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-rw-r--r--.cirrus.yml15
-rw-r--r--.gitignore3
-rw-r--r--.mailmap2
-rw-r--r--CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md93
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt905
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt398
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt370
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/asciidoc.conf6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt88
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/add.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/advice.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/core.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/diff.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/feature.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/fetch.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/format.txt27
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/gc.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/index.txt1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/pack.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/remote.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/submodule.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/tag.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/trace2.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-format.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt32
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/doc-diff17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bundle.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-attr.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt50
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clean.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-import.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt282
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt51
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gui.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt98
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-index.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-range-diff.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-restore.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-sparse-checkout.txt185
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcredentials.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmodules.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/separating-topic-branches.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/manpage-bold-literal.xsl3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/manpage.xsl3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-options.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt319
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt271
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt174
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt130
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt154
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-grep.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt173
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-merge.txt72
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt15
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt90
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-quote.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt78
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt127
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt72
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt264
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-sigchain.txt41
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt66
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-trace.txt140
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt282
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt147
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-xdiff-interface.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/index-format.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt129
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/rerere.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/trace2-target-values.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt381
-rwxr-xr-xGIT-VERSION-GEN2
-rw-r--r--INSTALL6
-rw-r--r--Makefile75
-rw-r--r--README.md2
l---------RelNotes2
-rw-r--r--add-interactive.c1154
-rw-r--r--add-interactive.h27
-rw-r--r--add-patch.c1338
-rw-r--r--advice.c2
-rw-r--r--advice.h1
-rw-r--r--apply.c72
-rw-r--r--apply.h1
-rw-r--r--archive-tar.c14
-rw-r--r--archive-zip.c33
-rw-r--r--argv-array.c2
-rw-r--r--argv-array.h62
-rw-r--r--attr.c37
-rw-r--r--attr.h141
-rw-r--r--azure-pipelines.yml168
-rw-r--r--banned.h2
-rw-r--r--bisect.c2
-rw-r--r--blame.c27
-rw-r--r--builtin.h1
-rw-r--r--builtin/add.c77
-rw-r--r--builtin/am.c23
-rw-r--r--builtin/bisect--helper.c11
-rw-r--r--builtin/blame.c40
-rw-r--r--builtin/branch.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin/bundle.c217
-rw-r--r--builtin/cat-file.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin/check-ignore.c34
-rw-r--r--builtin/checkout.c62
-rw-r--r--builtin/clean.c27
-rw-r--r--builtin/clone.c49
-rw-r--r--builtin/commit-graph.c100
-rw-r--r--builtin/commit.c57
-rw-r--r--builtin/describe.c24
-rw-r--r--builtin/difftool.c56
-rw-r--r--builtin/fast-export.c82
-rw-r--r--builtin/fetch.c323
-rw-r--r--builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c20
-rw-r--r--builtin/fsck.c126
-rw-r--r--builtin/gc.c19
-rw-r--r--builtin/grep.c15
-rw-r--r--builtin/index-pack.c12
-rw-r--r--builtin/log.c210
-rw-r--r--builtin/ls-files.c8
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge-recursive.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge-tree.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin/merge.c31
-rw-r--r--builtin/multi-pack-index.c18
-rw-r--r--builtin/name-rev.c170
-rw-r--r--builtin/notes.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin/pack-objects.c54
-rw-r--r--builtin/patch-id.c16
-rw-r--r--builtin/pull.c6
-rw-r--r--builtin/push.c80
-rw-r--r--builtin/range-diff.c7
-rw-r--r--builtin/read-tree.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin/rebase.c130
-rw-r--r--builtin/receive-pack.c50
-rw-r--r--builtin/remote.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/repack.c14
-rw-r--r--builtin/replace.c9
-rw-r--r--builtin/reset.c27
-rw-r--r--builtin/rev-list.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin/rev-parse.c18
-rw-r--r--builtin/show-index.c13
-rw-r--r--builtin/sparse-checkout.c516
-rw-r--r--builtin/stash.c29
-rw-r--r--builtin/submodule--helper.c17
-rw-r--r--builtin/unpack-objects.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin/update-index.c12
-rw-r--r--builtin/worktree.c7
-rw-r--r--bulk-checkin.c2
-rw-r--r--bundle.c13
-rw-r--r--bundle.h3
-rw-r--r--cache-tree.c92
-rw-r--r--cache-tree.h3
-rw-r--r--cache.h123
-rwxr-xr-xci/install-dependencies.sh16
-rwxr-xr-xci/lib.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xci/run-static-analysis.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xci/test-documentation.sh2
-rw-r--r--column.c13
-rw-r--r--combine-diff.c2
-rw-r--r--command-list.txt2
-rw-r--r--commit-graph.c121
-rw-r--r--commit-graph.h21
-rw-r--r--commit-reach.c1
-rw-r--r--commit.c62
-rw-r--r--commit.h2
-rw-r--r--common-main.c8
-rw-r--r--compat/mingw.c315
-rw-r--r--compat/mingw.h19
-rw-r--r--compat/nedmalloc/malloc.c.h12
-rw-r--r--compat/obstack.h2
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-rw-r--r--compat/vcbuild/find_vs_env.bat2
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-rw-r--r--compat/win32/path-utils.h5
-rw-r--r--compat/win32/pthread.h8
-rw-r--r--compat/winansi.c14
-rw-r--r--config.c62
-rw-r--r--config.h335
-rw-r--r--config.mak.uname19
-rw-r--r--configure.ac51
-rw-r--r--connect.c4
-rw-r--r--connected.c13
-rw-r--r--contrib/buildsystems/Generators/Vcxproj.pm18
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/buildsystems/engine.pl4
-rw-r--r--contrib/coccinelle/commit.cocci2
-rw-r--r--contrib/coccinelle/hashmap.cocci16
-rw-r--r--contrib/coccinelle/object_id.cocci32
-rw-r--r--contrib/completion/git-completion.bash308
-rw-r--r--contrib/completion/git-completion.zsh5
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-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/credential/netrc/git-credential-netrc.perl (renamed from contrib/credential/netrc/git-credential-netrc)2
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-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/hg-to-git/hg-to-git.py50
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py8
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/hooks/multimail/post-receive.example2
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/hooks/post-receive-email2
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/hooks/update-paranoid2
-rw-r--r--contrib/mw-to-git/.perlcriticrc2
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/mw-to-git/git-remote-mediawiki.perl2
-rw-r--r--contrib/mw-to-git/t/install-wiki/db_install.php2
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/mw-to-git/t/t9360-mw-to-git-clone.sh2
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-rw-r--r--diff.c130
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-rw-r--r--diffcore.h32
-rw-r--r--dir.c732
-rw-r--r--dir.h234
-rw-r--r--environment.c3
-rw-r--r--fast-import.c103
-rw-r--r--fetch-negotiator.c25
-rw-r--r--fetch-negotiator.h5
-rw-r--r--fetch-object.c40
-rw-r--r--fetch-object.h9
-rw-r--r--fetch-pack.c161
-rw-r--r--fsck.c390
-rw-r--r--fsck.h39
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-rwxr-xr-xgit-add--interactive.perl10
-rw-r--r--git-compat-util.h73
-rwxr-xr-xgit-cvsimport.perl2
-rwxr-xr-xgit-filter-branch.sh14
-rw-r--r--git-gui/README.md174
-rwxr-xr-xgit-gui/git-gui.sh235
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/blame.tcl24
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/branch.tcl2
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/checkout_op.tcl21
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/choose_repository.tcl120
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/chord.tcl160
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/commit.tcl4
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/console.tcl2
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/diff.tcl129
-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/index.tcl531
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-rw-r--r--git-gui/lib/status_bar.tcl231
-rw-r--r--git-gui/po/ja.po9
-rwxr-xr-xgit-legacy-stash.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xgit-p4.py97
-rwxr-xr-xgit-send-email.perl2
-rwxr-xr-xgit-submodule.sh52
-rwxr-xr-xgit-svn.perl9
-rw-r--r--git.c6
-rwxr-xr-xgitk-git/gitk64
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-rw-r--r--gpg-interface.c141
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-rw-r--r--pretty.c31
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-rw-r--r--ref-filter.c43
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-rw-r--r--remote-curl.c35
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773 files changed, 96402 insertions, 46411 deletions
diff --git a/.cirrus.yml b/.cirrus.yml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2f5fe3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.cirrus.yml
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+env:
+ CIRRUS_CLONE_DEPTH: 1
+
+freebsd_12_task:
+ freebsd_instance:
+ image: freebsd-12-1-release-amd64
+ install_script:
+ pkg install -y gettext gmake perl5
+ create_user_script:
+ - pw useradd git
+ - chown -R git:git .
+ build_script:
+ - su git -c gmake
+ test_script:
+ - su git -c 'gmake test'
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 521d8f4..aebe7c0 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -158,6 +158,7 @@
/git-show-branch
/git-show-index
/git-show-ref
+/git-sparse-checkout
/git-stage
/git-stash
/git-status
@@ -216,6 +217,7 @@
/tags
/TAGS
/cscope*
+*.hcc
*.obj
*.lib
*.res
@@ -231,7 +233,6 @@
*.ipdb
*.dll
.vs/
-*.manifest
Debug/
Release/
/UpgradeLog*.htm
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index 9a5ff04..7c94418 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@ Alexey Shumkin <alex.crezoff@gmail.com> <zapped@mail.ru>
Alexey Shumkin <alex.crezoff@gmail.com> <Alex.Crezoff@gmail.com>
Anders Kaseorg <andersk@MIT.EDU> <andersk@ksplice.com>
Anders Kaseorg <andersk@MIT.EDU> <andersk@mit.edu>
+Andrey Mazo <ahippo@yandex.com> Mazo, Andrey <amazo@checkvideo.com>
Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@gmail.com>
Amos Waterland <apw@debian.org> <apw@rossby.metr.ou.edu>
Amos Waterland <apw@debian.org> <apw@us.ibm.com>
@@ -59,6 +60,7 @@ David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twopensource.com>
David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twosigma.com>
Derrick Stolee <dstolee@microsoft.com> <stolee@gmail.com>
Deskin Miller <deskinm@umich.edu>
+Đoàn Trần Công Danh <congdanhqx@gmail.com> Doan Tran Cong Danh
Dirk Süsserott <newsletter@dirk.my1.cc>
Eric Blake <eblake@redhat.com> <ebb9@byu.net>
Eric Hanchrow <eric.hanchrow@gmail.com> <offby1@blarg.net>
diff --git a/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md b/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc4645d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+# Git Code of Conduct
+
+This code of conduct outlines our expectations for participants within
+the Git community, as well as steps for reporting unacceptable behavior.
+We are committed to providing a welcoming and inspiring community for
+all and expect our code of conduct to be honored. Anyone who violates
+this code of conduct may be banned from the community.
+
+## Our Pledge
+
+In the interest of fostering an open and welcoming environment, we as
+contributors and maintainers pledge to make participation in our project and
+our community a harassment-free experience for everyone, regardless of age,
+body size, disability, ethnicity, sex characteristics, gender identity and
+expression, level of experience, education, socio-economic status,
+nationality, personal appearance, race, religion, or sexual identity and
+orientation.
+
+## Our Standards
+
+Examples of behavior that contributes to creating a positive environment
+include:
+
+* Using welcoming and inclusive language
+* Being respectful of differing viewpoints and experiences
+* Gracefully accepting constructive criticism
+* Focusing on what is best for the community
+* Showing empathy towards other community members
+
+Examples of unacceptable behavior by participants include:
+
+* The use of sexualized language or imagery and unwelcome sexual attention or
+ advances
+* Trolling, insulting/derogatory comments, and personal or political attacks
+* Public or private harassment
+* Publishing others' private information, such as a physical or electronic
+ address, without explicit permission
+* Other conduct which could reasonably be considered inappropriate in a
+ professional setting
+
+## Our Responsibilities
+
+Project maintainers are responsible for clarifying the standards of acceptable
+behavior and are expected to take appropriate and fair corrective action in
+response to any instances of unacceptable behavior.
+
+Project maintainers have the right and responsibility to remove, edit, or
+reject comments, commits, code, wiki edits, issues, and other contributions
+that are not aligned to this Code of Conduct, or to ban temporarily or
+permanently any contributor for other behaviors that they deem inappropriate,
+threatening, offensive, or harmful.
+
+## Scope
+
+This Code of Conduct applies within all project spaces, and it also applies
+when an individual is representing the project or its community in public
+spaces. Examples of representing a project or community include using an
+official project e-mail address, posting via an official social media account,
+or acting as an appointed representative at an online or offline event.
+Representation of a project may be further defined and clarified by project
+maintainers.
+
+## Enforcement
+
+Instances of abusive, harassing, or otherwise unacceptable behavior may be
+reported by contacting the project team at git@sfconservancy.org. All
+complaints will be reviewed and investigated and will result in a response
+that is deemed necessary and appropriate to the circumstances. The project
+team is obligated to maintain confidentiality with regard to the reporter of
+an incident. Further details of specific enforcement policies may be posted
+separately.
+
+Project maintainers who do not follow or enforce the Code of Conduct in good
+faith may face temporary or permanent repercussions as determined by other
+members of the project's leadership.
+
+The project leadership team can be contacted by email as a whole at
+git@sfconservancy.org, or individually:
+
+ - Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>
+ - Christian Couder <christian.couder@gmail.com>
+ - Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
+ - Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
+
+## Attribution
+
+This Code of Conduct is adapted from the [Contributor Covenant][homepage],
+version 1.4, available at https://www.contributor-covenant.org/version/1/4/code-of-conduct.html
+
+[homepage]: https://www.contributor-covenant.org
+
+For answers to common questions about this code of conduct, see
+https://www.contributor-covenant.org/faq
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index f45db5b..ed4e443 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
- If you want to find out if a command is available on the user's
$PATH, you should use 'type <command>', instead of 'which <command>'.
- The output of 'which' is not machine parseable and its exit code
+ The output of 'which' is not machine parsable and its exit code
is not reliable across platforms.
- We use POSIX compliant parameter substitutions and avoid bashisms;
@@ -203,7 +203,7 @@ For C programs:
. since early 2012 with e1327023ea, we have been using an enum
definition whose last element is followed by a comma. This, like
an array initializer that ends with a trailing comma, can be used
- to reduce the patch noise when adding a new identifer at the end.
+ to reduce the patch noise when adding a new identifier at the end.
. since mid 2017 with cbc0f81d, we have been using designated
initializers for struct (e.g. "struct t v = { .val = 'a' };").
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 76f2ecf..8fe829c 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -77,6 +77,7 @@ API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technica
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
TECH_DOCS += MyFirstContribution
+TECH_DOCS += MyFirstObjectWalk
TECH_DOCS += SubmittingPatches
TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
@@ -123,7 +124,8 @@ ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml11
ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook
ASCIIDOC_CONF = -f asciidoc.conf
ASCIIDOC_COMMON = $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) $(ASCIIDOC_CONF) \
- -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION)
+ -amanversion=$(GIT_VERSION) \
+ -amanmanual='Git Manual' -amansource='Git'
TXT_TO_HTML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_HTML)
TXT_TO_XML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK)
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
@@ -197,11 +199,13 @@ ifdef USE_ASCIIDOCTOR
ASCIIDOC = asciidoctor
ASCIIDOC_CONF =
ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml5
-ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook45
+ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook5
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode -atabsize=8
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
DBLATEX_COMMON =
+XMLTO_EXTRA += --skip-validation
+XMLTO_EXTRA += -x manpage.xsl
endif
SHELL_PATH ?= $(SHELL)
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
index f867037..35b9130 100644
--- a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
@@ -38,6 +38,26 @@ $ git clone https://github.com/git/git git
$ cd git
----
+[[dependencies]]
+=== Installing Dependencies
+
+To build Git from source, you need to have a handful of dependencies installed
+on your system. For a hint of what's needed, you can take a look at
+`INSTALL`, paying close attention to the section about Git's dependencies on
+external programs and libraries. That document mentions a way to "test-drive"
+our freshly built Git without installing; that's the method we'll be using in
+this tutorial.
