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-rw-r--r--.gitignore8
-rw-r--r--.mailmap1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines78
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt87
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/i18n.txt8
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt14
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt4
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt20
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt746
-rwxr-xr-xGIT-VERSION-GEN2
-rw-r--r--INSTALL7
-rw-r--r--Makefile740
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l---------RelNotes2
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t1507-rev-parse-upstream.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t1509/prepare-chroot.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t1510-repo-setup.sh19
-rwxr-xr-xt/t2003-checkout-cache-mkdir.sh169
-rwxr-xr-xt/t2013-checkout-submodule.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t2020-checkout-detach.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t2203-add-intent.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3001-ls-files-others-exclude.sh24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3070-wildmatch.sh238
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3200-branch.sh25
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3201-branch-contains.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3211-peel-ref.sh64
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3404-rebase-interactive.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3501-revert-cherry-pick.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3506-cherry-pick-ff.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3507-cherry-pick-conflict.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3508-cherry-pick-many-commits.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3510-cherry-pick-sequence.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t3600-rm.sh360
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4001-diff-rename.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4014-format-patch.sh106
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4018-diff-funcname.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4038-diff-combined.sh24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4041-diff-submodule-option.sh509
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4042-diff-textconv-caching.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4055-diff-context.sh92
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4201-shortlog.sh24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4202-log.sh10
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4203-mailmap.sh154
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4208-log-magic-pathspec.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4210-log-i18n.sh58
-rwxr-xr-xt/t4300-merge-tree.sh44
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5000-tar-tree.sh74
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5002-archive-attr-pattern.sh84
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5003-archive-zip.sh131
-rw-r--r--t/t5003/infozip-symlinks.zipbin0 -> 328 bytes
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5004-archive-corner-cases.sh102
-rw-r--r--t/t5004/empty.zipbin0 -> 62 bytes
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5500-fetch-pack.sh54
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5512-ls-remote.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5516-fetch-push.sh50
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5535-fetch-push-symref.sh42
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5551-http-fetch.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5571-pre-push-hook.sh131
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5600-clone-fail-cleanup.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5800-remote-testpy.sh (renamed from t/t5800-remote-helpers.sh)35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t5801-remote-helpers.sh169
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6006-rev-list-format.sh63
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6009-rev-list-parent.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6030-bisect-porcelain.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6050-replace.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6130-pathspec-noglob.sh68
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7003-filter-branch.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7004-tag.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7061-wtstatus-ignore.sh146
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7062-wtstatus-ignorecase.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7102-reset.sh67
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7106-reset-unborn-branch.sh52
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7400-submodule-basic.sh76
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7402-submodule-rebase.sh30
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7403-submodule-sync.sh55
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7406-submodule-update.sh36
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7407-submodule-foreach.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7500/add-content-and-comment5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7502-commit.sh119
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7505-prepare-commit-msg-hook.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7508-status.sh50
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7512-status-help.sh89
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7811-grep-open.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9001-send-email.sh119
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9010-svn-fe.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9020-remote-svn.sh88
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9100-git-svn-basic.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9200-git-cvsexportcommit.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9300-fast-import.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9350-fast-export.sh65
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh72
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9401-git-cvsserver-crlf.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9402-git-cvsserver-refs.sh551
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9502-gitweb-standalone-parse-output.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9604-cvsimport-timestamps.sh71
-rw-r--r--t/t9604/cvsroot/.gitattributes1
-rw-r--r--t/t9604/cvsroot/CVSROOT/.gitignore2
-rw-r--r--t/t9604/cvsroot/module/a,v264
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9700/test.pl3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9800-git-p4-basic.sh39
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9802-git-p4-filetype.sh128
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9806-git-p4-options.sh161
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9807-git-p4-submit.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9809-git-p4-client-view.sh16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9810-git-p4-rcs.sh24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9812-git-p4-wildcards.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9814-git-p4-rename.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9815-git-p4-submit-fail.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9902-completion.sh164
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9903-bash-prompt.sh78
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib-functions.sh28
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib.sh56
-rwxr-xr-xt/test-terminal.perl2
-rw-r--r--templates/hooks--pre-push.sample53
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--update.sample2
-rw-r--r--test-chmtime.c2
-rw-r--r--test-delta.c2
-rw-r--r--test-genrandom.c2
-rw-r--r--test-path-utils.c51
-rw-r--r--test-string-list.c20
-rw-r--r--test-svn-fe.c2
-rw-r--r--test-wildmatch.c100
-rw-r--r--transport-helper.c60
-rw-r--r--transport.c102
-rw-r--r--transport.h18
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.c85
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.c16
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c96
-rw-r--r--usage.c16
-rw-r--r--userdiff.c57
-rw-r--r--utf8.c93
-rw-r--r--utf8.h7
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/fast_export.c36
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/fast_export.h8
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/svndump.c61
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/svndump.h3
-rw-r--r--wildmatch.c272
-rw-r--r--wildmatch.h18
-rw-r--r--wrapper.c12
-rw-r--r--write_or_die.c7
-rw-r--r--wt-status.c113
-rw-r--r--wt-status.h2
569 files changed, 39031 insertions, 17750 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index a188a82..6669bf0 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -1,8 +1,8 @@
/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
/GIT-CFLAGS
/GIT-LDFLAGS
-/GIT-GUI-VARS
/GIT-PREFIX
+/GIT-PYTHON-VARS
/GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
/GIT-USER-AGENT
/GIT-VERSION-FILE
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@
/git-bundle
/git-cat-file
/git-check-attr
+/git-check-ignore
/git-check-ref-format
/git-checkout
/git-checkout-index
@@ -124,7 +125,8 @@
/git-remote-ftps
/git-remote-fd
/git-remote-ext
-/git-remote-testgit
+/git-remote-testpy
+/git-remote-testsvn
/git-repack
/git-replace
/git-repo-config
@@ -170,7 +172,6 @@
/git-whatchanged
/git-write-tree
/git-core-*/?*
-/gitk-git/gitk-wish
/gitweb/GITWEB-BUILD-OPTIONS
/gitweb/gitweb.cgi
/gitweb/static/gitweb.js
@@ -197,6 +198,7 @@
/test-string-list
/test-subprocess
/test-svn-fe
+/test-wildmatch
/common-cmds.h
*.tar.gz
*.dsc
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index c7e8618..48d7acf 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -73,6 +73,7 @@ Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
<nico@fluxnic.net> <nico@cam.org>
Peter Krefting <peter@softwolves.pp.se> <peter@svarten.intern.softwolves.pp.se>
Peter Krefting <peter@softwolves.pp.se> <peter@softwolves.pp.se>
+Petr Baudis <pasky@ucw.cz> <pasky@suse.cz>
Philippe Bruhat <book@cpan.org>
Ralf Thielow <ralf.thielow@gmail.com> <ralf.thielow@googlemail.com>
Ramsay Allan Jones <ramsay@ramsay1.demon.co.uk>
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index d62aebd..2c8b2d6 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -9,4 +9,5 @@ gitman.info
howto-index.txt
doc.dep
cmds-*.txt
+mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 69f7e9b..7e4d571 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
Like other projects, we also have some guidelines to keep to the
-code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
+code. For Git in general, three rough rules are:
- Most importantly, we never say "It's in POSIX; we'll happily
ignore your needs should your system not conform to it."
@@ -18,11 +18,12 @@ code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
judgement call, the decision based more on real world
constraints people face than what the paper standard says.
+Make your code readable and sensible, and don't try to be clever.
As for more concrete guidelines, just imitate the existing code
(this is a good guideline, no matter which project you are
contributing to). It is always preferable to match the _local_
-convention. New code added to git suite is expected to match
+convention. New code added to Git suite is expected to match
the overall style of existing code. Modifications to existing
code is expected to match the style the surrounding code already
uses (even if it doesn't match the overall style of existing code).
@@ -112,7 +113,7 @@ For C programs:
- We try to keep to at most 80 characters per line.
- - We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile git with,
+ - We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile Git with,
including old ones. That means that you should not use C99
initializers, even if a lot of compilers grok it.
@@ -164,14 +165,14 @@ For C programs:
- If you are planning a new command, consider writing it in shell
or perl first, so that changes in semantics can be easily
- changed and discussed. Many git commands started out like
+ changed and discussed. Many Git commands started out like
that, and a few are still scripts.
- - Avoid introducing a new dependency into git. This means you
+ - Avoid introducing a new dependency into Git. This means you
usually should stay away from scripting languages not already
- used in the git core command set (unless your command is clearly
+ used in the Git core command set (unless your command is clearly
separate from it, such as an importer to convert random-scm-X
- repositories to git).
+ repositories to Git).
- When we pass <string, length> pair to functions, we should try to
pass them in that order.
@@ -179,8 +180,66 @@ For C programs:
- Use Git's gettext wrappers to make the user interface
translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in po/README.
+For Perl programs:
+
+ - Most of the C guidelines above apply.
+
+ - We try to support Perl 5.8 and later ("use Perl 5.008").
+
+ - use strict and use warnings are strongly preferred.
+
+ - Don't overuse statement modifiers unless using them makes the
+ result easier to follow.
+
+ ... do something ...
+ do_this() unless (condition);
+ ... do something else ...
+
+ is more readable than:
+
+ ... do something ...
+ unless (condition) {
+ do_this();
+ }
+ ... do something else ...
+
+ *only* when the condition is so rare that do_this() will be almost
+ always called.
+
+ - We try to avoid assignments inside "if ()" conditions.
+
+ - Learn and use Git.pm if you need that functionality.
+
+ - For Emacs, it's useful to put the following in
+ GIT_CHECKOUT/.dir-locals.el, assuming you use cperl-mode:
+
+ ;; note the first part is useful for C editing, too
+ ((nil . ((indent-tabs-mode . t)
+ (tab-width . 8)
+ (fill-column . 80)))
+ (cperl-mode . ((cperl-indent-level . 8)
+ (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace . nil)
+ (cperl-merge-trailing-else . t))))
+
+For Python scripts:
+
+ - We follow PEP-8 (http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/).
+
+ - As a minimum, we aim to be compatible with Python 2.6 and 2.7.
+
+ - Where required libraries do not restrict us to Python 2, we try to
+ also be compatible with Python 3.1 and later.
+
+ - When you must differentiate between Unicode literals and byte string
+ literals, it is OK to use the 'b' prefix. Even though the Python
+ documentation for version 2.6 does not mention this prefix, it has
+ been supported since version 2.6.0.
+
Writing Documentation:
+ Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in AsciiDoc
+ and processed into HTML output and manpages.
+
Every user-visible change should be reflected in the documentation.
The same general rule as for code applies -- imitate the existing
conventions. A few commented examples follow to provide reference
@@ -230,3 +289,8 @@ Writing Documentation:
valid usage. "*" has its own pair of brackets, because it can
(optionally) be specified only when one or more of the letters is
also provided.
+
+ A note on notation:
+ Use 'git' (all lowercase) when talking about commands i.e. something
+ the user would type into a shell and use 'Git' (uppercase first letter)
+ when talking about the version control system and its properties.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index fe9a91d..62dbd9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -1,19 +1,41 @@
-MAN1_TXT= \
- $(filter-out $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
- $(wildcard git-*.txt)) \
- gitk.txt gitweb.txt git.txt
-MAN5_TXT=gitattributes.txt gitignore.txt gitmodules.txt githooks.txt \
- gitrepository-layout.txt gitweb.conf.txt
-MAN7_TXT=gitcli.txt gittutorial.txt gittutorial-2.txt \
- gitcvs-migration.txt gitcore-tutorial.txt gitglossary.txt \
- gitdiffcore.txt gitnamespaces.txt gitrevisions.txt gitworkflows.txt
+# Guard against environment variables
+MAN1_TXT =
+MAN5_TXT =
+MAN7_TXT =
+
+MAN1_TXT += $(filter-out \
+ $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
+ $(wildcard git-*.txt))
+MAN1_TXT += git.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitk.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitremote-helpers.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitweb.txt
+
+MAN5_TXT += gitattributes.txt
+MAN5_TXT += githooks.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitignore.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitmodules.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitrepository-layout.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitweb.conf.txt
+
+MAN7_TXT += gitcli.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitcore-tutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitcredentials.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitcvs-migration.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitdiffcore.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitglossary.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitnamespaces.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitrevisions.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gittutorial-2.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gittutorial.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
MAN_XML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
MAN_HTML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
-DOC_HTML=$(MAN_HTML)
+OBSOLETE_HTML = git-remote-helpers.html
+DOC_HTML=$(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
ARTICLES = howto-index
ARTICLES += everyday
@@ -21,6 +43,7 @@ ARTICLES += git-tools
ARTICLES += git-bisect-lk2009
# with their own formatting rules.
SP_ARTICLES = user-manual
+SP_ARTICLES += howto/new-command
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-branch-rebase
SP_ARTICLES += howto/using-merge-subtree
SP_ARTICLES += howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request
@@ -31,7 +54,6 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/separating-topic-branches
SP_ARTICLES += howto/revert-a-faulty-merge
SP_ARTICLES += howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebuild-from-update-hook
-SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebuild-from-update-hook
SP_ARTICLES += howto/rebase-from-internal-branch
SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
@@ -178,8 +200,6 @@ all: html man
html: $(DOC_HTML)
-$(DOC_HTML) $(DOC_MAN1) $(DOC_MAN5) $(DOC_MAN7): asciidoc.conf
-
man: man1 man5 man7
man1: $(DOC_MAN1)
man5: $(DOC_MAN5)
@@ -224,7 +244,11 @@ install-html: html
#
# Determine "include::" file references in asciidoc files.
#
-doc.dep : $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
+docdep_prereqs = \
+ mergetools-list.made $(mergetools_txt) \
+ cmd-list.made $(cmds_txt)
+
+doc.dep : $(docdep_prereqs) $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(PERL_PATH) ./build-docdep.perl >$@+ $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
mv $@+ $@
@@ -248,21 +272,41 @@ cmd-list.made: cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(MAN1_TXT)
$(PERL_PATH) ./cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
date >$@
+mergetools_txt = mergetools-diff.txt mergetools-merge.txt
+
+$(mergetools_txt): mergetools-list.made
+
+mergetools-list.made: ../git-mergetool--lib.sh $(wildcard ../mergetools/*)
+ $(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ && \
+ $(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
+ . ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
+ show_tool_names can_diff "* " || :' >mergetools-diff.txt && \
+ $(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
+ . ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
+ show_tool_names can_merge "* " || :' >mergetools-merge.txt && \
+ date >$@
+
clean:
$(RM) *.xml *.xml+ *.html *.html+ *.1 *.5 *.7
$(RM) *.texi *.texi+ *.texi++ git.info gitman.info
$(RM) *.pdf
$(RM) howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
$(RM) technical/*.html technical/api-index.txt
- $(RM) $(cmds_txt) *.made
+ $(RM) $(cmds_txt) $(mergetools_txt) *.made
$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
-$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt
+$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf \
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
+$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
+ $(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
+ $(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
+ $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
+ mv $@+ $@
+
manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
@@ -270,7 +314,7 @@ manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
$(XMLTO) -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
-%.xml : %.txt
+%.xml : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(ASCIIDOC) -b docbook -d manpage -f asciidoc.conf \
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) -o $@+ $< && \
@@ -286,7 +330,7 @@ technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
$(QUIET_GEN)cd technical && '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./api-index.sh
technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
-$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt
+$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) $*.txt
@@ -348,8 +392,8 @@ $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
install-webdoc : html
'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
-# You must have a clone of git-htmldocs and git-manpages repositories
-# next to the git repository itself for the following to work.
+# You must have a clone of 'git-htmldocs' and 'git-manpages' repositories
+# next to the 'git' repository itself for the following to work.
quick-install: quick-install-man
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6cde07b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,87 @@
+Git 1.8.1.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1
+------------------
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does.
+
+ * When attempting to read the XDG-style $HOME/.config/git/config and
+ finding that $HOME/.config/git is a file, we gave a wrong error
+ message, instead of treating the case as "a custom config file does
+ not exist there" and moving on.
+
+ * After failing to create a temporary file using mkstemp(), failing
+ pathname was not reported correctly on some platforms.
+
+ * http transport was wrong to ask for the username when the
+ authentication is done by certificate identity.
+
+ * The behaviour visible to the end users was confusing, when they
+ attempt to kill a process spawned in the editor that was in turn
+ launched by Git with SIGINT (or SIGQUIT), as Git would catch that
+ signal and die. We ignore these signals now.
+
+ * A child process that was killed by a signal (e.g. SIGINT) was
+ reported in an inconsistent way depending on how the process was
+ spawned by us, with or without a shell in between.
+
+ * After "git add -N" and then writing a tree object out of the
+ index, the cache-tree data structure got corrupted.
+
+ * "git apply" misbehaved when fixing whitespace breakages by removing
+ excess trailing blank lines in some corner cases.
+
+ * A tar archive created by "git archive" recorded a directory in a
+ way that made NetBSD's implementation of "tar" sometimes unhappy.
+
+ * When "git clone --separate-git-dir=$over_there" is interrupted, it
+ failed to remove the real location of the $GIT_DIR it created.
+ This was most visible when interrupting a submodule update.
+
+ * "git fetch --mirror" and fetch that uses other forms of refspec
+ with wildcard used to attempt to update a symbolic ref that match
+ the wildcard on the receiving end, which made little sense (the
+ real ref that is pointed at by the symbolic ref would be updated
+ anyway). Symbolic refs no longer are affected by such a fetch.
+
+ * The "log --graph" codepath fell into infinite loop in some
+ corner cases.
+
+ * "git merge" started calling prepare-commit-msg hook like "git
+ commit" does some time ago, but forgot to pay attention to the exit
+ status of the hook.
+
+ * "git pack-refs" that ran in parallel to another process that
+ created new refs had a race that can lose new ones.
+
+ * When a line to be wrapped has a solid run of non space characters
+ whose length exactly is the wrap width, "git shortlog -w" failed
+ to add a newline after such a line.
+
+ * The way "git svn" asked for password using SSH_ASKPASS and
+ GIT_ASKPASS was not in line with the rest of the system.
+
+ * "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
+ activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
+ nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
+
+ * "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
+ activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
+ nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
+
+ * When autoconf is used, any build on a different commit always ran
+ "config.status --recheck" even when unnecessary.
+
+ * Some scripted programs written in Python did not get updated when
+ PYTHON_PATH changed.
+
+ * We have been carrying a translated and long-unmaintained copy of an
+ old version of the tutorial; removed.
+
+ * Portability issues in many self-test scripts have been addressed.
+
+
+Also contains other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5ab7b18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,25 @@
+Git 1.8.1.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.1
+--------------------
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES list that does not name the
+ real path to a directory (i.e. a symbolic link) could have caused
+ the GIT_DIR discovery logic to escape the ceiling.
+
+ * Command line completion for "tcsh" emitted an unwanted space
+ after completing a single directory name.
+
+ * Command line completion leaked an unnecessary error message while
+ looking for possible matches with paths in <tree-ish>.
+
+ * "git archive" did not record uncompressed size in the header when
+ streaming a zip archive, which confused some implementations of unzip.
+
+ * When users spelled "cc:" in lowercase in the fake "header" in the
+ trailer part, "git send-email" failed to pick up the addresses from
+ there. As e-mail headers field names are case insensitive, this
+ script should follow suit and treat "cc:" and "Cc:" the same way.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..681cb35
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git 1.8.1.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.2
+--------------------
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does. The fix for this in 1.8.1.2 had
+ performance degradations.
+
+ * Command line completion code was inadvertently made incompatible with
+ older versions of bash by using a newer array notation.
+
+ * Scripts to test bash completion was inherently flaky as it was
+ affected by whatever random things the user may have on $PATH.
+
+ * A fix was added to the build procedure to work around buggy
+ versions of ccache broke the auto-generation of dependencies, which
+ unfortunately is still relevant because some people use ancient
+ distros.
+
+ * We used to stuff "user@" and then append what we read from
+ /etc/mailname to come up with a default e-mail ident, but a bug
+ lost the "user@" part.
+
+ * "git am" did not parse datestamp correctly from Hg generated patch,
+ when it is run in a locale outside C (or en).
+
+ * Attempt to "branch --edit-description" an existing branch, while
+ being on a detached HEAD, errored out.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" did not replay a root commit to an unborn branch.
+
+ * We forgot to close the file descriptor reading from "gpg" output,
+ killing "git log --show-signature" on a long history.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" lost empty merges in recent versions
+ of Git.
+
+ * Rebasing the history of superproject with change in the submodule
+ has been broken since v1.7.12.
+
+ * A failure to push due to non-ff while on an unborn branch
+ dereferenced a NULL pointer when showing an error message.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..22af1d1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,11 @@
+Git 1.8.1.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.3
+--------------------
+
+ * "git imap-send" talking over imaps:// did make sure it received a
+ valid certificate from the other end, but did not check if the
+ certificate matched the host it thought it was talking to.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..efa68ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,47 @@
+Git 1.8.1.5 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.4
+--------------------
+
+ * Given a string with a multi-byte character that begins with '-' on
+ the command line where an option is expected, the option parser
+ used just one byte of the unknown letter when reporting an error.
+
+ * In v1.8.1, the attribute parser was tightened too restrictive to
+ error out upon seeing an entry that begins with an ! (exclamation),
+ which may confuse users to expect a "negative match", which does
+ not exist. This has been demoted to a warning; such an entry is
+ still ignored.
+
+ * "git apply --summary" has been taught to make sure the similarity
+ value shown in its output is sensible, even when the input had a
+ bogus value.
+
+ * "git clean" showed what it was going to do, but sometimes ended
+ up finding that it was not allowed to do so, which resulted in a
+ confusing output (e.g. after saying that it will remove an
+ untracked directory, it found an embedded git repository there
+ which it is not allowed to remove). It now performs the actions
+ and then reports the outcome more faithfully.
+
+ * "git clone" used to allow --bare and --separate-git-dir=$there
+ options at the same time, which was nonsensical.
+
+ * "git cvsimport" mishandled timestamps at DST boundary.
+
+ * We used to have an arbitrary 32 limit for combined diff input,
+ resulting in incorrect number of leading colons shown when showing
+ the "--raw --cc" output.
+
+ * The smart HTTP clients forgot to verify the content-type that comes
+ back from the server side to make sure that the request is being
+ handled properly.
+
+ * "git help remote-helpers" failed to find the documentation.
+
+ * "gitweb" pages served over HTTPS, when configured to show picon or
+ gravatar, referred to these external resources to be fetched via
+ HTTP, resulting in mixed contents warning in browsers.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c15cf2e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+Git 1.8.1.6 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1.5
+--------------------
+
+ * An earlier change to the attribute system introduced at v1.8.1.2 by
+ mistake stopped a pattern "dir" (without trailing slash) from
+ matching a directory "dir" (it only wanted to allow pattern "dir/"
+ to also match).
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems can get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and looped forever.
+
+ * When the "--prefix" option is used to "checkout-index", the code
+ did not pick the correct output filter based on the attribute
+ setting.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to the ls-remote and fetch with recent version of Git.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+Also contains various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d6f9555
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,241 @@
+Git v1.8.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+In the next major release (not *this* one), we will change the
+behavior of the "git push" command.
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). We will use the "simple" semantics that pushes the
+current branch to the branch with the same name, only when the current
+branch is set to integrate with that remote branch. There is a user
+preference configuration variable "push.default" to change this, and
+"git push" will warn about the upcoming change until you set this
+variable in this release.
+
+"git branch --set-upstream" is deprecated and may be removed in a
+relatively distant future. "git branch [-u|--set-upstream-to]" has
+been introduced with a saner order of arguments to replace it.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.0
+--------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Command-line completion scripts for tcsh and zsh have been added.
+
+ * "git-prompt" scriptlet (in contrib/completion) can be told to paint
+ pieces of the hints in the prompt string in colors.
+
+ * Some documentation pages that used to ship only in the plain text
+ format are now formatted in HTML as well.
+
+ * We used to have a workaround for a bug in ancient "less" that
+ causes it to exit without any output when the terminal is resized.
+ The bug has been fixed in "less" version 406 (June 2007), and the
+ workaround has been removed in this release.
+
+ * When "git checkout" checks out a branch, it tells the user how far
+ behind (or ahead) the new branch is relative to the remote tracking
+ branch it builds upon. The message now also advises how to sync
+ them up by pushing or pulling. This can be disabled with the
+ advice.statusHints configuration variable.
+
+ * "git config --get" used to diagnose presence of multiple
+ definitions of the same variable in the same configuration file as
+ an error, but it now applies the "last one wins" rule used by the
+ internal configuration logic. Strictly speaking, this may be an
+ API regression but it is expected that nobody will notice it in
+ practice.
+
+ * A new configuration variable "diff.context" can be used to
+ give the default number of context lines in the patch output, to
+ override the hardcoded default of 3 lines.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned the "--notes=<ref>" option to give
+ notes for the commit after the three-dash lines in its output.
+
+ * "git log -p -S<string>" now looks for the <string> after applying
+ the textconv filter (if defined); earlier it inspected the contents
+ of the blobs without filtering.
+
+ * "git log --grep=<pcre>" learned to honor the "grep.patterntype"
+ configuration set to "perl".
+
+ * "git replace -d <object>" now interprets <object> as an extended
+ SHA-1 (e.g. HEAD~4 is allowed), instead of only accepting full hex
+ object name.
+
+ * "git rm $submodule" used to punt on removing a submodule working
+ tree to avoid losing the repository embedded in it. Because
+ recent git uses a mechanism to separate the submodule repository
+ from the submodule working tree, "git rm" learned to detect this
+ case and removes the submodule working tree when it is safe to do so.
+
+ * "git send-email" used to prompt for the sender address, even when
+ the committer identity is well specified (e.g. via user.name and
+ user.email configuration variables). The command no longer gives
+ this prompt when not necessary.
+
+ * "git send-email" did not allow non-address garbage strings to
+ appear after addresses on Cc: lines in the patch files (and when
+ told to pick them up to find more recipients), e.g.
+
+ Cc: Stable Kernel <stable@k.org> # for v3.2 and up
+
+ The command now strips " # for v3.2 and up" part before adding the
+ remainder of this line to the list of recipients.
+
+ * "git submodule add" learned to add a new submodule at the same
+ path as the path where an unrelated submodule was bound to in an
+ existing revision via the "--name" option.
+
+ * "git submodule sync" learned the "--recursive" option.
+
+ * "diff.submodule" configuration variable can be used to give custom
+ default value to the "git diff --submodule" option.
+
+ * "git symbolic-ref" learned the "-d $symref" option to delete the
+ named symbolic ref, which is more intuitive way to spell it than
+ "update-ref -d --no-deref $symref".
+
+
+Foreign Interface
+
+ * "git cvsimport" can be told to record timezones (other than GMT)
+ per-author via its author info file.
+
+ * The remote helper interface to interact with subversion
+ repositories (one of the GSoC 2012 projects) has been merged.
+
+ * A new remote-helper interface for Mercurial has been added to
+ contrib/remote-helpers.
+
+ * The documentation for git(1) was pointing at a page at an external
+ site for the list of authors that no longer existed. The link has
+ been updated to point at an alternative site.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * Compilation on Cygwin with newer header files are supported now.
+
+ * A couple of low-level implementation updates on MinGW.
+
+ * The logic to generate the initial advertisement from "upload-pack"
+ (i.e. what is invoked by "git fetch" on the other side of the
+ connection) to list what refs are available in the repository has
+ been optimized.
+
+ * The logic to find set of attributes that match a given path has
+ been optimized.
+
+ * Use preloadindex in "git diff-index" and "git update-index", which
+ has a nice speedup on systems with slow stat calls (and even on
+ Linux).
+
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.0
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.0 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * The configuration parser had an unnecessary hardcoded limit on
+ variable names that was not checked consistently.
+
+ * The "say" function in the test scaffolding incorrectly allowed
+ "echo" to interpret "\a" as if it were a C-string asking for a
+ BEL output.
+
+ * "git mergetool" feeds /dev/null as a common ancestor when dealing
+ with an add/add conflict, but p4merge backend cannot handle
+ it. Work it around by passing a temporary empty file.
+
+ * "git log -F -E --grep='<ere>'" failed to use the given <ere>
+ pattern as extended regular expression, and instead looked for the
+ string literally.
+
+ * "git grep -e pattern <tree>" asked the attribute system to read
+ "<tree>:.gitattributes" file in the working tree, which was
+ nonsense.
+
+ * A symbolic ref refs/heads/SYM was not correctly removed with "git
+ branch -d SYM"; the command removed the ref pointed by SYM
+ instead.
+
+ * Update "remote tracking branch" in the documentation to
+ "remote-tracking branch".
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" run while the HEAD is detached tried to find
+ the upstream branch of the detached HEAD (which by definition
+ does not exist) and emitted unnecessary error messages.
+
+ * The refs/replace hierarchy was not mentioned in the
+ repository-layout docs.
+
+ * Various rfc2047 quoting issues around a non-ASCII name on the
+ From: line in the output from format-patch have been corrected.
+
+ * Sometimes curl_multi_timeout() function suggested a wrong timeout
+ value when there is no file descriptor to wait on and the http
+ transport ended up sleeping for minutes in select(2) system call.
+ A workaround has been added for this.
+
+ * For a fetch refspec (or the result of applying wildcard on one),
+ we always want the RHS to map to something inside "refs/"
+ hierarchy, but the logic to check it was not exactly right.
+ (merge 5c08c1f jc/maint-fetch-tighten-refname-check later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff -G<pattern>" did not honor textconv filter when looking
+ for changes.
+
+ * Some HTTP servers ask for auth only during the actual packing phase
+ (not in ls-remote phase); this is not really a recommended
+ configuration, but the clients used to fail to authenticate with
+ such servers.
+ (merge 2e736fd jk/maint-http-half-auth-fetch later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" used to try expanding malformed "$keyword$" that spans
+ across multiple lines.
+
+ * Syntax highlighting in "gitweb" was not quite working.
+
+ * RSS feed from "gitweb" had a xss hole in its title output.
+
+ * "git config --path $key" segfaulted on "[section] key" (a boolean
+ "true" spelled without "=", not "[section] key = true").
+
+ * "git checkout -b foo" while on an unborn branch did not say
+ "Switched to a new branch 'foo'" like other cases.
+
+ * Various codepaths have workaround for a common misconfiguration to
+ spell "UTF-8" as "utf8", but it was not used uniformly. Most
+ notably, mailinfo (which is used by "git am") lacked this support.
+
+ * We failed to mention a file without any content change but whose
+ permission bit was modified, or (worse yet) a new file without any
+ content in the "git diff --stat" output.
+
+ * When "--stat-count" hides a diffstat for binary contents, the total
+ number of added and removed lines at the bottom was computed
+ incorrectly.
+
+ * When "--stat-count" hides a diffstat for unmerged paths, the total
+ number of affected files at the bottom of the "diff --stat" output
+ was computed incorrectly.
+
+ * "diff --shortstat" miscounted the total number of affected files
+ when there were unmerged paths.
+
+ * "update-ref -d --deref SYM" to delete a ref through a symbolic ref
+ that points to it did not remove it correctly.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1354ad0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,115 @@
+Git v1.8.2.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2
+------------------
+
+ * An earlier change to the attribute system introduced at v1.8.1.2 by
+ mistake stopped a pattern "dir" (without trailing slash) from
+ matching a directory "dir" (it only wanted to allow pattern "dir/"
+ to also match).
+
+ * Verification of signed tags were not done correctly when not in C
+ or en/US locale.
+
+ * 'git commit -m "$msg"' used to add an extra newline even when
+ $msg already ended with one.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" option of "git describe", when used with
+ "--all" to allow refs that are not annotated tags to be used as a
+ base of description, did not restrict the output from the command
+ to those that match the given pattern.
+
+ * An aliased command spawned from a bare repository that does not say
+ it is bare with "core.bare = yes" is treated as non-bare by mistake.
+
+ * When "format-patch" quoted a non-ascii strings on the header files,
+ it incorrectly applied rfc2047 and chopped a single character in
+ the middle of it.
+
+ * "git archive" reports a failure when asked to create an archive out
+ of an empty tree. It would be more intuitive to give an empty
+ archive back in such a case.
+
+ * "git tag -f <tag>" always said "Updated tag '<tag>'" even when
+ creating a new tag (i.e. not overwriting nor updating).
+
+ * "git cmd -- ':(top'" was not diagnosed as an invalid syntax, and
+ instead the parser kept reading beyond the end of the string.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to the ls-remote and fetch with recent version of Git.
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems can get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and looped forever.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
+ acccumulate the prefix paths.
+
+ * "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
+ filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
+ sort messages in the order the writing MUA meant to, by sorting
+ numeric segment in numeric order and non-numeric segment in
+ alphabetical order.
+
+ * When export-subst is used, "zip" output recorded incorrect
+ size of the file.
+
+ * Some platforms and users spell UTF-8 differently; retry with the
+ most official "UTF-8" when the system does not understand the
+ user-supplied encoding name that are the common alternative
+ spellings of UTF-8.
+
+ * "git branch" did not bother to check nonsense command line
+ parameters and issue errors in many cases.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * "git index-pack" had a buffer-overflow while preparing an
+ informational message when the translated version of it was too
+ long.
+
+ * Clarify in the documentation "what" gets pushed to "where" when the
+ command line to "git push" does not say these explicitly.
+
+ * In "git reflog expire", REACHABLE bit was not cleared from the
+ correct objects.
+
+ * The "--color=<when>" argument to the commands in the diff family
+ was described poorly.
+
+ * The arguments given to pre-rebase hook were not documented.
+
+ * The v4 index format was not documented.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" argument "git describe" takes uses glob
+ pattern but it wasn't obvious from the documentation.
+
+ * Some sources failed to compile on systems that lack NI_MAXHOST in
+ their system header (e.g. z/OS).
+
+ * Add an example use of "--env-filter" in "filter-branch"
+ documentation.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+ * In the v1.8.0 era, we changed symbols that do not have to be global
+ to file scope static, but a few functions in graph.c were used by
+ CGit from sideways bypassing the entry points of the API the
+ in-tree users use.
+
+ * "git merge-tree" had a typo in the logic to detect d/f conflicts,
+ which caused it to segfault in some cases.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc606ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,495 @@
+Git v1.8.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (this release)
+-------------------------------------------
+
+"git push $there tag v1.2.3" used to allow replacing a tag v1.2.3
+that already exists in the repository $there, if the rewritten tag
+you are pushing points at a commit that is a descendant of a commit
+that the old tag v1.2.3 points at. This was found to be error prone
+and starting with this release, any attempt to update an existing
+ref under refs/tags/ hierarchy will fail, without "--force".
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A" that does not specify what paths
+to add on the command line is run from inside a subdirectory, the
+scope of the operation has always been limited to the subdirectory.
+Many users found this counter-intuitive, given that "git commit -a"
+and other commands operate on the entire tree regardless of where you
+are. In this release, these commands give a warning message that
+suggests the users to use "git add -u/-A ." when they want to limit
+the scope to the current directory; doing so will squelch the message,
+while training their fingers.
+
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes the current branch to the branch with the same
+name, only when the current branch is set to integrate with that
+remote branch. There is a user preference configuration variable
+"push.default" to change this. If you are an old-timer who is used
+to the "matching" semantics, you can set it to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early,
+you can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A", that does not specify what paths
+to add on the command line is run from inside a subdirectory, these
+commands will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. Because there will be no
+mechanism to make "git add -u" behave as if "git add -u .", it is
+important for those who are used to "git add -u" (without pathspec)
+updating the index only for paths in the current subdirectory to start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ." when they mean
+it before Git 2.0 comes.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.1
+--------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Initial ports to QNX and z/OS UNIX System Services have started.
+
+ * Output from the tests is coloured using "green is okay, yellow is
+ questionable, red is bad and blue is informative" scheme.
+
+ * Mention of "GIT/Git/git" in the documentation have been updated to
+ be more uniform and consistent. The name of the system and the
+ concept it embodies is "Git"; the command the users type is "git".
+ All-caps "GIT" was merely a way to imitate "Git" typeset in small
+ caps in our ASCII text only documentation and to be avoided.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/completion) used to let the
+ default completer to suggest pathnames, which gave too many
+ irrelevant choices (e.g. "git add" would not want to add an
+ unmodified path). It learnt to use a more git-aware logic to
+ enumerate only relevant ones.
+
+ * In bare repositories, "git shortlog" and other commands now read
+ mailmap files from the tip of the history, to help running these
+ tools in server settings.
+
+ * Color specifiers, e.g. "%C(blue)Hello%C(reset)", used in the
+ "--format=" option of "git log" and friends can be disabled when
+ the output is not sent to a terminal by prefixing them with
+ "auto,", e.g. "%C(auto,blue)Hello%C(auto,reset)".
+
+ * Scripts can ask Git that wildcard patterns in pathspecs they give do
+ not have any significance, i.e. take them as literal strings.
+
+ * The patterns in .gitignore and .gitattributes files can have **/,
+ as a pattern that matches 0 or more levels of subdirectory.
+ E.g. "foo/**/bar" matches "bar" in "foo" itself or in a
+ subdirectory of "foo".
+
+ * When giving arguments without "--" disambiguation, object names
+ that come earlier on the command line must not be interpretable as
+ pathspecs and pathspecs that come later on the command line must
+ not be interpretable as object names. This disambiguation rule has
+ been tweaked so that ":/" (no other string before or after) is
+ always interpreted as a pathspec; "git cmd -- :/" is no longer
+ needed, you can just say "git cmd :/".
+
+ * Various "hint" lines Git gives when it asks the user to edit
+ messages in the editor are commented out with '#' by default. The
+ core.commentchar configuration variable can be used to customize
+ this '#' to a different character.
+
+ * "git add -u" and "git add -A" without pathspec issues warning to
+ make users aware that they are only operating on paths inside the
+ subdirectory they are in. Use ":/" (everything from the top) or
+ "." (everything from the $cwd) to disambiguate.
+
+ * "git blame" (and "git diff") learned the "--no-follow" option.
+
+ * "git branch" now rejects some nonsense combinations of command line
+ arguments (e.g. giving more than one branch name to rename) with
+ more case-specific error messages.
+
+ * "git check-ignore" command to help debugging .gitignore files has
+ been added.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" can be used to replay a root commit to an unborn
+ branch.
+
+ * "git commit" can be told to use --cleanup=whitespace by setting the
+ configuration variable commit.cleanup to 'whitespace'.
+
+ * "git diff" and other Porcelain commands can be told to use a
+ non-standard algorithm by setting diff.algorithm configuration
+ variable.
+
+ * "git fetch --mirror" and fetch that uses other forms of refspec
+ with wildcard used to attempt to update a symbolic ref that match
+ the wildcard on the receiving end, which made little sense (the
+ real ref that is pointed at by the symbolic ref would be updated
+ anyway). Symbolic refs no longer are affected by such a fetch.
+
+ * "git format-patch" now detects more cases in which a whole branch
+ is being exported, and uses the description for the branch, when
+ asked to write a cover letter for the series.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned "-v $count" option, and prepends a
+ string "v$count-" to the names of its output files, and also
+ automatically sets the subject prefix to "PATCH v$count". This
+ allows patches from rerolled series to be stored under different
+ names and makes it easier to reuse cover letter messages.
+
+ * "git log" and friends can be told with --use-mailmap option to
+ rewrite the names and email addresses of people using the mailmap
+ mechanism.
+
+ * "git log --cc --graph" now shows the combined diff output with the
+ ancestry graph.
+
+ * "git log --grep=<pattern>" honors i18n.logoutputencoding to look
+ for the pattern after fixing the log message to the specified
+ encoding.
+
+ * "git mergetool" and "git difftool" learned to list the available
+ tool backends in a more consistent manner.
+
+ * "git mergetool" is aware of TortoiseGitMerge now and uses it over
+ TortoiseMerge when available.
+
+ * "git push" now requires "-f" to update a tag, even if it is a
+ fast-forward, as tags are meant to be fixed points.
+
+ * Error messages from "git push" when it stops to prevent remote refs
+ from getting overwritten by mistake have been improved to explain
+ various situations separately.
+
+ * "git push" will stop without doing anything if the new "pre-push"
+ hook exists and exits with a failure.
+
+ * When "git rebase" fails to generate patches to be applied (e.g. due
+ to oom), it failed to detect the failure and instead behaved as if
+ there were nothing to do. A workaround to use a temporary file has
+ been applied, but we probably would want to revisit this later, as
+ it hurts the common case of not failing at all.
+
+ * Input and preconditions to "git reset" has been loosened where
+ appropriate. "git reset $fromtree Makefile" requires $fromtree to
+ be any tree (it used to require it to be a commit), for example.
+ "git reset" (without options or parameters) used to error out when
+ you do not have any commits in your history, but it now gives you
+ an empty index (to match non-existent commit you are not even on).
+
+ * "git status" says what branch is being bisected or rebased when
+ able, not just "bisecting" or "rebasing".
+
+ * "git submodule" started learning a new mode to integrate with the
+ tip of the remote branch (as opposed to integrating with the commit
+ recorded in the superproject's gitlink).
+
+ * "git upload-pack" which implements the service "ls-remote" and
+ "fetch" talk to can be told to hide ref hierarchies the server
+ side internally uses (and that clients have no business learning
+ about) with transfer.hiderefs configuration.
+
+
+Foreign Interface
+
+ * "git fast-export" has been updated for its use in the context of
+ the remote helper interface.
+
+ * A new remote helper to interact with bzr has been added to contrib/.
+
+ * "git p4" got various bugfixes around its branch handling. It is
+ also made usable with Python 2.4/2.5. In addition, its various
+ portability issues for Cygwin have been addressed.
+
+ * The remote helper to interact with Hg in contrib/ has seen a few
+ fixes.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * "git fsck" has been taught to be pickier about entries in tree
+ objects that should not be there, e.g. ".", ".git", and "..".
+
+ * Matching paths with common forms of pathspecs that contain wildcard
+ characters has been optimized further.
