard
+ output of the command.
+
+--stdout::
+ Write the pack contents (what would have been writtin to
+ .pack file) out to the standard output.
+
+--window and --depth::
+ These two options affects how the objects contained in
+ the pack are stored using delta compression. The
+ objects are first internally sorted by type, size and
+ optionally names and compared against the other objects
+ within --window to see if using delta compression saves
+ space. --depth limits the maximum delta depth; making
+ it too deep affects the performance on the unpacker
+ side, because delta data needs to be applied that many
+ times to get to the necessary object.
+
+--incremental::
+ This flag causes an object already in a pack ignored
+ even if it appears in the standard input.
+
+--local::
+ This flag is similar to `--incremental`; instead of
+ ignoring all packed objects, it only ignores objects
+ that are packed and not in the local object store
+ (i.e. borrowed from an alternate).
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano
+
+See-Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-repack[1]
+gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9fe86ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-redundant.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+git-pack-redundant(1)
+=====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-pack-redundant - Program used to find redundant pack files.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-pack-redundant [ --verbose ] [ --alt-odb ] < --all | .pack filename ... >'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This program computes which packs in your repository
+are redundant. The output is suitable for piping to
+'xargs rm' if you are in the root of the repository.
+
+git-pack-redundant accepts a list of objects on standard input. Any objects
+given will be ignored when checking which packs are required. This makes the
+following command useful when wanting to remove packs which contain unreachable
+objects.
+
+git-fsck-objects --full --unreachable | cut -d ' ' -f3 | \
+git-pack-redundant --all | xargs rm
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+
+--all::
+ Processes all packs. Any filenames on the commandline are ignored.
+
+--alt-odb::
+ Don't require objects present in packs from alternate object
+ directories to be present in local packs.
+
+--verbose::
+ Outputs some statistics to stderr. Has a small performance penalty.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Lukas Sandström <lukass@etek.chalmers.se>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Lukas Sandström <lukass@etek.chalmers.se>
+
+See-Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]
+gitlink:git-repack[1]
+gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-parse-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-parse-remote.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc27afe
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-parse-remote.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+git-parse-remote(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-parse-remote - Routines to help parsing $GIT_DIR/remotes/
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'. git-parse-remote'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This script is included in various scripts to supply
+routines to parse files under $GIT_DIR/remotes/ and
+$GIT_DIR/branches/.
+
+The primary entry points are:
+
+get_remote_refs_for_fetch::
+ Given the list of user-supplied `<repo> <refspec>...`,
+ return the list of refs to fetch after canonicalizing
+ them into `$GIT_DIR` relative paths
+ (e.g. `refs/heads/foo`). When `<refspec>...` is empty
+ the returned list of refs consists of the defaults
+ for the given `<repo>`, if specified in
+ `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` or `$GIT_DIR/branches/`.
+
+get_remote_refs_for_push::
+ Given the list of user-supplied `<repo> <refspec>...`,
+ return the list of refs to push in a form suitable to be
+ fed to the `git-send-pack` command. When `<refspec>...`
+ is empty the returned list of refs consists of the
+ defaults for the given `<repo>`, if specified in
+ `$GIT_DIR/remotes/`.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c8bd197
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,43 @@
+git-patch-id(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-patch-id - Generate a patch ID.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-patch-id' < <patch>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A "patch ID" is nothing but a SHA1 of the diff associated with a patch, with
+whitespace and line numbers ignored. As such, it's "reasonably stable", but at
+the same time also reasonably unique, ie two patches that have the same "patch
+ID" are almost guaranteed to be the same thing.
+
+IOW, you can use this thing to look for likely duplicate commits.
+
+When dealing with git-diff-tree output, it takes advantage of
+the fact that the patch is prefixed with the object name of the
+commit, and outputs two 40-byte hexadecimal string. The first
+string is the patch ID, and the second string is the commit ID.
+This can be used to make a mapping from patch ID to commit ID.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<patch>::
+ The diff to create the ID of.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..915d3f8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-peek-remote.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+git-peek-remote(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-peek-remote - Lists the references in a remote repository.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-peek-remote' [--exec=<git-upload-pack>] [<host>:]<directory>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Lists the references the remote repository has, and optionally
+stores them in the local repository under the same name.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--exec=<git-upload-pack>::
+ Use this to specify the path to 'git-upload-pack' on the
+ remote side, if it is not found on your $PATH. Some
+ installations of sshd ignores the user's environment
+ setup scripts for login shells (e.g. .bash_profile) and
+ your privately installed git may not be found on the system
+ default $PATH. Another workaround suggested is to set
+ up your $PATH in ".bashrc", but this flag is for people
+ who do not want to pay the overhead for non-interactive
+ shells, but prefer having a lean .bashrc file (they set most of
+ the things up in .bash_profile).
+
+<host>::
+ A remote host that houses the repository. When this
+ part is specified, 'git-upload-pack' is invoked via
+ ssh.
+
+<directory>::
+ The repository to sync from.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8d96a91
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune-packed.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+git-prune-packed(1)
+=====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-prune-packed - Program used to remove the extra object files that are now
+residing in a pack file.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-prune-packed'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This program search the GIT_OBJECT_DIR for all objects that currently exist in
+a pack file as well as the independent object directories.
+
+All such extra objects are removed.
+
+A pack is a collection of objects, individually compressed, with delta
+compression applied, stored in a single file, with an associated index file.
+
+Packs are used to reduce the load on mirror systems, backup engines, disk storage, etc.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-n::
+ Don't actually remove any objects, only show those that would have been
+ removed.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>
+
+See-Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]
+gitlink:git-repack[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3367c9b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+git-prune(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-prune - Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-prune' [-n]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This runs `git-fsck-objects --unreachable` using the heads
+specified on the command line (or `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/\*` and
+`$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/\*` if none is specified), and prunes all
+unreachable objects from the object database. In addition, it
+prunes the unpacked objects that are also found in packs by
+running `git prune-packed`.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-n::
+ Do not remove anything; just report what it would
+ remove.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c65ca9a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,126 @@
+git-pull(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-pull - Pull and merge from another repository.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-pull' <options> <repository> <refspec>...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Runs `git-fetch` with the given parameters, and calls `git-merge`
+to merge the retrieved head(s) into the current branch.
+
+Note that you can use `.` (current directory) as the
+<repository> to pull from the local repository -- this is useful
+when merging local branches into the current branch.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::merge-options.txt[]
+
+include::fetch-options.txt[]
+
+include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
+
+include::merge-strategies.txt[]
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+git pull, git pull origin::
+ Fetch the default head from the repository you cloned
+ from and merge it into your current branch.
+
+git pull -s ours . obsolete::
+ Merge local branch `obsolete` into the current branch,
+ using `ours` merge strategy.
+
+git pull . fixes enhancements::
+ Bundle local branch `fixes` and `enhancements` on top of
+ the current branch, making an Octopus merge.
+
+git pull --no-commit . maint::
+ Merge local branch `maint` into the current branch, but
+ do not make a commit automatically. This can be used
+ when you want to include further changes to the merge,
+ or want to write your own merge commit message.
++
+You should refrain from abusing this option to sneak substantial
+changes into a merge commit. Small fixups like bumping
+release/version name would be acceptable.
+
+Command line pull of multiple branches from one repository::
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ cat .git/remotes/origin
+URL: git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
+Pull: master:origin
+
+$ git checkout master
+$ git fetch origin master:origin +pu:pu maint:maint
+$ git pull . origin
+------------------------------------------------
++
+Here, a typical `.git/remotes/origin` file from a
+`git-clone` operation is used in combination with
+command line options to `git-fetch` to first update
+multiple branches of the local repository and then
+to merge the remote `origin` branch into the local
+`master` branch. The local `pu` branch is updated
+even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
+Here, the pull can obtain its objects from the local
+repository using `.`, as the previous `git-fetch` is
+known to have already obtained and made available
+all the necessary objects.
+
+
+Pull of multiple branches from one repository using `.git/remotes` file::
++
+------------------------------------------------
+$ cat .git/remotes/origin
+URL: git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
+Pull: master:origin
+Pull: +pu:pu
+Pull: maint:maint
+
+$ git checkout master
+$ git pull origin
+------------------------------------------------
++
+Here, a typical `.git/remotes/origin` file from a
+`git-clone` operation has been hand-modified to include
+the branch-mapping of additional remote and local
+heads directly. A single `git-pull` operation while
+in the `master` branch will fetch multiple heads and
+merge the remote `origin` head into the current,
+local `master` branch.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-fetch[1], gitlink:git-merge[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Jon Loeliger,
+David Greaves,
+Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f45ac5e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+git-push(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-push' [--all] [--force] <repository> <refspec>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
+necessary to complete the given refs.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+include::pull-fetch-param.txt[]
+
+\--all::
+ Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies all refs
+ to be pushed.
+
+-f, \--force::
+ Usually, the command refuses to update a local ref that is
+ not an ancestor of the remote ref used to overwrite it.
+ This flag disables the check. What this means is that the
+ local repository can lose commits; use it with care.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8b91847
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,281 @@
+git-read-tree(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-read-tree - Reads tree information into the index
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-read-tree' (<tree-ish> | [-m [-u|-i]] <tree-ish1> [<tree-ish2> [<tree-ish3>]])
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads the tree information given by <tree-ish> into the index,
+but does not actually *update* any of the files it "caches". (see:
+git-checkout-index)
+
+Optionally, it can merge a tree into the index, perform a
+fast-forward (i.e. 2-way) merge, or a 3-way merge, with the -m
+flag. When used with -m, the -u flag causes it to also update
+the files in the work tree with the result of the merge.
+
+Trivial merges are done by "git-read-tree" itself. Only conflicting paths
+will be in unmerged state when "git-read-tree" returns.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-m::
+ Perform a merge, not just a read.
+
+--reset::
+
+ Same as -m except that unmerged entries will be silently ignored.
+
+-u::
+ After a successful merge, update the files in the work
+ tree with the result of the merge.
+
+-i::
+ Usually a merge requires the index file as well as the
+ files in the working tree are up to date with the
+ current head commit, in order not to lose local
+ changes. This flag disables the check with the working
+ tree and is meant to be used when creating a merge of
+ trees that are not directly related to the current
+ working tree status into a temporary index file.
+
+
+<tree-ish#>::
+ The id of the tree object(s) to be read/merged.
+
+
+Merging
+-------
+If '-m' is specified, "git-read-tree" can perform 3 kinds of
+merge, a single tree merge if only 1 tree is given, a
+fast-forward merge with 2 trees, or a 3-way merge if 3 trees are
+provided.
+
+
+Single Tree Merge
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+If only 1 tree is specified, git-read-tree operates as if the user did not
+specify '-m', except that if the original index has an entry for a
+given pathname, and the contents of the path matches with the tree
+being read, the stat info from the index is used. (In other words, the
+index's stat()s take precedence over the merged tree's).
+
+That means that if you do a "git-read-tree -m <newtree>" followed by a
+"git-checkout-index -f -u -a", the "git-checkout-index" only checks out
+the stuff that really changed.
+
+This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when "git-diff-files" is
+run after git-read-tree.
+
+
+Two Tree Merge
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Typically, this is invoked as "git-read-tree -m $H $M", where $H
+is the head commit of the current repository, and $M is the head
+of a foreign tree, which is simply ahead of $H (i.e. we are in a
+fast forward situation).
+
+When two trees are specified, the user is telling git-read-tree
+the following:
+
+ 1. The current index and work tree is derived from $H, but
+ the user may have local changes in them since $H;
+
+ 2. The user wants to fast-forward to $M.
+
+In this case, the "git-read-tree -m $H $M" command makes sure
+that no local change is lost as the result of this "merge".
+Here are the "carry forward" rules:
+
+ I (index) H M Result
+ -------------------------------------------------------
+ 0 nothing nothing nothing (does not happen)
+ 1 nothing nothing exists use M
+ 2 nothing exists nothing remove path from index
+ 3 nothing exists exists use M
+
+ clean I==H I==M
+ ------------------
+ 4 yes N/A N/A nothing nothing keep index
+ 5 no N/A N/A nothing nothing keep index
+
+ 6 yes N/A yes nothing exists keep index
+ 7 no N/A yes nothing exists keep index
+ 8 yes N/A no nothing exists fail
+ 9 no N/A no nothing exists fail
+
+ 10 yes yes N/A exists nothing remove path from index
+ 11 no yes N/A exists nothing fail
+ 12 yes no N/A exists nothing fail
+ 13 no no N/A exists nothing fail
+
+ clean (H=M)
+ ------
+ 14 yes exists exists keep index
+ 15 no exists exists keep index
+
+ clean I==H I==M (H!=M)
+ ------------------
+ 16 yes no no exists exists fail
+ 17 no no no exists exists fail
+ 18 yes no yes exists exists keep index
+ 19 no no yes exists exists keep index
+ 20 yes yes no exists exists use M
+ 21 no yes no exists exists fail
+
+In all "keep index" cases, the index entry stays as in the
+original index file. If the entry were not up to date,
+git-read-tree keeps the copy in the work tree intact when
+operating under the -u flag.
+
+When this form of git-read-tree returns successfully, you can
+see what "local changes" you made are carried forward by running
+"git-diff-index --cached $M". Note that this does not
+necessarily match "git-diff-index --cached $H" would have
+produced before such a two tree merge. This is because of cases
+18 and 19 --- if you already had the changes in $M (e.g. maybe
+you picked it up via e-mail in a patch form), "git-diff-index
+--cached $H" would have told you about the change before this
+merge, but it would not show in "git-diff-index --cached $M"
+output after two-tree merge.
+
+
+3-Way Merge
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+Each "index" entry has two bits worth of "stage" state. stage 0 is the
+normal one, and is the only one you'd see in any kind of normal use.
+
+However, when you do "git-read-tree" with three trees, the "stage"
+starts out at 1.
+
+This means that you can do
+
+ git-read-tree -m <tree1> <tree2> <tree3>
+
+and you will end up with an index with all of the <tree1> entries in
+"stage1", all of the <tree2> entries in "stage2" and all of the
+<tree3> entries in "stage3".
+
+Furthermore, "git-read-tree" has special-case logic that says: if you see
+a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
+"collapses" back to "stage0":
+
+ - stage 2 and 3 are the same; take one or the other (it makes no
+ difference - the same work has been done on stage 2 and 3)
+
+ - stage 1 and stage 2 are the same and stage 3 is different; take
+ stage 3 (some work has been done on stage 3)
+
+ - stage 1 and stage 3 are the same and stage 2 is different take
+ stage 2 (some work has been done on stage 2)
+
+The "git-write-tree" command refuses to write a nonsensical tree, and it
+will complain about unmerged entries if it sees a single entry that is not
+stage 0.
+
+Ok, this all sounds like a collection of totally nonsensical rules,
+but it's actually exactly what you want in order to do a fast
+merge. The different stages represent the "result tree" (stage 0, aka
+"merged"), the original tree (stage 1, aka "orig"), and the two trees
+you are trying to merge (stage 2 and 3 respectively).
+
+The order of stages 1, 2 and 3 (hence the order of three
+<tree-ish> command line arguments) are significant when you
+start a 3-way merge with an index file that is already
+populated. Here is an outline of how the algorithm works:
+
+- if a file exists in identical format in all three trees, it will
+ automatically collapse to "merged" state by git-read-tree.
+
+- a file that has _any_ difference what-so-ever in the three trees
+ will stay as separate entries in the index. It's up to "porcelain
+ policy" to determine how to remove the non-0 stages, and insert a
+ merged version.
+
+- the index file saves and restores with all this information, so you
+ can merge things incrementally, but as long as it has entries in
+ stages 1/2/3 (ie "unmerged entries") you can't write the result. So
+ now the merge algorithm ends up being really simple:
+
+ * you walk the index in order, and ignore all entries of stage 0,
+ since they've already been done.
+
+ * if you find a "stage1", but no matching "stage2" or "stage3", you
+ know it's been removed from both trees (it only existed in the
+ original tree), and you remove that entry.
+
+ * if you find a matching "stage2" and "stage3" tree, you remove one
+ of them, and turn the other into a "stage0" entry. Remove any
+ matching "stage1" entry if it exists too. .. all the normal
+ trivial rules ..
+
+You would normally use "git-merge-index" with supplied
+"git-merge-one-file" to do this last step. The script
+does not touch the files in the work tree, and the entire merge
+happens in the index file. In other words, there is no need to
+worry about what is in the working directory, since it is never
+shown and never used.
+
+When you start a 3-way merge with an index file that is already
+populated, it is assumed that it represents the state of the
+files in your work tree, and you can even have files with
+changes unrecorded in the index file. It is further assumed
+that this state is "derived" from the stage 2 tree. The 3-way
+merge refuses to run if it finds an entry in the original index
+file that does not match stage 2.
+
+This is done to prevent you from losing your work-in-progress
+changes. To illustrate, suppose you start from what has been
+commited last to your repository:
+
+ $ JC=`git-rev-parse --verify "HEAD^0"`
+ $ git-checkout-index -f -u -a $JC
+
+You do random edits, without running git-update-index. And then
+you notice that the tip of your "upstream" tree has advanced
+since you pulled from him:
+
+ $ git-fetch rsync://.... linus
+ $ LT=`cat .git/MERGE_HEAD`
+
+Your work tree is still based on your HEAD ($JC), but you have
+some edits since. Three-way merge makes sure that you have not
+added or modified index entries since $JC, and if you haven't,
+then does the right thing. So with the following sequence:
+
+ $ git-read-tree -m -u `git-merge-base $JC $LT` $JC $LT
+ $ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file -a
+ $ echo "Merge with Linus" | \
+ git-commit-tree `git-write-tree` -p $JC -p $LT
+
+what you would commit is a pure merge between $JC and LT without
+your work-in-progress changes, and your work tree would be
+updated to the result of the merge.
+
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-write-tree[1]; gitlink:git-ls-files[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..16c158f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+git-rebase(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-rebase - Rebase local commits to new upstream head.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-rebase' <upstream> [<head>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Rebases local commits to the new head of the upstream tree.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<upstream>::
+ Upstream branch to compare against.
+
+<head>::
+ Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8afde14
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,95 @@
+git-receive-pack(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-receive-pack - Receive what is pushed into it
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-receive-pack' <directory>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Invoked by 'git-send-pack' and updates the repository with the
+information fed from the remote end.
+
+This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user.
+The UI for the protocol is on the 'git-send-pack' side, and the
+program pair is meant to be used to push updates to remote
+repository. For pull operations, see 'git-fetch-pack' and
+'git-clone-pack'.
+
+The command allows for creation and fast forwarding of sha1 refs
+(heads/tags) on the remote end (strictly speaking, it is the
+local end receive-pack runs, but to the user who is sitting at
+the send-pack end, it is updating the remote. Confused?)
+
+Before each ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/update file exists
+and executable, it is called with three parameters:
+
+ $GIT_DIR/hooks/update refname sha1-old sha1-new
+
+The refname parameter is relative to $GIT_DIR; e.g. for the
+master head this is "refs/heads/master". Two sha1 are the
+object names for the refname before and after the update. Note
+that the hook is called before the refname is updated, so either
+sha1-old is 0{40} (meaning there is no such ref yet), or it
+should match what is recorded in refname.
+
+The hook should exit with non-zero status if it wants to
+disallow updating the named ref. Otherwise it should exit with
+zero.
+
+Using this hook, it is easy to generate mails on updates to
+the local repository. This example script sends a mail with
+the commits pushed to the repository:
+
+ #!/bin/sh
+ # mail out commit update information.
+ if expr "$2" : '0*$' >/dev/null
+ then
+ echo "Created a new ref, with the following commits:"
+ git-rev-list --pretty "$2"
+ else
+ echo "New commits:"
+ git-rev-list --pretty "$3" "^$2"
+ fi |
+ mail -s "Changes to ref $1" commit-list@mydomain
+ exit 0
+
+Another hook $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update, if exists and
+executable, is called with the list of refs that have been
+updated. This can be used to implement repository wide cleanup
+task if needed. The exit code from this hook invocation is
+ignored; the only thing left for git-receive-pack to do at that
+point is to exit itself anyway. This hook can be used, for
+example, to run "git-update-server-info" if the repository is
+packed and is served via a dumb transport.
+
+ #!/bin/sh
+ exec git-update-server-info
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<directory>::
+ The repository to sync into.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+gitlink:git-send-pack[1]
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-relink.txt b/Documentation/git-relink.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6240535
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-relink.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+git-relink(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-relink - Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-relink' [--safe] <dir> <dir> [<dir>]\*
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This will scan 2 or more object repositories and look for common objects, check
+if they are hardlinked, and replace one with a hardlink to the other if not.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--safe::
+ Stops if two objects with the same hash exist but have different sizes.
+ Default is to warn and continue.
+
+<dir>::
+ Directories containing a .git/objects/ subdirectory.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0c1ae49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+git-repack(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-repack - Script used to pack a repository from a collection of
+objects into pack files.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-repack' [-a] [-d]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This script is used to combine all objects that do not currently
+reside in a "pack", into a pack.
+
+A pack is a collection of objects, individually compressed, with
+delta compression applied, stored in a single file, with an
+associated index file.
+
+Packs are used to reduce the load on mirror systems, backup
+engines, disk storage, etc.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+-a::
+ Instead of incrementally packing the unpacked objects,
+ pack everything available into a single pack.
+ Especially useful when packing a repository that is used
+ for a private development and there no need to worry
+ about people fetching via dumb protocols from it. Use
+ with '-d'.
+
+-d::
+ After packing, if the newly created packs make some
+ existing packs redundant, remove the redundant packs.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>
+
+See-Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]
+gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt b/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5eefe02
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-repo-config.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,170 @@
+git-repo-config(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-repo-config - Get and set options in .git/config.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-repo-config' name [value [value_regex]]
+'git-repo-config' --replace-all name [value [value_regex]]
+'git-repo-config' --get name [value_regex]
+'git-repo-config' --get-all name [value_regex]
+'git-repo-config' --unset name [value_regex]
+'git-repo-config' --unset-all name [value_regex]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+You can query/set/replace/unset options with this command. The name is
+actually the section and the key separated by a dot, and the value will be
+escaped.
+
+If you want to set/unset an option which can occor on multiple lines, you
+should provide a POSIX regex for the value. If you want to handle the lines
+*not* matching the regex, just prepend a single exlamation mark in front
+(see EXAMPLES).
+
+This command will fail if
+
+. .git/config is invalid,
+. .git/config can not be written to,
+. no section was provided,
+. the section or key is invalid,
+. you try to unset an option which does not exist, or
+. you try to unset/set an option for which multiple lines match.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--replace-all::
+ Default behaviour is to replace at most one line. This replaces
+ all lines matching the key (and optionally the value_regex)
+
+--get::
+ Get the value for a given key (optionally filtered by a regex
+ matching the value).
+
+--get-all::
+ Like get, but does not fail if the number of values for the key
+ is not exactly one.
+
+--unset::
+ Remove the line matching the key from .git/config.
+
+--unset-all::
+ Remove all matching lines from .git/config.
+
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+Given a .git/config like this:
+
+ #
+ # This is the config file, and
+ # a '#' or ';' character indicates
+ # a comment
+ #
+
+ ; core variables
+ [core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+ ; Our diff algorithm
+ [diff]
+ external = "/usr/local/bin/gnu-diff -u"
+ renames = true
+
+ ; Proxy settings
+ [proxy]
+ command="ssh" for "ssh://kernel.org/"
+ command="proxy-command" for kernel.org
+ command="myprotocol-command" for "my://"
+ command=default-proxy ; for all the rest
+
+you can set the filemode to true with
+
+------------
+% git repo-config core.filemode true
+------------
+
+The hypothetic proxy command entries actually have a postfix to discern
+to what URL they apply. Here is how to change the entry for kernel.org
+to "ssh".
+
+------------
+% git repo-config proxy.command '"ssh" for kernel.org' 'for kernel.org$'
+------------
+
+This makes sure that only the key/value pair for kernel.org is replaced.
+
+To delete the entry for renames, do
+
+------------
+% git repo-config --unset diff.renames
+------------
+
+If you want to delete an entry for a multivar (like proxy.command above),
+you have to provide a regex matching the value of exactly one line.
+
+To query the value for a given key, do
+
+------------
+% git repo-config --get core.filemode
+------------
+
+or
+
+------------
+% git repo-config core.filemode
+------------
+
+or, to query a multivar:
+
+------------
+% git repo-config --get proxy.command "for kernel.org$"
+------------
+
+If you want to know all the values for a multivar, do:
+
+------------
+% git repo-config --get-all proxy.command
+------------
+
+If you like to live dangerous, you can replace *all* proxy.commands by a
+new one with
+
+------------
+% git repo-config --replace-all proxy.command ssh
+------------
+
+However, if you really only want to replace the line for the default proxy,
+i.e. the one without a "for ..." postfix, do something like this:
+
+------------
+% git repo-config proxy.command ssh '! for '
+------------
+
+To actually match only values with an exclamation mark, you have to
+
+------------
+% git repo-config section.key value '[!]'
+------------
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Johannes Schindelin.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2463ec9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+git-request-pull(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-request-pull - Generates a summary of pending changes.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-request-pull' <start> <url> [<end>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Summarizes the changes between two commits to the standard output, and includes
+the given URL in the generated summary.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<start>::
+ Commit to start at.
+
+<url>::
+ URL to include in the summary.
+
+<end>::
+ Commit to send at; defaults to HEAD.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com> and Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6af3a4f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+git-reset(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-reset' [--mixed | --soft | --hard] [<commit-ish>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Sets the current head to the specified commit and optionally resets the
+index and working tree to match.
+
+This command is useful if you notice some small error in a recent
+commit (or set of commits) and want to redo that part without showing
+the undo in the history.
+
+If you want to undo a commit other than the latest on a branch,
+gitlink:git-revert[1] is your friend.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--mixed::
+ Resets the index but not the working tree (ie, the changed files
+ are preserved but not marked for commit) and reports what has not
+ been updated. This is the default action.
+
+--soft::
+ Does not touch the index file nor the working tree at all, but
+ requires them to be in a good order. This leaves all your changed
+ files "Updated but not checked in", as gitlink:git-status[1] would
+ put it.
+
+--hard::
+ Matches the working tree and index to that of the tree being
+ switched to. Any changes to tracked files in the working tree
+ since <commit-ish> are lost.
+
+<commit-ish>::
+ Commit to make the current HEAD.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> and Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-resolve.txt b/Documentation/git-resolve.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4e57c2b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-resolve.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+git-resolve(1)
+==============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-resolve - Merge two commits
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-resolve' <current> <merged> <message>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Given two commits and a merge message, merge the <merged> commit
+into <current> commit, with the commit log message <message>.
+
+When <current> is a descendant of <merged>, or <current> is an
+ancestor of <merged>, no new commit is created and the <message>
+is ignored. The former is informally called "already up to
+date", and the latter is often called "fast forward".
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Dan Holmsand <holmsand@gmail.com>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..064ccb1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+git-rev-list(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-rev-list' [ \--max-count=number ]
+ [ \--max-age=timestamp ]
+ [ \--min-age=timestamp ]
+ [ \--sparse ]
+ [ \--no-merges ]
+ [ \--all ]
+ [ [ \--merge-order [ \--show-breaks ] ] | [ \--topo-order ] | ]
+ [ \--parents ]
+ [ \--objects [ \--unpacked ] ]
+ [ \--pretty | \--header | ]
+ [ \--bisect ]
+ <commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order starting at the
+given commit(s), taking ancestry relationship into account. This is
+useful to produce human-readable log output.
+
+Commits which are stated with a preceding '{caret}' cause listing to stop at
+that point. Their parents are implied. "git-rev-list foo bar {caret}baz" thus
+means "list all the commits which are included in 'foo' and 'bar', but
+not in 'baz'".
+
+A special notation <commit1>..<commit2> can be used as a
+short-hand for {caret}<commit1> <commit2>.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--pretty::
+ Print the contents of the commit changesets in human-readable form.
+
+--header::
+ Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each
+ record is separated with a NUL character.
+
+--objects::
+ Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits.
+ 'git-rev-list --objects foo ^bar' thus means "send me all object IDs
+ which I need to download if I have the commit object 'bar', but
+ not 'foo'".
+
+--unpacked::
+ Only useful with `--objects`; print the object IDs that
+ are not in packs.
+
+--bisect::
+ Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway
+ between the included and excluded commits. Thus, if 'git-rev-list
+ --bisect foo ^bar ^baz' outputs 'midpoint', the output
+ of 'git-rev-list foo ^midpoint' and 'git-rev-list midpoint
+ ^bar ^baz' would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change
+ which introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search:
+ repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint's until the commit chain
+ is of length one.
+
+--max-count::
+ Limit the number of commits output.
+
+--max-age=timestamp, --min-age=timestamp::
+ Limit the commits output to specified time range.
+
+--sparse::
+ When optional paths are given, the command outputs only
+ the commits that changes at least one of them, and also
+ ignores merges that do not touch the given paths. This
+ flag makes the command output all eligible commits
+ (still subject to count and age limitation), but apply
+ merge simplification nevertheless.
+
+--all::
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are
+ listed on the command line as <commit>.
+
+--topo-order::
+ By default, the commits are shown in reverse
+ chronological order. This option makes them appear in
+ topological order (i.e. descendant commits are shown
+ before their parents).
+
+--merge-order::
+ When specified the commit history is decomposed into a unique
+ sequence of minimal, non-linear epochs and maximal, linear epochs.
+ Non-linear epochs are then linearised by sorting them into merge
+ order, which is described below.
++
+Maximal, linear epochs correspond to periods of sequential development.
+Minimal, non-linear epochs correspond to periods of divergent development
+followed by a converging merge. The theory of epochs is described in more
+detail at
+link:http://blackcubes.dyndns.org/epoch/[http://blackcubes.dyndns.org/epoch/].
++
+The merge order for a non-linear epoch is defined as a linearisation for which
+the following invariants are true:
++
+ 1. if a commit P is reachable from commit N, commit P sorts after commit N
+ in the linearised list.
+ 2. if Pi and Pj are any two parents of a merge M (with i < j), then any
+ commit N, such that N is reachable from Pj but not reachable from Pi,
+ sorts before all commits reachable from Pi.
++
+Invariant 1 states that later commits appear before earlier commits they are
+derived from.
++
+Invariant 2 states that commits unique to "later" parents in a merge, appear
+before all commits from "earlier" parents of a merge.
+
+--show-breaks::
+ Each item of the list is output with a 2-character prefix consisting
+ of one of: (|), (^), (=) followed by a space.
++
+Commits marked with (=) represent the boundaries of minimal, non-linear epochs
+and correspond either to the start of a period of divergent development or to
+the end of such a period.
++
+Commits marked with (|) are direct parents of commits immediately preceding
+the marked commit in the list.
++
+Commits marked with (^) are not parents of the immediately preceding commit.
+These "breaks" represent necessary discontinuities implied by trying to
+represent an arbtirary DAG in a linear form.
++
+`--show-breaks` is only valid if `--merge-order` is also specified.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Original *--merge-order* logic by Jon Seymour <jon.seymour@gmail.com>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..431b8f6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,174 @@
+git-rev-parse(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-rev-parse' [ --option ] <args>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Many git Porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
+(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
+meant for underlying `git-rev-list` command they use internally
+and flags and parameters for other commands they use as the
+downstream of `git-rev-list`. This command is used to
+distinguish between them.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--revs-only::
+ Do not output flags and parameters not meant for
+ `git-rev-list` command.