+
+Make sure that your environment has everything you need by building your brand
+new clone of Git from the above step:
+
+----
+$ make
+----
+
+NOTE: The Git build is parallelizable. `-j#` is not included above but you can
+use it as you prefer, here and elsewhere.
+
[[identify-problem]]
=== Identify Problem to Solve
@@ -97,8 +117,8 @@ int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
----
We'll also need to add the declaration of psuh; open up `builtin.h`, find the
-declaration for `cmd_push`, and add a new line for `psuh` immediately before it,
-in order to keep the declarations sorted:
+declaration for `cmd_pull`, and add a new line for `psuh` immediately before it,
+in order to keep the declarations alphabetically sorted:
----
int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -123,7 +143,7 @@ int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
}
----
-Let's try to build it. Open `Makefile`, find where `builtin/push.o` is added
+Let's try to build it. Open `Makefile`, find where `builtin/pull.o` is added
to `BUILTIN_OBJS`, and add `builtin/psuh.o` in the same way next to it in
alphabetical order. Once you've done so, move to the top-level directory and
build simply with `make`. Also add the `DEVELOPER=1` variable to turn on
@@ -138,9 +158,6 @@ NOTE: When you are developing the Git project, it's preferred that you use the
`DEVELOPER` flag; if there's some reason it doesn't work for you, you can turn
it off, but it's a good idea to mention the problem to the mailing list.
-NOTE: The Git build is parallelizable. `-j#` is not included above but you can
-use it as you prefer, here and elsewhere.
-
Great, now your new command builds happily on its own. But nobody invokes it.
Let's change that.
@@ -149,7 +166,7 @@ a `cmd_struct` to the `commands[]` array. `struct cmd_struct` takes a string
with the command name, a function pointer to the command implementation, and a
setup option flag. For now, let's keep mimicking `push`. Find the line where
`cmd_push` is registered, copy it, and modify it for `cmd_psuh`, placing the new
-line in alphabetical order.
+line in alphabetical order (immediately before `cmd_pull`).
The options are documented in `builtin.h` under "Adding a new built-in." Since
we hope to print some data about the user's current workspace context later,
@@ -167,7 +184,7 @@ Check it out! You've got a command! Nice work! Let's commit this.
`git status` reveals modified `Makefile`, `builtin.h`, and `git.c` as well as
untracked `builtin/psuh.c` and `git-psuh`. First, let's take care of the binary,
-which should be ignored. Open `.gitignore` in your editor, find `/git-push`, and
+which should be ignored. Open `.gitignore` in your editor, find `/git-pull`, and
add an entry for your new command in alphabetical order:
----
@@ -534,6 +551,28 @@ you want to pass as a parameter something which would usually be interpreted as
a flag.) `parse_options()` will terminate parsing when it reaches `--` and give
you the rest of the options afterwards, untouched.
+Now that you have a usage hint, you can teach Git how to show it in the general
+command list shown by `git help git` or `git help -a`, which is generated from
+`command-list.txt`. Find the line for 'git-pull' so you can add your 'git-psuh'
+line above it in alphabetical order. Now, we can add some attributes about the
+command which impacts where it shows up in the aforementioned help commands. The
+top of `command-list.txt` shares some information about what each attribute
+means; in those help pages, the commands are sorted according to these
+attributes. `git psuh` is user-facing, or porcelain - so we will mark it as
+"mainporcelain". For "mainporcelain" commands, the comments at the top of
+`command-list.txt` indicate we can also optionally add an attribute from another
+list; since `git psuh` shows some information about the user's workspace but
+doesn't modify anything, let's mark it as "info". Make sure to keep your
+attributes in the same style as the rest of `command-list.txt` using spaces to
+align and delineate them:
+
+----
+git-prune-packed plumbingmanipulators
+git-psuh mainporcelain info
+git-pull mainporcelain remote
+git-push mainporcelain remote
+----
+
Build again. Now, when you run with `-h`, you should see your usage printed and
your command terminated before anything else interesting happens. Great!
@@ -746,6 +785,14 @@ will automatically run your PRs through the CI even without the permission given
but you will not be able to `/submit` your changes until someone allows you to
use the tool.
+NOTE: You can typically find someone who can `/allow` you on GitGitGadget by
+either examining recent pull requests where someone has been granted `/allow`
+(https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git/pulls?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=is%3Apr+is%3Aopen+%22%2Fallow%22[Search:
+is:pr is:open "/allow"]), in which case both the author and the person who
+granted the `/allow` can now `/allow` you, or by inquiring on the
+https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] IRC channel on Freenode
+linking your pull request and asking for someone to `/allow` you.
+
If the CI fails, you can update your changes with `git rebase -i` and push your
branch again:
@@ -970,7 +1017,7 @@ reviewers the changes you've made that may not be as visible.
You will also need to go and find the Message-Id of your previous cover letter.
You can either note it when you send the first series, from the output of `git
send-email`, or you can look it up on the
-https://public-inbox.org/git[mailing list]. Find your cover letter in the
+https://lore.kernel.org/git[mailing list]. Find your cover letter in the
archives, click on it, then click "permalink" or "raw" to reveal the Message-Id
header. It should match:
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa828df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,905 @@
+= My First Object Walk
+
+== What's an Object Walk?
+
+The object walk is a key concept in Git - this is the process that underpins
+operations like object transfer and fsck. Beginning from a given commit, the
+list of objects is found by walking parent relationships between commits (commit
+X based on commit W) and containment relationships between objects (tree Y is
+contained within commit X, and blob Z is located within tree Y, giving our
+working tree for commit X something like `y/z.txt`).
+
+A related concept is the revision walk, which is focused on commit objects and
+their parent relationships and does not delve into other object types. The
+revision walk is used for operations like `git log`.
+
+=== Related Reading
+
+- `Documentation/user-manual.txt` under "Hacking Git" contains some coverage of
+ the revision walker in its various incarnations.
+- `revision.h`
+- https://eagain.net/articles/git-for-computer-scientists/[Git for Computer Scientists]
+ gives a good overview of the types of objects in Git and what your object
+ walk is really describing.
+
+== Setting Up
+
+Create a new branch from `master`.
+
+----
+git checkout -b revwalk origin/master
+----
+
+We'll put our fiddling into a new command. For fun, let's name it `git walken`.
+Open up a new file `builtin/walken.c` and set up the command handler:
+
+----
+/*
+ * "git walken"
+ *
+ * Part of the "My First Object Walk" tutorial.
+ */
+
+#include "builtin.h"
+
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ trace_printf(_("cmd_walken incoming...\n"));
+ return 0;
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `trace_printf()` differs from `printf()` in that it can be turned on or
+off at runtime. For the purposes of this tutorial, we will write `walken` as
+though it is intended for use as a "plumbing" command: that is, a command which
+is used primarily in scripts, rather than interactively by humans (a "porcelain"
+command). So we will send our debug output to `trace_printf()` instead. When
+running, enable trace output by setting the environment variable `GIT_TRACE`.
+
+Add usage text and `-h` handling, like all subcommands should consistently do
+(our test suite will notice and complain if you fail to do so).
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ const char * const walken_usage[] = {
+ N_("git walken"),
+ NULL,
+ }
+ struct option options[] = {
+ OPT_END()
+ };
+
+ argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, walken_usage, 0);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Also add the relevant line in `builtin.h` near `cmd_whatchanged()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+----
+
+Include the command in `git.c` in `commands[]` near the entry for `whatchanged`,
+maintaining alphabetical ordering:
+
+----
+{ "walken", cmd_walken, RUN_SETUP },
+----
+
+Add it to the `Makefile` near the line for `builtin/worktree.o`:
+
+----
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/walken.o
+----
+
+Build and test out your command, without forgetting to ensure the `DEVELOPER`
+flag is set, and with `GIT_TRACE` enabled so the debug output can be seen:
+
+----
+$ echo DEVELOPER=1 >>config.mak
+$ make
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers/git walken
+----
+
+NOTE: For a more exhaustive overview of the new command process, take a look at
+`Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt`.
+
+NOTE: A reference implementation can be found at
+https://github.com/nasamuffin/git/tree/revwalk.
+
+=== `struct rev_cmdline_info`
+
+The definition of `struct rev_cmdline_info` can be found in `revision.h`.
+
+This struct is contained within the `rev_info` struct and is used to reflect
+parameters provided by the user over the CLI.
+
+`nr` represents the number of `rev_cmdline_entry` present in the array.
+
+`alloc` is used by the `ALLOC_GROW` macro. Check `cache.h` - this variable is
+used to track the allocated size of the list.
+
+Per entry, we find:
+
+`item` is the object provided upon which to base the object walk. Items in Git
+can be blobs, trees, commits, or tags. (See `Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt`.)
+
+`name` is the object ID (OID) of the object - a hex string you may be familiar
+with from using Git to organize your source in the past. Check the tutorial
+mentioned above towards the top for a discussion of where the OID can come
+from.
+
+`whence` indicates some information about what to do with the parents of the
+specified object. We'll explore this flag more later on; take a look at
+`Documentation/revisions.txt` to get an idea of what could set the `whence`
+value.
+
+`flags` are used to hint the beginning of the revision walk and are the first
+block under the `#include`s in `revision.h`. The most likely ones to be set in
+the `rev_cmdline_info` are `UNINTERESTING` and `BOTTOM`, but these same flags
+can be used during the walk, as well.
+
+=== `struct rev_info`
+
+This one is quite a bit longer, and many fields are only used during the walk
+by `revision.c` - not configuration options. Most of the configurable flags in
+`struct rev_info` have a mirror in `Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`. It's a
+good idea to take some time and read through that document.
+
+== Basic Commit Walk
+
+First, let's see if we can replicate the output of `git log --oneline`. We'll
+refer back to the implementation frequently to discover norms when performing
+an object walk of our own.
+
+To do so, we'll first find all the commits, in order, which preceded the current
+commit. We'll extract the name and subject of the commit from each.
+
+Ideally, we will also be able to find out which ones are currently at the tip of
+various branches.
+
+=== Setting Up
+
+Preparing for your object walk has some distinct stages.
+
+1. Perform default setup for this mode, and others which may be invoked.
+2. Check configuration files for relevant settings.
+3. Set up the `rev_info` struct.
+4. Tweak the initialized `rev_info` to suit the current walk.
+5. Prepare the `rev_info` for the walk.
+6. Iterate over the objects, processing each one.
+
+==== Default Setups
+
+Before examining configuration files which may modify command behavior, set up
+default state for switches or options your command may have. If your command
+utilizes other Git components, ask them to set up their default states as well.
+For instance, `git log` takes advantage of `grep` and `diff` functionality, so
+its `init_log_defaults()` sets its own state (`decoration_style`) and asks
+`grep` and `diff` to initialize themselves by calling each of their
+initialization functions.
+
+For our first example within `git walken`, we don't intend to use any other
+components within Git, and we don't have any configuration to do. However, we
+may want to add some later, so for now, we can add an empty placeholder. Create
+a new function in `builtin/walken.c`:
+
+----
+static void init_walken_defaults(void)
+{
+ /*
+ * We don't actually need the same components `git log` does; leave this
+ * empty for now.
+ */
+}
+----
+
+Make sure to add a line invoking it inside of `cmd_walken()`.
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ init_walken_defaults();
+}
+----
+
+==== Configuring From `.gitconfig`
+
+Next, we should have a look at any relevant configuration settings (i.e.,
+settings readable and settable from `git config`). This is done by providing a
+callback to `git_config()`; within that callback, you can also invoke methods
+from other components you may need that need to intercept these options. Your
+callback will be invoked once per each configuration value which Git knows about
+(global, local, worktree, etc.).
+
+Similarly to the default values, we don't have anything to do here yet
+ourselves; however, we should call `git_default_config()` if we aren't calling
+any other existing config callbacks.
+
+Add a new function to `builtin/walken.c`:
+
+----
+static int git_walken_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+ /*
+ * For now, we don't have any custom configuration, so fall back to
+ * the default config.
+ */
+ return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+----
+
+Make sure to invoke `git_config()` with it in your `cmd_walken()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ ...
+
+ git_config(git_walken_config, NULL);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+==== Setting Up `rev_info`
+
+Now that we've gathered external configuration and options, it's time to
+initialize the `rev_info` object which we will use to perform the walk. This is
+typically done by calling `repo_init_revisions()` with the repository you intend
+to target, as well as the `prefix` argument of `cmd_walken` and your `rev_info`
+struct.
+
+Add the `struct rev_info` and the `repo_init_revisions()` call:
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ /* This can go wherever you like in your declarations.*/
+ struct rev_info rev;
+ ...
+
+ /* This should go after the git_config() call. */
+ repo_init_revisions(the_repository, &rev, prefix);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+==== Tweaking `rev_info` For the Walk
+
+We're getting close, but we're still not quite ready to go. Now that `rev` is
+initialized, we can modify it to fit our needs. This is usually done within a
+helper for clarity, so let's add one:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ /*
+ * We want to mimic the appearance of `git log --oneline`, so let's
+ * force oneline format.
+ */
+ get_commit_format("oneline", rev);
+
+ /* Start our object walk at HEAD. */
+ add_head_to_pending(rev);
+}
+----
+
+[NOTE]
+====
+Instead of using the shorthand `add_head_to_pending()`, you could do
+something like this:
+----
+ struct setup_revision_opt opt;
+
+ memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
+ opt.def = "HEAD";
+ opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
+ setup_revisions(argc, argv, rev, &opt);
+----
+Using a `setup_revision_opt` gives you finer control over your walk's starting
+point.
+====
+
+Then let's invoke `final_rev_info_setup()` after the call to
+`repo_init_revisions()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ ...
+
+ final_rev_info_setup(&rev);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Later, we may wish to add more arguments to `final_rev_info_setup()`. But for
+now, this is all we need.
+
+==== Preparing `rev_info` For the Walk
+
+Now that `rev` is all initialized and configured, we've got one more setup step
+before we get rolling. We can do this in a helper, which will both prepare the
+`rev_info` for the walk, and perform the walk itself. Let's start the helper
+with the call to `prepare_revision_walk()`, which can return an error without
+dying on its own:
+
+----
+static void walken_commit_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ if (prepare_revision_walk(rev))
+ die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `die()` prints to `stderr` and exits the program. Since it will print to
+`stderr` it's likely to be seen by a human, so we will localize it.
+
+==== Performing the Walk!
+
+Finally! We are ready to begin the walk itself. Now we can see that `rev_info`
+can also be used as an iterator; we move to the next item in the walk by using
+`get_revision()` repeatedly. Add the listed variable declarations at the top and
+the walk loop below the `prepare_revision_walk()` call within your
+`walken_commit_walk()`:
+
+----
+static void walken_commit_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ struct commit *commit;
+ struct strbuf prettybuf = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+ ...
+
+ while ((commit = get_revision(rev))) {
+ if (!commit)
+ continue;
+
+ strbuf_reset(&prettybuf);
+ pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &prettybuf);
+ puts(prettybuf.buf);
+ }
+ strbuf_release(&prettybuf);
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `puts()` prints a `char*` to `stdout`. Since this is the part of the
+command we expect to be machine-parsed, we're sending it directly to stdout.
+
+Give it a shot.
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken
+----
+
+You should see all of the subject lines of all the commits in
+your tree's history, in order, ending with the initial commit, "Initial revision
+of "git", the information manager from hell". Congratulations! You've written
+your first revision walk. You can play with printing some additional fields
+from each commit if you're curious; have a look at the functions available in
+`commit.h`.
+
+=== Adding a Filter
+
+Next, let's try to filter the commits we see based on their author. This is
+equivalent to running `git log --author=<pattern>`. We can add a filter by
+modifying `rev_info.grep_filter`, which is a `struct grep_opt`.
+
+First some setup. Add `init_grep_defaults()` to `init_walken_defaults()` and add
+`grep_config()` to `git_walken_config()`:
+
+----
+static void init_walken_defaults(void)
+{
+ init_grep_defaults(the_repository);
+}
+
+...