+
+ * We stopped paying attention to $GIT_CONFIG environment that points
+ at a single configuration file from any command other than "git config"
+ quite a while ago, but "git clone" internally set, exported, and
+ then unexported the variable during its operation unnecessarily.
+
+ * "git reset" internals has been reworked and should be faster in
+ general. We tried to be careful not to break any behaviour but
+ there could be corner cases, especially when running the command
+ from a conflicted state, that we may have missed.
+
+ * The implementation of "imap-send" has been updated to reuse xml
+ quoting code from http-push codepath, and lost a lot of unused
+ code.
+
+ * There is a simple-minded checker for the test scripts in t/
+ directory to catch most common mistakes (it is not enabled by
+ default).
+
+ * You can build with USE_WILDMATCH=YesPlease to use a replacement
+ implementation of pattern matching logic used for pathname-like
+ things, e.g. refnames and paths in the repository. This new
+ implementation is not expected change the existing behaviour of Git
+ in this release, except for "git for-each-ref" where you can now
+ say "refs/**/master" and match with both refs/heads/master and
+ refs/remotes/origin/master. We plan to use this new implementation
+ in wider places (e.g. "git ls-files '**/Makefile' may find Makefile
+ at the top-level, and "git log '**/t*.sh'" may find commits that
+ touch a shell script whose name begins with "t" at any level) in
+ future versions of Git, but we are not there yet. By building with
+ USE_WILDMATCH, using the resulting Git daily and reporting when you
+ find breakages, you can help us get closer to that goal.
+
+ * Some reimplementations of Git do not write all the stat info back
+ to the index due to their implementation limitations (e.g. jgit).
+ A configuration option can tell Git to ignore changes to most of
+ the stat fields and only pay attention to mtime and size, which
+ these implementations can reliably update. This can be used to
+ avoid excessive revalidation of contents.
+
+ * Some platforms ship with old version of expat where xmlparse.h
+ needs to be included instead of expat.h; the build procedure has
+ been taught about this.
+
+ * "make clean" on platforms that cannot compute header dependencies
+ on the fly did not work with implementations of "rm" that do not
+ like an empty argument list.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.1 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES list that does not name the
+ real path to a directory (i.e. a symbolic link) could have caused
+ the GIT_DIR discovery logic to escape the ceiling.
+
+ * When attempting to read the XDG-style $HOME/.config/git/config and
+ finding that $HOME/.config/git is a file, we gave a wrong error
+ message, instead of treating the case as "a custom config file does
+ not exist there" and moving on.
+
+ * The behaviour visible to the end users was confusing, when they
+ attempt to kill a process spawned in the editor that was in turn
+ launched by Git with SIGINT (or SIGQUIT), as Git would catch that
+ signal and die. We ignore these signals now.
+ (merge 0398fc34 pf/editor-ignore-sigint later to maint).
+
+ * A child process that was killed by a signal (e.g. SIGINT) was
+ reported in an inconsistent way depending on how the process was
+ spawned by us, with or without a shell in between.
+
+ * After failing to create a temporary file using mkstemp(), failing
+ pathname was not reported correctly on some platforms.
+
+ * We used to stuff "user@" and then append what we read from
+ /etc/mailname to come up with a default e-mail ident, but a bug
+ lost the "user@" part.
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does. The initial implementation of this that
+ was merged to 'maint' and 1.8.1.2 was with a severe performance
+ degradations and needs to merge a fix-up topic.
+
+ * The smart HTTP clients forgot to verify the content-type that comes
+ back from the server side to make sure that the request is being
+ handled properly.
+
+ * "git am" did not parse datestamp correctly from Hg generated patch,
+ when it is run in a locale outside C (or en).
+
+ * "git apply" misbehaved when fixing whitespace breakages by removing
+ excess trailing blank lines.
+
+ * "git apply --summary" has been taught to make sure the similarity
+ value shown in its output is sensible, even when the input had a
+ bogus value.
+
+ * A tar archive created by "git archive" recorded a directory in a
+ way that made NetBSD's implementation of "tar" sometimes unhappy.
+
+ * "git archive" did not record uncompressed size in the header when
+ streaming a zip archive, which confused some implementations of unzip.
+
+ * "git archive" did not parse configuration values in tar.* namespace
+ correctly.
+ (merge b3873c3 jk/config-parsing-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Attempt to "branch --edit-description" an existing branch, while
+ being on a detached HEAD, errored out.
+
+ * "git clean" showed what it was going to do, but sometimes end up
+ finding that it was not allowed to do so, which resulted in a
+ confusing output (e.g. after saying that it will remove an
+ untracked directory, it found an embedded git repository there
+ which it is not allowed to remove). It now performs the actions
+ and then reports the outcome more faithfully.
+
+ * When "git clone --separate-git-dir=$over_there" is interrupted, it
+ failed to remove the real location of the $GIT_DIR it created.
+ This was most visible when interrupting a submodule update.
+
+ * "git cvsimport" mishandled timestamps at DST boundary.
+
+ * We used to have an arbitrary 32 limit for combined diff input,
+ resulting in incorrect number of leading colons shown when showing
+ the "--raw --cc" output.
+
+ * "git fetch --depth" was broken in at least three ways. The
+ resulting history was deeper than specified by one commit, it was
+ unclear how to wipe the shallowness of the repository with the
+ command, and documentation was misleading.
+ (merge cfb70e1 nd/fetch-depth-is-broken later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --all -p" that walked refs/notes/textconv/ ref can later
+ try to use the textconv data incorrectly after it gets freed.
+
+ * We forgot to close the file descriptor reading from "gpg" output,
+ killing "git log --show-signature" on a long history.
+
+ * The way "git svn" asked for password using SSH_ASKPASS and
+ GIT_ASKPASS was not in line with the rest of the system.
+
+ * The --graph code fell into infinite loop when asked to do what the
+ code did not expect.
+
+ * http transport was wrong to ask for the username when the
+ authentication is done by certificate identity.
+
+ * "git pack-refs" that ran in parallel to another process that
+ created new refs had a nasty race.
+
+ * Rebasing the history of superproject with change in the submodule
+ has been broken since v1.7.12.
+
+ * After "git add -N" and then writing a tree object out of the
+ index, the cache-tree data structure got corrupted.
+
+ * "git clone" used to allow --bare and --separate-git-dir=$there
+ options at the same time, which was nonsensical.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" lost empty merges in recent versions
+ of Git.
+
+ * "git merge --no-edit" computed who were involved in the work done
+ on the side branch, even though that information is to be discarded
+ without getting seen in the editor.
+
+ * "git merge" started calling prepare-commit-msg hook like "git
+ commit" does some time ago, but forgot to pay attention to the exit
+ status of the hook.
+
+ * A failure to push due to non-ff while on an unborn branch
+ dereferenced a NULL pointer when showing an error message.
+
+ * When users spell "cc:" in lowercase in the fake "header" in the
+ trailer part, "git send-email" failed to pick up the addresses from
+ there. As e-mail headers field names are case insensitive, this
+ script should follow suit and treat "cc:" and "Cc:" the same way.
+
+ * Output from "git status --ignored" showed an unexpected interaction
+ with "--untracked".
+
+ * "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
+ activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
+ nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
+
+ * "gitweb"'s code to sanitize control characters before passing it to
+ "highlight" filter lost known-to-be-safe control characters by
+ mistake.
+
+ * "gitweb" pages served over HTTPS, when configured to show picon or
+ gravatar, referred to these external resources to be fetched via
+ HTTP, resulting in mixed contents warning in browsers.
+
+ * When a line to be wrapped has a solid run of non space characters
+ whose length exactly is the wrap width, "git shortlog -w" failed
+ to add a newline after such a line.
+
+ * Command line completion leaked an unnecessary error message while
+ looking for possible matches with paths in <tree-ish>.
+
+ * Command line completion for "tcsh" emitted an unwanted space
+ after completing a single directory name.
+
+ * Command line completion code was inadvertently made incompatible with
+ older versions of bash by using a newer array notation.
+
+ * "git push" was taught to refuse updating the branch that is
+ currently checked out long time ago, but the user manual was left
+ stale.
+ (merge 50995ed wk/man-deny-current-branch-is-default-these-days later to maint).
+
+ * Some shells do not behave correctly when IFS is unset; work it
+ around by explicitly setting it to the default value.
+
+ * Some scripted programs written in Python did not get updated when
+ PYTHON_PATH changed.
+ (cherry-pick 96a4647fca54031974cd6ad1 later to maint).
+
+ * When autoconf is used, any build on a different commit always ran
+ "config.status --recheck" even when unnecessary.
+
+ * A fix was added to the build procedure to work around buggy
+ versions of ccache broke the auto-generation of dependencies, which
+ unfortunately is still relevant because some people use ancient
+ distros.
+
+ * The autoconf subsystem passed --mandir down to generated
+ config.mak.autogen but forgot to do the same for --htmldir.
+ (merge 55d9bf0 ct/autoconf-htmldir later to maint).
+
+ * A change made on v1.8.1.x maintenance track had a nasty regression
+ to break the build when autoconf is used.
+ (merge 7f1b697 jn/less-reconfigure later to maint).
+
+ * We have been carrying a translated and long-unmaintained copy of an
+ old version of the tutorial; removed.
+
+ * t0050 had tests expecting failures from a bug that was fixed some
+ time ago.
+
+ * t4014, t9502 and t0200 tests had various portability issues that
+ broke on OpenBSD.
+
+ * t9020 and t3600 tests had various portability issues.
+
+ * t9200 runs "cvs init" on a directory that already exists, but a
+ platform can configure this fail for the current user (e.g. you
+ need to be in the cvsadmin group on NetBSD 6.0).
+
+ * t9020 and t9810 had a few non-portable shell script construct.
+
+ * Scripts to test bash completion was inherently flaky as it was
+ affected by whatever random things the user may have on $PATH.
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES could be a "logical" pathname
+ that uses a symbolic link to point at somewhere else (e.g. /home/me
+ that points at /net/host/export/home/me, and the latter directory
+ is automounted). Earlier when Git saw such a pathname e.g. /home/me
+ on this environment variable, the "ceiling" mechanism did not take
+ effect. With this release (the fix has also been merged to the
+ v1.8.1.x maintenance series), elements on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
+ are by default checked for such aliasing coming from symbolic
+ links. As this needs to actually resolve symbolic links for each
+ element on the GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, you can disable this
+ mechanism for some elements by listing them after an empty element
+ on the GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES. e.g. Setting /home/me::/home/him to
+ GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES makes Git resolve symbolic links in
+ /home/me when checking if the current directory is under /home/me,
+ but does not do so for /home/him.
+ (merge 7ec30aa mh/maint-ceil-absolute later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index c34c9d1..d0a4733 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -1,73 +1,5 @@
-Checklist (and a short version for the impatient):
-
- Commits:
-
- - make commits of logical units
- - check for unnecessary whitespace with "git diff --check"
- before committing
- - do not check in commented out code or unneeded files
- - the first line of the commit message should be a short
- description (50 characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION
- in git-commit(1)), and should skip the full stop
- - it is also conventional in most cases to prefix the
- first line with "area: " where the area is a filename
- or identifier for the general area of the code being
- modified, e.g.
- . archive: ustar header checksum is computed unsigned
- . git-cherry-pick.txt: clarify the use of revision range notation
- (if in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges"
- on the files you are modifying to see the current conventions)
- - the body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
- . explains the problem the change tries to solve, iow, what
- is wrong with the current code without the change.
- . justifies the way the change solves the problem, iow, why
- the result with the change is better.
- . alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
- - describe changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
- instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed
- xyzzy to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase
- to change its behaviour.
- - try to make sure your explanation can be understood without
- external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
- archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
- - add a "Signed-off-by: Your Name <you@example.com>" line to the
- commit message (or just use the option "-s" when committing)
- to confirm that you agree to the Developer's Certificate of Origin
- - make sure that you have tests for the bug you are fixing
- - make sure that the test suite passes after your commit
-
- Patch:
-
- - use "git format-patch -M" to create the patch
- - do not PGP sign your patch
- - do not attach your patch, but read in the mail
- body, unless you cannot teach your mailer to
- leave the formatting of the patch alone.
- - be careful doing cut & paste into your mailer, not to
- corrupt whitespaces.
- - provide additional information (which is unsuitable for
- the commit message) between the "---" and the diffstat
- - if you change, add, or remove a command line option or
- make some other user interface change, the associated
- documentation should be updated as well.
- - if your name is not writable in ASCII, make sure that
- you send off a message in the correct encoding.
- - send the patch to the list (git@vger.kernel.org) and the
- maintainer (gitster@pobox.com) if (and only if) the patch
- is ready for inclusion. If you use git-send-email(1),
- please test it first by sending email to yourself.
- - see below for instructions specific to your mailer
-
-Long version:
-
-I started reading over the SubmittingPatches document for Linux
-kernel, primarily because I wanted to have a document similar to
-it for the core GIT to make sure people understand what they are
-doing when they write "Signed-off-by" line.
-
-But the patch submission requirements are a lot more relaxed
-here on the technical/contents front, because the core GIT is
-thousand times smaller ;-). So here is only the relevant bits.
+Here are some guidelines for people who want to contribute their code
+to this software.
(0) Decide what to base your work on.
@@ -94,6 +26,10 @@ change is relevant to.
wait until some of the dependent topics graduate to 'master', and
rebase your work.
+ - Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
+ repositories (see the section "Subsystems" below). Changes to
+ these parts should be based on their trees.
+
To find the tip of a topic branch, run "git log --first-parent
master..pu" and look for the merge commit. The second parent of this
commit is the tip of the topic branch.
@@ -121,36 +57,81 @@ change, the approach taken by the change, and if relevant how this
differs substantially from the prior version, are all good things
to have.
+Make sure that you have tests for the bug you are fixing.
+
+When adding a new feature, make sure that you have new tests to show
+the feature triggers the new behaviour when it should, and to show the
+feature does not trigger when it shouldn't. Also make sure that the
+test suite passes after your commit. Do not forget to update the
+documentation to describe the updated behaviour.
+
Oh, another thing. I am picky about whitespaces. Make sure your
changes do not trigger errors with the sample pre-commit hook shipped
in templates/hooks--pre-commit. To help ensure this does not happen,
run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
-(2) Generate your patch using git tools out of your commits.
+(2) Describe your changes well.
+
+The first line of the commit message should be a short description (50
+characters is the soft limit, see DISCUSSION in git-commit(1)), and
+should skip the full stop. It is also conventional in most cases to
+prefix the first line with "area: " where the area is a filename or
+identifier for the general area of the code being modified, e.g.
+
+ . archive: ustar header checksum is computed unsigned
+ . git-cherry-pick.txt: clarify the use of revision range notation
+
+If in doubt which identifier to use, run "git log --no-merges" on the
+files you are modifying to see the current conventions.
+
+The body should provide a meaningful commit message, which:
-git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
+ . explains the problem the change tries to solve, iow, what is wrong
+ with the current code without the change.
+
+ . justifies the way the change solves the problem, iow, why the
+ result with the change is better.
+
+ . alternate solutions considered but discarded, if any.
+
+Describe your changes in imperative mood, e.g. "make xyzzy do frotz"
+instead of "[This patch] makes xyzzy do frotz" or "[I] changed xyzzy
+to do frotz", as if you are giving orders to the codebase to change
+its behaviour. Try to make sure your explanation can be understood
+without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
+archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
+
+
+(3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
+
+Git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
receiving end can handle them just fine.
-Please make sure your patch does not include any extra files
-which do not belong in a patch submission. Make sure to review
+Please make sure your patch does not add commented out debugging code,
+or include any extra files which do not relate to what your patch
+is trying to achieve. Make sure to review
your patch after generating it, to ensure accuracy. Before
sending out, please make sure it cleanly applies to the "master"
branch head. If you are preparing a work based on "next" branch,
that is fine, but please mark it as such.
-(3) Sending your patches.
+(4) Sending your patches.
-People on the git mailing list need to be able to read and
+People on the Git mailing list need to be able to read and
comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
your code. For this reason, all patches should be submitted
-"inline". WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
+"inline". If your log message (including your name on the
+Signed-off-by line) is not writable in ASCII, make sure that
+you send off a message in the correct encoding.
+
+WARNING: Be wary of your MUAs word-wrap
corrupting your patch. Do not cut-n-paste your patch; you can
lose tabs that way if you are not careful.
@@ -174,7 +155,8 @@ message starts, you can put a "From: " line to name that person.
You often want to add additional explanation about the patch,
other than the commit message itself. Place such "cover letter"
-material between the three dash lines and the diffstat.
+material between the three dash lines and the diffstat. Git-notes
+can also be inserted using the `--notes` option.
Do not attach the patch as a MIME attachment, compressed or not.
Do not let your e-mail client send quoted-printable. Do not let
@@ -202,23 +184,29 @@ patch, format it as "multipart/signed", not a text/plain message
that starts with '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----'. That is
not a text/plain, it's something else.
-Unless your patch is a very trivial and an obviously correct one,
-first send it with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
+Send your patch with "To:" set to the mailing list, with "cc:" listing
people who are involved in the area you are touching (the output from
"git blame $path" and "git shortlog --no-merges $path" would help to
-identify them), to solicit comments and reviews. After the list
-reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the patch, re-send
-it with "To:" set to the maintainer and optionally "cc:" the list for
-inclusion. Do not forget to add trailers such as "Acked-by:",
-"Reviewed-by:" and "Tested-by:" after your "Signed-off-by:" line as
-necessary.
+identify them), to solicit comments and reviews.
+After the list reached a consensus that it is a good idea to apply the
+patch, re-send it with "To:" set to the maintainer [*1*] and "cc:" the
+list [*2*] for inclusion.
-(4) Sign your work
+Do not forget to add trailers such as "Acked-by:", "Reviewed-by:" and
+"Tested-by:" lines as necessary to credit people who helped your
+patch.
+
+ [Addresses]
+ *1* The current maintainer: gitster@pobox.com
+ *2* The mailing list: git@vger.kernel.org
+
+
+(5) Sign your work
To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
-that are being emailed around. Although core GIT is a lot
+that are being emailed around. Although core Git is a lot
smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
@@ -256,7 +244,7 @@ then you just add a line saying
Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
-This line can be automatically added by git if you run the git-commit
+This line can be automatically added by Git if you run the git-commit
command with the -s option.
Notice that you can place your own Signed-off-by: line when
@@ -285,6 +273,26 @@ You can also create your own tag or use one that's in common usage
such as "Thanks-to:", "Based-on-patch-by:", or "Mentored-by:".
------------------------------------------------
+Subsystems with dedicated maintainers
+
+Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
+repositories.
+
+ - git-gui/ comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
+
+ git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
+
+ - gitk-git/ comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
+
+ git://ozlabs.org/~paulus/gitk
+
+ - po/ comes from the localization coordinator, Jiang Xin:
+
+ https://github.com/git-l10n/git-po/
+
+Patches to these parts should be based on their trees.
+
+------------------------------------------------
An ideal patch flow
Here is an ideal patch flow for this project the current maintainer
@@ -329,7 +337,7 @@ Know the status of your patch after submission
tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
master).
-* Read the git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
+* Read the Git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
the status of various proposed changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 1273a85..2c16c53 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
#
# Note, {0} is the manpage section, while {target} is the command.
#
-# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
+# Show Git link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
# the command.
[macros]
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index d4a51da..b0d31df 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
running extra passes of inspection.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
-alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving/copying
+alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
within a file for it to associate those lines with the parent
commit. The default value is 20.
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@ commit. The default value is 20.
looks for copies from other files in any commit.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
-alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving/copying
+alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
between files for it to associate those lines with the parent
commit. And the default value is 40. If there are more than one
`-C` options given, the <num> argument of the last `-C` will
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index a16eda5..bc750d5 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -1,14 +1,14 @@
CONFIGURATION FILE
------------------
-The git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
-the git command's behavior. The `.git/config` file in each repository
+The Git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
+the Git commands' behavior. The `.git/config` file in each repository
is used to store the configuration for that repository, and
`$HOME/.gitconfig` is used to store a per-user configuration as
fallback values for the `.git/config` file. The file `/etc/gitconfig`
can be used to store a system-wide default configuration.
-The configuration variables are used by both the git plumbing
+The configuration variables are used by both the Git plumbing
and the porcelains. The variables are divided into sections, wherein
the fully qualified variable name of the variable itself is the last
dot-separated segment and the section name is everything before the last
@@ -140,10 +140,12 @@ advice.*::
can tell Git that you do not need help by setting these to 'false':
+
--
- pushNonFastForward::
+ pushUpdateRejected::
Set this variable to 'false' if you want to disable
- 'pushNonFFCurrent', 'pushNonFFDefault', and
- 'pushNonFFMatching' simultaneously.
+ 'pushNonFFCurrent', 'pushNonFFDefault',
+ 'pushNonFFMatching', 'pushAlreadyExists',
+ 'pushFetchFirst', and 'pushNeedsForce'
+ simultaneously.
pushNonFFCurrent::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-push[1] fails due to a
non-fast-forward update to the current branch.
@@ -158,11 +160,24 @@ advice.*::
'matching refs' explicitly (i.e. you used ':', or
specified a refspec that isn't your current branch) and
it resulted in a non-fast-forward error.
+ pushAlreadyExists::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ does not qualify for fast-forwarding (e.g., a tag.)
+ pushFetchFirst::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
+ object we do not have.
+ pushNeedsForce::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
+ object that is not a committish, or make the remote
+ ref point at an object that is not a committish.
statusHints::
Show directions on how to proceed from the current
- state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1] and in
+ state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1], in
the template shown when writing commit messages in
- linkgit:git-commit[1].
+ linkgit:git-commit[1], and in the help message shown
+ by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when switching branch.
statusUoption::
Advise to consider using the `-u` option to linkgit:git-status[1]
when the command takes more than 2 seconds to enumerate untracked
@@ -171,7 +186,7 @@ advice.*::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-merge[1] refuses to
merge to avoid overwriting local changes.
resolveConflict::
- Advices shown by various commands when conflicts
+ Advice shown by various commands when conflicts
prevent the operation from being performed.
implicitIdentity::
Advice on how to set your identity configuration when
@@ -208,9 +223,9 @@ core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
core.ignorecase::
If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
- git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
+ Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
- "makefile" when git expects "Makefile", git will assume
+ "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
"Makefile".
+
@@ -219,13 +234,13 @@ will probe and set core.ignorecase true if appropriate when the repository
is created.
core.precomposeunicode::
- This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of git.
- When core.precomposeunicode=true, git reverts the unicode decomposition
+ This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of Git.
+ When core.precomposeunicode=true, Git reverts the unicode decomposition
of filenames done by Mac OS. This is useful when sharing a repository
between Mac OS and Linux or Windows.
- (Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or git under cygwin 1.7).
- When false, file names are handled fully transparent by git,
- which is backward compatible with older versions of git.
+ (Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or Git under cygwin 1.7).
+ When false, file names are handled fully transparent by Git,
+ which is backward compatible with older versions of Git.
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
@@ -234,6 +249,12 @@ core.trustctime::
crawlers and some backup systems).
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+core.checkstat::
+ Determines which stat fields to match between the index
+ and work tree. The user can set this to 'default' or
+ 'minimal'. Default (or explicitly 'default'), is to check
+ all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
+
core.quotepath::
The commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files',
'diff'), when not given the `-z` option, will quote
@@ -255,20 +276,20 @@ core.eol::
conversion.
core.safecrlf::
- If true, makes git check if converting `CRLF` is reversible when
+ If true, makes Git check if converting `CRLF` is reversible when
end-of-line conversion is active. Git will verify if a command
modifies a file in the work tree either directly or indirectly.
For example, committing a file followed by checking out the
same file should yield the original file in the work tree. If
this is not the case for the current setting of
- `core.autocrlf`, git will reject the file. The variable can
- be set to "warn", in which case git will only warn about an
+ `core.autocrlf`, Git will reject the file. The variable can
+ be set to "warn", in which case Git will only warn about an
irreversible conversion but continue the operation.
+
CRLF conversion bears a slight chance of corrupting data.
-When it is enabled, git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to
+When it is enabled, Git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to
CRLF during checkout. A file that contains a mixture of LF and
-CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by git. For text
+CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by Git. For text
files this is the right thing to do: it corrects line endings
such that we have only LF line endings in the repository.
But for binary files that are accidentally classified as text the
@@ -278,7 +299,7 @@ If you recognize such corruption early you can easily fix it by
setting the conversion type explicitly in .gitattributes. Right
after committing you still have the original file in your work
tree and this file is not yet corrupted. You can explicitly tell
-git that this file is binary and git will handle the file
+Git that this file is binary and Git will handle the file
appropriately.
+
Unfortunately, the desired effect of cleaning up text files with
@@ -323,7 +344,7 @@ is created.
core.gitProxy::
A "proxy command" to execute (as 'command host port') instead
of establishing direct connection to the remote server when
- using the git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
+ using the Git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
in the "COMMAND for DOMAIN" format, the command is applied only
on hostnames ending with the specified domain string. This variable
may be set multiple times and is matched in the given order;
@@ -382,7 +403,7 @@ Note that this variable is honored even when set in a configuration
file in a ".git" subdirectory of a directory and its value differs
from the latter directory (e.g. "/path/to/.git/config" has
core.worktree set to "/different/path"), which is most likely a
-misconfiguration. Running git commands in the "/path/to" directory will
+misconfiguration. Running Git commands in the "/path/to" directory will
still use "/different/path" as the root of the work tree and can cause
confusion unless you know what you are doing (e.g. you are creating a
read-only snapshot of the same index to a location different from the
@@ -414,7 +435,7 @@ core.sharedRepository::
several users in a group (making sure all the files and objects are
group-writable). When 'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody'), the
repository will be readable by all users, additionally to being
- group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), git will use permissions
+ group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), Git will use permissions
reported by umask(2). When '0xxx', where '0xxx' is an octal number,
files in the repository will have this mode value. '0xxx' will override
user's umask value (whereas the other options will only override
@@ -425,8 +446,8 @@ core.sharedRepository::
See linkgit:git-init[1]. False by default.
core.warnAmbiguousRefs::
- If true, git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
- and might match multiple refs in the .git/refs/ tree. True by default.
+ If true, Git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
+ and might match multiple refs in the repository. True by default.
core.compression::
An integer -1..9, indicating a default compression level.
@@ -497,7 +518,7 @@ Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
core.excludesfile::
In addition to '.gitignore' (per-directory) and
- '.git/info/exclude', git looks into this file for patterns
+ '.git/info/exclude', Git looks into this file for patterns
of files which are not meant to be tracked. "`~/`" is expanded
to the value of `$HOME` and "`~user/`" to the specified user's
home directory. Its default value is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore.
@@ -515,7 +536,7 @@ core.askpass::
core.attributesfile::
In addition to '.gitattributes' (per-directory) and
- '.git/info/attributes', git looks into this file for attributes
+ '.git/info/attributes', Git looks into this file for attributes
(see linkgit:gitattributes[5]). Path expansions are made the same
way as for `core.excludesfile`. Its default value is
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not
@@ -527,29 +548,35 @@ core.editor::
variable when it is set, and the environment variable
`GIT_EDITOR` is not set. See linkgit:git-var[1].
+core.commentchar::
+ Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
+ messages consider a line that begins with this character
+ commented, and removes them after the editor returns
+ (default '#').
+
sequence.editor::
- Text editor used by `git rebase -i` for editing the rebase insn file.
+ Text editor used by `git rebase -i` for editing the rebase instruction file.
The value is meant to be interpreted by the shell when it is used.
It can be overridden by the `GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR` environment variable.
When not configured the default commit message editor is used instead.
core.pager::
- The command that git will use to paginate output. Can
+ The command that Git will use to paginate output. Can
be overridden with the `GIT_PAGER` environment
- variable. Note that git sets the `LESS` environment
+ variable. Note that Git sets the `LESS` environment
variable to `FRSX` if it is unset when it runs the
pager. One can change these settings by setting the
`LESS` variable to some other value. Alternately,
these settings can be overridden on a project or
global basis by setting the `core.pager` option.
- Setting `core.pager` has no affect on the `LESS`
+ Setting `core.pager` has no effect on the `LESS`
environment variable behaviour above, so if you want
- to override git's default settings this way, you need
+ to override Git's default settings this way, you need
to be explicit. For example, to disable the S option
in a backward compatible manner, set `core.pager`
- to `less -+$LESS -FRX`. This will be passed to the
- shell by git, which will translate the final command to
- `LESS=FRSX less -+FRSX -FRX`.
+ to `less -+S`. This will be passed to the shell by
+ Git, which will translate the final command to
+ `LESS=FRSX less -+S`.
core.whitespace::
A comma separated list of common whitespace problems to
@@ -577,7 +604,7 @@ core.whitespace::
does not trigger if the character before such a carriage-return
is not a whitespace (not enabled by default).
* `tabwidth=<n>` tells how many character positions a tab occupies; this
- is relevant for `indent-with-non-tab` and when git fixes `tab-in-indent`
+ is relevant for `indent-with-non-tab` and when Git fixes `tab-in-indent`
errors. The default tab width is 8. Allowed values are 1 to 63.
core.fsyncobjectfiles::
@@ -593,7 +620,7 @@ core.preloadindex::
+
This can speed up operations like 'git diff' and 'git status' especially
on filesystems like NFS that have weak caching semantics and thus
-relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', git will do the
+relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', Git will do the
index comparison to the filesystem data in parallel, allowing
overlapping IO's.
@@ -629,9 +656,9 @@ add.ignore-errors::
add.ignoreErrors::
Tells 'git add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
- option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of git accept only
+ option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of Git accept only
`add.ignore-errors`, which does not follow the usual naming
- convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of git
+ convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of Git
honor `add.ignoreErrors` as well.
alias.*::
@@ -639,7 +666,7 @@ alias.*::
after defining "alias.last = cat-file commit HEAD", the invocation
"git last" is equivalent to "git cat-file commit HEAD". To avoid
confusion and troubles with script usage, aliases that
- hide existing git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
+ hide existing Git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
spaces, the usual shell quoting and escaping is supported.
quote pair and a backslash can be used to quote them.
+
@@ -686,7 +713,7 @@ branch.autosetupmerge::
branch.autosetuprebase::
When a new branch is created with 'git branch' or 'git checkout'
- that tracks another branch, this variable tells git to set
+ that tracks another branch, this variable tells Git to set
up pull to rebase instead of merge (see "branch.<name>.rebase").
When `never`, rebase is never automatically set to true.
When `local`, rebase is set to true for tracked branches of
@@ -738,6 +765,12 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
for details).
+branch.<name>.description::
+ Branch description, can be edited with
+ `git branch --edit-description`. Branch description is
+ automatically added in the format-patch cover letter or
+ request-pull summary.
+
browser.<tool>.cmd::
Specify the command to invoke the specified browser. The
specified command is evaluated in shell with the URLs passed
@@ -861,7 +894,7 @@ color.status.<slot>::
one of `header` (the header text of the status message),
`added` or `updated` (files which are added but not committed),
`changed` (files which are changed but not added in the index),
- `untracked` (files which are not tracked by git),
+ `untracked` (files which are not tracked by Git),
`branch` (the current branch), or
`nobranch` (the color the 'no branch' warning is shown in, defaulting
to red). The values of these variables may be specified as in
@@ -875,7 +908,7 @@ color.ui::
to `always` if you want all output not intended for machine
consumption to use color, to `true` or `auto` if you want such
output to use color when written to the terminal, or to `false` or
- `never` if you prefer git commands not to use color unless enabled
+ `never` if you prefer Git commands not to use color unless enabled
explicitly with some other configuration or the `--color` option.
column.ui::
@@ -916,6 +949,15 @@ column.tag::
Specify whether to output tag listing in `git tag` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
+commit.cleanup::
+ This setting overrides the default of the `--cleanup` option in
+ `git commit`. See linkgit:git-commit[1] for details. Changing the
+ default can be useful when you always want to keep lines that begin
+ with comment character `#` in your log message, in which case you
+ would do `git config commit.cleanup whitespace` (note that you will
+ have to remove the help lines that begin with `#` in the commit log
+ template yourself, if you do this).
+
commit.status::
A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
@@ -983,7 +1025,7 @@ fetch.fsckObjects::
is used instead.
fetch.unpackLimit::
- If the number of objects fetched over the git native
+ If the number of objects fetched over the Git native
transfer is below this
limit, then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
files. However if the number of received objects equals or
@@ -1023,7 +1065,7 @@ format.subjectprefix::
format.signature::
The default for format-patch is to output a signature containing
- the git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
+ the Git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
Set this variable to the empty string ("") to suppress
signature generation.
@@ -1136,7 +1178,7 @@ gitcvs.logfile::
gitcvs.usecrlfattr::
If true, the server will look up the end-of-line conversion
attributes for files to determine the '-k' modes to use. If
- the attributes force git to treat a file as text,
+ the attributes force Git to treat a file as text,
the '-k' mode will be left blank so CVS clients will
treat it as text. If they suppress text conversion, the file
will be set with '-kb' mode, which suppresses any newline munging
@@ -1156,7 +1198,7 @@ gitcvs.allbinary::
gitcvs.dbname::
Database used by git-cvsserver to cache revision information
- derived from the git repository. The exact meaning depends on the
+ derived from the Git repository. The exact meaning depends on the
used database driver, for SQLite (which is the default driver) this
is a filename. Supports variable substitution (see
linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for details). May not contain semicolons (`;`).
@@ -1354,6 +1396,12 @@ help.autocorrect::
value is 0 - the command will be just shown but not executed.
This is the default.
+help.htmlpath::
+ Specify the path where the HTML documentation resides. File system paths
+ and URLs are supported. HTML pages will be prefixed with this path when
+ help is displayed in the 'web' format. This defaults to the documentation
+ path of your Git installation.
+
http.proxy::
Override the HTTP proxy, normally configured using the 'http_proxy',
'https_proxy', and 'all_proxy' environment variables (see
@@ -1362,7 +1410,7 @@ http.proxy::
http.cookiefile::
File containing previously stored cookie lines which should be used
- in the git http session, if they match the server. The file format
+ in the Git http session, if they match the server. The file format
of the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format (see linkgit:curl[1]).
NOTE that the file specified with http.cookiefile is only used as
@@ -1384,7 +1432,7 @@ http.sslKey::
variable.
http.sslCertPasswordProtected::
- Enable git's password prompt for the SSL certificate. Otherwise
+ Enable Git's password prompt for the SSL certificate. Otherwise
OpenSSL will prompt the user, possibly many times, if the
certificate or private key is encrypted. Can be overridden by the
'GIT_SSL_CERT_PASSWORD_PROTECTED' environment variable.
@@ -1431,7 +1479,7 @@ http.noEPSV::
http.useragent::
The HTTP USER_AGENT string presented to an HTTP server. The default
- value represents the version of the client git such as git/1.7.1.
+ value represents the version of the client Git such as git/1.7.1.
This option allows you to override this value to a more common value
such as Mozilla/4.0. This may be necessary, for instance, if
connecting through a firewall that restricts HTTP connections to a set
@@ -1439,7 +1487,7 @@ http.useragent::
Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT' environment variable.
i18n.commitEncoding::
- Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; git itself
+ Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; Git itself
does not care per se, but this information is necessary e.g. when
importing commits from emails or in the gitk graphical history
browser (and possibly at other places in the future or in other
@@ -1512,6 +1560,10 @@ log.showroot::
Tools like linkgit:git-log[1] or linkgit:git-whatchanged[1], which
normally hide the root commit will now show it. True by default.
+log.mailmap::
+ If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
+ linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`.
+
mailmap.file::
The location of an augmenting mailmap file. The default
mailmap, located in the root of the repository, is loaded
@@ -1520,6 +1572,14 @@ mailmap.file::
subdirectory, or somewhere outside of the repository itself.
See linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1].
+mailmap.blob::
+ Like `mailmap.file`, but consider the value as a reference to a
+ blob in the repository. If both `mailmap.file` and
+ `mailmap.blob` are given, both are parsed, with entries from
+ `mailmap.file` taking precedence. In a bare repository, this
+ defaults to `HEAD:.mailmap`. In a non-bare repository, it
+ defaults to empty.
+
man.viewer::
Specify the programs that may be used to display help in the
'man' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
@@ -1565,7 +1625,7 @@ mergetool.keepBackup::
`true` (i.e. keep the backup files).
mergetool.keepTemporaries::
- When invoking a custom merge tool, git uses a set of temporary
+ When invoking a custom merge tool, Git uses a set of temporary
files to pass to the tool. If the tool returns an error and this
variable is set to `true`, then these temporary files will be
preserved, otherwise they will be removed after the tool has
@@ -1593,7 +1653,7 @@ displayed.
notes.rewrite.<command>::
When rewriting commits with <command> (currently `amend` or
- `rebase`) and this variable is set to `true`, git
+ `rebase`) and this variable is set to `true`, Git
automatically copies your notes from the original to the
rewritten commit. Defaults to `true`, but see
"notes.rewriteRef" below.
@@ -1673,7 +1733,7 @@ pack.threads::
warning. This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search window
is however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and set the number of threads accordingly.
pack.indexVersion::
@@ -1685,11 +1745,11 @@ pack.indexVersion::
and this config option ignored whenever the corresponding pack is
larger than 2 GB.
+
-If you have an old git that does not understand the version 2 `*.idx` file,
+If you have an old Git that does not understand the version 2 `*.idx` file,
cloning or fetching over a non native protocol (e.g. "http" and "rsync")
that will copy both `*.pack` file and corresponding `*.idx` file from the
other side may give you a repository that cannot be accessed with your
-older version of git. If the `*.pack` file is smaller than 2 GB, however,
+older version of Git. If the `*.pack` file is smaller than 2 GB, however,
you can use linkgit:git-index-pack[1] on the *.pack file to regenerate
the `*.idx` file.
@@ -1704,7 +1764,7 @@ pack.packSizeLimit::
pager.<cmd>::
If the value is boolean, turns on or off pagination of the
- output of a particular git subcommand when writing to a tty.
+ output of a particular Git subcommand when writing to a tty.
Otherwise, turns on pagination for the subcommand using the
pager specified by the value of `pager.<cmd>`. If `--paginate`
or `--no-pager` is specified on the command line, it takes
@@ -1739,7 +1799,7 @@ pull.twohead::
The default merge strategy to use when pulling a single branch.
push.default::
- Defines the action git push should take if no refspec is given
+ Defines the action `git push` should take if no refspec is given
on the command line, no refspec is configured in the remote, and
no refspec is implied by any of the options given on the command
line. Possible values are:
@@ -1755,7 +1815,8 @@ push.default::
+
This is currently the default, but Git 2.0 will change the default
to `simple`.
-* `upstream` - push the current branch to its upstream branch.
+* `upstream` - push the current branch to its upstream branch
+ (`tracking` is a deprecated synonym for this).
With this, `git push` will update the same remote ref as the one which
is merged by `git pull`, making `push` and `pull` symmetrical.
See "branch.<name>.merge" for how to configure the upstream branch.
@@ -1824,6 +1885,15 @@ receive.denyNonFastForwards::
even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
set when initializing a shared repository.
+receive.hiderefs::
+ String(s) `receive-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
+ from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
+ definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
+ are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
+ variable is excluded, and is hidden when responding to `git
+ push`, and an attempt to update or delete a hidden ref by
+ `git push` is rejected.
+
receive.updateserverinfo::
If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
after receiving data from git-push and updating refs.
@@ -1879,7 +1949,7 @@ remote.<name>.tagopt::
linkgit:git-fetch[1].
remote.<name>.vcs::
- Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause git to interact with
+ Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause Git to interact with
the remote with the git-remote-<vcs> helper.
remotes.<group>::
@@ -1889,9 +1959,9 @@ remotes.<group>::
repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
By default, linkgit:git-repack[1] creates packs that use
delta-base offset. If you need to share your repository with
- git older than version 1.4.4, either directly or via a dumb
+ Git older than version 1.4.4, either directly or via a dumb
protocol such as http, then you need to set this option to
- "false" and repack. Access from old git versions over the
+ "false" and repack. Access from old Git versions over the
native protocol are unaffected by this option.
rerere.autoupdate::
@@ -1960,7 +2030,7 @@ showbranch.default::
status.relativePaths::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] shows paths relative to the
current directory. Setting this variable to `false` shows paths
- relative to the repository root (this was the default for git
+ relative to the repository root (this was the default for Git
prior to v1.5.4).
status.showUntrackedFiles::
@@ -1998,6 +2068,12 @@ submodule.<name>.update::
URL and other values found in the `.gitmodules` file. See
linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+submodule.<name>.branch::
+ The remote branch name for a submodule, used by `git submodule
+ update --remote`. Set this option to override the value found in
+ the `.gitmodules` file. See linkgit:git-submodule[1] and
+ linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+
submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
This option can be used to control recursive fetching of this
submodule. It can be overridden by using the --[no-]recurse-submodules
@@ -2030,18 +2106,32 @@ transfer.fsckObjects::
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
Defaults to false.
+transfer.hiderefs::
+ This variable can be used to set both `receive.hiderefs`
+ and `uploadpack.hiderefs` at the same time to the same
+ values. See entries for these other variables.
+
transfer.unpackLimit::
When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
The default value is 100.
+uploadpack.hiderefs::
+ String(s) `upload-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
+ from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
+ definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
+ are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
+ variable is excluded, and is hidden from `git ls-remote`,
+ `git fetch`, etc. An attempt to fetch a hidden ref by `git
+ fetch` will fail.
+
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
large number of repositories, and serves them with multiple
access methods, and some users need to use different access
methods, this feature allows people to specify any of the
- equivalent URLs and have git automatically rewrite the URL to
+ equivalent URLs and have Git automatically rewrite the URL to
the best alternative for the particular user, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
insteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is used.