+
+--no-revs::
+ Do not output flags and parameters meant for
+ `git-rev-list` command.
+
+--flags::
+ Do not output non-flag parameters.
+
+--no-flags::
+ Do not output flag parameters.
+
+--default <arg>::
+ If there is no parameter given by the user, use `<arg>`
+ instead.
+
+--verify::
+ The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid
+ object name. Otherwise barf and abort.
+
+--sq::
+ Usually the output is made one line per flag and
+ parameter. This option makes output a single line,
+ properly quoted for consumption by shell. Useful when
+ you expect your parameter to contain whitespaces and
+ newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe `-S` with
+ `git-diff-\*`).
+
+--not::
+ When showing object names, prefix them with '{caret}' and
+ strip '{caret}' prefix from the object names that already have
+ one.
+
+--symbolic::
+ Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with
+ possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
+ form as close to the original input as possible.
+
+
+--all::
+ Show all refs found in `$GIT_DIR/refs`.
+
+--show-prefix::
+ When the command is invoked from a directory show the
+ path of the current directory relative to the top-level
+ directory.
+
+--since=datestring, --after=datestring::
+ Parses the date string, and outputs corresponding
+ --max-age= parameter for git-rev-list command.
+
+--until=datestring, --before=datestring::
+ Parses the date string, and outputs corresponding
+ --min-age= parameter for git-rev-list command.
+
+<args>...::
+ Flags and parameters to be parsed.
+
+
+SPECIFYING REVISIONS
+--------------------
+
+A revision parameter typically, but not necessarily, names a
+commit object. They use what is called an 'extended SHA1'
+syntax.
+
+* The full SHA1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or
+ a substring of such that is unique within the repository.
+ E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both
+ name the same commit object if there are no other object in
+ your repository whose object name starts with dae86e.
+
+* A symbolic ref name. E.g. 'master' typically means the commit
+ object referenced by $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/master. If you
+ happen to have both heads/master and tags/master, you can
+ explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell git which one you mean.
+
+* A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
+ that commit object. '{caret}<n>' means the <n>th parent (i.e.
+ 'rev{caret}'
+ is equivalent to 'rev{caret}1'). As a special rule,
+ 'rev{caret}0' means the commit itself and is used when 'rev' is the
+ object name of a tag object that refers to a commit object.
+
+* A suffix '~<n>' to a revision parameter means the commit
+ object that is the <n>th generation grand-parent of the named
+ commit object, following only the first parent. I.e. rev~3 is
+ equivalent to rev{caret}{caret}{caret} which is equivalent to\
+ rev{caret}1{caret}1{caret}1.
+
+* A suffix '{caret}' followed by an object type name enclosed in
+ brace pair (e.g. `v0.99.8{caret}\{commit\}`) means the object
+ could be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until an
+ object of that type is found or the object cannot be
+ dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf). `rev{caret}0`
+ introduced earlier is a short-hand for `rev{caret}\{commit\}`.
+
+* A suffix '{caret}' followed by an empty brace pair
+ (e.g. `v0.99.8{caret}\{\}`) means the object could be a tag,
+ and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag object is
+ found.
+
+'git-rev-parse' also accepts a prefix '{caret}' to revision parameter,
+which is passed to 'git-rev-list'. Two revision parameters
+concatenated with '..' is a short-hand for writing a range
+between them. I.e. 'r1..r2' is equivalent to saying '{caret}r1 r2'
+
+Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both node B and C are
+a commit parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered
+left-to-right.
+
+ G H I J
+ \ / \ /
+ D E F
+ \ | /
+ \ | /
+ \|/
+ B C
+ \ /
+ \ /
+ A
+
+ A = = A^0
+ B = A^ = A^1 = A~1
+ C = A^2 = A^2
+ D = A^^ = A^1^1 = A~2
+ E = B^2 = A^^2
+ F = B^3 = A^^3
+ G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
+ H = D^2 = B^^2 = A^^^2 = A~2^2
+ I = F^ = B^3^ = A^^3^
+ J = F^2 = B^3^2 = A^^3^2
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..feebd81
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,48 @@
+git-revert(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-revert - Revert an existing commit.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-revert' [-n] <commit>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Given one existing commit, revert the change the patch introduces, and record a
+new commit that records it. This requires your working tree to be clean (no
+modifications from the HEAD commit).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<commit>::
+ Commit to revert.
+
+-n::
+ Usually the command automatically creates a commit with
+ a commit log message stating which commit was reverted.
+ This flag applies the change necessary to revert the
+ named commit to your working tree, but does not make the
+ commit. In addition, when this option is used, your
+ working tree does not have to match the HEAD commit.
+ The revert is done against the beginning state of your
+ working tree.
++
+This is useful when reverting more than one commits'
+effect to your working tree in a row.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b9bec55
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,80 @@
+git-send-email(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-send-email' [options] <file|directory> [... file|directory]
+
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Takes the patches given on the command line and emails them out.
+
+The header of the email is configurable by command line options. If not
+specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
+enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+The options available are:
+
+--to::
+ Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated.
+ Generally, this will be the upstream maintainer of the
+ project involved.
+
+--from::
+ Specify the sender of the emails. This will default to
+ the value GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT, as returned by "git-var -l".
+ The user will still be prompted to confirm this entry.
+
+--compose::
+ Use \$EDITOR to edit an introductory message for the
+ patch series.
+
+--subject::
+ Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
+ Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
+ is not set, this will be prompted for.
+
+--in-reply-to::
+ Specify the contents of the first In-Reply-To header.
+ Subsequent emails will refer to the previous email
+ instead of this if --chain-reply-to is set (the default)
+ Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
+ is not set, this will be prompted for.
+
+--chain-reply-to, --no-chain-reply-to::
+ If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
+ email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
+ the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
+ this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
+ entire patch series.
+ Default is --chain-reply-to
+
+--smtp-server::
+ If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use. Defaults to
+ localhost.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>
+
+git-send-email is originally based upon
+send_lots_of_email.pl by Greg Kroah-Hartman.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Ryan Anderson
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..577f06a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,110 @@
+git-send-pack(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-send-pack - Push missing objects packed.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-send-pack' [--all] [--force] [--exec=<git-receive-pack>] [<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Invokes 'git-receive-pack' on a possibly remote repository, and
+updates it from the current repository, sending named refs.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
+ Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
+ end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
+ repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
+ a directory on the default $PATH.
+
+--all::
+ Instead of explicitly specifying which refs to update,
+ update all refs that locally exist.
+
+--force::
+ Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that
+ is not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
+ This flag disables the check. What this means is that
+ the remote repository can lose commits; use it with
+ care.
+
+<host>::
+ A remote host to house the repository. When this
+ part is specified, 'git-receive-pack' is invoked via
+ ssh.
+
+<directory>::
+ The repository to update.
+
+<ref>...:
+ The remote refs to update.
+
+
+Specifying the Refs
+-------------------
+
+There are three ways to specify which refs to update on the
+remote end.
+
+With '--all' flag, all refs that exist locally are transfered to
+the remote side. You cannot specify any '<ref>' if you use
+this flag.
+
+Without '--all' and without any '<ref>', the refs that exist
+both on the local side and on the remote side are updated.
+
+When one or more '<ref>' are specified explicitly, it can be either a
+single pattern, or a pair of such pattern separated by a colon
+":" (this means that a ref name cannot have a colon in it). A
+single pattern '<name>' is just a shorthand for '<name>:<name>'.
+
+Each pattern pair consists of the source side (before the colon)
+and the destination side (after the colon). The ref to be
+pushed is determined by finding a match that matches the source
+side, and where it is pushed is determined by using the
+destination side.
+
+ - It is an error if <src> does not match exactly one of the
+ local refs.
+
+ - It is an error if <dst> matches more than one remote refs.
+
+ - If <dst> does not match any remote ref, either
+
+ * it has to start with "refs/"; <dst> is used as the
+ destination literally in this case.
+
+ * <src> == <dst> and the ref that matched the <src> must not
+ exist in the set of remote refs; the ref matched <src>
+ locally is used as the name of the destination.
+
+Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
+<dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
+ancestor) of <src>. This check, known as "fast forward check",
+is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
+remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
+
+With '--force', the fast forward check is disabled for all refs.
+
+Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
+to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6ef59ac
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+git-sh-setup(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-sh-setup - Common git shell script setup code.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-sh-setup'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Sets up the normal git environment variables and a few helper functions
+(currently just "die()"), and returns ok if it all looks like a git archive.
+So, to make the rest of the git scripts more careful and readable,
+use it as follows:
+
+-------------------------------------------------
+. git-sh-setup || die "Not a git archive"
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3f4d804
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+git-shell(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-shell - Restricted login shell for GIT over SSH only
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-shell -c <command> <argument>'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This is meant to be used as a login shell for SSH accounts you want
+to restrict to GIT pull/push access only. It permits execution only
+of server-side GIT commands implementing the pull/push functionality.
+The commands can be executed only by the '-c' option; the shell is not
+interactive.
+
+Currently, only the `git-receive-pack` and `git-upload-pack` commands
+are permitted to be called, with a single required argument.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Petr Baudis and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..65ca77f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+git-shortlog(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-log --pretty=short | git shortlog'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Summarizes 'git log' output in a format suitable for inclusion
+in release announcements.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Jeff Garzik <jgarzik@pobox.com>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c6c97b2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,113 @@
+git-show-branch(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-show-branch - Show branches and their commits.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-show-branch [--all] [--heads] [--tags] [--more=<n> | --list | --independent | --merge-base] [--no-name | --sha1-name] <reference>...'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Shows the head commits from the named <reference> (or all refs under
+$GIT_DIR/refs/heads), and displays concise list of commit logs
+to show their relationship semi-visually.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<reference>::
+ Name of the reference under $GIT_DIR/refs/.
+
+--all --heads --tags::
+ Show all refs under $GIT_DIR/refs, $GIT_DIR/refs/heads,
+ and $GIT_DIR/refs/tags, respectively.
+
+--more=<n>::
+ Usually the command stops output upon showing the commit
+ that is the common ancestor of all the branches. This
+ flag tells the command to go <n> more common commits
+ beyond that. When <n> is negative, display only the
+ <reference>s given, without showing the commit ancestry
+ tree.
+
+--list::
+ Synomym to `--more=-1`
+
+--merge-base::
+ Instead of showing the commit list, just act like the
+ 'git-merge-base -a' command, except that it can accept
+ more than two heads.
+
+--independent::
+ Among the <reference>s given, display only the ones that
+ cannot be reached from any other <reference>.
+
+--no-name::
+ Do not show naming strings for each commit.
+
+--sha1-name::
+ Instead of naming the commits using the path to reach
+ them from heads (e.g. "master~2" to mean the grandparent
+ of "master"), name them with the unique prefix of their
+ object names.
+
+Note that --more, --list, --independent and --merge-base options
+are mutually exclusive.
+
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+Given N <references>, the first N lines are the one-line
+description from their commit message. The branch head that is
+pointed at by $GIT_DIR/HEAD is prefixed with an asterisk '*'
+character while other heads are prefixed with a '!' character.
+
+Following these N lines, one-line log for each commit is
+displayed, indented N places. If a commit is on the I-th
+branch, the I-th indentation character shows a '+' sign;
+otherwise it shows a space. Each commit shows a short name that
+can be used as an exended SHA1 to name that commit.
+
+The following example shows three branches, "master", "fixes"
+and "mhf":
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch master fixes mhf
+! [master] Add 'git show-branch'.
+ ! [fixes] Introduce "reset type" flag to "git reset"
+ ! [mhf] Allow "+remote:local" refspec to cause --force when fetching.
+---
+ + [mhf] Allow "+remote:local" refspec to cause --force when fetching.
+ + [mhf~1] Use git-octopus when pulling more than one heads.
+ + [fixes] Introduce "reset type" flag to "git reset"
+ + [mhf~2] "git fetch --force".
+ + [mhf~3] Use .git/remote/origin, not .git/branches/origin.
+ + [mhf~4] Make "git pull" and "git fetch" default to origin
+ + [mhf~5] Infamous 'octopus merge'
+ + [mhf~6] Retire git-parse-remote.
+ + [mhf~7] Multi-head fetch.
+ + [mhf~8] Start adding the $GIT_DIR/remotes/ support.
++++ [master] Add 'git show-branch'.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+These three branches all forked from a common commit, [master],
+whose commit message is "Add 'git show-branch'. "fixes" branch
+adds one commit 'Introduce "reset type"'. "mhf" branch has many
+other commits.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..be09b62
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+git-show-index(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-show-index - Show packed archive index
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-show-index' < idx-file
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with
+git-pack-objects command, and dumps its contents.
+
+The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
+'git-verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
+offset and SHA1 of each object.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ssh-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-ssh-fetch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b7116b3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-ssh-fetch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,51 @@
+git-ssh-fetch(1)
+================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-ssh-fetch - Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection
+
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-ssh-fetch' [-c] [-t] [-a] [-d] [-v] [-w filename] [--recover] commit-id url
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection, invoking
+git-ssh-upload on the other end. It functions identically to
+git-ssh-upload, aside from which end you run it on.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+commit-id::
+ Either the hash or the filename under [URL]/refs/ to
+ pull.
+
+-c::
+ Get the commit objects.
+-t::
+ Get trees associated with the commit objects.
+-a::
+ Get all the objects.
+-v::
+ Report what is downloaded.
+-w::
+ Writes the commit-id into the filename under $GIT_DIR/refs/ on
+ the local end after the transfer is complete.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Daniel Barkalow <barkalow@iabervon.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ssh-upload.txt b/Documentation/git-ssh-upload.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..702674e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-ssh-upload.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+git-ssh-upload(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-ssh-upload - Pushes to a remote repository over ssh connection
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-ssh-upload' [-c] [-t] [-a] [-d] [-v] [-w filename] [--recover] commit-id url
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Pushes from a remote repository over ssh connection, invoking
+git-ssh-fetch on the other end. It functions identically to
+git-ssh-fetch, aside from which end you run it on.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+commit-id::
+ Id of commit to push.
+
+-c::
+ Get the commit objects.
+-t::
+ Get tree associated with the requested commit object.
+-a::
+ Get all the objects.
+-v::
+ Report what is uploaded.
+-w::
+ Writes the commit-id into the filename under [URL]/refs/ on
+ the remote end after the transfer is complete.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Daniel Barkalow <barkalow@iabervon.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Daniel Barkalow
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..753fc08
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+git-status(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-status - Show working tree status.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-status'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Examines paths in the working tree that has changes unrecorded
+to the index file, and changes between the index file and the
+current HEAD commit. The former paths are what you _could_
+commit by running 'git-update-index' before running 'git
+commit', and the latter paths are what you _would_ commit by
+running 'git commit'.
+
+If there is no path that is different between the index file and
+the current HEAD commit, the command exits with non-zero
+status.
+
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+The output from this command is designed to be used as a commit
+template comments, and all the output lines are prefixed with '#'.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..528a1b6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+git-stripspace(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-stripspace - Filter out empty lines.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-stripspace' < <stream>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Remove multiple empty lines, and empty lines at beginning and end.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<stream>::
+ Byte stream to act on.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svnimport.txt b/Documentation/git-svnimport.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fcc79fa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-svnimport.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,137 @@
+git-svnimport(1)
+================
+v0.1, July 2005
+
+NAME
+----
+git-svnimport - Import a SVN repository into git
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-svnimport' [ -o <branch-for-HEAD> ] [ -h ] [ -v ] [ -d | -D ]
+ [ -C <GIT_repository> ] [ -i ] [ -u ] [-l limit_nr_changes]
+ [ -b branch_subdir ] [ -t trunk_subdir ] [ -T tag_subdir ]
+ [ -s start_chg ] [ -m ] [ -M regex ]
+ <SVN_repository_URL> [ <path> ]
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Imports a SVN repository into git. It will either create a new
+repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
+
+SVN access is done by the SVN:: Perl module.
+
+git-svnimport assumes that SVN repositories are organized into one
+"trunk" directory where the main development happens, "branch/FOO"
+directories for branches, and "/tags/FOO" directories for tags.
+Other subdirectories are ignored.
+
+git-svnimport creates a file ".git/svn2git", which is required for
+incremental SVN imports.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-C <target-dir>::
+ The GIT repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
+ exist, it will be created. Default is the current directory.
+
+-s <start_rev>::
+ Start importing at this SVN change number. The default is 1.
++
+When importing incementally, you might need to edit the .git/svn2git file.
+
+-i::
+ Import-only: don't perform a checkout after importing. This option
+ ensures the working directory and index remain untouched and will
+ not create them if they do not exist.
+
+-t <trunk_subdir>::
+ Name the SVN trunk. Default "trunk".
+
+-T <tag_subdir>::
+ Name the SVN subdirectory for tags. Default "tags".
+
+-b <branch_subdir>::
+ Name the SVN subdirectory for branches. Default "branches".
+
+-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
+ The 'trunk' branch from SVN is imported to the 'origin' branch within
+ the git repository. Use this option if you want to import into a
+ different branch.
+
+-m::
+ Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message. This option
+ will enable default regexes that try to capture the name source
+ branch name from the commit message.
+
+-M <regex>::
+ Attempt to detect merges based on the commit message with a custom
+ regex. It can be used with -m to also see the default regexes.
+ You must escape forward slashes.
+
+-l <max_num_changes>::
+ Limit the number of SVN changesets we pull before quitting.
+ This option is necessary because the SVN library has serious memory
+ leaks; the recommended value for nontrivial imports is 100.
+
+ git-svnimport will still exit with a zero exit code. You can check
+ the size of the file ".git/svn2git" to determine whether to call
+ the importer again.
+
+-v::
+ Verbosity: let 'svnimport' report what it is doing.
+
+-d::
+ Use direct HTTP requests if possible. The "<path>" argument is used
+ only for retrieving the SVN logs; the path to the contents is
+ included in the SVN log.
+
+-D::
+ Use direct HTTP requests if possible. The "<path>" argument is used
+ for retrieving the logs, as well as for the contents.
++
+There's no safe way to automatically find out which of these options to
+use, so you need to try both. Usually, the one that's wrong will die
+with a 40x error pretty quickly.
+
+<SVN_repository_URL>::
+ The URL of the SVN module you want to import. For local
+ repositories, use "file:///absolute/path".
++
+If you're using the "-d" or "-D" option, this is the URL of the SVN
+repository itself; it usually ends in "/svn".
+
+<SVN_repository_URL>::
+ The URL of the SVN module you want to import. For local
+ repositories, use "file:///absolute/path".
+
+<path>
+ The path to the module you want to check out.
+
+-h::
+ Print a short usage message and exit.
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+If '-v' is specified, the script reports what it is doing.
+
+Otherwise, success is indicated the Unix way, i.e. by simply exiting with
+a zero exit status.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>, with help from
+various participants of the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+Based on a cvs2git script by the same author.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Matthias Urlichs <smurf@smurf.noris.de>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..68ac6a6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+git-symbolic-ref(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-symbolic-ref - read and modify symbolic refs
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-symbolic-ref' <name> [<ref>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Given one argument, reads which branch head the given symbolic
+ref refers to and outputs its path, relative to the `.git/`
+directory. Typically you would give `HEAD` as the <name>
+argument to see on which branch your working tree is on.
+
+Give two arguments, create or update a symbolic ref <name> to
+point at the given branch <ref>.
+
+Traditionally, `.git/HEAD` is a symlink pointing at
+`refs/heads/master`. When we want to switch to another branch,
+we did `ln -sf refs/heads/newbranch .git/HEAD`, and when we want
+to find out which branch we are on, we did `readlink .git/HEAD`.
+This was fine, and internally that is what still happens by
+default, but on platforms that do not have working symlinks,
+or that do not have the `readlink(1)` command, this was a bit
+cumbersome. On some platforms, `ln -sf` does not even work as
+advertised (horrors).
+
+A symbolic ref can be a regular file that stores a string that
+begins with `ref: refs/`. For example, your `.git/HEAD` *can*
+be a regular file whose contents is `ref: refs/heads/master`.
+This can be used on a filesystem that does not support symbolic
+links. Instead of doing `readlink .git/HEAD`, `git-symbolic-ref
+HEAD` can be used to find out which branch we are on. To point
+the HEAD to `newbranch`, instead of `ln -sf refs/heads/newbranch
+.git/HEAD`, `git-symbolic-ref HEAD refs/heads/newbranch` can be
+used.
+
+Currently, .git/HEAD uses a regular file symbolic ref on Cygwin,
+and everywhere else it is implemented as a symlink. This can be
+changed at compilation time.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..95de436
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+git-tag(1)
+==========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-tag - Create a tag object signed with GPG
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-tag' [-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f | -d] [-m <msg>] <name> [<head>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Adds a 'tag' reference in .git/refs/tags/
+
+Unless `-f` is given, the tag must not yet exist in
+`.git/refs/tags/` directory.
+
+If one of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>` is passed, the command
+creates a 'tag' object, and requires the tag message. Unless
+`-m <msg>` is given, an editor is started for the user to type
+in the tag message.
+
+Otherwise just the SHA1 object name of the commit object is
+written (i.e. an lightweight tag).
+
+A GnuPG signed tag object will be created when `-s` or `-u
+<key-id>` is used. When `-u <key-id>` is not used, the
+committer identity for the current user is used to find the
+GnuPG key for signing.
+
+`-d <tag>` deletes the tag.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>,
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> and Chris Wright <chrisw@osdl.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2139b6f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-tar-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+git-tar-tree(1)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-tar-tree - Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-tar-tree' <tree-ish> [ <base> ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Creates a tar archive containing the tree structure for the named tree.
+When <base> is specified it is added as a leading path to the files in the
+generated tar archive.
+
+git-tar-tree behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when given
+a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is used as
+modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter case the
+commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is used instead.
+Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global extended pax header.
+It can be extracted using git-get-tar-commit-id.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Rene Scharfe.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-file.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-file.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..213dc81
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-file.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+git-unpack-file(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-unpack-file - Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents
+
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-unpack-file' <blob>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Creates a file holding the contents of the blob specified by sha1. It
+returns the name of the temporary file in the following format:
+ .merge_file_XXXXX
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<blob>::
+ Must be a blob id
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..31ea34d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+git-unpack-objects(1)
+=====================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-unpack-objects - Unpack objects from a packed archive.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] <pack-file
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads a packed archive (.pack) from the standard input, and
+expands the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
+one-object" format in $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-n::
+ Only list the objects that would be unpacked, don't actually unpack
+ them.
+
+-q::
+ The command usually shows percentage progress. This
+ flag suppresses it.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fdcb8be
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,166 @@
+git-update-index(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-update-index - Modifies the index or directory cache
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-update-index'
+ [--add] [--remove | --force-remove] [--replace]
+ [--refresh [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]]
+ [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]\*
+ [--chmod=(+|-)x]
+ [--info-only] [--index-info]
+ [-z] [--stdin]
+ [--verbose]
+ [--] [<file>]\*
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Modifies the index or directory cache. Each file mentioned is updated
+into the index and any 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state is
+cleared.
+
+The way "git-update-index" handles files it is told about can be modified
+using the various options:
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--add::
+ If a specified file isn't in the index already then it's
+ added.
+ Default behaviour is to ignore new files.
+
+--remove::
+ If a specified file is in the index but is missing then it's
+ removed.
+ Default behaviour is to ignore removed file.
+
+--refresh::
+ Looks at the current index and checks to see if merges or
+ updates are needed by checking stat() information.
+
+-q::
+ Quiet. If --refresh finds that the index needs an update, the
+ default behavior is to error out. This option makes
+ git-update-index continue anyway.
+
+--unmerged::
+ If --refresh finds unmerged changes in the index, the default
+ behavior is to error out. This option makes git-update-index
+ continue anyway.
+
+--ignore-missing::
+ Ignores missing files during a --refresh
+
+--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>::
+ Directly insert the specified info into the index.
+
+--index-info::
+ Read index information from stdin.
+
+--chmod=(+|-)x::
+ Set the execute permissions on the updated files.
+
+--info-only::
+ Do not create objects in the object database for all
+ <file> arguments that follow this flag; just insert
+ their object IDs into the index.
+
+--force-remove::
+ Remove the file from the index even when the working directory
+ still has such a file. (Implies --remove.)
+
+--replace::
+ By default, when a file `path` exists in the index,
+ git-update-index refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
+ Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
+ cannot be added. With --replace flag, existing entries
+ that conflicts with the entry being added are
+ automatically removed with warning messages.
+
+--stdin::
+ Instead of taking list of paths from the command line,
+ read list of paths from the standard input. Paths are
+ separated by LF (i.e. one path per line) by default.
+
+--verbose::
+ Report what is being added and removed from index.
+
+-z::
+ Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with
+ NUL character instead of LF.
+
+--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+<file>::
+ Files to act on.
+ Note that files beginning with '.' are discarded. This includes
+ `./file` and `dir/./file`. If you don't want this, then use
+ cleaner names.
+ The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'
+
+Using --refresh
+---------------
+'--refresh' does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the index
+up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it *does* do is to
+"re-match" the stat information of a file with the index, so that you
+can refresh the index for a file that hasn't been changed but where
+the stat entry is out of date.
+
+For example, you'd want to do this after doing a "git-read-tree", to link
+up the stat index details with the proper files.
+
+Using --cacheinfo or --info-only
+--------------------------------
+'--cacheinfo' is used to register a file that is not in the
+current working directory. This is useful for minimum-checkout
+merging.
+
+To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
+
+ $ git-update-index --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
+
+'--info-only' is used to register files without placing them in the object
+database. This is useful for status-only repositories.
+
+Both '--cacheinfo' and '--info-only' behave similarly: the index is updated
+but the object database isn't. '--cacheinfo' is useful when the object is
+in the database but the file isn't available locally. '--info-only' is
+useful when the file is available, but you do not wish to update the
+object database.
+
+Examples
+--------
+To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
+
+ git-checkout-index -n -f -a && git-update-index --ignore-missing --refresh
+
+
+Configuration
+-------------
+
+The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable. If
+your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
+unreliable, this should be set to 'false'. This causes the
+command to ignore differences in file modes recorded in the
+index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
+executable bit. On such an unfortunate filesystem, you may
+need to use `git-update-index --chmod=`.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..69715aa
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+git-update-ref(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-update-ref - update the object name stored in a ref safely
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+`git-update-ref` <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Given two arguments, stores the <newvalue> in the <ref>, possibly
+dereferencing the symbolic refs. E.g. `git-update-ref HEAD
+<newvalue>` updates the current branch head to the new object.
+
+Given three arguments, stores the <newvalue> in the <ref>,
+possibly dereferencing the symbolic refs, after verifying that
+the current value of the <ref> matches <oldvalue>.
+E.g. `git-update-ref refs/heads/master <newvalue> <oldvalue>`
+updates the master branch head to <newvalue> only if its current
+value is <oldvalue>.
+
+It also allows a "ref" file to be a symbolic pointer to another
+ref file by starting with the four-byte header sequence of
+"ref:".
+
+More importantly, it allows the update of a ref file to follow
+these symbolic pointers, whether they are symlinks or these
+"regular file symbolic refs". It follows *real* symlinks only
+if they start with "refs/": otherwise it will just try to read
+them and update them as a regular file (i.e. it will allow the
+filesystem to follow them, but will overwrite such a symlink to
+somewhere else with a regular filename).
+
+In general, using
+
+ git-update-ref HEAD "$head"
+
+should be a _lot_ safer than doing
+
+ echo "$head" > "$GIT_DIR/HEAD"
+
+both from a symlink following standpoint *and* an error checking
+standpoint. The "refs/" rule for symlinks means that symlinks
+that point to "outside" the tree are safe: they'll be followed
+for reading but not for writing (so we'll never write through a
+ref symlink to some other tree, if you have copied a whole
+archive by creating a symlink tree).
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-server-info.txt b/Documentation/git-update-server-info.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3d0dea0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-server-info.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+git-update-server-info(1)
+=========================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-update-server-info - Update auxiliary info file to help dumb servers
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-update-server-info' [--force]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A dumb server that does not do on-the-fly pack generations can
+have some auxiliary information files in $GIT_DIR/info and
+$GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY/info directories to help clients discover
+what references and packs the server has and make optimized
+pull decisions. This command generates such auxiliary files.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+
+--force::
+ Update the info files from scratch.
+
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+Currently the command updates the following files. Please see
+link:repository-layout.html[repository-layout] for description
+of what they are for:
+
+* objects/info/packs
+
+* info/refs
+
+
+BUGS
+----
+When you remove an existing ref, the command fails to update
+info/refs file unless `--force` flag is given.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3d8f8ef
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+git-upload-pack(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-upload-pack - Send missing objects packed.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-upload-pack' <directory>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Invoked by 'git-clone-pack' and/or 'git-fetch-pack', learns what
+objects the other side is missing, and sends them after packing.
+
+This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user.
+The UI for the protocol is on the 'git-fetch-pack' side, and the
+program pair is meant to be used to pull updates from a remote
+repository. For push operations, see 'git-send-pack'.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<directory>::
+ The repository to sync from.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c22d34f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
+git-var(1)
+==========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-var - Print the git users identity
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+git-var [ -l | <variable> ]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Prints a git logical variable.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-l::
+ Cause the logical variables to be listed.
+
+EXAMPLE
+--------
+ $ git-var GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT
+ Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@lnxi.com> 1121223278 -0600
+
+
+VARIABLES
+----------
+GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT::
+ The author of a piece of code.
+
+GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT::
+ The person who put a piece of code into git.
+
+Diagnostics
+-----------
+You don't exist. Go away!::
+ The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
+Your parents must have hated you!::
+ The password(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+Your sysadmin must hate you!::
+ The password(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+
+See Also
+--------
+gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
+gitlink:git-tag[1]
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Eric Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Eric Biederman and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..cd74ffd
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+git-verify-pack(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-verify-pack - Validate packed git archive files.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-verify-pack' [-v] <pack>.idx ...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with
+git-pack-objects command and verifies idx file and the
+corresponding pack file.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<pack>.idx ...::
+ The idx files to verify.
+
+-v::
+ After verifying the pack, show list of objects contained
+ in the pack.
+
+OUTPUT FORMAT
+-------------
+When specifying the -v option the format used is:
+
+ SHA1 type size offset-in-packfile
+
+for objects that are not deltified in the pack, and
+
+ SHA1 type size offset-in-packfile depth base-SHA1
+
+for objects that are deltified.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b8a73c4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+git-verify-tag(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-verify-tag - Check the GPG signature of tag.
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-verify-tag' <tag>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Validates the gpg signature created by git-tag.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+<tag>::
+ SHA1 identifier of a git tag object.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Jan Harkes <jaharkes@cs.cmu.edu> and Eric W. Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6c150b0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,81 @@
+git-whatchanged(1)
+==================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-whatchanged - Show logs with difference each commit introduces.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-whatchanged' <option>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Shows commit logs and diff output each commit introduces. The
+command internally invokes 'git-rev-list' piped to
+'git-diff-tree', and takes command line options for both of
+these commands.
+
+This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-p::
+ Show textual diffs, instead of the git internal diff
+ output format that is useful only to tell the changed
+ paths and their nature of changes.
+
+--max-count=<n>::
+ Limit output to <n> commits.
+
+<since>..<until>::
+ Limit output to between the two named commits (bottom
+ exclusive, top inclusive).