+
+static int git_walken_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+ grep_config(var, value, cb);
+ return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+----
+
+Next, we can modify the `grep_filter`. This is done with convenience functions
+found in `grep.h`. For fun, we're filtering to only commits from folks using a
+`gmail.com` email address - a not-very-precise guess at who may be working on
+Git as a hobby. Since we're checking the author, which is a specific line in the
+header, we'll use the `append_header_grep_pattern()` helper. We can use
+the `enum grep_header_field` to indicate which part of the commit header we want
+to search.
+
+In `final_rev_info_setup()`, add your filter line:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ append_header_grep_pattern(&rev->grep_filter, GREP_HEADER_AUTHOR,
+ "gmail");
+ compile_grep_patterns(&rev->grep_filter);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+`append_header_grep_pattern()` adds your new "gmail" pattern to `rev_info`, but
+it won't work unless we compile it with `compile_grep_patterns()`.
+
+NOTE: If you are using `setup_revisions()` (for example, if you are passing a
+`setup_revision_opt` instead of using `add_head_to_pending()`), you don't need
+to call `compile_grep_patterns()` because `setup_revisions()` calls it for you.
+
+NOTE: We could add the same filter via the `append_grep_pattern()` helper if we
+wanted to, but `append_header_grep_pattern()` adds the `enum grep_context` and
+`enum grep_pat_token` for us.
+
+=== Changing the Order
+
+There are a few ways that we can change the order of the commits during a
+revision walk. Firstly, we can use the `enum rev_sort_order` to choose from some
+typical orderings.
+
+`topo_order` is the same as `git log --topo-order`: we avoid showing a parent
+before all of its children have been shown, and we avoid mixing commits which
+are in different lines of history. (`git help log`'s section on `--topo-order`
+has a very nice diagram to illustrate this.)
+
+Let's see what happens when we run with `REV_SORT_BY_COMMIT_DATE` as opposed to
+`REV_SORT_BY_AUTHOR_DATE`. Add the following:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->topo_order = 1;
+ rev->sort_order = REV_SORT_BY_COMMIT_DATE;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Let's output this into a file so we can easily diff it with the walk sorted by
+author date.
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken > commit-date.txt
+----
+
+Then, let's sort by author date and run it again.
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->topo_order = 1;
+ rev->sort_order = REV_SORT_BY_AUTHOR_DATE;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken > author-date.txt
+----
+
+Finally, compare the two. This is a little less helpful without object names or
+dates, but hopefully we get the idea.
+
+----
+$ diff -u commit-date.txt author-date.txt
+----
+
+This display indicates that commits can be reordered after they're written, for
+example with `git rebase`.
+
+Let's try one more reordering of commits. `rev_info` exposes a `reverse` flag.
+Set that flag somewhere inside of `final_rev_info_setup()`:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
+ struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->reverse = 1;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Run your walk again and note the difference in order. (If you remove the grep
+pattern, you should see the last commit this call gives you as your current
+HEAD.)
+
+== Basic Object Walk
+
+So far we've been walking only commits. But Git has more types of objects than
+that! Let's see if we can walk _all_ objects, and find out some information
+about each one.
+
+We can base our work on an example. `git pack-objects` prepares all kinds of
+objects for packing into a bitmap or packfile. The work we are interested in
+resides in `builtins/pack-objects.c:get_object_list()`; examination of that
+function shows that the all-object walk is being performed by
+`traverse_commit_list()` or `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`. Those two
+functions reside in `list-objects.c`; examining the source shows that, despite
+the name, these functions traverse all kinds of objects. Let's have a look at
+the arguments to `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`, which are a superset of the
+arguments to the unfiltered version.
+
+- `struct list_objects_filter_options *filter_options`: This is a struct which
+ stores a filter-spec as outlined in `Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`.
+- `struct rev_info *revs`: This is the `rev_info` used for the walk.
+- `show_commit_fn show_commit`: A callback which will be used to handle each
+ individual commit object.
+- `show_object_fn show_object`: A callback which will be used to handle each
+ non-commit object (so each blob, tree, or tag).
+- `void *show_data`: A context buffer which is passed in turn to `show_commit`
+ and `show_object`.
+- `struct oidset *omitted`: A linked-list of object IDs which the provided
+ filter caused to be omitted.
+
+It looks like this `traverse_commit_list_filtered()` uses callbacks we provide
+instead of needing us to call it repeatedly ourselves. Cool! Let's add the
+callbacks first.
+
+For the sake of this tutorial, we'll simply keep track of how many of each kind
+of object we find. At file scope in `builtin/walken.c` add the following
+tracking variables:
+
+----
+static int commit_count;
+static int tag_count;
+static int blob_count;
+static int tree_count;
+----
+
+Commits are handled by a different callback than other objects; let's do that
+one first:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_commit(struct commit *cmt, void *buf)
+{
+ commit_count++;
+}
+----
+
+The `cmt` argument is fairly self-explanatory. But it's worth mentioning that
+the `buf` argument is actually the context buffer that we can provide to the
+traversal calls - `show_data`, which we mentioned a moment ago.
+
+Since we have the `struct commit` object, we can look at all the same parts that
+we looked at in our earlier commit-only walk. For the sake of this tutorial,
+though, we'll just increment the commit counter and move on.
+
+The callback for non-commits is a little different, as we'll need to check
+which kind of object we're dealing with:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_object(struct object *obj, const char *str, void *buf)
+{
+ switch (obj->type) {
+ case OBJ_TREE:
+ tree_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_BLOB:
+ blob_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_TAG:
+ tag_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_COMMIT:
+ BUG("unexpected commit object in walken_show_object\n");
+ default:
+ BUG("unexpected object type %s in walken_show_object\n",
+ type_name(obj->type));
+ }
+}
+----
+
+Again, `obj` is fairly self-explanatory, and we can guess that `buf` is the same
+context pointer that `walken_show_commit()` receives: the `show_data` argument
+to `traverse_commit_list()` and `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`. Finally,
+`str` contains the name of the object, which ends up being something like
+`foo.txt` (blob), `bar/baz` (tree), or `v1.2.3` (tag).
+
+To help assure us that we aren't double-counting commits, we'll include some
+complaining if a commit object is routed through our non-commit callback; we'll
+also complain if we see an invalid object type. Since those two cases should be
+unreachable, and would only change in the event of a semantic change to the Git
+codebase, we complain by using `BUG()` - which is a signal to a developer that
+the change they made caused unintended consequences, and the rest of the
+codebase needs to be updated to understand that change. `BUG()` is not intended
+to be seen by the public, so it is not localized.
+
+Our main object walk implementation is substantially different from our commit
+walk implementation, so let's make a new function to perform the object walk. We
+can perform setup which is applicable to all objects here, too, to keep separate
+from setup which is applicable to commit-only walks.
+
+We'll start by enabling all types of objects in the `struct rev_info`. We'll
+also turn on `tree_blobs_in_commit_order`, which means that we will walk a
+commit's tree and everything it points to immediately after we find each commit,
+as opposed to waiting for the end and walking through all trees after the commit
+history has been discovered. With the appropriate settings configured, we are
+ready to call `prepare_revision_walk()`.
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ rev->tree_objects = 1;
+ rev->blob_objects = 1;
+ rev->tag_objects = 1;
+ rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order = 1;
+
+ if (prepare_revision_walk(rev))
+ die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+
+ commit_count = 0;
+ tag_count = 0;
+ blob_count = 0;
+ tree_count = 0;
+----
+
+Let's start by calling just the unfiltered walk and reporting our counts.
+Complete your implementation of `walken_object_walk()`:
+
+----
+ traverse_commit_list(rev, walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL);
+
+ printf("commits %d\nblobs %d\ntags %d\ntrees %d\n", commit_count,
+ blob_count, tag_count, tree_count);
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: This output is intended to be machine-parsed. Therefore, we are not
+sending it to `trace_printf()`, and we are not localizing it - we need scripts
+to be able to count on the formatting to be exactly the way it is shown here.
+If we were intending this output to be read by humans, we would need to localize
+it with `_()`.
+
+Finally, we'll ask `cmd_walken()` to use the object walk instead. Discussing
+command line options is out of scope for this tutorial, so we'll just hardcode
+a branch we can change at compile time. Where you call `final_rev_info_setup()`
+and `walken_commit_walk()`, instead branch like so:
+
+----
+ if (1) {
+ add_head_to_pending(&rev);
+ walken_object_walk(&rev);
+ } else {
+ final_rev_info_setup(argc, argv, prefix, &rev);
+ walken_commit_walk(&rev);
+ }
+----
+
+NOTE: For simplicity, we've avoided all the filters and sorts we applied in
+`final_rev_info_setup()` and simply added `HEAD` to our pending queue. If you
+want, you can certainly use the filters we added before by moving
+`final_rev_info_setup()` out of the conditional and removing the call to
+`add_head_to_pending()`.
+
+Now we can try to run our command! It should take noticeably longer than the
+commit walk, but an examination of the output will give you an idea why. Your
+output should look similar to this example, but with different counts:
+
+----
+Object walk completed. Found 55733 commits, 100274 blobs, 0 tags, and 104210 trees.
+----
+
+This makes sense. We have more trees than commits because the Git project has
+lots of subdirectories which can change, plus at least one tree per commit. We
+have no tags because we started on a commit (`HEAD`) and while tags can point to
+commits, commits can't point to tags.
+
+NOTE: You will have different counts when you run this yourself! The number of
+objects grows along with the Git project.
+
+=== Adding a Filter
+
+There are a handful of filters that we can apply to the object walk laid out in
+`Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`. These filters are typically useful for
+operations such as creating packfiles or performing a partial clone. They are
+defined in `list-objects-filter-options.h`. For the purposes of this tutorial we
+will use the "tree:1" filter, which causes the walk to omit all trees and blobs
+which are not directly referenced by commits reachable from the commit in
+`pending` when the walk begins. (`pending` is the list of objects which need to
+be traversed during a walk; you can imagine a breadth-first tree traversal to
+help understand. In our case, that means we omit trees and blobs not directly
+referenced by `HEAD` or `HEAD`'s history, because we begin the walk with only
+`HEAD` in the `pending` list.)
+
+First, we'll need to `#include "list-objects-filter-options.h`" and set up the
+`struct list_objects_filter_options` at the top of the function.
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ struct list_objects_filter_options filter_options = {};
+
+ ...
+----
+
+For now, we are not going to track the omitted objects, so we'll replace those
+parameters with `NULL`. For the sake of simplicity, we'll add a simple
+build-time branch to use our filter or not. Replace the line calling
+`traverse_commit_list()` with the following, which will remind us which kind of
+walk we've just performed:
+
+----
+ if (0) {
+ /* Unfiltered: */
+ trace_printf(_("Unfiltered object walk.\n"));
+ traverse_commit_list(rev, walken_show_commit,
+ walken_show_object, NULL);
+ } else {
+ trace_printf(
+ _("Filtered object walk with filterspec 'tree:1'.\n"));
+ parse_list_objects_filter(&filter_options, "tree:1");
+
+ traverse_commit_list_filtered(&filter_options, rev,
+ walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL, NULL);
+ }
+----
+
+`struct list_objects_filter_options` is usually built directly from a command
+line argument, so the module provides an easy way to build one from a string.
+Even though we aren't taking user input right now, we can still build one with
+a hardcoded string using `parse_list_objects_filter()`.
+
+With the filter spec "tree:1", we are expecting to see _only_ the root tree for
+each commit; therefore, the tree object count should be less than or equal to
+the number of commits. (For an example of why that's true: `git commit --revert`
+points to the same tree object as its grandparent.)
+
+=== Counting Omitted Objects
+
+We also have the capability to enumerate all objects which were omitted by a
+filter, like with `git log --filter=<spec> --filter-print-omitted`. Asking
+`traverse_commit_list_filtered()` to populate the `omitted` list means that our
+object walk does not perform any better than an unfiltered object walk; all
+reachable objects are walked in order to populate the list.
+
+First, add the `struct oidset` and related items we will use to iterate it:
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(
+ ...
+
+ struct oidset omitted;
+ struct oidset_iter oit;
+ struct object_id *oid = NULL;
+ int omitted_count = 0;
+ oidset_init(&omitted, 0);
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Modify the call to `traverse_commit_list_filtered()` to include your `omitted`
+object:
+
+----
+ ...
+
+ traverse_commit_list_filtered(&filter_options, rev,
+ walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL, &omitted);
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Then, after your traversal, the `oidset` traversal is pretty straightforward.
+Count all the objects within and modify the print statement:
+
+----
+ /* Count the omitted objects. */
+ oidset_iter_init(&omitted, &oit);
+
+ while ((oid = oidset_iter_next(&oit)))
+ omitted_count++;
+
+ printf("commits %d\nblobs %d\ntags %d\ntrees%d\nomitted %d\n",
+ commit_count, blob_count, tag_count, tree_count, omitted_count);
+----
+
+By running your walk with and without the filter, you should find that the total
+object count in each case is identical. You can also time each invocation of
+the `walken` subcommand, with and without `omitted` being passed in, to confirm
+to yourself the runtime impact of tracking all omitted objects.
+
+=== Changing the Order
+
+Finally, let's demonstrate that you can also reorder walks of all objects, not
+just walks of commits. First, we'll make our handlers chattier - modify
+`walken_show_commit()` and `walken_show_object()` to print the object as they
+go:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_commit(struct commit *cmt, void *buf)
+{
+ trace_printf("commit: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&cmt->object.oid));
+ commit_count++;
+}
+
+static void walken_show_object(struct object *obj, const char *str, void *buf)
+{
+ trace_printf("%s: %s\n", type_name(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: Since we will be examining this output directly as humans, we'll use
+`trace_printf()` here. Additionally, since this change introduces a significant
+number of printed lines, using `trace_printf()` will allow us to easily silence
+those lines without having to recompile.
+
+(Leave the counter increment logic in place.)
+
+With only that change, run again (but save yourself some scrollback):
+
+----
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers/git walken | head -n 10
+----
+
+Take a look at the top commit with `git show` and the object ID you printed; it
+should be the same as the output of `git show HEAD`.
+
+Next, let's change a setting on our `struct rev_info` within
+`walken_object_walk()`. Find where you're changing the other settings on `rev`,
+such as `rev->tree_objects` and `rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order`, and add the
+`reverse` setting at the bottom:
+
+----
+ ...
+
+ rev->tree_objects = 1;
+ rev->blob_objects = 1;
+ rev->tag_objects = 1;
+ rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order = 1;
+ rev->reverse = 1;
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Now, run again, but this time, let's grab the last handful of objects instead
+of the first handful:
+
+----
+$ make
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers git walken | tail -n 10
+----
+
+The last commit object given should have the same OID as the one we saw at the
+top before, and running `git show <oid>` with that OID should give you again
+the same results as `git show HEAD`. Furthermore, if you run and examine the
+first ten lines again (with `head` instead of `tail` like we did before applying
+the `reverse` setting), you should see that now the first commit printed is the
+initial commit, `e83c5163`.
+
+== Wrapping Up
+
+Let's review. In this tutorial, we:
+
+- Built a commit walk from the ground up
+- Enabled a grep filter for that commit walk
+- Changed the sort order of that filtered commit walk
+- Built an object walk (tags, commits, trees, and blobs) from the ground up
+- Learned how to add a filter-spec to an object walk
+- Changed the display order of the filtered object walk
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
index daf4bdb..d6d42f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ Updates in v1.5.0 since v1.4.4 series
the repository when that happens.
-* Crufts removal
+* Cruft removal
- We used to say "old commits are retrievable using reflog and
'master@{yesterday}' syntax as long as you haven't run
@@ -379,7 +379,7 @@ Updates in v1.5.0 since v1.4.4 series
- The value of i18n.commitencoding in the originating
repository is recorded in the commit object on the "encoding"
header, if it is not UTF-8. git-log and friends notice this,
- and reencodes the message to the log output encoding when
+ and re-encodes the message to the log output encoding when
displaying, if they are different. The log output encoding
is determined by "git log --encoding=<encoding>",
i18n.logoutputencoding configuration, or i18n.commitencoding
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
index ad060f4..980adfb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
index 418c685..4bcff94 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
index 7a90441..a2a34b4 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
index d3a2a3e..344333d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ Fixes since v1.6.5.3
* "git prune-packed" gave progress output even when its standard error is
not connected to a terminal; this caused cron jobs that run it to
- produce crufts.