@@ -2052,11 +2142,11 @@ url.<base>.pushInsteadOf::
resulting URL will be pushed to. In cases where some site serves
a large number of repositories, and serves them with multiple
access methods, some of which do not allow push, this feature
- allows people to specify a pull-only URL and have git
+ allows people to specify a pull-only URL and have Git
automatically use an appropriate URL to push, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
pushInsteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is
- used. If a remote has an explicit pushurl, git will ignore this
+ used. If a remote has an explicit pushurl, Git will ignore this
setting for that remote.
user.email::
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index c2b94f9..ac77050 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -56,6 +56,10 @@ diff.statGraphWidth::
Limit the width of the graph part in --stat output. If set, applies
to all commands generating --stat output except format-patch.
+diff.context::
+ Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the default
+ of 3. This value is overridden by the -U option.
+
diff.external::
If this config variable is set, diff generation is not
performed using the internal diff machinery, but using the
@@ -95,7 +99,7 @@ diff.renameLimit::
detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
diff.renames::
- Tells git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
+ Tells Git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
will enable basic rename detection. If set to "copies" or
"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
@@ -103,6 +107,13 @@ diff.suppressBlankEmpty::
A boolean to inhibit the standard behavior of printing a space
before each empty output line. Defaults to false.
+diff.submodule::
+ Specify the format in which differences in submodules are
+ shown. The "log" format lists the commits in the range like
+ linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary` does. The "short" format
+ format just shows the names of the commits at the beginning
+ and end of the range. Defaults to short.
+
diff.wordRegex::
A POSIX Extended Regular Expression used to determine what is a "word"
when performing word-by-word difference calculations. Character
@@ -138,9 +149,27 @@ diff.<driver>.cachetextconv::
conversion outputs. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff.tool::
- The diff tool to be used by linkgit:git-difftool[1]. This
- option overrides `merge.tool`, and has the same valid built-in
- values as `merge.tool` minus "tortoisemerge" and plus
- "kompare". Any other value is treated as a custom diff tool,
- and there must be a corresponding `difftool.<tool>.cmd`
- option.
+ Controls which diff tool is used by linkgit:git-difftool[1].
+ This variable overrides the value configured in `merge.tool`.
+ The list below shows the valid built-in values.
+ Any other value is treated as a custom diff tool and requires
+ that a corresponding difftool.<tool>.cmd variable is defined.
+
+include::mergetools-diff.txt[]
+
+diff.algorithm::
+ Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
++
+--
+`default`, `myers`;;
+ The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
+`minimal`;;
+ Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
+ produced.
+`patience`;;
+ Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
+`histogram`;;
+ This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
+ low-occurrence common elements".
+--
++
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 1fb6f2d..104579d 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -55,6 +55,26 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--histogram::
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
+--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}::
+ Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
++
+--
+`default`, `myers`;;
+ The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
+`minimal`;;
+ Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
+ produced.
+`patience`;;
+ Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
+`histogram`;;
+ This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
+ low-occurrence common elements".
+--
++
+For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
+non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
+have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
+
--stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]::
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
@@ -170,12 +190,13 @@ any of those replacements occurred.
the commits in the range like linkgit:git-submodule[1] `summary` does.
Omitting the `--submodule` option or specifying `--submodule=short`,
uses the 'short' format. This format just shows the names of the commits
- at the beginning and end of the range.
+ at the beginning and end of the range. Can be tweaked via the
+ `diff.submodule` configuration variable.
--color[=<when>]::
Show colored diff.
- The value must be `always` (the default for `<when>`), `never`, or `auto`.
- The default value is `never`.
+ `--color` (i.e. without '=<when>') is the same as `--color=always`.
+ '<when>' can be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto`.
ifdef::git-diff[]
It can be changed by the `color.ui` and `color.diff`
configuration settings.
@@ -282,7 +303,7 @@ few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number `m` controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). `-B/70%` specifies that less than 30% of the
-original should remain in the result for git to consider it a total
+original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).
+
@@ -306,7 +327,7 @@ ifdef::git-log[]
endif::git-log[]
If `n` is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
- file's size). For example, `-M90%` means git should consider a
+ file's size). For example, `-M90%` means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn't changed. Without a `%` sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., `-M5` becomes
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
index 048337b..e1fba85 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
+Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
===================================
<<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential for
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ commands in addition to the above.
<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
-of git repositories.
+of Git repositories.
Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ $ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+
<1> create a new topic branch.
<2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
-<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
+<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
<4> to see what changes you are committing.
<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@ commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
-My typical GIT day.::
+My typical Git day.::
+
------------
$ git status <1>
@@ -332,7 +332,7 @@ Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
------------
$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
# default: off
-# description: The git server offers access to git repositories
+# description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
service git
{
disable = no
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 6e98bdf..9cb6496 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -8,11 +8,15 @@
option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
--depth=<depth>::
- Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
`git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote
branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
+--unshallow::
+ Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all
+ the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.
+
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
Show what would be done, without making any changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index fd9e36b..b0944e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
[--edit | -e] [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
[--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--]
- [<filepattern>...]
+ [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ commit.
OPTIONS
-------
-<filepattern>...::
+<pathspec>...::
Files to add content from. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can
be given to add all matching files. Also a
leading directory name (e.g. `dir` to add `dir/file1`
@@ -100,23 +100,26 @@ apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
-u::
--update::
- Only match <filepattern> against already tracked files in
- the index rather than the working tree. That means that it
- will never stage new files, but that it will stage modified
- new contents of tracked files and that it will remove files
- from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree
- have been removed.
+ Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
+ <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
+ match the working tree, but adds no new files.
+
-If no <filepattern> is given, default to "."; in other words,
-update all tracked files in the current directory and its
-subdirectories.
+If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
+"."; in other words, update all tracked files in the current directory
+and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
+of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
-A::
--all::
- Like `-u`, but match <filepattern> against files in the
- working tree in addition to the index. That means that it
- will find new files as well as staging modified content and
- removing files that are no longer in the working tree.
+ Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
+ matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
+ entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
+ match the working tree.
++
+If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
+"."; in other words, update all files in the current directory
+and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
+of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
-N::
--intent-to-add::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 634b84e..f605327 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ Reads the supplied diff output (i.e. "a patch") and applies it to files.
With the `--index` option the patch is also applied to the index, and
with the `--cached` option the patch is only applied to the index.
Without these options, the command applies the patch only to files,
-and does not require them to be in a git repository.
+and does not require them to be in a Git repository.
This command applies the patch but does not create a commit. Use
linkgit:git-am[1] to create commits from patches generated by
@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ behavior:
* `fix` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and applies the
patch after fixing them (`strip` is a synonym --- the tool
used to consider only trailing whitespace characters as errors, and the
- fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern gits do more).
+ fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern Gits do more).
* `error` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and refuses
to apply the patch.
* `error-all` is similar to `error` but shows all errors.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
index f4504ba..163b9f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-archimport(1)
NAME
----
-git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into git
+git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into Git
SYNOPSIS
@@ -40,13 +40,13 @@ directory. To follow the development of a project that uses Arch, rerun
incremental imports.
While 'git archimport' will try to create sensible branch names for the
-archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify git branch names
-manually. To do so, write a git branch name after each <archive/branch>
+archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify Git branch names
+manually. To do so, write a Git branch name after each <archive/branch>
parameter, separated by a colon. This way, you can shorten the Arch
-branch names and convert Arch jargon to git jargon, for example mapping a
+branch names and convert Arch jargon to Git jargon, for example mapping a
"PROJECT{litdd}devo{litdd}VERSION" branch to "master".
-Associating multiple Arch branches to one git branch is possible; the
+Associating multiple Arch branches to one Git branch is possible; the
result will make the most sense only if no commits are made to the first
branch, after the second branch is created. Still, this is useful to
convert Arch repositories that had been rotated periodically.
@@ -54,14 +54,14 @@ convert Arch repositories that had been rotated periodically.
MERGES
------
-Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in git as well. git
+Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in Git as well. Git
does not care much about tracking patches, and only considers a merge when a
branch incorporates all the commits since the point they forked. The end result
-is that git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
+is that Git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
import process does lose some patch-trading metadata.
Fortunately, when you try and merge branches imported from Arch,
-git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
+Git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
patches that have been traded out-of-sequence between the branches.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index 59d73e5..250e522 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ OPTIONS
Write the archive to <file> instead of stdout.
--worktree-attributes::
- Look for attributes in .gitattributes in working directory too.
+ Look for attributes in .gitattributes files in the working tree
+ as well (see <<ATTRIBUTES>>).
<extra>::
This can be any options that the archiver backend understands.
@@ -120,6 +121,7 @@ tar.<format>.remote::
user-defined formats, but true for the "tar.gz" and "tgz"
formats.
+[[ATTRIBUTES]]
ATTRIBUTES
----------
@@ -128,7 +130,7 @@ export-ignore::
added to archive files. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
export-subst::
- If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then git will
+ If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then Git will
expand several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.
See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index ec4497e..0eed3e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ Note that the example that we will use is really a toy example, we
will be looking for the first commit that has a version like
"2.6.26-something", that is the commit that has a "SUBLEVEL = 26" line
in the top level Makefile. This is a toy example because there are
-better ways to find this commit with git than using "git bisect" (for
+better ways to find this commit with Git than using "git bisect" (for
example "git blame" or "git log -S<string>").
Driving a bisection manually
@@ -455,7 +455,7 @@ So only the W and B commits will be kept. Because commits X and Y will
have been removed by rules a) and b) respectively, and because commits
G are removed by rule b) too.
-Note for git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
+Note for Git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
given by:
-------------
@@ -710,8 +710,8 @@ Skip algorithm discussed
After step 7) (in the skip algorithm), we could check if the second
commit has been skipped and return it if it is not the case. And in
fact that was the algorithm we used from when "git bisect skip" was
-developed in git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
-git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
+developed in Git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
+Git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
But Ingo Molnar and H. Peter Anvin (another well known linux kernel
developer) both complained that sometimes the best bisection points
@@ -1025,10 +1025,10 @@ And here is what Andreas said about this work-flow <<5>>:
_____________
To give some hard figures, we used to have an average report-to-fix
cycle of 142.6 hours (according to our somewhat weird bug-tracker
-which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to git, we've
+which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to Git, we've
lowered that to 16.2 hours. Primarily because we can stay on top of
the bug fixing now, and because everyone's jockeying to get to fix
-bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let git find the bugs
+bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let Git find the bugs
for us). Each new release results in ~40% fewer bugs (almost certainly
due to how we now feel about writing tests).
_____________
@@ -1228,9 +1228,9 @@ commits in already released history, for example to change the commit
message or the author. And it can also be used instead of git "grafts"
to link a repository with another old repository.
-In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the git community, so
-it is now in the "master" branch of git's git repository and it should
-be released in git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
+In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the Git community, so
+it is now in the "master" branch of Git's Git repository and it should
+be released in Git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
One problem with "git replace" is that currently it stores all the
replacements refs in "refs/replace/", but it would be perhaps better
@@ -1324,7 +1324,7 @@ Acknowledgements
----------------
Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
-reviewing the patches I sent to the git mailing list, for discussing
+reviewing the patches I sent to the Git mailing list, for discussing
some ideas and helping me improve them, for improving "git bisect" a
lot and for his awesome work in maintaining and developing Git.
@@ -1337,7 +1337,7 @@ Many thanks to Linus Torvalds for inventing, developing and
evangelizing "git bisect", Git and Linux.
Many thanks to the many other great people who helped one way or
-another when I worked on git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
+another when I worked on Git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
Schindelin, H. Peter Anvin, Daniel Barkalow, Bill Lear, John Hawley,
Shawn O. Pierce, Jeff King, Sam Vilain, Jon Seymour.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index e4f46bc..f986c5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ Bisect reset
~~~~~~~~~~~~
After a bisect session, to clean up the bisection state and return to
-the original HEAD, issue the following command:
+the original HEAD (i.e., to quit bisecting), issue the following command:
------------------------------------------------
$ git bisect reset
@@ -169,14 +169,14 @@ the revision as good or bad in the usual manner.
Bisect skip
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask git
+Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask Git
to do it for you by issuing the command:
------------
$ git bisect skip # Current version cannot be tested
------------
-But git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
+But Git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
a bad commit and one or more skipped commits.
You can even skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
@@ -284,6 +284,7 @@ EXAMPLES
------------
$ git bisect start HEAD v1.2 -- # HEAD is bad, v1.2 is good
$ git bisect run make # "make" builds the app
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
* Automatically bisect a test failure between origin and HEAD:
@@ -291,6 +292,7 @@ $ git bisect run make # "make" builds the app
------------
$ git bisect start HEAD origin -- # HEAD is bad, origin is good
$ git bisect run make test # "make test" builds and tests
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
* Automatically bisect a broken test case:
@@ -302,6 +304,7 @@ make || exit 125 # this skips broken builds
~/check_test_case.sh # does the test case pass?
$ git bisect start HEAD HEAD~10 -- # culprit is among the last 10
$ git bisect run ~/test.sh
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
+
Here we use a "test.sh" custom script. In this script, if "make"
@@ -351,6 +354,7 @@ use `git cherry-pick` instead of `git merge`.)
------------
$ git bisect start HEAD HEAD~10 -- # culprit is among the last 10
$ git bisect run sh -c "make || exit 125; ~/check_test_case.sh"
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
+
This shows that you can do without a run script if you write the test
@@ -368,6 +372,7 @@ $ git bisect run sh -c '
rm -f tmp.$$
test $rc = 0'
+$ git bisect reset # quit the bisect session
------------
+
In this case, when 'git bisect run' finishes, bisect/bad will refer to a commit that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index e44173f..9a05c2b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git diff' or the "pickaxe"
interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
-Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
+Apart from supporting file annotation, Git also supports searching the
development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This makes it
possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 45a225e..b7cb625 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -22,13 +22,15 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no arguments, existing branches are listed and the current branch will
-be highlighted with an asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking
-branches to be listed, and option `-a` shows both. This list mode is also
-activated by the `--list` option (see below).
-<pattern> restricts the output to matching branches, the pattern is a shell
-wildcard (i.e., matched using fnmatch(3)).
-Multiple patterns may be given; if any of them matches, the branch is shown.
+If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
+branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
+asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
+and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
+is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
+matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
+it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
+`<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
+as branch creation.
With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
(in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
@@ -45,7 +47,7 @@ Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
new branch.
-When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, git sets up the
+When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
branch so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
`branch.autosetupmerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
@@ -193,15 +195,15 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
--contains [<commit>]::
Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
- if not specified).
+ if not specified). Implies `--list`.
--merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
--no-merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
<branchname>::
The name of the branch to create or delete.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 16a6b0a..0417562 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
-be directly connected, and therefore the interactive git protocols (git,
+be directly connected, and therefore the interactive Git protocols (git,
ssh, rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
@@ -112,13 +112,12 @@ machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
----------------
-Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. If you are creating
-the repository on machine B, then you can clone from the bundle as if it
-were a remote repository instead of creating an empty repository and then
-pulling or fetching objects from the bundle:
+Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. Because this
+bundle does not require any existing object to be extracted, you can
+create a new repository on machine B by cloning from it:
----------------
-machineB$ git clone /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
+machineB$ git clone -b master /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
----------------
This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..854e4d0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@
+git-check-ignore(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-ignore - Debug gitignore / exclude files
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git check-ignore' [options] pathname...
+'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin < <list-of-paths>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+For each pathname given via the command-line or from a file via
+`--stdin`, show the pattern from .gitignore (or other input files to
+the exclude mechanism) that decides if the pathname is excluded or
+included. Later patterns within a file take precedence over earlier
+ones.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q, --quiet::
+ Don't output anything, just set exit status. This is only
+ valid with a single pathname.
+
+-v, --verbose::
+ Also output details about the matching pattern (if any)
+ for each given pathname.
+
+--stdin::
+ Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+
+-z::
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
+ below). If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
+ with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+By default, any of the given pathnames which match an ignore pattern
+will be output, one per line. If no pattern matches a given path,
+nothing will be output for that path; this means that path will not be
+ignored.
+
+If `--verbose` is specified, the output is a series of lines of the form:
+
+<source> <COLON> <linenum> <COLON> <pattern> <HT> <pathname>
+
+<pathname> is the path of a file being queried, <pattern> is the
+matching pattern, <source> is the pattern's source file, and <linenum>
+is the line number of the pattern within that source. If the pattern
+contained a `!` prefix or `/` suffix, it will be preserved in the
+output. <source> will be an absolute path when referring to the file
+configured by `core.excludesfile`, or relative to the repository root
+when referring to `.git/info/exclude` or a per-directory exclude file.
+
+If `-z` is specified, the pathnames in the output are delimited by the
+null character; if `--verbose` is also specified then null characters
+are also used instead of colons and hard tabs:
+
+<source> <NULL> <linenum> <NULL> <pattern> <NULL> <pathname> <NULL>
+
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+0::
+ One or more of the provided paths is ignored.
+
+1::
+ None of the provided paths are ignored.
+
+128::
+ A fatal error was encountered.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gitignore[5]
+linkgit:gitconfig[5]
+linkgit:git-ls-files[5]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 98009d1..ec1739a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -18,14 +18,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits with a non-zero
status if it is not.
-A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
+A reference is used in Git to specify branches and tags. A
branch head is stored in the `refs/heads` hierarchy, while
a tag is stored in the `refs/tags` hierarchy of the ref namespace
(typically in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` and `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags`
directories or, as entries in file `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs`
if refs are packed by `git gc`).
-git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
+Git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 6f04d22..8edcdca 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -333,7 +333,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')
------------
-In fact, we can perform all the normal git operations. But, let's look
+In fact, we can perform all the normal Git operations. But, let's look
at what happens when we then checkout master:
------------
@@ -350,7 +350,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
It is important to realize that at this point nothing refers to commit
'f'. Eventually commit 'f' (and by extension commit 'e') will be deleted
-by the routine git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
+by the routine Git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
before that happens. If we have not yet moved away from commit 'f',
any of these will create a reference to it:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 9f42c0d..bdc3ab8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not
under version control, starting from the current directory.
-Normally, only files unknown to git are removed, but if the '-x'
+Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the '-x'
option is specified, ignored files are also removed. This can, for
example, be useful to remove all build products.
@@ -27,13 +27,13 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-d::
Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
- If an untracked directory is managed by a different git
+ If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git
repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice
if you really want to remove such a directory.
-f::
--force::
- If the git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
+ If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f or -n.
-n::
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ OPTIONS
working directory to test a clean build.
-X::
- Remove only files ignored by git. This may be useful to rebuild
+ Remove only files ignored by Git. This may be useful to rebuild
everything from scratch, but keep manually created files.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 7fefdb0..5c16e31 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
--local::
-l::
When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
- this flag bypasses the normal "git aware" transport
+ this flag bypasses the normal "Git aware" transport
mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
The files under `.git/objects/` directory are hardlinked
@@ -54,11 +54,11 @@ this is the default, and --local is essentially a no-op. If the
repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
never use the local optimizations). Specifying `--no-local` will
override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
-git transport instead.
+Git transport instead.
+
To force copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable if you
are trying to make a back-up of your repository), but still avoid the
-usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
+usual "Git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
--no-hardlinks::
Optimize the cloning process from a repository on a
@@ -76,9 +76,9 @@ usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand what it does. If you clone your
repository using this option and then delete branches (or use any
-other git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
+other Git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
source repository, some objects may become unreferenced (or dangling).
-These objects may be removed by normal git operations (such as `git commit`)
+These objects may be removed by normal Git operations (such as `git commit`)
which automatically call `git gc --auto`. (See linkgit:git-gc[1].)
If these objects are removed and were referenced by the cloned repository,
then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
--bare::
- Make a 'bare' GIT repository. That is, instead of
+ Make a 'bare' Git repository. That is, instead of
creating `<directory>` and placing the administrative
files in `<directory>/.git`, make the `<directory>`
itself the `$GIT_DIR`. This obviously implies the `-n`
@@ -213,8 +213,8 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
- then make a filesytem-agnostic git symbolic link to there.
- The result is git repository can be separated from working
+ then make a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
+ The result is Git repository can be separated from working
tree.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 6d5a04c..86ef56e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
to get there.
-Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git
+Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
`.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see what the last committed
@@ -72,13 +72,13 @@ if set:
GIT_COMMITTER_NAME
GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
GIT_COMMITTER_DATE
- EMAIL
(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information
is taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
-present, system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
+present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set,
+system user name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken
from `/etc/mailname` and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when
that file does not exist).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 19cbb90..05f8297 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
record the current content of the listed files (which must already
- be known to git);
+ be known to Git);
4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
"add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ OPTIONS
--all::
Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
- told git about are not affected.
+ told Git about are not affected.
-p::
--patch::
@@ -109,6 +109,10 @@ OPTIONS
format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
`--dry-run`.
+--long::
+ When doing a dry-run, give the output in a the long-format.
+ Implies `--dry-run`.
+
-z::
--null::
When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
@@ -133,6 +137,8 @@ OPTIONS
-m <msg>::
--message=<msg>::
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
+ If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
+ concatenated as separate paragraphs.
-t <file>::
--template=<file>::
@@ -168,14 +174,25 @@ OPTIONS
linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
--cleanup=<mode>::
- This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
- The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
- and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
- trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
- only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
- removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
- 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
- and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
+ This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
+ cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
+ `whitespace`, `verbatim`, or `default`.
++
+--
+strip::
+ Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, and
+ #commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
+whitespace::
+ Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
+verbatim::
+ Do not change the message at all.
+default::
+ Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
+ Otherwise `whitespace`.
+--
++
+The default can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration
+variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
-e::
--edit::
@@ -398,7 +415,7 @@ Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
-as the commit title, and that title is used throughout git.
+as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index eaea079..9ae2508 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -240,6 +240,10 @@ GIT_CONFIG::
Using the "--global" option forces this to ~/.gitconfig. Using the
"--system" option forces this to $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig.
+GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM::
+ Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
+ $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. See linkgit:git[1] for details.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
index eeff5fa..89b7306 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,13 @@ git config credential.helper 'cache [options]'
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command caches credentials in memory for use by future git
+This command caches credentials in memory for use by future Git
programs. The stored credentials never touch the disk, and are forgotten
after a configurable timeout. The cache is accessible over a Unix
domain socket, restricted to the current user by filesystem permissions.
You probably don't want to invoke this command directly; it is meant to
-be used as a credential helper by other parts of git. See
+be used as a credential helper by other parts of Git. See
linkgit:gitcredentials[7] or `EXAMPLES` below.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
index b27c03c..8481cae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ security tradeoff, try linkgit:git-credential-cache[1], or find a helper
that integrates with secure storage provided by your operating system.
This command stores credentials indefinitely on disk for use by future
-git programs.
+Git programs.
You probably don't want to invoke this command directly; it is meant to
be used as a credential helper by other parts of git. See
@@ -63,11 +63,11 @@ stored on its own line as a URL like:
https://user:pass@example.com
------------------------------
-When git needs authentication for a particular URL context,
+When Git needs authentication for a particular URL context,
credential-store will consider that context a pattern to match against
each entry in the credentials file. If the protocol, hostname, and
username (if we already have one) match, then the password is returned
-to git. See the discussion of configuration in linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
+to Git. See the discussion of configuration in linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
for more information.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
index 810e957..472f00f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ Git has an internal interface for storing and retrieving credentials
from system-specific helpers, as well as prompting the user for
usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
-credentials in the same manner as git. The design of this scriptable
+credentials in the same manner as Git. The design of this scriptable
interface models the internal C API; see
-link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the git credential API] for more
+link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the Git credential API] for more
background on the concepts.
git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ infomation it has):
password=secr3t
+
In most cases, this means the attributes given in the input will be
-repeated in the output, but git may also modify the credential
+repeated in the output, but Git may also modify the credential
description, for example by removing the `path` attribute when the
protocol is HTTP(s) and `credential.useHttpPath` is false.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
index 7f79cec..00154b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Exports a commit from GIT to a CVS checkout, making it easier
-to merge patches from a git repository into a CVS repository.
+Exports a commit from Git to a CVS checkout, making it easier
+to merge patches from a Git repository into a CVS repository.
Specify the name of a CVS checkout using the -w switch or execute it
from the root of the CVS working copy. In the latter case GIT_DIR must
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ OPTIONS
-w::
Specify the location of the CVS checkout to use for the export. This
option does not require GIT_DIR to be set before execution if the
- current directory is within a git repository. The default is the
+ current directory is within a Git repository. The default is the
value of 'cvsexportcommit.cvsdir'.
-W::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index 6695ab3..d1bcda2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Imports a CVS repository into git. It will either create a new
+*WARNING:* `git cvsimport` uses cvsps version 2, which is considered
+deprecated; it does not work with cvsps version 3 and later. If you are
+performing a one-shot import of a CVS repository consider using
+link:http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
+link:https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
+
+Imports a CVS repository into Git. It will either create a new
repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
Splitting the CVS log into patch sets is done by 'cvsps'.
@@ -59,18 +65,18 @@ OPTIONS
`CVS/Repository`.
-C <target-dir>::
- The git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
+ The Git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
exist, it will be created. Default is the current directory.
-r <remote>::
- The git remote to import this CVS repository into.
+ The Git remote to import this CVS repository into.
Moves all CVS branches into remotes/<remote>/<branch>
akin to the way 'git clone' uses 'origin' by default.
-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
When no remote is specified (via -r) the 'HEAD' branch
- from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the git
- repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for git.
+ from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the Git
+ repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for Git.
When a remote is specified the 'HEAD' branch is named
remotes/<remote>/master mirroring 'git clone' behaviour.
Use this option if you want to import into a different
@@ -137,17 +143,19 @@ This option can be used several times to provide several detection regexes.
-A <author-conv-file>::
CVS by default uses the Unix username when writing its
commit logs. Using this option and an author-conv-file
- in this format
+ maps the name recorded in CVS to author name, e-mail and
+ optional timezone:
+
---------
exon=Andreas Ericsson <ae@op5.se>
- spawn=Simon Pawn <spawn@frog-pond.org>
+ spawn=Simon Pawn <spawn@frog-pond.org> America/Chicago
---------
+
'git cvsimport' will make it appear as those authors had
their GIT_AUTHOR_NAME and GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL set properly
-all along.
+all along. If a timezone is specified, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE will
+have the corresponding offset applied.
+
For convenience, this data is saved to `$GIT_DIR/cvs-authors`
each time the '-A' option is provided and read from that same
@@ -211,11 +219,9 @@ Problems related to tags:
* Multiple tags on the same revision are not imported.
If you suspect that any of these issues may apply to the repository you
-want to import consider using these alternative tools which proved to be
-more stable in practice:
+want to imort, consider using cvs2git:
-* cvs2git (part of cvs2svn), `http://cvs2svn.tigris.org`
-* parsecvs, `http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~keithp/parsecvs`
+* cvs2git (part of cvs2svn), `http://subversion.apache.org/`
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index 88d814a..472f5cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-cvsserver(1)
NAME
----
-git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for git
+git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ unless '--export-all' was given, too.
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This application is a CVS emulation layer for git.
+This application is a CVS emulation layer for Git.
It is highly functional. However, not all methods are implemented,
and for those methods that are implemented,
@@ -72,9 +72,9 @@ plugin. Most functionality works fine with both of these clients.
LIMITATIONS
-----------
-CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform GIT merges.
+CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform Git merges.
-'git-cvsserver' maps GIT branches to CVS modules. This is very different
+'git-cvsserver' maps Git branches to CVS modules. This is very different
from what most CVS users would expect since in CVS modules usually represent
one or more directories.
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ Then provide your password via the pserver method, for example:
------
cvs -d:pserver:someuser:somepassword <at> server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
------
-No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having GIT tools
+No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having Git tools
in the PATH. If you have clients that do not accept the CVS_SERVER
environment variable, you can rename 'git-cvsserver' to `cvs`.
@@ -160,9 +160,9 @@ with CVS_SERVER (and shouldn't) as 'git-shell' understands `cvs` to mean
Note: you need to ensure each user that is going to invoke 'git-cvsserver' has
write access to the log file and to the database (see
<<dbbackend,Database Backend>>. If you want to offer write access over
-SSH, the users of course also need write access to the git repository itself.
+SSH, the users of course also need write access to the Git repository itself.
-You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a git index
+You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a Git index
file) for `cvs commit` to work. See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
[[configaccessmethod]]
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
3. If you didn't specify the CVSROOT/CVS_SERVER directly in the checkout command,
automatically saving it in your 'CVS/Root' files, then you need to set them
explicitly in your environment. CVSROOT should be set as per normal, but the
- directory should point at the appropriate git repo. As above, for SSH clients
+ directory should point at the appropriate Git repo. As above, for SSH clients
_not_ restricted to 'git-shell', CVS_SERVER should be set to 'git-cvsserver'.
+
--
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
shell is bash, .bashrc may be a reasonable alternative.
5. Clients should now be able to check out the project. Use the CVS 'module'
- name to indicate what GIT 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
+ name to indicate what Git 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
name of your newly checked-out directory, unless you tell it otherwise with
`-d <dir_name>`. For example, this checks out 'master' branch to the
`project-master` directory:
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
Database Backend
----------------
-'git-cvsserver' uses one database per git head (i.e. CVS module) to
+'git-cvsserver' uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to
store information about the repository to maintain consistent
CVS revision numbers. The database needs to be
updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@ the pserver method), 'git-cvsserver' should have write access to
the database to work reliably (otherwise you need to make sure
that the database is up-to-date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
-By default it uses SQLite databases in the git directory, named
+By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
`gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite`. Note that the SQLite backend creates
temporary files in the same directory as the database file on
write so it might not be enough to grant the users using
@@ -291,14 +291,14 @@ Variable substitution
In `dbdriver` and `dbuser` you can use the following variables:
%G::
- git directory name
+ Git directory name
%g::
- git directory name, where all characters except for
+ Git directory name, where all characters except for
alpha-numeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
`_` (this should make it easier to use the directory
name in a filename if wanted)
%m::
- CVS module/git head name
+ CVS module/Git head name
%a::
access method (one of "ext" or "pserver")
%u::
@@ -359,6 +359,43 @@ Operations supported
All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
checkout, diff, status, update, log, add, remove, commit.
+
+Most CVS command arguments that read CVS tags or revision numbers
+(typically -r) work, and also support any git refspec
+(tag, branch, commit ID, etc).
+However, CVS revision numbers for non-default branches are not well
+emulated, and cvs log does not show tags or branches at
+all. (Non-main-branch CVS revision numbers superficially resemble CVS
+revision numbers, but they actually encode a git commit ID directly,
+rather than represent the number of revisions since the branch point.)
+
+Note that there are two ways to checkout a particular branch.
+As described elsewhere on this page, the "module" parameter
+of cvs checkout is interpreted as a branch name, and it becomes
+the main branch. It remains the main branch for a given sandbox
+even if you temporarily make another branch sticky with
+cvs update -r. Alternatively, the -r argument can indicate
+some other branch to actually checkout, even though the module
+is still the "main" branch. Tradeoffs (as currently
+implemented): Each new "module" creates a new database on disk with
+a history for the given module, and after the database is created,
+operations against that main branch are fast. Or alternatively,
+-r doesn't take any extra disk space, but may be significantly slower for
+many operations, like cvs update.
+
+If you want to refer to a git refspec that has characters that are
+not allowed by CVS, you have two options. First, it may just work
+to supply the git refspec directly to the appropriate CVS -r argument;
+some CVS clients don't seem to do much sanity checking of the argument.
+Second, if that fails, you can use a special character escape mechanism
+that only uses characters that are valid in CVS tags. A sequence
+of 4 or 5 characters of the form (underscore (`"_"`), dash (`"-"`),
+one or two characters, and dash (`"-"`)) can encode various characters based
+on the one or two letters: `"s"` for slash (`"/"`), `"p"` for
+period (`"."`), `"u"` for underscore (`"_"`), or two hexadecimal digits
+for any byte value at all (typically an ASCII number, or perhaps a part
+of a UTF-8 encoded character).
+
Legacy monitoring operations are not supported (edit, watch and related).
Exports and tagging (tags and branches) are not supported at this stage.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 7e5098a..77da564 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-daemon(1)
NAME
----
-git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
+git-daemon - A really simple server for Git repositories
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -22,12 +22,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A really simple TCP git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
+A really simple TCP Git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
aka 9418. It waits for a connection asking for a service, and will serve
that service if it is enabled.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
-it will refuse to export any git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
+it will refuse to export any Git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
pass some directory paths as 'git daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ By default, only `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
from 'git fetch', 'git pull', and 'git clone'.
This is ideally suited for read-only updates, i.e., pulling from
-git repositories.
+Git repositories.
An `upload-archive` also exists to serve 'git archive'.
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ OPTIONS
--base-path=<path>::
Remap all the path requests as relative to the given path.
- This is sort of "GIT root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
+ This is sort of "Git root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
'--base-path=/srv/git' on example.com, then if you later try to pull
'git://example.com/hello.git', 'git daemon' will interpret the path
as '/srv/git/hello.git'.
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@ OPTIONS
whitelist.
--export-all::
- Allow pulling from all directories that look like GIT repositories
+ Allow pulling from all directories that look like Git repositories
(have the 'objects' and 'refs' subdirectories), even if they
do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 72d6bb6..3c81e85 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -81,8 +81,9 @@ OPTIONS
that points at object deadbee....).
--match <pattern>::
- Only consider tags matching the given pattern (can be used to avoid
- leaking private tags made from the repository).
+ Only consider tags matching the given `glob(7)` pattern,
+ excluding the "refs/tags/" prefix. This can be used to avoid
+ leaking private tags from the repository.
--always::
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
@@ -131,7 +132,7 @@ closest tagname without any suffix:
Note that the suffix you get if you type these commands today may be
longer than what Linus saw above when he ran these commands, as your
-git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
+Git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
975b that did not exist back then, and "-g975b" suffix alone may not
be sufficient to disambiguate these commits.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index f8c0601..a7b4620 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ between two files on disk.
This form is to view the changes you made relative to
the index (staging area for the next commit). In other
- words, the differences are what you _could_ tell git to
+ words, the differences are what you _could_ tell Git to
further add to the index but you still haven't. You can
stage these changes by using linkgit:git-add[1].
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 73ca702..e0e12e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git difftool' is a git command that allows you to compare and edit files
+'git difftool' is a Git command that allows you to compare and edit files
between revisions using common diff tools. 'git difftool' is a frontend
to 'git diff' and accepts the same options and arguments. See
linkgit:git-diff[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 68bca1a..bf1a02a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -33,38 +33,46 @@ the frontend program in use.
OPTIONS
-------
---date-format=<fmt>::
- Specify the type of dates the frontend will supply to
- fast-import within `author`, `committer` and `tagger` commands.
- See ``Date Formats'' below for details about which formats
- are supported, and their syntax.
-
--- done::
- Terminate with error if there is no 'done' command at the
- end of the stream.
--force::
Force updating modified existing branches, even if doing
so would cause commits to be lost (as the new commit does
not contain the old commit).
---max-pack-size=<n>::
- Maximum size of each output packfile.
- The default is unlimited.
+--quiet::
+ Disable all non-fatal output, making fast-import silent when it
+ is successful. This option disables the output shown by
+ \--stats.
---big-file-threshold=<n>::
- Maximum size of a blob that fast-import will attempt to
- create a delta for, expressed in bytes. The default is 512m
- (512 MiB). Some importers may wish to lower this on systems
- with constrained memory.
+--stats::
+ Display some basic statistics about the objects fast-import has
+ created, the packfiles they were stored into, and the
+ memory used by fast-import during this run. Showing this output
+ is currently the default, but can be disabled with \--quiet.
---depth=<n>::
- Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
- Default is 10.
+Options for Frontends
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
---active-branches=<n>::
- Maximum number of branches to maintain active at once.
- See ``Memory Utilization'' below for details. Default is 5.
+--cat-blob-fd=<fd>::
+ Write responses to `cat-blob` and `ls` queries to the
+ file descriptor <fd> instead of `stdout`. Allows `progress`
+ output intended for the end-user to be separated from other
+ output.
+
+--date-format=<fmt>::
+ Specify the type of dates the frontend will supply to
+ fast-import within `author`, `committer` and `tagger` commands.
+ See ``Date Formats'' below for details about which formats
+ are supported, and their syntax.
+
+--done::
+ Terminate with error if there is no `done` command at the end of
+ the stream. This option might be useful for detecting errors
+ that cause the frontend to terminate before it has started to
+ write a stream.
+
+Locations of Marks Files
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
--export-marks=<file>::
Dumps the internal marks table to <file> when complete.
@@ -87,31 +95,33 @@ OPTIONS
Like --import-marks but instead of erroring out, silently
skips the file if it does not exist.
---relative-marks::
+--[no-]relative-marks::
After specifying --relative-marks the paths specified
with --import-marks= and --export-marks= are relative
to an internal directory in the current repository.
In git-fast-import this means that the paths are relative
to the .git/info/fast-import directory. However, other
importers may use a different location.
++
+Relative and non-relative marks may be combined by interweaving
+--(no-)-relative-marks with the --(import|export)-marks= options.
---no-relative-marks::
- Negates a previous --relative-marks. Allows for combining
- relative and non-relative marks by interweaving
- --(no-)-relative-marks with the --(import|export)-marks=
- options.
+Performance and Compression Tuning
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
---cat-blob-fd=<fd>::
- Write responses to `cat-blob` and `ls` queries to the
- file descriptor <fd> instead of `stdout`. Allows `progress`
- output intended for the end-user to be separated from other
- output.
+--active-branches=<n>::
+ Maximum number of branches to maintain active at once.
+ See ``Memory Utilization'' below for details. Default is 5.
---done::
- Require a `done` command at the end of the stream.
- This option might be useful for detecting errors that
- cause the frontend to terminate before it has started to
- write a stream.
+--big-file-threshold=<n>::
+ Maximum size of a blob that fast-import will attempt to
+ create a delta for, expressed in bytes. The default is 512m
+ (512 MiB). Some importers may wish to lower this on systems
+ with constrained memory.
+
+--depth=<n>::
+ Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
+ Default is 10.
--export-pack-edges=<file>::
After creating a packfile, print a line of data to
@@ -122,16 +132,9 @@ OPTIONS
as these commits can be used as edge points during calls
to 'git pack-objects'.
---quiet::
- Disable all non-fatal output, making fast-import silent when it
- is successful. This option disables the output shown by
- \--stats.
-
---stats::
- Display some basic statistics about the objects fast-import has
- created, the packfiles they were stored into, and the
- memory used by fast-import during this run. Showing this output
- is currently the default, but can be disabled with \--quiet.
+--max-pack-size=<n>::
+ Maximum size of each output packfile.
+ The default is unlimited.
Performance
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index 8c75120..b81e90d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -84,6 +84,8 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
--depth=<n>::
Limit fetching to ancestor-chains not longer than n.
+ 'git-upload-pack' treats the special depth 2147483647 as
+ infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
--no-progress::
Do not show the progress.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index b41d7c1..e08a028 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
-having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future git
+having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index e2301f5..e4c8e82 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Lets you rewrite git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
+Lets you rewrite Git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
in the <rev-list options>, applying custom filters on each revision.
Those filters can modify each tree (e.g. removing a file or running
a perl rewrite on all files) or information about each commit.
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ The command will only rewrite the _positive_ refs mentioned in the
command line (e.g. if you pass 'a..b', only 'b' will be rewritten).
If you specify no filters, the commits will be recommitted without any
changes, which would normally have no effect. Nevertheless, this may be
-useful in the future for compensating for some git bugs or such,
+useful in the future for compensating for some Git bugs or such,
therefore such a usage is permitted.
*NOTE*: This command honors `.git/info/grafts` file and refs in
@@ -64,8 +64,11 @@ argument is always evaluated in the shell context using the 'eval' command
Prior to that, the $GIT_COMMIT environment variable will be set to contain
the id of the commit being rewritten. Also, GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL, GIT_AUTHOR_DATE, GIT_COMMITTER_NAME, GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL,
-and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE are set according to the current commit. The values
-of these variables after the filters have run, are used for the new commit.
+and GIT_COMMITTER_DATE are taken from the current commit and exported to
+the environment, in order to affect the author and committer identities of
+the replacement commit created by linkgit:git-commit-tree[1] after the
+filters have run.
+
If any evaluation of <command> returns a non-zero exit status, the whole
operation will be aborted.
@@ -329,6 +332,26 @@ git filter-branch --msg-filter '
' HEAD~10..HEAD
--------------------------------------------------------
+The `--env-filter` option can be used to modify committer and/or author
+identity. For example, if you found out that your commits have the wrong
+identity due to a misconfigured user.email, you can make a correction,
+before publishing the project, like this:
+
+--------------------------------------------------------
+git filter-branch --env-filter '
+ if test "$GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL" = "root@localhost"
+ then
+ GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL=john@example.com
+ export GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
+ fi
+ if test "$GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL" = "root@localhost"
+ then
+ GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL=john@example.com
+ export GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL
+ fi
+' -- --all
+--------------------------------------------------------
+
To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision
range in addition to the new branch name. The new branch name will
point to the top-most revision that a 'git rev-list' of this range
@@ -374,7 +397,7 @@ git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
usually with some combination of `--index-filter` and
`--subdirectory-filter`. People expect the resulting repository to
be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to
-actually make it smaller, because git tries hard not to lose your
+actually make it smaller, because Git tries hard not to lose your
objects until you tell it to. First make sure that:
* You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index db55a4e..f2e08d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ returns an empty string instead.
As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
the date by adding one of `:default`, `:relative`, `:short`, `:local`,
-`:iso8601` or `:rfc2822` to the end of the fieldname; e.g.
+`:iso8601`, `:rfc2822` or `:raw` to the end of the fieldname; e.g.
`%(taggerdate:relative)`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 6d43f56..3a62f50 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
[--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
[--ignore-if-in-upstream]
- [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
+ [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
- [--cover-letter] [--quiet]
+ [--cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -166,6 +166,15 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
combined with the `--numbered` option.