+
+-r::
+ Show git internal diff output, but for the whole tree,
+ not just the top level.
+
+--pretty=<format>::
+ Controls the output format for the commit logs.
+ <format> can be one of 'raw', 'medium', 'short', 'full',
+ and 'oneline'.
+
+-m::
+ By default, differences for merge commits are not shown.
+ With this flag, show differences to that commit from all
+ of its parents.
+
+ However, it is not very useful in general, although it
+ *is* useful on a file-by-file basis.
+
+Examples
+--------
+git-whatchanged -p v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi::
+
+ Show as patches the commits since version 'v2.6.12' that changed
+ any file in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
+
+git-whatchanged --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk::
+
+ Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
+ The "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ 'gitk'
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> and
+Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..abee05f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-write-tree.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,42 @@
+git-write-tree(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-write-tree - Creates a tree object from the current index
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git-write-tree' [--missing-ok]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Creates a tree object using the current index.
+
+The index must be merged.
+
+Conceptually, "git-write-tree" sync()s the current index contents
+into a set of tree files.
+In order to have that match what is actually in your directory right
+now, you need to have done a "git-update-index" phase before you did the
+"git-write-tree".
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--missing-ok::
+ Normally "git-write-tree" ensures that the objects referenced by the
+ directory exist in the object database. This option disables this check.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a518249
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,573 @@
+git(7)
+======
+
+NAME
+----
+git - the stupid content tracker
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+'git' is both a program and a directory content tracker system.
+The program 'git' is just a wrapper to reach the core git programs
+(or a potty if you like, as it's not exactly porcelain but still
+brings your stuff to the plumbing).
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--version::
+ prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
+
+--help::
+ prints the synopsis and a list of available commands.
+ If a git command is named this option will bring up the
+ man-page for that command.
+
+--exec-path::
+ path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
+ This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
+ environment variable. If no path is given 'git' will print
+ the current setting and then exit.
+
+CORE GIT COMMANDS
+-----------------
+Before reading this cover to cover, you may want to take a look
+at the link:tutorial.html[tutorial] document.
+
+The <<Discussion>> section below contains much useful definition and
+clarification info - read that first. And of the commands, I suggest
+reading gitlink:git-update-index[1] and
+gitlink:git-read-tree[1] first - I wish I had!
+
+If you are migrating from CVS, link:cvs-migration.html[cvs migration]
+document may be helpful after you finish the tutorial.
+
+After you get the general feel from the tutorial and this
+overview page, you may want to take a look at the
+link:howto-index.html[howto] documents.
+
+
+David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
+08/05/05
+
+Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 to
+reflect recent changes.
+
+Commands Overview
+-----------------
+The git commands can helpfully be split into those that manipulate
+the repository, the index and the working fileset, those that
+interrogate and compare them, and those that moves objects and
+references between repositories.
+
+In addition, git itself comes with a spartan set of porcelain
+commands. They are usable but are not meant to compete with real
+Porcelains.
+
+There are also some ancillary programs that can be viewed as useful
+aids for using the core commands but which are unlikely to be used by
+SCMs layered over git.
+
+Manipulation commands
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+gitlink:git-apply[1]::
+ Reads a "diff -up1" or git generated patch file and
+ applies it to the working tree.
+
+gitlink:git-checkout-index[1]::
+ Copy files from the index to the working directory
+
+gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]::
+ Creates a new commit object
+
+gitlink:git-hash-object[1]::
+ Computes the object ID from a file.
+
+gitlink:git-index-pack[1]::
+ Build pack index file for an existing packed archive.
+
+gitlink:git-init-db[1]::
+ Creates an empty git object database
+
+gitlink:git-merge-index[1]::
+ Runs a merge for files needing merging
+
+gitlink:git-mktag[1]::
+ Creates a tag object
+
+gitlink:git-pack-objects[1]::
+ Creates a packed archive of objects.
+
+gitlink:git-prune-packed[1]::
+ Remove extra objects that are already in pack files.
+
+gitlink:git-read-tree[1]::
+ Reads tree information into the directory index
+
+gitlink:git-repo-config[1]::
+ Get and set options in .git/config.
+
+gitlink:git-unpack-objects[1]::
+ Unpacks objects out of a packed archive.
+
+gitlink:git-update-index[1]::
+ Modifies the index or directory cache
+
+gitlink:git-write-tree[1]::
+ Creates a tree from the current index
+
+
+Interrogation commands
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+gitlink:git-cat-file[1]::
+ Provide content or type information for repository objects
+
+gitlink:git-diff-index[1]::
+ Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository
+
+gitlink:git-diff-files[1]::
+ Compares files in the working tree and the index
+
+gitlink:git-diff-stages[1]::
+ Compares two "merge stages" in the index file.
+
+gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]::
+ Compares the content and mode of blobs found via two tree objects
+
+gitlink:git-fsck-objects[1]::
+ Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database
+
+gitlink:git-ls-files[1]::
+ Information about files in the index/working directory
+
+gitlink:git-ls-tree[1]::
+ Displays a tree object in human readable form
+
+gitlink:git-merge-base[1]::
+ Finds as good a common ancestor as possible for a merge
+
+gitlink:git-name-rev[1]::
+ Find symbolic names for given revs
+
+gitlink:git-rev-list[1]::
+ Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
+
+gitlink:git-show-index[1]::
+ Displays contents of a pack idx file.
+
+gitlink:git-tar-tree[1]::
+ Creates a tar archive of the files in the named tree
+
+gitlink:git-unpack-file[1]::
+ Creates a temporary file with a blob's contents
+
+gitlink:git-var[1]::
+ Displays a git logical variable
+
+gitlink:git-verify-pack[1]::
+ Validates packed git archive files
+
+The interrogate commands may create files - and you can force them to
+touch the working file set - but in general they don't
+
+
+Synching repositories
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+gitlink:git-clone-pack[1]::
+ Clones a repository into the current repository (engine
+ for ssh and local transport)
+
+gitlink:git-fetch-pack[1]::
+ Updates from a remote repository.
+
+gitlink:git-http-fetch[1]::
+ Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP
+
+gitlink:git-local-fetch[1]::
+ Duplicates another git repository on a local system
+
+gitlink:git-peek-remote[1]::
+ Lists references on a remote repository using upload-pack protocol.
+
+gitlink:git-receive-pack[1]::
+ Invoked by 'git-send-pack' to receive what is pushed to it.
+
+gitlink:git-send-pack[1]::
+ Pushes to a remote repository, intelligently.
+
+gitlink:git-shell[1]::
+ Restricted shell for GIT-only SSH access.
+
+gitlink:git-ssh-fetch[1]::
+ Pulls from a remote repository over ssh connection
+
+gitlink:git-ssh-upload[1]::
+ Helper "server-side" program used by git-ssh-fetch
+
+gitlink:git-update-server-info[1]::
+ Updates auxiliary information on a dumb server to help
+ clients discover references and packs on it.
+
+gitlink:git-upload-pack[1]::
+ Invoked by 'git-clone-pack' and 'git-fetch-pack' to push
+ what are asked for.
+
+
+Porcelain-ish Commands
+----------------------
+
+gitlink:git-add[1]::
+ Add paths to the index file.
+
+gitlink:git-am[1]::
+ Apply patches from a mailbox, but cooler.
+
+gitlink:git-applymbox[1]::
+ Apply patches from a mailbox.
+
+gitlink:git-bisect[1]::
+ Find the change that introduced a bug.
+
+gitlink:git-branch[1]::
+ Create and Show branches.
+
+gitlink:git-checkout[1]::
+ Checkout and switch to a branch.
+
+gitlink:git-cherry-pick[1]::
+ Cherry-pick the effect of an existing commit.
+
+gitlink:git-clone[1]::
+ Clones a repository into a new directory.
+
+gitlink:git-commit[1]::
+ Record changes to the repository.
+
+gitlink:git-diff[1]::
+ Show changes between commits, commit and working tree, etc.
+
+gitlink:git-fetch[1]::
+ Download from a remote repository via various protocols.
+
+gitlink:git-format-patch[1]::
+ Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
+
+gitlink:git-grep[1]::
+ Print lines matching a pattern
+
+gitlink:git-log[1]::
+ Shows commit logs.
+
+gitlink:git-ls-remote[1]::
+ Shows references in a remote or local repository.
+
+gitlink:git-merge[1]::
+ Grand unified merge driver.
+
+gitlink:git-mv[1]::
+ Move or rename a file, a directory, or a symlink.
+
+gitlink:git-octopus[1]::
+ Merge more than two commits.
+
+gitlink:git-pull[1]::
+ Fetch from and merge with a remote repository.
+
+gitlink:git-push[1]::
+ Update remote refs along with associated objects.
+
+gitlink:git-rebase[1]::
+ Rebase local commits to new upstream head.
+
+gitlink:git-repack[1]::
+ Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
+
+gitlink:git-reset[1]::
+ Reset current HEAD to the specified state.
+
+gitlink:git-resolve[1]::
+ Merge two commits.
+
+gitlink:git-revert[1]::
+ Revert an existing commit.
+
+gitlink:git-shortlog[1]::
+ Summarizes 'git log' output.
+
+gitlink:git-show-branch[1]::
+ Show branches and their commits.
+
+gitlink:git-status[1]::
+ Shows the working tree status.
+
+gitlink:git-verify-tag[1]::
+ Check the GPG signature of tag.
+
+gitlink:git-whatchanged[1]::
+ Shows commit logs and differences they introduce.
+
+
+Ancillary Commands
+------------------
+Manipulators:
+
+gitlink:git-applypatch[1]::
+ Apply one patch extracted from an e-mail.
+
+gitlink:git-archimport[1]::
+ Import an arch repository into git.
+
+gitlink:git-convert-objects[1]::
+ Converts old-style git repository
+
+gitlink:git-cvsimport[1]::
+ Salvage your data out of another SCM people love to hate.
+
+gitlink:git-lost-found[1]::
+ Recover lost refs that luckily have not yet been pruned.
+
+gitlink:git-merge-one-file[1]::
+ The standard helper program to use with "git-merge-index"
+
+gitlink:git-prune[1]::
+ Prunes all unreachable objects from the object database
+
+gitlink:git-relink[1]::
+ Hardlink common objects in local repositories.
+
+gitlink:git-svnimport[1]::
+ Import a SVN repository into git.
+
+gitlink:git-sh-setup[1]::
+ Common git shell script setup code.
+
+gitlink:git-symbolic-ref[1]::
+ Read and modify symbolic refs
+
+gitlink:git-tag[1]::
+ An example script to create a tag object signed with GPG
+
+gitlink:git-update-ref[1]::
+ Update the object name stored in a ref safely.
+
+
+Interrogators:
+
+gitlink:git-check-ref-format[1]::
+ Make sure ref name is well formed.
+
+gitlink:git-cherry[1]::
+ Find commits not merged upstream.
+
+gitlink:git-count-objects[1]::
+ Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption.
+
+gitlink:git-daemon[1]::
+ A really simple server for git repositories.
+
+gitlink:git-get-tar-commit-id[1]::
+ Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-tar-tree.
+
+gitlink:git-mailinfo[1]::
+ Extracts patch from a single e-mail message.
+
+gitlink:git-mailsplit[1]::
+ git-mailsplit.
+
+gitlink:git-patch-id[1]::
+ Compute unique ID for a patch.
+
+gitlink:git-parse-remote[1]::
+ Routines to help parsing $GIT_DIR/remotes/
+
+gitlink:git-request-pull[1]::
+ git-request-pull.
+
+gitlink:git-rev-parse[1]::
+ Pick out and massage parameters.
+
+gitlink:git-send-email[1]::
+ Send patch e-mails out of "format-patch --mbox" output.
+
+gitlink:git-symbolic-refs[1]::
+ Read and modify symbolic refs.
+
+gitlink:git-stripspace[1]::
+ Filter out empty lines.
+
+
+Commands not yet documented
+---------------------------
+
+gitlink:gitk[1]::
+ gitk.
+
+
+Configuration Mechanism
+-----------------------
+
+Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), .git/config file
+is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
+simple text file modelled after `.ini` format familiar to some
+people. Here is an example:
+
+------------
+#
+# This is the config file, and
+# a '#' or ';' character indicates
+# a comment
+#
+
+; core variables
+[core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+; user identity
+[user]
+ name = "Junio C Hamano"
+ email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
+
+------------
+
+Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
+their operation accordingly.
+
+
+Identifier Terminology
+----------------------
+<object>::
+ Indicates the sha1 identifier for any type of object
+
+<blob>::
+ Indicates a blob object sha1 identifier
+
+<tree>::
+ Indicates a tree object sha1 identifier
+
+<commit>::
+ Indicates a commit object sha1 identifier
+
+<tree-ish>::
+ Indicates a tree, commit or tag object sha1 identifier. A
+ command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to
+ operate on a <tree> object but automatically dereferences
+ <commit> and <tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
+
+<type>::
+ Indicates that an object type is required.
+ Currently one of: blob/tree/commit/tag
+
+<file>::
+ Indicates a filename - always relative to the root of
+ the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
+
+Symbolic Identifiers
+--------------------
+Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
+symbolic notation:
+
+HEAD::
+ indicates the head of the repository (ie the contents of
+ `$GIT_DIR/HEAD`)
+<tag>::
+ a valid tag 'name'+
+ (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags/<tag>`)
+<head>::
+ a valid head 'name'+
+ (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/<head>`)
+<snap>::
+ a valid snapshot 'name'+
+ (ie the contents of `$GIT_DIR/refs/snap/<snap>`)
+
+
+File/Directory Structure
+------------------------
+
+Please see link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document.
+
+Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
+GIT_DIR.
+
+
+Terminology
+-----------
+Please see link:glossary.html[glossary] document.
+
+
+Environment Variables
+---------------------
+Various git commands use the following environment variables:
+
+The git Repository
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
+is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
+git so take care if using Cogito etc
+
+'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
+ This environment allows the specification of an alternate
+ index file. If not specified, the default of `$GIT_DIR/index`
+ is used.
+
+'GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY'::
+ If the object storage directory is specified via this
+ environment variable then the sha1 directories are created
+ underneath - otherwise the default `$GIT_DIR/objects`
+ directory is used.
+
+'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
+ Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
+ archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
+ specifies a ":" separated list of git object directories which
+ can be used to search for git objects. New objects will not be
+ written to these directories.
+
+'GIT_DIR'::
+ If the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set then it specifies
+ a path to use instead of `./.git` for the base of the
+ repository.
+
+git Commits
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
+'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
+'GIT_AUTHOR_DATE'::
+'GIT_COMMITTER_NAME'::
+'GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL'::
+ see gitlink:git-commit-tree[1]
+
+git Diffs
+~~~~~~~~~
+'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
+'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
+ see the "generating patches" section in :
+ gitlink:git-diff-index[1];
+ gitlink:git-diff-files[1];
+ gitlink:git-diff-tree[1]
+
+Discussion[[Discussion]]
+------------------------
+include::../README[]
+
+Authors
+-------
+ git's founding father is Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>.
+ The current git nurse is Junio C. Hamano <junkio@cox.net>.
+ The git potty was written by Andres Ericsson <ae@op5.se>.
+ General upbringing is handled by the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..eb126d7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,51 @@
+gitk(1)
+=======
+
+NAME
+----
+gitk - Some git command not yet documented.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+'gitk' [ --option ] <args>...
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+Does something not yet documented.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--option::
+ Some option not yet documented.
+
+<args>...::
+ Some argument not yet documented.
+
+
+Examples
+--------
+gitk v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi::
+
+ Show as the changes since version 'v2.6.12' that changed any
+ file in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
+
+gitk --since="2 weeks ago" -- gitk::
+
+ Show the changes during the last two weeks to the file 'gitk'.
+ The "--" is necessary to avoid confusion with the *branch* named
+ 'gitk'
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Paul Mackerras <paulus@samba.org>
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite
+
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary.txt b/Documentation/glossary.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..07df6b4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/glossary.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,242 @@
+object::
+ The unit of storage in git. It is uniquely identified by
+ the SHA1 of its contents. Consequently, an object can not
+ be changed.
+
+object name::
+ The unique identifier of an object. The hash of the object's contents
+ using the Secure Hash Algorithm 1 and usually represented by the 40
+ character hexadecimal encoding of the hash of the object (possibly
+ followed by a white space).
+
+SHA1::
+ Synonym for object name.
+
+object identifier::
+ Synonym for object name.
+
+hash::
+ In git's context, synonym to object name.
+
+object database::
+ Stores a set of "objects", and an individial object is identified
+ by its object name. The object usually live in $GIT_DIR/objects/.
+
+blob object::
+ Untyped object, e.g. the contents of a file.
+
+tree object::
+ An object containing a list of file names and modes along with refs
+ to the associated blob and/or tree objects. A tree is equivalent
+ to a directory.
+
+tree::
+ Either a working tree, or a tree object together with the
+ dependent blob and tree objects (i.e. a stored representation
+ of a working tree).
+
+DAG::
+ Directed acyclic graph. The commit objects form a directed acyclic
+ graph, because they have parents (directed), and the graph of commit
+ objects is acyclic (there is no chain which begins and ends with the
+ same object).
+
+index::
+ A collection of files with stat information, whose contents are
+ stored as objects. The index is a stored version of your working
+ tree. Truth be told, it can also contain a second, and even a third
+ version of a working tree, which are used when merging.
+
+index entry::
+ The information regarding a particular file, stored in the index.
+ An index entry can be unmerged, if a merge was started, but not
+ yet finished (i.e. if the index contains multiple versions of
+ that file).
+
+unmerged index:
+ An index which contains unmerged index entries.
+
+cache::
+ Obsolete for: index.
+
+working tree::
+ The set of files and directories currently being worked on,
+ i.e. you can work in your working tree without using git at all.
+
+directory::
+ The list you get with "ls" :-)
+
+revision::
+ A particular state of files and directories which was stored in
+ the object database. It is referenced by a commit object.
+
+checkout::
+ The action of updating the working tree to a revision which was
+ stored in the object database.
+
+commit::
+ As a verb: The action of storing the current state of the index in the
+ object database. The result is a revision.
+ As a noun: Short hand for commit object.
+
+commit object::
+ An object which contains the information about a particular
+ revision, such as parents, committer, author, date and the
+ tree object which corresponds to the top directory of the
+ stored revision.
+
+parent::
+ A commit object contains a (possibly empty) list of the logical
+ predecessor(s) in the line of development, i.e. its parents.
+
+changeset::
+ BitKeeper/cvsps speak for "commit". Since git does not store
+ changes, but states, it really does not make sense to use
+ the term "changesets" with git.
+
+clean::
+ A working tree is clean, if it corresponds to the revision
+ referenced by the current head.
+
+dirty::
+ A working tree is said to be dirty if it contains modifications
+ which have not been committed to the current branch.
+
+head::
+ The top of a branch. It contains a ref to the corresponding
+ commit object.
+
+branch::
+ A non-cyclical graph of revisions, i.e. the complete history of
+ a particular revision, which is called the branch head. The
+ branch heads are stored in $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/.
+
+ref::
+ A 40-byte hex representation of a SHA1 pointing to a particular
+ object. These may be stored in $GIT_DIR/refs/.
+
+head ref::
+ A ref pointing to a head. Often, this is abbreviated to "head".
+ Head refs are stored in $GIT_DIR/refs/heads/.
+
+tree-ish::
+ A ref pointing to either a commit object, a tree object, or a
+ tag object pointing to a tag or commit or tree object.
+
+ent::
+ Favorite synonym to "tree-ish" by some total geeks. See
+ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ent_(Middle-earth) for an in-depth
+ explanation.
+
+tag object::
+ An object containing a ref pointing to another object, which can
+ contain a message just like a commit object. It can also
+ contain a (PGP) signature, in which case it is called a "signed
+ tag object".
+
+tag::
+ A ref pointing to a tag or commit object. In contrast to a head,
+ a tag is not changed by a commit. Tags (not tag objects) are
+ stored in $GIT_DIR/refs/tags/. A git tag has nothing to do with
+ a Lisp tag (which is called object type in git's context).
+ A tag is most typically used to mark a particular point in the
+ commit ancestry chain.
+
+merge::
+ To merge branches means to try to accumulate the changes since a
+ common ancestor and apply them to the first branch. An automatic
+ merge uses heuristics to accomplish that. Evidently, an automatic
+ merge can fail.
+
+octopus::
+ To merge more than two branches. Also denotes an intelligent
+ predator.
+
+resolve::
+ The action of fixing up manually what a failed automatic merge
+ left behind.
+
+rewind::
+ To throw away part of the development, i.e. to assign the head to
+ an earlier revision.
+
+rebase::
+ To clean a branch by starting from the head of the main line of
+ development ("master"), and reapply the (possibly cherry-picked)
+ changes from that branch.
+
+repository::
+ A collection of refs together with an object database containing
+ all objects, which are reachable from the refs, possibly accompanied
+ by meta data from one or more porcelains. A repository can
+ share an object database with other repositories.
+
+git archive::
+ Synonym for repository (for arch people).
+
+file system::
+ Linus Torvalds originally designed git to be a user space file
+ system, i.e. the infrastructure to hold files and directories.
+ That ensured the efficiency and speed of git.
+
+alternate object database::
+ Via the alternates mechanism, a repository can inherit part of its
+ object database from another object database, which is called
+ "alternate".
+
+reachable::
+ An object is reachable from a ref/commit/tree/tag, if there is a
+ chain leading from the latter to the former.
+
+chain::
+ A list of objects, where each object in the list contains a
+ reference to its successor (for example, the successor of a commit
+ could be one of its parents).
+
+fetch::
+ Fetching a branch means to get the branch's head ref from a
+ remote repository, to find out which objects are missing from
+ the local object database, and to get them, too.
+
+pull::
+ Pulling a branch means to fetch it and merge it.
+
+push::
+ Pushing a branch means to get the branch's head ref from a remote
+ repository, find out if it is an ancestor to the branch's local
+ head ref is a direct, and in that case, putting all objects, which
+ are reachable from the local head ref, and which are missing from
+ the remote repository, into the remote object database, and updating
+ the remote head ref. If the remote head is not an ancestor to the
+ local head, the push fails.
+
+pack::
+ A set of objects which have been compressed into one file (to save
+ space or to transmit them efficiently).
+
+pack index::
+ The list of identifiers, and other information, of the objects in a
+ pack, to assist in efficiently accessing the contents of a pack.
+
+core git::
+ Fundamental data structures and utilities of git. Exposes only
+ limited source code management tools.
+
+plumbing::
+ Cute name for core git.
+
+porcelain::
+ Cute name for programs and program suites depending on core git,
+ presenting a high level access to core git. Porcelains expose
+ more of a SCM interface than the plumbing.
+
+object type:
+ One of the identifiers "commit","tree","tag" and "blob" describing
+ the type of an object.
+
+SCM::
+ Source code management (tool).
+
+dircache::
+ You are *waaaaay* behind.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/hooks.txt b/Documentation/hooks.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7ee3571
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/hooks.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,127 @@
+Hooks used by git
+=================
+
+Hooks are little scripts you can place in `$GIT_DIR/hooks`
+directory to trigger action at certain points. When
+`git-init-db` is run, a handful example hooks are copied in the
+`hooks` directory of the new repository, but by default they are
+all disabled. To enable a hook, make it executable with `chmod
++x`.
+
+This document describes the currently defined hooks.
+
+applypatch-msg
+--------------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-applypatch` script, which is
+typically invoked by `git-applymbox`. It takes a single
+parameter, the name of the file that holds the proposed commit
+log message. Exiting with non-zero status causes the
+'git-applypatch' to abort before applying the patch.
+
+The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can
+be used to normalize the message into some project standard
+format (if the project has one). It can also be used to refuse
+the commit after inspecting the message file.
+
+The default applypatch-msg hook, when enabled, runs the
+commit-msg hook, if the latter is enabled.
+
+pre-applypatch
+--------------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-applypatch` script, which is
+typically invoked by `git-applymbox`. It takes no parameter,
+and is invoked after the patch is applied, but before a commit
+is made. Exiting with non-zero status causes the working tree
+after application of the patch not committed.
+
+It can be used to inspect the current working tree and refuse to
+make a commit if it does not pass certain test.
+
+The default pre-applypatch hook, when enabled, runs the
+pre-commit hook, if the latter is enabled.
+
+post-applypatch
+---------------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-applypatch` script, which is
+typically invoked by `git-applymbox`. It takes no parameter,
+and is invoked after the patch is applied and a commit is made.
+
+This hook is meant primarily for notification, and cannot affect
+the outcome of `git-applypatch`.
+
+pre-commit
+----------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-commit`, and can be bypassed
+with `\--no-verify` option. It takes no parameter, and is
+invoked before obtaining the proposed commit log message and
+making a commit. Exiting with non-zero status from this script
+causes the `git-commit` to abort.
+
+The default pre-commit hook, when enabled, catches introduction
+of lines with trailing whitespaces and aborts the commit when
+a such line is found.
+
+commit-msg
+----------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-commit`, and can be bypassed
+with `\--no-verify` option. It takes a single parameter, the
+name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
+Exiting with non-zero status causes the `git-commit` to
+abort.
+
+The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can
+be used to normalize the message into some project standard
+format (if the project has one). It can also be used to refuse
+the commit after inspecting the message file.
+
+The default commit-msg hook, when enabled, detects duplicate
+Signed-off-by: lines, and aborts the commit when one is found.
+
+post-commit
+-----------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-commit`. It takes no
+parameter, and is invoked after a commit is made.
+
+This hook is meant primarily for notification, and cannot affect
+the outcome of `git-commit`.
+
+The default post-commit hook, when enabled, demonstrates how to
+send out a commit notification e-mail.
+
+update
+------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-receive-pack`, which is invoked
+when a `git push` is done against the repository. It takes
+three parameters, name of the ref being updated, old object name
+stored in the ref, and the new objectname to be stored in the
+ref. Exiting with non-zero status from this hook prevents
+`git-receive-pack` from updating the ref.
+
+This can be used to prevent 'forced' update on certain refs by
+making sure that the object name is a commit object that is a
+descendant of the commit object named by the old object name.
+Another use suggested on the mailing list is to use this hook to
+implement access control which is finer grained than the one
+based on filesystem group.
+
+post-update
+-----------
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-receive-pack`, which is invoked
+when a `git push` is done against the repository. It takes
+variable number of parameters; each of which is the name of ref
+that was actually updated.
+
+This hook is meant primarily for notification, and cannot affect
+the outcome of `git-receive-pack`.
+
+The default post-update hook, when enabled, runs
+`git-update-server-info` to keep the information used by dumb
+transport up-to-date.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto-index.sh b/Documentation/howto-index.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..34aa30c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto-index.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+cat <<\EOF
+GIT Howto Index
+===============
+
+Here is a collection of mailing list postings made by various
+people describing how they use git in their workflow.
+
+EOF
+
+for txt
+do
+ title=`expr "$txt" : '.*/\(.*\)\.txt$'`
+ from=`sed -ne '
+ /^$/q
+ /^From:[ ]/{
+ s///
+ s/^[ ]*//
+ s/[ ]*$//
+ s/^/by /
+ p
+ }
+ ' "$txt"`
+
+ abstract=`sed -ne '
+ /^Abstract:[ ]/{
+ s/^[^ ]*//
+ x
+ s/.*//
+ x
+ : again
+ /^[ ]/{
+ s/^[ ]*//
+ H
+ n
+ b again
+ }
+ x
+ p
+ q
+ }' "$txt"`
+
+ if grep 'Content-type: text/asciidoc' >/dev/null $txt
+ then
+ file=`expr "$txt" : '\(.*\)\.txt$'`.html
+ else
+ file="$txt"
+ fi
+
+ echo "* link:$file[$title] $from
+$abstract
+
+"
+
+done
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/isolate-bugs-with-bisect.txt b/Documentation/howto/isolate-bugs-with-bisect.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4009495
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/isolate-bugs-with-bisect.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
+From: Linus Torvalds <torvalds () osdl ! org>
+To: git@vger.kernel.org
+Date: 2005-11-08 1:31:34
+Subject: Real-life kernel debugging scenario
+Abstract: Short-n-sweet, Linus tells us how to leverage `git-bisect` to perform
+ bug isolation on a repository where "good" and "bad" revisions are known
+ in order to identify a suspect commit.
+
+
+How To Use git-bisect To Isolate a Bogus Commit
+===============================================
+
+The way to use "git bisect" couldn't be easier.
+
+Figure out what the oldest bad state you know about is (that's usually the
+head of "master", since that's what you just tried to boot and failed at).
+Also, figure out the most recent known-good commit (usually the _previous_
+kernel you ran: and if you've only done a single "pull" in between, it
+will be ORIG_HEAD).
+
+Then do
+
+ git bisect start
+ git bisect bad master <- mark "master" as the bad state
+ git bisect good ORIG_HEAD <- mark ORIG_HEAD as good (or
+ whatever other known-good
+ thing you booted laste)
+
+and at this point "git bisect" will churn for a while, and tell you what
+the mid-point between those two commits are, and check that state out as
+the head of the bew "bisect" branch.
+
+Compile and reboot.
+
+If it's good, just do
+
+ git bisect good <- mark current head as good
+
+otherwise, reboot into a good kernel instead, and do (surprise surprise,
+git really is very intuitive):
+
+ git bisect bad <- mark current head as bad
+
+and whatever you do, git will select a new half-way point. Do this for a
+while, until git tells you exactly which commit was the first bad commit.
+That's your culprit.
+
+It really works wonderfully well, except for the case where there was
+_another_ commit that broke something in between, like introduced some
+stupid compile error. In that case you should not mark that commit good or
+bad: you should try to find another commit close-by, and do a "git reset
+--hard <newcommit>" to try out _that_ commit instead, and then test that
+instead (and mark it good or bad).
+
+You can do "git bisect visualize" while you do all this to see what's
+going on by starting up gitk on the bisection range.
+
+Finally, once you've figured out exactly which commit was bad, you can
+then go back to the master branch, and try reverting just that commit:
+
+ git checkout master
+ git revert <bad-commit-id>
+
+to verify that the top-of-kernel works with that single commit reverted.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/make-dist.txt b/Documentation/howto/make-dist.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..00e330b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/make-dist.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,52 @@
+Date: Fri, 12 Aug 2005 22:39:48 -0700 (PDT)
+From: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+To: Dave Jones <davej@redhat.com>
+cc: git@vger.kernel.org
+Subject: Re: Fwd: Re: git checkout -f branch doesn't remove extra files
+Abstract: In this article, Linus talks about building a tarball,
+ incremental patch, and ChangeLog, given a base release and two
+ rc releases, following the convention of giving the patch from
+ the base release and the latest rc, with ChangeLog between the
+ last rc and the latest rc.
+
+On Sat, 13 Aug 2005, Dave Jones wrote:
+>
+> > Git actually has a _lot_ of nifty tools. I didn't realize that people
+> > didn't know about such basic stuff as "git-tar-tree" and "git-ls-files".
+>
+> Maybe its because things are moving so fast :) Or maybe I just wasn't
+> paying attention on that day. (I even read the git changes via RSS,
+> so I should have no excuse).
+
+Well, git-tar-tree has been there since late April - it's actually one of
+those really early commands. I'm pretty sure the RSS feed came later ;)
+
+I use it all the time in doing releases, it's a lot faster than creating a
+tar tree by reading the filesystem (even if you don't have to check things
+out). A hidden pearl.