+ produce cruft.
* "git pack-objects --all-progress" is an option to ask progress output
from write-object phase _if_ progress output were to be produced, and
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
index ee141c1..6c7f7da 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
index c50b59c..3ed1e01 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ users will fare this time.
Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition process that already took place so far.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
index fcb46ca..73ed2b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.0.1
* "git status" in 1.7.0 lacked the optimization we used to have in 1.6.X series
to speed up scanning of large working tree.
- * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading tis configuration
+ * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading its configuration
file.
And other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
index 326670d..57597f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.10.3
* The message file for Swedish translation has been updated a bit.
* A name taken from mailmap was copied into an internal buffer
- incorrectly and could overun the buffer if it is too long.
+ incorrectly and could overrun the buffer if it is too long.
* A malformed commit object that has a header line chomped in the
middle could kill git with a NULL pointer dereference.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
index ecda427..4b82297 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.12.2
its Accept-Encoding header.
* "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
- progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+ progress output while processing objects it received to the user
when run over the smart-http protocol.
* "git status" honored the ignore=dirty settings in .gitmodules but
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
index 9c03353..1d24edc 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.5.2
* "git log --stdin path" with an input that has additional pathspec
used to corrupt memory.
- * "git send-pack" (hence "git push") over smalt-HTTP protocol could
+ * "git send-pack" (hence "git push") over smart-HTTP protocol could
deadlock when the client side pack-object died early.
* Compressed tarball gitweb generates used to be made with the timestamp
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
index 43883c1..63d6e4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@ to them for details).
together, misdetected branches.
* "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
- progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+ progress output while processing objects it received to the user
when run over the smart-http protocol.
* When you misspell the command name you give to the "exec" action in
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
index 96090ef..c257beb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ Fixes since v1.8.4
in 1.8.4-rc1).
* "git rebase -i" and other scripted commands were feeding a
- random, data dependant error message to 'echo' and expecting it
+ random, data dependent error message to 'echo' and expecting it
to come out literally.
* Setting the "submodule.<name>.path" variable to the empty
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
index 02f681b..255e185 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
credential helper interface from Git.pm.
* Update build for Cygwin 1.[57]. Torsten Bögershausen reports that
- this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 ($gmane/225824) so let's try moving it
+ this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 (cf. <51A606A0.5060101@web.de>) so let's try moving it
ahead.
* The credential helper to talk to keychain on OS X (in contrib/) has
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
index acc9ebb..0dfb17c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ Git v2.1.3 Release Notes
they are new enough to support the `--output` option.
* "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate
- object recheability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
+ object reachability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
pack.
* "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
index f4da28a..3792b7d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
@@ -478,7 +478,7 @@ notes for details).
* One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
- the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+ the system where outside stuff is usually called "theirs" in
contrast to "ours".
* "git blame file" allowed the lineage of lines in the uncommitted,
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
index c4d4397..abbd331 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ Fixes since v2.10.1
by refusing to check out a branch that is already checked out in
another worktree. However, this also prevented checking out a
branch, which is designated as the primary branch of a bare
- reopsitory, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
+ repository, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
repository. The check has been corrected to allow it.
* "git rebase" immediately after "git clone" failed to find the fork
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
index 9cd14c8..7d35cf1 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@ Fixes since v2.11
"git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
has been fixed.
- * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ * "git p4" that tracks multiple p4 paths imported a single changelist
that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
index ef8b97d..d2f6a83 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
@@ -315,7 +315,7 @@ notes for details).
"git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
has been fixed.
- * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ * "git p4" that tracks multiple p4 paths imported a single changelist
that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
index aa99d4b..2a47b4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
been changed to enable "--decorate".
* The output from "git status --short" has been extended to show
- various kinds of dirtyness in submodules differently; instead of to
+ various kinds of dirtiness in submodules differently; instead of to
"M" for modified, 'm' and '?' can be shown to signal changes only
to the working tree of the submodule but not the commit that is
checked out.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
index 5d76ad5..384e4de 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v2.13.2
* The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
- unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ unnecessarily complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
* "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ Fixes since v2.13.2
* Fix a recent regression to "git rebase -i" and add tests that would
have caught it and others.
- * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code ahs been corrected.
+ * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code has been corrected.
* Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
index 4246c68..2711a25 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* Some platforms have ulong that is smaller than time_t, and our
historical use of ulong for timestamp would mean they cannot
represent some timestamp that the platform allows. Invent a
- separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distingiuish
+ separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distinguish
timestamps and a vanilla ulongs, which along is already a good
move), and then declare uintmax_t is the type to be used as the
timestamp_t.
@@ -442,7 +442,7 @@ notes for details).
* The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
- unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ unnecessarily complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
* Fix configuration codepath to pay proper attention to commondir
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
index 0c81c59..b474781 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ Fixes since v2.15
(merge eef3df5a93 bw/pathspec-match-submodule-boundary later to maint).
* Amending commits in git-gui broke the author name that is non-ascii
- due to incorrect enconding conversion.
+ due to incorrect encoding conversion.
* Recent update to the submodule configuration code broke "diff-tree"
by accidentally stopping to read from the index upfront.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
index 64a0bcb..f0121a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ Fixes since v2.16.2
* The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
- so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ so that it can be more safely shareable.
* Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
what it did not acquire lock on.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
index c2cf891..8b17c26 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ Fixes since v2.16
* The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
- so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ so that it can be more safely shareable.
(merge 8ba18e6fa4 jt/http-redact-cookies later to maint).
* Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
index 3ea280c..6c8a0e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
(merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
* Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
- on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addition, has been
optimized to use the same fan-out table.
* The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
index a06ccf6..891c79b 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* The conversion to pass "the_repository" and then "a_repository"
throughout the object access API continues.
- * Continuing with the idea to programatically enumerate various
+ * Continuing with the idea to programmatically enumerate various
pieces of data required for command line completion, teach the
codebase to report the list of configuration variables
subcommands care about to help complete them.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
index e71fe3d..3dd7e6e 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
alias expansion.
* The documentation of "git gc" has been updated to mention that it
- is no longer limited to "pruning away crufts" but also updates
+ is no longer limited to "pruning away cruft" but also updates
ancillary files like commit-graph as a part of repository
optimization.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bde1541
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,398 @@
+Git 2.24 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.23
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility note
+
+ * "filter-branch" is showing its age and alternatives are available.
+ From this release, we started to discourage its use and hint
+ people about filter-repo.
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * We now have an active interim maintainer for the Git-Gui part of
+ the system. Praise and thank Pratyush Yadav for volunteering.
+
+ * The command line parser learned "--end-of-options" notation; the
+ standard convention for scripters to have hardcoded set of options
+ first on the command line, and force the command to treat end-user
+ input as non-options, has been to use "--" as the delimiter, but
+ that would not work for commands that use "--" as a delimiter
+ between revs and pathspec.
+
+ * A mechanism to affect the default setting for a (related) group of
+ configuration variables is introduced.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned "--set-upstream" option to help those who first
+ clone from their private fork they intend to push to, add the true
+ upstream via "git remote add" and then "git fetch" from it.
+
+ * Device-tree files learned their own userdiff patterns.
+ (merge 3c81760bc6 sb/userdiff-dts later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" learned to drive different merge
+ strategies and pass strategy specific options to them.
+
+ * A new "pre-merge-commit" hook has been introduced.
+
+ * Command line completion updates for "git -c var.name=val" have been
+ added.
+
+ * The lazy clone machinery has been taught that there can be more
+ than one promisor remote and consult them in order when downloading
+ missing objects on demand.
+
+ * The list-objects-filter API (used to create a sparse/lazy clone)
+ learned to take a combined filter specification.
+
+ * The documentation and tests for "git format-patch" have been
+ cleaned up.
+
+ * On Windows, the root level of UNC share is now allowed to be used
+ just like any other directory.
+
+ * The command line completion support (in contrib/) learned about the
+ "--skip" option of "git revert" and "git cherry-pick".
+
+ * "git rebase --keep-base <upstream>" tries to find the original base
+ of the topic being rebased and rebase on top of that same base,
+ which is useful when running the "git rebase -i" (and its limited
+ variant "git rebase -x").
+
+ The command also has learned to fast-forward in more cases where it
+ can instead of replaying to recreate identical commits.
+
+ * A configuration variable tells "git fetch" to write the commit
+ graph after finishing.
+
+ * "git add -i" has been taught to show the total number of hunks and
+ the hunks that has been processed so far when showing prompts.
+
+ * "git fetch --jobs=<n>" allowed <n> parallel jobs when fetching
+ submodules, but this did not apply to "git fetch --multiple" that
+ fetches from multiple remote repositories. It now does.
+
+ * The installation instruction for zsh completion script (in
+ contrib/) has been a bit improved.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The code to write commit-graph over given commit object names has
+ been made a bit more robust.
+
+ * The first line of verbose output from each test piece now carries
+ the test name and number to help scanning with eyeballs.
+
+ * Further clean-up of the initialization code.
+
+ * xmalloc() used to have a mechanism to ditch memory and address
+ space resources as the last resort upon seeing an allocation
+ failure from the underlying malloc(), which made the code complex
+ and thread-unsafe with dubious benefit, as major memory resource
+ users already do limit their uses with various other mechanisms.
+ It has been simplified away.
+
+ * Unnecessary full-tree diff in "git log -L" machinery has been
+ optimized away.
+
+ * The http transport lacked some optimization the native transports
+ learned to avoid unnecessary ref advertisement, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Preparation for SHA-256 upgrade continues in the test department.
+ (merge 0c37c41d13 bc/hash-independent-tests-part-5 later to maint).
+
+ * The memory ownership model of the "git fast-import" got
+ straightened out.
+
+ * Output from trace2 subsystem is formatted more prettily now.
+
+ * The internal code originally invented for ".gitignore" processing
+ got reshuffled and renamed to make it less tied to "excluding" and
+ stress more that it is about "matching", as it has been reused for
+ things like sparse checkout specification that want to check if a
+ path is "included".
+
+ * "git stash" learned to write refreshed index back to disk.
+
+ * Coccinelle checks are done on more source files than before now.
+
+ * The cache-tree code has been taught to be less aggressive in
+ attempting to see if a tree object it computed already exists in
+ the repository.
+
+ * The code to parse and use the commit-graph file has been made more
+ robust against corrupted input.
+
+ * The hg-to-git script (in contrib/) has been updated to work with
+ Python 3.
+
+ * Update the way build artifacts in t/helper/ directory are ignored.
+
+ * Preparation for SHA-256 upgrade continues.
+
+ * "git log --graph" for an octopus merge is sometimes colored
+ incorrectly, which is demonstrated and documented but not yet
+ fixed.
+
+ * The trace2 output, when sending them to files in a designated
+ directory, can populate the directory with too many files; a
+ mechanism is introduced to set the maximum number of files and
+ discard further logs when the maximum is reached.
+
+ * We have adopted a Code-of-conduct document.
+ (merge 3f9ef874a7 jk/coc later to maint).
+
+
+Fixes since v2.23
+-----------------
+
+ * "git grep --recurse-submodules" that looks at the working tree
+ files looked at the contents in the index in submodules, instead of
+ files in the working tree.
+ (merge 6a289d45c0 mt/grep-submodules-working-tree later to maint).
+
+ * Codepaths to walk tree objects have been audited for integer
+ overflows and hardened.
+ (merge 5aa02f9868 jk/tree-walk-overflow later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-refs" can lose refs that are created while running, which
+ is getting corrected.
+ (merge a613d4f817 sc/pack-refs-deletion-racefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout" and "git restore" to re-populate the index from a
+ tree-ish (typically HEAD) did not work correctly for a path that
+ was removed and then added again with the intent-to-add bit, when
+ the corresponding working tree file was empty. This has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Compilation fix.
+ (merge 70597e8386 rs/nedalloc-fixlets later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" learned to call the clean-up procedure before exiting.
+ (merge 0d88f3d2c5 py/git-gui-do-quit later to maint).
+
+ * We promoted the "indent heuristics" that decides where to split
+ diff hunks from experimental to the default a few years ago, but
+ some stale documentation still marked it as experimental, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 64e5e1fba1 sg/diff-indent-heuristic-non-experimental later to maint).
+
+ * Fix a mismerge that happened in 2.22 timeframe.
+ (merge acb7da05ac en/checkout-mismerge-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" recorded incorrect length in extended pax header in
+ some corner cases, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 71d41ff651 rs/pax-extended-header-length-fix later to maint).
+
+ * On-demand object fetching in lazy clone incorrectly tried to fetch
+ commits from submodule projects, while still working in the
+ superproject, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a63694f523 jt/diff-lazy-fetch-submodule-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Prepare get_short_oid() codepath to be thread-safe.
+ (merge 7cfcb16b0e rs/sort-oid-array-thread-safe later to maint).
+
+ * "for-each-ref" and friends that show refs did not protect themselves
+ against ancient tags that did not record tagger names when asked to
+ show "%(taggername)", which have been corrected.
+ (merge 8b3f33ef11 mp/for-each-ref-missing-name-or-email later to maint).
+
+ * The "git am" based backend of "git rebase" ignored the result of
+ updating ".gitattributes" done in one step when replaying
+ subsequent steps.
+ (merge 2c65d90f75 bc/reread-attributes-during-rebase later to maint).
+
+ * Tell cURL library to use the same malloc() implementation, with the
+ xmalloc() wrapper, as the rest of the system, for consistency.
+ (merge 93b980e58f cb/curl-use-xmalloc later to maint).
+
+ * Build fix to adjust .gitignore to unignore a path that we started to track.
+ (merge aac6ff7b5b js/visual-studio later to maint).
+
+ * A few implementation fixes in the notes API.
+ (merge 60fe477a0b mh/notes-duplicate-entries later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an earlier regression to "git push --all" which should have
+ been forbidden when the target remote repository is set to be a
+ mirror.
+ (merge 8e4c8af058 tg/push-all-in-mirror-forbidden later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an earlier regression in the test suite, which mistakenly
+ stopped running HTTPD tests.
+ (merge 3960290675 sg/git-test-boolean later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --autostash <upstream> <branch>", when <branch> is
+ different from the current branch, incorrectly moved the tip of the
+ current branch, which has been corrected.
+ (merge bf1e28e0ad bw/rebase-autostash-keep-current-branch later to maint).
+
+ * Update support for Asciidoctor documentation toolchain.
+ (merge 83b0b8953e ma/asciidoctor-refmiscinfo later to maint).
+
+ * Start using DocBook 5 (instead of DocBook 4.5) as Asciidoctor 2.0
+ no longer works with the older one.
+ (merge f6461b82b9 bc/doc-use-docbook-5 later to maint).
+
+ * The markup used in user-manual has been updated to work better with
+ asciidoctor.
+ (merge c4d2f6143a ma/user-manual-markup-update later to maint).
+
+ * Make sure the grep machinery does not abort when seeing a payload
+ that is not UTF-8 even when JIT is not in use with PCRE1.
+ (merge ad7c543e3b cb/skip-utf8-check-with-pcre1 later to maint).
+
+ * The name of the blob object that stores the filter specification
+ for sparse cloning/fetching was interpreted in a wrong place in the
+ code, causing Git to abort.
+
+ * "git log --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>" was incorrectly
+ overruled when the "--simplify-by-decoration" option is used, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 0cc7380d88 rs/simplify-by-deco-with-deco-refs-exclude later to maint).
+
+ * The "upload-pack" (the counterpart of "git fetch") needs to disable
+ commit-graph when responding to a shallow clone/fetch request, but
+ the way this was done made Git panic, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The object traversal machinery has been optimized not to load tree
+ objects when we are only interested in commit history.