+-v <n>::
+--reroll-count=<n>::
+ Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
+ output filenames have `v<n>` pretended to them, and the
+ subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
+ `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
+ `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
+ file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
+
--to=<email>::
Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
@@ -191,10 +200,22 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
+--notes[=<ref>]::
+ Append the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) for the commit
+ after the three-dash line.
++
+The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
+the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
+and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
+these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
+keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
+of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
+configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
+
--[no]-signature=<signature>::
Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
- signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the git version
+ signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
number.
--suffix=.<sfx>::
@@ -368,7 +389,7 @@ Thunderbird
~~~~~~~~~~~
By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
-resulting email unusable by git.
+resulting email unusable by Git.
There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
@@ -504,8 +525,8 @@ $ git format-patch -M -B origin
Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
-Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
-use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
+Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
+use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
as e-mailable patches:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index da348fc..eff9188 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
($GIT_DIR/objects), but also the ones found in alternate
object pools listed in GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
or $GIT_DIR/objects/info/alternates,
- and in packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
+ and in packed Git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
and corresponding pack subdirectories in alternate
object pools. This is now default; you can turn it off
with --no-full.
@@ -64,8 +64,8 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
--strict::
Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
recorded with g+w bit set, which was created by older
- versions of git. Existing repositories, including the
- Linux kernel, git itself, and sparse repository have old
+ versions of Git. Existing repositories, including the
+ Linux kernel, Git itself, and sparse repository have old
objects that triggers this check, but it is recommended
to check new projects with this flag.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index cfecf84..50d46e1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ OPTIONS
blobs registered in the index file.
--no-index::
- Search files in the current directory that is not managed by git.
+ Search files in the current directory that is not managed by Git.
--untracked::
In addition to searching in the tracked files in the working
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 0041994..8144527 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ Examples
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitk[1]::
- The git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
+ The Git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
and file differences. gitk is the utility started by
'git gui''s Repository Visualize actions.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index 4b0a502..02c1f12 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ OPTIONS
--path::
Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
file does not directly influence on the hash value, but path is
- used to determine what git filters should be applied to the object
+ used to determine what Git filters should be applied to the object
before it can be placed to the object database, and, as result of
applying filters, the actual blob put into the object database may
differ from the given file. This option is mainly useful for hashing
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index 9e0b3f6..e07b6dc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-help(1)
NAME
----
-git-help - display help information about git
+git-help - Display help information about Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -14,13 +14,13 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
With no options and no COMMAND given, the synopsis of the 'git'
-command and a list of the most commonly used git commands are printed
+command and a list of the most commonly used Git commands are printed
on the standard output.
If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, then all available commands are
printed on the standard output.
-If a git command is named, a manual page for that command is brought
+If a Git subcommand is named, a manual page for that subcommand is brought
up. The 'man' program is used by default for this purpose, but this
can be overridden by other options or configuration variables.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
index f4e0741..7b1e85c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as well as clients
pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file
-"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any git directory
+"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any Git directory
that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way (unless the
GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index 070cd1e..21a33d2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-http-fetch(1)
NAME
----
-git-http-fetch - Download from a remote git repository via HTTP
+git-http-fetch - Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP.
+Downloads a remote Git repository via HTTP.
*NOTE*: use of this command without -a is deprecated. The -a
behaviour will become the default in a future release.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 39e6d0d..36adc5f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Reads a packed archive (.pack) from the specified file, and
builds a pack index file (.idx) for it. The packed archive
together with the pack index can then be placed in the
-objects/pack/ directory of a git repository.
+objects/pack/ directory of a Git repository.
OPTIONS
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ OPTIONS
When this flag is provided, the pack is read from stdin
instead and a copy is then written to <pack-file>. If
<pack-file> is not specified, the pack is written to
- objects/pack/ directory of the current git repository with
+ objects/pack/ directory of the current Git repository with
a default name determined from the pack content. If
<pack-file> is not specified consider using --keep to
prevent a race condition between this process and
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ OPTIONS
This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search
window is however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and use maximum 3 threads.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
index a21e346..648a6cd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-init-db(1)
NAME
----
-git-init-db - Creates an empty git repository
+git-init-db - Creates an empty Git repository
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index 9ac2bba..afd721e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-init(1)
NAME
----
-git-init - Create an empty git repository or reinitialize an existing one
+git-init - Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one
SYNOPSIS
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command creates an empty git repository - basically a `.git`
+This command creates an empty Git repository - basically a `.git`
directory with subdirectories for `objects`, `refs/heads`,
`refs/tags`, and template files. An initial `HEAD` file that
references the HEAD of the master branch is also created.
@@ -58,19 +58,19 @@ DIRECTORY" section below.)
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of initializing the repository where it is supposed to be,
-place a filesytem-agnostic git symbolic link there, pointing to the
-specified git path, and initialize a git repository at the path. The
-result is git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
+place a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link there, pointing to the
+specified path, and initialize a Git repository at the path. The
+result is Git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified
path.
--shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody|0xxx)]::
-Specify that the git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
+Specify that the Git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
allows users belonging to the same group to push into that
repository. When specified, the config variable "core.sharedRepository" is
set so that files and directories under `$GIT_DIR` are created with the
-requested permissions. When not specified, git will use permissions reported
+requested permissions. When not specified, Git will use permissions reported
by umask(2).
The option can have the following values, defaulting to 'group' if no value
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ The suggested patterns and hook files are all modifiable and extensible.
EXAMPLES
--------
-Start a new git repository for an existing code base::
+Start a new Git repository for an existing code base::
+
----------------
$ cd /path/to/my/codebase
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 585dac4..69db578 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -47,6 +47,11 @@ OPTIONS
Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
commit was reached.
+--use-mailmap::
+ Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
+ to canonical real names and email addresses. See
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
+
--full-diff::
Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
@@ -59,7 +64,7 @@ produced by --stat etc.
--log-size::
Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended
- mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If git is unable to
+ mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If Git is unable to
produce a valid value size is set to zero.
Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown
its size is not included.
@@ -167,7 +172,7 @@ log.showroot::
`git log -p` output would be shown without a diff attached.
The default is `true`.
-mailmap.file::
+mailmap.*::
See linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
notes.displayRef::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 4b28292..0bdebff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ OPTIONS
directory and its subdirectories in <file>.
--exclude-standard::
- Add the standard git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
+ Add the standard Git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
in each directory, and the user's global exclusion file.
--error-unmatch::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index e0df1b3..0c80cec 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -41,13 +41,13 @@ If 'git merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
processes them in turn only stopping if merge returns a non-zero exit
code.
-Typically this is run with a script calling git's imitation of
+Typically this is run with a script calling Git's imitation of
the 'merge' command from the RCS package.
A sample script called 'git merge-one-file' is included in the
distribution.
-ALERT ALERT ALERT! The git "merge object order" is different from the
+ALERT ALERT ALERT! The Git "merge object order" is different from the
RCS 'merge' program merge object order. In the above ordering, the
original is first. But the argument order to the 3-way merge program
'merge' is to have the original in the middle. Don't ask me why.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index d34ea3c..42391f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -170,6 +170,30 @@ happens:
If you tried a merge which resulted in complex conflicts and
want to start over, you can recover with `git merge --abort`.
+MERGING TAG
+-----------
+
+When merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag, Git always
+creates a merge commit even if a fast-forward merge is possible, and
+the commit message template is prepared with the tag message.
+Additionally, if the tag is signed, the signature check is reported
+as a comment in the message template. See also linkgit:git-tag[1].
+
+When you want to just integrate with the work leading to the commit
+that happens to be tagged, e.g. synchronizing with an upstream
+release point, you may not want to make an unnecessary merge commit.
+
+In such a case, you can "unwrap" the tag yourself before feeding it
+to `git merge`, or pass `--ff-only` when you do not have any work on
+your own. e.g.
+
+---
+git fetch origin
+git merge v1.2.3^0
+git merge --ff-only v1.2.3
+---
+
+
HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED
---------------------------
@@ -178,10 +202,10 @@ of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor's version,
non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the file while the
other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are incorporated in the
final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same area,
-however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
+however, Git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.
-By default, git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
+By default, Git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
index f98a41b..055550b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-mergetool{litdd}lib(1)
NAME
----
-git-mergetool--lib - Common git merge tool shell scriptlets
+git-mergetool--lib - Common Git merge tool shell scriptlets
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
The 'git-mergetool{litdd}lib' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up functions for working
-with git merge tools.
+with Git merge tools.
Before sourcing 'git-mergetool{litdd}lib', your script must set `TOOL_MODE`
to define the operation mode for the functions listed below.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
index 65e167a..3ca158b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -28,9 +28,9 @@ A tag signature file has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
tagger <tagger>
followed by some 'optional' free-form message (some tags created
-by older git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
+by older Git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
exists, is separated by a blank line from the header. The
-message part may contain a signature that git itself doesn't
+message part may contain a signature that Git itself doesn't
care about, but that can be verified with gpg.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
index e3c8448..e93fcb4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ OPTIONS
-k::
Skip move or rename actions which would lead to an error
condition. An error happens when a source is neither existing nor
- controlled by GIT, or when it would overwrite an existing
+ controlled by Git, or when it would overwrite an existing
file unless '-f' is given.
-n::
--dry-run::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index b95aafa..46ef046 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -39,6 +39,10 @@ message stored in the commit object, the notes are indented like the
message, after an unindented line saying "Notes (<refname>):" (or
"Notes:" for `refs/notes/commits`).
+Notes can also be added to patches prepared with `git format-patch` by
+using the `--notes` option. Such notes are added as a patch commentary
+after a three dash separator line.
+
To change which notes are shown by 'git log', see the
"notes.displayRef" configuration in linkgit:git-log[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index beff622..c579fbc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -18,13 +18,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
-using git.
+using Git.
-Create a new git repository from an existing p4 repository using
+Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
-Submit git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
+Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
the updated p4 remote branch.
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ EXAMPLE
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
------------
-* Do some work in the newly created git repository:
+* Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
+
------------
$ cd project
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ $ vi foo.h
$ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
------------
-* Update the git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
+* Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
work on top:
+
------------
@@ -64,21 +64,21 @@ COMMANDS
Clone
~~~~~
-Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new git directory
+Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
from an existing p4 repository:
------------
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
------------
This:
-1. Creates an empty git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
+1. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
+
2. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
-depot path into a single commit in the git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
+depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
+
3. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
-To reproduce the entire p4 history in git, use the '@all' modifier on
+To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
the depot path:
------------
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
@@ -88,13 +88,13 @@ $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
Sync
~~~~
As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
-be included in the git repository using:
+be included in the Git repository using:
------------
$ git p4 sync
------------
-This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as git commits.
+This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
-P4 repositories can be added to an existing git repository using
+P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
'git p4 sync' too:
------------
$ mkdir repo-git
@@ -103,14 +103,19 @@ $ git init
$ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
------------
This imports the specified depot into
-'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing git repository. The
+'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
'--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
be used for the p4 content.
-If a git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
+If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
-from a git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
+from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
+
+If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
+use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
+into the right branch. This can be overridden with the '--branch'
+option to specify just a single branch to update.
Rebase
@@ -127,13 +132,13 @@ $ git p4 rebase
Submit
~~~~~~
-Submitting changes from a git repository back to the p4 repository
+Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
-using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the git configuration
+using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
-To submit all changes that are in the current git branch but not in
+To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
the 'p4/master' branch, use:
------------
$ git p4 submit
@@ -149,7 +154,7 @@ be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
'--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
-according to the author of the git commit. This option requires admin
+according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
@@ -173,12 +178,14 @@ subsequent 'sync' operations.
--branch <branch>::
Import changes into given branch. If the branch starts with
- 'refs/', it will be used as is, otherwise the path 'refs/heads/'
- will be prepended. The default branch is 'master'. If used
- with an initial clone, no HEAD will be checked out.
+ 'refs/', it will be used as is. Otherwise if it does not start
+ with 'p4/', that prefix is added. The branch is assumed to
+ name a remote tracking, but this can be modified using
+ '--import-local', or by giving a full ref name. The default
+ branch is 'master'.
+
This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
-git repository:
+Git repository:
+
----
$ git init
@@ -199,11 +206,11 @@ git repository:
--detect-labels::
Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
- them as tags in git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
+ them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
--import-labels::
- Import labels from p4 into git.
+ Import labels from p4 into Git.
--import-local::
By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
@@ -219,12 +226,12 @@ git repository:
specifier.
--keep-path::
- The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to git, by
+ The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
- option, the full p4 depot path is retained in git. For example,
+ option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
'//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With '--keep-path', the
- git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
+ Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
--use-client-spec::
Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
@@ -236,7 +243,7 @@ These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
options described above.
--destination <directory>::
- Where to create the git repository. If not provided, the last
+ Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
directory.
@@ -266,12 +273,12 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
requires p4 admin privileges.
--export-labels::
- Export tags from git as p4 labels. Tags found in git are applied
+ Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
to the perforce working directory.
--dry-run, -n::
Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
- state in git or p4.
+ state in Git or p4.
--prepare-p4-only::
Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
@@ -287,6 +294,11 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
+--branch <branch>::
+ After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
+ p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
+ information.
+
Rebase options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
@@ -312,12 +324,12 @@ p4 revision specifier on the end:
"//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
repository. Only files below these directories are included.
- There is not a subdirectory in git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
+ There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
- updated version of the file is the one that appears in git.
+ updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
@@ -334,11 +346,11 @@ configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
not have a command-line option.
-The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'Git p4'
+The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
-'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'Git p4' will complain
+'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
@@ -354,7 +366,7 @@ variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
BRANCH DETECTION
----------------
-P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as git. Instead,
+P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
@@ -364,7 +376,7 @@ can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
-subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in git.
+subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
----
@@ -386,7 +398,7 @@ called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
-relationships automatically, a git configuration setting
+relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
@@ -394,15 +406,17 @@ the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
occur with:
----
+git init depot
+cd depot
git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
-git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
+git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
----
PERFORMANCE
-----------
The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
-each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, git garbage compression
+each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
(linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
@@ -440,9 +454,9 @@ git-p4.client::
Clone and sync variables
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
- Because importing commits from other git repositories is much faster
+ Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
- first in git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
+ first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
@@ -494,7 +508,7 @@ git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
git-p4.preserveUser::
- On submit, re-author changes to reflect the git author,
+ On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
@@ -531,7 +545,7 @@ git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
present.
git-p4.exportLabels::
- Export git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
+ Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
@@ -543,11 +557,11 @@ git-p4.conflict::
IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
----------------------
-* Changesets from p4 are imported using git fast-import.
+* Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
* Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
collected using 'p4 print'.
* Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
- as the git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
+ as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
this p4 client and submitted from there.
* Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 20c8551..69c9313 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the packed
archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES)
-enables git to read from the pack archive.
+enables Git to read from the pack archive.
The 'git unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
expand the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ base-name::
--include-tag::
Include unasked-for annotated tags if the object they
reference was included in the resulting packfile. This
- can be useful to send new tags to native git clients.
+ can be useful to send new tags to native Git clients.
--window=<n>::
--depth=<n>::
@@ -185,14 +185,14 @@ base-name::
option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.
+
Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
-required objects and is thus unusable by git without making it
+required objects and is thus unusable by Git without making it
self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
(see linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) to restore the self-contained property.
--delta-base-offset::
A packed archive can express the base object of a delta as
either a 20-byte object name or as an offset in the
- stream, but ancient versions of git don't understand the
+ stream, but ancient versions of Git don't understand the
latter. By default, 'git pack-objects' only uses the
former format for better compatibility. This option
allows the command to use the latter format for
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
+
Note: Porcelain commands such as `git gc` (see linkgit:git-gc[1]),
`git repack` (see linkgit:git-repack[1]) pass this option by default
-in modern git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
+in modern Git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
--threads=<n>::
@@ -212,7 +212,7 @@ So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor machines.
The required amount of memory for the delta search window is
however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and set the number of threads accordingly.
--index-version=<version>[,<offset>]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index 67fa5ee..24ab07a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -59,8 +59,8 @@ and a log message from the user describing the changes.
See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts
are presented and handled.
-In git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
-`git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of git, running 'git pull'
+In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
+`git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of Git, running 'git pull'
with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
be fetched too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
That might be necessary to get the data needed for merging submodule
- commits, a feature git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
+ commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
merge will not be checked out in the submodule, "git submodule update"
has to be called afterwards to bring the work tree up to date with the
merge result.
@@ -218,7 +218,7 @@ $ git merge origin/next
------------------------------------------------
-If you tried a pull which resulted in a complex conflicts and
+If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and
would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
@@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
-having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future git
+having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 8b637d3..577d201 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -23,6 +23,17 @@ You can make interesting things happen to a repository
every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
+When the command line does not specify where to push with the
+`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
+current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
+configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
+
+When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
+arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
+the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
+and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
+what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
+
OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
------------------
@@ -33,13 +44,10 @@ OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
<refspec>...::
+ Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
- `+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+ `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
- It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
- in the remote repository is to be updated. If not specified,
- the behavior of the command is controlled by the `push.default`
- configuration variable.
+
The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
@@ -51,10 +59,11 @@ be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
updated.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
-on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
-update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`,
-you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
-fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
+on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
+a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
+<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
+the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
+fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
EXAMPLES below for details.
+
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
@@ -63,12 +72,9 @@ Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
+
The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
-directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
+directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
-already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
-if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
-nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below) and
-no `push.default` configuration variable is set.
+already exists on the remote side.
--all::
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
@@ -176,7 +182,7 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
- used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
+ used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
@@ -191,7 +197,7 @@ OUTPUT
------
The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
-section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
+section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
locally or via ssh).
The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
diff --git a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
index 7f112f3..a356196 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Applies a quilt patchset onto the current git branch, preserving
+Applies a quilt patchset onto the current Git branch, preserving
the patch boundaries, patch order, and patch descriptions present
in the quilt patchset.
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ the patch description is displayed and the user is asked to
interactively enter the author of the patch.
If a subject is not found in the patch description the patch name is
-preserved as the 1 line subject in the git description.
+preserved as the 1 line subject in the Git description.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index da067ec..aca8405 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
In case of conflict, 'git rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git diff' to locate
the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
-file you edit, you need to tell git that the conflict has been resolved,
+file you edit, you need to tell Git that the conflict has been resolved,
typically this would be done with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 7fe2d22..fb8697e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ The reflog will cover all recent actions (HEAD reflog records branch switching
as well). It is an alias for `git log -g --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline`;
see linkgit:git-log[1].
-The reflog is useful in various git commands, to specify the old value
+The reflog is useful in various Git commands, to specify the old value
of a reference. For example, `HEAD@{2}` means "where HEAD used to be
two moves ago", `master@{one.week.ago}` means "where master used to
point to one week ago", and so on. See linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index 8a8e1d7..58b7fac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ git remote add <nick> "ext::<command>[ <arguments>...]"
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This remote helper uses the specified '<command>' to connect
-to a remote git server.
+to a remote Git server.
Data written to stdin of the specified '<command>' is assumed
to be sent to a git:// server, git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack
@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ The following sequences have a special meaning:
'%s'::
Replaced with name (receive-pack, upload-pack, or
- upload-archive) of the service git wants to invoke.
+ upload-archive) of the service Git wants to invoke.
'%S'::
Replaced with long name (git-receive-pack,
git-upload-pack, or git-upload-archive) of the service
- git wants to invoke.
+ Git wants to invoke.
'%G' (must be the first characters in an argument)::
This argument will not be passed to '<command>'. Instead, it
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ GIT_EXT_SERVICE_NOPREFIX::
EXAMPLES:
---------
-This remote helper is transparently used by git when
+This remote helper is transparently used by Git when
you use commands such as "git fetch <URL>", "git clone <URL>",
, "git push <URL>" or "git remote add <nick> <URL>", where <URL>
begins with `ext::`. Examples:
@@ -100,14 +100,14 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
Represents a repository with path /repo accessed using the
helper program "git-server-alias foo". The hostname for the
remote server passed in the protocol stream will be "foo"
- (this allows multiple virtual git servers to share a
+ (this allows multiple virtual Git servers to share a
link-level address).
"ext::git-server-alias foo %G/repo% with% spaces %Vfoo"::
Represents a repository with path '/repo with spaces' accessed
using the helper program "git-server-alias foo". The hostname for
the remote server passed in the protocol stream will be "foo"
- (this allows multiple virtual git servers to share a
+ (this allows multiple virtual Git servers to share a
link-level address).
"ext::git-ssl foo.example /bar"::
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the git list
+Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the Git list
<git@vger.kernel.org>
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
index f095d57..933c2ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
@@ -11,14 +11,14 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This helper uses specified file descriptors to connect to a remote git server.
+This helper uses specified file descriptors to connect to a remote Git server.
This is not meant for end users but for programs and scripts calling git
fetch, push or archive.
If only <infd> is given, it is assumed to be a bidirectional socket connected
-to remote git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
+to remote Git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
git-upload-achive). If both <infd> and <outfd> are given, they are assumed
-to be pipes connected to a remote git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
+to be pipes connected to a remote Git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
and <outfd> being the outbound pipe.
It is assumed that any handshaking procedures have already been completed
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ EXAMPLES
Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
+Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the Git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..49233f5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+git-remote-helpers
+==================
+
+This document has been moved to linkgit:gitremote-helpers[1].
+
+Please let the owners of the referring site know so that they can update the
+link you clicked to get here.
+
+Thanks.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
index 2a67d45..f791d73 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
@@ -19,11 +19,11 @@ testcase for the remote-helper functionality, and as an example to
show remote-helper authors one possible implementation.
The best way to learn more is to read the comments and source code in
-'git-remote-testgit.py'.
+'git-remote-testgit'.
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:git-remote-helpers[1]
+linkgit:gitremote-helpers[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 51131d0..0142cd1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ replacement object.
Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist.
-Replacement references will be used by default by all git commands
+Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands
except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
fsck).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 978d8da..a404b47 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -8,20 +8,20 @@ git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-sh>] [--] [<paths>...]
'git reset' [--soft | --mixed | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-In the first and second form, copy entries from <commit> to the index.
+In the first and second form, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index.
In the third form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>, optionally
-modifying index and working tree to match. The <commit> defaults to HEAD
-in all forms.
+modifying index and working tree to match. The <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults
+to HEAD in all forms.
-'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...::
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...::
This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their
- state at <commit>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
+ state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
the current branch.)
+
This means that `git reset <paths>` is the opposite of `git add
@@ -34,9 +34,9 @@ Alternatively, using linkgit:git-checkout[1] and specifying a commit, you
can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the index and to the
working tree in one go.
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]::
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]::
Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index
- and <commit> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
+ and <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
in reverse to the index.
+
This means that `git reset -p` is the opposite of `git add -p`, i.e.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 38fafca..65ac27e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
$ git rev-list A...B
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-'rev-list' is a very essential git command, since it
+'rev-list' is a very essential Git command, since it
provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
used by commands as different as 'git bisect' and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 3c63561..10a116f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
+Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
meant for the underlying 'git rev-list' command they use internally
and flags and parameters for the other commands they use
@@ -147,7 +147,7 @@ shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
relative to the current working directory.
+
If `$GIT_DIR` is not defined and the current directory
-is not detected to lie in a git repository or work tree
+is not detected to lie in a Git repository or work tree
print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-inside-git-dir::
@@ -187,9 +187,11 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
Flags and parameters to be parsed.
--resolve-git-dir <path>::
- Check if <path> is a valid git-dir or a git-file pointing to a valid
- git-dir. If <path> is a valid git-dir the resolved path to git-dir will
- be printed.
+ Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
+ points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
+ repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path
+ to the real repository is printed.
+
include::revisions.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 5d31860..92bac27 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
<file>...::
Files to remove. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can be given to
- remove all matching files. If you want git to expand
+ remove all matching files. If you want Git to expand
file glob characters, you may need to shell-escape them.
A leading directory name
(e.g. `dir` to remove `dir/file1` and `dir/file2`) can be
@@ -74,8 +74,8 @@ DISCUSSION
The <file> list given to the command can be exact pathnames,
file glob patterns, or leading directory names. The command
-removes only the paths that are known to git. Giving the name of
-a file that you have not told git about does not remove that file.
+removes only the paths that are known to Git. Giving the name of
+a file that you have not told Git about does not remove that file.
File globbing matches across directory boundaries. Thus, given
two directories `d` and `d2`, there is a difference between
@@ -134,6 +134,21 @@ use the following command:
git diff --name-only --diff-filter=D -z | xargs -0 git rm --cached
----------------
+Submodules
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Only submodules using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
+with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
+tree, as their repository lives inside the .git directory of the
+superproject. If a submodule (or one of those nested inside it)
+still uses a .git directory, `git rm` will fail - no matter if forced
+or not - to protect the submodule's history.
+
+A submodule is considered up-to-date when the HEAD is the same as
+recorded in the index, no tracked files are modified and no untracked
+files that aren't ignored are present in the submodules work tree.
+Ignored files are deemed expendable and won't stop a submodule's work
+tree from being removed.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
`git rm Documentation/\*.txt`::
@@ -141,7 +156,7 @@ EXAMPLES
`Documentation` directory and any of its subdirectories.
+
Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
-example; this lets git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames
+example; this lets Git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames
of files and subdirectories under the `Documentation/` directory.
`git rm -f git-*.sh`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 3241170..44a1f7c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
(what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
-(or GIT: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
+(or Git: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
+
Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
@@ -126,6 +126,10 @@ The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
+
Note that no attempts whatsoever are made to validate the encoding.
+--compose-encoding=<encoding>::
+ Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
+ 'sendemail.composeencoding'; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
+
Sending
~~~~~~~
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index bd3eaa6..dc3a568 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-send-pack(1)
NAME
----
-git-send-pack - Push objects over git protocol to another repository
+git-send-pack - Push objects over Git protocol to another repository
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
index 5e5f1c8..6a9f66d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-sh-setup(1)
NAME
----
-git-sh-setup - Common git shell script setup code
+git-sh-setup - Common Git shell script setup code
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
The 'git sh-setup' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up some variables pointing at
-the normal git directories and a few helper shell functions.
+the normal Git directories and a few helper shell functions.
Before sourcing it, your script should set up a few variables;
`USAGE` (and `LONG_USAGE`, if any) is used to define message
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index afeb4cd..c308e91 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -56,6 +56,9 @@ OPTIONS
line of each entry is indented by `indent1` spaces, and the second
and subsequent lines are indented by `indent2` spaces. `width`,
`indent1`, and `indent2` default to 76, 6 and 9 respectively.
++
+If width is `0` (zero) then indent the lines of the output without wrapping
+them.
MAPPING AUTHORS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index 2dcbbb2..9cbbed9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with
+Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with
'git pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 00d5951..9046df9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Displays paths that have differences between the index file and the
current HEAD commit, paths that have differences between the working
tree and the index file, and paths in the working tree that are not
-tracked by git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
+tracked by Git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
are what you _would_ commit by running `git commit`; the second and
third are what you _could_ commit by running 'git add' before running
`git commit`.
@@ -35,9 +35,12 @@ OPTIONS
--porcelain::
Give the output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
This is similar to the short output, but will remain stable
- across git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
+ across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
below for details.
+--long::
+ Give the output in the long-format. This is the default.
+
-u[<mode>]::
--untracked-files[=<mode>]::
Show untracked files.
@@ -99,7 +102,7 @@ The default, long format, is designed to be human readable,
verbose and descriptive. Its contents and format are subject to change
at any time.
-The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other git commands, are
+The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other Git commands, are
made relative to the current directory if you are working in a
subdirectory (this is on purpose, to help cutting and pasting). See
the status.relativePaths config option below.
@@ -171,7 +174,7 @@ Porcelain Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The porcelain format is similar to the short format, but is guaranteed
-not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between git versions or
+not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between Git versions or
based on user configuration. This makes it ideal for parsing by scripts.
The description of the short format above also describes the porcelain
format, with a few exceptions:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
index a80d946..c87bfcb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Clean the input in the manner used by 'git' for text such as commit
+Clean the input in the manner used by Git for text such as commit
messages, notes, tags and branch descriptions.
With no arguments, this will:
@@ -35,7 +35,13 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-s::
--strip-comments::
- Skip and remove all lines starting with '#'.
+ Skip and remove all lines starting with comment character (default '#').
+
+-c::
+--comment-lines::
+ Prepend comment character and blank to each line. Lines will automatically
+ be terminated with a newline. On empty lines, only the comment character
+ will be prepended.
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index a65f38e..c99d795 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -9,12 +9,13 @@ git-submodule - Initialize, update or inspect submodules
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b <branch>] [-f|--force] [--name <name>]
[--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
-'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [-N|--no-fetch] [--rebase]
- [--reference <repository>] [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
+ [-f|--force] [--rebase] [--reference <repository>]
+ [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
[commit] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
@@ -91,7 +92,7 @@ working directory is used instead.
<path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule to
exist in the superproject. If <path> does not exist, then the
submodule is created by cloning from the named URL. If <path> does
-exist and is already a valid git repository, then this is added
+exist and is already a valid Git repository, then this is added
to the changeset without cloning. This second form is provided
to ease creating a new submodule from scratch, and presumes
the user will later push the submodule to the given URL.
@@ -208,6 +209,8 @@ OPTIONS
-b::
--branch::
Branch of repository to add as submodule.
+ The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<path>.branch` in
+ `.gitmodules` for `update --remote`.
-f::
--force::
@@ -236,6 +239,27 @@ OPTIONS
(the default). This limit only applies to modified submodules. The
size is always limited to 1 for added/deleted/typechanged submodules.
+--remote::
+ This option is only valid for the update command. Instead of using
+ the superproject's recorded SHA-1 to update the submodule, use the
+ status of the submodule's remote tracking branch. The remote used
+ is branch's remote (`branch.<name>.remote`), defaulting to `origin`.
+ The remote branch used defaults to `master`, but the branch name may
+ be overridden by setting the `submodule.<name>.branch` option in
+ either `.gitmodules` or `.git/config` (with `.git/config` taking
+ precedence).
++
+This works for any of the supported update procedures (`--checkout`,
+`--rebase`, etc.). The only change is the source of the target SHA-1.
+For example, `submodule update --remote --merge` will merge upstream
+submodule changes into the submodules, while `submodule update
+--merge` will merge superproject gitlink changes into the submodules.
++
+In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, `update --remote`
+fetches the submodule's remote repository before calculating the
+SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use `submodule update
+--remote --no-fetch`.
+
-N::
--no-fetch::
This option is only valid for the update command.
@@ -265,6 +289,11 @@ OPTIONS
Initialize all submodules for which "git submodule init" has not been
called so far before updating.
+--name::
+ This option is only valid for the add command. It sets the submodule's
+ name to the given string instead of defaulting to its path. The name
+ must be valid as a directory name and may not end with a '/'.
+
--reference <repository>::
This option is only valid for add and update commands. These
commands sometimes need to clone a remote repository. In this case,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 69decb1..1b8b649 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-svn(1)
NAME
----
-git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and git
+git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,8 +12,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and git.
-It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a git
+'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git.
+It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git
repository.
'git svn' can track a standard Subversion repository,
@@ -21,15 +21,15 @@ following the common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option.
It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options
(see options to 'init' below, and also the 'clone' command).
-Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the git
+Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git
repository can be updated from Subversion by the 'fetch' command and
-Subversion updated from git by the 'dcommit' command.
+Subversion updated from Git by the 'dcommit' command.
COMMANDS
--------
'init'::
- Initializes an empty git repository with additional
+ Initializes an empty Git repository with additional
metadata directories for 'git svn'. The Subversion URL
may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full
URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target
@@ -199,9 +199,9 @@ and have no uncommitted changes.
Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create
- a revision in SVN for each commit in git.
+ a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.
+
-When an optional git branch name (or a git commit object name)
+When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name)
is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified
branch, not on the current branch.
+
@@ -316,7 +316,7 @@ New features:
+
--
--show-commit;;
- shows the git commit sha1, as well
+ shows the Git commit sha1, as well
--oneline;;
our version of --pretty=oneline
--
@@ -337,15 +337,25 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
+
--git-format;;
Produce output in the same format as 'git blame', but with
- SVN revision numbers instead of git commit hashes. In this mode,
+ SVN revision numbers instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode,
changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.
'find-rev'::
When given an SVN revision number of the form 'rN', returns the
- corresponding git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
+ corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.
++
+--before;;
+ Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find
+ the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the
+ current branch) at the specified revision.
++
+--after;;
+ Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is
+ not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the
+ history.
'set-tree'::
You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
@@ -368,7 +378,7 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
'mkdirs'::
- Attempts to recreate empty directories that core git cannot track
+ Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track
based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
"git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
@@ -500,9 +510,9 @@ order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
+
Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
-removed by default if there are no files left in them. git
+removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git
cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
-the commit to SVN act like git.
+the commit to SVN act like Git.
+
[verse]
config key: svn.rmdir
@@ -589,7 +599,7 @@ Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and
'tag' commands.
+
-For 'dcommit', print out the series of git arguments that would show
+For 'dcommit', print out the series of Git arguments that would show
which diffs would be committed to SVN.
+
For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
@@ -600,14 +610,14 @@ For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
creating the branch or tag.
--use-log-author::
- When retrieving svn commits into git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
+ When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
'dcommit' operations), look for the first `From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line
in the log message and use that as the author string.
--add-author-from::
- When committing to svn from git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
+ When committing to svn from Git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
`From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line, append a `From:` line based on the
- git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
+ Git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.
@@ -632,7 +642,7 @@ ADVANCED OPTIONS
one of the repository layout options --trunk, --tags,
--branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find
out where its revision was copied from, and set
- a suitable parent in the first git commit for the branch.
+ a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch.
This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
that has been moved around within the repository. If this
feature is disabled, the branches created by 'git svn' will all
@@ -664,7 +674,7 @@ option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.
+
This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down
old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug
-reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to git
+reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git
and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
linkgit:git-filter-branch[1] instead. filter-branch also allows
reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship
@@ -704,7 +714,7 @@ svn-remote.<name>.rewriteUUID::
svn-remote.<name>.pushurl::
- Similar to git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
+ Similar to Git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
to be used in cases where 'url' points to an SVN repository
via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write
transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same
@@ -758,15 +768,15 @@ Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project
cd trunk
# You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
git branch
-# Do some work and commit locally to git:
+# Do some work and commit locally to Git:
git commit ...
# Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
# latest changes in SVN:
git svn rebase
-# Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using git) to SVN,
+# Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
# as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
git svn dcommit
-# Append svn:ignore settings to the default git exclude file:
+# Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -806,7 +816,7 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
git remote add origin server:/pub/project
git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
git fetch
-# Prevent fetch/pull from remote git server in the future,
+# Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
# we only want to use git svn for future updates
git config --remove-section remote.origin
# Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
@@ -839,13 +849,13 @@ While 'git svn' can track
copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories adopting a
standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened
inside git back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that
-users keep history as linear as possible inside git to ease
+users keep history as linear as possible inside Git to ease
compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).
HANDLING OF SVN BRANCHES
------------------------
If 'git svn' is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches
-is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple git branches for one
+is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one
SVN branch, where the addtional branches have names of the form
'branchname@nnn' (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional
branches are created if 'git svn' cannot find a parent commit for the
@@ -855,17 +865,17 @@ the other branches.
Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists
of a copy operation. 'git svn' will read this commit to get the SVN
revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the
-git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
+Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable
-git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
+Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by 'git
svn' (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
'--revision'), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
by 'git svn' (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, 'git svn' will still
-create a git branch, but instead of using an existing git commit as the
+create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the
-branch was copied from and create appropriate git commits. This is
+branch was copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is
indicated by the message "Initializing parent: <branchname>".
Additionally, it will create a special branch named
@@ -875,15 +885,15 @@ created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple
such branches with an '@'.
-Note that this may mean that multiple git commits are created for a
+Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a
single SVN revision.
An example: in an SVN repository with a standard
trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100.
In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. 'git svn
-clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new git
+clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new Git
commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch
-'sub'. Thus there will be two git commits for each revision from r.100
+'sub'. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100
to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally,
it will create a branch 'sub@200' pointing to the new parent commit of
branch 'sub' (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).
@@ -894,13 +904,13 @@ CAVEATS
For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion,
it is recommended that all 'git svn' users clone, fetch and dcommit
directly from the SVN server, and avoid all 'git clone'/'pull'/'merge'/'push'
-operations between git repositories and branches. The recommended
-method of exchanging code between git branches and users is
+operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended
+method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is
'git format-patch' and 'git am', or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.
Running 'git merge' or 'git pull' is NOT recommended on a branch you
plan to 'dcommit' from because Subversion users cannot see any
-merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a git branch
+merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch
that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
branch.
@@ -919,7 +929,7 @@ any 'git svn' metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with
using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
at all.
-Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any git branches you 'git push' to
+Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any Git branches you 'git push' to
before 'dcommit' on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref
on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice,
see the linkgit:git-push[1] documentation for details.
@@ -931,7 +941,7 @@ dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.
When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
the repository layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches,
---stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a git repository with
+--stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a Git repository with
completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
@@ -947,7 +957,7 @@ branches and tags is required, the options '--trunk' / '--branches' /
When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
-use 'init' to set up your git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
+use 'init' to set up your Git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
the .git/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with
different name spaces. For example:
@@ -960,12 +970,12 @@ BUGS
We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log
-Renamed and copied directories are not detected by git and hence not
+Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not
tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
-the possible corner cases (git doesn't do it, either). Committing
+the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it, either). Committing
renamed and copied files is fully supported if they're similar enough
-for git to detect them.
+for Git to detect them.
In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag
(because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a
@@ -977,7 +987,7 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
'git svn' stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
-repository .git/config file. It is similar the core git
+repository .git/config file. It is similar the core Git
[remote] sections except 'fetch' keys do not accept glob
arguments; but they are instead handled by the 'branches'
and 'tags' keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly
diff --git a/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
index 981d3a8..ef68ad2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-symbolic-ref.txt
@@ -3,13 +3,14 @@ git-symbolic-ref(1)
NAME
----
-git-symbolic-ref - Read and modify symbolic refs
+git-symbolic-ref - Read, modify and delete symbolic refs
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git symbolic-ref' [-m <reason>] <name> <ref>
'git symbolic-ref' [-q] [--short] <name>
+'git symbolic-ref' --delete [-q] <name>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -21,6 +22,9 @@ argument to see which branch your working tree is on.
Given two arguments, creates or updates a symbolic ref <name> to
point at the given branch <ref>.
+Given `--delete` and an additional argument, deletes the given
+symbolic ref.
+
A symbolic ref is a regular file that stores a string that
begins with `ref: refs/`. For example, your `.git/HEAD` is
a regular file whose contents is `ref: refs/heads/master`.
@@ -28,6 +32,10 @@ a regular file whose contents is `ref: refs/heads/master`.
OPTIONS
-------
+-d::
+--delete::
+ Delete the symbolic ref <name>.
+
-q::
--quiet::
Do not issue an error message if the <name> is not a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 6470cff..b21aa87 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -126,6 +126,12 @@ This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
linkgit:git-check-ref-format[1]. Some of these checks
may restrict the characters allowed in a tag name.
+<commit>::
+<object>::
+ The object that the new tag will refer to, usually a commit.
+ Defaults to HEAD.
+
+
CONFIGURATION
-------------
By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
@@ -242,7 +248,7 @@ $ git pull git://git..../proj.git master
In such a case, you do not want to automatically follow the other
person's tags.
-One important aspect of git is its distributed nature, which
+One important aspect of Git is its distributed nature, which
largely means there is no inherent "upstream" or
"downstream" in the system. On the face of it, the above
example might seem to indicate that the tag namespace is owned
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tools.txt b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
index a96403c..ad8b823 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tools.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,11 @@
-A short git tools survey
+A short Git tools survey
========================
Introduction
------------
-Apart from git contrib/ area there are some others third-party tools
+Apart from Git contrib/ area there are some others third-party tools
you may want to look.
This document presents a brief summary of each tool and the corresponding
@@ -17,26 +17,26 @@ Alternative/Augmentative Porcelains
- *Cogito* (http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/cogito/)
- Cogito is a version control system layered on top of the git tree history
+ Cogito is a version control system layered on top of the Git tree history
storage system. It aims at seamless user interface and ease of use,
- providing generally smoother user experience than the "raw" Core GIT
+ providing generally smoother user experience than the "raw" Core Git
itself and indeed many other version control systems.
Cogito is no longer maintained as most of its functionality
- is now in core GIT.
+ is now in core Git.
- *pg* (http://www.spearce.org/category/projects/scm/pg/)
- pg is a shell script wrapper around GIT to help the user manage a set of
- patches to files. pg is somewhat like quilt or StGIT, but it does have a
+ pg is a shell script wrapper around Git to help the user manage a set of
+ patches to files. pg is somewhat like quilt or StGit, but it does have a
slightly different feature set.
- *StGit* (http://www.procode.org/stgit/)
- Stacked GIT provides a quilt-like patch management functionality in the
- GIT environment. You can easily manage your patches in the scope of GIT
+ Stacked Git provides a quilt-like patch management functionality in the
+ Git environment. You can easily manage your patches in the scope of Git
until they get merged upstream.
@@ -45,33 +45,33 @@ History Viewers
- *gitk* (shipped with git-core)
- gitk is a simple Tk GUI for browsing history of GIT repositories easily.
+ gitk is a simple Tk GUI for browsing history of Git repositories easily.
- *gitview* (contrib/)
- gitview is a GTK based repository browser for git
+ gitview is a GTK based repository browser for Git
- *gitweb* (shipped with git-core)
- GITweb provides full-fledged web interface for GIT repositories.
+ Gitweb provides full-fledged web interface for Git repositories.
- *qgit* (http://digilander.libero.it/mcostalba/)
- QGit is a git/StGIT GUI viewer built on Qt/C++. QGit could be used
+ QGit is a git/StGit GUI viewer built on Qt/C++. QGit could be used
to browse history and directory tree, view annotated files, commit
changes cherry picking single files or applying patches.