+
+This is my crappy "release-script":
+
+ [torvalds@g5 ~]$ cat bin/release-script
+ #!/bin/sh
+ stable="$1"
+ last="$2"
+ new="$3"
+ echo "# git-tag v$new"
+ echo "git-tar-tree v$new linux-$new | gzip -9 > ../linux-$new.tar.gz"
+ echo "git-diff-tree -p v$stable v$new | gzip -9 > ../patch-$new.gz"
+ echo "git-rev-list --pretty v$new ^v$last > ../ChangeLog-$new"
+ echo "git-rev-list --pretty=short v$new ^v$last | git-shortlog > ../ShortLog"
+ echo "git-diff-tree -p v$last v$new | git-apply --stat > ../diffstat-$new"
+
+and when I want to do a new kernel release I literally first tag it, and
+then do
+
+ release-script 2.6.12 2.6.13-rc6 2.6.13-rc7
+
+and check that things look sane, and then just cut-and-paste the commands.
+
+Yeah, it's stupid.
+
+ Linus
+
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..646c55c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,81 @@
+Date: Sat, 13 Aug 2005 22:16:02 -0700 (PDT)
+From: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+To: Steve French <smfrench@austin.rr.com>
+cc: git@vger.kernel.org
+Subject: Re: sending changesets from the middle of a git tree
+Abstract: In this article, Linus demonstrates how a broken commit
+ in a sequence of commits can be removed by rewinding the head and
+ reapplying selected changes.
+
+On Sat, 13 Aug 2005, Linus Torvalds wrote:
+
+> That's correct. Same things apply: you can move a patch over, and create a
+> new one with a modified comment, but basically the _old_ commit will be
+> immutable.
+
+Let me clarify.
+
+You can entirely _drop_ old branches, so commits may be immutable, but
+nothing forces you to keep them. Of course, when you drop a commit, you'll
+always end up dropping all the commits that depended on it, and if you
+actually got somebody else to pull that commit you can't drop it from
+_their_ repository, but undoing things is not impossible.
+
+For example, let's say that you've made a mess of things: you've committed
+three commits "old->a->b->c", and you notice that "a" was broken, but you
+want to save "b" and "c". What you can do is
+
+ # Create a branch "broken" that is the current code
+ # for reference
+ git branch broken
+
+ # Reset the main branch to three parents back: this
+ # effectively undoes the three top commits
+ git reset HEAD^^^
+ git checkout -f
+
+ # Check the result visually to make sure you know what's
+ # going on
+ gitk --all
+
+ # Re-apply the two top ones from "broken"
+ #
+ # First "parent of broken" (aka b):
+ git-diff-tree -p broken^ | git-apply --index
+ git commit --reedit=broken^
+
+ # Then "top of broken" (aka c):
+ git-diff-tree -p broken | git-apply --index
+ git commit --reedit=broken
+
+and you've now re-applied (and possibly edited the comments) the two
+commits b/c, and commit "a" is basically gone (it still exists in the
+"broken" branch, of course).
+
+Finally, check out the end result again:
+
+ # Look at the new commit history
+ gitk --all
+
+to see that everything looks sensible.
+
+And then, you can just remove the broken branch if you decide you really
+don't want it:
+
+ # remove 'broken' branch
+ git branch -d broken
+
+ # Prune old objects if you're really really sure
+ git prune
+
+And yeah, I'm sure there are other ways of doing this. And as usual, the
+above is totally untested, and I just wrote it down in this email, so if
+I've done something wrong, you'll have to figure it out on your own ;)
+
+ Linus
+-
+To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe git" in
+the body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.org
+More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2d4a91
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,165 @@
+From: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+To: git@vger.kernel.org
+Cc: Petr Baudis <pasky@suse.cz>, Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
+Subject: Re: sending changesets from the middle of a git tree
+Date: Sun, 14 Aug 2005 18:37:39 -0700
+Abstract: In this article, JC talks about how he rebases the
+ public "pu" branch using the core GIT tools when he updates
+ the "master" branch, and how "rebase" works. Also discussed
+ is how this applies to individual developers who sends patches
+ upstream.
+
+Petr Baudis <pasky@suse.cz> writes:
+
+> Dear diary, on Sun, Aug 14, 2005 at 09:57:13AM CEST, I got a letter
+> where Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> told me that...
+>> Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org> writes:
+>>
+>> > Junio, maybe you want to talk about how you move patches from your "pu"
+>> > branch to the real branches.
+>>
+> Actually, wouldn't this be also precisely for what StGIT is intended to?
+
+Exactly my feeling. I was sort of waiting for Catalin to speak
+up. With its basing philosophical ancestry on quilt, this is
+the kind of task StGIT is designed to do.
+
+I just have done a simpler one, this time using only the core
+GIT tools.
+
+I had a handful commits that were ahead of master in pu, and I
+wanted to add some documentation bypassing my usual habit of
+placing new things in pu first. At the beginning, the commit
+ancestry graph looked like this:
+
+ *"pu" head
+ master --> #1 --> #2 --> #3
+
+So I started from master, made a bunch of edits, and committed:
+
+ $ git checkout master
+ $ cd Documentation; ed git.txt ...
+ $ cd ..; git add Documentation/*.txt
+ $ git commit -s
+
+After the commit, the ancestry graph would look like this:
+
+ *"pu" head
+ master^ --> #1 --> #2 --> #3
+ \
+ \---> master
+
+The old master is now master^ (the first parent of the master).
+The new master commit holds my documentation updates.
+
+Now I have to deal with "pu" branch.
+
+This is the kind of situation I used to have all the time when
+Linus was the maintainer and I was a contributor, when you look
+at "master" branch being the "maintainer" branch, and "pu"
+branch being the "contributor" branch. Your work started at the
+tip of the "maintainer" branch some time ago, you made a lot of
+progress in the meantime, and now the maintainer branch has some
+other commits you do not have yet. And "git rebase" was written
+with the explicit purpose of helping to maintain branches like
+"pu". You _could_ merge master to pu and keep going, but if you
+eventually want to cherrypick and merge some but not necessarily
+all changes back to the master branch, it often makes later
+operations for _you_ easier if you rebase (i.e. carry forward
+your changes) "pu" rather than merge. So I ran "git rebase":
+
+ $ git checkout pu
+ $ git rebase master pu
+
+What this does is to pick all the commits since the current
+branch (note that I now am on "pu" branch) forked from the
+master branch, and forward port these changes.
+
+ master^ --> #1 --> #2 --> #3
+ \ *"pu" head
+ \---> master --> #1' --> #2' --> #3'
+
+The diff between master^ and #1 is applied to master and
+committed to create #1' commit with the commit information (log,
+author and date) taken from commit #1. On top of that #2' and #3'
+commits are made similarly out of #2 and #3 commits.
+
+Old #3 is not recorded in any of the .git/refs/heads/ file
+anymore, so after doing this you will have dangling commit if
+you ran fsck-cache, which is normal. After testing "pu", you
+can run "git prune" to get rid of those original three commits.
+
+While I am talking about "git rebase", I should talk about how
+to do cherrypicking using only the core GIT tools.
+
+Let's go back to the earlier picture, with different labels.
+
+You, as an individual developer, cloned upstream repository and
+made a couple of commits on top of it.
+
+ *your "master" head
+ upstream --> #1 --> #2 --> #3
+
+You would want changes #2 and #3 incorporated in the upstream,
+while you feel that #1 may need further improvements. So you
+prepare #2 and #3 for e-mail submission.
+
+ $ git format-patch master^^ master
+
+This creates two files, 0001-XXXX.txt and 0002-XXXX.txt. Send
+them out "To: " your project maintainer and "Cc: " your mailing
+list. You could use contributed script git-send-email if
+your host has necessary perl modules for this, but your usual
+MUA would do as long as it does not corrupt whitespaces in the
+patch.
+
+Then you would wait, and you find out that the upstream picked
+up your changes, along with other changes.
+
+ where *your "master" head
+ upstream --> #1 --> #2 --> #3
+ used \
+ to be \--> #A --> #2' --> #3' --> #B --> #C
+ *upstream head
+
+The two commits #2' and #3' in the above picture record the same
+changes your e-mail submission for #2 and #3 contained, but
+probably with the new sign-off line added by the upsteam
+maintainer and definitely with different committer and ancestry
+information, they are different objects from #2 and #3 commits.
+
+You fetch from upstream, but not merge.
+
+ $ git fetch upstream
+
+This leaves the updated upstream head in .git/FETCH_HEAD but
+does not touch your .git/HEAD nor .git/refs/heads/master.
+You run "git rebase" now.
+
+ $ git rebase FETCH_HEAD master
+
+Earlier, I said that rebase applies all the commits from your
+branch on top of the upstream head. Well, I lied. "git rebase"
+is a bit smarter than that and notices that #2 and #3 need not
+be applied, so it only applies #1. The commit ancestry graph
+becomes something like this:
+
+ where *your old "master" head
+ upstream --> #1 --> #2 --> #3
+ used \ your new "master" head*
+ to be \--> #A --> #2' --> #3' --> #B --> #C --> #1'
+ *upstream
+ head
+
+Again, "git prune" would discard the disused commits #1-#3 and
+you continue on starting from the new "master" head, which is
+the #1' commit.
+
+-jc
+
+-
+To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe git" in
+the body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.org
+More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ebd025d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,83 @@
+Subject: [HOWTO] Using post-update hook
+Message-ID: <7vy86o6usx.fsf@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net>
+From: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+Date: Fri, 26 Aug 2005 18:19:10 -0700
+Abstract: In this how-to article, JC talks about how he
+ uses the post-update hook to automate git documentation page
+ shown at http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/.
+
+The pages under http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/
+are built from Documentation/ directory of the git.git project
+and needed to be kept up-to-date. The www.kernel.org/ servers
+are mirrored and I was told that the origin of the mirror is on
+the machine master.kernel.org, on which I was given an account
+when I took over git maintainership from Linus.
+
+The directories relevant to this how-to are these two:
+
+ /pub/scm/git/git.git/ The public git repository.
+ /pub/software/scm/git/docs/ The HTML documentation page.
+
+So I made a repository to generate the documentation under my
+home directory over there.
+
+ $ cd
+ $ mkdir doc-git && cd doc-git
+ $ git clone /pub/scm/git/git.git/ docgen
+
+What needs to happen is to update the $HOME/doc-git/docgen/
+working tree, build HTML docs there and install the result in
+/pub/software/scm/git/docs/ directory. So I wrote a little
+script:
+
+ $ cat >dododoc.sh <<\EOF
+ #!/bin/sh
+ cd $HOME/doc-git/docgen || exit
+
+ unset GIT_DIR
+
+ git pull /pub/scm/git/git.git/ master &&
+ cd Documentation &&
+ make install-webdoc
+ EOF
+
+Initially I used to run this by hand whenever I push into the
+public git repository. Then I did a cron job that ran twice a
+day. The current round uses the post-update hook mechanism,
+like this:
+
+ $ cat >/pub/scm/git/git.git/hooks/post-update <<\EOF
+ #!/bin/sh
+ #
+ # An example hook script to prepare a packed repository for use over
+ # dumb transports.
+ #
+ # To enable this hook, make this file executable by "chmod +x post-update".
+
+ case " $* " in
+ *' refs/heads/master '*)
+ echo $HOME/doc-git/dododoc.sh | at now
+ ;;
+ esac
+ exec git-update-server-info
+ EOF
+ $ chmod +x /pub/scm/git/git.git/hooks/post-update
+
+There are three things worth mentioning:
+
+ - The update-hook is run after the repository accepts a "git
+ push", under my user privilege. It is given the full names
+ of refs that have been updated as arguments. My post-update
+ runs the dododoc.sh script only when the master head is
+ updated.
+
+ - When update-hook is run, GIT_DIR is set to '.' by the calling
+ receive-pack. This is inherited by the dododoc.sh run via
+ the "at" command, and needs to be unset; otherwise, "git
+ pull" it does into $HOME/doc-git/docgen/ repository would not
+ work correctly.
+
+ - This is still crude and does not protect against simultaneous
+ make invocations stomping on each other. I would need to add
+ some locking mechanism for this.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5a7e0cf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,200 @@
+From: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+To: git@vger.kernel.org
+Subject: [HOWTO] Reverting an existing commit
+Abstract: In this article, JC gives a small real-life example of using
+ 'git revert' command, and using a temporary branch and tag for safety
+ and easier sanity checking.
+Date: Mon, 29 Aug 2005 21:39:02 -0700
+Content-type: text/asciidoc
+Message-ID: <7voe7g3uop.fsf@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net>
+
+Reverting an existing commit
+============================
+
+One of the changes I pulled into the 'master' branch turns out to
+break building GIT with GCC 2.95. While they were well intentioned
+portability fixes, keeping things working with gcc-2.95 was also
+important. Here is what I did to revert the change in the 'master'
+branch and to adjust the 'pu' branch, using core GIT tools and
+barebone Porcelain.
+
+First, prepare a throw-away branch in case I screw things up.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git checkout -b revert-c99 master
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Now I am on the 'revert-c99' branch. Let's figure out which commit to
+revert. I happen to know that the top of the 'master' branch is a
+merge, and its second parent (i.e. foreign commit I merged from) has
+the change I would want to undo. Further I happen to know that that
+merge introduced 5 commits or so:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch --more=4 master master^2 | head
+! [master] Merge refs/heads/portable from http://www.cs.berkeley....
+ ! [master^2] Replace C99 array initializers with code.
+--
++ [master] Merge refs/heads/portable from http://www.cs.berkeley....
+++ [master^2] Replace C99 array initializers with code.
+++ [master^2~1] Replace unsetenv() and setenv() with older putenv().
+++ [master^2~2] Include sys/time.h in daemon.c.
+++ [master^2~3] Fix ?: statements.
+++ [master^2~4] Replace zero-length array decls with [].
++ [master~1] tutorial note about git branch
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The '--more=4' above means "after we reach the merge base of refs,
+show until we display four more common commits". That last commit
+would have been where the "portable" branch was forked from the main
+git.git repository, so this would show everything on both branches
+since then. I just limited the output to the first handful using
+'head'.
+
+Now I know 'master^2~4' (pronounce it as "find the second parent of
+the 'master', and then go four generations back following the first
+parent") is the one I would want to revert. Since I also want to say
+why I am reverting it, the '-n' flag is given to 'git revert'. This
+prevents it from actually making a commit, and instead 'git revert'
+leaves the commit log message it wanted to use in '.msg' file:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git revert -n master^2~4
+$ cat .msg
+Revert "Replace zero-length array decls with []."
+
+This reverts 6c5f9baa3bc0d63e141e0afc23110205379905a4 commit.
+$ git diff HEAD ;# to make sure what we are reverting makes sense.
+$ make CC=gcc-2.95 clean test ;# make sure it fixed the breakage.
+$ make clean test ;# make sure it did not cause other breakage.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The reverted change makes sense (from reading the 'diff' output), does
+fix the problem (from 'make CC=gcc-2.95' test), and does not cause new
+breakage (from the last 'make test'). I'm ready to commit:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit -a -s ;# read .msg into the log,
+ # and explain why I am reverting.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+I could have screwed up in any of the above steps, but in the worst
+case I could just have done 'git checkout master' to start over.
+Fortunately I did not have to; what I have in the current branch
+'revert-c99' is what I want. So merge that back into 'master':
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git checkout master
+$ git resolve master revert-c99 fast ;# this should be a fast forward
+Updating from 10d781b9caa4f71495c7b34963bef137216f86a8 to e3a693c...
+ cache.h | 8 ++++----
+ commit.c | 2 +-
+ ls-files.c | 2 +-
+ receive-pack.c | 2 +-
+ server-info.c | 2 +-
+ 5 files changed, 8 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The 'fast' in the above 'git resolve' is not a magic. I knew this
+'resolve' would result in a fast forward merge, and if not, there is
+something very wrong (so I would do 'git reset' on the 'master' branch
+and examine the situation). When a fast forward merge is done, the
+message parameter to 'git resolve' is discarded, because no new commit
+is created. You could have said 'junk' or 'nothing' there as well.
+
+There is no need to redo the test at this point. We fast forwarded
+and we know 'master' matches 'revert-c99' exactly. In fact:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git diff master..revert-c99
+------------------------------------------------
+
+says nothing.
+
+Then we rebase the 'pu' branch as usual.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git checkout pu
+$ git tag pu-anchor pu
+$ git rebase master
+* Applying: Redo "revert" using three-way merge machinery.
+First trying simple merge strategy to cherry-pick.
+Finished one cherry-pick.
+* Applying: Remove git-apply-patch-script.
+First trying simple merge strategy to cherry-pick.
+Simple cherry-pick fails; trying Automatic cherry-pick.
+Removing Documentation/git-apply-patch-script.txt
+Removing git-apply-patch-script
+Finished one cherry-pick.
+* Applying: Document "git cherry-pick" and "git revert"
+First trying simple merge strategy to cherry-pick.
+Finished one cherry-pick.
+* Applying: mailinfo and applymbox updates
+First trying simple merge strategy to cherry-pick.
+Finished one cherry-pick.
+* Applying: Show commits in topo order and name all commits.
+First trying simple merge strategy to cherry-pick.
+Finished one cherry-pick.
+* Applying: More documentation updates.
+First trying simple merge strategy to cherry-pick.
+Finished one cherry-pick.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The temporary tag 'pu-anchor' is me just being careful, in case 'git
+rebase' screws up. After this, I can do these for sanity check:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git diff pu-anchor..pu ;# make sure we got the master fix.
+$ make CC=gcc-2.95 clean test ;# make sure it fixed the breakage.
+$ make clean test ;# make sure it did not cause other breakage.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Everything is in the good order. I do not need the temporary branch
+nor tag anymore, so remove them:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ rm -f .git/refs/tags/pu-anchor
+$ git branch -d revert-c99
+------------------------------------------------
+
+It was an emergency fix, so we might as well merge it into the
+'release candidate' branch, although I expect the next release would
+be some days off:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git checkout rc
+$ git pull . master
+Packing 0 objects
+Unpacking 0 objects
+
+* committish: e3a693c... refs/heads/master from .
+Trying to merge e3a693c... into 8c1f5f0... using 10d781b...
+Committed merge 7fb9b7262a1d1e0a47bbfdcbbcf50ce0635d3f8f
+ cache.h | 8 ++++----
+ commit.c | 2 +-
+ ls-files.c | 2 +-
+ receive-pack.c | 2 +-
+ server-info.c | 2 +-
+ 5 files changed, 8 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
+------------------------------------------------
+
+And the final repository status looks like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch --more=1 master pu rc
+! [master] Revert "Replace zero-length array decls with []."
+ ! [pu] git-repack: Add option to repack all objects.
+ * [rc] Merge refs/heads/master from .
+---
+ + [pu] git-repack: Add option to repack all objects.
+ + [pu~1] More documentation updates.
+ + [pu~2] Show commits in topo order and name all commits.
+ + [pu~3] mailinfo and applymbox updates
+ + [pu~4] Document "git cherry-pick" and "git revert"
+ + [pu~5] Remove git-apply-patch-script.
+ + [pu~6] Redo "revert" using three-way merge machinery.
+ + [rc] Merge refs/heads/master from .
++++ [master] Revert "Replace zero-length array decls with []."
+ + [rc~1] Merge refs/heads/master from .
++++ [master~1] Merge refs/heads/portable from http://www.cs.berkeley....
+------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt b/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dacaf17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,105 @@
+From: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
+Subject: control access to branches.
+Date: Thu, 17 Nov 2005 23:55:32 -0800
+Message-ID: <7vfypumlu3.fsf@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net>
+Abstract: An example hooks/update script is presented to
+ implement repository maintenance policies, such as who can push
+ into which branch and who can make a tag.
+
+When your developer runs git-push into the repository,
+git-receive-pack is run (either locally or over ssh) as that
+developer, so is hooks/update script. Quoting from the relevant
+section of the documentation:
+
+ Before each ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/update file exists
+ and executable, it is called with three parameters:
+
+ $GIT_DIR/hooks/update refname sha1-old sha1-new
+
+ The refname parameter is relative to $GIT_DIR; e.g. for the
+ master head this is "refs/heads/master". Two sha1 are the
+ object names for the refname before and after the update. Note
+ that the hook is called before the refname is updated, so either
+ sha1-old is 0{40} (meaning there is no such ref yet), or it
+ should match what is recorded in refname.
+
+So if your policy is (1) always require fast-forward push
+(i.e. never allow "git-push repo +branch:branch"), (2) you
+have a list of users allowed to update each branch, and (3) you
+do not let tags to be overwritten, then:
+
+ #!/bin/sh
+ # This is a sample hooks/update script, written by JC
+ # in his e-mail buffer, so naturally it is not tested
+ # but hopefully would convey the idea.
+
+ umask 002
+ case "$1" in
+ refs/tags/*)
+ # No overwriting an existing tag
+ if test -f "$GIT_DIR/$1"
+ then
+ exit 1
+ fi
+ ;;
+ refs/heads/*)
+ # No rebasing or rewinding
+ if expr "$2" : '0*$' >/dev/null
+ then
+ # creating a new branch
+ ;
+ else
+ # updating -- make sure it is a fast forward
+ mb=`git-merge-base "$2" "$3"`
+ case "$mb,$2" in
+ "$2,$mb")
+ ;; # fast forward -- happy
+ *)
+ exit 1 ;; # unhappy
+ esac
+ fi
+ ;;
+ *)
+ # No funny refs allowed
+ exit 1
+ ;;
+ esac
+
+ # Is the user allowed to update it?
+ me=`id -u -n` ;# e.g. "junio"
+ while read head_pattern users
+ do
+ if expr "$1" : "$head_pattern" >/dev/null
+ then
+ case " $users " in
+ *" $me "*)
+ exit 0 ;; # happy
+ ' * ')
+ exit 0 ;; # anybody
+ esac
+ fi
+ done
+ exit 1
+
+For the sake of simplicity, I assumed that you keep something
+like this in $GIT_DIR/info/allowed-pushers file:
+
+ refs/heads/master junio
+ refs/heads/cogito$ pasky
+ refs/heads/bw/ linus
+ refs/heads/tmp/ *
+ refs/tags/v[0-9]* junio
+
+With this, Linus can push or create "bw/penguin" or "bw/zebra"
+or "bw/panda" branches, Pasky can do only "cogito", and I can do
+master branch and make versioned tags. And anybody can do
+tmp/blah branches. This assumes all the users are in a single
+group that can write into $GIT_DIR/ and underneath.
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/using-topic-branches.txt b/Documentation/howto/using-topic-branches.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4698abe
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/using-topic-branches.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,288 @@
+Date: Mon, 15 Aug 2005 12:17:41 -0700
+From: tony.luck@intel.com
+Subject: Some tutorial text (was git/cogito workshop/bof at linuxconf au?)
+Abstract: In this article, Tony Luck discusses how he uses GIT
+ as a Linux subsystem maintainer.
+
+Here's something that I've been putting together on how I'm using
+GIT as a Linux subsystem maintainer.
+
+-Tony
+
+Last updated w.r.t. GIT 0.99.9f
+
+Linux subsystem maintenance using GIT
+-------------------------------------
+
+My requirements here are to be able to create two public trees:
+
+1) A "test" tree into which patches are initially placed so that they
+can get some exposure when integrated with other ongoing development.
+This tree is available to Andrew for pulling into -mm whenever he wants.
+
+2) A "release" tree into which tested patches are moved for final
+sanity checking, and as a vehicle to send them upstream to Linus
+(by sending him a "please pull" request.)
+
+Note that the period of time that each patch spends in the "test" tree
+is dependent on the complexity of the change. Since GIT does not support
+cherry picking, it is not practical to simply apply all patches to the
+test tree and then pull to the release tree as that would leave trivial
+patches blocked in the test tree waiting for complex changes to accumulate
+enough test time to graduate.
+
+Back in the BitKeeper days I achieved this my creating small forests of
+temporary trees, one tree for each logical grouping of patches, and then
+pulling changes from these trees first to the test tree, and then to the
+release tree. At first I replicated this in GIT, but then I realised
+that I could so this far more efficiently using branches inside a single
+GIT repository.
+
+So here is the step-by-step guide how this all works for me.
+
+First create your work tree by cloning Linus's public tree:
+
+ $ git clone rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git work
+
+Change directory into the cloned tree you just created
+
+ $ cd work
+
+Set up a remotes file so that you can fetch the latest from Linus' master
+branch into a local branch named "linus":
+
+ $ cat > .git/remotes/linus
+ URL: rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git
+ Pull: master:linus
+ ^D
+
+and create the linus branch:
+
+ $ git branch linus
+
+The "linus" branch will be used to track the upstream kernel. To update it,
+you simply run:
+
+ $ git fetch linus
+
+you can do this frequently (and it should be safe to do so with pending
+work in your tree, but perhaps not if you are in mid-merge).
+
+If you need to keep track of other public trees, you can add remote branches
+for them too:
+
+ $ git branch another
+ $ cat > .git/remotes/another
+ URL: ... insert URL here ...
+ Pull: name-of-branch-in-this-remote-tree:another
+ ^D
+
+and run:
+
+ $ git fetch another
+
+Now create the branches in which you are going to work, these start
+out at the current tip of the linus branch.
+
+ $ git branch test linus
+ $ git branch release linus
+
+These can be easily kept up to date by merging from the "linus" branch:
+
+ $ git checkout test && git merge "Auto-update from upstream" test linus
+ $ git checkout release && git merge "Auto-update from upstream" release linus
+
+Set up so that you can push upstream to your public tree (you need to
+log-in to the remote system and create an empty tree there before the
+first push).
+
+ $ cat > .git/remotes/mytree
+ URL: master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/aegl/linux-2.6.git
+ Push: release
+ Push: test
+ ^D
+
+and the push both the test and release trees using:
+
+ $ git push mytree
+
+or push just one of the test and release branches using:
+
+ $ git push mytree test
+or
+ $ git push mytree release
+
+Now to apply some patches from the community. Think of a short
+snappy name for a branch to hold this patch (or related group of
+patches), and create a new branch from the current tip of the
+linus branch:
+
+ $ git checkout -b speed-up-spinlocks linus
+
+Now you apply the patch(es), run some tests, and commit the change(s). If
+the patch is a multi-part series, then you should apply each as a separate
+commit to this branch.
+
+ $ ... patch ... test ... commit [ ... patch ... test ... commit ]*
+
+When you are happy with the state of this change, you can pull it into the
+"test" branch in preparation to make it public:
+
+ $ git checkout test && git merge "Pull speed-up-spinlock changes" test speed-up-spinlocks
+
+It is unlikely that you would have any conflicts here ... but you might if you
+spent a while on this step and had also pulled new versions from upstream.
+
+Some time later when enough time has passed and testing done, you can pull the
+same branch into the "release" tree ready to go upstream. This is where you
+see the value of keeping each patch (or patch series) in its own branch. It
+means that the patches can be moved into the "release" tree in any order.
+
+ $ git checkout release && git merge "Pull speed-up-spinlock changes" release speed-up-spinlocks
+
+After a while, you will have a number of branches, and despite the
+well chosen names you picked for each of them, you may forget what
+they are for, or what status they are in. To get a reminder of what
+changes are in a specific branch, use:
+
+ $ git-whatchanged branchname ^linus | git-shortlog
+
+To see whether it has already been merged into the test or release branches
+use:
+
+ $ git-rev-list branchname ^test
+or
+ $ git-rev-list branchname ^release
+
+[If this branch has not yet been merged you will see a set of SHA1 values
+for the commits, if it has been merged, then there will be no output]
+
+Once a patch completes the great cycle (moving from test to release, then
+pulled by Linus, and finally coming back into your local "linus" branch)
+the branch for this change is no longer needed. You detect this when the
+output from:
+
+ $ git-rev-list branchname ^linus
+
+is empty. At this point the branch can be deleted:
+
+ $ git branch -d branchname
+
+Some changes are so trivial that it is not necessary to create a separate
+branch and then merge into each of the test and release branches. For
+these changes, just apply directly to the "release" branch, and then
+merge that into the "test" branch.
+
+To create diffstat and shortlog summaries of changes to include in a "please
+pull" request to Linus you can use:
+
+ $ git-whatchanged -p release ^linus | diffstat -p1
+and
+ $ git-whatchanged release ^linus | git-shortlog
+
+
+Here are some of the scripts that I use to simplify all this even further.
+
+==== update script ====
+# Update a branch in my GIT tree. If the branch to be updated
+# is "linus", then pull from kernel.org. Otherwise merge local
+# linus branch into test|release branch
+
+case "$1" in
+test|release)
+ git checkout $1 && git merge "Auto-update from upstream" $1 linus
+ ;;
+linus)
+ before=$(cat .git/refs/heads/linus)
+ git fetch linus
+ after=$(cat .git/refs/heads/linus)
+ if [ $before != $after ]
+ then
+ git-whatchanged $after ^$before | git-shortlog
+ fi
+ ;;
+*)
+ echo "Usage: $0 linus|test|release" 1>&2
+ exit 1
+ ;;
+esac
+
+==== merge script ====
+# Merge a branch into either the test or release branch
+
+pname=$0
+
+usage()
+{
+ echo "Usage: $pname branch test|release" 1>&2
+ exit 1
+}
+
+if [ ! -f .git/refs/heads/"$1" ]
+then
+ echo "Can't see branch <$1>" 1>&2
+ usage
+fi
+
+case "$2" in
+test|release)
+ if [ $(git-rev-list $1 ^$2 | wc -c) -eq 0 ]
+ then
+ echo $1 already merged into $2 1>&2
+ exit 1
+ fi
+ git checkout $2 && git merge "Pull $1 into $2 branch" $2 $1
+ ;;
+*)
+ usage
+ ;;
+esac
+
+==== status script ====
+# report on status of my ia64 GIT tree
+
+gb=$(tput setab 2)
+rb=$(tput setab 1)
+restore=$(tput setab 9)
+
+if [ `git-rev-list release ^test | wc -c` -gt 0 ]
+then
+ echo $rb Warning: commits in release that are not in test $restore
+ git-whatchanged release ^test
+fi
+
+for branch in `ls .git/refs/heads`
+do
+ if [ $branch = linus -o $branch = test -o $branch = release ]
+ then
+ continue
+ fi
+
+ echo -n $gb ======= $branch ====== $restore " "
+ status=
+ for ref in test release linus
+ do
+ if [ `git-rev-list $branch ^$ref | wc -c` -gt 0 ]
+ then
+ status=$status${ref:0:1}
+ fi
+ done
+ case $status in
+ trl)
+ echo $rb Need to pull into test $restore
+ ;;
+ rl)
+ echo "In test"
+ ;;
+ l)
+ echo "Waiting for linus"
+ ;;
+ "")
+ echo $rb All done $restore
+ ;;
+ *)
+ echo $rb "<$status>" $restore
+ ;;
+ esac
+ git-whatchanged $branch ^linus | git-shortlog
+done
diff --git a/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh b/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..50638c7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/install-webdoc.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+T="$1"
+
+for h in *.html *.txt howto/*.txt howto/*.html
+do
+ diff -u -I'Last updated [0-9][0-9]-[A-Z][a-z][a-z]-' "$T/$h" "$h" || {
+ echo >&2 "# install $h $T/$h"
+ rm -f "$T/$h"
+ mkdir -p `dirname "$T/$h"`
+ cp "$h" "$T/$h"
+ }
+done
+strip_leading=`echo "$T/" | sed -e 's|.|.|g'`
+for th in "$T"/*.html "$T"/*.txt "$T"/howto/*.txt "$T"/howto/*.html
+do
+ h=`expr "$th" : "$strip_leading"'\(.*\)'`
+ case "$h" in
+ index.html) continue ;;
+ esac
+ test -f "$h" && continue
+ echo >&2 "# rm -f $th"
+ rm -f "$th"
+done
+ln -sf git.html "$T/index.html"
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..eebaf3a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,16 @@
+-n, \--no-summary::
+ Do not show diffstat at the end of the merge.