+ (merge 72ed80c784 jk/list-objects-optim-wo-trees later to maint).
+
+ * The object name parser for "Nth parent" syntax has been made more
+ robust against integer overflows.
+ (merge 59fa5f5a25 rs/nth-parent-parse later to maint).
+
+ * The code used in following tags in "git fetch" has been optimized.
+ (merge b7e2d8bca5 ms/fetch-follow-tag-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Regression fix for progress output.
+ (merge 2bb74b53a4 sg/progress-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A bug in merge-recursive code that triggers when a branch with a
+ symbolic link is merged with a branch that replaces it with a
+ directory has been fixed.
+ (merge 83e3ad3b12 jt/merge-recursive-symlink-is-not-a-dir-in-way later to maint).
+
+ * The rename detection logic sorts a list of rename source candidates
+ by similarity to pick the best candidate, which means that a tie
+ between sources with the same similarity is broken by the original
+ location in the original candidate list (which is sorted by path).
+ Force the sorting by similarity done with a stable sort, which is
+ not promised by system supplied qsort(3), to ensure consistent
+ results across platforms.
+ (merge 2049b8dc65 js/diff-rename-force-stable-sort later to maint).
+
+ * The code to skip "UTF" and "UTF-" prefix, when computing an advice
+ message, did not work correctly when the prefix was "UTF", which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge b181676ce9 rs/convert-fix-utf-without-dash later to maint).
+
+ * The author names taken from SVN repositories may have extra leading
+ or trailing whitespaces, which are now munged away.
+ (merge 4ddd4bddb1 tk/git-svn-trim-author-name later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" showed a wrong HEAD while "reword" open the editor.
+ (merge b0a3186140 pw/rebase-i-show-HEAD-to-reword later to maint).
+
+ * A few simplification and bugfixes to PCRE interface.
+ (merge c581e4a749 ab/pcre-jit-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * PCRE fixes.
+ (merge ff61681b46 cb/pcre1-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git range-diff" segfaulted when diff.noprefix configuration was
+ used, as it blindly expected the patch it internally generates to
+ have the standard a/ and b/ prefixes. The command now forces the
+ internal patch to be built without any prefix, not to be affected
+ by any end-user configuration.
+ (merge 937b76ed49 js/range-diff-noprefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash apply" in a subdirectory of a secondary worktree failed
+ to access the worktree correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge dfd557c978 js/stash-apply-in-secondary-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * The merge-recursive machinery is one of the most complex parts of
+ the system that accumulated cruft over time. This large series
+ cleans up the implementation quite a bit.
+ (merge b657047719 en/merge-recursive-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Pretty-printed command line formatter (used in e.g. reporting the
+ command being run by the tracing API) had a bug that lost an
+ argument that is an empty string, which has been corrected.
+ (merge ce2d7ed2fd gs/sq-quote-buf-pretty later to maint).
+
+ * "git range-diff" failed to handle mode-only change, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 2b6a9b13ca tg/range-diff-output-update later to maint).
+
+ * Dev support update.
+ (merge 4f3c1dc5d6 dl/allow-running-cocci-verbosely later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch -o <outdir>" did an equivalent of "mkdir <outdir>"
+ not "mkdir -p <outdir>", which was corrected.
+
+ * "git stash save" lost local changes to submodules, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 556895d0c8 jj/stash-reset-only-toplevel later to maint).
+
+ * The atomic push over smart HTTP transport did not work, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 6f1194246a bc/smart-http-atomic-push later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge d1387d3895 en/fast-import-merge-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 1c24a54ea4 bm/repository-layout-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 415b770b88 ds/midx-expire-repack later to maint).
+ (merge 19800bdc3f nd/diff-parseopt later to maint).
+ (merge 58166c2e9d tg/t0021-racefix later to maint).
+ (merge 7027f508c7 dl/compat-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge e770fbfeff jc/test-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 1fd881d404 rs/trace2-dst-warning later to maint).
+ (merge 7e92756751 mh/http-urlmatch-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 9784f97321 mh/release-commit-memory-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 60d198d022 tb/banned-vsprintf-namefix later to maint).
+ (merge 80e3658647 rs/help-unknown-ref-does-not-return later to maint).
+ (merge 0a8bc7068f dt/remote-helper-doc-re-lock-option later to maint).
+ (merge 27fd1e4ea7 en/merge-options-ff-and-friends later to maint).
+ (merge 502c386ff9 sg/clean-nested-repo-with-ignored later to maint).
+ (merge 26e3d1cbea am/mailmap-andrey-mazo later to maint).
+ (merge 47b27c96fa ss/get-time-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge dd2e50a84e jk/commit-graph-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 4fd39c76e6 cs/pretty-formats-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 40e747e89d dl/submodule-set-branch later to maint).
+ (merge 689a146c91 rs/commit-graph-use-list-count later to maint).
+ (merge 0eb7c37a8a js/doc-patch-text later to maint).
+ (merge 4b3aa170d1 rs/nth-switch-code-simplification later to maint).
+ (merge 0d4304c124 ah/doc-submodule-ignore-submodules later to maint).
+ (merge af78249463 cc/svn-fe-py-shebang later to maint).
+ (merge 7bd97d6dff rs/alias-use-copy-array later to maint).
+ (merge c46ebc2496 sg/travis-help-debug later to maint).
+ (merge 24c681794f ps/my-first-contribution-alphasort later to maint).
+ (merge 75b2c15435 cb/do-not-use-test-cmp-with-a later to maint).
+ (merge cda0d497e3 bw/submodule-helper-usage-fix later to maint).
+ (merge fe0ed5d5e9 am/visual-studio-config-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 2e09c01232 sg/name-rev-cutoff-underflow-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ddb3c856f3 as/shallow-slab-use-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 71f4960b91 js/mingw-spawn-with-spaces-in-path later to maint).
+ (merge 53d687bf5f ah/cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge f537485fa5 rs/test-remove-useless-debugging-cat later to maint).
+ (merge 11a3d3aadd dl/rev-list-doc-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge d928a8388a am/t0028-utf16-tests later to maint).
+ (merge b05b40930e dl/t0000-skip-test-test later to maint).
+ (merge 03d3b1297c js/xdiffi-comment-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 57d8f4b4c7 js/doc-stash-save later to maint).
+ (merge 8c1cfd58e3 ta/t1308-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge fa364ad790 bb/utf8-wcwidth-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 68b69211b2 bb/compat-util-comment-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5cc6a4be11 rs/http-push-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge a81e42d235 rs/column-use-utf8-strnwidth later to maint).
+ (merge 062a309d36 rs/remote-curl-use-argv-array later to maint).
+ (merge 3b3c79f6c9 nr/diff-highlight-indent-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 3444ec2eb2 wb/fsmonitor-bitmap-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 10da030ab7 cb/pcre2-chartables-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge 60e6569a12 js/mingw-needs-hiding-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 52bd3e4657 rl/gitweb-blame-prev-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1810485
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.24.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..91ceb34
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,370 @@
+Git 2.25 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.24
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A tutorial on object enumeration has been added.
+
+ * The branch description ("git branch --edit-description") has been
+ used to fill the body of the cover letters by the format-patch
+ command; this has been enhanced so that the subject can also be
+ filled.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" has been marked as deprecated; this
+ release stops advertising it in the "git rebase -h" output.
+
+ * The code to generate multi-pack index learned to show (or not to
+ show) progress indicators.
+
+ * "git apply --3way" learned to honor merge.conflictStyle
+ configuration variable, like merges would.
+
+ * The custom format for "git log --format=<format>" learned the l/L
+ placeholder that is similar to e/E that fills in the e-mail
+ address, but only the local part on the left side of '@'.
+
+ * Documentation pages for "git shortlog" now list commit limiting
+ options explicitly.
+
+ * The patterns to detect function boundary for Elixir language has
+ been added.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned that the "--onto"
+ option of "git rebase" can take its argument as the value of the
+ option.
+
+ * The userdiff machinery has been taught that "async def" is another
+ way to begin a "function" in Python.
+
+ * "git range-diff" learned to take the "--notes=<ref>" and the
+ "--no-notes" options to control the commit notes included in the
+ log message that gets compared.
+
+ * "git rev-parse --show-toplevel" run outside of any working tree did
+ not error out, which has been corrected.
+
+ * A few commands learned to take the pathspec from the standard input
+ or a named file, instead of taking it as the command line
+ arguments, with the "--pathspec-from-file" option.
+
+ * "git submodule" learned a subcommand "set-url".
+
+ * "git log" family learned "--pretty=reference" that gives the name
+ of a commit in the format that is often used to refer to it in log
+ messages.
+
+ * The interaction between "git clone --recurse-submodules" and
+ alternate object store was ill-designed. The documentation and
+ code have been taught to make more clear recommendations when the
+ users see failures.
+
+ * Management of sparsely checked-out working tree has gained a
+ dedicated "sparse-checkout" command.
+
+ * Miscellaneous small UX improvements on "git-p4".
+
+ * "git sparse-checkout list" subcommand learned to give its output in
+ a more concise form when the "cone" mode is in effect.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Debugging support for lazy cloning has been a bit improved.
+
+ * Move the definition of a set of bitmask constants from 0ctal
+ literal to (1U<<count) notation.
+
+ * Test updates to prepare for SHA-2 transition continues.
+
+ * Crufty code and logic accumulated over time around the object
+ parsing and low-level object access used in "git fsck" have been
+ cleaned up.
+
+ * The implementation of "git log --graph" got refactored and then its
+ output got simplified.
+
+ * Follow recent push to move API docs from Documentation/ to header
+ files and update config.h
+
+ * "git bundle" has been taught to use the parse options API. "git
+ bundle verify" learned "--quiet" and "git bundle create" learned
+ options to control the progress output.
+
+ * Handling of commit objects that use non UTF-8 encoding during
+ "rebase -i" has been improved.
+
+ * The beginning of rewriting "git add -i" in C.
+
+ * A label used in the todo list that are generated by "git rebase
+ --rebase-merges" is used as a part of a refname; the logic to come
+ up with the label has been tightened to avoid names that cannot be
+ used as such.
+
+ * The logic to avoid duplicate label names generated by "git rebase
+ --rebase-merges" forgot that the machinery itself uses "onto" as a
+ label name, which must be avoided by auto-generated labels, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * We have had compatibility fallback macro definitions for "PRIuMAX",
+ "PRIu32", etc. but did not for "PRIdMAX", while the code used the
+ last one apparently without any hiccup reported recently. The
+ fallback macro definitions for these <inttypes.h> macros that must
+ appear in C99 systems have been removed.
+
+ * Recently we have declared that GIT_TEST_* variables take the
+ usual boolean values (it used to be that some used "non-empty
+ means true" and taking GIT_TEST_VAR=YesPlease as true); make
+ sure we notice and fail when non-bool strings are given to
+ these variables.
+
+ * Users of oneway_merge() (like "reset --hard") learned to take
+ advantage of fsmonitor to avoid unnecessary lstat(2) calls.
+
+ * Performance tweak on "git push" into a repository with many refs
+ that point at objects we have never heard of.
+
+ * PerfTest fix to avoid stale result mixed up with the latest round
+ of test results.
+
+ * Hide lower-level verify_signed-buffer() API as a pure helper to
+ implement the public check_signature() function, in order to
+ encourage new callers to use the correct and more strict
+ validation.
+
+ * Unnecessary reading of state variables back from the disk during
+ sequencer operation has been reduced.
+
+ * The code has been made to avoid gmtime() and localtime() and prefer
+ their reentrant counterparts.
+
+ * In a repository with many packfiles, the cost of the procedure that
+ avoids registering the same packfile twice was unnecessarily high
+ by using an inefficient search algorithm, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Redo "git name-rev" to avoid recursive calls.
+
+ * FreeBSD CI support via Cirrus-CI has been added.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.24
+-----------------
+
+ * "rebase -i" ceased to run post-commit hook by mistake in an earlier
+ update, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git notes copy $original" ought to copy the notes attached to the
+ original object to HEAD, but a mistaken tightening to command line
+ parameter validation made earlier disabled that feature by mistake.
+
+ * When all files from some subdirectory were renamed to the root
+ directory, the directory rename heuristics would fail to detect that
+ as a rename/merge of the subdirectory to the root directory, which has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Code clean-up and a bugfix in the logic used to tell worktree local
+ and repository global refs apart.
+ (merge f45f88b2e4 sg/dir-trie-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash save" in a working tree that is sparsely checked out
+ mistakenly removed paths that are outside the area of interest.
+ (merge 4a58c3d7f7 js/update-index-ignore-removal-for-skip-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse --git-path HEAD.lock" did not give the right path
+ when run in a secondary worktree.
+ (merge 76a53d640f js/git-path-head-dot-lock-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge --no-commit" needs "--no-ff" if you do not want to move
+ HEAD, which has been corrected in the manual page for "git bisect".
+ (merge 8dd327b246 ma/bisect-doc-sample-update later to maint).
+
+ * "git worktree add" internally calls "reset --hard" that should not
+ descend into submodules, even when submodule.recurse configuration
+ is set, but it was affected. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 4782cf2ab6 pb/no-recursive-reset-hard-in-worktree-add later to maint).
+
+ * Messages from die() etc. can be mixed up from multiple processes
+ without even line buffering on Windows, which has been worked
+ around.
+ (merge 116d1fa6c6 js/vreportf-wo-buffering later to maint).
+
+ * HTTP transport had possible allocator/deallocator mismatch, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The watchman integration for fsmonitor was racy, which has been
+ corrected to be more conservative.
+ (merge dd0b61f577 kw/fsmonitor-watchman-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Fetching from multiple remotes into the same repository in parallel
+ had a bad interaction with the recent change to (optionally) update
+ the commit-graph after a fetch job finishes, as these parallel
+ fetches compete with each other. Which has been corrected.
+
+ * Recent update to "git stash pop" made the command empty the index
+ when run with the "--quiet" option, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git fetch" codepath had a big "do not lazily fetch missing objects
+ when I ask if something exists" switch. This has been corrected by
+ marking the "does this thing exist?" calls with "if not please do not
+ lazily fetch it" flag.
+
+ * Test update to avoid wasted cycles.
+ (merge e0316695ec sg/skip-skipped-prereq later to maint).
+
+ * Error handling after "git push" finishes sending the packdata and
+ waits for the response to the remote side has been improved.
+ (merge ad7a403268 jk/send-pack-remote-failure later to maint).
+
+ * Some codepaths in "gitweb" that forgot to escape URLs generated
+ based on end-user input have been corrected.
+ (merge a376e37b2c jk/gitweb-anti-xss later to maint).
+
+ * CI jobs for macOS has been made less chatty when updating perforce
+ package used during testing.
+ (merge 0dbc4a0edf jc/azure-ci-osx-fix-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git unpack-objects" used to show progress based only on the number
+ of received and unpacked objects, which stalled when it has to
+ handle an unusually large object. It now shows the throughput as
+ well.
+ (merge bae60ba7e9 sg/unpack-progress-throughput later to maint).
+
+ * The sequencer machinery compared the HEAD and the state it is
+ attempting to commit to decide if the result would be a no-op
+ commit, even when amending a commit, which was incorrect, and
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to parse GPG output used to assume incorrectly that the
+ finterprint for the primary key would always be present for a valid
+ signature, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 67a6ea6300 hi/gpg-optional-pkfp-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule status" and "git submodule status --cached" show
+ different things, but the documentation did not cover them
+ correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 8d483c8408 mg/doc-submodule-status-cached later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset --patch $object" without any pathspec should allow a
+ tree object to be given, but incorrectly required a committish,
+ which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git submodule status" that is run from a subdirectory of the
+ superproject did not work well, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 1f3aea22c7 mg/submodule-status-from-a-subdirectory later to maint).
+
+ * The revision walking machinery uses resources like per-object flag
+ bits that need to be reset before a new iteration of walking
+ begins, but the resources related to topological walk were not
+ cleared correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0aa0c2b2ec mh/clear-topo-walk-upon-reset later to maint).
+
+ * TravisCI update.