- Currently it is the fastest and most feature rich among the git
+ Currently it is the fastest and most feature rich among the Git
viewers and commit tools.
- *tig* (http://jonas.nitro.dk/tig/)
- tig by Jonas Fonseca is a simple git repository browser
+ tig by Jonas Fonseca is a simple Git repository browser
written using ncurses. Basically, it just acts as a front-end
for git-log and git-show/git-diff. Additionally, you can also
- use it as a pager for git commands.
+ use it as a pager for Git commands.
Foreign SCM interface
@@ -80,20 +80,20 @@ Foreign SCM interface
- *git-svn* (shipped with git-core)
git-svn is a simple conduit for changesets between a single Subversion
- branch and git.
+ branch and Git.
- *quilt2git / git2quilt* (http://home-tj.org/wiki/index.php/Misc)
These utilities convert patch series in a quilt repository and commit
- series in git back and forth.
+ series in Git back and forth.
- *hg-to-git* (contrib/)
- hg-to-git converts a Mercurial repository into a git one, and
+ hg-to-git converts a Mercurial repository into a Git one, and
preserves the full branch history in the process. hg-to-git can
- also be used in an incremental way to keep the git repository
+ also be used in an incremental way to keep the Git repository
in sync with the master Mercurial repository.
@@ -102,14 +102,14 @@ Others
- *(h)gct* (http://www.cyd.liu.se/users/~freku045/gct/)
- Commit Tool or (h)gct is a GUI enabled commit tool for git and
+ Commit Tool or (h)gct is a GUI enabled commit tool for Git and
Mercurial (hg). It allows the user to view diffs, select which files
to committed (or ignored / reverted) write commit messages and
perform the commit itself.
- *git.el* (contrib/)
- This is an Emacs interface for git. The user interface is modeled on
+ This is an Emacs interface for Git. The user interface is modeled on
pcl-cvs. It has been developed on Emacs 21 and will probably need some
tweaking to work on XEmacs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 9d0b151..c927758 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -82,10 +82,10 @@ OPTIONS
When these flags are specified, the object names recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "assume unchanged" bit for the
- paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
+ paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, Git stops
checking the working tree files for possible
modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
- tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
+ tell Git when you change the working tree file. This is
sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
(e.g. cifs).
@@ -145,7 +145,15 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
--index-version <n>::
Write the resulting index out in the named on-disk format version.
- The current default version is 2.
+ Supported versions are 2, 3 and 4. The current default version is 2
+ or 3, depending on whether extra features are used, such as
+ `git add -N`.
++
+Version 4 performs a simple pathname compression that reduces index
+size by 30%-50% on large repositories, which results in faster load
+time. Version 4 is relatively young (first released in in 1.8.0 in
+October 2012). Other Git implementations such as JGit and libgit2
+may not support it yet.
-z::
Only meaningful with `--stdin` or `--index-info`; paths are
@@ -253,18 +261,18 @@ $ git ls-files -s
Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
------------------------------
-Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
+Many operations in Git depend on your filesystem to have an
efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
the index file. Unfortunately, some filesystems have
inefficient `lstat(2)`. If your filesystem is one of them, you
can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
-cause git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
-path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
-see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
+cause Git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
+path does not mean Git will check the contents of the file to
+see if it has changed -- it makes Git to omit any checking and
assume it has *not* changed. When you make changes to working
-tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
+tree files, you have to explicitly tell Git about it by dropping
"assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.
In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
@@ -274,7 +282,7 @@ have the "assume unchanged" bit set, use `git ls-files -v`
The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. When
this is true, paths updated with `git update-index paths...` and
-paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
+paths updated with other Git commands that update both index and
working tree (e.g. 'git apply --index', 'git checkout-index -u',
and 'git read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
unchanged". Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index d377a35..0df13ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@ in ref value. Log lines are formatted as:
Where "oldsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value previously
stored in <ref>, "newsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value of
<newvalue> and "committer" is the committer's name, email address
-and date in the standard GIT committer ident format.
+and date in the standard Git committer ident format.
Optionally with -m:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index 4d52d38..d09bbb5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Invoked by 'git archive --remote' and sends a generated archive to the
-other end over the git protocol.
+other end over the Git protocol.
This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user. The UI
for the protocol is on the 'git archive' side, and the program pair
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
index 71f1608..0abc806 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
--strict::
- Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no git directory.
+ Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no Git directory.
--timeout=<n>::
Interrupt transfer after <n> seconds of inactivity.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index 67edf58..44ff954 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-var(1)
NAME
----
-git-var - Show a git logical variable
+git-var - Show a Git logical variable
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,13 +13,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Prints a git logical variable.
+Prints a Git logical variable.
OPTIONS
-------
-l::
Cause the logical variables to be listed. In addition, all the
- variables of the git configuration file .git/config are listed
+ variables of the Git configuration file .git/config are listed
as well. (However, the configuration variables listing functionality
is deprecated in favor of `git config -l`.)
@@ -35,10 +35,10 @@ GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT::
The author of a piece of code.
GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT::
- The person who put a piece of code into git.
+ The person who put a piece of code into Git.
GIT_EDITOR::
- Text editor for use by git commands. The value is meant to be
+ Text editor for use by Git commands. The value is meant to be
interpreted by the shell when it is used. Examples: `~/bin/vi`,
`$SOME_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE`, `"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe"
--nofork`. The order of preference is the `$GIT_EDITOR`
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ ifdef::git-default-editor[]
endif::git-default-editor[]
GIT_PAGER::
- Text viewer for use by git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
+ Text viewer for use by Git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
is meant to be interpreted by the shell. The order of preference
is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then the default chosen at
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
index cd23076..0eb9ffb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-verify-pack(1)
NAME
----
-git-verify-pack - Validate packed git archive files
+git-verify-pack - Validate packed Git archive files
SYNOPSIS
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with the
+Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with the
'git pack-objects' command and verifies idx file and the
corresponding pack file.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
index 5ff76e8..e996135 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ OPTIONS
Print the contents of the tag object before validating it.
<tag>...::
- SHA1 identifiers of git tag objects.
+ SHA1 identifiers of Git tag objects.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index c2bc87b..ba79cb4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-web{litdd}browse(1)
NAME
----
-git-web--browse - git helper script to launch a web browser
+git-web--browse - Git helper script to launch a web browser
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ OPTIONS
-c <conf.var>::
--config=<conf.var>::
- CONF.VAR is looked up in the git config files. If it's set,
+ CONF.VAR is looked up in the Git config files. If it's set,
then its value specifies the browser that should be used.
CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
index 6c8f510..c600b61 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
OPTIONS
-------
-p::
- Show textual diffs, instead of the git internal diff
+ Show textual diffs, instead of the Git internal diff
output format that is useful only to tell the changed
paths and their nature of changes.
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ OPTIONS
exclusive, top inclusive).
-r::
- Show git internal diff output, but for the whole tree,
+ Show Git internal diff output, but for the whole tree,
not just the top level.
-m::
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index b0e8f02..6a875f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -27,11 +27,11 @@ commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
in-depth introduction.
After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
-page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
-individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
+page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
+individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
-Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
+Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
ifdef::stalenotes[]
@@ -39,10 +39,27 @@ ifdef::stalenotes[]
============
You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
-unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
+unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
+* link:v1.8.2.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.1]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1].
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
+
+* link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.6.txt[1.8.1.6],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.5.txt[1.8.1.5],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.4.txt[1.8.1.4],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.3.txt[1.8.1.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.2.txt[1.8.1.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.1.txt[1.8.1.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.1.txt[1.8.1].
+
* link:v1.8.0.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.0.3]
* release notes for
@@ -349,12 +366,12 @@ endif::stalenotes[]
OPTIONS
-------
--version::
- Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
+ Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
--help::
Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
- available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
+ available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
option will bring up the manual page for that command.
+
Other options are available to control how the manual page is
@@ -369,22 +386,22 @@ help ...`.
'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
--exec-path[=<path>]::
- Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
+ Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
the current setting and then exit.
--html-path::
- Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
+ Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
documentation is installed and exit.
--man-path::
Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
- this version of git and exit.
+ this version of Git and exit.
--info-path::
Print the path where the Info files documenting this
- version of git are installed and exit.
+ version of Git are installed and exit.
-p::
--paginate::
@@ -394,7 +411,7 @@ help ...`.
below).
--no-pager::
- Do not pipe git output into a pager.
+ Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
--git-dir=<path>::
Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
@@ -410,7 +427,7 @@ help ...`.
more detailed discussion).
--namespace=<path>::
- Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
+ Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
variable.
@@ -420,14 +437,19 @@ help ...`.
directory.
--no-replace-objects::
- Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
+ Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
+--literal-pathspecs::
+ Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
+ equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
+ variable to `1`.
+
GIT COMMANDS
------------
-We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
+We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
("plumbing") commands.
High-level commands (porcelain)
@@ -464,7 +486,7 @@ include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
Low-level commands (plumbing)
-----------------------------
-Although git includes its
+Although Git includes its
own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
@@ -522,10 +544,9 @@ include::cmds-purehelpers.txt[]
Configuration Mechanism
-----------------------
-Starting from 0.99.9 (actually mid 0.99.8.GIT), `.git/config` file
-is used to hold per-repository configuration options. It is a
-simple text file modeled after `.ini` format familiar to some
-people. Here is an example:
+Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per
+repository and are per user. Such a configuration file may look
+like this:
------------
#
@@ -540,13 +561,13 @@ people. Here is an example:
; user identity
[user]
name = "Junio C Hamano"
- email = "junkio@twinsun.com"
+ email = "gitster@pobox.com"
------------
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust
their operation accordingly. See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
-list.
+list and more details about the configuration mechanism.
Identifier Terminology
@@ -585,7 +606,7 @@ Identifier Terminology
Symbolic Identifiers
--------------------
-Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
+Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
symbolic notation:
HEAD::
@@ -621,13 +642,13 @@ Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
Environment Variables
---------------------
-Various git commands use the following environment variables:
+Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
-The git Repository
+The Git Repository
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
+These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
-git so take care if using Cogito etc.
+Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
This environment allows the specification of an alternate
@@ -641,10 +662,10 @@ git so take care if using Cogito etc.
directory is used.
'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
- Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
+ Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
- of git object directories which can be used to search for git
+ of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
'GIT_DIR'::
@@ -661,28 +682,35 @@ git so take care if using Cogito etc.
option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
- Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
+ Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
- This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths.
- If set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir
- up into while looking for a repository directory.
- It will not exclude the current working directory or
- a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
- (Useful for excluding slow-loading network directories.)
+ This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
+ set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
+ into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
+ excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
+ exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
+ command line or in the environment. Normally, Git has to read
+ the entries in this list and resolve any symlink that
+ might be present in order to compare them with the current
+ directory. However, if even this access is slow, you
+ can add an empty entry to the list to tell Git that the
+ subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn't be resolved;
+ e.g.,
+ 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=/maybe/symlink::/very/slow/non/symlink'.
'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
- directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
+ directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
- can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
+ can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
command line.
-git Commits
+Git Commits
~~~~~~~~~~~
'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
@@ -693,13 +721,13 @@ git Commits
'EMAIL'::
see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
-git Diffs
+Git Diffs
~~~~~~~~~
'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
- value passed on the git diff command line.
+ value passed on the Git diff command line.
'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
@@ -734,13 +762,13 @@ other
'GIT_PAGER'::
This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
- to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
+ to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
linkgit:git-config[1].
'GIT_EDITOR'::
This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
- It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
+ It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
@@ -748,9 +776,12 @@ other
If this environment variable is set then 'git fetch'
and 'git push' will use this command instead
of 'ssh' when they need to connect to a remote system.
- The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two arguments:
- the 'username@host' (or just 'host') from the URL and the
- shell command to execute on that remote system.
+ The '$GIT_SSH' command will be given exactly two or
+ four arguments: the 'username@host' (or just 'host')
+ from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
+ remote system, optionally preceded by '-p' (literally) and
+ the 'port' from the URL when it specifies something other
+ than the default SSH port.
+
To pass options to the program that you want to list in GIT_SSH
you will need to wrap the program and options into a shell script,
@@ -761,12 +792,20 @@ personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
for further details.
'GIT_ASKPASS'::
- If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
+ If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
option in linkgit:git-config[1].
+'GIT_CONFIG_NOSYSTEM'::
+ Whether to skip reading settings from the system-wide
+ `$(prefix)/etc/gitconfig` file. This environment variable can
+ be used along with `$HOME` and `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` to create a
+ predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it
+ temporarily to avoid using a buggy `/etc/gitconfig` file while
+ waiting for someone with sufficient permissions to fix it.
+
'GIT_FLUSH'::
If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
@@ -774,31 +813,41 @@ for further details.
after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
- not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
+ not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
'GIT_TRACE'::
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
- is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
+ is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
execution and external command execution.
If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
- and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
+ and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
trace messages into this file descriptor.
Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
- (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
+ (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
into it.
+GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
+ Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+ pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
+ running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
+ for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
+ glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
+ literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
+ `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
+
+
Discussion[[Discussion]]
------------------------
More detail on the following is available from the
-link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
+link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
-A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
+A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
@@ -848,12 +897,12 @@ FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
---------------------
See the references in the "description" section to get started
-using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
+using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
for a first-time user.
-The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
+The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
-introductions to the underlying git architecture.
+introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
@@ -861,7 +910,7 @@ See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
examples.
The internals are documented in the
-link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
+link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
Users migrating from CVS may also want to
read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
@@ -870,7 +919,7 @@ read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
Authors
-------
Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
-C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
+C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
gives you a more complete list of contributors.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index ba02d4d..b322a26 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -56,8 +56,9 @@ When more than one pattern matches the path, a later line
overrides an earlier line. This overriding is done per
attribute. The rules how the pattern matches paths are the
same as in `.gitignore` files; see linkgit:gitignore[5].
+Unlike `.gitignore`, negative patterns are forbidden.
-When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, git
+When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, Git
consults `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file (which has the highest
precedence), `.gitattributes` file in the same directory as the
path in question, and its parent directories up to the toplevel of the
@@ -93,7 +94,7 @@ the name of the attribute prefixed with an exclamation point `!`.
EFFECTS
-------
-Certain operations by git can be influenced by assigning
+Certain operations by Git can be influenced by assigning
particular attributes to a path. Currently, the following
operations are attributes-aware.
@@ -103,7 +104,7 @@ Checking-out and checking-in
These attributes affect how the contents stored in the
repository are copied to the working tree files when commands
such as 'git checkout' and 'git merge' run. They also affect how
-git stores the contents you prepare in the working tree in the
+Git stores the contents you prepare in the working tree in the
repository upon 'git add' and 'git commit'.
`text`
@@ -123,22 +124,22 @@ Set::
Unset::
- Unsetting the `text` attribute on a path tells git not to
+ Unsetting the `text` attribute on a path tells Git not to
attempt any end-of-line conversion upon checkin or checkout.
Set to string value "auto"::
When `text` is set to "auto", the path is marked for automatic
- end-of-line normalization. If git decides that the content is
+ end-of-line normalization. If Git decides that the content is
text, its line endings are normalized to LF on checkin.
Unspecified::
- If the `text` attribute is unspecified, git uses the
+ If the `text` attribute is unspecified, Git uses the
`core.autocrlf` configuration variable to determine if the
file should be converted.
-Any other value causes git to act as if `text` has been left
+Any other value causes Git to act as if `text` has been left
unspecified.
`eol`
@@ -150,13 +151,13 @@ content checks, effectively setting the `text` attribute.
Set to string value "crlf"::
- This setting forces git to normalize line endings for this
+ This setting forces Git to normalize line endings for this
file on checkin and convert them to CRLF when the file is
checked out.
Set to string value "lf"::
- This setting forces git to normalize line endings to LF on
+ This setting forces Git to normalize line endings to LF on
checkin and prevents conversion to CRLF when the file is
checked out.
@@ -175,11 +176,11 @@ crlf=input eol=lf
End-of-line conversion
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-While git normally leaves file contents alone, it can be configured to
+While Git normally leaves file contents alone, it can be configured to
normalize line endings to LF in the repository and, optionally, to
convert them to CRLF when files are checked out.
-Here is an example that will make git normalize .txt, .vcproj and .sh
+Here is an example that will make Git normalize .txt, .vcproj and .sh
files, ensure that .vcproj files have CRLF and .sh files have LF in
the working directory, and prevent .jpg files from being normalized
regardless of their content.
@@ -193,7 +194,7 @@ regardless of their content.
Other source code management systems normalize all text files in their
repositories, and there are two ways to enable similar automatic
-normalization in git.
+normalization in Git.
If you simply want to have CRLF line endings in your working directory
regardless of the repository you are working with, you can set the
@@ -218,9 +219,9 @@ attribute to "auto" for _all_ files.
* text=auto
------------------------
-This ensures that all files that git considers to be text will have
+This ensures that all files that Git considers to be text will have
normalized (LF) line endings in the repository. The `core.eol`
-configuration variable controls which line endings git will use for
+configuration variable controls which line endings Git will use for
normalized files in your working directory; the default is to use the
native line ending for your platform, or CRLF if `core.autocrlf` is
set.
@@ -233,7 +234,7 @@ directory:
-------------------------------------------------
$ echo "* text=auto" >>.gitattributes
-$ rm .git/index # Remove the index to force git to
+$ rm .git/index # Remove the index to force Git to
$ git reset # re-scan the working directory
$ git status # Show files that will be normalized
$ git add -u
@@ -248,17 +249,17 @@ unset their `text` attribute before running 'git add -u'.
manual.pdf -text
------------------------
-Conversely, text files that git does not detect can have normalization
+Conversely, text files that Git does not detect can have normalization
enabled manually.
------------------------
weirdchars.txt text
------------------------
-If `core.safecrlf` is set to "true" or "warn", git verifies if
+If `core.safecrlf` is set to "true" or "warn", Git verifies if
the conversion is reversible for the current setting of
-`core.autocrlf`. For "true", git rejects irreversible
-conversions; for "warn", git only prints a warning but accepts
+`core.autocrlf`. For "true", Git rejects irreversible
+conversions; for "warn", Git only prints a warning but accepts
an irreversible conversion. The safety triggers to prevent such
a conversion done to the files in the work tree, but there are a
few exceptions. Even though...
@@ -279,7 +280,7 @@ few exceptions. Even though...
`ident`
^^^^^^^
-When the attribute `ident` is set for a path, git replaces
+When the attribute `ident` is set for a path, Git replaces
`$Id$` in the blob object with `$Id:`, followed by the
40-character hexadecimal blob object name, followed by a dollar
sign `$` upon checkout. Any byte sequence that begins with
@@ -310,7 +311,7 @@ the appropriate filter program, the project should still be usable.
Another use of the content filtering is to store the content that cannot
be directly used in the repository (e.g. a UUID that refers to the true
-content stored outside git, or an encrypted content) and turn it into a
+content stored outside Git, or an encrypted content) and turn it into a
usable form upon checkout (e.g. download the external content, or decrypt
the encrypted content).
@@ -396,7 +397,7 @@ clean/smudge filter or text/eol/ident attributes, merging anything
where the attribute is not in place would normally cause merge
conflicts.
-To prevent these unnecessary merge conflicts, git can be told to run a
+To prevent these unnecessary merge conflicts, Git can be told to run a
virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file when
resolving a three-way merge by setting the `merge.renormalize`
configuration variable. This prevents changes caused by check-in
@@ -416,11 +417,11 @@ Generating diff text
`diff`
^^^^^^
-The attribute `diff` affects how 'git' generates diffs for particular
-files. It can tell git whether to generate a textual patch for the path
+The attribute `diff` affects how Git generates diffs for particular
+files. It can tell Git whether to generate a textual patch for the path
or to treat the path as a binary file. It can also affect what line is
-shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@` line, tell git to use an
-external command to generate the diff, or ask git to convert binary
+shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@` line, tell Git to use an
+external command to generate the diff, or ask Git to convert binary
files to a text format before generating the diff.
Set::
@@ -448,7 +449,7 @@ String::
specify one or more options, as described in the following
section. The options for the diff driver "foo" are defined
by the configuration variables in the "diff.foo" section of the
- git config file.
+ Git config file.
Defining an external diff driver
@@ -466,7 +467,7 @@ To define an external diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
command = j-c-diff
----------------------------------------------------------------
-When git needs to show you a diff for the path with `diff`
+When Git needs to show you a diff for the path with `diff`
attribute set to `jcdiff`, it calls the command you specified
with the above configuration, i.e. `j-c-diff`, with 7
parameters, just like `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` program is called.
@@ -605,7 +606,7 @@ should generate it separately and send it as a comment _in
addition to_ the usual binary diff that you might send.
Because text conversion can be slow, especially when doing a
-large number of them with `git log -p`, git provides a mechanism
+large number of them with `git log -p`, Git provides a mechanism
to cache the output and use it in future diffs. To enable
caching, set the "cachetextconv" variable in your diff driver's
config. For example:
@@ -618,7 +619,7 @@ config. For example:
This will cache the result of running "exif" on each blob
indefinitely. If you change the textconv config variable for a
-diff driver, git will automatically invalidate the cache entries
+diff driver, Git will automatically invalidate the cache entries
and re-run the textconv filter. If you want to invalidate the
cache manually (e.g., because your version of "exif" was updated
and now produces better output), you can remove the cache
@@ -639,7 +640,7 @@ output to resemble unified diff. You are free to locate and report
changes in the most appropriate way for your data format.
A textconv, by comparison, is much more limiting. You provide a
-transformation of the data into a line-oriented text format, and git
+transformation of the data into a line-oriented text format, and Git
uses its regular diff tools to generate the output. There are several
advantages to choosing this method:
@@ -649,7 +650,7 @@ advantages to choosing this method:
odt2txt).
2. Git diff features. By performing only the transformation step
- yourself, you can still utilize many of git's diff features,
+ yourself, you can still utilize many of Git's diff features,
including colorization, word-diff, and combined diffs for merges.
3. Caching. Textconv caching can speed up repeated diffs, such as those
@@ -674,7 +675,7 @@ attribute in the `.gitattributes` file:
*.ps -diff
------------------------
-This will cause git to generate `Binary files differ` (or a binary
+This will cause Git to generate `Binary files differ` (or a binary
patch, if binary patches are enabled) instead of a regular diff.
However, one may also want to specify other diff driver attributes. For
@@ -830,7 +831,7 @@ control per path.
Set::
- Notice all types of potential whitespace errors known to git.
+ Notice all types of potential whitespace errors known to Git.
The tab width is taken from the value of the `core.whitespace`
configuration variable.
@@ -862,7 +863,7 @@ archive files.
`export-subst`
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-If the attribute `export-subst` is set for a file then git will expand
+If the attribute `export-subst` is set for a file then Git will expand
several placeholders when adding this file to an archive. The
expansion depends on the availability of a commit ID, i.e., if
linkgit:git-archive[1] has been given a tree instead of a commit or a
@@ -960,7 +961,7 @@ abc -foo -bar
the attributes given to path `t/abc` are computed as follows:
1. By examining `t/.gitattributes` (which is in the same
- directory as the path in question), git finds that the first
+ directory as the path in question), Git finds that the first
line matches. `merge` attribute is set. It also finds that
the second line matches, and attributes `foo` and `bar`
are unset.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index 3bc1500..9ac5088 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcli(7)
NAME
----
-gitcli - git command line interface and conventions
+gitcli - Git command line interface and conventions
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ gitcli
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This manual describes the convention used throughout git CLI.
+This manual describes the convention used throughout Git CLI.
Many commands take revisions (most often "commits", but sometimes
"tree-ish", depending on the context and command) and paths as their
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ arguments. Here are the rules:
between the HEAD commit and the work tree as a whole". You can say
`git diff HEAD --` to ask for the latter.
- * Without disambiguating `--`, git makes a reasonable guess, but errors
+ * Without disambiguating `--`, Git makes a reasonable guess, but errors
out and asking you to disambiguate when ambiguous. E.g. if you have a
file called HEAD in your work tree, `git diff HEAD` is ambiguous, and
you have to say either `git diff HEAD --` or `git diff -- HEAD` to
@@ -60,9 +60,9 @@ see `hello.c` in your working tree with the former, but with the latter
you will.
Here are the rules regarding the "flags" that you should follow when you are
-scripting git:
+scripting Git:
- * it's preferred to use the non dashed form of git commands, which means that
+ * it's preferred to use the non dashed form of Git commands, which means that
you should prefer `git foo` to `git-foo`.
* splitting short options to separate words (prefer `git foo -a -b`
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@ scripting git:
ENHANCED OPTION PARSER
----------------------
-From the git 1.5.4 series and further, many git commands (not all of them at the
+From the Git 1.5.4 series and further, many Git commands (not all of them at the
time of the writing though) come with an enhanced option parser.
Here is a list of the facilities provided by this option parser.
@@ -107,17 +107,18 @@ couple of magic command line options:
---------------------------------------------
$ git describe -h
usage: git describe [options] <committish>*
+ or: git describe [options] --dirty
--contains find the tag that comes after the commit
--debug debug search strategy on stderr
- --all use any ref in .git/refs
- --tags use any tag in .git/refs/tags
- --abbrev [<n>] use <n> digits to display SHA-1s
- --candidates <n> consider <n> most recent tags (default: 10)
+ --all use any ref
+ --tags use any tag, even unannotated
+ --long always use long format
+ --abbrev[=<n>] use <n> digits to display SHA-1s
---------------------------------------------
--help-all::
- Some git commands take options that are only used for plumbing or that
+ Some Git commands take options that are only used for plumbing or that
are deprecated, and such options are hidden from the default usage. This
option gives the full list of options.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 5325c5a..59c1c17 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcore-tutorial(7)
NAME
----
-gitcore-tutorial - A git core tutorial for developers
+gitcore-tutorial - A Git core tutorial for developers
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,17 +12,17 @@ git *
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This tutorial explains how to use the "core" git commands to set up and
-work with a git repository.
+This tutorial explains how to use the "core" Git commands to set up and
+work with a Git repository.
-If you just need to use git as a revision control system you may prefer
-to start with "A Tutorial Introduction to GIT" (linkgit:gittutorial[7]) or
-link:user-manual.html[the GIT User Manual].
+If you just need to use Git as a revision control system you may prefer
+to start with "A Tutorial Introduction to Git" (linkgit:gittutorial[7]) or
+link:user-manual.html[the Git User Manual].
However, an understanding of these low-level tools can be helpful if
-you want to understand git's internals.
+you want to understand Git's internals.
-The core git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
+The core Git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
interfaces on top of it called "porcelain". You may not want to use the
plumbing directly very often, but it can be good to know what the
plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing.
@@ -40,19 +40,19 @@ Deeper technical details are often marked as Notes, which you can
skip on your first reading.
-Creating a git repository
+Creating a Git repository
-------------------------
-Creating a new git repository couldn't be easier: all git repositories start
+Creating a new Git repository couldn't be easier: all Git repositories start
out empty, and the only thing you need to do is find yourself a
subdirectory that you want to use as a working tree - either an empty
one for a totally new project, or an existing working tree that you want
-to import into git.
+to import into Git.
For our first example, we're going to start a totally new repository from
scratch, with no pre-existing files, and we'll call it 'git-tutorial'.
To start up, create a subdirectory for it, change into that
-subdirectory, and initialize the git infrastructure with 'git init':
+subdirectory, and initialize the Git infrastructure with 'git init':
------------------------------------------------
$ mkdir git-tutorial
@@ -60,13 +60,13 @@ $ cd git-tutorial
$ git init
------------------------------------------------
-to which git will reply
+to which Git will reply
----------------
Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
----------------
-which is just git's way of saying that you haven't been doing anything
+which is just Git's way of saying that you haven't been doing anything
strange, and that it will have created a local `.git` directory setup for
your new project. You will now have a `.git` directory, and you can
inspect that with 'ls'. For your new empty project, it should show you
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ start out expecting to work on the `master` branch.
However, this is only a convention, and you can name your branches
anything you want, and don't have to ever even 'have' a `master`
-branch. A number of the git tools will assume that `.git/HEAD` is
+branch. A number of the Git tools will assume that `.git/HEAD` is
valid, though.
[NOTE]
@@ -119,18 +119,18 @@ populating your tree.
An advanced user may want to take a look at linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
after finishing this tutorial.
-You have now created your first git repository. Of course, since it's
+You have now created your first Git repository. Of course, since it's
empty, that's not very useful, so let's start populating it with data.
-Populating a git repository
+Populating a Git repository
---------------------------
We'll keep this simple and stupid, so we'll start off with populating a
few trivial files just to get a feel for it.
Start off with just creating any random files that you want to maintain
-in your git repository. We'll start off with a few bad examples, just to
+in your Git repository. We'll start off with a few bad examples, just to
get a feel for how this works:
------------------------------------------------
@@ -146,7 +146,7 @@ but to actually check in your hard work, you will have to go through two steps:
- commit that index file as an object.
-The first step is trivial: when you want to tell git about any changes
+The first step is trivial: when you want to tell Git about any changes
to your working tree, you use the 'git update-index' program. That
program normally just takes a list of filenames you want to update, but
to avoid trivial mistakes, it refuses to add new entries to the index
@@ -160,10 +160,10 @@ So to populate the index with the two files you just created, you can do
$ git update-index --add hello example
------------------------------------------------
-and you have now told git to track those two files.
+and you have now told Git to track those two files.
In fact, as you did that, if you now look into your object directory,
-you'll notice that git will have added two new objects to the object
+you'll notice that Git will have added two new objects to the object
database. If you did exactly the steps above, you should now be able to do
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ $ git cat-file -t 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238
----------------
where the `-t` tells 'git cat-file' to tell you what the "type" of the
-object is. git will tell you that you have a "blob" object (i.e., just a
+object is. Git will tell you that you have a "blob" object (i.e., just a
regular file), and you can see the contents with
----------------
@@ -214,28 +214,28 @@ Anyway, as we mentioned previously, you normally never actually take a
look at the objects themselves, and typing long 40-character hex
names is not something you'd normally want to do. The above digression
was just to show that 'git update-index' did something magical, and
-actually saved away the contents of your files into the git object
+actually saved away the contents of your files into the Git object
database.
Updating the index did something else too: it created a `.git/index`
file. This is the index that describes your current working tree, and
something you should be very aware of. Again, you normally never worry
about the index file itself, but you should be aware of the fact that
-you have not actually really "checked in" your files into git so far,
-you've only *told* git about them.
+you have not actually really "checked in" your files into Git so far,
+you've only *told* Git about them.
-However, since git knows about them, you can now start using some of the
-most basic git commands to manipulate the files or look at their status.
+However, since Git knows about them, you can now start using some of the
+most basic Git commands to manipulate the files or look at their status.
-In particular, let's not even check in the two files into git yet, we'll
+In particular, let's not even check in the two files into Git yet, we'll
start off by adding another line to `hello` first:
------------------------------------------------
$ echo "It's a new day for git" >>hello
------------------------------------------------
-and you can now, since you told git about the previous state of `hello`, ask
-git what has changed in the tree compared to your old index, using the
+and you can now, since you told Git about the previous state of `hello`, ask
+Git what has changed in the tree compared to your old index, using the
'git diff-files' command:
------------
@@ -282,11 +282,11 @@ index 557db03..263414f 100644
------------
-Committing git state
+Committing Git state
--------------------
-Now, we want to go to the next stage in git, which is to take the files
-that git knows about in the index, and commit them as a real tree. We do
+Now, we want to go to the next stage in Git, which is to take the files
+that Git knows about in the index, and commit them as a real tree. We do
that in two phases: creating a 'tree' object, and committing that 'tree'
object as a 'commit' object together with an explanation of what the
tree was all about, along with information of how we came to that state.
@@ -296,7 +296,7 @@ There are no options or other input: `git write-tree` will take the
current index state, and write an object that describes that whole
index. In other words, we're now tying together all the different
filenames with their contents (and their permissions), and we're
-creating the equivalent of a git "directory" object:
+creating the equivalent of a Git "directory" object:
------------------------------------------------
$ git write-tree
@@ -415,9 +415,9 @@ regardless of whether the `--cached` flag is used or not. The `--cached`
flag really only determines whether the file *contents* to be compared
come from the working tree or not.
-This is not hard to understand, as soon as you realize that git simply
+This is not hard to understand, as soon as you realize that Git simply
never knows (or cares) about files that it is not told about
-explicitly. git will never go *looking* for files to compare, it
+explicitly. Git will never go *looking* for files to compare, it
expects you to tell it what the files are, and that's what the index
is there for.
================
@@ -433,7 +433,7 @@ update the index cache:
$ git update-index hello
------------------------------------------------
-(note how we didn't need the `--add` flag this time, since git knew
+(note how we didn't need the `--add` flag this time, since Git knew
about the file already).
Note what happens to the different 'git diff-{asterisk}' versions here.
@@ -464,7 +464,7 @@ this point (you can continue to edit things and update the index), you
can just leave an empty message. Otherwise `git commit` will commit
the change for you.
-You've now made your first real git commit. And if you're interested in
+You've now made your first real Git commit. And if you're interested in
looking at what `git commit` really does, feel free to investigate:
it's a few very simple shell scripts to generate the helpful (?) commit
message headers, and a few one-liners that actually do the
@@ -535,7 +535,7 @@ all, but just show the actual commit message.
In fact, together with the 'git rev-list' program (which generates a
list of revisions), 'git diff-tree' ends up being a veritable fount of
changes. A trivial (but very useful) script called 'git whatchanged' is
-included with git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
+included with Git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
activities.
To see the whole history of our pitiful little git-tutorial project, you
@@ -563,19 +563,19 @@ the log.showroot configuration variable to false. Having this, you
can still show it for each command just adding the `--root` option,
which is a flag for 'git diff-tree' accepted by both commands.
-With that, you should now be having some inkling of what git does, and
+With that, you should now be having some inkling of what Git does, and
can explore on your own.
[NOTE]
Most likely, you are not directly using the core
-git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain such as 'git add', `git-rm'
+Git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain such as 'git add', `git-rm'
and `git-commit'.
Tagging a version
-----------------
-In git, there are two kinds of tags, a "light" one, and an "annotated tag".
+In Git, there are two kinds of tags, a "light" one, and an "annotated tag".
A "light" tag is technically nothing more than a branch, except we put
it in the `.git/refs/tags/` subdirectory instead of calling it a `head`.
@@ -598,7 +598,7 @@ obviously be an empty diff, but if you continue to develop and commit
stuff, you can use your tag as an "anchor-point" to see what has changed
since you tagged it.
-An "annotated tag" is actually a real git object, and contains not only a
+An "annotated tag" is actually a real Git object, and contains not only a
pointer to the state you want to tag, but also a small tag name and
message, along with optionally a PGP signature that says that yes,
you really did
@@ -623,17 +623,17 @@ name for the state at that point.
Copying repositories
--------------------
-git repositories are normally totally self-sufficient and relocatable.
+Git repositories are normally totally self-sufficient and relocatable.
Unlike CVS, for example, there is no separate notion of
-"repository" and "working tree". A git repository normally *is* the
-working tree, with the local git information hidden in the `.git`
+"repository" and "working tree". A Git repository normally *is* the
+working tree, with the local Git information hidden in the `.git`
subdirectory. There is nothing else. What you see is what you got.
[NOTE]
-You can tell git to split the git internal information from
+You can tell Git to split the Git internal information from
the directory that it tracks, but we'll ignore that for now: it's not
how normal projects work, and it's really only meant for special uses.
-So the mental model of "the git information is always tied directly to
+So the mental model of "the Git information is always tied directly to
the working tree that it describes" may not be technically 100%
accurate, but it's a good model for all normal use.
@@ -649,13 +649,13 @@ $ rm -rf git-tutorial
and it will be gone. There's no external repository, and there's no
history outside the project you created.
- - if you want to move or duplicate a git repository, you can do so. There
+ - if you want to move or duplicate a Git repository, you can do so. There
is 'git clone' command, but if all you want to do is just to
create a copy of your repository (with all the full history that
went along with it), you can do so with a regular
`cp -a git-tutorial new-git-tutorial`.
+
-Note that when you've moved or copied a git repository, your git index
+Note that when you've moved or copied a Git repository, your Git index
file (which caches various information, notably some of the "stat"
information for the files involved) will likely need to be refreshed.
So after you do a `cp -a` to create a new copy, you'll want to do
@@ -667,7 +667,7 @@ $ git update-index --refresh
in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up-to-date.
Note that the second point is true even across machines. You can
-duplicate a remote git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
+duplicate a remote Git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
'scp', 'rsync' or 'wget'.
When copying a remote repository, you'll want to at a minimum update the
@@ -694,23 +694,23 @@ The above can also be written as simply
$ git reset
----------------
-and in fact a lot of the common git command combinations can be scripted
+and in fact a lot of the common Git command combinations can be scripted
with the `git xyz` interfaces. You can learn things by just looking
at what the various git scripts do. For example, `git reset` used to be
the above two lines implemented in 'git reset', but some things like
'git status' and 'git commit' are slightly more complex scripts around
-the basic git commands.
+the basic Git commands.
Many (most?) public remote repositories will not contain any of
the checked out files or even an index file, and will *only* contain the
-actual core git files. Such a repository usually doesn't even have the
-`.git` subdirectory, but has all the git files directly in the
+actual core Git files. Such a repository usually doesn't even have the
+`.git` subdirectory, but has all the Git files directly in the
repository.
-To create your own local live copy of such a "raw" git repository, you'd
+To create your own local live copy of such a "raw" Git repository, you'd
first create your own subdirectory for the project, and then copy the
raw repository contents into the `.git` directory. For example, to
-create your own copy of the git repository, you'd do the following
+create your own copy of the Git repository, you'd do the following
----------------
$ mkdir my-git
@@ -725,7 +725,7 @@ $ git read-tree HEAD
----------------
to populate the index. However, now you have populated the index, and
-you have all the git internal files, but you will notice that you don't
+you have all the Git internal files, but you will notice that you don't
actually have any of the working tree files to work on. To get
those, you'd check them out with
@@ -757,7 +757,7 @@ repository, and checked it out.
Creating a new branch
---------------------
-Branches in git are really nothing more than pointers into the git
+Branches in Git are really nothing more than pointers into the Git
object database from within the `.git/refs/` subdirectory, and as we
already discussed, the `HEAD` branch is nothing but a symlink to one of
these object pointers.
@@ -849,7 +849,7 @@ $ git commit -m "Some work." -i hello
Here, we just added another line to `hello`, and we used a shorthand for
doing both `git update-index hello` and `git commit` by just giving the
filename directly to `git commit`, with an `-i` flag (it tells
-git to 'include' that file in addition to what you have done to
+Git to 'include' that file in addition to what you have done to
the index file so far when making the commit). The `-m` flag is to give the
commit log message from the command line.
@@ -900,7 +900,7 @@ where the first argument is going to be used as the commit message if
the merge can be resolved automatically.
Now, in this case we've intentionally created a situation where the
-merge will need to be fixed up by hand, though, so git will do as much
+merge will need to be fixed up by hand, though, so Git will do as much
of it as it can automatically (which in this case is just merge the `example`
file, which had no differences in the `mybranch` branch), and say:
@@ -939,7 +939,7 @@ After you're done, start up `gitk --all` to see graphically what the
history looks like. Notice that `mybranch` still exists, and you can
switch to it, and continue to work with it if you want to. The
`mybranch` branch will not contain the merge, but next time you merge it
-from the `master` branch, git will know how you merged it, so you'll not
+from the `master` branch, Git will know how you merged it, so you'll not
have to do _that_ merge again.
Another useful tool, especially if you do not always work in X-Window
@@ -1028,7 +1028,7 @@ Merging external work
---------------------
It's usually much more common that you merge with somebody else than
-merging with your own branches, so it's worth pointing out that git
+merging with your own branches, so it's worth pointing out that Git
makes that very easy too, and in fact, it's not that different from
doing a 'git merge'. In fact, a remote merge ends up being nothing
more than "fetch the work from a remote repository into a temporary tag"
@@ -1068,7 +1068,7 @@ and requires you to have a log-in privilege over `ssh` to the
remote machine. It finds out the set of objects the other side
lacks by exchanging the head commits both ends have and
transfers (close to) minimum set of objects. It is by far the
-most efficient way to exchange git objects between repositories.
+most efficient way to exchange Git objects between repositories.
Local directory::
`/path/to/repo.git/`
@@ -1077,7 +1077,7 @@ This transport is the same as SSH transport but uses 'sh' to run
both ends on the local machine instead of running other end on
the remote machine via 'ssh'.
-git Native::
+Git Native::
`git://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
+
This transport was designed for anonymous downloading. Like SSH
@@ -1099,8 +1099,8 @@ necessary objects. Because of this behavior, they are
sometimes also called 'commit walkers'.
+
The 'commit walkers' are sometimes also called 'dumb
-transports', because they do not require any git aware smart
-server like git Native transport does. Any stock HTTP server
+transports', because they do not require any Git aware smart
+server like Git Native transport does. Any stock HTTP server
that does not even support directory index would suffice. But
you must prepare your repository with 'git update-server-info'
to help dumb transport downloaders.
@@ -1321,7 +1321,7 @@ update the public repository from it. This is often called
[NOTE]
This public repository could further be mirrored, and that is
-how git repositories at `kernel.org` are managed.
+how Git repositories at `kernel.org` are managed.
Publishing the changes from your local (private) repository to
your remote (public) repository requires a write privilege on
@@ -1340,7 +1340,7 @@ done only once.
on the remote machine. The communication between the two over
the network internally uses an SSH connection.
-Your private repository's git directory is usually `.git`, but
+Your private repository's Git directory is usually `.git`, but
your public repository is often named after the project name,
i.e. `<project>.git`. Let's create such a public repository for
project `my-git`. After logging into the remote machine, create
@@ -1350,7 +1350,7 @@ an empty directory:
$ mkdir my-git.git
------------
-Then, make that directory into a git repository by running
+Then, make that directory into a Git repository by running
'git init', but this time, since its name is not the usual
`.git`, we do things slightly differently:
@@ -1389,7 +1389,7 @@ This synchronizes your public repository to match the named
branch head (i.e. `master` in this case) and objects reachable
from them in your current repository.