+
+--no-commit::
+ Perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and do
+ not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and
+ further tweak the merge result before committing.
+
+
+-s <strategy>, \--strategy=<strategy>::
+ Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than
+ once to specify them in the order they should be tried.
+ If there is no `-s` option, a built-in list of strategies
+ is used instead (`git-merge-resolve` when merging a single
+ head, `git-merge-octopus` otherwise).
+
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3ec56d2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+MERGE STRATEGIES
+----------------
+
+resolve::
+ This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch
+ and another branch you pulled from) using 3-way merge
+ algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross
+ merge ambiguities and is considered generally safe and
+ fast. This is the default merge strategy when pulling
+ one branch.
+
+recursive::
+ This can only resolve two heads using 3-way merge
+ algorithm. When there are more than one common
+ ancestors that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a
+ merged tree of the common ancestores and uses that as
+ the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
+ reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without
+ causing mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits
+ taken from Linux 2.6 kernel development history.
+ Additionally this can detect and handle merges involving
+ renames.
+
+octopus::
+ This resolves more than two-head case, but refuses to do
+ complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is
+ primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch
+ heads together. This is the default merge strategy when
+ pulling more than one branch.
+
+ours::
+ This resolves any number of heads, but the result of the
+ merge is always the current branch head. It is meant to
+ be used to supersede old development history of side
+ branches.
diff --git a/Documentation/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/pack-protocol.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7d6aec4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,38 @@
+There are two Pack push-pull protocols.
+
+upload-pack (S) | fetch/clone-pack (C) protocol:
+
+ # Tell the puller what commits we have and what their names are
+ S: SHA1 name
+ S: ...
+ S: SHA1 name
+ S: # flush -- it's your turn
+ # Tell the pusher what commits we want, and what we have
+ C: want name
+ C: ..
+ C: want name
+ C: have SHA1
+ C: have SHA1
+ C: ...
+ C: # flush -- occasionally ask "had enough?"
+ S: NAK
+ C: have SHA1
+ C: ...
+ C: have SHA1
+ S: ACK
+ C: done
+ S: XXXXXXX -- packfile contents.
+
+send-pack | receive-pack protocol.
+
+ # Tell the pusher what commits we have and what their names are
+ C: SHA1 name
+ C: ...
+ C: SHA1 name
+ C: # flush -- it's your turn
+ # Tell the puller what the pusher has
+ S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
+ S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
+ S: ...
+ S: # flush -- done with the list
+ S: XXXXXXX --- packfile contents.
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6413d52
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,144 @@
+<repository>::
+ The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch
+ or pull operation, or the destination of a push operation.
+ One of the following notations can be used
+ to name the remote repository:
++
+===============================================================
+- rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
+- http://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
+- https://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
+- git://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
+- git://host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/
+- ssh://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
+- ssh://host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/
+- ssh://host.xz/~/path/to/repo.git
+===============================================================
++
+ SSH Is the default transport protocol and also supports an
+ scp-like syntax. Both syntaxes support username expansion,
+ as does the native git protocol. The following three are
+ identical to the last three above, respectively:
++
+===============================================================
+- host.xz:/path/to/repo.git/
+- host.xz:~user/path/to/repo.git/
+- host.xz:path/to/repo.git
+===============================================================
++
+ To sync with a local directory, use:
+
+===============================================================
+- /path/to/repo.git/
+===============================================================
++
+In addition to the above, as a short-hand, the name of a
+file in `$GIT_DIR/remotes` directory can be given; the
+named file should be in the following format:
++
+ URL: one of the above URL format
+ Push: <refspec>
+ Pull: <refspec>
++
+When such a short-hand is specified in place of
+<repository> without <refspec> parameters on the command
+line, <refspec> specified on `Push:` lines or `Pull:`
+lines are used for `git-push` and `git-fetch`/`git-pull`,
+respectively. Multiple `Push:` and and `Pull:` lines may
+be specified for additional branch mappings.
++
+The name of a file in `$GIT_DIR/branches` directory can be
+specified as an older notation short-hand; the named
+file should contain a single line, a URL in one of the
+above formats, optionally followed by a hash `#` and the
+name of remote head (URL fragment notation).
+`$GIT_DIR/branches/<remote>` file that stores a <url>
+without the fragment is equivalent to have this in the
+corresponding file in the `$GIT_DIR/remotes/` directory.
++
+ URL: <url>
+ Pull: refs/heads/master:<remote>
++
+while having `<url>#<head>` is equivalent to
++
+ URL: <url>
+ Pull: refs/heads/<head>:<remote>
+
+<refspec>::
+ The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is
+ `+?<src>:<dst>`; that is, an optional plus `+`, followed
+ by the source ref, followed by a colon `:`, followed by
+ the destination ref.
++
+When used in `git-push`, the <src> side can be an
+arbitrary "SHA1 expression" that can be used as an
+argument to `git-cat-file -t`. E.g. `master~4` (push
+four parents before the current master head).
++
+For `git-push`, the local ref that matches <src> is used
+to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst>. If
+the optional plus `+` is used, the remote ref is updated
+even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
++
+For `git-fetch` and `git-pull`, the remote ref that matches <src>
+is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local
+ref that matches it is fast forwarded using <src>.
+Again, if the optional plus `+` is used, the local ref
+is updated even if it does not result in a fast forward
+update.
++
+[NOTE]
+If the remote branch from which you want to pull is
+modified in non-linear ways such as being rewound and
+rebased frequently, then a pull will attempt a merge with
+an older version of itself, likely conflict, and fail.
+It is under these conditions that you would want to use
+the `+` sign to indicate non-fast-forward updates will
+be needed. There is currently no easy way to determine
+or declare that a branch will be made available in a
+repository with this behavior; the pulling user simply
+must know this is the expected usage pattern for a branch.
++
+[NOTE]
+You never do your own development on branches that appear
+on the right hand side of a <refspec> colon on `Pull:` lines;
+they are to be updated by `git-fetch`. If you intend to do
+development derived from a remote branch `B`, have a `Pull:`
+line to track it (i.e. `Pull: B:remote-B`), and have a separate
+branch `my-B` to do your development on top of it. The latter
+is created by `git branch my-B remote-B` (or its equivalent `git
+checkout -b my-B remote-B`). Run `git fetch` to keep track of
+the progress of the remote side, and when you see something new
+on the remote branch, merge it into your development branch with
+`git pull . remote-B`, while you are on `my-B` branch.
+The common `Pull: master:origin` mapping of a remote `master`
+branch to a local `origin` branch, which is then merged to a
+ocal development branch, again typically named `master`, is made
+when you run `git clone` for you to follow this pattern.
++
+[NOTE]
+There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
+directly on `git-pull` command line and having multiple
+`Pull:` <refspec> lines for a <repository> and running
+`git-pull` command without any explicit <refspec> parameters.
+<refspec> listed explicitly on the command line are always
+merged into the current branch after fetching. In other words,
+if you list more than one remote refs, you would be making
+an Octopus. While `git-pull` run without any explicit <refspec>
+parameter takes default <refspec>s from `Pull:` lines, it
+merges only the first <refspec> found into the current branch,
+after fetching all the remote refs. This is because making an
+Octopus from remote refs is rarely done, while keeping track
+of multiple remote heads in one-go by fetching more than one
+is often useful.
++
+Some short-cut notations are also supported.
++
+* For backward compatibility, `tag` is almost ignored;
+ it just makes the following parameter <tag> to mean a
+ refspec `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
+* A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to
+ <ref>: when pulling/fetching, and <ref>`:`<ref> when
+ pushing. That is, do not store it locally if
+ fetching, and update the same name if pushing.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/repository-layout.txt b/Documentation/repository-layout.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1b5f228
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/repository-layout.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,128 @@
+git repository layout
+=====================
+
+You may find these things in your git repository (`.git`
+directory for a repository associated with your working tree, or
+`'project'.git` directory for a public 'naked' repository).
+
+objects::
+ Object store associated with this repository. Usually
+ an object store is self sufficient (i.e. all the objects
+ that are referred to by an object found in it are also
+ found in it), but there are couple of ways to violate
+ it.
++
+. You could populate the repository by running a commit walker
+without `-a` option. Depending on which options are given, you
+could have only commit objects without associated blobs and
+trees this way, for example. A repository with this kind of
+incomplete object store is not suitable to be published to the
+outside world but sometimes useful for private repository.
+. You can be using `objects/info/alternates` mechanism, or
+`$GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES` mechanism to 'borrow'
+objects from other object stores. A repository with this kind
+of incompete object store is not suitable to be published for
+use with dumb transports but otherwise is OK as long as
+`objects/info/alternates` points at the right object stores
+it borrows from.
+
+objects/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]::
+ Traditionally, each object is stored in its own file.
+ They are split into 256 subdirectories using the first
+ two letters from its object name to keep the number of
+ directory entries `objects` directory itself needs to
+ hold. Objects found here are often called 'unpacked'
+ objects.
+
+objects/pack::
+ Packs (files that store many object in compressed form,
+ along with index files to allow them to be randomly
+ accessed) are found in this directory.
+
+objects/info::
+ Additional information about the object store is
+ recorded in this directory.
+
+objects/info/packs::
+ This file is to help dumb transports discover what packs
+ are available in this object store. Whenever a pack is
+ added or removed, `git update-server-info` should be run
+ to keep this file up-to-date if the repository is
+ published for dumb transports. `git repack` does this
+ by default.
+
+objects/info/alternates::
+ This file records absolute filesystem paths of alternate
+ object stores that this object store borrows objects
+ from, one pathname per line.
+
+refs::
+ References are stored in subdirectories of this
+ directory. The `git prune` command knows to keep
+ objects reachable from refs found in this directory and
+ its subdirectories.
+
+refs/heads/`name`::
+ records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branch `name`
+
+refs/tags/`name`::
+ records any object name (not necessarily a commit
+ object, or a tag object that points at a commit object).
+
+HEAD::
+ A symlink of the form `refs/heads/'name'` to point at
+ the current branch, if exists. It does not mean much if
+ the repository is not associated with any working tree
+ (i.e. 'naked' repository), but a valid git repository
+ *must* have such a symlink here. It is legal if the
+ named branch 'name' does not (yet) exist.
+
+branches::
+ A slightly deprecated way to store shorthands to be used
+ to specify URL to `git fetch`, `git pull` and `git push`
+ commands is to store a file in `branches/'name'` and
+ give 'name' to these commands in place of 'repository'
+ argument.
+
+hooks::
+ Hooks are customization scripts used by various git
+ commands. A handful of sample hooks are installed when
+ `git init-db` is run, but all of them are disabled by
+ default. To enable, they need to be made executable.
+
+index::
+ The current index file for the repository. It is
+ usually not found in a naked repository.
+
+info::
+ Additional information about the repository is recorded
+ in this directory.
+
+info/refs::
+ This file is to help dumb transports to discover what
+ refs are available in this repository. Whenever you
+ create/delete a new branch or a new tag, `git
+ update-server-info` should be run to keep this file
+ up-to-date if the repository is published for dumb
+ transports. The `git-receive-pack` command, which is
+ run on a remote repository when you `git push` into it,
+ runs `hooks/update` hook to help you achive this.
+
+info/grafts::
+ This file records fake commit ancestry information, to
+ pretend the set of parents a commit has is different
+ from how the commit was actually created. One record
+ per line describes a commit and its fake parents by
+ listing their 40-byte hexadecimal object names separated
+ by a space and terminated by a newline.
+
+info/exclude::
+ This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the
+ exclude pattern list. `git status` looks at it, but
+ otherwise it is not looked at by any of the core git
+ commands.
+
+remotes::
+ Stores shorthands to be used to give URL and default
+ refnames to interact with remote repository to `git
+ fetch`, `git pull` and `git push` commands.
diff --git a/Documentation/sort_glossary.pl b/Documentation/sort_glossary.pl
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..babbea0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/sort_glossary.pl
@@ -0,0 +1,70 @@
+#!/usr/bin/perl
+
+%terms=();
+
+while(<>) {
+ if(/^(\S.*)::$/) {
+ my $term=$1;
+ if(defined($terms{$term})) {
+ die "$1 defined twice\n";
+ }
+ $terms{$term}="";
+ LOOP: while(<>) {
+ if(/^$/) {
+ last LOOP;
+ }
+ if(/^ \S/) {
+ $terms{$term}.=$_;
+ } else {
+ die "Error 1: $_";
+ }
+ }
+ }
+}
+
+sub format_tab_80 ($) {
+ my $text=$_[0];
+ my $result="";
+ $text=~s/\s+/ /g;
+ $text=~s/^\s+//;
+ while($text=~/^(.{1,72})(|\s+(\S.*)?)$/) {
+ $result.=" ".$1."\n";
+ $text=$3;
+ }
+ return $result;
+}
+
+sub no_spaces ($) {
+ my $result=$_[0];
+ $result=~tr/ /_/;
+ return $result;
+}
+
+print 'GIT Glossary
+============
+Aug 2005
+
+This list is sorted alphabetically:
+
+';
+
+@keys=sort {uc($a) cmp uc($b)} keys %terms;
+$pattern='(\b'.join('\b|\b',reverse @keys).'\b)';
+foreach $key (@keys) {
+ $terms{$key}=~s/$pattern/sprintf "<<ref_".no_spaces($1).",$1>>";/eg;
+ print '[[ref_'.no_spaces($key).']]'.$key."::\n"
+ .format_tab_80($terms{$key})."\n";
+}
+
+print '
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de> and
+the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the link:git.html[git] suite
+';
+
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt b/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..24c8410
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/trivial-merge.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,121 @@
+Trivial merge rules
+===================
+
+This document describes the outcomes of the trivial merge logic in read-tree.
+
+One-way merge
+-------------
+
+This replaces the index with a different tree, keeping the stat info
+for entries that don't change, and allowing -u to make the minimum
+required changes to the working tree to have it match.
+
+Entries marked '+' have stat information. Spaces marked '*' don't
+affect the result.
+
+ index tree result
+ -----------------------
+ * (empty) (empty)
+ (empty) tree tree
+ index+ tree tree
+ index+ index index+
+
+Two-way merge
+-------------
+
+It is permitted for the index to lack an entry; this does not prevent
+any case from applying.
+
+If the index exists, it is an error for it not to match either the old
+or the result.
+
+If multiple cases apply, the one used is listed first.
+
+A result which changes the index is an error if the index is not empty
+and not up-to-date.
+
+Entries marked '+' have stat information. Spaces marked '*' don't
+affect the result.
+
+ case index old new result
+ -------------------------------------
+ 0/2 (empty) * (empty) (empty)
+ 1/3 (empty) * new new
+ 4/5 index+ (empty) (empty) index+
+ 6/7 index+ (empty) index index+
+ 10 index+ index (empty) (empty)
+ 14/15 index+ old old index+
+ 18/19 index+ old index index+
+ 20 index+ index new new
+
+Three-way merge
+---------------
+
+It is permitted for the index to lack an entry; this does not prevent
+any case from applying.
+
+If the index exists, it is an error for it not to match either the
+head or (if the merge is trivial) the result.
+
+If multiple cases apply, the one used is listed first.
+
+A result of "no merge" means that index is left in stage 0, ancest in
+stage 1, head in stage 2, and remote in stage 3 (if any of these are
+empty, no entry is left for that stage). Otherwise, the given entry is
+left in stage 0, and there are no other entries.
+
+A result of "no merge" is an error if the index is not empty and not
+up-to-date.
+
+*empty* means that the tree must not have a directory-file conflict
+ with the entry.
+
+For multiple ancestors, a '+' means that this case applies even if
+only one ancestor or remote fits; a '^' means all of the ancestors
+must be the same.
+
+case ancest head remote result
+----------------------------------------
+1 (empty)+ (empty) (empty) (empty)
+2ALT (empty)+ *empty* remote remote
+2 (empty)^ (empty) remote no merge
+3ALT (empty)+ head *empty* head
+3 (empty)^ head (empty) no merge
+4 (empty)^ head remote no merge
+5ALT * head head head
+6 ancest+ (empty) (empty) no merge
+8 ancest^ (empty) ancest no merge
+7 ancest+ (empty) remote no merge
+10 ancest^ ancest (empty) no merge
+9 ancest+ head (empty) no merge
+16 anc1/anc2 anc1 anc2 no merge
+13 ancest+ head ancest head
+14 ancest+ ancest remote remote
+11 ancest+ head remote no merge
+
+Only #2ALT and #3ALT use *empty*, because these are the only cases
+where there can be conflicts that didn't exist before. Note that we
+allow directory-file conflicts between things in different stages
+after the trivial merge.
+
+A possible alternative for #6 is (empty), which would make it like
+#1. This is not used, due to the likelihood that it arises due to
+moving the file to multiple different locations or moving and deleting
+it in different branches.
+
+Case #1 is included for completeness, and also in case we decide to
+put on '+' markings; any path that is never mentioned at all isn't
+handled.
+
+Note that #16 is when both #13 and #14 apply; in this case, we refuse
+the trivial merge, because we can't tell from this data which is
+right. This is a case of a reverted patch (in some direction, maybe
+multiple times), and the right answer depends on looking at crossings
+of history or common ancestors of the ancestors.
+
+Note that, between #6, #7, #9, and #11, all cases not otherwise
+covered are handled in this table.
+
+For #8 and #10, there is alternative behavior, not currently
+implemented, where the result is (empty). As currently implemented,
+the automatic merge will generally give this effect.
diff --git a/Documentation/tutorial.txt b/Documentation/tutorial.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e2dfb00
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/tutorial.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1737 @@
+A short git tutorial
+====================
+
+Introduction
+------------
+
+This is trying to be a short tutorial on setting up and using a git
+repository, mainly because being hands-on and using explicit examples is
+often the best way of explaining what is going on.
+
+In normal life, most people wouldn't use the "core" git programs
+directly, but rather script around them to make them more palatable.
+Understanding the core git stuff may help some people get those scripts
+done, though, and it may also be instructive in helping people
+understand what it is that the higher-level helper scripts are actually
+doing.
+
+The core git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
+interfaces on top of it called "porcelain". You may not want to use the
+plumbing directly very often, but it can be good to know what the
+plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing...
+
+
+Creating a git repository
+-------------------------
+
+Creating a new git repository couldn't be easier: all git repositories start
+out empty, and the only thing you need to do is find yourself a
+subdirectory that you want to use as a working tree - either an empty
+one for a totally new project, or an existing working tree that you want
+to import into git.
+
+For our first example, we're going to start a totally new repository from
+scratch, with no pre-existing files, and we'll call it `git-tutorial`.
+To start up, create a subdirectory for it, change into that
+subdirectory, and initialize the git infrastructure with `git-init-db`:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ mkdir git-tutorial
+$ cd git-tutorial
+$ git-init-db
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to which git will reply
+
+----------------
+defaulting to local storage area
+----------------
+
+which is just git's way of saying that you haven't been doing anything
+strange, and that it will have created a local `.git` directory setup for
+your new project. You will now have a `.git` directory, and you can
+inspect that with `ls`. For your new empty project, it should show you
+three entries, among other things:
+
+ - a symlink called `HEAD`, pointing to `refs/heads/master` (if your
+ platform does not have native symlinks, it is a file containing the
+ line "ref: refs/heads/master")
++
+Don't worry about the fact that the file that the `HEAD` link points to
+doesn't even exist yet -- you haven't created the commit that will
+start your `HEAD` development branch yet.
+
+ - a subdirectory called `objects`, which will contain all the
+ objects of your project. You should never have any real reason to
+ look at the objects directly, but you might want to know that these
+ objects are what contains all the real 'data' in your repository.
+
+ - a subdirectory called `refs`, which contains references to objects.
+
+In particular, the `refs` subdirectory will contain two other
+subdirectories, named `heads` and `tags` respectively. They do
+exactly what their names imply: they contain references to any number
+of different 'heads' of development (aka 'branches'), and to any
+'tags' that you have created to name specific versions in your
+repository.
+
+One note: the special `master` head is the default branch, which is
+why the `.git/HEAD` file was created as a symlink to it even if it
+doesn't yet exist. Basically, the `HEAD` link is supposed to always
+point to the branch you are working on right now, and you always
+start out expecting to work on the `master` branch.
+
+However, this is only a convention, and you can name your branches
+anything you want, and don't have to ever even 'have' a `master`
+branch. A number of the git tools will assume that `.git/HEAD` is
+valid, though.
+
+[NOTE]
+An 'object' is identified by its 160-bit SHA1 hash, aka 'object name',
+and a reference to an object is always the 40-byte hex
+representation of that SHA1 name. The files in the `refs`
+subdirectory are expected to contain these hex references
+(usually with a final `\'\n\'` at the end), and you should thus
+expect to see a number of 41-byte files containing these
+references in these `refs` subdirectories when you actually start
+populating your tree.
+
+[NOTE]
+An advanced user may want to take a look at the
+link:repository-layout.html[repository layout] document
+after finishing this tutorial.
+
+You have now created your first git repository. Of course, since it's
+empty, that's not very useful, so let's start populating it with data.
+
+
+Populating a git repository
+---------------------------
+
+We'll keep this simple and stupid, so we'll start off with populating a
+few trivial files just to get a feel for it.
+
+Start off with just creating any random files that you want to maintain
+in your git repository. We'll start off with a few bad examples, just to
+get a feel for how this works:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ echo "Hello World" >hello
+$ echo "Silly example" >example
+------------------------------------------------
+
+you have now created two files in your working tree (aka 'working directory'), but to
+actually check in your hard work, you will have to go through two steps:
+
+ - fill in the 'index' file (aka 'cache') with the information about your
+ working tree state.
+
+ - commit that index file as an object.
+
+The first step is trivial: when you want to tell git about any changes
+to your working tree, you use the `git-update-index` program. That
+program normally just takes a list of filenames you want to update, but
+to avoid trivial mistakes, it refuses to add new entries to the index
+(or remove existing ones) unless you explicitly tell it that you're
+adding a new entry with the `\--add` flag (or removing an entry with the
+`\--remove`) flag.
+
+So to populate the index with the two files you just created, you can do
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-update-index --add hello example
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and you have now told git to track those two files.
+
+In fact, as you did that, if you now look into your object directory,
+you'll notice that git will have added two new objects to the object
+database. If you did exactly the steps above, you should now be able to do
+
+
+----------------
+$ ls .git/objects/??/*
+----------------
+
+and see two files:
+
+----------------
+.git/objects/55/7db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238
+.git/objects/f2/4c74a2e500f5ee1332c86b94199f52b1d1d962
+----------------
+
+which correspond with the objects with names of 557db... and f24c7..
+respectively.
+
+If you want to, you can use `git-cat-file` to look at those objects, but
+you'll have to use the object name, not the filename of the object:
+
+----------------
+$ git-cat-file -t 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238
+----------------
+
+where the `-t` tells `git-cat-file` to tell you what the "type" of the
+object is. git will tell you that you have a "blob" object (ie just a
+regular file), and you can see the contents with
+
+----------------
+$ git-cat-file "blob" 557db03
+----------------
+
+which will print out "Hello World". The object 557db03 is nothing
+more than the contents of your file `hello`.
+
+[NOTE]
+Don't confuse that object with the file `hello` itself. The
+object is literally just those specific *contents* of the file, and
+however much you later change the contents in file `hello`, the object
+we just looked at will never change. Objects are immutable.
+
+[NOTE]
+The second example demonstrates that you can
+abbreviate the object name to only the first several
+hexadecimal digits in most places.
+
+Anyway, as we mentioned previously, you normally never actually take a
+look at the objects themselves, and typing long 40-character hex
+names is not something you'd normally want to do. The above digression
+was just to show that `git-update-index` did something magical, and
+actually saved away the contents of your files into the git object
+database.
+
+Updating the index did something else too: it created a `.git/index`
+file. This is the index that describes your current working tree, and
+something you should be very aware of. Again, you normally never worry
+about the index file itself, but you should be aware of the fact that
+you have not actually really "checked in" your files into git so far,
+you've only *told* git about them.
+
+However, since git knows about them, you can now start using some of the
+most basic git commands to manipulate the files or look at their status.
+
+In particular, let's not even check in the two files into git yet, we'll
+start off by adding another line to `hello` first:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ echo "It's a new day for git" >>hello
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and you can now, since you told git about the previous state of `hello`, ask
+git what has changed in the tree compared to your old index, using the
+`git-diff-files` command:
+
+------------
+$ git-diff-files
+------------
+
+Oops. That wasn't very readable. It just spit out its own internal
+version of a `diff`, but that internal version really just tells you
+that it has noticed that "hello" has been modified, and that the old object
+contents it had have been replaced with something else.
+
+To make it readable, we can tell git-diff-files to output the
+differences as a patch, using the `-p` flag:
+
+------------
+$ git-diff-files -p
+diff --git a/hello b/hello
+index 557db03..263414f 100644
+--- a/hello
++++ b/hello
+@@ -1 +1,2 @@
+ Hello World
++It's a new day for git
+----
+
+i.e. the diff of the change we caused by adding another line to `hello`.
+
+In other words, `git-diff-files` always shows us the difference between
+what is recorded in the index, and what is currently in the working
+tree. That's very useful.
+
+A common shorthand for `git-diff-files -p` is to just write `git
+diff`, which will do the same thing.
+
+
+Committing git state
+--------------------
+
+Now, we want to go to the next stage in git, which is to take the files
+that git knows about in the index, and commit them as a real tree. We do
+that in two phases: creating a 'tree' object, and committing that 'tree'
+object as a 'commit' object together with an explanation of what the
+tree was all about, along with information of how we came to that state.
+
+Creating a tree object is trivial, and is done with `git-write-tree`.
+There are no options or other input: git-write-tree will take the
+current index state, and write an object that describes that whole
+index. In other words, we're now tying together all the different
+filenames with their contents (and their permissions), and we're
+creating the equivalent of a git "directory" object:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-write-tree
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and this will just output the name of the resulting tree, in this case
+(if you have done exactly as I've described) it should be
+
+----------------
+8988da15d077d4829fc51d8544c097def6644dbb
+----------------
+
+which is another incomprehensible object name. Again, if you want to,
+you can use `git-cat-file -t 8988d\...` to see that this time the object
+is not a "blob" object, but a "tree" object (you can also use
+`git-cat-file` to actually output the raw object contents, but you'll see
+mainly a binary mess, so that's less interesting).
+
+However -- normally you'd never use `git-write-tree` on its own, because
+normally you always commit a tree into a commit object using the
+`git-commit-tree` command. In fact, it's easier to not actually use
+`git-write-tree` on its own at all, but to just pass its result in as an
+argument to `git-commit-tree`.
+
+`git-commit-tree` normally takes several arguments -- it wants to know
+what the 'parent' of a commit was, but since this is the first commit
+ever in this new repository, and it has no parents, we only need to pass in
+the object name of the tree. However, `git-commit-tree`
+also wants to get a commit message
+on its standard input, and it will write out the resulting object name for the
+commit to its standard output.
+
+And this is where we create the `.git/refs/heads/master` file
+which is pointed at by `HEAD`. This file is supposed to contain
+the reference to the top-of-tree of the master branch, and since
+that's exactly what `git-commit-tree` spits out, we can do this
+all with a sequence of simple shell commands:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ tree=$(git-write-tree)
+$ commit=$(echo 'Initial commit' | git-commit-tree $tree)
+$ git-update-ref HEAD $commit
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which will say:
+
+----------------
+Committing initial tree 8988da15d077d4829fc51d8544c097def6644dbb
+----------------
+
+just to warn you about the fact that it created a totally new commit
+that is not related to anything else. Normally you do this only *once*
+for a project ever, and all later commits will be parented on top of an
+earlier commit, and you'll never see this "Committing initial tree"
+message ever again.
+
+Again, normally you'd never actually do this by hand. There is a
+helpful script called `git commit` that will do all of this for you. So
+you could have just written `git commit`
+instead, and it would have done the above magic scripting for you.
+
+
+Making a change
+---------------
+
+Remember how we did the `git-update-index` on file `hello` and then we
+changed `hello` afterward, and could compare the new state of `hello` with the
+state we saved in the index file?
+
+Further, remember how I said that `git-write-tree` writes the contents
+of the *index* file to the tree, and thus what we just committed was in
+fact the *original* contents of the file `hello`, not the new ones. We did
+that on purpose, to show the difference between the index state, and the
+state in the working tree, and how they don't have to match, even
+when we commit things.
+
+As before, if we do `git-diff-files -p` in our git-tutorial project,
+we'll still see the same difference we saw last time: the index file
+hasn't changed by the act of committing anything. However, now that we
+have committed something, we can also learn to use a new command:
+`git-diff-index`.
+
+Unlike `git-diff-files`, which showed the difference between the index
+file and the working tree, `git-diff-index` shows the differences
+between a committed *tree* and either the index file or the working
+tree. In other words, `git-diff-index` wants a tree to be diffed
+against, and before we did the commit, we couldn't do that, because we
+didn't have anything to diff against.
+
+But now we can do
+
+----------------
+$ git-diff-index -p HEAD
+----------------
+
+(where `-p` has the same meaning as it did in `git-diff-files`), and it
+will show us the same difference, but for a totally different reason.
+Now we're comparing the working tree not against the index file,
+but against the tree we just wrote. It just so happens that those two
+are obviously the same, so we get the same result.
+
+Again, because this is a common operation, you can also just shorthand
+it with
+
+----------------
+$ git diff HEAD
+----------------
+
+which ends up doing the above for you.
+
+In other words, `git-diff-index` normally compares a tree against the
+working tree, but when given the `\--cached` flag, it is told to
+instead compare against just the index cache contents, and ignore the
+current working tree state entirely. Since we just wrote the index
+file to HEAD, doing `git-diff-index \--cached -p HEAD` should thus return
+an empty set of differences, and that's exactly what it does.
+
+[NOTE]
+================
+`git-diff-index` really always uses the index for its
+comparisons, and saying that it compares a tree against the working
+tree is thus not strictly accurate. In particular, the list of
+files to compare (the "meta-data") *always* comes from the index file,
+regardless of whether the `\--cached` flag is used or not. The `\--cached`
+flag really only determines whether the file *contents* to be compared
+come from the working tree or not.
+
+This is not hard to understand, as soon as you realize that git simply
+never knows (or cares) about files that it is not told about
+explicitly. git will never go *looking* for files to compare, it
+expects you to tell it what the files are, and that's what the index
+is there for.
+================
+
+However, our next step is to commit the *change* we did, and again, to
+understand what's going on, keep in mind the difference between "working
+tree contents", "index file" and "committed tree". We have changes
+in the working tree that we want to commit, and we always have to
+work through the index file, so the first thing we need to do is to
+update the index cache:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-update-index hello
+------------------------------------------------
+
+(note how we didn't need the `\--add` flag this time, since git knew
+about the file already).