+ (merge 176441bfb5 sg/osx-force-gcc-9 later to maint).
+
+ * While running "revert" or "cherry-pick --edit" for multiple
+ commits, a recent regression incorrectly detected "nothing to
+ commit, working tree clean", instead of replaying the commits,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge befd4f6a81 sg/assume-no-todo-update-in-cherry-pick later to maint).
+
+ * Work around a issue where a FD that is left open when spawning a
+ child process and is kept open in the child can interfere with the
+ operation in the parent process on Windows.
+
+ * One kind of progress messages were always given during commit-graph
+ generation, instead of following the "if it takes more than two
+ seconds, show progress" pattern, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase" did not work well when format.useAutoBase
+ configuration variable is set, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The "diff" machinery learned not to lose added/removed blank lines
+ in the context when --ignore-blank-lines and --function-context are
+ used at the same time.
+ (merge 0bb313a552 rs/xdiff-ignore-ws-w-func-context later to maint).
+
+ * The test on "fast-import" used to get stuck when "fast-import" died
+ in the middle.
+ (merge 0d9b0d7885 sg/t9300-robustify later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch" can take a set of configured format.notes values
+ to specify which notes refs to use in the log message part of the
+ output. The behaviour of this was not consistent with multiple
+ --notes command line options, which has been corrected.
+ (merge e0f9095aaa dl/format-patch-notes-config-fixup later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" used to ignore lfs.storage configuration variable, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge ea94b16fb8 rb/p4-lfs later to maint).
+
+ * Assorted fixes to the directory traversal API.
+ (merge 6836d2fe06 en/fill-directory-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Forbid pathnames that the platform's filesystem cannot represent on
+ MinGW.
+ (merge 4dc42c6c18 js/mingw-reserved-filenames later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --signoff" stopped working when the command was written
+ in C, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 4fe7e43c53 en/rebase-signoff-fix later to maint).
+
+ * An earlier update to Git for Windows declared that a tree object is
+ invalid if it has a path component with backslash in it, which was
+ overly strict, which has been corrected. The only protection the
+ Windows users need is to prevent such path (or any path that their
+ filesystem cannot check out) from entering the index.
+ (merge 224c7d70fa js/mingw-loosen-overstrict-tree-entry-checks later to maint).
+
+ * The code to write split commit-graph file(s) upon fetching computed
+ bogus value for the parameter used in splitting the resulting
+ files, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 63020f175f ds/commit-graph-set-size-mult later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge 80736d7c5e jc/am-show-current-patch-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge 8b656572ca sg/commit-graph-usage-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6c02042139 mr/clone-dir-exists-to-path-exists later to maint).
+ (merge 44ae131e38 sg/blame-indent-heuristics-is-now-the-default later to maint).
+ (merge 0115e5d929 dl/doc-diff-no-index-implies-exit-code later to maint).
+ (merge 270de6acbe en/t6024-style later to maint).
+ (merge 14c4776d75 ns/test-desc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 68d40f30c4 dj/typofix-merge-strat later to maint).
+ (merge f66e0401ab jk/optim-in-pack-idx-conversion later to maint).
+ (merge 169bed7421 rs/parse-options-dup-null-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 51bd6be32d rs/use-copy-array-in-mingw-shell-command-preparation later to maint).
+ (merge b018719927 ma/t7004 later to maint).
+ (merge 932757b0cc ar/install-doc-update-cmds-needing-the-shell later to maint).
+ (merge 46efd28be1 ep/guard-kset-tar-headers later to maint).
+ (merge 9e5afdf997 ec/fetch-mark-common-refs-trace2 later to maint).
+ (merge f0e58b3fe8 pb/submodule-update-fetches later to maint).
+ (merge 2a02262078 dl/t5520-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge a4fb016ba1 js/pkt-line-h-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 54a7a64613 rs/simplify-prepare-cmd later to maint).
+ (merge 3eae30e464 jk/lore-is-the-archive later to maint).
+ (merge 14b7664df8 dl/lore-is-the-archive later to maint).
+ (merge 0e40a73a4c po/bundle-doc-clonable later to maint).
+ (merge e714b898c6 as/t7812-missing-redirects-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 528d9e6d01 jk/perf-wo-git-dot-pm later to maint).
+ (merge fc42f20e24 sg/test-squelch-noise-in-commit-bulk later to maint).
+ (merge c64368e3a2 bc/t9001-zsh-in-posix-emulation-mode later to maint).
+ (merge 11de8dd7ef dr/branch-usage-casefix later to maint).
+ (merge e05e8cf074 rs/archive-zip-code-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 147ee35558 rs/commit-export-env-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge 4507ecc771 rs/patch-id-use-oid-to-hex later to maint).
+ (merge 51a0a4ed95 mr/bisect-use-after-free later to maint).
+ (merge cc2bd5c45d pb/submodule-doc-xref later to maint).
+ (merge df5be01669 ja/doc-markup-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 7c5cea7242 mr/bisect-save-pointer-to-const-string later to maint).
+ (merge 20a67e8ce9 js/use-test-tool-on-path later to maint).
+ (merge 4e61b2214d ew/packfile-syscall-optim later to maint).
+ (merge ace0f86c7f pb/clarify-line-log-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 763a59e71c en/merge-recursive-oid-eq-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge 4e2c4c0d4f do/gitweb-typofix-in-comments later to maint).
+ (merge 421c0ffb02 jb/doc-multi-pack-idx-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f8740c586b pm/am-in-body-header-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 5814d44d9b tm/doc-submodule-absorb-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt
index 5ef1264..850dc68 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ Fixes since v2.3.2
* Description given by "grep -h" for its --exclude-standard option
was phrased poorly.
- * Documentaton for "git remote add" mentioned "--tags" and
+ * Documentation for "git remote add" mentioned "--tags" and
"--no-tags" and it was not clear that fetch from the remote in
the future will use the default behaviour when neither is given
to override it.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt
index fc95812..5769184 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ Git v2.3.7 Release Notes
Fixes since v2.3.6
------------------
- * An earlier update to the parser that disects a URL broke an
+ * An earlier update to the parser that dissects a URL broke an
address, followed by a colon, followed by an empty string (instead
of the port number), e.g. ssh://example.com:/path/to/repo.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt
index 914d2c1..422e930 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.4.3.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,7 @@ Fixes since v2.4.3
* Some time ago, "git blame" (incorrectly) lost the convert_to_git()
call when synthesizing a fake "tip" commit that represents the
state in the working tree, which broke folks who record the history
- with LF line ending to make their project portabile across
+ with LF line ending to make their project portable across
platforms while terminating lines in their working tree files with
CRLF for their platform.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt
index 8704450..84723f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt
@@ -172,7 +172,8 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
incorrect patch text to "git apply". Add tests to demonstrate
this.
- I have a slight suspicion that this may be $gmane/87202 coming back
+ I have a slight suspicion that this may be
+ cf. <7vtzf77wjp.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org> coming back
and biting us (I seem to have said "let's run with this and see
what happens" back then).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
index 563dadc..e3cbf3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
* "git interpret-trailers" can now run outside of a Git repository.
- * "git p4" learned to reencode the pathname it uses to communicate
+ * "git p4" learned to re-encode the pathname it uses to communicate
with the p4 depot with a new option.
* Give progress meter to "git filter-branch".
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt
index 6553d69..6323fea 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ Fixes since v2.7
setting GIT_WORK_TREE environment themselves.
* The "exclude_list" structure has the usual "alloc, nr" pair of
- fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_exclude_list() forgot
+ fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_pattern_list() forgot
to reset 'alloc' to 0 when it cleared 'nr' to discard the managed
array.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt
index 6adf038..f618d71 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ Fixes since v2.7.2
tests.
* "git show 'HEAD:Foo[BAR]Baz'" did not interpret the argument as a
- rev, i.e. the object named by the the pathname with wildcard
+ rev, i.e. the object named by the pathname with wildcard
characters in a tree object.
* "git rev-parse --git-common-dir" used in the worktree feature
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
index 2507971..27320b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* Some calls to strcpy(3) triggers a false warning from static
analyzers that are less intelligent than humans, and reducing the
number of these false hits helps us notice real issues. A few
- calls to strcpy(3) in a couple of protrams that are already safe
+ calls to strcpy(3) in a couple of programs that are already safe
has been rewritten to avoid false warnings.
* The "name_path" API was an attempt to reduce the need to construct
@@ -270,7 +270,7 @@ notes for details).
setting GIT_WORK_TREE environment themselves.
* The "exclude_list" structure has the usual "alloc, nr" pair of
- fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_exclude_list() forgot
+ fields to be used by ALLOC_GROW(), but clear_pattern_list() forgot
to reset 'alloc' to 0 when it cleared 'nr' to discard the managed
array.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
index fedd996..a63825e 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
@@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ Fixes since v2.8.2
This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds. It also
has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
- See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853
- and http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/275680.
+ See https://lore.kernel.org/git/20160419091055.GF2345@dinwoodie.org/
+ and https://lore.kernel.org/git/20150811100527.GW14466@dinwoodie.org/.
* "git replace -e" did not honour "core.editor" configuration.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
index b61d367..9916401 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
@@ -368,7 +368,7 @@ notes for details).
This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds. It also
has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
- See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853
+ See https://lore.kernel.org/git/20160419091055.GF2345@dinwoodie.org/
* "merge-octopus" strategy did not ensure that the index is clean
when merge begins.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
index 695b86f..305e080 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ Fixes since v2.9.2
* One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
- the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+ the system where outside stuff is usually called "theirs" in
contrast to "ours".
* The test framework learned a new helper test_match_signal to
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 6d589e1..4515cab 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -142,19 +142,25 @@ archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
[[commit-reference]]
If you want to reference a previous commit in the history of a stable
-branch, use the format "abbreviated sha1 (subject, date)",
-with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes, like this:
+branch, use the format "abbreviated hash (subject, date)", like this:
....
- Commit f86a374 ("pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak", 2015-03-30)
+ Commit f86a374 (pack-bitmap.c: fix a memleak, 2015-03-30)
noticed that ...
....
The "Copy commit summary" command of gitk can be used to obtain this
-format, or this invocation of `git show`:
+format (with the subject enclosed in a pair of double-quotes), or this
+invocation of `git show`:
....
- git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h ("%s", %ad)' <commit>
+ git show -s --pretty=reference <commit>
+....
+
+or, on an older version of Git without support for --pretty=reference:
+
+....
+ git show -s --date=short --pretty='format:%h (%s, %ad)' <commit>
....
[[git-tools]]
@@ -372,9 +378,9 @@ such as "Thanks-to:", "Based-on-patch-by:", or "Mentored-by:".
Some parts of the system have dedicated maintainers with their own
repositories.
-- `git-gui/` comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pat Thoyts:
+- `git-gui/` comes from git-gui project, maintained by Pratyush Yadav:
- git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
+ https://github.com/prati0100/git-gui.git
- `gitk-git/` comes from Paul Mackerras's gitk project:
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 2c16c53..8fc4b67 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -78,9 +78,9 @@ template::[header-declarations]
<refmeta>
<refentrytitle>{mantitle}</refentrytitle>
<manvolnum>{manvolnum}</manvolnum>
-<refmiscinfo class="source">Git</refmiscinfo>
-<refmiscinfo class="version">{git_version}</refmiscinfo>
-<refmiscinfo class="manual">Git Manual</refmiscinfo>
+<refmiscinfo class="source">{mansource}</refmiscinfo>
+<refmiscinfo class="version">{manversion}</refmiscinfo>
+<refmiscinfo class="manual">{manmanual}</refmiscinfo>
</refmeta>
<refnamediv>
<refname>{manname}</refname>
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb b/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb
index 0089e0c..d906a00 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoctor-extensions.rb
@@ -9,8 +9,11 @@ module Git
named :chrome
def process(parent, target, attrs)
- if parent.document.basebackend? 'html'
- prefix = parent.document.attr('git-relative-html-prefix')
+ prefix = parent.document.attr('git-relative-html-prefix')
+ if parent.document.doctype == 'book'
+ "<ulink url=\"#{prefix}#{target}.html\">" \
+ "#{target}(#{attrs[1]})</ulink>"
+ elsif parent.document.basebackend? 'html'
%(<a href="#{prefix}#{target}.html">#{target}(#{attrs[1]})</a>)
elsif parent.document.basebackend? 'docbook'
"<citerefentry>\n" \
@@ -20,9 +23,26 @@ module Git
end
end
end
+
+ class DocumentPostProcessor < Asciidoctor::Extensions::Postprocessor
+ def process document, output
+ if document.basebackend? 'docbook'
+ mansource = document.attributes['mansource']
+ manversion = document.attributes['manversion']
+ manmanual = document.attributes['manmanual']
+ new_tags = "" \
+ "<refmiscinfo class=\"source\">#{mansource}</refmiscinfo>\n" \
+ "<refmiscinfo class=\"version\">#{manversion}</refmiscinfo>\n" \
+ "<refmiscinfo class=\"manual\">#{manmanual}</refmiscinfo>\n"
+ output = output.sub(/<\/refmeta>/, new_tags + "</refmeta>")
+ end
+ output
+ end
+ end
end
end
Asciidoctor::Extensions.register do
inline_macro Git::Documentation::LinkGitProcessor, :linkgit
+ postprocessor Git::Documentation::DocumentPostProcessor
end
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index e3f5bc3..83e7bba 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ refer to linkgit:gitignore[5] for details. For convenience:
`gitdir/i`::
This is the same as `gitdir` except that matching is done
- case-insensitively (e.g. on case-insensitive file sytems)
+ case-insensitively (e.g. on case-insensitive file systems)
`onbranch`::
The data that follows the keyword `onbranch:` is taken to be a
@@ -178,47 +178,49 @@ to either specify only the realpath version, or both versions.
Example
~~~~~~~
- # Core variables
- [core]
- ; Don't trust file modes
- filemode = false
-
- # Our diff algorithm
- [diff]
- external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
- renames = true
-
- [branch "devel"]
- remote = origin
- merge = refs/heads/devel
-
- # Proxy settings
- [core]
- gitProxy="ssh" for "kernel.org"
- gitProxy=default-proxy ; for the rest
-
- [include]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc ; include by absolute path
- path = foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" relative to the current file
- path = ~/foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" in your `$HOME` directory
-
- ; include if $GIT_DIR is /path/to/foo/.git
- [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/foo/.git"]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc
-
- ; include for all repositories inside /path/to/group
- [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc
-
- ; include for all repositories inside $HOME/to/group
- [includeIf "gitdir:~/to/group/"]
- path = /path/to/foo.inc
-
- ; relative paths are always relative to the including
- ; file (if the condition is true); their location is not
- ; affected by the condition
- [includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
- path = foo.inc
+----
+# Core variables
+[core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+# Our diff algorithm
+[diff]
+ external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
+ renames = true
+
+[branch "devel"]
+ remote = origin
+ merge = refs/heads/devel
+
+# Proxy settings
+[core]
+ gitProxy="ssh" for "kernel.org"
+ gitProxy=default-proxy ; for the rest
+
+[include]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc ; include by absolute path
+ path = foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" relative to the current file
+ path = ~/foo.inc ; find "foo.inc" in your `$HOME` directory
+
+; include if $GIT_DIR is /path/to/foo/.git
+[includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/foo/.git"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+; include for all repositories inside /path/to/group
+[includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+; include for all repositories inside $HOME/to/group
+[includeIf "gitdir:~/to/group/"]
+ path = /path/to/foo.inc
+
+; relative paths are always relative to the including
+; file (if the condition is true); their location is not
+; affected by the condition
+[includeIf "gitdir:/path/to/group/"]
+ path = foo.inc
+----
; include only if we are in a worktree where foo-branch is
; currently checked out
@@ -345,6 +347,8 @@ include::config/difftool.txt[]
include::config/fastimport.txt[]
+include::config/feature.txt[]
+
include::config/fetch.txt[]
include::config/format.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/config/add.txt b/Documentation/config/add.txt
index 4d753f0..c9f748f 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/add.txt
@@ -5,3 +5,8 @@ add.ignore-errors (deprecated)::
option of linkgit:git-add[1]. `add.ignore-errors` is deprecated,
as it does not follow the usual naming convention for configuration
variables.