-As a real example, this is how I update my public git
+As a real example, this is how I update my public Git
repository. Kernel.org mirror network takes care of the
propagation to other publicly visible machines:
@@ -1402,9 +1402,9 @@ Packing your repository
-----------------------
Earlier, we saw that one file under `.git/objects/??/` directory
-is stored for each git object you create. This representation
+is stored for each Git object you create. This representation
is efficient to create atomically and safely, but
-not so convenient to transport over the network. Since git objects are
+not so convenient to transport over the network. Since Git objects are
immutable once they are created, there is a way to optimize the
storage by "packing them together". The command
@@ -1472,14 +1472,14 @@ repositories every once in a while.
Working with Others
-------------------
-Although git is a truly distributed system, it is often
+Although Git is a truly distributed system, it is often
convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in
link:http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
-There is nothing fundamental in git that enforces the "chain of
+There is nothing fundamental in Git that enforces the "chain of
patch flow" this hierarchy implies. You do not have to pull
from only one remote repository.
@@ -1592,7 +1592,7 @@ Working with Others, Shared Repository Style
If you are coming from CVS background, the style of cooperation
suggested in the previous section may be new to you. You do not
-have to worry. git supports "shared public repository" style of
+have to worry. Git supports "shared public repository" style of
cooperation you are probably more familiar with as well.
See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7] for the details.
@@ -1602,7 +1602,7 @@ Bundling your work together
It is likely that you will be working on more than one thing at
a time. It is easy to manage those more-or-less independent tasks
-using branches with git.
+using branches with Git.
We have already seen how branches work previously,
with "fun and work" example using two branches. The idea is the
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index 7dfffc0..47576be 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcredentials(7)
NAME
----
-gitcredentials - providing usernames and passwords to git
+gitcredentials - providing usernames and passwords to Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -18,13 +18,13 @@ DESCRIPTION
Git will sometimes need credentials from the user in order to perform
operations; for example, it may need to ask for a username and password
in order to access a remote repository over HTTP. This manual describes
-the mechanisms git uses to request these credentials, as well as some
+the mechanisms Git uses to request these credentials, as well as some
features to avoid inputting these credentials repeatedly.
REQUESTING CREDENTIALS
----------------------
-Without any credential helpers defined, git will try the following
+Without any credential helpers defined, Git will try the following
strategies to ask the user for usernames and passwords:
1. If the `GIT_ASKPASS` environment variable is set, the program
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ for a password. It is generally configured by adding this to your config:
username = me
---------------------------------------
-Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs from which git can
+Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs from which Git can
request both usernames and passwords; they typically interface with secure
storage provided by the OS or other programs.
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ store::
You may also have third-party helpers installed; search for
`credential-*` in the output of `git help -a`, and consult the
documentation of individual helpers. Once you have selected a helper,
-you can tell git to use it by putting its name into the
+you can tell Git to use it by putting its name into the
credential.helper variable.
1. Find a helper.
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ credential-foo
$ git help credential-foo
-------------------------------------------
-3. Tell git to use it.
+3. Tell Git to use it.
+
-------------------------------------------
$ git config --global credential.helper foo
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@ $ git config --global credential.helper foo
If there are multiple instances of the `credential.helper` configuration
variable, each helper will be tried in turn, and may provide a username,
-password, or nothing. Once git has acquired both a username and a
+password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both a username and a
password, no more helpers will be tried.
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@ Git considers each credential to have a context defined by a URL. This context
is used to look up context-specific configuration, and is passed to any
helpers, which may use it as an index into secure storage.
-For instance, imagine we are accessing `https://example.com/foo.git`. When git
+For instance, imagine we are accessing `https://example.com/foo.git`. When Git
looks into a config file to see if a section matches this context, it will
consider the two a match if the context is a more-specific subset of the
pattern in the config file. For example, if you have this in your config file:
@@ -133,10 +133,10 @@ context would not match:
username = foo
--------------------------------------
-because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match `foo.example.com`; git
+because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match `foo.example.com`; Git
compares hostnames exactly, without considering whether two hosts are part of
the same domain. Likewise, a config entry for `http://example.com` would not
-match: git compares the protocols exactly.
+match: Git compares the protocols exactly.
CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ username::
useHttpPath::
- By default, git does not consider the "path" component of an http URL
+ By default, Git does not consider the "path" component of an http URL
to be worth matching via external helpers. This means that a credential
stored for `https://example.com/foo.git` will also be used for
`https://example.com/bar.git`. If you do want to distinguish these
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ CUSTOM HELPERS
--------------
You can write your own custom helpers to interface with any system in
-which you keep credentials. See the documentation for git's
+which you keep credentials. See the documentation for Git's
link:technical/api-credentials.html[credentials API] for details.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
index aeb0cdc..5ab5b07 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcvs-migration(7)
NAME
----
-gitcvs-migration - git for CVS users
+gitcvs-migration - Git for CVS users
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ important than any other. However, you can emulate the CVS model by
designating a single shared repository which people can synchronize with;
this document explains how to do that.
-Some basic familiarity with git is required. Having gone through
+Some basic familiarity with Git is required. Having gone through
linkgit:gittutorial[7] and
linkgit:gitglossary[7] should be sufficient.
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ other than `master`.
Setting Up a Shared Repository
------------------------------
-We assume you have already created a git repository for your project,
+We assume you have already created a Git repository for your project,
possibly created from scratch or from a tarball (see
linkgit:gittutorial[7]), or imported from an already existing CVS
repository (see the next section).
@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@ Next, give every team member read/write access to this repository. One
easy way to do this is to give all the team members ssh access to the
machine where the repository is hosted. If you don't want to give them a
full shell on the machine, there is a restricted shell which only allows
-users to do git pushes and pulls; see linkgit:git-shell[1].
+users to do Git pushes and pulls; see linkgit:git-shell[1].
Put all the committers in the same group, and make the repository
writable by that group:
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ of the project you are interested in and run linkgit:git-cvsimport[1]:
$ git cvsimport -C <destination> <module>
-------------------------------------------
-This puts a git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
+This puts a Git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
<destination>, which will be created if necessary.
The import checks out from CVS every revision of every file. Reportedly
@@ -133,8 +133,8 @@ cvsimport can average some twenty revisions per second, so for a
medium-sized project this should not take more than a couple of minutes.
Larger projects or remote repositories may take longer.
-The main trunk is stored in the git branch named `origin`, and additional
-CVS branches are stored in git branches with the same names. The most
+The main trunk is stored in the Git branch named `origin`, and additional
+CVS branches are stored in Git branches with the same names. The most
recent version of the main trunk is also left checked out on the `master`
branch, so you can start adding your own changes right away.
@@ -160,10 +160,10 @@ You can enforce finer grained permissions using update hooks. See
link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[Controlling access to branches using
update hooks].
-Providing CVS Access to a git Repository
+Providing CVS Access to a Git Repository
----------------------------------------
-It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a git repository, so
+It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a Git repository, so
that developers can still use CVS; see linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for
details.
@@ -171,8 +171,8 @@ Alternative Development Models
------------------------------
CVS users are accustomed to giving a group of developers commit access to
-a common repository. As we've seen, this is also possible with git.
-However, the distributed nature of git allows other development models,
+a common repository. As we've seen, this is also possible with Git.
+However, the distributed nature of Git allows other development models,
and you may want to first consider whether one of them might be a better
fit for your project.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index daf1782..4ed71c7 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -254,7 +254,7 @@ pattern. Filepairs that match a glob pattern on an earlier line
in the file are output before ones that match a later line, and
filepairs that do not match any glob pattern are output last.
-As an example, a typical orderfile for the core git probably
+As an example, a typical orderfile for the core Git probably
would look like this:
------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
index d77a45a..e52de7d 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitglossary(7)
NAME
----
-gitglossary - A GIT Glossary
+gitglossary - A Git Glossary
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ SEE ALSO
linkgit:gittutorial[7],
linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index b9003fe..dc6693f 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ githooks(5)
NAME
----
-githooks - Hooks used by git
+githooks - Hooks used by Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -108,7 +108,7 @@ it is not suppressed by the `--no-verify` option. A non-zero exit
means a failure of the hook and aborts the commit. It should not
be used as replacement for pre-commit hook.
-The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with git comments
+The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with Git comments
out the `Conflicts:` part of a merge's commit message.
commit-msg
@@ -140,9 +140,11 @@ the outcome of 'git commit'.
pre-rebase
~~~~~~~~~~
-This hook is called by 'git rebase' and can be used to prevent a branch
-from getting rebased.
-
+This hook is called by 'git rebase' and can be used to prevent a
+branch from getting rebased. The hook may be called with one or
+two parameters. The first parameter is the upstream from which
+the series was forked. The second parameter is the branch being
+rebased, and is not set when rebasing the current branch.
post-checkout
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -176,6 +178,35 @@ save and restore any form of metadata associated with the working tree
(eg: permissions/ownership, ACLS, etc). See contrib/hooks/setgitperms.perl
for an example of how to do this.
+pre-push
+~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is called by 'git push' and can be used to prevent a push from taking
+place. The hook is called with two parameters which provide the name and
+location of the destination remote, if a named remote is not being used both
+values will be the same.
+
+Information about what is to be pushed is provided on the hook's standard
+input with lines of the form:
+
+ <local ref> SP <local sha1> SP <remote ref> SP <remote sha1> LF
+
+For instance, if the command +git push origin master:foreign+ were run the
+hook would receive a line like the following:
+
+ refs/heads/master 67890 refs/heads/foreign 12345
+
+although the full, 40-character SHA1s would be supplied. If the foreign ref
+does not yet exist the `<remote SHA1>` will be 40 `0`. If a ref is to be
+deleted, the `<local ref>` will be supplied as `(delete)` and the `<local
+SHA1>` will be 40 `0`. If the local commit was specified by something other
+than a name which could be expanded (such as `HEAD~`, or a SHA1) it will be
+supplied as it was originally given.
+
+If this hook exits with a non-zero status, 'git push' will abort without
+pushing anything. Information about why the push is rejected may be sent
+to the user by writing to standard error.
+
[[pre-receive]]
pre-receive
~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -275,7 +306,7 @@ for the user.
The default 'post-receive' hook is empty, but there is
a sample script `post-receive-email` provided in the `contrib/hooks`
-directory in git distribution, which implements sending commit
+directory in Git distribution, which implements sending commit
emails.
[[post-update]]
@@ -303,7 +334,7 @@ them.
When enabled, the default 'post-update' hook runs
'git update-server-info' to keep the information used by dumb
transports (e.g., HTTP) up-to-date. If you are publishing
-a git repository that is accessible via HTTP, you should
+a Git repository that is accessible via HTTP, you should
probably enable this hook.
Both standard output and standard error output are forwarded to
@@ -336,7 +367,7 @@ preceding SP is also omitted. Currently, no commands pass any
'extra-info'.
The hook always runs after the automatic note copying (see
-"notes.rewrite.<command>" in linkgit:git-config.txt) has happened, and
+"notes.rewrite.<command>" in linkgit:git-config.txt[1]) has happened, and
thus has access to these notes.
The following command-specific comments apply:
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index 1b82fe1..54e334e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -13,12 +13,12 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
A `gitignore` file specifies intentionally untracked files that
-git should ignore.
-Files already tracked by git are not affected; see the NOTES
+Git should ignore.
+Files already tracked by Git are not affected; see the NOTES
below for details.
Each line in a `gitignore` file specifies a pattern.
-When deciding whether to ignore a path, git normally checks
+When deciding whether to ignore a path, Git normally checks
`gitignore` patterns from multiple sources, with the following
order of precedence, from highest to lowest (within one level of
precedence, the last matching pattern decides the outcome):
@@ -53,17 +53,17 @@ be used.
the repository but are specific to one user's workflow) should go into
the `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude` file.
- * Patterns which a user wants git to
+ * Patterns which a user wants Git to
ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary files generated by
the user's editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
`core.excludesfile` in the user's `~/.gitconfig`. Its default value is
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or
empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.
-The underlying git plumbing tools, such as
+The underlying Git plumbing tools, such as
'git ls-files' and 'git read-tree', read
`gitignore` patterns specified by command-line options, or from
-files specified by command-line options. Higher-level git
+files specified by command-line options. Higher-level Git
tools, such as 'git status' and 'git add',
use patterns from the sources specified above.
@@ -89,15 +89,15 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
a match with a directory. In other words, `foo/` will match a
directory `foo` and paths underneath it, but will not match a
regular file or a symbolic link `foo` (this is consistent
- with the way how pathspec works in general in git).
+ with the way how pathspec works in general in Git).
- - If the pattern does not contain a slash '/', git treats it as
+ - If the pattern does not contain a slash '/', Git treats it as
a shell glob pattern and checks for a match against the
pathname relative to the location of the `.gitignore` file
(relative to the toplevel of the work tree if not from a
`.gitignore` file).
- - Otherwise, git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable
+ - Otherwise, Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable
for consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname.
For example, "Documentation/{asterisk}.html" matches
@@ -108,11 +108,30 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
For example, "/{asterisk}.c" matches "cat-file.c" but not
"mozilla-sha1/sha1.c".
+Two consecutive asterisks ("`**`") in patterns matched against
+full pathname may have special meaning:
+
+ - A leading "`**`" followed by a slash means match in all
+ directories. For example, "`**/foo`" matches file or directory
+ "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "**/foo/bar"
+ matches file or directory "`bar`" anywhere that is directly
+ under directory "`foo`".
+
+ - A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example,
+ "abc/**" matches all files inside directory "abc", relative
+ to the location of the `.gitignore` file, with infinite depth.
+
+ - A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash
+ matches zero or more directories. For example, "`a/**/b`"
+ matches "`a/b`", "`a/x/b`", "`a/x/y/b`" and so on.
+
+ - Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
+
NOTES
-----
The purpose of gitignore files is to ensure that certain files
-not tracked by git remain untracked.
+not tracked by Git remain untracked.
To ignore uncommitted changes in a file that is already tracked,
use 'git update-index {litdd}assume-unchanged'.
@@ -160,13 +179,15 @@ Another example:
$ echo '!/vmlinux*' >arch/foo/kernel/.gitignore
--------------------------------------------------------------
-The second .gitignore prevents git from ignoring
+The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
`arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S`.
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:git-rm[1], linkgit:git-update-index[1],
-linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
+linkgit:git-rm[1],
+linkgit:git-update-index[1],
+linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5],
+linkgit:git-check-ignore[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index a17a354..c17e760 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitk(1)
NAME
----
-gitk - The git repository browser
+gitk - The Git repository browser
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ the files in the trees of each revision.
Historically, gitk was the first repository browser. It's written in tcl/tk
and started off in a separate repository but was later merged into the main
-git repository.
+Git repository.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -108,10 +108,10 @@ SEE ALSO
'gitview(1)'::
A repository browser written in Python using Gtk. It's based on
- 'bzrk(1)' and distributed in the contrib area of the git repository.
+ 'bzrk(1)' and distributed in the contrib area of the Git repository.
'tig(1)'::
- A minimal repository browser and git tool output highlighter written
+ A minimal repository browser and Git tool output highlighter written
in C using Ncurses.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index 4effd78..6a1ca4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -13,16 +13,18 @@ $GIT_WORK_DIR/.gitmodules
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-The `.gitmodules` file, located in the top-level directory of a git
+The `.gitmodules` file, located in the top-level directory of a Git
working tree, is a text file with a syntax matching the requirements
of linkgit:git-config[1].
The file contains one subsection per submodule, and the subsection value
-is the name of the submodule. Each submodule section also contains the
+is the name of the submodule. The name is set to the path where the
+submodule has been added unless it was customized with the '--name'
+option of 'git submodule add'. Each submodule section also contains the
following required keys:
submodule.<name>.path::
- Defines the path, relative to the top-level directory of the git
+ Defines the path, relative to the top-level directory of the Git
working tree, where the submodule is expected to be checked out.
The path name must not end with a `/`. All submodule paths must
be unique within the .gitmodules file.
@@ -47,6 +49,11 @@ submodule.<name>.update::
This config option is overridden if 'git submodule update' is given
the '--merge', '--rebase' or '--checkout' options.
+submodule.<name>.branch::
+ A remote branch name for tracking updates in the upstream submodule.
+ If the option is not specified, it defaults to 'master'. See the
+ `--remote` documentation in linkgit:git-submodule[1] for details.
+
submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
This option can be used to control recursive fetching of this
submodule. If this option is also present in the submodules entry in
diff --git a/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt b/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
index c6713cf..7685e36 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ prevent duplication between new objects added to the repositories
without ongoing maintenance, while namespaces do.
To specify a namespace, set the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment variable to
-the namespace. For each ref namespace, git stores the corresponding
+the namespace. For each ref namespace, Git stores the corresponding
refs in a directory under `refs/namespaces/`. For example,
`GIT_NAMESPACE=foo` will store refs under `refs/namespaces/foo/`. You
can also specify namespaces via the `--namespace` option to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 4f81a5b..0c91aba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -1,9 +1,9 @@
-git-remote-helpers(1)
-=====================
+gitremote-helpers(1)
+====================
NAME
----
-git-remote-helpers - Helper programs to interact with remote repositories
+gitremote-helpers - Helper programs to interact with remote repositories
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -14,17 +14,17 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Remote helper programs are normally not used directly by end users,
-but they are invoked by git when it needs to interact with remote
-repositories git does not support natively. A given helper will
-implement a subset of the capabilities documented here. When git
+but they are invoked by Git when it needs to interact with remote
+repositories Git does not support natively. A given helper will
+implement a subset of the capabilities documented here. When Git
needs to interact with a repository using a remote helper, it spawns
the helper as an independent process, sends commands to the helper's
standard input, and expects results from the helper's standard
output. Because a remote helper runs as an independent process from
-git, there is no need to re-link git to add a new helper, nor any
-need to link the helper with the implementation of git.
+Git, there is no need to re-link Git to add a new helper, nor any
+need to link the helper with the implementation of Git.
-Every helper must support the "capabilities" command, which git
+Every helper must support the "capabilities" command, which Git
uses to determine what other commands the helper will accept. Those
other commands can be used to discover and update remote refs,
transport objects between the object database and the remote repository,
@@ -39,15 +39,15 @@ INVOCATION
----------
Remote helper programs are invoked with one or (optionally) two
-arguments. The first argument specifies a remote repository as in git;
+arguments. The first argument specifies a remote repository as in Git;
it is either the name of a configured remote or a URL. The second
argument specifies a URL; it is usually of the form
'<transport>://<address>', but any arbitrary string is possible.
The 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set up for the remote helper
and can be used to determine where to store additional data or from
-which directory to invoke auxiliary git commands.
+which directory to invoke auxiliary Git commands.
-When git encounters a URL of the form '<transport>://<address>', where
+When Git encounters a URL of the form '<transport>://<address>', where
'<transport>' is a protocol that it cannot handle natively, it
automatically invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with the full URL as
the second argument. If such a URL is encountered directly on the
@@ -55,14 +55,14 @@ command line, the first argument is the same as the second, and if it
is encountered in a configured remote, the first argument is the name
of that remote.
-A URL of the form '<transport>::<address>' explicitly instructs git to
+A URL of the form '<transport>::<address>' explicitly instructs Git to
invoke 'git remote-<transport>' with '<address>' as the second
argument. If such a URL is encountered directly on the command line,
the first argument is '<address>', and if it is encountered in a
configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.
Additionally, when a configured remote has 'remote.<name>.vcs' set to
-'<transport>', git explicitly invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with
+'<transport>', Git explicitly invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with
'<name>' as the first argument. If set, the second argument is
'remote.<name>.url'; otherwise, the second argument is omitted.
@@ -85,56 +85,20 @@ Capabilities
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Each remote helper is expected to support only a subset of commands.
-The operations a helper supports are declared to git in the response
+The operations a helper supports are declared to Git in the response
to the `capabilities` command (see COMMANDS, below).
-'option'::
- For specifying settings like `verbosity` (how much output to
- write to stderr) and `depth` (how much history is wanted in the
- case of a shallow clone) that affect how other commands are
- carried out.
-
-'connect'::
- For fetching and pushing using git's native packfile protocol
- that requires a bidirectional, full-duplex connection.
-
-'push'::
- For listing remote refs and pushing specified objects from the
- local object store to remote refs.
-
-'fetch'::
- For listing remote refs and fetching the associated history to
- the local object store.
-
-'import'::
- For listing remote refs and fetching the associated history as
- a fast-import stream.
-
-'refspec' <refspec>::
- This modifies the 'import' capability, allowing the produced
- fast-import stream to modify refs in a private namespace
- instead of writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly.
- It is recommended that all importers providing the 'import'
- capability use this.
-+
-A helper advertising the capability
-`refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/*`
-is saying that, when it is asked to `import refs/heads/topic`, the
-stream it outputs will update the `refs/svn/origin/branches/topic`
-ref.
-+
-This capability can be advertised multiple times. The first
-applicable refspec takes precedence. The left-hand of refspecs
-advertised with this capability must cover all refs reported by
-the list command. If no 'refspec' capability is advertised,
-there is an implied `refspec *:*`.
+In the following, we list all defined capabilities and for
+each we list which commands a helper with that capability
+must provide.
Capabilities for Pushing
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
'connect'::
Can attempt to connect to 'git receive-pack' (for pushing),
- 'git upload-pack', etc for communication using the
- packfile protocol.
+ 'git upload-pack', etc for communication using
+ git's native packfile protocol. This
+ requires a bidirectional, full-duplex connection.
+
Supported commands: 'connect'.
@@ -144,16 +108,26 @@ Supported commands: 'connect'.
+
Supported commands: 'list for-push', 'push'.
-If a helper advertises both 'connect' and 'push', git will use
-'connect' if possible and fall back to 'push' if the helper requests
-so when connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
+'export'::
+ Can discover remote refs and push specified objects from a
+ fast-import stream to remote refs.
++
+Supported commands: 'list for-push', 'export'.
+
+If a helper advertises 'connect', Git will use it if possible and
+fall back to another capability if the helper requests so when
+connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
+When choosing between 'push' and 'export', Git prefers 'push'.
+Other frontends may have some other order of preference.
+
Capabilities for Fetching
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
'connect'::
Can try to connect to 'git upload-pack' (for fetching),
'git receive-pack', etc for communication using the
- packfile protocol.
+ Git's native packfile protocol. This
+ requires a bidirectional, full-duplex connection.
+
Supported commands: 'connect'.
@@ -169,20 +143,33 @@ Supported commands: 'list', 'fetch'.
+
Supported commands: 'list', 'import'.
-If a helper advertises 'connect', git will use it if possible and
+If a helper advertises 'connect', Git will use it if possible and
fall back to another capability if the helper requests so when
connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
-When choosing between 'fetch' and 'import', git prefers 'fetch'.
+When choosing between 'fetch' and 'import', Git prefers 'fetch'.
Other frontends may have some other order of preference.
+Miscellaneous capabilities
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+'option'::
+ For specifying settings like `verbosity` (how much output to
+ write to stderr) and `depth` (how much history is wanted in the
+ case of a shallow clone) that affect how other commands are
+ carried out.
+
'refspec' <refspec>::
- This modifies the 'import' capability.
+ This modifies the 'import' capability, allowing the produced
+ fast-import stream to modify refs in a private namespace
+ instead of writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly.
+ It is recommended that all importers providing the 'import'
+ capability use this.
+
-A helper advertising
+A helper advertising the capability
`refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/*`
-in its capabilities is saying that, when it handles
-`import refs/heads/topic`, the stream it outputs will update the
-`refs/svn/origin/branches/topic` ref.
+is saying that, when it is asked to `import refs/heads/topic`, the
+stream it outputs will update the `refs/svn/origin/branches/topic`
+ref.
+
This capability can be advertised multiple times. The first
applicable refspec takes precedence. The left-hand of refspecs
@@ -190,6 +177,34 @@ advertised with this capability must cover all refs reported by
the list command. If no 'refspec' capability is advertised,
there is an implied `refspec *:*`.
+'bidi-import'::
+ This modifies the 'import' capability.
+ The fast-import commands 'cat-blob' and 'ls' can be used by remote-helpers
+ to retrieve information about blobs and trees that already exist in
+ fast-import's memory. This requires a channel from fast-import to the
+ remote-helper.
+ If it is advertised in addition to "import", Git establishes a pipe from
+ fast-import to the remote-helper's stdin.
+ It follows that Git and fast-import are both connected to the
+ remote-helper's stdin. Because Git can send multiple commands to
+ the remote-helper it is required that helpers that use 'bidi-import'
+ buffer all 'import' commands of a batch before sending data to fast-import.
+ This is to prevent mixing commands and fast-import responses on the
+ helper's stdin.
+
+'export-marks' <file>::
+ This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to dump the
+ internal marks table to <file> when complete. For details,
+ read up on '--export-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
+
+'import-marks' <file>::
+ This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to load the
+ marks specified in <file> before processing any input. For details,
+ read up on '--import-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
+
+
+
+
COMMANDS
--------
@@ -198,9 +213,11 @@ Commands are given by the caller on the helper's standard input, one per line.
'capabilities'::
Lists the capabilities of the helper, one per line, ending
with a blank line. Each capability may be preceded with '*',
- which marks them mandatory for git version using the remote
- helper to understand (unknown mandatory capability is fatal
- error).
+ which marks them mandatory for Git versions using the remote
+ helper to understand. Any unknown mandatory capability is a
+ fatal error.
++
+Support for this command is mandatory.
'list'::
Lists the refs, one per line, in the format "<value> <name>
@@ -210,9 +227,20 @@ Commands are given by the caller on the helper's standard input, one per line.
the name; unrecognized attributes are ignored. The list ends
with a blank line.
+
-If 'push' is supported this may be called as 'list for-push'
-to obtain the current refs prior to sending one or more 'push'
-commands to the helper.
+See REF LIST ATTRIBUTES for a list of currently defined attributes.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "fetch" or "import" capability.
+
+'list for-push'::
+ Similar to 'list', except that it is used if and only if
+ the caller wants to the resulting ref list to prepare
+ push commands.
+ A helper supporting both push and fetch can use this
+ to distinguish for which operation the output of 'list'
+ is going to be used, possibly reducing the amount
+ of work that needs to be performed.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "push" or "export" capability.
'option' <name> <value>::
Sets the transport helper option <name> to <value>. Outputs a
@@ -222,6 +250,8 @@ commands to the helper.
for it). Options should be set before other commands,
and may influence the behavior of those commands.
+
+See OPTIONS for a list of currently defined options.
++
Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.
'fetch' <sha1> <name>::
@@ -230,7 +260,7 @@ Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.
per line, terminated with a blank line.
Outputs a single blank line when all fetch commands in the
same batch are complete. Only objects which were reported
- in the ref list with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
+ in the output of 'list' with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
+
Optionally may output a 'lock <file>' line indicating a file under
GIT_DIR/objects/pack which is keeping a pack until refs can be
@@ -286,8 +316,29 @@ terminated with a blank line. For each batch of 'import', the remote
helper should produce a fast-import stream terminated by a 'done'
command.
+
+Note that if the 'bidi-import' capability is used the complete batch
+sequence has to be buffered before starting to send data to fast-import
+to prevent mixing of commands and fast-import responses on the helper's
+stdin.
++
Supported if the helper has the "import" capability.
+'export'::
+ Instructs the remote helper that any subsequent input is
+ part of a fast-import stream (generated by 'git fast-export')
+ containing objects which should be pushed to the remote.
++
+Especially useful for interoperability with a foreign versioning
+system.
++
+The 'export-marks' and 'import-marks' capabilities, if specified,
+affect this command in so far as they are passed on to 'git
+fast-export', which then will load/store a table of marks for
+local objects. This can be used to implement for incremental
+operations.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "export" capability.
+
'connect' <service>::
Connects to given service. Standard input and standard output
of helper are connected to specified service (git prefix is
@@ -313,10 +364,9 @@ capabilities reported by the helper.
REF LIST ATTRIBUTES
-------------------
-'for-push'::
- The caller wants to use the ref list to prepare push
- commands. A helper might chose to acquire the ref list by
- opening a different type of connection to the destination.
+The 'list' command produces a list of refs in which each ref
+may be followed by a list of attributes. The following ref list
+attributes are defined.
'unchanged'::
This ref is unchanged since the last import or fetch, although
@@ -324,6 +374,10 @@ REF LIST ATTRIBUTES
OPTIONS
-------
+
+The following options are defined and (under suitable circumstances)
+set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
+
'option verbosity' <n>::
Changes the verbosity of messages displayed by the helper.
A value of 0 for <n> means that processes operate
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index 9f62886..f0eef76 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -12,12 +12,24 @@ $GIT_DIR/*
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-You may find these things in your git repository (`.git`
-directory for a repository associated with your working tree, or
-`<project>.git` directory for a public 'bare' repository. It is
-also possible to have a working tree where `.git` is a plain
-ASCII file containing `gitdir: <path>`, i.e. the path to the
-real git repository).
+A Git repository comes in two different flavours:
+
+ * a `.git` directory at the root of the working tree;
+
+ * a `<project>.git` directory that is a 'bare' repository
+ (i.e. without its own working tree), that is typically used for
+ exchanging histories with others by pushing into it and fetching
+ from it.
+
+*Note*: Also you can have a plain text file `.git` at the root of
+your working tree, containing `gitdir: <path>` to point at the real
+directory that has the repository. This mechanism is often used for
+a working tree of a submodule checkout, to allow you in the
+containing superproject to `git checkout` a branch that does not
+have the submodule. The `checkout` has to remove the entire
+submodule working tree, without losing the submodule repository.
+
+These things may exist in a Git repository.
objects::
Object store associated with this repository. Usually
@@ -108,7 +120,7 @@ HEAD::
A symref (see glossary) to the `refs/heads/` namespace
describing the currently active branch. It does not mean
much if the repository is not associated with any working tree
- (i.e. a 'bare' repository), but a valid git repository
+ (i.e. a 'bare' repository), but a valid Git repository
*must* have the HEAD file; some porcelains may use it to
guess the designated "default" branch of the repository
(usually 'master'). It is legal if the named branch
@@ -131,7 +143,7 @@ branches::
and not likely to be found in modern repositories.
hooks::
- Hooks are customization scripts used by various git
+ Hooks are customization scripts used by various Git
commands. A handful of sample hooks are installed when
'git init' is run, but all of them are disabled by
default. To enable, the `.sample` suffix has to be
@@ -169,7 +181,7 @@ info/exclude::
This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the
exclude pattern list. `.gitignore` is the per-directory
ignore file. 'git status', 'git add', 'git rm' and
- 'git clean' look at it but the core git commands do not look
+ 'git clean' look at it but the core Git commands do not look
at it. See also: linkgit:gitignore[5].
remotes::
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
index fc4789f..c0ed6d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitrevisions(7)
NAME
----
-gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for git
+gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
index e00a4d2..94c906e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gittutorial-2(7)
NAME
----
-gittutorial-2 - A tutorial introduction to git: part two
+gittutorial-2 - A tutorial introduction to Git: part two
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -16,11 +16,11 @@ DESCRIPTION
You should work through linkgit:gittutorial[7] before reading this tutorial.
The goal of this tutorial is to introduce two fundamental pieces of
-git's architecture--the object database and the index file--and to
+Git's architecture--the object database and the index file--and to
provide the reader with everything necessary to understand the rest
-of the git documentation.
+of the Git documentation.
-The git object database
+The Git object database
-----------------------
Let's start a new project and create a small amount of history:
@@ -42,14 +42,14 @@ $ git commit -a -m "add emphasis"
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
------------------------------------------------
-What are the 7 digits of hex that git responded to the commit with?
+What are the 7 digits of hex that Git responded to the commit with?
We saw in part one of the tutorial that commits have names like this.
-It turns out that every object in the git history is stored under
+It turns out that every object in the Git history is stored under
a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA1 hash of the object's
-contents; among other things, this ensures that git will never store
+contents; among other things, this ensures that Git will never store
the same data twice (since identical data is given an identical SHA1
-name), and that the contents of a git object will never change (since
+name), and that the contents of a Git object will never change (since
that would change the object's name as well). The 7 char hex strings
here are simply the abbreviation of such 40 character long strings.
Abbreviations can be used everywhere where the 40 character strings
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ following the example above generates a different SHA1 hash than
the one shown above because the commit object records the time when
it was created and the name of the person performing the commit.
-We can ask git about this particular object with the `cat-file`
+We can ask Git about this particular object with the `cat-file`
command. Don't copy the 40 hex digits from this example but use those
from your own version. Note that you can shorten it to only a few
characters to save yourself typing all 40 hex digits:
@@ -102,11 +102,11 @@ $ git cat-file blob 3b18e512
hello world
------------------------------------------------
-Note that this is the old file data; so the object that git named in
+Note that this is the old file data; so the object that Git named in
its response to the initial tree was a tree with a snapshot of the
directory state that was recorded by the first commit.
-All of these objects are stored under their SHA1 names inside the git
+All of these objects are stored under their SHA1 names inside the Git
directory:
------------------------------------------------
@@ -191,7 +191,7 @@ Besides blobs, trees, and commits, the only remaining type of object
is a "tag", which we won't discuss here; refer to linkgit:git-tag[1]
for details.
-So now we know how git uses the object database to represent a
+So now we know how Git uses the object database to represent a
project's history:
* "commit" objects refer to "tree" objects representing the
@@ -403,21 +403,21 @@ What next?
At this point you should know everything necessary to read the man
pages for any of the git commands; one good place to start would be
-with the commands mentioned in link:everyday.html[Everyday git]. You
+with the commands mentioned in link:everyday.html[Everyday Git]. You
should be able to find any unknown jargon in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] provides a more
-comprehensive introduction to git.
+comprehensive introduction to Git.
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7] explains how to
-import a CVS repository into git, and shows how to use git in a
+import a CVS repository into Git, and shows how to use Git in a
CVS-like way.
-For some interesting examples of git use, see the
+For some interesting examples of Git use, see the
link:howto-index.html[howtos].
-For git developers, linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] goes
-into detail on the lower-level git mechanisms involved in, for
+For Git developers, linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] goes
+into detail on the lower-level Git mechanisms involved in, for
example, creating a new commit.
SEE ALSO
@@ -427,7 +427,7 @@ linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index f1cb6f3..8262196 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gittutorial(7)
NAME
----
-gittutorial - A tutorial introduction to git (for version 1.5.1 or newer)
+gittutorial - A tutorial introduction to Git (for version 1.5.1 or newer)
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -13,10 +13,10 @@ git *
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This tutorial explains how to import a new project into git, make
+This tutorial explains how to import a new project into Git, make
changes to it, and share changes with other developers.
-If you are instead primarily interested in using git to fetch a project,
+If you are instead primarily interested in using Git to fetch a project,
for example, to test the latest version, you may prefer to start with
the first two chapters of link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual].
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ $ git help log
With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see
linkgit:git-help[1] for more information.
-It is a good idea to introduce yourself to git with your name and
+It is a good idea to introduce yourself to Git with your name and
public email address before doing any operation. The easiest
way to do so is:
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ Importing a new project
-----------------------
Assume you have a tarball project.tar.gz with your initial work. You
-can place it under git revision control as follows.
+can place it under Git revision control as follows.
------------------------------------------------
$ tar xzf project.tar.gz
@@ -67,14 +67,14 @@ Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
You've now initialized the working directory--you may notice a new
directory created, named ".git".
-Next, tell git to take a snapshot of the contents of all files under the
+Next, tell Git to take a snapshot of the contents of all files under the
current directory (note the '.'), with 'git add':
------------------------------------------------
$ git add .
------------------------------------------------
-This snapshot is now stored in a temporary staging area which git calls
+This snapshot is now stored in a temporary staging area which Git calls
the "index". You can permanently store the contents of the index in the
repository with 'git commit':
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ $ git commit
------------------------------------------------
This will prompt you for a commit message. You've now stored the first
-version of your project in git.
+version of your project in Git.
Making changes
--------------
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character)
line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more
thorough description. The text up to the first blank line in a commit
message is treated as the commit title, and that title is used
-throughout git. For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a
+throughout Git. For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a
commit into email, and it uses the title on the Subject line and the
rest of the commit in the body.
@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ $ git log --stat --summary
Managing branches
-----------------
-A single git repository can maintain multiple branches of
+A single Git repository can maintain multiple branches of
development. To create a new branch named "experimental", use
------------------------------------------------
@@ -276,10 +276,10 @@ $ git branch -D crazy-idea
Branches are cheap and easy, so this is a good way to try something
out.
-Using git for collaboration
+Using Git for collaboration
---------------------------
-Suppose that Alice has started a new project with a git repository in
+Suppose that Alice has started a new project with a Git repository in
/home/alice/project, and that Bob, who has a home directory on the
same machine, wants to contribute.
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ Note that in general, Alice would want her local changes committed before
initiating this "pull". If Bob's work conflicts with what Alice did since
their histories forked, Alice will use her working tree and the index to
resolve conflicts, and existing local changes will interfere with the
-conflict resolution process (git will still perform the fetch but will
+conflict resolution process (Git will still perform the fetch but will
refuse to merge --- Alice will have to get rid of her local changes in
some way and pull again when this happens).
@@ -422,7 +422,7 @@ bob$ git pull
-------------------------------------
Note that he doesn't need to give the path to Alice's repository;
-when Bob cloned Alice's repository, git stored the location of her
+when Bob cloned Alice's repository, Git stored the location of her
repository in the repository configuration, and that location is
used for pulls:
@@ -450,7 +450,7 @@ perform clones and pulls using the ssh protocol:
bob$ git clone alice.org:/home/alice/project myrepo
-------------------------------------
-Alternatively, git has a native protocol, or can use rsync or http;
+Alternatively, Git has a native protocol, or can use rsync or http;
see linkgit:git-pull[1] for details.
Git can also be used in a CVS-like mode, with a central repository
@@ -518,7 +518,7 @@ share this name with other people (for example, to identify a release
version), you should create a "tag" object, and perhaps sign it; see
linkgit:git-tag[1] for details.
-Any git command that needs to know a commit can take any of these
+Any Git command that needs to know a commit can take any of these
names. For example:
-------------------------------------
@@ -554,9 +554,9 @@ files it manages in your current directory. So
$ git grep "hello"
-------------------------------------
-is a quick way to search just the files that are tracked by git.
+is a quick way to search just the files that are tracked by Git.
-Many git commands also take sets of commits, which can be specified
+Many Git commands also take sets of commits, which can be specified
in a number of ways. Here are some examples with 'git log':
-------------------------------------
@@ -592,7 +592,7 @@ then merged back together, the order in which 'git log' presents
those commits is meaningless.
Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the Linux kernel,
-or git itself) have frequent merges, and 'gitk' does a better job of
+or Git itself) have frequent merges, and 'gitk' does a better job of
visualizing their history. For example,
-------------------------------------
@@ -623,7 +623,7 @@ Next Steps
This tutorial should be enough to perform basic distributed revision
control for your projects. However, to fully understand the depth
-and power of git you need to understand two simple ideas on which it
+and power of Git you need to understand two simple ideas on which it
is based:
* The object database is the rather elegant system used to
@@ -636,7 +636,7 @@ is based:
Part two of this tutorial explains the object
database, the index file, and a few other odds and ends that you'll
-need to make the most of git. You can find it at linkgit:gittutorial-2[7].
+need to make the most of Git. You can find it at linkgit:gittutorial-2[7].
If you don't want to continue with that right away, a few other
digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
@@ -656,7 +656,7 @@ digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
* linkgit:gitworkflows[7]: Gives an overview of recommended
workflows.
- * link:everyday.html[Everyday GIT with 20 Commands Or So]
+ * link:everyday.html[Everyday Git with 20 Commands Or So]
* linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]: Git for CVS users.
@@ -668,7 +668,7 @@ linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
linkgit:gitworkflows[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index 4947455..eb63631 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitweb.conf(5)
NAME
----
-gitweb.conf - Gitweb (git web interface) configuration file
+gitweb.conf - Gitweb (Git web interface) configuration file
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ stops declaring it.
You can include other configuration file using read_config_file()
subroutine. For example, one might want to put gitweb configuration
related to access control for viewing repositories via Gitolite (one
-of git repository management tools) in a separate file, e.g. in
+of Git repository management tools) in a separate file, e.g. in
'/etc/gitweb-gitolite.conf'. To include it, put
--------------------------------------------------
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ and installing gitweb.
Location of repositories
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The configuration variables described below control how gitweb finds
-git repositories, and how repositories are displayed and accessed.
+Git repositories, and how repositories are displayed and accessed.
See also "Repositories" and later subsections in linkgit:gitweb[1] manpage.
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ will fall back to scanning the `$projectroot` directory for repositories.
$project_maxdepth::
If `$projects_list` variable is unset, gitweb will recursively
- scan filesystem for git repositories. The `$project_maxdepth`
+ scan filesystem for Git repositories. The `$project_maxdepth`
is used to limit traversing depth, relative to `$projectroot`
(starting point); it means that directories which are further
from `$projectroot` than `$project_maxdepth` will be skipped.
@@ -200,7 +200,7 @@ our $export_ok = "git-daemon-export-ok";
+
If not set (default), it means that this feature is disabled.
+
-See also more involved example in "Controlling access to git repositories"
+See also more involved example in "Controlling access to Git repositories"
subsection on linkgit:gitweb[1] manpage.
$strict_export::
@@ -222,18 +222,18 @@ The values of these variables are paths on the filesystem.
$GIT::
Core git executable to use. By default set to `$GIT_BINDIR/git`, which
- in turn is by default set to `$(bindir)/git`. If you use git installed
+ in turn is by default set to `$(bindir)/git`. If you use Git installed
from a binary package, you should usually set this to "/usr/bin/git".
This can just be "git" if your web server has a sensible PATH; from
security point of view it is better to use absolute path to git binary.