+
+Note what happens to the different `git-diff-\*` versions here. After
+we've updated `hello` in the index, `git-diff-files -p` now shows no
+differences, but `git-diff-index -p HEAD` still *does* show that the
+current state is different from the state we committed. In fact, now
+`git-diff-index` shows the same difference whether we use the `--cached`
+flag or not, since now the index is coherent with the working tree.
+
+Now, since we've updated `hello` in the index, we can commit the new
+version. We could do it by writing the tree by hand again, and
+committing the tree (this time we'd have to use the `-p HEAD` flag to
+tell commit that the HEAD was the *parent* of the new commit, and that
+this wasn't an initial commit any more), but you've done that once
+already, so let's just use the helpful script this time:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git commit
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which starts an editor for you to write the commit message and tells you
+a bit about what you have done.
+
+Write whatever message you want, and all the lines that start with '#'
+will be pruned out, and the rest will be used as the commit message for
+the change. If you decide you don't want to commit anything after all at
+this point (you can continue to edit things and update the index), you
+can just leave an empty message. Otherwise `git commit` will commit
+the change for you.
+
+You've now made your first real git commit. And if you're interested in
+looking at what `git commit` really does, feel free to investigate:
+it's a few very simple shell scripts to generate the helpful (?) commit
+message headers, and a few one-liners that actually do the
+commit itself (`git-commit`).
+
+
+Inspecting Changes
+------------------
+
+While creating changes is useful, it's even more useful if you can tell
+later what changed. The most useful command for this is another of the
+`diff` family, namely `git-diff-tree`.
+
+`git-diff-tree` can be given two arbitrary trees, and it will tell you the
+differences between them. Perhaps even more commonly, though, you can
+give it just a single commit object, and it will figure out the parent
+of that commit itself, and show the difference directly. Thus, to get
+the same diff that we've already seen several times, we can now do
+
+----------------
+$ git-diff-tree -p HEAD
+----------------
+
+(again, `-p` means to show the difference as a human-readable patch),
+and it will show what the last commit (in `HEAD`) actually changed.
+
+[NOTE]
+============
+Here is an ASCII art by Jon Loeliger that illustrates how
+various diff-\* commands compare things.
+
+ diff-tree
+ +----+
+ | |
+ | |
+ V V
+ +-----------+
+ | Object DB |
+ | Backing |
+ | Store |
+ +-----------+
+ ^ ^
+ | |
+ | | diff-index --cached
+ | |
+ diff-index | V
+ | +-----------+
+ | | Index |
+ | | "cache" |
+ | +-----------+
+ | ^
+ | |
+ | | diff-files
+ | |
+ V V
+ +-----------+
+ | Working |
+ | Directory |
+ +-----------+
+============
+
+More interestingly, you can also give `git-diff-tree` the `-v` flag, which
+tells it to also show the commit message and author and date of the
+commit, and you can tell it to show a whole series of diffs.
+Alternatively, you can tell it to be "silent", and not show the diffs at
+all, but just show the actual commit message.
+
+In fact, together with the `git-rev-list` program (which generates a
+list of revisions), `git-diff-tree` ends up being a veritable fount of
+changes. A trivial (but very useful) script called `git-whatchanged` is
+included with git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
+activities.
+
+To see the whole history of our pitiful little git-tutorial project, you
+can do
+
+----------------
+$ git log
+----------------
+
+which shows just the log messages, or if we want to see the log together
+with the associated patches use the more complex (and much more
+powerful)
+
+----------------
+$ git-whatchanged -p --root
+----------------
+
+and you will see exactly what has changed in the repository over its
+short history.
+
+[NOTE]
+The `\--root` flag is a flag to `git-diff-tree` to tell it to
+show the initial aka 'root' commit too. Normally you'd probably not
+want to see the initial import diff, but since the tutorial project
+was started from scratch and is so small, we use it to make the result
+a bit more interesting.
+
+With that, you should now be having some inkling of what git does, and
+can explore on your own.
+
+[NOTE]
+Most likely, you are not directly using the core
+git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain like Cogito on top
+of it. Cogito works a bit differently and you usually do not
+have to run `git-update-index` yourself for changed files (you
+do tell underlying git about additions and removals via
+`cg-add` and `cg-rm` commands). Just before you make a commit
+with `cg-commit`, Cogito figures out which files you modified,
+and runs `git-update-index` on them for you.
+
+
+Tagging a version
+-----------------
+
+In git, there are two kinds of tags, a "light" one, and an "annotated tag".
+
+A "light" tag is technically nothing more than a branch, except we put
+it in the `.git/refs/tags/` subdirectory instead of calling it a `head`.
+So the simplest form of tag involves nothing more than
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git tag my-first-tag
+------------------------------------------------
+
+which just writes the current `HEAD` into the `.git/refs/tags/my-first-tag`
+file, after which point you can then use this symbolic name for that
+particular state. You can, for example, do
+
+----------------
+$ git diff my-first-tag
+----------------
+
+to diff your current state against that tag (which at this point will
+obviously be an empty diff, but if you continue to develop and commit
+stuff, you can use your tag as an "anchor-point" to see what has changed
+since you tagged it.
+
+An "annotated tag" is actually a real git object, and contains not only a
+pointer to the state you want to tag, but also a small tag name and
+message, along with optionally a PGP signature that says that yes,
+you really did
+that tag. You create these annotated tags with either the `-a` or
+`-s` flag to `git tag`:
+
+----------------
+$ git tag -s <tagname>
+----------------
+
+which will sign the current `HEAD` (but you can also give it another
+argument that specifies the thing to tag, ie you could have tagged the
+current `mybranch` point by using `git tag <tagname> mybranch`).
+
+You normally only do signed tags for major releases or things
+like that, while the light-weight tags are useful for any marking you
+want to do -- any time you decide that you want to remember a certain
+point, just create a private tag for it, and you have a nice symbolic
+name for the state at that point.
+
+
+Copying repositories
+--------------------
+
+git repositories are normally totally self-sufficient and relocatable
+Unlike CVS, for example, there is no separate notion of
+"repository" and "working tree". A git repository normally *is* the
+working tree, with the local git information hidden in the `.git`
+subdirectory. There is nothing else. What you see is what you got.
+
+[NOTE]
+You can tell git to split the git internal information from
+the directory that it tracks, but we'll ignore that for now: it's not
+how normal projects work, and it's really only meant for special uses.
+So the mental model of "the git information is always tied directly to
+the working tree that it describes" may not be technically 100%
+accurate, but it's a good model for all normal use.
+
+This has two implications:
+
+ - if you grow bored with the tutorial repository you created (or you've
+ made a mistake and want to start all over), you can just do simple
++
+----------------
+$ rm -rf git-tutorial
+----------------
++
+and it will be gone. There's no external repository, and there's no
+history outside the project you created.
+
+ - if you want to move or duplicate a git repository, you can do so. There
+ is `git clone` command, but if all you want to do is just to
+ create a copy of your repository (with all the full history that
+ went along with it), you can do so with a regular
+ `cp -a git-tutorial new-git-tutorial`.
++
+Note that when you've moved or copied a git repository, your git index
+file (which caches various information, notably some of the "stat"
+information for the files involved) will likely need to be refreshed.
+So after you do a `cp -a` to create a new copy, you'll want to do
++
+----------------
+$ git-update-index --refresh
+----------------
++
+in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up-to-date.
+
+Note that the second point is true even across machines. You can
+duplicate a remote git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
+`scp`, `rsync` or `wget`.
+
+When copying a remote repository, you'll want to at a minimum update the
+index cache when you do this, and especially with other peoples'
+repositories you often want to make sure that the index cache is in some
+known state (you don't know *what* they've done and not yet checked in),
+so usually you'll precede the `git-update-index` with a
+
+----------------
+$ git-read-tree --reset HEAD
+$ git-update-index --refresh
+----------------
+
+which will force a total index re-build from the tree pointed to by `HEAD`.
+It resets the index contents to `HEAD`, and then the `git-update-index`
+makes sure to match up all index entries with the checked-out files.
+If the original repository had uncommitted changes in its
+working tree, `git-update-index --refresh` notices them and
+tells you they need to be updated.
+
+The above can also be written as simply
+
+----------------
+$ git reset
+----------------
+
+and in fact a lot of the common git command combinations can be scripted
+with the `git xyz` interfaces. You can learn things by just looking
+at what the various git scripts do. For example, `git reset` is the
+above two lines implemented in `git-reset`, but some things like
+`git status` and `git commit` are slightly more complex scripts around
+the basic git commands.
+
+Many (most?) public remote repositories will not contain any of
+the checked out files or even an index file, and will *only* contain the
+actual core git files. Such a repository usually doesn't even have the
+`.git` subdirectory, but has all the git files directly in the
+repository.
+
+To create your own local live copy of such a "raw" git repository, you'd
+first create your own subdirectory for the project, and then copy the
+raw repository contents into the `.git` directory. For example, to
+create your own copy of the git repository, you'd do the following
+
+----------------
+$ mkdir my-git
+$ cd my-git
+$ rsync -rL rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ .git
+----------------
+
+followed by
+
+----------------
+$ git-read-tree HEAD
+----------------
+
+to populate the index. However, now you have populated the index, and
+you have all the git internal files, but you will notice that you don't
+actually have any of the working tree files to work on. To get
+those, you'd check them out with
+
+----------------
+$ git-checkout-index -u -a
+----------------
+
+where the `-u` flag means that you want the checkout to keep the index
+up-to-date (so that you don't have to refresh it afterward), and the
+`-a` flag means "check out all files" (if you have a stale copy or an
+older version of a checked out tree you may also need to add the `-f`
+flag first, to tell git-checkout-index to *force* overwriting of any old
+files).
+
+Again, this can all be simplified with
+
+----------------
+$ git clone rsync://rsync.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ my-git
+$ cd my-git
+$ git checkout
+----------------
+
+which will end up doing all of the above for you.
+
+You have now successfully copied somebody else's (mine) remote
+repository, and checked it out.
+
+
+Creating a new branch
+---------------------
+
+Branches in git are really nothing more than pointers into the git
+object database from within the `.git/refs/` subdirectory, and as we
+already discussed, the `HEAD` branch is nothing but a symlink to one of
+these object pointers.
+
+You can at any time create a new branch by just picking an arbitrary
+point in the project history, and just writing the SHA1 name of that
+object into a file under `.git/refs/heads/`. You can use any filename you
+want (and indeed, subdirectories), but the convention is that the
+"normal" branch is called `master`. That's just a convention, though,
+and nothing enforces it.
+
+To show that as an example, let's go back to the git-tutorial repository we
+used earlier, and create a branch in it. You do that by simply just
+saying that you want to check out a new branch:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -b mybranch
+------------
+
+will create a new branch based at the current `HEAD` position, and switch
+to it.
+
+[NOTE]
+================================================
+If you make the decision to start your new branch at some
+other point in the history than the current `HEAD`, you can do so by
+just telling `git checkout` what the base of the checkout would be.
+In other words, if you have an earlier tag or branch, you'd just do
+
+------------
+$ git checkout -b mybranch earlier-commit
+------------
+
+and it would create the new branch `mybranch` at the earlier commit,
+and check out the state at that time.
+================================================
+
+You can always just jump back to your original `master` branch by doing
+
+------------
+$ git checkout master
+------------
+
+(or any other branch-name, for that matter) and if you forget which
+branch you happen to be on, a simple
+
+------------
+$ ls -l .git/HEAD
+------------
+
+will tell you where it's pointing (Note that on platforms with bad or no
+symlink support, you have to execute
+
+------------
+$ cat .git/HEAD
+------------
+
+instead). To get the list of branches you have, you can say
+
+------------
+$ git branch
+------------
+
+which is nothing more than a simple script around `ls .git/refs/heads`.
+There will be asterisk in front of the branch you are currently on.
+
+Sometimes you may wish to create a new branch _without_ actually
+checking it out and switching to it. If so, just use the command
+
+------------
+$ git branch <branchname> [startingpoint]
+------------
+
+which will simply _create_ the branch, but will not do anything further.
+You can then later -- once you decide that you want to actually develop
+on that branch -- switch to that branch with a regular `git checkout`
+with the branchname as the argument.
+
+
+Merging two branches
+--------------------
+
+One of the ideas of having a branch is that you do some (possibly
+experimental) work in it, and eventually merge it back to the main
+branch. So assuming you created the above `mybranch` that started out
+being the same as the original `master` branch, let's make sure we're in
+that branch, and do some work there.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git checkout mybranch
+$ echo "Work, work, work" >>hello
+$ git commit -m 'Some work.' hello
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Here, we just added another line to `hello`, and we used a shorthand for
+doing both `git-update-index hello` and `git commit` by just giving the
+filename directly to `git commit`. The `-m` flag is to give the
+commit log message from the command line.
+
+Now, to make it a bit more interesting, let's assume that somebody else
+does some work in the original branch, and simulate that by going back
+to the master branch, and editing the same file differently there:
+
+------------
+$ git checkout master
+------------
+
+Here, take a moment to look at the contents of `hello`, and notice how they
+don't contain the work we just did in `mybranch` -- because that work
+hasn't happened in the `master` branch at all. Then do
+
+------------
+$ echo "Play, play, play" >>hello
+$ echo "Lots of fun" >>example
+$ git commit -m 'Some fun.' hello example
+------------
+
+since the master branch is obviously in a much better mood.
+
+Now, you've got two branches, and you decide that you want to merge the
+work done. Before we do that, let's introduce a cool graphical tool that
+helps you view what's going on:
+
+----------------
+$ gitk --all
+----------------
+
+will show you graphically both of your branches (that's what the `\--all`
+means: normally it will just show you your current `HEAD`) and their
+histories. You can also see exactly how they came to be from a common
+source.
+
+Anyway, let's exit `gitk` (`^Q` or the File menu), and decide that we want
+to merge the work we did on the `mybranch` branch into the `master`
+branch (which is currently our `HEAD` too). To do that, there's a nice
+script called `git merge`, which wants to know which branches you want
+to resolve and what the merge is all about:
+
+------------
+$ git merge "Merge work in mybranch" HEAD mybranch
+------------
+
+where the first argument is going to be used as the commit message if
+the merge can be resolved automatically.
+
+Now, in this case we've intentionally created a situation where the
+merge will need to be fixed up by hand, though, so git will do as much
+of it as it can automatically (which in this case is just merge the `example`
+file, which had no differences in the `mybranch` branch), and say:
+
+----------------
+ Trying really trivial in-index merge...
+ fatal: Merge requires file-level merging
+ Nope.
+ ...
+ merge: warning: conflicts during merge
+ ERROR: Merge conflict in hello.
+ fatal: merge program failed
+ Automatic merge failed/prevented; fix up by hand
+----------------
+
+which is way too verbose, but it basically tells you that it failed the
+really trivial merge ("Simple merge") and did an "Automatic merge"
+instead, but that too failed due to conflicts in `hello`.
+
+Not to worry. It left the (trivial) conflict in `hello` in the same form you
+should already be well used to if you've ever used CVS, so let's just
+open `hello` in our editor (whatever that may be), and fix it up somehow.
+I'd suggest just making it so that `hello` contains all four lines:
+
+------------
+Hello World
+It's a new day for git
+Play, play, play
+Work, work, work
+------------
+
+and once you're happy with your manual merge, just do a
+
+------------
+$ git commit hello
+------------
+
+which will very loudly warn you that you're now committing a merge
+(which is correct, so never mind), and you can write a small merge
+message about your adventures in git-merge-land.
+
+After you're done, start up `gitk \--all` to see graphically what the
+history looks like. Notice that `mybranch` still exists, and you can
+switch to it, and continue to work with it if you want to. The
+`mybranch` branch will not contain the merge, but next time you merge it
+from the `master` branch, git will know how you merged it, so you'll not
+have to do _that_ merge again.
+
+Another useful tool, especially if you do not always work in X-Window
+environment, is `git show-branch`.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch master mybranch
+* [master] Merged "mybranch" changes.
+ ! [mybranch] Some work.
+--
++ [master] Merged "mybranch" changes.
+++ [mybranch] Some work.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+The first two lines indicate that it is showing the two branches
+and the first line of the commit log message from their
+top-of-the-tree commits, you are currently on `master` branch
+(notice the asterisk `*` character), and the first column for
+the later output lines is used to show commits contained in the
+`master` branch, and the second column for the `mybranch`
+branch. Three commits are shown along with their log messages.
+All of them have plus `+` characters in the first column, which
+means they are now part of the `master` branch. Only the "Some
+work" commit has the plus `+` character in the second column,
+because `mybranch` has not been merged to incorporate these
+commits from the master branch. The string inside brackets
+before the commit log message is a short name you can use to
+name the commit. In the above example, 'master' and 'mybranch'
+are branch heads. 'master~1' is the first parent of 'master'
+branch head. Please see 'git-rev-parse' documentation if you
+see more complex cases.
+
+Now, let's pretend you are the one who did all the work in
+`mybranch`, and the fruit of your hard work has finally been merged
+to the `master` branch. Let's go back to `mybranch`, and run
+resolve to get the "upstream changes" back to your branch.
+
+------------
+$ git checkout mybranch
+$ git merge "Merge upstream changes." HEAD master
+------------
+
+This outputs something like this (the actual commit object names
+would be different)
+
+----------------
+Updating from ae3a2da... to a80b4aa....
+ example | 1 +
+ hello | 1 +
+ 2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
+----------------
+
+Because your branch did not contain anything more than what are
+already merged into the `master` branch, the resolve operation did
+not actually do a merge. Instead, it just updated the top of
+the tree of your branch to that of the `master` branch. This is
+often called 'fast forward' merge.
+
+You can run `gitk \--all` again to see how the commit ancestry
+looks like, or run `show-branch`, which tells you this.
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git show-branch master mybranch
+! [master] Merged "mybranch" changes.
+ * [mybranch] Merged "mybranch" changes.
+--
+++ [master] Merged "mybranch" changes.
+------------------------------------------------
+
+
+Merging external work
+---------------------
+
+It's usually much more common that you merge with somebody else than
+merging with your own branches, so it's worth pointing out that git
+makes that very easy too, and in fact, it's not that different from
+doing a `git merge`. In fact, a remote merge ends up being nothing
+more than "fetch the work from a remote repository into a temporary tag"
+followed by a `git merge`.
+
+Fetching from a remote repository is done by, unsurprisingly,
+`git fetch`:
+
+----------------
+$ git fetch <remote-repository>
+----------------
+
+One of the following transports can be used to name the
+repository to download from:
+
+Rsync::
+ `rsync://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+Rsync transport is usable for both uploading and downloading,
+but is completely unaware of what git does, and can produce
+unexpected results when you download from the public repository
+while the repository owner is uploading into it via `rsync`
+transport. Most notably, it could update the files under
+`refs/` which holds the object name of the topmost commits
+before uploading the files in `objects/` -- the downloader would
+obtain head commit object name while that object itself is still
+not available in the repository. For this reason, it is
+considered deprecated.
+
+SSH::
+ `remote.machine:/path/to/repo.git/` or
++
+`ssh://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+This transport can be used for both uploading and downloading,
+and requires you to have a log-in privilege over `ssh` to the
+remote machine. It finds out the set of objects the other side
+lacks by exchanging the head commits both ends have and
+transfers (close to) minimum set of objects. It is by far the
+most efficient way to exchange git objects between repositories.
+
+Local directory::
+ `/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+This transport is the same as SSH transport but uses `sh` to run
+both ends on the local machine instead of running other end on
+the remote machine via `ssh`.
+
+git Native::
+ `git://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+This transport was designed for anonymous downloading. Like SSH
+transport, it finds out the set of objects the downstream side
+lacks and transfers (close to) minimum set of objects.
+
+HTTP(S)::
+ `http://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
++
+HTTP and HTTPS transport are used only for downloading. They
+first obtain the topmost commit object name from the remote site
+by looking at `repo.git/info/refs` file, tries to obtain the
+commit object by downloading from `repo.git/objects/xx/xxx\...`
+using the object name of that commit object. Then it reads the
+commit object to find out its parent commits and the associate
+tree object; it repeats this process until it gets all the
+necessary objects. Because of this behaviour, they are
+sometimes also called 'commit walkers'.
++
+The 'commit walkers' are sometimes also called 'dumb
+transports', because they do not require any git aware smart
+server like git Native transport does. Any stock HTTP server
+would suffice.
++
+There are (confusingly enough) `git-ssh-fetch` and `git-ssh-upload`
+programs, which are 'commit walkers'; they outlived their
+usefulness when git Native and SSH transports were introduced,
+and not used by `git pull` or `git push` scripts.
+
+Once you fetch from the remote repository, you `resolve` that
+with your current branch.
+
+However -- it's such a common thing to `fetch` and then
+immediately `resolve`, that it's called `git pull`, and you can
+simply do
+
+----------------
+$ git pull <remote-repository>
+----------------
+
+and optionally give a branch-name for the remote end as a second
+argument.
+
+[NOTE]
+You could do without using any branches at all, by
+keeping as many local repositories as you would like to have
+branches, and merging between them with `git pull`, just like
+you merge between branches. The advantage of this approach is
+that it lets you keep set of files for each `branch` checked
+out and you may find it easier to switch back and forth if you
+juggle multiple lines of development simultaneously. Of
+course, you will pay the price of more disk usage to hold
+multiple working trees, but disk space is cheap these days.
+
+[NOTE]
+You could even pull from your own repository by
+giving '.' as <remote-repository> parameter to `git pull`. This
+is useful when you want to merge a local branch (or more, if you
+are making an Octopus) into the current branch.
+
+It is likely that you will be pulling from the same remote
+repository from time to time. As a short hand, you can store
+the remote repository URL in a file under .git/remotes/
+directory, like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ mkdir -p .git/remotes/
+$ cat >.git/remotes/linus <<\EOF
+URL: http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/
+EOF
+------------------------------------------------
+
+and use the filename to `git pull` instead of the full URL.
+The URL specified in such file can even be a prefix
+of a full URL, like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ cat >.git/remotes/jgarzik <<\EOF
+URL: http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/git/jgarzik/
+EOF
+------------------------------------------------
+
+
+Examples.
+
+. `git pull linus`
+. `git pull linus tag v0.99.1`
+. `git pull jgarzik/netdev-2.6.git/ e100`
+
+the above are equivalent to:
+
+. `git pull http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ HEAD`
+. `git pull http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/ tag v0.99.1`
+. `git pull http://www.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/netdev-2.6.git e100`
+
+
+How does the merge work?
+------------------------
+
+We said this tutorial shows what plumbing does to help you cope
+with the porcelain that isn't flushing, but we so far did not
+talk about how the merge really works. If you are following
+this tutorial the first time, I'd suggest to skip to "Publishing
+your work" section and come back here later.
+
+OK, still with me? To give us an example to look at, let's go
+back to the earlier repository with "hello" and "example" file,
+and bring ourselves back to the pre-merge state:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch --more=3 master mybranch
+! [master] Merge work in mybranch
+ * [mybranch] Merge work in mybranch
+--
+++ [master] Merge work in mybranch
+++ [master^2] Some work.
+++ [master^] Some fun.
+------------
+
+Remember, before running `git merge`, our `master` head was at
+"Some fun." commit, while our `mybranch` head was at "Some
+work." commit.
+
+------------
+$ git checkout mybranch
+$ git reset --hard master^2
+$ git checkout master
+$ git reset --hard master^
+------------
+
+After rewinding, the commit structure should look like this:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch
+* [master] Some fun.
+ ! [mybranch] Some work.
+--
+ + [mybranch] Some work.
++ [master] Some fun.
+++ [mybranch^] New day.
+------------
+
+Now we are ready to experiment with the merge by hand.
+
+`git merge` command, when merging two branches, uses 3-way merge
+algorithm. First, it finds the common ancestor between them.
+The command it uses is `git-merge-base`:
+
+------------
+$ mb=$(git-merge-base HEAD mybranch)
+------------
+
+The command writes the commit object name of the common ancestor
+to the standard output, so we captured its output to a variable,
+because we will be using it in the next step. BTW, the common
+ancestor commit is the "New day." commit in this case. You can
+tell it by:
+
+------------
+$ git-name-rev $mb
+my-first-tag
+------------
+
+After finding out a common ancestor commit, the second step is
+this:
+
+------------
+$ git-read-tree -m -u $mb HEAD mybranch
+------------
+
+This is the same `git-read-tree` command we have already seen,
+but it takes three trees, unlike previous examples. This reads
+the contents of each tree into different 'stage' in the index
+file (the first tree goes to stage 1, the second stage 2,
+etc.). After reading three trees into three stages, the paths
+that are the same in all three stages are 'collapsed' into stage
+0. Also paths that are the same in two of three stages are
+collapsed into stage 0, taking the SHA1 from either stage 2 or
+stage 3, whichever is different from stage 1 (i.e. only one side
+changed from the common ancestor).
+
+After 'collapsing' operation, paths that are different in three
+trees are left in non-zero stages. At this point, you can
+inspect the index file with this command:
+
+------------
+$ git-ls-files --stage
+100644 7f8b141b65fdcee47321e399a2598a235a032422 0 example
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello
+------------
+
+In our example of only two files, we did not have unchanged
+files so only 'example' resulted in collapsing, but in real-life
+large projects, only small number of files change in one commit,
+and this 'collapsing' tends to trivially merge most of the paths
+fairly quickly, leaving only a handful the real changes in non-zero
+stages.
+
+To look at only non-zero stages, use `\--unmerged` flag:
+
+------------
+$ git-ls-files --unmerged
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello
+------------
+
+The next step of merging is to merge these three versions of the
+file, using 3-way merge. This is done by giving
+`git-merge-one-file` command as one of the arguments to
+`git-merge-index` command:
+
+------------
+$ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file hello
+Auto-merging hello.
+merge: warning: conflicts during merge
+ERROR: Merge conflict in hello.
+fatal: merge program failed
+------------
+
+`git-merge-one-file` script is called with parameters to
+describe those three versions, and is responsible to leave the
+merge results in the working tree and register it in the index
+file. It is a fairly straightforward shell script, and
+eventually calls `merge` program from RCS suite to perform the
+file-level 3-way merge. In this case, `merge` detects
+conflicts, and the merge result with conflict marks is left in
+the working tree, while the index file is updated with the
+version from the current branch (this is to make `git diff`
+useful after this step). This can be seen if you run `ls-files
+--stage` again at this point:
+
+------------
+$ git-ls-files --stage
+100644 7f8b141b65fdcee47321e399a2598a235a032422 0 example
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 0 hello
+------------
+
+As you can see, there is no unmerged paths in the index file.
+This is the state of the index file and the working file after
+`git merge` returns control back to you, leaving the conflicting
+merge for you to resolve.
+
+
+Publishing your work
+--------------------
+
+So we can use somebody else's work from a remote repository; but
+how can *you* prepare a repository to let other people pull from
+it?
+
+Your do your real work in your working tree that has your
+primary repository hanging under it as its `.git` subdirectory.
+You *could* make that repository accessible remotely and ask
+people to pull from it, but in practice that is not the way
+things are usually done. A recommended way is to have a public
+repository, make it reachable by other people, and when the
+changes you made in your primary working tree are in good shape,
+update the public repository from it. This is often called
+'pushing'.
+
+[NOTE]
+This public repository could further be mirrored, and that is
+how git repositories at `kernel.org` are managed.
+
+Publishing the changes from your local (private) repository to
+your remote (public) repository requires a write privilege on
+the remote machine. You need to have an SSH account there to
+run a single command, `git-receive-pack`.
+
+First, you need to create an empty repository on the remote
+machine that will house your public repository. This empty
+repository will be populated and be kept up-to-date by pushing
+into it later. Obviously, this repository creation needs to be
+done only once.
+
+[NOTE]
+`git push` uses a pair of programs,
+`git-send-pack` on your local machine, and `git-receive-pack`
+on the remote machine. The communication between the two over
+the network internally uses an SSH connection.
+
+Your private repository's git directory is usually `.git`, but
+your public repository is often named after the project name,
+i.e. `<project>.git`. Let's create such a public repository for
+project `my-git`. After logging into the remote machine, create
+an empty directory:
+
+------------
+$ mkdir my-git.git
+------------
+
+Then, make that directory into a git repository by running
+`git init-db`, but this time, since its name is not the usual
+`.git`, we do things slightly differently:
+
+------------
+$ GIT_DIR=my-git.git git-init-db
+------------
+
+Make sure this directory is available for others you want your
+changes to be pulled by via the transport of your choice. Also
+you need to make sure that you have the `git-receive-pack`
+program on the `$PATH`.
+
+[NOTE]
+Many installations of sshd do not invoke your shell as the login
+shell when you directly run programs; what this means is that if
+your login shell is `bash`, only `.bashrc` is read and not
+`.bash_profile`. As a workaround, make sure `.bashrc` sets up
+`$PATH` so that you can run `git-receive-pack` program.
+
+[NOTE]
+If you plan to publish this repository to be accessed over http,
+you should do `chmod +x my-git.git/hooks/post-update` at this
+point. This makes sure that every time you push into this
+repository, `git-update-server-info` is run.
+
+Your "public repository" is now ready to accept your changes.
+Come back to the machine you have your private repository. From
+there, run this command:
+
+------------
+$ git push <public-host>:/path/to/my-git.git master
+------------
+
+This synchronizes your public repository to match the named
+branch head (i.e. `master` in this case) and objects reachable
+from them in your current repository.
+
+As a real example, this is how I update my public git
+repository. Kernel.org mirror network takes care of the
+propagation to other publicly visible machines:
+
+------------
+$ git push master.kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git/
+------------
+
+
+Packing your repository
+-----------------------
+
+Earlier, we saw that one file under `.git/objects/??/` directory
+is stored for each git object you create. This representation
+is efficient to create atomically and safely, but
+not so convenient to transport over the network. Since git objects are
+immutable once they are created, there is a way to optimize the
+storage by "packing them together". The command
+
+------------
+$ git repack
+------------
+
+will do it for you. If you followed the tutorial examples, you
+would have accumulated about 17 objects in `.git/objects/??/`
+directories by now. `git repack` tells you how many objects it
+packed, and stores the packed file in `.git/objects/pack`
+directory.
+
+[NOTE]
+You will see two files, `pack-\*.pack` and `pack-\*.idx`,
+in `.git/objects/pack` directory. They are closely related to
+each other, and if you ever copy them by hand to a different
+repository for whatever reason, you should make sure you copy
+them together. The former holds all the data from the objects
+in the pack, and the latter holds the index for random
+access.
+
+If you are paranoid, running `git-verify-pack` command would
+detect if you have a corrupt pack, but do not worry too much.
+Our programs are always perfect ;-).
+
+Once you have packed objects, you do not need to leave the
+unpacked objects that are contained in the pack file anymore.
+
+------------
+$ git prune-packed
+------------
+
+would remove them for you.
+
+You can try running `find .git/objects -type f` before and after
+you run `git prune-packed` if you are curious. Also `git
+count-objects` would tell you how many unpacked objects are in
+your repository and how much space they are consuming.
+
+[NOTE]
+`git pull` is slightly cumbersome for HTTP transport, as a
+packed repository may contain relatively few objects in a
+relatively large pack. If you expect many HTTP pulls from your
+public repository you might want to repack & prune often, or
+never.
+
+If you run `git repack` again at this point, it will say
+"Nothing to pack". Once you continue your development and
+accumulate the changes, running `git repack` again will create a
+new pack, that contains objects created since you packed your
+repository the last time. We recommend that you pack your project
+soon after the initial import (unless you are starting your
+project from scratch), and then run `git repack` every once in a
+while, depending on how active your project is.