+
+add.interactive.useBuiltin::
+ [EXPERIMENTAL] Set to `true` to use the experimental built-in
+ implementation of the interactive version of linkgit:git-add[1]
+ instead of the Perl script version. Is `false` by default.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/advice.txt b/Documentation/config/advice.txt
index 6aaa360..4be93f8 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/advice.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/advice.txt
@@ -107,4 +107,7 @@ advice.*::
editor input from the user.
nestedTag::
Advice shown if a user attempts to recursively tag a tag object.
+ submoduleAlternateErrorStrategyDie::
+ Advice shown when a submodule.alternateErrorStrategy option
+ configured to "die" causes a fatal error.
--
diff --git a/Documentation/config/core.txt b/Documentation/config/core.txt
index 75538d2..9e440b1 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/core.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/core.txt
@@ -86,7 +86,9 @@ core.untrackedCache::
it will automatically be removed, if set to `false`. Before
setting it to `true`, you should check that mtime is working
properly on your system.
- See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default.
+ See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default, unless
+ `feature.manyFiles` is enabled which sets this setting to
+ `true` by default.
core.checkStat::
When missing or is set to `default`, many fields in the stat
@@ -557,6 +559,12 @@ core.unsetenvvars::
Defaults to `PERL5LIB` to account for the fact that Git for
Windows insists on using its own Perl interpreter.
+core.restrictinheritedhandles::
+ Windows-only: override whether spawned processes inherit only standard
+ file handles (`stdin`, `stdout` and `stderr`) or all handles. Can be
+ `auto`, `true` or `false`. Defaults to `auto`, which means `true` on
+ Windows 7 and later, and `false` on older Windows versions.
+
core.createObject::
You can set this to 'link', in which case a hardlink followed by
a delete of the source are used to make sure that object creation
@@ -577,7 +585,7 @@ the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable. See linkgit:git-notes[1].
core.commitGraph::
If true, then git will read the commit-graph file (if it exists)
- to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to false. See
+ to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to true. See
linkgit:git-commit-graph[1] for more information.
core.useReplaceRefs::
@@ -591,8 +599,14 @@ core.multiPackIndex::
multi-pack-index design document].
core.sparseCheckout::
- Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
- linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information.
+ Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See linkgit:git-sparse-checkout[1]
+ for more information.
+
+core.sparseCheckoutCone::
+ Enables the "cone mode" of the sparse checkout feature. When the
+ sparse-checkout file contains a limited set of patterns, then this
+ mode provides significant performance advantages. See
+ linkgit:git-sparse-checkout[1] for more information.
core.abbrev::
Set the length object names are abbreviated to. If
diff --git a/Documentation/config/diff.txt b/Documentation/config/diff.txt
index 5afb5a2..ff09f1c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/diff.txt
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ diff.guitool::
include::../mergetools-diff.txt[]
diff.indentHeuristic::
- Set this option to `true` to enable experimental heuristics
+ Set this option to `false` to disable the default heuristics
that shift diff hunk boundaries to make patches easier to read.
diff.algorithm::
diff --git a/Documentation/config/feature.txt b/Documentation/config/feature.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..875f8c8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/config/feature.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+feature.*::
+ The config settings that start with `feature.` modify the defaults of
+ a group of other config settings. These groups are created by the Git
+ developer community as recommended defaults and are subject to change.
+ In particular, new config options may be added with different defaults.
+
+feature.experimental::
+ Enable config options that are new to Git, and are being considered for
+ future defaults. Config settings included here may be added or removed
+ with each release, including minor version updates. These settings may
+ have unintended interactions since they are so new. Please enable this
+ setting if you are interested in providing feedback on experimental
+ features. The new default values are:
++
+* `pack.useSparse=true` uses a new algorithm when constructing a pack-file
+which can improve `git push` performance in repos with many files.
++
+* `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm=skipping` may improve fetch negotiation times by
+skipping more commits at a time, reducing the number of round trips.
++
+* `fetch.writeCommitGraph=true` writes a commit-graph after every `git fetch`
+command that downloads a pack-file from a remote. Using the `--split` option,
+most executions will create a very small commit-graph file on top of the
+existing commit-graph file(s). Occasionally, these files will merge and the
+write may take longer. Having an updated commit-graph file helps performance
+of many Git commands, including `git merge-base`, `git push -f`, and
+`git log --graph`.
+
+feature.manyFiles::
+ Enable config options that optimize for repos with many files in the
+ working directory. With many files, commands such as `git status` and
+ `git checkout` may be slow and these new defaults improve performance:
++
+* `index.version=4` enables path-prefix compression in the index.
++
+* `core.untrackedCache=true` enables the untracked cache. This setting assumes
+that mtime is working on your machine.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/fetch.txt b/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
index ba890b5..f119402 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,8 @@ fetch.negotiationAlgorithm::
effort to converge faster, but may result in a larger-than-necessary
packfile; The default is "default" which instructs Git to use the default algorithm
that never skips commits (unless the server has acknowledged it or one
- of its descendants).
+ of its descendants). If `feature.experimental` is enabled, then this
+ setting defaults to "skipping".
Unknown values will cause 'git fetch' to error out.
+
See also the `--negotiation-tip` option for linkgit:git-fetch[1].
@@ -68,3 +69,23 @@ fetch.showForcedUpdates::
Set to false to enable `--no-show-forced-updates` in
linkgit:git-fetch[1] and linkgit:git-pull[1] commands.
Defaults to true.
+
+fetch.parallel::
+ Specifies the maximal number of fetch operations to be run in parallel
+ at a time (submodules, or remotes when the `--multiple` option of
+ linkgit:git-fetch[1] is in effect).
++
+A value of 0 will give some reasonable default. If unset, it defaults to 1.
++
+For submodules, this setting can be overridden using the `submodule.fetchJobs`
+config setting.
+
+fetch.writeCommitGraph::
+ Set to true to write a commit-graph after every `git fetch` command
+ that downloads a pack-file from a remote. Using the `--split` option,
+ most executions will create a very small commit-graph file on top of
+ the existing commit-graph file(s). Occasionally, these files will
+ merge and the write may take longer. Having an updated commit-graph
+ file helps performance of many Git commands, including `git merge-base`,
+ `git push -f`, and `git log --graph`. Defaults to false, unless
+ `feature.experimental` is true.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/format.txt b/Documentation/config/format.txt
index 414a5a8..45c7bd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/format.txt
@@ -36,6 +36,12 @@ format.subjectPrefix::
The default for format-patch is to output files with the '[PATCH]'
subject prefix. Use this variable to change that prefix.
+format.coverFromDescription::
+ The default mode for format-patch to determine which parts of
+ the cover letter will be populated using the branch's
+ description. See the `--cover-from-description` option in
+ linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
+
format.signature::
The default for format-patch is to output a signature containing
the Git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
@@ -77,10 +83,11 @@ format.coverLetter::
A boolean that controls whether to generate a cover-letter when
format-patch is invoked, but in addition can be set to "auto", to
generate a cover-letter only when there's more than one patch.
+ Default is false.
format.outputDirectory::
Set a custom directory to store the resulting files instead of the
- current working directory.
+ current working directory. All directory components will be created.
format.useAutoBase::
A boolean value which lets you enable the `--base=auto` option of
@@ -99,4 +106,20 @@ If one wishes to use the ref `ref/notes/true`, please use that literal
instead.
+
This configuration can be specified multiple times in order to allow
-multiple notes refs to be included.
+multiple notes refs to be included. In that case, it will behave
+similarly to multiple `--[no-]notes[=]` options passed in. That is, a
+value of `true` will show the default notes, a value of `<ref>` will
+also show notes from that notes ref and a value of `false` will negate
+previous configurations and not show notes.
++
+For example,
++
+------------
+[format]
+ notes = true
+ notes = foo
+ notes = false
+ notes = bar
+------------
++
+will only show notes from `refs/notes/bar`.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/gc.txt b/Documentation/config/gc.txt
index 02b92b1..00ea0a6 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/gc.txt
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@ gc.writeCommitGraph::
If true, then gc will rewrite the commit-graph file when
linkgit:git-gc[1] is run. When using `git gc --auto`
the commit-graph will be updated if housekeeping is
- required. Default is false. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
+ required. Default is true. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
for details.
gc.logExpiry::
diff --git a/Documentation/config/index.txt b/Documentation/config/index.txt
index f181503..7cb50b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/index.txt
@@ -24,3 +24,4 @@ index.threads::
index.version::
Specify the version with which new index files should be
initialized. This does not affect existing repositories.
+ If `feature.manyFiles` is enabled, then the default is 4.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/pack.txt b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
index 9cdcfa7..1d66f0c 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
@@ -112,7 +112,8 @@ pack.useSparse::
objects. This can have significant performance benefits when
computing a pack to send a small change. However, it is possible
that extra objects are added to the pack-file if the included
- commits contain certain types of direct renames.
+ commits contain certain types of direct renames. Default is `false`
+ unless `feature.experimental` is enabled.
pack.writeBitmaps (deprecated)::
This is a deprecated synonym for `repack.writeBitmaps`.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/remote.txt b/Documentation/config/remote.txt
index 6c4cad8..a8e6437 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/remote.txt
@@ -76,3 +76,11 @@ remote.<name>.pruneTags::
+
See also `remote.<name>.prune` and the PRUNING section of
linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
+remote.<name>.promisor::
+ When set to true, this remote will be used to fetch promisor
+ objects.
+
+remote.<name>.partialclonefilter::
+ The filter that will be applied when fetching from this
+ promisor remote.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/submodule.txt b/Documentation/config/submodule.txt
index 0a1293b..b331771 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/submodule.txt
@@ -79,4 +79,6 @@ submodule.alternateLocation::
submodule.alternateErrorStrategy::
Specifies how to treat errors with the alternates for a submodule
as computed via `submodule.alternateLocation`. Possible values are
- `ignore`, `info`, `die`. Default is `die`.
+ `ignore`, `info`, `die`. Default is `die`. Note that if set to `ignore`
+ or `info`, and if there is an error with the computed alternate, the
+ clone proceeds as if no alternate was specified.
diff --git a/Documentation/config/tag.txt b/Documentation/config/tag.txt
index ef5adb3..6d9110d 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/tag.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ tag.gpgSign::
Use of this option when running in an automated script can
result in a large number of tags being signed. It is therefore
convenient to use an agent to avoid typing your gpg passphrase
- several times. Note that this option doesn't affects tag signing
+ several times. Note that this option doesn't affect tag signing
behavior enabled by "-u <keyid>" or "--local-user=<keyid>" options.
tar.umask::
diff --git a/Documentation/config/trace2.txt b/Documentation/config/trace2.txt
index 2edbfb0..4ce0b9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/trace2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/trace2.txt
@@ -54,3 +54,9 @@ trace2.destinationDebug::
By default, these errors are suppressed and tracing is
silently disabled. May be overridden by the
`GIT_TRACE2_DST_DEBUG` environment variable.
+
+trace2.maxFiles::
+ Integer. When writing trace files to a target directory, do not
+ write additional traces if we would exceed this many files. Instead,
+ write a sentinel file that will block further tracing to this
+ directory. Defaults to 0, which disables this check.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index 4d846d7..fbbd410 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ Possible status letters are:
- R: renaming of a file
- T: change in the type of the file
- U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it can
-be committed)
+ be committed)
- X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report it)
Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index f10ca41..e8ed647 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,15 @@
-Generating patches with -p
---------------------------
-
-When "git-diff-index", "git-diff-tree", or "git-diff-files" are run
-with a `-p` option, "git diff" without the `--raw` option, or
-"git log" with the "-p" option, they
-do not produce the output described above; instead they produce a
-patch file. You can customize the creation of such patches via the
+Generating patch text with -p
+-----------------------------
+
+Running
+linkgit:git-diff[1],
+linkgit:git-log[1],
+linkgit:git-show[1],
+linkgit:git-diff-index[1],
+linkgit:git-diff-tree[1], or
+linkgit:git-diff-files[1]
+with the `-p` option produces patch text.
+You can customize the creation of patch text via the
`GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` and the `GIT_DIFF_OPTS` environment variables.
What the -p option produces is slightly different from the traditional
@@ -49,7 +53,7 @@ similarity index value of 100% is thus reserved for two equal
files, while 100% dissimilarity means that no line from the old
file made it into the new one.
+
-The index line includes the SHA-1 checksum before and after the change.
+The index line includes the blob object names before and after the change.
The <mode> is included if the file mode does not change; otherwise,
separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.
@@ -70,7 +74,7 @@ separate lines indicate the old and the new mode.
rename to a
-combined diff format
+Combined diff format
--------------------
Any diff-generating command can take the `-c` or `--cc` option to
@@ -80,7 +84,7 @@ linkgit:git-show[1]. Note also that you can give the `-m` option to any
of these commands to force generation of diffs with individual parents
of a merge.
-A 'combined diff' format looks like this:
+A "combined diff" format looks like this:
------------
diff --combined describe.c
@@ -113,11 +117,11 @@ index fabadb8,cc95eb0..4866510
------------
1. It is preceded with a "git diff" header, that looks like
- this (when `-c` option is used):
+ this (when the `-c` option is used):
diff --combined file
+
-or like this (when `--cc` option is used):
+or like this (when the `--cc` option is used):
diff --cc file
@@ -160,7 +164,7 @@ parents.
4. Chunk header format is modified to prevent people from
accidentally feeding it to `patch -p1`. Combined diff format
was created for review of merge commit changes, and was not
- meant for apply. The change is similar to the change in the
+ meant to be applied. The change is similar to the change in the
extended 'index' header:
@@@ <from-file-range> <from-file-range> <to-file-range> @@@
diff --git a/Documentation/doc-diff b/Documentation/doc-diff
index 3355be4..88a9b20 100755
--- a/Documentation/doc-diff
+++ b/Documentation/doc-diff
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ asciidoc use asciidoc with both commits
to-asciidoc use asciidoc with the 'to'-commit
to-asciidoctor use asciidoctor with the 'to'-commit
asciidoctor use asciidoctor with both commits
-cut-header-footer cut away header and footer
+cut-footer cut away footer
"
SUBDIRECTORY_OK=1
. "$(git --exec-path)/git-sh-setup"
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ force=
clean=
from_program=
to_program=
-cut_header_footer=
+cut_footer=
while test $# -gt 0
do
case "$1" in
@@ -55,8 +55,8 @@ do
--asciidoc)
from_program=-asciidoc
to_program=-asciidoc ;;
- --cut-header-footer)
- cut_header_footer=-cut-header-footer ;;
+ --cut-footer)
+ cut_footer=-cut-footer ;;
--)
shift; break ;;
*)
@@ -118,8 +118,8 @@ construct_makemanflags () {
from_makemanflags=$(construct_makemanflags "$from_program") &&
to_makemanflags=$(construct_makemanflags "$to_program") &&
-from_dir=$from_oid$from_program$cut_header_footer &&
-to_dir=$to_oid$to_program$cut_header_footer &&
+from_dir=$from_oid$from_program$cut_footer &&
+to_dir=$to_oid$to_program$cut_footer &&
# generate_render_makefile <srcdir> <dstdir>
generate_render_makefile () {
@@ -169,12 +169,11 @@ render_tree () {
make -j$parallel -f - &&
mv "$tmp/rendered/$dname+" "$tmp/rendered/$dname"
- if test "$cut_header_footer" = "-cut-header-footer"
+ if test "$cut_footer" = "-cut-footer"
then
for f in $(find "$tmp/rendered/$dname" -type f)
do
- tail -n +3 "$f" | head -n -2 |
- sed -e '1{/^$/d}' -e '${/^$/d}' >"$f+" &&
+ head -n -2 "$f" | sed -e '${/^$/d}' >"$f+" &&
mv "$f+" "$f" ||
return 1
done
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 3c9b4f9..a2f7862 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -92,6 +92,10 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
Run `git gc --auto` at the end to perform garbage collection
if needed. This is enabled by default.