- If you have multiple git versions installed it can be used to choose
+ If you have multiple Git versions installed it can be used to choose
which one to use. Must be (correctly) set for gitweb to be able to
work.
$mimetypes_file::
File to use for (filename extension based) guessing of MIME types before
trying '/etc/mime.types'. *NOTE* that this path, if relative, is taken
- as relative to the current git repository, not to CGI script. If unset,
+ as relative to the current Git repository, not to CGI script. If unset,
only '/etc/mime.types' is used (if present on filesystem). If no mimetypes
file is found, mimetype guessing based on extension of file is disabled.
Unset by default.
@@ -343,8 +343,8 @@ $logo_url::
$logo_label::
URI and label (title) for the Git logo link (or your site logo,
if you chose to use different logo image). By default, these both
- refer to git homepage, http://git-scm.com[]; in the past, they pointed
- to git documentation at http://www.kernel.org[].
+ refer to Git homepage, http://git-scm.com[]; in the past, they pointed
+ to Git documentation at http://www.kernel.org[].
Changing gitweb's look
@@ -436,7 +436,7 @@ $fallback_encoding::
detection.
+
*Note* that rename and especially copy detection can be quite
-CPU-intensive. Note also that non git tools can have problems with
+CPU-intensive. Note also that non Git tools can have problems with
patches generated with options mentioned above, especially when they
involve file copies (\'-C') or criss-cross renames (\'-B').
@@ -451,7 +451,7 @@ looks does contain variables configuring administrative side of gitweb
affects how "summary" pages look like, or load limiting).
@git_base_url_list::
- List of git base URLs. These URLs are used to generate URLs
+ List of Git base URLs. These URLs are used to generate URLs
describing from where to fetch a project, which are shown on
project summary page. The full fetch URL is "`$git_base_url/$project`",
for each element of this list. You can set up multiple base URLs
@@ -616,7 +616,7 @@ override::
(or enabled/disabled) on a per-repository basis.
+
Usually given "<feature>" is configurable via the `gitweb.<feature>`
-config variable in the per-repository git configuration file.
+config variable in the per-repository Git configuration file.
+
*Note* that no feature is overriddable by default.
@@ -782,7 +782,7 @@ filesystem (i.e. "$projectroot/$project"), `%h` to the current hash
(\'hb' gitweb parameter); `%%` expands to \'%'.
+
For example, at the time this page was written, the http://repo.or.cz[]
-git hosting site set it to the following to enable graphical log
+Git hosting site set it to the following to enable graphical log
(using the third party tool *git-browser*):
+
----------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -796,10 +796,10 @@ This adds a link titled "graphiclog" after the "summary" link, leading to
Project specific override is not supported.
timed::
- Enable displaying how much time and how many git commands it took to
+ Enable displaying how much time and how many Git commands it took to
generate and display each page in the page footer (at the bottom of
page). For example the footer might contain: "This page took 6.53325
- seconds and 13 git commands to generate." Disabled by default.
+ seconds and 13 Git commands to generate." Disabled by default.
+
Project specific override is not supported.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
index 168e8bf..40969f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.txt
@@ -7,14 +7,14 @@ gitweb - Git web interface (web frontend to Git repositories)
SYNOPSIS
--------
-To get started with gitweb, run linkgit:git-instaweb[1] from a git repository.
+To get started with gitweb, run linkgit:git-instaweb[1] from a Git repository.
This would configure and start your web server, and run web browser pointing to
gitweb.
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Gitweb provides a web interface to git repositories. Its features include:
+Gitweb provides a web interface to Git repositories. Its features include:
* Viewing multiple Git repositories with common root.
* Browsing every revision of the repository.
@@ -54,9 +54,9 @@ our $projectroot = '/path/to/parent/directory';
The default value for `$projectroot` is '/pub/git'. You can change it during
building gitweb via `GITWEB_PROJECTROOT` build configuration variable.
-By default all git repositories under `$projectroot` are visible and available
+By default all Git repositories under `$projectroot` are visible and available
to gitweb. The list of projects is generated by default by scanning the
-`$projectroot` directory for git repositories (for object databases to be
+`$projectroot` directory for Git repositories (for object databases to be
more exact; gitweb is not interested in a working area, and is best suited
to showing "bare" repositories).
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ foo/bar.git O+W+Ner+<owner@example.org>
By default this file controls only which projects are *visible* on projects
-list page (note that entries that do not point to correctly recognized git
+list page (note that entries that do not point to correctly recognized Git
repositories won't be displayed by gitweb). Even if a project is not
visible on projects list page, you can view it nevertheless by hand-crafting
a gitweb URL. By setting `$strict_export` configuration variable (see
@@ -151,9 +151,9 @@ as projects list file, which means that you can set `$projects_list` to its
filename.
-Controlling access to git repositories
+Controlling access to Git repositories
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-By default all git repositories under `$projectroot` are visible and
+By default all Git repositories under `$projectroot` are visible and
available to gitweb. You can however configure how gitweb controls access
to repositories.
@@ -206,7 +206,7 @@ $export_auth_hook = sub {
Per-repository gitweb configuration
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
You can configure individual repositories shown in gitweb by creating file
-in the 'GIT_DIR' of git repository, or by setting some repo configuration
+in the 'GIT_DIR' of Git repository, or by setting some repo configuration
variable (in 'GIT_DIR/config', see linkgit:git-config[1]).
You can use the following files in repository:
@@ -504,7 +504,7 @@ repositories, you can configure Apache like this:
The above configuration expects your public repositories to live under
'/pub/git' and will serve them as `http://git.domain.org/dir-under-pub-git`,
-both as cloneable GIT URL and as browseable gitweb interface. If you then
+both as cloneable Git URL and as browseable gitweb interface. If you then
start your linkgit:git-daemon[1] with `--base-path=/pub/git --export-all`
then you can even use the `git://` URL with exactly the same path.
@@ -584,7 +584,7 @@ $projectroot = $ENV{'GITWEB_PROJECTROOT'} || "/pub/git";
referenced by `$per_request_config`;
These configurations enable two things. First, each unix user (`<user>`) of
-the server will be able to browse through gitweb git repositories found in
+the server will be able to browse through gitweb Git repositories found in
'~/public_git/' with the following url:
http://git.example.org/~<user>/
@@ -673,7 +673,7 @@ The additional AliasMatch makes it so that
http://git.example.com/project.git
-will give raw access to the project's git dir (so that the project can be
+will give raw access to the project's Git dir (so that the project can be
cloned), while
http://git.example.com/project
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
index 8b8c6ae..f16c414 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitworkflows(7)
NAME
----
-gitworkflows - An overview of recommended workflows with git
+gitworkflows - An overview of recommended workflows with Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -242,10 +242,10 @@ tag to the tip of 'master' indicating the release version:
.Release tagging
[caption="Recipe: "]
=====================================
-`git tag -s -m "GIT X.Y.Z" vX.Y.Z master`
+`git tag -s -m "Git X.Y.Z" vX.Y.Z master`
=====================================
-You need to push the new tag to a public git server (see
+You need to push the new tag to a public Git server (see
"DISTRIBUTED WORKFLOWS" below). This makes the tag available to
others tracking your project. The push could also trigger a
post-update hook to perform release-related items such as building
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index f928b57..eb7ba84 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
A bare repository is normally an appropriately
named <<def_directory,directory>> with a `.git` suffix that does not
have a locally checked-out copy of any of the files under
- revision control. That is, all of the `git`
+ revision control. That is, all of the Git
administrative and control files that would normally be present in the
hidden `.git` sub-directory are directly present in the
`repository.git` directory instead,
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
<<def_commit,commit>> on a branch is referred to as the tip of
that branch. The tip of the branch is referenced by a branch
<<def_head,head>>, which moves forward as additional development
- is done on the branch. A single git
+ is done on the branch. A single Git
<<def_repository,repository>> can track an arbitrary number of
branches, but your <<def_working_tree,working tree>> is
associated with just one of them (the "current" or "checked out"
@@ -37,9 +37,9 @@
<<def_commit,commit>> could be one of its <<def_parent,parents>>).
[[def_changeset]]changeset::
- BitKeeper/cvsps speak for "<<def_commit,commit>>". Since git does not
+ BitKeeper/cvsps speak for "<<def_commit,commit>>". Since Git does not
store changes, but states, it really does not make sense to use the term
- "changesets" with git.
+ "changesets" with Git.
[[def_checkout]]checkout::
The action of updating all or part of the
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@
[[def_cherry-picking]]cherry-picking::
In <<def_SCM,SCM>> jargon, "cherry pick" means to choose a subset of
changes out of a series of changes (typically commits) and record them
- as a new series of changes on top of a different codebase. In GIT, this is
+ as a new series of changes on top of a different codebase. In Git, this is
performed by the "git cherry-pick" command to extract the change introduced
by an existing <<def_commit,commit>> and to record it based on the tip
of the current <<def_branch,branch>> as a new commit.
@@ -64,14 +64,14 @@
[[def_commit]]commit::
As a noun: A single point in the
- git history; the entire history of a project is represented as a
+ Git history; the entire history of a project is represented as a
set of interrelated commits. The word "commit" is often
- used by git in the same places other revision control systems
+ used by Git in the same places other revision control systems
use the words "revision" or "version". Also used as a short
hand for <<def_commit_object,commit object>>.
+
As a verb: The action of storing a new snapshot of the project's
-state in the git history, by creating a new commit representing the current
+state in the Git history, by creating a new commit representing the current
state of the <<def_index,index>> and advancing <<def_HEAD,HEAD>>
to point at the new commit.
@@ -82,8 +82,8 @@ to point at the new commit.
to the top <<def_directory,directory>> of the stored
revision.
-[[def_core_git]]core git::
- Fundamental data structures and utilities of git. Exposes only limited
+[[def_core_git]]core Git::
+ Fundamental data structures and utilities of Git. Exposes only limited
source code management tools.
[[def_DAG]]DAG::
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@ to point at the new commit.
[[def_detached_HEAD]]detached HEAD::
Normally the <<def_HEAD,HEAD>> stores the name of a
- <<def_branch,branch>>. However, git also allows you to <<def_checkout,check out>>
+ <<def_branch,branch>>. However, Git also allows you to <<def_checkout,check out>>
an arbitrary <<def_commit,commit>> that isn't necessarily the tip of any
particular branch. In this case HEAD is said to be "detached".
@@ -142,22 +142,26 @@ to point at the new commit.
and to get them, too. See also linkgit:git-fetch[1].
[[def_file_system]]file system::
- Linus Torvalds originally designed git to be a user space file system,
+ Linus Torvalds originally designed Git to be a user space file system,
i.e. the infrastructure to hold files and directories. That ensured the
- efficiency and speed of git.
+ efficiency and speed of Git.
-[[def_git_archive]]git archive::
+[[def_git_archive]]Git archive::
Synonym for <<def_repository,repository>> (for arch people).
+[[def_gitfile]]gitfile::
+ A plain file `.git` at the root of a working tree that
+ points at the directory that is the real repository.
+
[[def_grafts]]grafts::
Grafts enables two otherwise different lines of development to be joined
together by recording fake ancestry information for commits. This way
- you can make git pretend the set of <<def_parent,parents>> a <<def_commit,commit>> has
+ you can make Git pretend the set of <<def_parent,parents>> a <<def_commit,commit>> has
is different from what was recorded when the commit was
created. Configured via the `.git/info/grafts` file.
[[def_hash]]hash::
- In git's context, synonym to <<def_object_name,object name>>.
+ In Git's context, synonym to <<def_object_name,object name>>.
[[def_head]]head::
A <<def_ref,named reference>> to the <<def_commit,commit>> at the tip of a
@@ -177,14 +181,14 @@ to point at the new commit.
A synonym for <<def_head,head>>.
[[def_hook]]hook::
- During the normal execution of several git commands, call-outs are made
+ During the normal execution of several Git commands, call-outs are made
to optional scripts that allow a developer to add functionality or
checking. Typically, the hooks allow for a command to be pre-verified
and potentially aborted, and allow for a post-notification after the
operation is done. The hook scripts are found in the
`$GIT_DIR/hooks/` directory, and are enabled by simply
removing the `.sample` suffix from the filename. In earlier versions
- of git you had to make them executable.
+ of Git you had to make them executable.
[[def_index]]index::
A collection of files with stat information, whose contents are stored
@@ -201,7 +205,7 @@ to point at the new commit.
[[def_master]]master::
The default development <<def_branch,branch>>. Whenever you
- create a git <<def_repository,repository>>, a branch named
+ create a Git <<def_repository,repository>>, a branch named
"master" is created, and becomes the active branch. In most
cases, this contains the local development, though that is
purely by convention and is not required.
@@ -228,7 +232,7 @@ This commit is referred to as a "merge commit", or sometimes just a
"merge".
[[def_object]]object::
- The unit of storage in git. It is uniquely identified by the
+ The unit of storage in Git. It is uniquely identified by the
<<def_SHA1,SHA1>> of its contents. Consequently, an
object can not be changed.
@@ -323,7 +327,7 @@ top `/`;;
+
Currently only the slash `/` is recognized as the "magic signature",
but it is envisioned that we will support more types of magic in later
-versions of git.
+versions of Git.
+
A pathspec with only a colon means "there is no pathspec". This form
should not be combined with other pathspec.
@@ -341,12 +345,12 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
particular line of text. See linkgit:git-diff[1].
[[def_plumbing]]plumbing::
- Cute name for <<def_core_git,core git>>.
+ Cute name for <<def_core_git,core Git>>.
[[def_porcelain]]porcelain::
Cute name for programs and program suites depending on
- <<def_core_git,core git>>, presenting a high level access to
- core git. Porcelains expose more of a <<def_SCM,SCM>>
+ <<def_core_git,core Git>>, presenting a high level access to
+ core Git. Porcelains expose more of a <<def_SCM,SCM>>
interface than the <<def_plumbing,plumbing>>.
[[def_pull]]pull::
@@ -406,7 +410,7 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
linkgit:git-push[1].
[[def_remote_tracking_branch]]remote-tracking branch::
- A regular git <<def_branch,branch>> that is used to follow changes from
+ A regular Git <<def_branch,branch>> that is used to follow changes from
another <<def_repository,repository>>. A remote-tracking
branch should not contain direct modifications or have local commits
made to it. A remote-tracking branch can usually be
@@ -443,7 +447,7 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
[[def_shallow_repository]]shallow repository::
A shallow <<def_repository,repository>> has an incomplete
history some of whose <<def_commit,commits>> have <<def_parent,parents>> cauterized away (in other
- words, git is told to pretend that these commits do not have the
+ words, Git is told to pretend that these commits do not have the
parents, even though they are recorded in the <<def_commit_object,commit
object>>). This is sometimes useful when you are interested only in the
recent history of a project even though the real history recorded in the
@@ -464,9 +468,9 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
object of an arbitrary type (typically a tag points to either a
<<def_tag_object,tag>> or a <<def_commit_object,commit object>>).
In contrast to a <<def_head,head>>, a tag is not updated by
- the `commit` command. A git tag has nothing to do with a Lisp
+ the `commit` command. A Git tag has nothing to do with a Lisp
tag (which would be called an <<def_object_type,object type>>
- in git's context). A tag is most typically used to mark a particular
+ in Git's context). A tag is most typically used to mark a particular
point in the commit ancestry <<def_chain,chain>>.
[[def_tag_object]]tag object::
@@ -476,7 +480,7 @@ should not be combined with other pathspec.
signature, in which case it is called a "signed tag object".
[[def_topic_branch]]topic branch::
- A regular git <<def_branch,branch>> that is used by a developer to
+ A regular Git <<def_branch,branch>> that is used by a developer to
identify a conceptual line of development. Since branches are very easy
and inexpensive, it is often desirable to have several small branches
that each contain very well defined concepts or small incremental yet
diff --git a/Documentation/howto-index.sh b/Documentation/howto-index.sh
index 34aa30c..a234086 100755
--- a/Documentation/howto-index.sh
+++ b/Documentation/howto-index.sh
@@ -1,11 +1,11 @@
#!/bin/sh
cat <<\EOF
-GIT Howto Index
+Git Howto Index
===============
Here is a collection of mailing list postings made by various
-people describing how they use git in their workflow.
+people describing how they use Git in their workflow.
EOF
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
index ea6e4a5..33ae69c 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
From: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
Date: Wed, 21 Nov 2007 16:32:55 -0800
Subject: Addendum to "MaintNotes"
-Abstract: Imagine that git development is racing along as usual, when our friendly
+Abstract: Imagine that Git development is racing along as usual, when our friendly
neighborhood maintainer is struck down by a wayward bus. Out of the
hordes of suckers (loyal developers), you have been tricked (chosen) to
step up as the new maintainer. This howto will show you "how to" do it.
@@ -10,35 +10,42 @@ Content-type: text/asciidoc
How to maintain Git
===================
-The maintainer's git time is spent on three activities.
+Activities
+----------
- - Communication (60%)
+The maintainer's Git time is spent on three activities.
+
+ - Communication (45%)
Mailing list discussions on general design, fielding user
questions, diagnosing bug reports; reviewing, commenting on,
suggesting alternatives to, and rejecting patches.
- - Integration (30%)
+ - Integration (50%)
Applying new patches from the contributors while spotting and
correcting minor mistakes, shuffling the integration and
testing branches, pushing the results out, cutting the
releases, and making announcements.
- - Own development (10%)
+ - Own development (5%)
Scratching my own itch and sending proposed patch series out.
+The Policy
+----------
+
The policy on Integration is informally mentioned in "A Note
from the maintainer" message, which is periodically posted to
this mailing list after each feature release is made.
-The policy.
-
- Feature releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z and are meant to
contain bugfixes and enhancements in any area, including
functionality, performance and usability, without regression.
+ - One release cycle for a feature release is expected to last for
+ eight to ten weeks.
+
- Maintenance releases are numbered as vX.Y.Z.W and are meant
to contain only bugfixes for the corresponding vX.Y.Z feature
release and earlier maintenance releases vX.Y.Z.V (V < W).
@@ -62,12 +69,15 @@ The policy.
- 'pu' branch is used to publish other proposed changes that do
not yet pass the criteria set for 'next'.
- - The tips of 'master', 'maint' and 'next' branches will always
- fast-forward, to allow people to build their own
- customization on top of them.
+ - The tips of 'master' and 'maint' branches will not be rewound to
+ allow people to build their own customization on top of them.
+ Early in a new development cycle, 'next' is rewound to the tip of
+ 'master' once, but otherwise it will not be rewound until the end
+ of the cycle.
- - Usually 'master' contains all of 'maint', 'next' contains all
- of 'master' and 'pu' contains all of 'next'.
+ - Usually 'master' contains all of 'maint' and 'next' contains all
+ of 'master'. 'pu' contains all the topics merged to 'next', but
+ is rebuilt directly on 'master'.
- The tip of 'master' is meant to be more stable than any
tagged releases, and the users are encouraged to follow it.
@@ -77,14 +87,22 @@ The policy.
are found before new topics are merged to 'master'.
-A typical git day for the maintainer implements the above policy
+A Typical Git Day
+-----------------
+
+A typical Git day for the maintainer implements the above policy
by doing the following:
- - Scan mailing list and #git channel log. Respond with review
- comments, suggestions etc. Kibitz. Collect potentially
- usable patches from the mailing list. Patches about a single
- topic go to one mailbox (I read my mail in Gnus, and type
- \C-o to save/append messages in files in mbox format).
+ - Scan mailing list. Respond with review comments, suggestions
+ etc. Kibitz. Collect potentially usable patches from the
+ mailing list. Patches about a single topic go to one mailbox (I
+ read my mail in Gnus, and type \C-o to save/append messages in
+ files in mbox format).
+
+ - Write his own patches to address issues raised on the list but
+ nobody has stepped up solving. Send it out just like other
+ contributors do, and pick them up just like patches from other
+ contributors (see above).
- Review the patches in the saved mailboxes. Edit proposed log
message for typofixes and clarifications, and add Acks
@@ -100,40 +118,32 @@ by doing the following:
- Obviously correct fixes that pertain to the tip of 'master'
are directly applied to 'master'.
+ - Other topics are not handled in this step.
+
This step is done with "git am".
$ git checkout master ;# or "git checkout maint"
- $ git am -3 -s mailbox
+ $ git am -sc3 mailbox
$ make test
- - Merge downwards (maint->master):
-
- $ git checkout master
- $ git merge maint
- $ make test
+ In practice, almost no patch directly goes to 'master' or
+ 'maint'.
- Review the last issue of "What's cooking" message, review the
- topics scheduled for merging upwards (topic->master and
- topic->maint), and merge.
+ topics ready for merging (topic->master and topic->maint). Use
+ "Meta/cook -w" script (where Meta/ contains a checkout of the
+ 'todo' branch) to aid this step.
+
+ And perform the merge. Use "Meta/Reintegrate -e" script (see
+ later) to aid this step.
+
+ $ Meta/cook -w last-issue-of-whats-cooking.mbox
$ git checkout master ;# or "git checkout maint"
- $ git merge ai/topic ;# or "git merge ai/maint-topic"
+ $ echo ai/topic | Meta/Reintegrate -e ;# "git merge ai/topic"
$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. ;# final review
$ git diff ORIG_HEAD.. ;# final review
$ make test ;# final review
- $ git branch -d ai/topic ;# or "git branch -d ai/maint-topic"
-
- - Merge downwards (maint->master) if needed:
-
- $ git checkout master
- $ git merge maint
- $ make test
-
- - Merge downwards (master->next) if needed:
-
- $ git checkout next
- $ git merge master
- $ make test
- Handle the remaining patches:
@@ -142,9 +152,9 @@ by doing the following:
and not in 'master') is applied to a new topic branch that
is forked from the tip of 'master'. This includes both
enhancements and unobvious fixes to 'master'. A topic
- branch is named as ai/topic where "ai" is typically
- author's initial and "topic" is a descriptive name of the
- topic (in other words, "what's the series is about").
+ branch is named as ai/topic where "ai" is two-letter string
+ named after author's initial and "topic" is a descriptive name
+ of the topic (in other words, "what's the series is about").
- An unobvious fix meant for 'maint' is applied to a new
topic branch that is forked from the tip of 'maint'. The
@@ -162,7 +172,8 @@ by doing the following:
The above except the "replacement" are all done with:
- $ git am -3 -s mailbox
+ $ git checkout ai/topic ;# or "git checkout -b ai/topic master"
+ $ git am -sc3 mailbox
while patch replacement is often done by:
@@ -170,93 +181,170 @@ by doing the following:
then replace some parts with the new patch, and reapplying:
+ $ git checkout ai/topic
$ git reset --hard ai/topic~$n
- $ git am -3 -s 000*.txt
+ $ git am -sc3 -s 000*.txt
The full test suite is always run for 'maint' and 'master'
after patch application; for topic branches the tests are run
as time permits.
- - Update "What's cooking" message to review the updates to
- existing topics, newly added topics and graduated topics.
+ - Merge maint to master as needed:
- This step is helped with Meta/cook script (where Meta/ contains
- a checkout of the 'todo' branch).
-
- - Merge topics to 'next'. For each branch whose tip is not
- merged to 'next', one of three things can happen:
+ $ git checkout master
+ $ git merge maint
+ $ make test
- - The commits are all next-worthy; merge the topic to next:
+ - Merge master to next as needed:
$ git checkout next
- $ git merge ai/topic ;# or "git merge ai/maint-topic"
+ $ git merge master
$ make test
+ - Review the last issue of "What's cooking" again and see if topics
+ that are ready to be merged to 'next' are still in good shape
+ (e.g. has there any new issue identified on the list with the
+ series?)
+
+ - Prepare 'jch' branch, which is used to represent somewhere
+ between 'master' and 'pu' and often is slightly ahead of 'next'.
+
+ $ Meta/Reintegrate master..pu >Meta/redo-jch.sh
+
+ The result is a script that lists topics to be merged in order to
+ rebuild 'pu' as the input to Meta/Reintegrate script. Remove
+ later topics that should not be in 'jch' yet. Add a line that
+ consists of '### match next' before the name of the first topic
+ in the output that should be in 'jch' but not in 'next' yet.
+
+ - Now we are ready to start merging topics to 'next'. For each
+ branch whose tip is not merged to 'next', one of three things can
+ happen:
+
+ - The commits are all next-worthy; merge the topic to next;
- The new parts are of mixed quality, but earlier ones are
- next-worthy; merge the early parts to next:
+ next-worthy; merge the early parts to next;
+ - Nothing is next-worthy; do not do anything.
+
+ This step is aided with Meta/redo-jch.sh script created earlier.
+ If a topic that was already in 'next' gained a patch, the script
+ would list it as "ai/topic~1". To include the new patch to the
+ updated 'next', drop the "~1" part; to keep it excluded, do not
+ touch the line. If a topic that was not in 'next' should be
+ merged to 'next', add it at the end of the list. Then:
+
+ $ git checkout -B jch master
+ $ Meta/redo-jch.sh -c1
+
+ to rebuild the 'jch' branch from scratch. "-c1" tells the script
+ to stop merging at the first line that begins with '###'
+ (i.e. the "### match next" line you added earlier).
+
+ At this point, build-test the result. It may reveal semantic
+ conflicts (e.g. a topic renamed a variable, another added a new
+ reference to the variable under its old name), in which case
+ prepare an appropriate merge-fix first (see appendix), and
+ rebuild the 'jch' branch from scratch, starting at the tip of
+ 'master'.
+
+ Then do the same to 'next'
$ git checkout next
- $ git merge ai/topic~2 ;# the tip two are dubious
- $ make test
+ $ sh Meta/redo-jch.sh -c1 -e
- - Nothing is next-worthy; do not do anything.
+ The "-e" option allows the merge message that comes from the
+ history of the topic and the comments in the "What's cooking" to
+ be edited. The resulting tree should match 'jch' as the same set
+ of topics are merged on 'master'; otherwise there is a mismerge.
+ Investigate why and do not proceed until the mismerge is found
+ and rectified.
- - [** OBSOLETE **] Optionally rebase topics that do not have any commit
- in next yet, when they can take advantage of low-level framework
- change that is merged to 'master' already.
+ $ git diff jch next
- $ git rebase master ai/topic
+ When all is well, clean up the redo-jch.sh script with
- This step is helped with Meta/git-topic.perl script to
- identify which topic is rebaseable. There also is a
- pre-rebase hook to make sure that topics that are already in
- 'next' are not rebased beyond the merged commit.
+ $ sh Meta/redo-jch.sh -u
- - [** OBSOLETE **] Rebuild "pu" to merge the tips of topics not in 'next'.
+ This removes topics listed in the script that have already been
+ merged to 'master'. This may lose '### match next' marker;
+ add it again to the appropriate place when it happens.
- $ git checkout pu
- $ git reset --hard next
- $ git merge ai/topic ;# repeat for all remaining topics
- $ make test
+ - Rebuild 'pu'.
- This step is helped with Meta/PU script
+ $ Meta/Reintegrate master..pu >Meta/redo-pu.sh
- - Push four integration branches to a private repository at
- k.org and run "make test" on all of them.
+ Edit the result by adding new topics that are not still in 'pu'
+ in the script. Then
- - Push four integration branches to /pub/scm/git/git.git at
- k.org. This triggers its post-update hook which:
+ $ git checkout -B pu jch
+ $ sh Meta/redo-pu.sh
- (1) runs "git pull" in $HOME/git-doc/ repository to pull
- 'master' just pushed out;
+ When all is well, clean up the redo-pu.sh script with
- (2) runs "make doc" in $HOME/git-doc/, install the generated
- documentation in staging areas, which are separate
- repositories that have html and man branches checked
- out.
+ $ sh Meta/redo-pu.sh -u
- (3) runs "git commit" in the staging areas, and run "git
- push" back to /pub/scm/git/git.git/ to update the html
- and man branches.
+ Double check by running
- (4) installs generated documentation to /pub/software/scm/git/docs/
- to be viewed from http://www.kernel.org/
+ $ git branch --no-merged pu
- - Fetch html and man branches back from k.org, and push four
- integration branches and the two documentation branches to
- repo.or.cz and other mirrors.
+ to see there is no unexpected leftover topics.
+ At this point, build-test the result for semantic conflicts, and
+ if there are, prepare an appropriate merge-fix first (see
+ appendix), and rebuild the 'pu' branch from scratch, starting at
+ the tip of 'jch'.
+
+ - Update "What's cooking" message to review the updates to
+ existing topics, newly added topics and graduated topics.
+
+ This step is helped with Meta/cook script.
+
+ $ Meta/cook
+
+ This script inspects the history between master..pu, finds tips
+ of topic branches, compares what it found with the current
+ contents in Meta/whats-cooking.txt, and updates that file.
+ Topics not listed in the file but are found in master..pu are
+ added to the "New topics" section, topics listed in the file that
+ are no longer found in master..pu are moved to the "Graduated to
+ master" section, and topics whose commits changed their states
+ (e.g. used to be only in 'pu', now merged to 'next') are updated
+ with change markers "<<" and ">>".
+
+ Look for lines enclosed in "<<" and ">>"; they hold contents from
+ old file that are replaced by this integration round. After
+ verifying them, remove the old part. Review the description for
+ each topic and update its doneness and plan as needed. To review
+ the updated plan, run
+
+ $ Meta/cook -w
+
+ which will pick up comments given to the topics, such as "Will
+ merge to 'next'", etc. (see Meta/cook script to learn what kind
+ of phrases are supported).
+
+ - Compile, test and install all four (five) integration branches;
+ Meta/Dothem script may aid this step.
+
+ - Format documentation if the 'master' branch was updated;
+ Meta/dodoc.sh script may aid this step.
+
+ - Push the integration branches out to public places; Meta/pushall
+ script may aid this step.
+
+Observations
+------------
Some observations to be made.
- * Each topic is tested individually, and also together with
- other topics cooking in 'next'. Until it matures, none part
- of it is merged to 'master'.
+ * Each topic is tested individually, and also together with other
+ topics cooking first in 'pu', then in 'jch' and then in 'next'.
+ Until it matures, no part of it is merged to 'master'.
* A topic already in 'next' can get fixes while still in
'next'. Such a topic will have many merges to 'next' (in
other words, "git log --first-parent next" will show many
- "Merge ai/topic to next" for the same topic.
+ "Merge branch 'ai/topic' to next" for the same topic.
* An unobvious fix for 'maint' is cooked in 'next' and then
merged to 'master' to make extra sure it is Ok and then
@@ -278,3 +366,80 @@ Some observations to be made.
* Being in the 'next' branch is not a guarantee for a topic to
be included in the next feature release. Being in the
'master' branch typically is.
+
+
+Appendix
+--------
+
+Preparing a "merge-fix"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+A merge of two topics may not textually conflict but still have
+conflict at the semantic level. A classic example is for one topic
+to rename an variable and all its uses, while another topic adds a
+new use of the variable under its old name. When these two topics
+are merged together, the reference to the variable newly added by
+the latter topic will still use the old name in the result.
+
+The Meta/Reintegrate script that is used by redo-jch and redo-pu
+scripts implements a crude but usable way to work this issue around.
+When the script merges branch $X, it checks if "refs/merge-fix/$X"
+exists, and if so, the effect of it is squashed into the result of
+the mechanical merge. In other words,
+
+ $ echo $X | Meta/Reintegrate
+
+is roughly equivalent to this sequence:
+
+ $ git merge --rerere-autoupdate $X
+ $ git commit
+ $ git cherry-pick -n refs/merge-fix/$X
+ $ git commit --amend
+
+The goal of this "prepare a merge-fix" step is to come up with a
+commit that can be squashed into a result of mechanical merge to
+correct semantic conflicts.
+
+After finding that the result of merging branch "ai/topic" to an
+integration branch had such a semantic conflict, say pu~4, check the
+problematic merge out on a detached HEAD, edit the working tree to
+fix the semantic conflict, and make a separate commit to record the
+fix-up:
+
+ $ git checkout pu~4
+ $ git show -s --pretty=%s ;# double check
+ Merge branch 'ai/topic' to pu
+ $ edit
+ $ git commit -m 'merge-fix/ai/topic' -a
+
+Then make a reference "refs/merge-fix/ai/topic" to point at this
+result:
+
+ $ git update-ref refs/merge-fix/ai/topic HEAD
+
+Then double check the result by asking Meta/Reintegrate to redo the
+merge:
+
+ $ git checkout pu~5 ;# the parent of the problem merge
+ $ echo ai/topic | Meta/Reintegrate
+ $ git diff pu~4
+
+This time, because you prepared refs/merge-fix/ai/topic, the
+resulting merge should have been tweaked to include the fix for the
+semantic conflict.
+
+Note that this assumes that the order in which conflicting branches
+are merged does not change. If the reason why merging ai/topic
+branch needs this merge-fix is because another branch merged earlier
+to the integration branch changed the underlying assumption ai/topic
+branch made (e.g. ai/topic branch added a site to refer to a
+variable, while the other branch renamed that variable and adjusted
+existing use sites), and if you changed redo-jch (or redo-pu) script
+to merge ai/topic branch before the other branch, then the above
+merge-fix should not be applied while merging ai/topic, but should
+instead be applied while merging the other branch. You would need
+to move the fix to apply to the other branch, perhaps like this:
+
+ $ mf=refs/merge-fix
+ $ git update-ref $mf/$the_other_branch $mf/ai/topic
+ $ git update-ref -d $mf/ai/topic
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt b/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2abc3a0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/new-command.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,104 @@
+From: Eric S. Raymond <esr@thyrsus.com>
+Abstract: This is how-to documentation for people who want to add extension
+ commands to Git. It should be read alongside api-builtin.txt.
+Content-type: text/asciidoc
+
+How to integrate new subcommands
+================================
+
+This is how-to documentation for people who want to add extension
+commands to Git. It should be read alongside api-builtin.txt.
+
+Runtime environment
+-------------------
+
+Git subcommands are standalone executables that live in the Git exec
+path, normally /usr/lib/git-core. The git executable itself is a
+thin wrapper that knows where the subcommands live, and runs them by
+passing command-line arguments to them.
+
+(If "git foo" is not found in the Git exec path, the wrapper
+will look in the rest of your $PATH for it. Thus, it's possible
+to write local Git extensions that don't live in system space.)
+
+Implementation languages
+------------------------
+
+Most subcommands are written in C or shell. A few are written in
+Perl.
+
+While we strongly encourage coding in portable C for portability,
+these specific scripting languages are also acceptable. We won't
+accept more without a very strong technical case, as we don't want
+to broaden the Git suite's required dependencies. Import utilities,
+surgical tools, remote helpers and other code at the edges of the
+Git suite are more lenient and we allow Python (and even Tcl/tk),
+but they should not be used for core functions.
+
+This may change in the future. Especially Python is not allowed in
+core because we need better Python integration in the Git Windows
+installer before we can be confident people in that environment
+won't experience an unacceptably large loss of capability.
+
+C commands are normally written as single modules, named after the
+command, that link a collection of functions called libgit. Thus,
+your command 'git-foo' would normally be implemented as a single
+"git-foo.c" (or "builtin/foo.c" if it is to be linked to the main
+binary); this organization makes it easy for people reading the code
+to find things.
+
+See the CodingGuidelines document for other guidance on what we consider
+good practice in C and shell, and api-builtin.txt for the support
+functions available to built-in commands written in C.
+
+What every extension command needs
+----------------------------------
+
+You must have a man page, written in asciidoc (this is what Git help
+followed by your subcommand name will display). Be aware that there is
+a local asciidoc configuration and macros which you should use. It's
+often helpful to start by cloning an existing page and replacing the
+text content.
+
+You must have a test, written to report in TAP (Test Anything Protocol).
+Tests are executables (usually shell scripts) that live in the 't'
+subdirectory of the tree. Each test name begins with 't' and a sequence
+number that controls where in the test sequence it will be executed;
+conventionally the rest of the name stem is that of the command
+being tested.
+
+Read the file t/README to learn more about the conventions to be used
+in writing tests, and the test support library.
+
+Integrating a command
+---------------------
+
+Here are the things you need to do when you want to merge a new
+subcommand into the Git tree.
+
+1. Don't forget to sign off your patch!
+
+2. Append your command name to one of the variables BUILTIN_OBJS,
+EXTRA_PROGRAMS, SCRIPT_SH, SCRIPT_PERL or SCRIPT_PYTHON.
+
+3. Drop its test in the t directory.
+
+4. If your command is implemented in an interpreted language with a
+p-code intermediate form, make sure .gitignore in the main directory
+includes a pattern entry that ignores such files. Python .pyc and
+.pyo files will already be covered.
+
+5. If your command has any dependency on a particular version of
+your language, document it in the INSTALL file.
+
+6. There is a file command-list.txt in the distribution main directory
+that categorizes commands by type, so they can be listed in appropriate
+subsections in the documentation's summary command list. Add an entry
+for yours. To understand the categories, look at git-cmmands.txt
+in the main directory.
+
+7. Give the maintainer one paragraph to include in the RelNotes file
+to describe the new feature; a good place to do so is in the cover
+letter [PATCH 0/n].
+
+That's all there is to it.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
index 4627ee4..19ab604 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Cc: Petr Baudis <pasky@suse.cz>, Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
Subject: Re: sending changesets from the middle of a git tree
Date: Sun, 14 Aug 2005 18:37:39 -0700
Abstract: In this article, JC talks about how he rebases the
- public "pu" branch using the core GIT tools when he updates
+ public "pu" branch using the core Git tools when he updates
the "master" branch, and how "rebase" works. Also discussed
is how this applies to individual developers who sends patches
upstream.
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ up. With its basing philosophical ancestry on quilt, this is
the kind of task StGIT is designed to do.
I just have done a simpler one, this time using only the core
-GIT tools.
+Git tools.
I had a handful of commits that were ahead of master in pu, and I
wanted to add some documentation bypassing my usual habit of
@@ -96,7 +96,7 @@ you ran fsck-cache, which is normal. After testing "pu", you
can run "git prune" to get rid of those original three commits.
While I am talking about "git rebase", I should talk about how
-to do cherrypicking using only the core GIT tools.
+to do cherrypicking using only the core Git tools.
Let's go back to the earlier picture, with different labels.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
index 00c1b45..25378f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ Message-ID: <7vy86o6usx.fsf@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net>
From: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
Date: Fri, 26 Aug 2005 18:19:10 -0700
Abstract: In this how-to article, JC talks about how he
- uses the post-update hook to automate git documentation page
+ uses the post-update hook to automate Git documentation page
shown at http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/.
Content-type: text/asciidoc
@@ -15,11 +15,11 @@ are built from Documentation/ directory of the git.git project
and needed to be kept up-to-date. The www.kernel.org/ servers
are mirrored and I was told that the origin of the mirror is on
the machine $some.kernel.org, on which I was given an account
-when I took over git maintainership from Linus.
+when I took over Git maintainership from Linus.
The directories relevant to this how-to are these two:
- /pub/scm/git/git.git/ The public git repository.
+ /pub/scm/git/git.git/ The public Git repository.
/pub/software/scm/git/docs/ The HTML documentation page.
So I made a repository to generate the documentation under my
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@ script:
EOF
Initially I used to run this by hand whenever I push into the
-public git repository. Then I did a cron job that ran twice a
+public Git repository. Then I did a cron job that ran twice a
day. The current round uses the post-update hook mechanism,
like this:
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object.txt b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object.txt
index 7484735..6d362ce 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ itself doesn't actually tell you anything, in order to fix a corrupt
object you basically have to find the "original source" for it.
The easiest way to do that is almost always to have backups, and find the
-same object somewhere else. Backups really are a good idea, and git makes
+same object somewhere else. Backups really are a good idea, and Git makes
it pretty easy (if nothing else, just clone the repository somewhere else,
and make sure that you do *not* use a hard-linked clone, and preferably
not the same disk/machine).
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@ and your repository is good again!
git log --raw --all
and just looked for the sha of the missing object (4b9458b..) in that
-whole thing. It's up to you - git does *have* a lot of information, it is
+whole thing. It's up to you - Git does *have* a lot of information, it is
just missing one particular blob version.
Trying to recreate trees and especially commits is *much* harder. So you
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
index 8a68548..075418e 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ merged. So it's debugging hell, because now you don't have lots of small
changes that you can try to pinpoint which _part_ of it changes.
But does it all work? Sure it does. You can revert a merge, and from a
-purely technical angle, git did it very naturally and had no real
+purely technical angle, Git did it very naturally and had no real
troubles. It just considered it a change from "state before merge" to
"state after merge", and that was it. Nothing complicated, nothing odd,
nothing really dangerous. Git will do it without even thinking about it.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
index a59ced8..84dd839 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
@@ -12,10 +12,10 @@ How to revert an existing commit
================================
One of the changes I pulled into the 'master' branch turns out to
-break building GIT with GCC 2.95. While they were well intentioned
+break building Git with GCC 2.95. While they were well intentioned
portability fixes, keeping things working with gcc-2.95 was also
important. Here is what I did to revert the change in the 'master'
-branch and to adjust the 'pu' branch, using core GIT tools and
+branch and to adjust the 'pu' branch, using core Git tools and
barebone Porcelain.
First, prepare a throw-away branch in case I screw things up.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
index a695f01..7f4943e 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
@@ -1,9 +1,9 @@
From: Rutger Nijlunsing <rutger@nospam.com>
-Subject: Setting up a git repository which can be pushed into and pulled from over HTTP(S).
+Subject: Setting up a Git repository which can be pushed into and pulled from over HTTP(S).
Date: Thu, 10 Aug 2006 22:00:26 +0200
Content-type: text/asciidoc
-How to setup git server over http
+How to setup Git server over http
=================================
Since Apache is one of those packages people like to compile
@@ -44,20 +44,20 @@ What's needed:
- have permissions to chown a directory
-- have git installed on the client, and
+- have Git installed on the client, and
-- either have git installed on the server or have a webdav client on
+- either have Git installed on the server or have a webdav client on
the client.
In effect, this means you're going to be root, or that you're using a
preconfigured WebDAV server.