+
+When a repository is synchronized via `git push` and `git pull`
+objects packed in the source repository are usually stored
+unpacked in the destination, unless rsync transport is used.
+While this allows you to use different packing strategies on
+both ends, it also means you may need to repack both
+repositories every once in a while.
+
+
+Working with Others
+-------------------
+
+Although git is a truly distributed system, it is often
+convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
+of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
+is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in Randy
+Dunlap's presentation (`http://tinyurl.com/a2jdg`).
+
+It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
+There is nothing fundamental in git that enforces the "chain of
+patch flow" this hierarchy implies. You do not have to pull
+from only one remote repository.
+
+A recommended workflow for a "project lead" goes like this:
+
+1. Prepare your primary repository on your local machine. Your
+ work is done there.
+
+2. Prepare a public repository accessible to others.
++
+If other people are pulling from your repository over dumb
+transport protocols, you need to keep this repository 'dumb
+transport friendly'. After `git init-db`,
+`$GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update` copied from the standard templates
+would contain a call to `git-update-server-info` but the
+`post-update` hook itself is disabled by default -- enable it
+with `chmod +x post-update`.
+
+3. Push into the public repository from your primary
+ repository.
+
+4. `git repack` the public repository. This establishes a big
+ pack that contains the initial set of objects as the
+ baseline, and possibly `git prune` if the transport
+ used for pulling from your repository supports packed
+ repositories.
+
+5. Keep working in your primary repository. Your changes
+ include modifications of your own, patches you receive via
+ e-mails, and merges resulting from pulling the "public"
+ repositories of your "subsystem maintainers".
++
+You can repack this private repository whenever you feel like.
+
+6. Push your changes to the public repository, and announce it
+ to the public.
+
+7. Every once in a while, "git repack" the public repository.
+ Go back to step 5. and continue working.
+
+
+A recommended work cycle for a "subsystem maintainer" who works
+on that project and has an own "public repository" goes like this:
+
+1. Prepare your work repository, by `git clone` the public
+ repository of the "project lead". The URL used for the
+ initial cloning is stored in `.git/remotes/origin`.
+
+2. Prepare a public repository accessible to others, just like
+ the "project lead" person does.
+
+3. Copy over the packed files from "project lead" public
+ repository to your public repository, unless the "project
+ lead" repository lives on the same machine as yours. In the
+ latter case, you can use `objects/info/alternates` file to
+ point at the repository you are borrowing from.
+
+4. Push into the public repository from your primary
+ repository. Run `git repack`, and possibly `git prune` if the
+ transport used for pulling from your repository supports
+ packed repositories.
+
+5. Keep working in your primary repository. Your changes
+ include modifications of your own, patches you receive via
+ e-mails, and merges resulting from pulling the "public"
+ repositories of your "project lead" and possibly your
+ "sub-subsystem maintainers".
++
+You can repack this private repository whenever you feel
+like.
+
+6. Push your changes to your public repository, and ask your
+ "project lead" and possibly your "sub-subsystem
+ maintainers" to pull from it.
+
+7. Every once in a while, `git repack` the public repository.
+ Go back to step 5. and continue working.
+
+
+A recommended work cycle for an "individual developer" who does
+not have a "public" repository is somewhat different. It goes
+like this:
+
+1. Prepare your work repository, by `git clone` the public
+ repository of the "project lead" (or a "subsystem
+ maintainer", if you work on a subsystem). The URL used for
+ the initial cloning is stored in `.git/remotes/origin`.
+
+2. Do your work in your repository on 'master' branch.
+
+3. Run `git fetch origin` from the public repository of your
+ upstream every once in a while. This does only the first
+ half of `git pull` but does not merge. The head of the
+ public repository is stored in `.git/refs/heads/origin`.
+
+4. Use `git cherry origin` to see which ones of your patches
+ were accepted, and/or use `git rebase origin` to port your
+ unmerged changes forward to the updated upstream.
+
+5. Use `git format-patch origin` to prepare patches for e-mail
+ submission to your upstream and send it out. Go back to
+ step 2. and continue.
+
+
+Working with Others, Shared Repository Style
+--------------------------------------------
+
+If you are coming from CVS background, the style of cooperation
+suggested in the previous section may be new to you. You do not
+have to worry. git supports "shared public repository" style of
+cooperation you are probably more familiar with as well.
+
+For this, set up a public repository on a machine that is
+reachable via SSH by people with "commit privileges". Put the
+committers in the same user group and make the repository
+writable by that group.
+
+You, as an individual committer, then:
+
+- First clone the shared repository to a local repository:
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git clone repo.shared.xz:/pub/scm/project.git/ my-project
+$ cd my-project
+$ hack away
+------------------------------------------------
+
+- Merge the work others might have done while you were hacking
+ away:
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git pull origin
+$ test the merge result
+------------------------------------------------
+[NOTE]
+================================
+The first `git clone` would have placed the following in
+`my-project/.git/remotes/origin` file, and that's why this and
+the next step work.
+------------
+URL: repo.shared.xz:/pub/scm/project.git/ my-project
+Pull: master:origin
+------------
+================================
+
+- push your work as the new head of the shared
+ repository.
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git push origin master
+------------------------------------------------
+If somebody else pushed into the same shared repository while
+you were working locally, `git push` in the last step would
+complain, telling you that the remote `master` head does not
+fast forward. You need to pull and merge those other changes
+back before you push your work when it happens.
+
+
+Bundling your work together
+---------------------------
+
+It is likely that you will be working on more than one thing at
+a time. It is easy to use those more-or-less independent tasks
+using branches with git.
+
+We have already seen how branches work in a previous example,
+with "fun and work" example using two branches. The idea is the
+same if there are more than two branches. Let's say you started
+out from "master" head, and have some new code in the "master"
+branch, and two independent fixes in the "commit-fix" and
+"diff-fix" branches:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch
+! [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ! [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ * [master] Release candidate #1
+---
+ + [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ + [diff-fix~1] Better common substring algorithm.
++ [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ + [master] Release candidate #1
++++ [diff-fix~2] Pretty-print messages.
+------------
+
+Both fixes are tested well, and at this point, you want to merge
+in both of them. You could merge in 'diff-fix' first and then
+'commit-fix' next, like this:
+
+------------
+$ git merge 'Merge fix in diff-fix' master diff-fix
+$ git merge 'Merge fix in commit-fix' master commit-fix
+------------
+
+Which would result in:
+
+------------
+$ git show-branch
+! [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ! [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ * [master] Merge fix in commit-fix
+---
+ + [master] Merge fix in commit-fix
++ + [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ + [master~1] Merge fix in diff-fix
+ ++ [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ ++ [diff-fix~1] Better common substring algorithm.
+ + [master~2] Release candidate #1
++++ [master~3] Pretty-print messages.
+------------
+
+However, there is no particular reason to merge in one branch
+first and the other next, when what you have are a set of truly
+independent changes (if the order mattered, then they are not
+independent by definition). You could instead merge those two
+branches into the current branch at once. First let's undo what
+we just did and start over. We would want to get the master
+branch before these two merges by resetting it to 'master~2':
+
+------------
+$ git reset --hard master~2
+------------
+
+You can make sure 'git show-branch' matches the state before
+those two 'git merge' you just did. Then, instead of running
+two 'git merge' commands in a row, you would pull these two
+branch heads (this is known as 'making an Octopus'):
+
+------------
+$ git pull . commit-fix diff-fix
+$ git show-branch
+! [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ! [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ * [master] Octopus merge of branches 'diff-fix' and 'commit-fix'
+---
+ + [master] Octopus merge of branches 'diff-fix' and 'commit-fix'
++ + [commit-fix] Fix commit message normalization.
+ ++ [diff-fix] Fix rename detection.
+ ++ [diff-fix~1] Better common substring algorithm.
+ + [master~1] Release candidate #1
++++ [master~2] Pretty-print messages.
+------------
+
+Note that you should not do Octopus because you can. An octopus
+is a valid thing to do and often makes it easier to view the
+commit history if you are pulling more than two independent
+changes at the same time. However, if you have merge conflicts
+with any of the branches you are merging in and need to hand
+resolve, that is an indication that the development happened in
+those branches were not independent after all, and you should
+merge two at a time, documenting how you resolved the conflicts,
+and the reason why you preferred changes made in one side over
+the other. Otherwise it would make the project history harder
+to follow, not easier.
+
+[ to be continued.. cvsimports ]
diff --git a/INSTALL b/INSTALL
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..63ccf62
--- /dev/null
+++ b/INSTALL
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@
+
+ Git installation
+
+Normally you can just do "make" followed by "make install", and that
+will install the git programs in your own ~/bin/ directory. If you want
+to do a global install, you can do
+
+ $ make prefix=/usr ;# as yourself
+ # make prefix=/usr install ;# as root
+
+(or prefix=/usr/local, of course). Just like any program suite
+that uses $prefix, the built results have some paths encoded,
+which are derived from $prefix, so "make all; make prefix=/usr
+install" would not work.
+
+Issues of note:
+
+ - git normally installs a helper script wrapper called "git", which
+ conflicts with a similarly named "GNU interactive tools" program.
+
+ Tough. Either don't use the wrapper script, or delete the old GNU
+ interactive tools. None of the core git stuff needs the wrapper,
+ it's just a convenient shorthand and while it is documented in some
+ places, you can always replace "git commit" with "git-commit"
+ instead.
+
+ But let's face it, most of us don't have GNU interactive tools, and
+ even if we had it, we wouldn't know what it does. I don't think it
+ has been actively developed since 1997, and people have moved over to
+ graphical file managers.
+
+ - Git is reasonably self-sufficient, but does depend on a few external
+ programs and libraries:
+
+ - "zlib", the compression library. Git won't build without it.
+
+ - "openssl". The git-rev-list program uses bignum support from
+ openssl, and unless you specify otherwise, you'll also get the
+ SHA1 library from here.
+
+ If you don't have openssl, you can use one of the SHA1 libraries
+ that come with git (git includes the one from Mozilla, and has
+ its own PowerPC-optimized one too - see the Makefile), and you
+ can avoid the bignum support by excising git-rev-list support
+ for "--merge-order" (by hand).
+
+ - "libcurl" and "curl" executable. git-http-fetch and
+ git-fetch use them. If you do not use http
+ transfer, you are probabaly OK if you do not have
+ them.
+
+ - expat library; git-http-push uses it for remote lock
+ management over DAV. Similar to "curl" above, this is optional.
+
+ - "GNU diff" to generate patches. Of course, you don't _have_ to
+ generate patches if you don't want to, but let's face it, you'll
+ be wanting to. Or why did you get git in the first place?
+
+ Non-GNU versions of the diff/patch programs don't generally support
+ the unified patch format (which is the one git uses), so you
+ really do want to get the GNU one. Trust me, you will want to
+ do that even if it wasn't for git. There's no point in living
+ in the dark ages any more.
+
+ - "merge", the standard UNIX three-way merge program. It usually
+ comes with the "rcs" package on most Linux distributions, so if
+ you have a developer install you probably have it already, but a
+ "graphical user desktop" install might have left it out.
+
+ You'll only need the merge program if you do development using
+ git, and if you only use git to track other peoples work you'll
+ never notice the lack of it.
+
+ - "wish", the TCL/Tk windowing shell is used in gitk to show the
+ history graphically
+
+ - "ssh" is used to push and pull over the net
+
+ - "perl" and POSIX-compliant shells are needed to use most of
+ the barebone Porcelainish scripts.
+
+ - "python" 2.3 or more recent; if you have 2.3, you may need
+ to build with "make WITH_OWN_SUBPROCESS_PY=YesPlease".
+
+ - Some platform specific issues are dealt with Makefile rules,
+ but depending on your specific installation, you may not
+ have all the libraries/tools needed, or you may have
+ necessary libraries at unusual locations. Please look at the
+ top of the Makefile to see what can be adjusted for your needs.
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..984d167
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,495 @@
+# Define MOZILLA_SHA1 environment variable when running make to make use of
+# a bundled SHA1 routine coming from Mozilla. It is GPL'd and should be fast
+# on non-x86 architectures (e.g. PowerPC), while the OpenSSL version (default
+# choice) has very fast version optimized for i586.
+#
+# Define NO_OPENSSL environment variable if you do not have OpenSSL. You will
+# miss out git-rev-list --merge-order. This also implies MOZILLA_SHA1.
+#
+# Define NO_CURL if you do not have curl installed. git-http-pull and
+# git-http-push are not built, and you cannot use http:// and https://
+# transports.
+#
+# Define CURLDIR=/foo/bar if your curl header and library files are in
+# /foo/bar/include and /foo/bar/lib directories.
+#
+# Define NO_EXPAT if you do not have expat installed. git-http-push is
+# not built, and you cannot push using http:// and https:// transports.
+#
+# Define NO_STRCASESTR if you don't have strcasestr.
+#
+# Define PPC_SHA1 environment variable when running make to make use of
+# a bundled SHA1 routine optimized for PowerPC.
+#
+# Define ARM_SHA1 environment variable when running make to make use of
+# a bundled SHA1 routine optimized for ARM.
+#
+# Define NEEDS_SSL_WITH_CRYPTO if you need -lcrypto with -lssl (Darwin).
+#
+# Define NEEDS_LIBICONV if linking with libc is not enough (Darwin).
+#
+# Define NEEDS_SOCKET if linking with libc is not enough (SunOS,
+# Patrick Mauritz).
+#
+# Define NO_MMAP if you want to avoid mmap.
+#
+# Define WITH_OWN_SUBPROCESS_PY if you want to use with python 2.3.
+#
+# Define NO_IPV6 if you lack IPv6 support and getaddrinfo().
+#
+# Define COLLISION_CHECK below if you believe that SHA1's
+# 1461501637330902918203684832716283019655932542976 hashes do not give you
+# sufficient guarantee that no collisions between objects will ever happen.
+
+# Define USE_NSEC below if you want git to care about sub-second file mtimes
+# and ctimes. Note that you need recent glibc (at least 2.2.4) for this, and
+# it will BREAK YOUR LOCAL DIFFS! show-diff and anything using it will likely
+# randomly break unless your underlying filesystem supports those sub-second
+# times (my ext3 doesn't).
+
+# Define USE_STDEV below if you want git to care about the underlying device
+# change being considered an inode change from the update-cache perspective.
+
+GIT_VERSION = 0.99.9.GIT
+
+# CFLAGS and LDFLAGS are for the users to override from the command line.
+
+CFLAGS = -g -O2 -Wall
+LDFLAGS =
+ALL_CFLAGS = $(CFLAGS)
+ALL_LDFLAGS = $(LDFLAGS)
+
+prefix = $(HOME)
+bindir = $(prefix)/bin
+template_dir = $(prefix)/share/git-core/templates/
+GIT_PYTHON_DIR = $(prefix)/share/git-core/python
+# DESTDIR=
+
+CC = gcc
+AR = ar
+TAR = tar
+INSTALL = install
+RPMBUILD = rpmbuild
+
+# sparse is architecture-neutral, which means that we need to tell it
+# explicitly what architecture to check for. Fix this up for yours..
+SPARSE_FLAGS = -D__BIG_ENDIAN__ -D__powerpc__
+
+
+
+### --- END CONFIGURATION SECTION ---
+
+SCRIPT_SH = \
+ git-add.sh git-bisect.sh git-branch.sh git-checkout.sh \
+ git-cherry.sh git-clone.sh git-commit.sh \
+ git-count-objects.sh git-diff.sh git-fetch.sh \
+ git-format-patch.sh git-log.sh git-ls-remote.sh \
+ git-merge-one-file.sh git-octopus.sh git-parse-remote.sh \
+ git-prune.sh git-pull.sh git-push.sh git-rebase.sh \
+ git-repack.sh git-request-pull.sh git-reset.sh \
+ git-resolve.sh git-revert.sh git-sh-setup.sh git-status.sh \
+ git-tag.sh git-verify-tag.sh git-whatchanged.sh \
+ git-applymbox.sh git-applypatch.sh git-am.sh \
+ git-merge.sh git-merge-stupid.sh git-merge-octopus.sh \
+ git-merge-resolve.sh git-merge-ours.sh git-grep.sh \
+ git-lost-found.sh
+
+SCRIPT_PERL = \
+ git-archimport.perl git-cvsimport.perl git-relink.perl \
+ git-shortlog.perl git-fmt-merge-msg.perl \
+ git-svnimport.perl git-mv.perl git-cvsexportcommit.perl
+
+SCRIPT_PYTHON = \
+ git-merge-recursive.py
+
+SCRIPTS = $(patsubst %.sh,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) \
+ $(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)) \
+ $(patsubst %.py,%,$(SCRIPT_PYTHON)) \
+ gitk git-cherry-pick
+
+# The ones that do not have to link with lcrypto nor lz.
+SIMPLE_PROGRAMS = \
+ git-get-tar-commit-id$X git-mailinfo$X git-mailsplit$X \
+ git-stripspace$X git-daemon$X
+
+# ... and all the rest
+PROGRAMS = \
+ git-apply$X git-cat-file$X \
+ git-checkout-index$X git-clone-pack$X git-commit-tree$X \
+ git-convert-objects$X git-diff-files$X \
+ git-diff-index$X git-diff-stages$X \
+ git-diff-tree$X git-fetch-pack$X git-fsck-objects$X \
+ git-hash-object$X git-index-pack$X git-init-db$X \
+ git-local-fetch$X git-ls-files$X git-ls-tree$X git-merge-base$X \
+ git-merge-index$X git-mktag$X git-pack-objects$X git-patch-id$X \
+ git-peek-remote$X git-prune-packed$X git-read-tree$X \
+ git-receive-pack$X git-rev-list$X git-rev-parse$X \
+ git-send-pack$X git-show-branch$X git-shell$X \
+ git-show-index$X git-ssh-fetch$X \
+ git-ssh-upload$X git-tar-tree$X git-unpack-file$X \
+ git-unpack-objects$X git-update-index$X git-update-server-info$X \
+ git-upload-pack$X git-verify-pack$X git-write-tree$X \
+ git-update-ref$X git-symbolic-ref$X git-check-ref-format$X \
+ git-name-rev$X git-pack-redundant$X git-repo-config$X git-var$X
+
+# what 'all' will build and 'install' will install.
+ALL_PROGRAMS = $(PROGRAMS) $(SIMPLE_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPTS) git$X
+
+# Backward compatibility -- to be removed after 1.0
+PROGRAMS += git-ssh-pull$X git-ssh-push$X
+
+GIT_LIST_TWEAK =
+
+# Set paths to tools early so that they can be used for version tests.
+ifndef SHELL_PATH
+ SHELL_PATH = /bin/sh
+endif
+ifndef PERL_PATH
+ PERL_PATH = /usr/bin/perl
+endif
+ifndef PYTHON_PATH
+ PYTHON_PATH = /usr/bin/python
+endif
+
+PYMODULES = \
+ gitMergeCommon.py
+
+ifdef WITH_OWN_SUBPROCESS_PY
+ PYMODULES += compat/subprocess.py
+else
+ ifneq ($(shell $(PYTHON_PATH) -c 'import subprocess;print"OK"' 2>/dev/null),OK)
+ PYMODULES += compat/subprocess.py
+ endif
+endif
+
+ifdef WITH_SEND_EMAIL
+ SCRIPT_PERL += git-send-email.perl
+else
+ GIT_LIST_TWEAK += -e '/^send-email$$/d'
+endif
+
+LIB_FILE=libgit.a
+
+LIB_H = \
+ blob.h cache.h commit.h count-delta.h csum-file.h delta.h \
+ diff.h epoch.h object.h pack.h pkt-line.h quote.h refs.h \
+ run-command.h strbuf.h tag.h tree.h
+
+DIFF_OBJS = \
+ diff.o diffcore-break.o diffcore-order.o diffcore-pathspec.o \
+ diffcore-pickaxe.o diffcore-rename.o tree-diff.o
+
+LIB_OBJS = \
+ blob.o commit.o connect.o count-delta.o csum-file.o \
+ date.o diff-delta.o entry.o ident.o index.o \
+ object.o pack-check.o patch-delta.o path.o pkt-line.o \
+ quote.o read-cache.o refs.o run-command.o \
+ server-info.o setup.o sha1_file.o sha1_name.o strbuf.o \
+ tag.o tree.o usage.o config.o environment.o ctype.o copy.o \
+ $(DIFF_OBJS)
+
+LIBS = $(LIB_FILE)
+LIBS += -lz
+
+# Shell quote;
+# Result of this needs to be placed inside ''
+shq = $(subst ','\'',$(1))
+# This has surrounding ''
+shellquote = '$(call shq,$(1))'
+
+#
+# Platform specific tweaks
+#
+
+# We choose to avoid "if .. else if .. else .. endif endif"
+# because maintaining the nesting to match is a pain. If
+# we had "elif" things would have been much nicer...
+uname_S := $(shell sh -c 'uname -s 2>/dev/null || echo not')
+uname_M := $(shell sh -c 'uname -m 2>/dev/null || echo not')
+uname_O := $(shell sh -c 'uname -o 2>/dev/null || echo not')
+
+ifeq ($(uname_S),Darwin)
+ NEEDS_SSL_WITH_CRYPTO = YesPlease
+ NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
+ ## fink
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I/sw/include
+ ALL_LDFLAGS += -L/sw/lib
+ ## darwinports
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I/opt/local/include
+ ALL_LDFLAGS += -L/opt/local/lib
+endif
+ifeq ($(uname_S),SunOS)
+ NEEDS_SOCKET = YesPlease
+ NEEDS_NSL = YesPlease
+ NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
+ SHELL_PATH = /bin/bash
+ NO_STRCASESTR = YesPlease
+ INSTALL = ginstall
+ TAR = gtar
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -D__EXTENSIONS__
+endif
+ifeq ($(uname_O),Cygwin)
+ NO_STRCASESTR = YesPlease
+ NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
+ # There are conflicting reports about this.
+ # On some boxes NO_MMAP is needed, and not so elsewhere.
+ # Try uncommenting this if you see things break -- YMMV.
+ # NO_MMAP = YesPlease
+ NO_IPV6 = YesPlease
+ X = .exe
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -DUSE_SYMLINK_HEAD=0
+endif
+ifeq ($(uname_S),OpenBSD)
+ NO_STRCASESTR = YesPlease
+ NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I/usr/local/include
+ ALL_LDFLAGS += -L/usr/local/lib
+endif
+ifeq ($(uname_S),NetBSD)
+ NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I/usr/pkg/include
+ ALL_LDFLAGS += -L/usr/pkg/lib -Wl,-rpath,/usr/pkg/lib
+endif
+ifneq (,$(findstring arm,$(uname_M)))
+ ARM_SHA1 = YesPlease
+endif
+
+-include config.mak
+
+ifndef NO_CURL
+ ifdef CURLDIR
+ # This is still problematic -- gcc does not always want -R.
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I$(CURLDIR)/include
+ CURL_LIBCURL = -L$(CURLDIR)/lib -R$(CURLDIR)/lib -lcurl
+ else
+ CURL_LIBCURL = -lcurl
+ endif
+ PROGRAMS += git-http-fetch$X
+ curl_check := $(shell (echo 070908; curl-config --vernum) | sort -r | sed -ne 2p)
+ ifeq "$(curl_check)" "070908"
+ ifndef NO_EXPAT
+ EXPAT_LIBEXPAT = -lexpat
+ PROGRAMS += git-http-push$X
+ endif
+ endif
+endif
+
+ifndef NO_OPENSSL
+ LIB_OBJS += epoch.o
+ OPENSSL_LIBSSL = -lssl
+ ifdef OPENSSLDIR
+ # Again this may be problematic -- gcc does not always want -R.
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I$(OPENSSLDIR)/include
+ OPENSSL_LINK = -L$(OPENSSLDIR)/lib -R$(OPENSSLDIR)/lib
+ else
+ OPENSSL_LINK =
+ endif
+else
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -DNO_OPENSSL
+ MOZILLA_SHA1 = 1
+ OPENSSL_LIBSSL =
+endif
+ifdef NEEDS_SSL_WITH_CRYPTO
+ LIB_4_CRYPTO = $(OPENSSL_LINK) -lcrypto -lssl
+else
+ LIB_4_CRYPTO = $(OPENSSL_LINK) -lcrypto
+endif
+ifdef NEEDS_LIBICONV
+ ifdef ICONVDIR
+ # Again this may be problematic -- gcc does not always want -R.
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -I$(ICONVDIR)/include
+ ICONV_LINK = -L$(ICONVDIR)/lib -R$(ICONVDIR)/lib
+ else
+ ICONV_LINK =
+ endif
+ LIB_4_ICONV = $(ICONV_LINK) -liconv
+else
+ LIB_4_ICONV =
+endif
+ifdef NEEDS_SOCKET
+ LIBS += -lsocket
+ SIMPLE_LIB += -lsocket
+endif
+ifdef NEEDS_NSL
+ LIBS += -lnsl
+ SIMPLE_LIB += -lnsl
+endif
+ifdef NO_STRCASESTR
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -Dstrcasestr=gitstrcasestr -DNO_STRCASESTR=1
+ LIB_OBJS += compat/strcasestr.o
+endif
+ifdef NO_MMAP
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -Dmmap=gitfakemmap -Dmunmap=gitfakemunmap -DNO_MMAP
+ LIB_OBJS += compat/mmap.o
+endif
+ifdef NO_IPV6
+ ALL_CFLAGS += -DNO_IPV6 -Dsockaddr_storage=sockaddr_in
+endif
+
+ifdef PPC_SHA1
+ SHA1_HEADER = "ppc/sha1.h"
+ LIB_OBJS += ppc/sha1.o ppc/sha1ppc.o
+else
+ifdef ARM_SHA1
+ SHA1_HEADER = "arm/sha1.h"
+ LIB_OBJS += arm/sha1.o arm/sha1_arm.o
+else
+ifdef MOZILLA_SHA1
+ SHA1_HEADER = "mozilla-sha1/sha1.h"
+ LIB_OBJS += mozilla-sha1/sha1.o
+else
+ SHA1_HEADER = <openssl/sha.h>
+ LIBS += $(LIB_4_CRYPTO)
+endif
+endif
+endif
+
+ALL_CFLAGS += -DSHA1_HEADER=$(call shellquote,$(SHA1_HEADER))
+
+export prefix TAR INSTALL DESTDIR SHELL_PATH template_dir
+### Build rules
+
+all: $(ALL_PROGRAMS)
+
+all:
+ $(MAKE) -C templates
+
+# Only use $(CFLAGS). We don't need anything else.
+git$(X): git.c Makefile
+ $(CC) -DGIT_EXEC_PATH='"$(bindir)"' -DGIT_VERSION='"$(GIT_VERSION)"' \
+ $(CFLAGS) $< -o $@
+
+$(patsubst %.sh,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) : % : %.sh
+ rm -f $@
+ sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(call shq,$(SHELL_PATH))|' \
+ -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
+ $@.sh >$@
+ chmod +x $@
+
+$(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)) : % : %.perl
+ rm -f $@
+ sed -e '1s|#!.*perl|#!$(call shq,$(PERL_PATH))|' \
+ -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
+ $@.perl >$@
+ chmod +x $@
+
+$(patsubst %.py,%,$(SCRIPT_PYTHON)) : % : %.py
+ rm -f $@
+ sed -e '1s|#!.*python|#!$(call shq,$(PYTHON_PATH))|' \
+ -e 's|@@GIT_PYTHON_PATH@@|$(call shq,$(GIT_PYTHON_DIR))|g' \
+ -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
+ $@.py >$@
+ chmod +x $@
+
+git-cherry-pick: git-revert
+ cp $< $@
+
+%.o: %.c
+ $(CC) -o $*.o -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $<
+%.o: %.S
+ $(CC) -o $*.o -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) $<
+
+git-%$X: %.o $(LIB_FILE)
+ $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) $(LIBS)
+
+git-mailinfo$X : SIMPLE_LIB += $(LIB_4_ICONV)
+$(SIMPLE_PROGRAMS) : $(LIB_FILE)
+$(SIMPLE_PROGRAMS) : git-%$X : %.o
+ $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) \
+ $(LIB_FILE) $(SIMPLE_LIB)
+
+git-http-fetch$X: fetch.o http.o
+git-http-push$X: http.o
+git-local-fetch$X: fetch.o
+git-ssh-fetch$X: rsh.o fetch.o
+git-ssh-upload$X: rsh.o
+git-ssh-pull$X: rsh.o fetch.o
+git-ssh-push$X: rsh.o
+
+git-http-fetch$X: LIBS += $(CURL_LIBCURL)
+git-http-push$X: LIBS += $(CURL_LIBCURL) $(EXPAT_LIBEXPAT)
+git-rev-list$X: LIBS += $(OPENSSL_LIBSSL)
+
+init-db.o: init-db.c
+ $(CC) -c $(ALL_CFLAGS) \
+ -DDEFAULT_GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR=$(call shellquote,"$(template_dir)") $*.c
+
+$(LIB_OBJS): $(LIB_H)
+$(patsubst git-%$X,%.o,$(PROGRAMS)): $(LIB_H)
+$(DIFF_OBJS): diffcore.h
+
+$(LIB_FILE): $(LIB_OBJS)
+ $(AR) rcs $@ $(LIB_OBJS)
+
+doc:
+ $(MAKE) -C Documentation all
+
+
+### Testing rules
+
+test: all
+ $(MAKE) -C t/ all
+
+test-date$X: test-date.c date.o ctype.o
+ $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) test-date.c date.o ctype.o
+
+test-delta$X: test-delta.c diff-delta.o patch-delta.o
+ $(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $^
+
+check:
+ for i in *.c; do sparse $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(SPARSE_FLAGS) $$i; done
+
+
+
+### Installation rules
+
+install: all
+ $(INSTALL) -d -m755 $(call shellquote,$(DESTDIR)$(bindir))
+ $(INSTALL) $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(call shellquote,$(DESTDIR)$(bindir))
+ $(MAKE) -C templates install
+ $(INSTALL) -d -m755 $(call shellquote,$(DESTDIR)$(GIT_PYTHON_DIR))
+ $(INSTALL) $(PYMODULES) $(call shellquote,$(DESTDIR)$(GIT_PYTHON_DIR))
+
+install-doc:
+ $(MAKE) -C Documentation install
+
+
+
+
+### Maintainer's dist rules
+
+git.spec: git.spec.in Makefile
+ sed -e 's/@@VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' < $< > $@
+
+GIT_TARNAME=git-$(GIT_VERSION)
+dist: git.spec git-tar-tree
+ ./git-tar-tree HEAD $(GIT_TARNAME) > $(GIT_TARNAME).tar
+ @mkdir -p $(GIT_TARNAME)
+ @cp git.spec $(GIT_TARNAME)
+ $(TAR) rf $(GIT_TARNAME).tar $(GIT_TARNAME)/git.spec
+ @rm -rf $(GIT_TARNAME)
+ gzip -f -9 $(GIT_TARNAME).tar
+
+rpm: dist
+ $(RPMBUILD) -ta $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz
+
+deb: dist
+ rm -rf $(GIT_TARNAME)
+ $(TAR) zxf $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz
+ dpkg-source -b $(GIT_TARNAME)
+ cd $(GIT_TARNAME) && fakeroot debian/rules binary
+
+### Cleaning rules
+
+clean:
+ rm -f *.o mozilla-sha1/*.o arm/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o $(LIB_FILE)
+ rm -f $(PROGRAMS) $(SIMPLE_PROGRAMS) git$X
+ rm -f $(filter-out gitk,$(SCRIPTS))
+ rm -f *.spec *.pyc *.pyo
+ rm -rf $(GIT_TARNAME)
+ rm -f $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz git-core_$(GIT_VERSION)-*.tar.gz
+ rm -f git-core_$(GIT_VERSION)-*.dsc
+ rm -f git-*_$(GIT_VERSION)-*.deb
+ $(MAKE) -C Documentation/ clean
+ $(MAKE) -C templates clean
+ $(MAKE) -C t/ clean
diff --git a/README b/README
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..36fef6e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/README
@@ -0,0 +1,586 @@
+////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+
+ GIT - the stupid content tracker
+
+////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
+"git" can mean anything, depending on your mood.
+
+ - random three-letter combination that is pronounceable, and not
+ actually used by any common UNIX command. The fact that it is a
+ mispronunciation of "get" may or may not be relevant.
+ - stupid. contemptible and despicable. simple. Take your pick from the
+ dictionary of slang.
+ - "global information tracker": you're in a good mood, and it actually
+ works for you. Angels sing, and a light suddenly fills the room.
+ - "goddamn idiotic truckload of sh*t": when it breaks
+
+This is a stupid (but extremely fast) directory content manager. It
+doesn't do a whole lot, but what it 'does' do is track directory
+contents efficiently.
+
+There are two object abstractions: the "object database", and the
+"current directory cache" aka "index".
+
+The Object Database
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The object database is literally just a content-addressable collection
+of objects. All objects are named by their content, which is
+approximated by the SHA1 hash of the object itself. Objects may refer
+to other objects (by referencing their SHA1 hash), and so you can
+build up a hierarchy of objects.
+
+All objects have a statically determined "type" aka "tag", which is
+determined at object creation time, and which identifies the format of
+the object (i.e. how it is used, and how it can refer to other
+objects). There are currently four different object types: "blob",
+"tree", "commit" and "tag".
+
+A "blob" object cannot refer to any other object, and is, like the tag
+implies, a pure storage object containing some user data. It is used to
+actually store the file data, i.e. a blob object is associated with some
+particular version of some file.
+
+A "tree" object is an object that ties one or more "blob" objects into a
+directory structure. In addition, a tree object can refer to other tree
+objects, thus creating a directory hierarchy.
+
+A "commit" object ties such directory hierarchies together into
+a DAG of revisions - each "commit" is associated with exactly one tree
+(the directory hierarchy at the time of the commit). In addition, a
+"commit" refers to one or more "parent" commit objects that describe the
+history of how we arrived at that directory hierarchy.
+
+As a special case, a commit object with no parents is called the "root"
+object, and is the point of an initial project commit. Each project
+must have at least one root, and while you can tie several different
+root objects together into one project by creating a commit object which
+has two or more separate roots as its ultimate parents, that's probably
+just going to confuse people. So aim for the notion of "one root object
+per project", even if git itself does not enforce that.
+
+A "tag" object symbolically identifies and can be used to sign other
+objects. It contains the identifier and type of another object, a
+symbolic name (of course!) and, optionally, a signature.
+
+Regardless of object type, all objects share the following
+characteristics: they are all deflated with zlib, and have a header
+that not only specifies their tag, but also provides size information
+about the data in the object. It's worth noting that the SHA1 hash
+that is used to name the object is the hash of the original data
+plus this header, so `sha1sum` 'file' does not match the object name
+for 'file'.
+(Historical note: in the dawn of the age of git the hash
+was the sha1 of the 'compressed' object.)
+
+As a result, the general consistency of an object can always be tested
+independently of the contents or the type of the object: all objects can
+be validated by verifying that (a) their hashes match the content of the
+file and (b) the object successfully inflates to a stream of bytes that
+forms a sequence of <ascii tag without space> + <space> + <ascii decimal
+size> + <byte\0> + <binary object data>.
+
+The structured objects can further have their structure and
+connectivity to other objects verified. This is generally done with
+the `git-fsck-objects` program, which generates a full dependency graph
+of all objects, and verifies their internal consistency (in addition
+to just verifying their superficial consistency through the hash).
+
+The object types in some more detail:
+
+Blob Object
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+A "blob" object is nothing but a binary blob of data, and doesn't
+refer to anything else. There is no signature or any other
+verification of the data, so while the object is consistent (it 'is'
+indexed by its sha1 hash, so the data itself is certainly correct), it
+has absolutely no other attributes. No name associations, no
+permissions. It is purely a blob of data (i.e. normally "file
+contents").
+
+In particular, since the blob is entirely defined by its data, if two
+files in a directory tree (or in multiple different versions of the
+repository) have the same contents, they will share the same blob
+object. The object is totally independent of its location in the
+directory tree, and renaming a file does not change the object that
+file is associated with in any way.
+
+A blob is typically created when gitlink:git-update-index[1]
+is run, and its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1].
+
+Tree Object
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+The next hierarchical object type is the "tree" object. A tree object
+is a list of mode/name/blob data, sorted by name. Alternatively, the
+mode data may specify a directory mode, in which case instead of
+naming a blob, that name is associated with another TREE object.
+
+Like the "blob" object, a tree object is uniquely determined by the
+set contents, and so two separate but identical trees will always
+share the exact same object. This is true at all levels, i.e. it's
+true for a "leaf" tree (which does not refer to any other trees, only
+blobs) as well as for a whole subdirectory.
+
+For that reason a "tree" object is just a pure data abstraction: it
+has no history, no signatures, no verification of validity, except
+that since the contents are again protected by the hash itself, we can
+trust that the tree is immutable and its contents never change.
+
+So you can trust the contents of a tree to be valid, the same way you
+can trust the contents of a blob, but you don't know where those
+contents 'came' from.
+
+Side note on trees: since a "tree" object is a sorted list of
+"filename+content", you can create a diff between two trees without
+actually having to unpack two trees. Just ignore all common parts,
+and your diff will look right. In other words, you can effectively
+(and efficiently) tell the difference between any two random trees by
+O(n) where "n" is the size of the difference, rather than the size of
+the tree.
+
+Side note 2 on trees: since the name of a "blob" depends entirely and
+exclusively on its contents (i.e. there are no names or permissions
+involved), you can see trivial renames or permission changes by
+noticing that the blob stayed the same. However, renames with data
+changes need a smarter "diff" implementation.
+
+A tree is created with gitlink:git-write-tree[1] and
+its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-ls-tree[1].
+Two trees can be compared with gitlink:git-diff-tree[1].
+
+Commit Object
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The "commit" object is an object that introduces the notion of
+history into the picture. In contrast to the other objects, it
+doesn't just describe the physical state of a tree, it describes how
+we got there, and why.
+
+A "commit" is defined by the tree-object that it results in, the
+parent commits (zero, one or more) that led up to that point, and a
+comment on what happened. Again, a commit is not trusted per se:
+the contents are well-defined and "safe" due to the cryptographically
+strong signatures at all levels, but there is no reason to believe
+that the tree is "good" or that the merge information makes sense.
+The parents do not have to actually have any relationship with the
+result, for example.
+
+Note on commits: unlike real SCM's, commits do not contain
+rename information or file mode change information. All of that is
+implicit in the trees involved (the result tree, and the result trees
+of the parents), and describing that makes no sense in this idiotic
+file manager.
+
+A commit is created with gitlink:git-commit-tree[1] and
+its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1].
+
+Trust
+~~~~~
+An aside on the notion of "trust". Trust is really outside the scope
+of "git", but it's worth noting a few things. First off, since
+everything is hashed with SHA1, you 'can' trust that an object is
+intact and has not been messed with by external sources. So the name
+of an object uniquely identifies a known state - just not a state that
+you may want to trust.
+
+Furthermore, since the SHA1 signature of a commit refers to the
+SHA1 signatures of the tree it is associated with and the signatures
+of the parent, a single named commit specifies uniquely a whole set
+of history, with full contents. You can't later fake any step of the
+way once you have the name of a commit.
+
+So to introduce some real trust in the system, the only thing you need
+to do is to digitally sign just 'one' special note, which includes the
+name of a top-level commit. Your digital signature shows others
+that you trust that commit, and the immutability of the history of
+commits tells others that they can trust the whole history.
+
+In other words, you can easily validate a whole archive by just
+sending out a single email that tells the people the name (SHA1 hash)
+of the top commit, and digitally sign that email using something
+like GPG/PGP.
+
+To assist in this, git also provides the tag object...
+
+Tag Object
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Git provides the "tag" object to simplify creating, managing and
+exchanging symbolic and signed tokens. The "tag" object at its
+simplest simply symbolically identifies another object by containing
+the sha1, type and symbolic name.
+
+However it can optionally contain additional signature information
+(which git doesn't care about as long as there's less than 8k of
+it). This can then be verified externally to git.
+
+Note that despite the tag features, "git" itself only handles content
+integrity; the trust framework (and signature provision and
+verification) has to come from outside.
+
+A tag is created with gitlink:git-mktag[1],
+its data can be accessed by gitlink:git-cat-file[1],
+and the signature can be verified by
+gitlink:git-verify-tag[1].
+
+
+The "index" aka "Current Directory Cache"
+-----------------------------------------
+The index is a simple binary file, which contains an efficient
+representation of a virtual directory content at some random time. It
+does so by a simple array that associates a set of names, dates,
+permissions and content (aka "blob") objects together. The cache is
+always kept ordered by name, and names are unique (with a few very
+specific rules) at any point in time, but the cache has no long-term
+meaning, and can be partially updated at any time.
+
+In particular, the index certainly does not need to be consistent with
+the current directory contents (in fact, most operations will depend on
+different ways to make the index 'not' be consistent with the directory
+hierarchy), but it has three very important attributes:
+
+'(a) it can re-generate the full state it caches (not just the
+directory structure: it contains pointers to the "blob" objects so
+that it can regenerate the data too)'
+
+As a special case, there is a clear and unambiguous one-way mapping
+from a current directory cache to a "tree object", which can be
+efficiently created from just the current directory cache without
+actually looking at any other data. So a directory cache at any one
+time uniquely specifies one and only one "tree" object (but has
+additional data to make it easy to match up that tree object with what
+has happened in the directory)
+
+'(b) it has efficient methods for finding inconsistencies between that
+cached state ("tree object waiting to be instantiated") and the
+current state.'
+
+'(c) it can additionally efficiently represent information about merge
+conflicts between different tree objects, allowing each pathname to be
+associated with sufficient information about the trees involved that
+you can create a three-way merge between them.'
+
+Those are the three ONLY things that the directory cache does. It's a
+cache, and the normal operation is to re-generate it completely from a
+known tree object, or update/compare it with a live tree that is being
+developed. If you blow the directory cache away entirely, you generally
+haven't lost any information as long as you have the name of the tree
+that it described.
+
+At the same time, the index is at the same time also the
+staging area for creating new trees, and creating a new tree always
+involves a controlled modification of the index file. In particular,
+the index file can have the representation of an intermediate tree that
+has not yet been instantiated. So the index can be thought of as a
+write-back cache, which can contain dirty information that has not yet
+been written back to the backing store.
+
+
+
+The Workflow
+------------
+Generally, all "git" operations work on the index file. Some operations
+work *purely* on the index file (showing the current state of the
+index), but most operations move data to and from the index file. Either
+from the database or from the working directory. Thus there are four
+main combinations:
+
+1) working directory -> index
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You update the index with information from the working directory with
+the gitlink:git-update-index[1] command. You
+generally update the index information by just specifying the filename
+you want to update, like so:
+
+ git-update-index filename
+
+but to avoid common mistakes with filename globbing etc, the command
+will not normally add totally new entries or remove old entries,
+i.e. it will normally just update existing cache entries.
+
+To tell git that yes, you really do realize that certain files no
+longer exist in the archive, or that new files should be added, you
+should use the `--remove` and `--add` flags respectively.
+
+NOTE! A `--remove` flag does 'not' mean that subsequent filenames will
+necessarily be removed: if the files still exist in your directory
+structure, the index will be updated with their new status, not
+removed. The only thing `--remove` means is that update-cache will be
+considering a removed file to be a valid thing, and if the file really
+does not exist any more, it will update the index accordingly.
+
+As a special case, you can also do `git-update-index --refresh`, which
+will refresh the "stat" information of each index to match the current
+stat information. It will 'not' update the object status itself, and
+it will only update the fields that are used to quickly test whether
+an object still matches its old backing store object.
+
+2) index -> object database
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You write your current index file to a "tree" object with the program
+
+ git-write-tree
+
+that doesn't come with any options - it will just write out the
+current index into the set of tree objects that describe that state,
+and it will return the name of the resulting top-level tree. You can
+use that tree to re-generate the index at any time by going in the
+other direction:
+
+3) object database -> index
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You read a "tree" file from the object database, and use that to
+populate (and overwrite - don't do this if your index contains any
+unsaved state that you might want to restore later!) your current
+index. Normal operation is just
+
+ git-read-tree <sha1 of tree>
+
+and your index file will now be equivalent to the tree that you saved
+earlier. However, that is only your 'index' file: your working
+directory contents have not been modified.
+
+4) index -> working directory
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You update your working directory from the index by "checking out"
+files. This is not a very common operation, since normally you'd just
+keep your files updated, and rather than write to your working
+directory, you'd tell the index files about the changes in your
+working directory (i.e. `git-update-index`).
+
+However, if you decide to jump to a new version, or check out somebody
+else's version, or just restore a previous tree, you'd populate your
+index file with read-tree, and then you need to check out the result
+with
+
+ git-checkout-index filename
+
+or, if you want to check out all of the index, use `-a`.
+
+NOTE! git-checkout-index normally refuses to overwrite old files, so
+if you have an old version of the tree already checked out, you will
+need to use the "-f" flag ('before' the "-a" flag or the filename) to
+'force' the checkout.
+
+
+Finally, there are a few odds and ends which are not purely moving
+from one representation to the other:
+
+5) Tying it all together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+To commit a tree you have instantiated with "git-write-tree", you'd
+create a "commit" object that refers to that tree and the history
+behind it - most notably the "parent" commits that preceded it in
+history.
+
+Normally a "commit" has one parent: the previous state of the tree
+before a certain change was made. However, sometimes it can have two
+or more parent commits, in which case we call it a "merge", due to the
+fact that such a commit brings together ("merges") two or more
+previous states represented by other commits.
+
+In other words, while a "tree" represents a particular directory state
+of a working directory, a "commit" represents that state in "time",
+and explains how we got there.
+
+You create a commit object by giving it the tree that describes the
+state at the time of the commit, and a list of parents:
+
+ git-commit-tree <tree> -p <parent> [-p <parent2> ..]
+
+and then giving the reason for the commit on stdin (either through
+redirection from a pipe or file, or by just typing it at the tty).
+
+git-commit-tree will return the name of the object that represents
+that commit, and you should save it away for later use. Normally,
+you'd commit a new `HEAD` state, and while git doesn't care where you
+save the note about that state, in practice we tend to just write the
+result to the file pointed at by `.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see
+what the last committed state was.
+
+Here is an ASCII art by Jon Loeliger that illustrates how
+various pieces fit together.
+
+------------
+
+ commit-tree
+ commit obj
+ +----+
+ | |
+ | |
+ V V
+ +-----------+
+ | Object DB |
+ | Backing |
+ | Store |
+ +-----------+
+ ^
+ write-tree | |
+ tree obj | |
+ | | read-tree
+ | | tree obj
+ V
+ +-----------+
+ | Index |
+ | "cache" |
+ +-----------+
+ update-index ^
+ blob obj | |
+ | |
+ checkout-index -u | | checkout-index
+ stat | | blob obj
+ V
+ +-----------+
+ | Working |
+ | Directory |
+ +-----------+
+
+------------
+
+
+6) Examining the data
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You can examine the data represented in the object database and the
+index with various helper tools. For every object, you can use
+gitlink:git-cat-file[1] to examine details about the
+object:
+
+ git-cat-file -t <objectname>
+
+shows the type of the object, and once you have the type (which is
+usually implicit in where you find the object), you can use
+
+ git-cat-file blob|tree|commit|tag <objectname>
+
+to show its contents. NOTE! Trees have binary content, and as a result
+there is a special helper for showing that content, called
+`git-ls-tree`, which turns the binary content into a more easily
+readable form.
+
+It's especially instructive to look at "commit" objects, since those
+tend to be small and fairly self-explanatory. In particular, if you
+follow the convention of having the top commit name in `.git/HEAD`,
+you can do
+
+ git-cat-file commit HEAD
+
+to see what the top commit was.
+
+7) Merging multiple trees
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Git helps you do a three-way merge, which you can expand to n-way by
+repeating the merge procedure arbitrary times until you finally
+"commit" the state. The normal situation is that you'd only do one
+three-way merge (two parents), and commit it, but if you like to, you
+can do multiple parents in one go.
+
+To do a three-way merge, you need the two sets of "commit" objects
+that you want to merge, use those to find the closest common parent (a
+third "commit" object), and then use those commit objects to find the
+state of the directory ("tree" object) at these points.
+
+To get the "base" for the merge, you first look up the common parent
+of two commits with
+
+ git-merge-base <commit1> <commit2>
+
+which will return you the commit they are both based on. You should
+now look up the "tree" objects of those commits, which you can easily
+do with (for example)
+
+ git-cat-file commit <commitname> | head -1
+
+since the tree object information is always the first line in a commit
+object.
+
+Once you know the three trees you are going to merge (the one
+"original" tree, aka the common case, and the two "result" trees, aka
+the branches you want to merge), you do a "merge" read into the
+index. This will complain if it has to throw away your old index contents, so you should
+make sure that you've committed those - in fact you would normally
+always do a merge against your last commit (which should thus match
+what you have in your current index anyway).
+
+To do the merge, do
+
+ git-read-tree -m -u <origtree> <yourtree> <targettree>
+
+which will do all trivial merge operations for you directly in the
+index file, and you can just write the result out with
+`git-write-tree`.
+
+Historical note. We did not have `-u` facility when this
+section was first written, so we used to warn that
+the merge is done in the index file, not in your
+working directory, and your working directory will no longer match your
+index.
+
+
+8) Merging multiple trees, continued
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sadly, many merges aren't trivial. If there are files that have
+been added.moved or removed, or if both branches have modified the
+same file, you will be left with an index tree that contains "merge
+entries" in it. Such an index tree can 'NOT' be written out to a tree
+object, and you will have to resolve any such merge clashes using
+other tools before you can write out the result.
+
+You can examine such index state with `git-ls-files --unmerged`
+command. An example:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-read-tree -m $orig HEAD $target
+$ git-ls-files --unmerged
+100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1 hello.c
+100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2 hello.c
+100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3 hello.c
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Each line of the `git-ls-files --unmerged` output begins with
+the blob mode bits, blob SHA1, 'stage number', and the
+filename. The 'stage number' is git's way to say which tree it
+came from: stage 1 corresponds to `$orig` tree, stage 2 `HEAD`
+tree, and stage3 `$target` tree.
+
+Earlier we said that trivial merges are done inside
+`git-read-tree -m`. For example, if the file did not change
+from `$orig` to `HEAD` nor `$target`, or if the file changed
+from `$orig` to `HEAD` and `$orig` to `$target` the same way,
+obviously the final outcome is what is in `HEAD`. What the
+above example shows is that file `hello.c` was changed from
+`$orig` to `HEAD` and `$orig` to `$target` in a different way.
+You could resolve this by running your favorite 3-way merge
+program, e.g. `diff3` or `merge`, on the blob objects from
+these three stages yourself, like this:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git-cat-file blob 263414f... >hello.c~1
+$ git-cat-file blob 06fa6a2... >hello.c~2
+$ git-cat-file blob cc44c73... >hello.c~3
+$ merge hello.c~2 hello.c~1 hello.c~3
+------------------------------------------------
+
+This would leave the merge result in `hello.c~2` file, along
+with conflict markers if there are conflicts. After verifying
+the merge result makes sense, you can tell git what the final
+merge result for this file is by:
+
+ mv -f hello.c~2 hello.c
+ git-update-index hello.c
+
+When a path is in unmerged state, running `git-update-index` for
+that path tells git to mark the path resolved.
+
+The above is the description of a git merge at the lowest level,
+to help you understand what conceptually happens under the hood.
+In practice, nobody, not even git itself, uses three `git-cat-file`
+for this. There is `git-merge-index` program that extracts the
+stages to temporary files and calls a `merge` script on it
+
+ git-merge-index git-merge-one-file hello.c
+
+and that is what higher level `git resolve` is implemented with.
diff --git a/apply.c b/apply.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..50be8f3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/apply.c
@@ -0,0 +1,1858 @@
+/*
+ * apply.c
+ *
+ * Copyright (C) Linus Torvalds, 2005
+ *
+ * This applies patches on top of some (arbitrary) version of the SCM.
+ *
+ */
+#include <fnmatch.h>
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "quote.h"
+
+// --check turns on checking that the working tree matches the
+// files that are being modified, but doesn't apply the patch
+// --stat does just a diffstat, and doesn't actually apply
+// --numstat does numeric diffstat, and doesn't actually apply
+// --index-info shows the old and new index info for paths if available.
+//
+static int allow_binary_replacement = 0;
+static int check_index = 0;
+static int write_index = 0;
+static int diffstat = 0;
+static int numstat = 0;
+static int summary = 0;
+static int check = 0;
+static int apply = 1;
+static int no_add = 0;
+static int show_index_info = 0;
+static int line_termination = '\n';
+static const char apply_usage[] =
+"git-apply [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--apply] [--no-add] [--index-info] [--allow-binary-replacement] [-z] <patch>...";
+
+/*
+ * For "diff-stat" like behaviour, we keep track of the biggest change
+ * we've seen, and the longest filename. That allows us to do simple
+ * scaling.
+ */
+static int max_change, max_len;
+
+/*
+ * Various "current state", notably line numbers and what
+ * file (and how) we're patching right now.. The "is_xxxx"
+ * things are flags, where -1 means "don't know yet".
+ */
+static int linenr = 1;
+
+struct fragment {
+ unsigned long oldpos, oldlines;
+ unsigned long newpos, newlines;
+ const char *patch;
+ int size;
+ struct fragment *next;
+};
+
+struct patch {
+ char *new_name, *old_name, *def_name;
+ unsigned int old_mode, new_mode;
+ int is_rename, is_copy, is_new, is_delete, is_binary;
+ int lines_added, lines_deleted;
+ int score;
+ struct fragment *fragments;
+ char *result;
+ unsigned long resultsize;
+ char old_sha1_prefix[41];
+ char new_sha1_prefix[41];
+ struct patch *next;
+};
+
+#define CHUNKSIZE (8192)
+#define SLOP (16)
+
+static void *read_patch_file(int fd, unsigned long *sizep)
+{
+ unsigned long size = 0, alloc = CHUNKSIZE;
+ void *buffer = xmalloc(alloc);
+
+ for (;;) {
+ int nr = alloc - size;
+ if (nr < 1024) {
+ alloc += CHUNKSIZE;
+ buffer = xrealloc(buffer, alloc);
+ nr = alloc - size;
+ }
+ nr = read(fd, buffer + size, nr);
+ if (!nr)
+ break;
+ if (nr < 0) {
+ if (errno == EAGAIN)
+ continue;
+ die("git-apply: read returned %s", strerror(errno));
+ }
+ size += nr;
+ }
+ *sizep = size;
+
+ /*
+ * Make sure that we have some slop in the buffer
+ * so that we can do speculative "memcmp" etc, and
+ * see to it that it is NUL-filled.
+ */
+ if (alloc < size + SLOP)
+ buffer = xrealloc(buffer, size + SLOP);
+ memset(buffer + size, 0, SLOP);
+ return buffer;
+}
+
+static unsigned long linelen(const char *buffer, unsigned long size)
+{
+ unsigned long len = 0;
+ while (size--) {
+ len++;
+ if (*buffer++ == '\n')
+ break;
+ }
+ return len;
+}
+
+static int is_dev_null(const char *str)
+{
+ return !memcmp("/dev/null", str, 9) && isspace(str[9]);
+}
+
+#define TERM_SPACE 1
+#define TERM_TAB 2
+
+static int name_terminate(const char *name, int namelen, int c, int terminate)
+{
+ if (c == ' ' && !(terminate & TERM_SPACE))
+ return 0;
+ if (c == '\t' && !(terminate & TERM_TAB))
+ return 0;
+
+ return 1;
+}
+
+static char * find_name(const char *line, char *def, int p_value, int terminate)
+{
+ int len;
+ const char *start = line;
+ char *name;
+
+ if (*line == '"') {
+ /* Proposed "new-style" GNU patch/diff format; see
+ * http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=112927316408690&w=2
+ */
+ name = unquote_c_style(line, NULL);
+ if (name) {
+ char *cp = name;
+ while (p_value) {
+ cp = strchr(name, '/');
+ if (!cp)
+ break;
+ cp++;
+ p_value--;
+ }
+ if (cp) {
+ /* name can later be freed, so we need
+ * to memmove, not just return cp
+ */
+ memmove(name, cp, strlen(cp) + 1);
+ free(def);
+ return name;
+ }
+ else {
+ free(name);
+ name = NULL;
+ }
+ }
+ }
+
+ for (;;) {
+ char c = *line;
+
+ if (isspace(c)) {
+ if (c == '\n')
+ break;
+ if (name_terminate(start, line-start, c, terminate))
+ break;
+ }
+ line++;
+ if (c == '/' && !--p_value)
+ start = line;
+ }
+ if (!start)
+ return def;
+ len = line - start;
+ if (!len)
+ return def;
+
+ /*
+ * Generally we prefer the shorter name, especially
+ * if the other one is just a variation of that with
+ * something else tacked on to the end (ie "file.orig"
+ * or "file~").
+ */
+ if (def) {
+ int deflen = strlen(def);
+ if (deflen < len && !strncmp(start, def, deflen))
+ return def;
+ }
+
+ name = xmalloc(len + 1);
+ memcpy(name, start, len);
+ name[len] = 0;
+ free(def);
+ return name;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Get the name etc info from the --/+++ lines of a traditional patch header
+ *
+ * NOTE! This hardcodes "-p1" behaviour in filename detection.
+ *
+ * FIXME! The end-of-filename heuristics are kind of screwy. For existing
+ * files, we can happily check the index for a match, but for creating a
+ * new file we should try to match whatever "patch" does. I have no idea.
+ */
+static void parse_traditional_patch(const char *first, const char *second, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ int p_value = 1;
+ char *name;
+
+ first += 4; // skip "--- "
+ second += 4; // skip "+++ "
+ if (is_dev_null(first)) {
+ patch->is_new = 1;
+ patch->is_delete = 0;
+ name = find_name(second, NULL, p_value, TERM_SPACE | TERM_TAB);
+ patch->new_name = name;
+ } else if (is_dev_null(second)) {
+ patch->is_new = 0;
+ patch->is_delete = 1;
+ name = find_name(first, NULL, p_value, TERM_SPACE | TERM_TAB);
+ patch->old_name = name;
+ } else {
+ name = find_name(first, NULL, p_value, TERM_SPACE | TERM_TAB);
+ name = find_name(second, name, p_value, TERM_SPACE | TERM_TAB);
+ patch->old_name = patch->new_name = name;
+ }
+ if (!name)
+ die("unable to find filename in patch at line %d", linenr);
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_hdrend(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ return -1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * We're anal about diff header consistency, to make
+ * sure that we don't end up having strange ambiguous
+ * patches floating around.
+ *
+ * As a result, gitdiff_{old|new}name() will check
+ * their names against any previous information, just
+ * to make sure..
+ */
+static char *gitdiff_verify_name(const char *line, int isnull, char *orig_name, const char *oldnew)
+{
+ if (!orig_name && !isnull)
+ return find_name(line, NULL, 1, 0);
+
+ if (orig_name) {
+ int len;
+ const char *name;
+ char *another;
+ name = orig_name;
+ len = strlen(name);
+ if (isnull)
+ die("git-apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null, got %s on line %d", name, linenr);
+ another = find_name(line, NULL, 1, 0);
+ if (!another || memcmp(another, name, len))
+ die("git-apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent %s filename on line %d", oldnew, linenr);
+ free(another);
+ return orig_name;
+ }
+ else {
+ /* expect "/dev/null" */
+ if (memcmp("/dev/null", line, 9) || line[9] != '\n')
+ die("git-apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null on line %d", linenr);
+ return NULL;
+ }
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_oldname(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->old_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_new, patch->old_name, "old");
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_newname(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->new_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_delete, patch->new_name, "new");
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_oldmode(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->old_mode = strtoul(line, NULL, 8);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_newmode(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->new_mode = strtoul(line, NULL, 8);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_delete(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->is_delete = 1;
+ patch->old_name = patch->def_name;
+ return gitdiff_oldmode(line, patch);
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_newfile(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->is_new = 1;
+ patch->new_name = patch->def_name;
+ return gitdiff_newmode(line, patch);
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_copysrc(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->is_copy = 1;
+ patch->old_name = find_name(line, NULL, 0, 0);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_copydst(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->is_copy = 1;
+ patch->new_name = find_name(line, NULL, 0, 0);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_renamesrc(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->is_rename = 1;
+ patch->old_name = find_name(line, NULL, 0, 0);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_renamedst(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ patch->is_rename = 1;
+ patch->new_name = find_name(line, NULL, 0, 0);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_similarity(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ if ((patch->score = strtoul(line, NULL, 10)) == ULONG_MAX)
+ patch->score = 0;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_dissimilarity(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ if ((patch->score = strtoul(line, NULL, 10)) == ULONG_MAX)
+ patch->score = 0;
+ return 0;
+}
+
+static int gitdiff_index(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ /* index line is N hexadecimal, "..", N hexadecimal,
+ * and optional space with octal mode.
+ */
+ const char *ptr, *eol;
+ int len;
+
+ ptr = strchr(line, '.');
+ if (!ptr || ptr[1] != '.' || 40 < ptr - line)
+ return 0;
+ len = ptr - line;
+ memcpy(patch->old_sha1_prefix, line, len);
+ patch->old_sha1_prefix[len] = 0;
+
+ line = ptr + 2;
+ ptr = strchr(line, ' ');
+ eol = strchr(line, '\n');
+
+ if (!ptr || eol < ptr)
+ ptr = eol;
+ len = ptr - line;
+
+ if (40 < len)
+ return 0;
+ memcpy(patch->new_sha1_prefix, line, len);
+ patch->new_sha1_prefix[len] = 0;
+ if (*ptr == ' ')
+ patch->new_mode = patch->old_mode = strtoul(ptr+1, NULL, 8);
+ return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * This is normal for a diff that doesn't change anything: we'll fall through
+ * into the next diff. Tell the parser to break out.
+ */
+static int gitdiff_unrecognized(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
+{
+ return -1;
+}
+
+static const char *stop_at_slash(const char *line, int llen)
+{
+ int i;
+
+ for (i = 0; i < llen; i++) {
+ int ch = line[i];
+ if (ch == '/')
+ return line + i;
+ }
+ return NULL;
+}
+
+/* This is to extract the same name that appears on "diff --git"
+ * line. We do not find and return anything if it is a rename
+ * patch, and it is OK because we will find the name elsewhere.
+ * We need to reliably find name only when it is mo