-Step 1: setup a bare GIT repository
+Step 1: setup a bare Git repository
-----------------------------------
-At the time of writing, git-http-push cannot remotely create a GIT
-repository. So we have to do that at the server side with git. Another
+At the time of writing, git-http-push cannot remotely create a Git
+repository. So we have to do that at the server side with Git. Another
option is to generate an empty bare repository at the client and copy
it to the server with a WebDAV client (which is the only option if Git
is not installed on the server).
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ http://<servername>/my-new-repo.git [x] Open as webfolder -> login .
Step 3: setup the client
------------------------
-Make sure that you have HTTP support, i.e. your git was built with
+Make sure that you have HTTP support, i.e. your Git was built with
libcurl (version more recent than 7.10). The command 'git http-push' with
no argument should display a usage message.
@@ -268,7 +268,7 @@ Reading /usr/local/apache2/logs/error_log is often helpful.
On Debian: Read /var/log/apache2/error.log instead.
-If you access HTTPS locations, git may fail verifying the SSL
+If you access HTTPS locations, Git may fail verifying the SSL
certificate (this is return code 60). Setting http.sslVerify=false can
help diagnosing the problem, but removes security checks.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt
index 23cdf35..7af2e52 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ How to use git-daemon
=====================
Git can be run in inetd mode and in stand alone mode. But all you want is
-let a coworker pull from you, and therefore need to set up a git server
+let a coworker pull from you, and therefore need to set up a Git server
real quick, right?
Note that git-daemon is not really chatty at the moment, especially when
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt b/Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt
index 00f693b..bbf040e 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ Earlier, a typical pull request may have started like this:
Froboz 3.2 (2011-09-30 14:20:57 -0700)
- are available in the git repository at:
+ are available in the Git repository at:
example.com:/git/froboz.git for-xyzzy
------------
@@ -107,7 +107,7 @@ The resulting msg.txt file begins like so:
Froboz 3.2 (2011-09-30 14:20:57 -0700)
- are available in the git repository at:
+ are available in the Git repository at:
example.com:/git/froboz.git tags/frotz-for-xyzzy
diff --git a/Documentation/i18n.txt b/Documentation/i18n.txt
index 625d315..e9a1d5d 100644
--- a/Documentation/i18n.txt
+++ b/Documentation/i18n.txt
@@ -1,9 +1,9 @@
-At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.
+At the core level, Git is character encoding agnostic.
- The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects
are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.
What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared
- with the data git keeps track of, which in turn are expected
+ with the data Git keeps track of, which in turn are expected
to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such
thing as pathname encoding translation.
@@ -15,9 +15,9 @@ At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.
bytes.
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded
-in UTF-8, both the core and git Porcelain are designed not to
+in UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to
force UTF-8 on projects. If all participants of a particular
-project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git
+project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, Git
does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in
mind.
diff --git a/Documentation/mailmap.txt b/Documentation/mailmap.txt
index dd89fca..4a8c276 100644
--- a/Documentation/mailmap.txt
+++ b/Documentation/mailmap.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
If the file `.mailmap` exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
-the location pointed to by the mailmap.file configuration option, it
+the location pointed to by the mailmap.file or mailmap.blob
+configuration options, it
is used to map author and committer names and email addresses to
canonical real names and email addresses.
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-config.txt b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
index 9bb4956..d78d6d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
@@ -17,10 +17,10 @@ merge.defaultToUpstream::
these tracking branches are merged.
merge.ff::
- By default, git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
+ By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
a commit that is a descendant of the current commit. Instead, the
tip of the current branch is fast-forwarded. When set to `false`,
- this variable tells git to create an extra merge commit in such
+ this variable tells Git to create an extra merge commit in such
a case (equivalent to giving the `--no-ff` option from the command
line). When set to `only`, only such fast-forward merges are
allowed (equivalent to giving the `--ff-only` option from the
@@ -38,10 +38,10 @@ merge.renameLimit::
diff.renameLimit.
merge.renormalize::
- Tell git that canonical representation of files in the
+ Tell Git that canonical representation of files in the
repository has changed over time (e.g. earlier commits record
text files with CRLF line endings, but recent ones use LF line
- endings). In such a repository, git can convert the data
+ endings). In such a repository, Git can convert the data
recorded in commits to a canonical form before performing a
merge to reduce unnecessary conflicts. For more information,
see section "Merging branches with differing checkin/checkout
@@ -52,12 +52,12 @@ merge.stat::
at the end of the merge. True by default.
merge.tool::
- Controls which merge resolution program is used by
- linkgit:git-mergetool[1]. Valid built-in values are: "araxis",
- "bc3", "diffuse", "ecmerge", "emerge", "gvimdiff", "kdiff3", "meld",
- "opendiff", "p4merge", "tkdiff", "tortoisemerge", "vimdiff"
- and "xxdiff". Any other value is treated is custom merge tool
- and there must be a corresponding mergetool.<tool>.cmd option.
+ Controls which merge tool is used by linkgit:git-mergetool[1].
+ The list below shows the valid built-in values.
+ Any other value is treated as a custom merge tool and requires
+ that a corresponding mergetool.<tool>.cmd variable is defined.
+
+include::mergetools-merge.txt[]
merge.verbosity::
Controls the amount of output shown by the recursive merge
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 0bcbe0a..34a8445 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,8 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
--no-ff::
Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
- fast-forward.
+ fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
+ annotated (and possibly signed) tag.
--ff-only::
Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index d9edded..2939655 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -133,6 +133,7 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%GG': raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
- '%G?': show either "G" for Good or "B" for Bad for a signed commit
- '%GS': show the name of the signer for a signed commit
+- '%GK': show the key used to sign a signed commit
- '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}`
- '%gd': shortened reflog selector, e.g., `stash@{1}`
- '%gn': reflog identity name
@@ -144,7 +145,11 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%Cgreen': switch color to green
- '%Cblue': switch color to blue
- '%Creset': reset color
-- '%C(...)': color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option
+- '%C(...)': color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option;
+ adding `auto,` at the beginning will emit color only when colors are
+ enabled for log output (by `color.diff`, `color.ui`, or `--color`, and
+ respecting the `auto` settings of the former if we are going to a
+ terminal)
- '%m': left, right or boundary mark
- '%n': newline
- '%%': a raw '%'
diff --git a/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index beba065..0000000
--- a/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,675 +0,0 @@
-gittutorial(7)
-==============
-
-NOME
-----
-gittutorial - Um tutorial de introdução ao git (para versão 1.5.1 ou mais nova)
-
-SINOPSE
---------
-git *
-
-DESCRIÇÃO
------------
-
-Este tutorial explica como importar um novo projeto para o git,
-adicionar mudanças a ele, e compartilhar mudanças com outros
-desenvolvedores.
-
-Se, ao invés disso, você está interessado primariamente em usar git para
-obter um projeto, por exemplo, para testar a última versão, você pode
-preferir começar com os primeiros dois capítulos de
-link:user-manual.html[O Manual do Usuário Git].
-
-Primeiro, note que você pode obter documentação para um comando como
-`git log --graph` com:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ man git-log
-------------------------------------------------
-
-ou:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git help log
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Com a última forma, você pode usar o visualizador de manual de sua
-escolha; veja linkgit:git-help[1] para maior informação.
-
-É uma boa idéia informar ao git seu nome e endereço público de email
-antes de fazer qualquer operação. A maneira mais fácil de fazê-lo é:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git config --global user.name "Seu Nome Vem Aqui"
-$ git config --global user.email voce@seudominio.exemplo.com
-------------------------------------------------
-
-
-Importando um novo projeto
------------------------
-
-Assuma que você tem um tarball project.tar.gz com seu trabalho inicial.
-Você pode colocá-lo sob controle de revisão git da seguinte forma:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ tar xzf project.tar.gz
-$ cd project
-$ git init
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Git irá responder
-
-------------------------------------------------
-Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Agora que você iniciou seu diretório de trabalho, você deve ter notado que um
-novo diretório foi criado com o nome de ".git".
-
-A seguir, diga ao git para gravar um instantâneo do conteúdo de todos os
-arquivos sob o diretório atual (note o '.'), com 'git-add':
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git add .
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Este instantâneo está agora armazenado em uma área temporária que o git
-chama de "index" ou índice. Você pode armazenar permanentemente o
-conteúdo do índice no repositório com 'git-commit':
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git commit
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Isto vai te pedir por uma mensagem de commit. Você agora gravou sua
-primeira versão de seu projeto no git.
-
-Fazendo mudanças
---------------
-
-Modifique alguns arquivos, e, então, adicione seu conteúdo atualizado ao
-índice:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git add file1 file2 file3
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Você está agora pronto para fazer o commit. Você pode ver o que está
-para ser gravado usando 'git-diff' com a opção --cached:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git diff --cached
-------------------------------------------------
-
-(Sem --cached, o comando 'git-diff' irá te mostrar quaisquer mudanças
-que você tenha feito mas ainda não adicionou ao índice.) Você também
-pode obter um breve sumário da situação com 'git-status':
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git status
-# On branch master
-# Changes to be committed:
-# (use "git reset HEAD <file>..." to unstage)
-#
-# modified: file1
-# modified: file2
-# modified: file3
-#
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Se você precisar fazer qualquer outro ajuste, faça-o agora, e, então,
-adicione qualquer conteúdo modificado ao índice. Finalmente, grave suas
-mudanças com:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git commit
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Ao executar esse comando, ele irá te pedir uma mensagem descrevendo a mudança,
-e, então, irá gravar a nova versão do projeto.
-
-Alternativamente, ao invés de executar 'git-add' antes, você pode usar
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git commit -a
-------------------------------------------------
-
-o que irá automaticamente notar quaisquer arquivos modificados (mas não
-novos), adicioná-los ao índices, e gravar, tudo em um único passo.
-
-Uma nota em mensagens de commit: Apesar de não ser exigido, é uma boa
-idéia começar a mensagem com uma simples e curta (menos de 50
-caracteres) linha sumarizando a mudança, seguida de uma linha em branco
-e, então, uma descrição mais detalhada. Ferramentas que transformam
-commits em email, por exemplo, usam a primeira linha no campo de
-cabeçalho "Subject:" e o resto no corpo.
-
-Git rastreia conteúdo, não arquivos
-----------------------------
-
-Muitos sistemas de controle de revisão provêem um comando `add` que diz
-ao sistema para começar a rastrear mudanças em um novo arquivo. O
-comando `add` do git faz algo mais simples e mais poderoso: 'git-add' é
-usado tanto para arquivos novos e arquivos recentemente modificados, e
-em ambos os casos, ele tira o instantâneo dos arquivos dados e armazena
-o conteúdo no índice, pronto para inclusão do próximo commit.
-
-Visualizando a história do projeto
------------------------
-
-Em qualquer ponto você pode visualizar a história das suas mudanças
-usando
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git log
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Se você também quiser ver a diferença completa a cada passo, use
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git log -p
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Geralmente, uma visão geral da mudança é útil para ter a sensação de
-cada passo
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git log --stat --summary
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Gerenciando "branches"/ramos
------------------
-
-Um simples repositório git pode manter múltiplos ramos de
-desenvolvimento. Para criar um novo ramo chamado "experimental", use
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git branch experimental
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Se você executar agora
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git branch
-------------------------------------------------
-
-você vai obter uma lista de todos os ramos existentes:
-
-------------------------------------------------
- experimental
-* master
-------------------------------------------------
-
-O ramo "experimental" é o que você acaba de criar, e o ramo "master" é o
-ramo padrão que foi criado pra você automaticamente. O asterisco marca
-o ramo em que você está atualmente; digite
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git checkout experimental
-------------------------------------------------
-
-para mudar para o ramo experimental. Agora edite um arquivo, grave a
-mudança, e mude de volta para o ramo master:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-(edita arquivo)
-$ git commit -a
-$ git checkout master
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Verifique que a mudança que você fez não está mais visível, já que ela
-foi feita no ramo experimental e você está de volta ao ramo master.
-
-Você pode fazer uma mudança diferente no ramo master:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-(edit file)
-$ git commit -a
-------------------------------------------------
-
-neste ponto, os dois ramos divergiram, com diferentes mudanças feitas em
-cada um. Para unificar as mudanças feitas no experimental para o
-master, execute
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git merge experimental
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Se as mudanças não conflitarem, estará pronto. Se existirem conflitos,
-marcadores serão deixados nos arquivos problemáticos exibindo o
-conflito;
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git diff
-------------------------------------------------
-
-vai exibir isto. Após você editar os arquivos para resolver os
-conflitos,
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git commit -a
-------------------------------------------------
-
-irá gravar o resultado da unificação. Finalmente,
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ gitk
-------------------------------------------------
-
-vai mostrar uma bela representação gráfica da história resultante.
-
-Neste ponto você pode remover seu ramo experimental com
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git branch -d experimental
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Este comando garante que as mudanças no ramo experimental já estão no
-ramo atual.
-
-Se você desenvolve em um ramo ideia-louca, e se arrepende, você pode
-sempre remover o ramo com
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git branch -D ideia-louca
--------------------------------------
-
-Ramos são baratos e fáceis, então isto é uma boa maneira de experimentar
-alguma coisa.
-
-Usando git para colaboração
----------------------------
-
-Suponha que Alice começou um novo projeto com um repositório git em
-/home/alice/project, e que Bob, que tem um diretório home na mesma
-máquina, quer contribuir.
-
-Bob começa com:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-bob$ git clone /home/alice/project myrepo
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Isso cria um novo diretório "myrepo" contendo um clone do repositório de
-Alice. O clone está no mesmo pé que o projeto original, possuindo sua
-própria cópia da história do projeto original.
-
-Bob então faz algumas mudanças e as grava:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-(editar arquivos)
-bob$ git commit -a
-(repetir conforme necessário)
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Quanto está pronto, ele diz a Alice para puxar as mudanças do
-repositório em /home/bob/myrepo. Ela o faz com:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-alice$ cd /home/alice/project
-alice$ git pull /home/bob/myrepo master
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Isto unifica as mudanças do ramo "master" do Bob ao ramo atual de Alice.
-Se Alice fez suas próprias mudanças no intervalo, ela, então, pode
-precisar corrigir manualmente quaisquer conflitos. (Note que o argumento
-"master" no comando acima é, de fato, desnecessário, já que é o padrão.)
-
-O comando "pull" executa, então, duas operações: ele obtém mudanças de
-um ramo remoto, e, então, as unifica no ramo atual.
-
-Note que, em geral, Alice gostaria que suas mudanças locais fossem
-gravadas antes de iniciar este "pull". Se o trabalho de Bob conflita
-com o que Alice fez desde que suas histórias se ramificaram, Alice irá
-usar seu diretório de trabalho e o índice para resolver conflitos, e
-mudanças locais existentes irão interferir com o processo de resolução
-de conflitos (git ainda irá realizar a obtenção mas irá se recusar a
-unificar --- Alice terá que se livrar de suas mudanças locais de alguma
-forma e puxar de novo quando isso acontecer).
-
-Alice pode espiar o que Bob fez sem unificar primeiro, usando o comando
-"fetch"; isto permite Alice inspecionar o que Bob fez, usando um símbolo
-especial "FETCH_HEAD", com o fim de determinar se ele tem alguma coisa
-que vale puxar, assim:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-alice$ git fetch /home/bob/myrepo master
-alice$ git log -p HEAD..FETCH_HEAD
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Esta operação é segura mesmo se Alice tem mudanças locais não gravadas.
-A notação de intervalo "HEAD..FETCH_HEAD" significa mostrar tudo que é
-alcançável de FETCH_HEAD mas exclua tudo o que é alcançável de HEAD.
-Alice já sabe tudo que leva a seu estado atual (HEAD), e revisa o que Bob
-tem em seu estado (FETCH_HEAD) que ela ainda não viu com esse comando.
-
-Se Alice quer visualizar o que Bob fez desde que suas histórias se
-ramificaram, ela pode disparar o seguinte comando:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ gitk HEAD..FETCH_HEAD
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Isto usa a mesma notação de intervalo que vimos antes com 'git log'.
-
-Alice pode querer ver o que ambos fizeram desde que ramificaram. Ela
-pode usar a forma com três pontos ao invés da forma com dois pontos:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-$ gitk HEAD...FETCH_HEAD
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Isto significa "mostre tudo que é alcançável de qualquer um deles, mas
-exclua tudo que é alcançável a partir de ambos".
-
-Por favor, note que essas notações de intervalo podem ser usadas tanto
-com gitk quanto com "git log".
-
-Após inspecionar o que Bob fez, se não há nada urgente, Alice pode
-decidir continuar trabalhando sem puxar de Bob. Se a história de Bob
-tem alguma coisa que Alice precisa imediatamente, Alice pode optar por
-separar seu trabalho em progresso primeiro, fazer um "pull", e, então,
-finalmente, retomar seu trabalho em progresso em cima da história
-resultante.
-
-Quando você está trabalhando em um pequeno grupo unido, não é incomum
-interagir com o mesmo repositório várias e várias vezes. Definindo um
-repositório remoto antes de tudo, você pode fazê-lo mais facilmente:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-alice$ git remote add bob /home/bob/myrepo
-------------------------------------------------
-
-Com isso, Alice pode executar a primeira parte da operação "pull" usando
-o comando 'git-fetch' sem unificar suas mudanças com seu próprio ramo,
-usando:
-
--------------------------------------
-alice$ git fetch bob
--------------------------------------
-
-Diferente da forma longa, quando Alice obteve de Bob usando um
-repositório remoto antes definido com 'git-remote', o que foi obtido é
-armazenado em um ramo remoto, neste caso `bob/master`. Então, após isso:
-
--------------------------------------
-alice$ git log -p master..bob/master
--------------------------------------
-
-mostra uma lista de todas as mudanças que Bob fez desde que ramificou do
-ramo master de Alice.
-
-Após examinar essas mudanças, Alice pode unificá-las em seu ramo master:
-
--------------------------------------
-alice$ git merge bob/master
--------------------------------------
-
-Esse `merge` pode também ser feito puxando de seu próprio ramo remoto,
-assim:
-
--------------------------------------
-alice$ git pull . remotes/bob/master
--------------------------------------
-
-Note que 'git pull' sempre unifica ao ramo atual, independente do que
-mais foi passado na linha de comando.
-
-Depois, Bob pode atualizar seu repositório com as últimas mudanças de
-Alice, usando
-
--------------------------------------
-bob$ git pull
--------------------------------------
-
-Note que ele não precisa dar o caminho do repositório de Alice; quando
-Bob clonou seu repositório, o git armazenou a localização de seu
-repositório na configuração do mesmo, e essa localização é usada
-para puxar:
-
--------------------------------------
-bob$ git config --get remote.origin.url
-/home/alice/project
--------------------------------------
-
-(A configuração completa criada por 'git-clone' é visível usando `git
-config -l`, e a página de manual linkgit:git-config[1] explica o
-significado de cada opção.)
-
-Git também mantém uma cópia limpa do ramo master de Alice sob o nome
-"origin/master":
-
--------------------------------------
-bob$ git branch -r
- origin/master
--------------------------------------
-
-Se Bob decidir depois em trabalhar em um host diferente, ele ainda pode
-executar clones e puxar usando o protocolo ssh:
-
--------------------------------------
-bob$ git clone alice.org:/home/alice/project myrepo
--------------------------------------
-
-Alternativamente, o git tem um protocolo nativo, ou pode usar rsync ou
-http; veja linkgit:git-pull[1] para detalhes.
-
-Git pode também ser usado em um modo parecido com CVS, com um
-repositório central para o qual vários usuários empurram modificações;
-veja linkgit:git-push[1] e linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
-
-Explorando história
------------------
-
-A história no git é representada como uma série de commits
-interrelacionados. Nós já vimos que o comando 'git-log' pode listar
-esses commits. Note que a primeira linha de cada entrada no log também
-dá o nome para o commit:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git log
-commit c82a22c39cbc32576f64f5c6b3f24b99ea8149c7
-Author: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
-Date: Tue May 16 17:18:22 2006 -0700
-
- merge-base: Clarify the comments on post processing.
--------------------------------------
-
-Nós podemos dar este nome ao 'git-show' para ver os detalhes sobre este
-commit.
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git show c82a22c39cbc32576f64f5c6b3f24b99ea8149c7
--------------------------------------
-
-Mas há outras formas de se referir aos commits. Você pode usar qualquer
-parte inicial do nome que seja longo o bastante para identificar
-unicamente o commit:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git show c82a22c39c # os primeiros caracteres do nome são o bastante
- # usualmente
-$ git show HEAD # a ponta do ramo atual
-$ git show experimental # a ponta do ramo "experimental"
--------------------------------------
-
-Todo commit normalmente tem um commit "pai" que aponta para o estado
-anterior do projeto:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git show HEAD^ # para ver o pai de HEAD
-$ git show HEAD^^ # para ver o avô de HEAD
-$ git show HEAD~4 # para ver o trisavô de HEAD
--------------------------------------
-
-Note que commits de unificação podem ter mais de um pai:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git show HEAD^1 # mostra o primeiro pai de HEAD (o mesmo que HEAD^)
-$ git show HEAD^2 # mostra o segundo pai de HEAD
--------------------------------------
-
-Você também pode dar aos commits nomes à sua escolha; após executar
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git tag v2.5 1b2e1d63ff
--------------------------------------
-
-você pode se referir a 1b2e1d63ff pelo nome "v2.5". Se você pretende
-compartilhar esse nome com outras pessoas (por exemplo, para identificar
-uma versão de lançamento), você deveria criar um objeto "tag", e talvez
-assiná-lo; veja linkgit:git-tag[1] para detalhes.
-
-Qualquer comando git que precise conhecer um commit pode receber
-quaisquer desses nomes. Por exemplo:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git diff v2.5 HEAD # compara o HEAD atual com v2.5
-$ git branch stable v2.5 # inicia um novo ramo chamado "stable" baseado
- # em v2.5
-$ git reset --hard HEAD^ # reseta seu ramo atual e seu diretório de
- # trabalho a seu estado em HEAD^
--------------------------------------
-
-Seja cuidadoso com o último comando: além de perder quaisquer mudanças
-em seu diretório de trabalho, ele também remove todos os commits
-posteriores desse ramo. Se esse ramo é o único ramo contendo esses
-commits, eles serão perdidos. Também, não use 'git-reset' num ramo
-publicamente visível de onde outros desenvolvedores puxam, já que vai
-forçar unificações desnecessárias para que outros desenvolvedores limpem
-a história. Se você precisa desfazer mudanças que você empurrou, use
-'git-revert' no lugar.
-
-O comando 'git-grep' pode buscar strings em qualquer versão de seu
-projeto, então
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git grep "hello" v2.5
--------------------------------------
-
-procura por todas as ocorrências de "hello" em v2.5.
-
-Se você deixar de fora o nome do commit, 'git-grep' irá procurar
-quaisquer dos arquivos que ele gerencia no diretório corrente. Então
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git grep "hello"
--------------------------------------
-
-é uma forma rápida de buscar somente os arquivos que são rastreados pelo
-git.
-
-Muitos comandos git também recebem um conjunto de commits, o que pode
-ser especificado de várias formas. Aqui estão alguns exemplos com 'git-log':
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git log v2.5..v2.6 # commits entre v2.5 e v2.6
-$ git log v2.5.. # commits desde v2.5
-$ git log --since="2 weeks ago" # commits das últimas 2 semanas
-$ git log v2.5.. Makefile # commits desde v2.5 que modificam
- # Makefile
--------------------------------------
-
-Você também pode dar ao 'git-log' um "intervalo" de commits onde o
-primeiro não é necessariamente um ancestral do segundo; por exemplo, se
-as pontas dos ramos "stable" e "master" divergiram de um commit
-comum algum tempo atrás, então
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git log stable..master
--------------------------------------
-
-irá listar os commits feitos no ramo "master" mas não no ramo
-"stable", enquanto
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git log master..stable
--------------------------------------
-
-irá listar a lista de commits feitos no ramo "stable" mas não no ramo
-"master".
-
-O comando 'git-log' tem uma fraqueza: ele precisa mostrar os commits em
-uma lista. Quando a história tem linhas de desenvolvimento que
-divergiram e então foram unificadas novamente, a ordem em que 'git-log'
-apresenta essas mudanças é irrelevante.
-
-A maioria dos projetos com múltiplos contribuidores (como o kernel
-Linux, ou o próprio git) tem unificações frequentes, e 'gitk' faz um
-trabalho melhor de visualizar sua história. Por exemplo,
-
--------------------------------------
-$ gitk --since="2 weeks ago" drivers/
--------------------------------------
-
-permite a você navegar em quaisquer commits desde as últimas duas semanas
-de commits que modificaram arquivos sob o diretório "drivers". (Nota:
-você pode ajustar as fontes do gitk segurando a tecla control enquanto
-pressiona "-" ou "+".)
-
-Finalmente, a maioria dos comandos que recebem nomes de arquivo permitirão
-também, opcionalmente, preceder qualquer nome de arquivo por um
-commit, para especificar uma versão particular do arquivo:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git diff v2.5:Makefile HEAD:Makefile.in
--------------------------------------
-
-Você pode usar 'git-show' para ver tal arquivo:
-
--------------------------------------
-$ git show v2.5:Makefile
--------------------------------------
-
-Próximos passos
-----------
-
-Este tutorial deve ser o bastante para operar controle de revisão
-distribuído básico para seus projetos. No entanto, para entender
-plenamente a profundidade e o poder do git você precisa entender duas
-idéias simples nas quais ele se baseia:
-
- * A base de objetos é um sistema bem elegante usado para armazenar a
- história de seu projeto--arquivos, diretórios, e commits.
-
- * O arquivo de índice é um cache do estado de uma árvore de diretório,
- usado para criar commits, restaurar diretórios de trabalho, e
- armazenar as várias árvores envolvidas em uma unificação.
-
-A parte dois deste tutorial explica a base de objetos, o arquivo de
-índice, e algumas outras coisinhas que você vai precisar pra usar o
-máximo do git. Você pode encontrá-la em linkgit:gittutorial-2[7].
-
-Se você não quiser continuar com o tutorial agora nesse momento, algumas
-outras digressões que podem ser interessantes neste ponto são:
-
- * linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-am[1]: Estes convertem
- séries de commits em patches para email, e vice-versa, úteis para
- projetos como o kernel Linux que dependem fortemente de patches
- enviados por email.
-
- * linkgit:git-bisect[1]: Quando há uma regressão em seu projeto, uma
- forma de rastrear um bug é procurando pela história para encontrar o
- commit culpado. Git bisect pode ajudar a executar uma busca binária
- por esse commit. Ele é inteligente o bastante para executar uma
- busca próxima da ótima mesmo no caso de uma história complexa
- não-linear com muitos ramos unificados.
-
- * link:everyday.html[GIT diariamente com 20 e tantos comandos]
-
- * linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]: Git para usuários de CVS.
-
-VEJA TAMBÉM
---------
-linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
-linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
-linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
-linkgit:gitglossary[7],
-linkgit:git-help[1],
-link:everyday.html[git diariamente],
-link:user-manual.html[O Manual do Usuário git]
-
-GIT
----
-Parte da suite linkgit:git[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index ee49743..3bdbf5e 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -79,6 +79,11 @@ if it is part of the log message.
Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.
+--basic-regexp::
+
+ Consider the limiting patterns to be basic regular expressions;
+ this is the default.
+
-E::
--extended-regexp::
@@ -91,6 +96,11 @@ if it is part of the log message.
Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don't interpret
pattern as a regular expression).
+--perl-regexp::
+
+ Consider the limiting patterns to be Perl-compatible regexp.
+ Requires libpcre to be compiled in.
+
--remove-empty::
Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.
@@ -639,7 +649,7 @@ together.
Object Traversal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.
+These options are mostly targeted for packing of Git repositories.
--objects::
@@ -707,7 +717,7 @@ format, often found in E-mail messages.
+
`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
+
-`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
+`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
+
`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
(either committer's or author's).
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 991fcd8..314e25d 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ blobs contained in a commit.
A symbolic ref name. E.g. 'master' typically means the commit
object referenced by 'refs/heads/master'. If you
happen to have both 'heads/master' and 'tags/master', you can
- explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell git which one you mean.
+ explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell Git which one you mean.
When ambiguous, a '<refname>' is disambiguated by taking the
first match in the following rules:
@@ -88,10 +88,10 @@ some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.
The construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
before the current one.
-'<refname>@\{upstream\}', e.g. 'master@\{upstream\}', '@\{u\}'::
- The suffix '@\{upstream\}' to a ref (short form '<refname>@\{u\}') refers to
- the branch the ref is set to build on top of. A missing ref defaults
- to the current branch.
+'<branchname>@\{upstream\}', e.g. 'master@\{upstream\}', '@\{u\}'::
+ The suffix '@\{upstream\}' to a branchname (short form '<branchname>@\{u\}')
+ refers to the branch that the branch specified by branchname is set to build on
+ top of. A missing branchname defaults to the current one.
'<rev>{caret}', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}, v1.5.1{caret}0'::
A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
index 43dbe09..542946b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
@@ -5,7 +5,9 @@ Dynamically growing an array using realloc() is error prone and boring.
Define your array with:
-* a pointer (`ary`) that points at the array, initialized to `NULL`;
+* a pointer (`item`) that points at the array, initialized to `NULL`
+ (although please name the variable based on its contents, not on its
+ type);
* an integer variable (`alloc`) that keeps track of how big the current
allocation is, initialized to `0`;
@@ -13,22 +15,22 @@ Define your array with:
* another integer variable (`nr`) to keep track of how many elements the
array currently has, initialized to `0`.
-Then before adding `n`th element to the array, call `ALLOC_GROW(ary, n,
+Then before adding `n`th element to the item, call `ALLOC_GROW(item, n,
alloc)`. This ensures that the array can hold at least `n` elements by
calling `realloc(3)` and adjusting `alloc` variable.
------------
-sometype *ary;
+sometype *item;
size_t nr;
size_t alloc
for (i = 0; i < nr; i++)
- if (we like ary[i] already)
+ if (we like item[i] already)
return;
/* we did not like any existing one, so add one */
-ALLOC_GROW(ary, nr + 1, alloc);
-ary[nr++] = value you like;
+ALLOC_GROW(item, nr + 1, alloc);
+item[nr++] = value you like;
------------
You are responsible for updating the `nr` variable.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
index 1a79781..a959517 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
@@ -53,3 +53,11 @@ Functions
`argv_array_clear`::
Free all memory associated with the array and return it to the
initial, empty state.
+
+`argv_array_detach`::
+ Detach the argv array from the `struct argv_array`, transfering
+ ownership of the allocated array and strings.
+
+`argv_array_free_detached`::
+ Free the memory allocated by a `struct argv_array` that was later
+ detached and is now no longer needed.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
index b0cafe8..4a4228b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-builtin.txt
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ Adding a new built-in
---------------------
There are 4 things to do to add a built-in command implementation to
-git:
+Git:
. Define the implementation of the built-in command `foo` with
signature:
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@ where options is the bitwise-or of:
`RUN_SETUP`::
- Make sure there is a git directory to work on, and if there is a
+ Make sure there is a Git directory to work on, and if there is a
work tree, chdir to the top of it if the command was invoked
in a subdirectory. If there is no work tree, no chdir() is
done.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
index edf8dfb..230b3a0 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
config API
==========
-The config API gives callers a way to access git configuration files
+The config API gives callers a way to access Git configuration files
(and files which have the same syntax). See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
discussion of the config file syntax.
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ Config files are parsed linearly, and each variable found is passed to a
caller-provided callback function. The callback function is responsible
for any actions to be taken on the config option, and is free to ignore
some options. It is not uncommon for the configuration to be parsed
-several times during the run of a git program, with different callbacks
+several times during the run of a Git program, with different callbacks
picking out different variables useful to themselves.
A config callback function takes three parameters:
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ Basic Config Querying
---------------------
Most programs will simply want to look up variables in all config files
-that git knows about, using the normal precedence rules. To do this,
+that Git knows about, using the normal precedence rules. To do this,
call `git_config` with a callback function and void data pointer.
`git_config` will read all config sources in order of increasing
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@ value is left at the end).
The `git_config_with_options` function lets the caller examine config
while adjusting some of the default behavior of `git_config`. It should
-almost never be used by "regular" git code that is looking up
+almost never be used by "regular" Git code that is looking up
configuration variables. It is intended for advanced callers like
`git-config`, which are intentionally tweaking the normal config-lookup
process. It takes two extra parameters:
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ Regular `git_config` defaults to `1`.
There is a special version of `git_config` called `git_config_early`.
This version takes an additional parameter to specify the repository
config, instead of having it looked up via `git_path`. This is useful
-early in a git program before the repository has been found. Unless
+early in a Git program before the repository has been found. Unless
you're working with early setup code, you probably don't want to use
this.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
index 5977b58..516fda7 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
@@ -7,9 +7,9 @@ world can take many forms, in this document the word "credential" always
refers to a username and password pair).
This document describes two interfaces: the C API that the credential
-subsystem provides to the rest of git, and the protocol that git uses to
+subsystem provides to the rest of Git, and the protocol that Git uses to
communicate with system-specific "credential helpers". If you are
-writing git code that wants to look up or prompt for credentials, see
+writing Git code that wants to look up or prompt for credentials, see
the section "C API" below. If you want to write your own helper, see
the section on "Credential Helpers" below.
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ Typical setup
------------
+-----------------------+
-| git code (C) |--- to server requiring --->
+| Git code (C) |--- to server requiring --->
| | authentication
|.......................|
| C credential API |--- prompt ---> User
@@ -27,11 +27,11 @@ Typical setup
| pipe |
| v
+-----------------------+
-| git credential helper |
+| Git credential helper |
+-----------------------+
------------
-The git code (typically a remote-helper) will call the C API to obtain
+The Git code (typically a remote-helper) will call the C API to obtain
credential data like a login/password pair (credential_fill). The
API will itself call a remote helper (e.g. "git credential-cache" or
"git credential-store") that may retrieve credential data from a
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@ contacting the server, and does the actual authentication.
C API
-----
-The credential C API is meant to be called by git code which needs to
+The credential C API is meant to be called by Git code which needs to
acquire or store a credential. It is centered around an object
representing a single credential and provides three basic operations:
fill (acquire credentials by calling helpers and/or prompting the user),
@@ -177,14 +177,14 @@ int foo_login(struct foo_connection *f)
Credential Helpers
------------------
-Credential helpers are programs executed by git to fetch or save
+Credential helpers are programs executed by Git to fetch or save
credentials from and to long-term storage (where "long-term" is simply
-longer than a single git process; e.g., credentials may be stored
+longer than a single Git process; e.g., credentials may be stored
in-memory for a few minutes, or indefinitely on disk).
Each helper is specified by a single string in the configuration
variable `credential.helper` (and others, see linkgit:git-config[1]).
-The string is transformed by git into a command to be executed using
+The string is transformed by Git into a command to be executed using
these rules:
1. If the helper string begins with "!", it is considered a shell
@@ -248,7 +248,7 @@ FORMAT` in linkgit:git-credential[7] for a detailed specification).
For a `get` operation, the helper should produce a list of attributes
on stdout in the same format. A helper is free to produce a subset, or
even no values at all if it has nothing useful to provide. Any provided
-attributes will overwrite those already known about by git.
+attributes will overwrite those already known about by Git.
For a `store` or `erase` operation, the helper's output is ignored.
If it fails to perform the requested operation, it may complain to
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index add6f43..1f349b2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -9,37 +9,40 @@ Data structure
--------------
`struct dir_struct` structure is used to pass directory traversal
-options to the library and to record the paths discovered. The notable
-options are:
+options to the library and to record the paths discovered. A single
+`struct dir_struct` is used regardless of whether or not the traversal
+recursively descends into subdirectories.
+
+The notable options are:
`exclude_per_dir`::
The name of the file to be read in each directory for excluded
files (typically `.gitignore`).
-`collect_ignored`::
+`flags`::
- Include paths that are to be excluded in the result.
+ A bit-field of options:
-`show_ignored`::
+`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`:::
The traversal is for finding just ignored files, not unignored
files.
-`show_other_directories`::
+`DIR_SHOW_OTHER_DIRECTORIES`:::
Include a directory that is not tracked.
-`hide_empty_directories`::
+`DIR_HIDE_EMPTY_DIRECTORIES`:::
Do not include a directory that is not tracked and is empty.
-`no_gitlinks`::
+`DIR_NO_GITLINKS`:::
- If set, recurse into a directory that looks like a git
+ If set, recurse into a directory that looks like a Git
directory. Otherwise it is shown as a directory.
-The result of the enumeration is left in these fields::
+The result of the enumeration is left in these fields:
`entries[]`::
@@ -64,11 +67,13 @@ marked. If you to exclude files, make sure you have loaded index first.
* Prepare `struct dir_struct dir` and clear it with `memset(&dir, 0,
sizeof(dir))`.
-* Call `add_exclude()` to add single exclude pattern,
- `add_excludes_from_file()` to add patterns from a file
- (e.g. `.git/info/exclude`), and/or set `dir.exclude_per_dir`. A
- short-hand function `setup_standard_excludes()` can be used to set up
- the standard set of exclude settings.
+* To add single exclude pattern, call `add_exclude_list()` and then
+ `add_exclude()`.
+
+* To add patterns from a file (e.g. `.git/info/exclude`), call
+ `add_excludes_from_file()` , and/or set `dir.exclude_per_dir`. A
+ short-hand function `setup_standard_excludes()` can be used to set
+ up the standard set of exclude settings.
* Set options described in the Data Structure section above.
@@ -76,4 +81,6 @@ marked. If you to exclude files, make sure you have loaded index first.
* Use `dir.entries[]`.
+* Call `clear_directory()` when none of the contained elements are no longer in use.
+
(JC)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
index d6fc90a..18142b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
@@ -33,11 +33,11 @@ The following utility functions are wrappers around `graph_next_line()` and
They can all be called with a NULL graph argument, in which case no graph
output will be printed.
-* `graph_show_commit()` calls `graph_next_line()` until it returns non-zero.
- This prints all graph lines up to, and including, the line containing this
- commit. Output is printed to stdout. The last line printed does not contain
- a terminating newline. This should not be called if the commit line has
- already been printed, or it will loop forever.
+* `graph_show_commit()` calls `graph_next_line()` and
+ `graph_is_commit_finished()` until one of them return non-zero. This prints
+ all graph lines up to, and including, the line containing this commit.
+ Output is printed to stdout. The last line printed does not contain a
+ terminating newline.
* `graph_show_oneline()` calls `graph_next_line()` and prints the result to
stdout. The line printed does not contain a terminating newline.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-index-skel.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-index-skel.txt
index 730cfac..eda8c19 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-index-skel.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-index-skel.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
-GIT API Documents
+Git API Documents
=================
-GIT has grown a set of internal API over time. This collection
+Git has grown a set of internal API over time. This collection
documents them.
////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 3062389..32ddc1c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
parse-options API
=================
-The parse-options API is used to parse and massage options in git
+The parse-options API is used to parse and massage options in Git
and to provide a usage help with consistent look.
Basics
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
index c54b17d..4be8776 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ Remotes configuration API
The API in remote.h gives access to the configuration related to
remotes. It handles all three configuration mechanisms historically
-and currently used by git, and presents the information in a uniform
+and currently used by Git, and presents the information in a uniform
fashion. Note that the code also handles plain URLs without any
configuration, giving them just the default information.
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ struct remote
`receivepack`, `uploadpack`::
The configured helper programs to run on the remote side, for
- git-native protocols.
+ Git-native protocols.
`http_proxy`::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
index f18b4f4..5d7d7f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
@@ -55,10 +55,8 @@ The functions above do the following:
non-zero.
. If the program terminated due to a signal, then the return value is the
- signal number - 128, ie. it is negative and so indicates an unusual
- condition; a diagnostic is printed. This return value can be passed to
- exit(2), which will report the same code to the parent process that a
- POSIX shell's $? would report for a program that died from the signal.
+ signal number + 128, ie. the same value that a POSIX shell's $? would
+ report. A diagnostic is printed.
`start_async`::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
index 95a8bf3..2c59cb2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
@@ -156,6 +156,11 @@ then they will free() it.
Remove the bytes between `pos..pos+len` and replace it with the given
data.
+`strbuf_add_commented_lines`::
+
+ Add a NUL-terminated string to the buffer. Each line will be prepended
+ by a comment character and a blank.
+
`strbuf_add`::
Add data of given length to the buffer.
@@ -229,6 +234,11 @@ which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
Add a formatted string to the buffer.
+`strbuf_commented_addf`::
+
+ Add a formatted string prepended by a comment character and a
+ blank to the buffer.
+
`strbuf_fread`::
Read a given size of data from a FILE* pointer to the buffer.
@@ -279,6 +289,22 @@ same behaviour as well.
Strip whitespace from a buffer. The second parameter controls if
comments are considered contents to be removed or not.
+`strbuf_split_buf`::
+`strbuf_split_str`::
+`strbuf_split_max`::
+`strbuf_split`::
+
+ Split a string or strbuf into a list of strbufs at a specified
+ terminator character. The returned substrings include the
+ terminator characters. Some of these functions take a `max`
+ parameter, which, if positive, limits the output to that
+ number of substrings.
+
+`strbuf_list_free`::
+
+ Free a list of strbufs (for example, the return values of the
+ `strbuf_split()` functions).
+
`launch_editor`::
Launch the user preferred editor to edit a file and fill the buffer
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
index 94d7a2b..20be348 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-string-list.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,8 @@ member (you need this if you add things later) and you should set the
`unsorted_string_list_delete_item`.
. Can remove items not matching a criterion from a sorted or unsorted
- list using `filter_string_list`.
+ list using `filter_string_list`, or remove empty strings using
+ `string_list_remove_empty_items`.
. Finally it should free the list using `string_list_clear`.
@@ -75,13 +76,11 @@ Functions
to be deleted. Preserve the order of the items that are
retained.