+--[no-]write-commit-graph::
+ Write a commit-graph after fetching. This overrides the config
+ setting `fetch.writeCommitGraph`.
+
-p::
--prune::
Before fetching, remove any remote-tracking references that no
@@ -160,15 +164,27 @@ ifndef::git-pull[]
-j::
--jobs=<n>::
- Number of parallel children to be used for fetching submodules.
- Each will fetch from different submodules, such that fetching many
- submodules will be faster. By default submodules will be fetched
- one at a time.
+ Number of parallel children to be used for all forms of fetching.
++
+If the `--multiple` option was specified, the different remotes will be fetched
+in parallel. If multiple submodules are fetched, they will be fetched in
+parallel. To control them independently, use the config settings
+`fetch.parallel` and `submodule.fetchJobs` (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
++
+Typically, parallel recursive and multi-remote fetches will be faster. By
+default fetches are performed sequentially, not in parallel.
--no-recurse-submodules::
Disable recursive fetching of submodules (this has the same effect as
using the `--recurse-submodules=no` option).
+--set-upstream::
+ If the remote is fetched successfully, pull and add upstream
+ (tracking) reference, used by argument-less
+ linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
+ see `branch.<name>.merge` and `branch.<name>.remote` in
+ linkgit:git-config[1].
+
--submodule-prefix=<path>::
Prepend <path> to paths printed in informative messages
such as "Fetching submodule foo". This option is used
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 8b0e4c7..be5e3ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git add' [--verbose | -v] [--dry-run | -n] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
[--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
[--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--renormalize]
- [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--] [<pathspec>...]
+ [--chmod=(+|-)x] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -187,6 +188,19 @@ for "git add --no-all <pathspec>...", i.e. ignored removed files.
bit is only changed in the index, the files on disk are left
unchanged.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
\--::
This option can be used to separate command-line options from
the list of files, (useful when filenames might be mistaken
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index fc3b993..11ca61b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@ default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
untouched.
--show-current-patch::
- Show the patch being applied when "git am" is stopped because
+ Show the entire e-mail message "git am" has stopped at, because
of conflicts.
DISCUSSION
@@ -190,8 +190,8 @@ the commit, after stripping common prefix "[PATCH <anything>]".
The "Subject: " line is supposed to concisely describe what the
commit is about in one line of text.
-"From: " and "Subject: " lines starting the body override the respective
-commit author name and title values taken from the headers.
+"From: ", "Date: ", and "Subject: " lines starting the body override the
+respective commit author name and title values taken from the headers.
The commit message is formed by the title taken from the
"Subject: ", a blank line and the body of the message up to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index e999251..3ba49e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -158,7 +158,7 @@ Test suites are very nice. But when they are used alone, they are
supposed to be used so that all the tests are checked after each
commit. This means that they are not very efficient, because many
tests are run for no interesting result, and they suffer from
-combinational explosion.
+combinatorial explosion.
In fact the problem is that big software often has many different
configuration options and that each test case should pass for each
@@ -1350,9 +1350,9 @@ References
- [[[1]]] https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/director/planning/report02-3.pdf['The Economic Impacts of Inadequate Infratructure for Software Testing'. Nist Planning Report 02-3], see Executive Summary and Chapter 8.
- [[[2]]] http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/codeconvtoc-136057.html['Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language'. Sun Microsystems.]
- [[[3]]] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance['Software maintenance'. Wikipedia.]
-- [[[4]]] https://public-inbox.org/git/7vps5xsbwp.fsf_-_@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'.]
+- [[[4]]] https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vps5xsbwp.fsf_-_@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'.]
- [[[5]]] https://lwn.net/Articles/317154/[Christian Couder. 'Fully automated bisecting with "git bisect run"'. LWN.net.]
- [[[6]]] https://lwn.net/Articles/277872/[Jonathan Corbet. 'Bisection divides users and developers'. LWN.net.]
-- [[[7]]] http://marc.info/?l=linux-kernel&m=119702753411680&w=2[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Linux-kernel mailing list.]
+- [[[7]]] https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/20071207113734.GA14598@elte.hu/[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Linux-kernel mailing list.]
- [[[8]]] https://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-bisect.html[Junio C Hamano and the git-list. 'git-bisect(1) Manual Page'. Linux Kernel Archives.]
- [[[9]]] https://github.com/Ealdwulf/bbchop[Ealdwulf. 'bbchop'. GitHub.]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 4b45d83..7586c5a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -413,7 +413,7 @@ $ cat ~/test.sh
# tweak the working tree by merging the hot-fix branch
# and then attempt a build
-if git merge --no-commit hot-fix &&
+if git merge --no-commit --no-ff hot-fix &&
make
then
# run project specific test and report its status
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 7d6c9dc..d34b096 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ git-bundle - Move objects and refs by archive
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git bundle' create <file> <git-rev-list-args>
-'git bundle' verify <file>
+'git bundle' create [-q | --quiet | --progress | --all-progress] [--all-progress-implied] <file> <git-rev-list-args>
+'git bundle' verify [-q | --quiet] <file>
'git bundle' list-heads <file> [<refname>...]
'git bundle' unbundle <file> [<refname>...]
@@ -20,11 +20,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
be directly connected, and therefore the interactive Git protocols (git,
-ssh, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
-'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
-in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
-another repository using 'git fetch' and 'git pull'
-after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet). As no
+ssh, http) cannot be used.
+
+The 'git bundle' command packages objects and references in an archive
+at the originating machine, which can then be imported into another
+repository using 'git fetch', 'git pull', or 'git clone',
+after moving the archive by some means (e.g., by sneakernet).
+
+As no
direct connection between the repositories exists, the user must specify a
basis for the bundle that is held by the destination repository: the
bundle assumes that all objects in the basis are already in the
@@ -33,9 +36,11 @@ destination repository.
OPTIONS
-------
-create <file>::
+create [options] <file> <git-rev-list-args>::
Used to create a bundle named 'file'. This requires the
- 'git-rev-list-args' arguments to define the bundle contents.
+ '<git-rev-list-args>' arguments to define the bundle contents.
+ 'options' contains the options specific to the 'git bundle create'
+ subcommand.
verify <file>::
Used to check that a bundle file is valid and will apply
@@ -75,6 +80,33 @@ unbundle <file>::
necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git bundle' acts
like 'git fetch-pack').
+--progress::
+ Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
+ by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q
+ is specified. This flag forces progress status even if
+ the standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
+
+--all-progress::
+ When --stdout is specified then progress report is
+ displayed during the object count and compression phases
+ but inhibited during the write-out phase. The reason is
+ that in some cases the output stream is directly linked
+ to another command which may wish to display progress
+ status of its own as it processes incoming pack data.
+ This flag is like --progress except that it forces progress
+ report for the write-out phase as well even if --stdout is
+ used.
+
+--all-progress-implied::
+ This is used to imply --all-progress whenever progress display
+ is activated. Unlike --all-progress this flag doesn't actually
+ force any progress display by itself.
+
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ This flag makes the command not to report its progress
+ on the standard error stream.
+
SPECIFYING REFERENCES
---------------------
@@ -92,6 +124,14 @@ It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file
to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored
when unpacking at the destination.
+`git clone` can use any bundle created without negative refspecs
+(e.g., `new`, but not `old..new`).
+If you want to match `git clone --mirror`, which would include your
+refs such as `refs/remotes/*`, use `--all`.
+If you want to provide the same set of refs that a clone directly
+from the source repository would get, use `--branches --tags` for
+the `<git-rev-list-args>`.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 3c05782..84f41a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ OPTIONS
instead of from the command-line.
-z::
- The output format is modified to be machine-parseable.
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parsable.
If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
index 8b42cb3..8b2d49c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ OPTIONS
instead of from the command-line.
-z::
- The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parsable (see
below). If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index cf3cac0..c8fb995 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -12,14 +12,14 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] --detach [<branch>]
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [--detach] <commit>
'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-m] [[-b|-B|--orphan] <new_branch>] [<start_point>]
-'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
-'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
-'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]
+'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Updates files in the working tree to match the version in the index
-or the specified tree. If no paths are given, 'git checkout' will
+or the specified tree. If no pathspec was given, 'git checkout' will
also update `HEAD` to set the specified branch as the current
branch.
@@ -79,13 +79,14 @@ be used to detach `HEAD` at the tip of the branch (`git checkout
+
Omitting `<branch>` detaches `HEAD` at the tip of the current branch.
-'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]::
- Overwrite paths in the working tree by replacing with the
- contents in the index or in the `<tree-ish>` (most often a
- commit). When a `<tree-ish>` is given, the paths that
- match the `<pathspec>` are updated both in the index and in
- the working tree.
+ Overwrite the contents of the files that match the pathspec.
+ When the `<tree-ish>` (most often a commit) is not given,
+ overwrite working tree with the contents in the index.
+ When the `<tree-ish>` is given, overwrite both the index and
+ the working tree with the contents at the `<tree-ish>`.
+
The index may contain unmerged entries because of a previous failed merge.
By default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
@@ -96,12 +97,10 @@ using `--ours` or `--theirs`. With `-m`, changes made to the working tree
file can be discarded to re-create the original conflicted merge result.
'git checkout' (-p|--patch) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
- This is similar to the "check out paths to the working tree
- from either the index or from a tree-ish" mode described
- above, but lets you use the interactive interface to show
- the "diff" output and choose which hunks to use in the
- result. See below for the description of `--patch` option.
-
+ This is similar to the previous mode, but lets you use the
+ interactive interface to show the "diff" output and choose which
+ hunks to use in the result. See below for the description of
+ `--patch` option.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -309,6 +308,19 @@ Note that this option uses the no overlay mode by default (see also
working tree, but not in `<tree-ish>` are removed, to make them
match `<tree-ish>` exactly.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
<branch>::
Branch to checkout; if it refers to a branch (i.e., a name that,
when prepended with "refs/heads/", is a valid ref), then that
@@ -339,7 +351,13 @@ leave out at most one of `A` and `B`, in which case it defaults to `HEAD`.
Tree to checkout from (when paths are given). If not specified,
the index will be used.
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+<pathspec>...::
+ Limits the paths affected by the operation.
++
+For more details, see the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
DETACHED HEAD
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 0028ff1..a7f309d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -26,18 +26,20 @@ are affected.
OPTIONS
-------
-d::
- Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
- If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git
- repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice
- if you really want to remove such a directory.
+ Normally, when no <path> is specified, git clean will not
+ recurse into untracked directories to avoid removing too much.
+ Specify -d to have it recurse into such directories as well.
+ If any paths are specified, -d is irrelevant; all untracked
+ files matching the specified paths (with exceptions for nested
+ git directories mentioned under `--force`) will be removed.
-f::
--force::
If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
to false, 'git clean' will refuse to delete files or directories
- unless given -f, -n or -i. Git will refuse to delete directories
- with .git sub directory or file unless a second -f
- is given.
+ unless given -f or -i. Git will refuse to modify untracked
+ nested git repositories (directories with a .git subdirectory)
+ unless a second -f is given.
-i::
--interactive::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 34011c2..bf24f18 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
[--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch] [--no-tags]
[--recurse-submodules[=<pathspec>]] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
- [--[no-]remote-submodules] [--jobs <n>] [--] <repository>
+ [--[no-]remote-submodules] [--jobs <n>] [--sparse] [--] <repository>
[<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -156,6 +156,12 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
used, neither remote-tracking branches nor the related
configuration variables are created.
+--sparse::
+ Initialize the sparse-checkout file so the working
+ directory starts with only the files in the root
+ of the repository. The sparse-checkout file can be
+ modified to grow the working directory as needed.
+
--mirror::
Set up a mirror of the source repository. This implies `--bare`.
Compared to `--bare`, `--mirror` not only maps local branches of the
@@ -262,9 +268,9 @@ or `--mirror` is given)
All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a depth of 1.
--[no-]remote-submodules::
- All submodules which are cloned will use the status of the submodule’s
+ All submodules which are cloned will use the status of the submodule's
remote-tracking branch to update the submodule, rather than the
- superproject’s recorded SHA-1. Equivalent to passing `--remote` to
+ superproject's recorded SHA-1. Equivalent to passing `--remote` to
`git submodule update`.
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
index eb5e786..bcd85c1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,8 @@ git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit-graph files
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
-'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>] [--shallow]
-'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>] [--shallow] [--[no-]progress]
+'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>] [--[no-]progress]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -29,6 +28,9 @@ OPTIONS
commit-graph file is expected to be in the `<dir>/info` directory and
the packfiles are expected to be in `<dir>/pack`.
+--[no-]progress::
+ Turn progress on/off explicitly. If neither is specified, progress is
+ shown if standard error is connected to a terminal.
COMMANDS
--------
@@ -71,11 +73,6 @@ Finally, if `--expire-time=<datetime>` is not specified, let `datetime`
be the current time. After writing the split commit-graph, delete all
unused commit-graph whose modified times are older than `datetime`.
-'read'::
-
-Read the commit-graph file and output basic details about it.
-Used for debugging purposes.
-
'verify'::
Read the commit-graph file and verify its contents against the object
@@ -115,12 +112,6 @@ $ git show-ref -s | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits
$ git rev-parse HEAD | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits --append
------------------------------------------------
-* Read basic information from the commit-graph file.
-+
-------------------------------------------------
-$ git commit-graph read
-------------------------------------------------
-
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 7628193..ced5a9b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
[--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
- [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
+ [-i | -o] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]
+ [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -278,22 +279,37 @@ FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
already been staged. If used together with `--allow-empty`
paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be created.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
-u[<mode>]::
--untracked-files[=<mode>]::
Show untracked files.
+
+--
The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
-+
+
The possible options are:
-+
+
- 'no' - Show no untracked files
- 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
- 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
-+
+
The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+--
-v::
--verbose::
@@ -343,12 +359,13 @@ changes to tracked files.
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
-<file>...::
- When files are given on the command line, the command
- commits the contents of the named files, without
- recording the changes already staged. The contents of
- these files are also staged for the next commit on top
- of what have been staged before.
+<pathspec>...::
+ When pathspec is given on the command line, commit the contents of
+ the files that match the pathspec without recording the changes
+ already added to the index. The contents of these files are also
+ staged for the next commit on top of what have been staged before.
++
+For more details, see the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
:git-commit: 1
include::date-formats.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index ff9310f..899e92a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -339,33 +339,35 @@ EXAMPLES
Given a .git/config like this:
- #
- # This is the config file, and
- # a '#' or ';' character indicates
- # a comment
- #
-
- ; core variables
- [core]
- ; Don't trust file modes
- filemode = false
-
- ; Our diff algorithm
- [diff]
- external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
- renames = true
-
- ; Proxy settings
- [core]
- gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
- gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
-
- ; HTTP
- [http]
- sslVerify
- [http "https://weak.example.com"]
- sslVerify = false
- cookieFile = /tmp/cookie.txt
+------------
+#
+# This is the config file, and
+# a '#' or ';' character indicates
+# a comment
+#
+
+; core variables
+[core]
+ ; Don't trust file modes
+ filemode = false
+
+; Our diff algorithm
+[diff]
+ external = /usr/local/bin/diff-wrapper
+ renames = true
+
+; Proxy settings
+[core]
+ gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
+ gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
+
+; HTTP
+[http]
+ sslVerify
+[http "https://weak.example.com"]
+ sslVerify = false
+ cookieFile = /tmp/cookie.txt
+------------
you can set the filemode to true with
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
index b211440..6f0c7ca 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -19,8 +19,7 @@ from system-specific helpers, as well as prompting the user for
usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
credentials in the same manner as Git. The design of this scriptable
-interface models the internal C API; see
-link:technical/api-credentials.html[the Git credential API] for more
+interface models the internal C API; see credential.h for more
background on the concepts.
git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index 79e22b1..1b1c71a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -294,7 +294,7 @@ In `dbDriver` and `dbUser` you can use the following variables:
Git directory name
%g::
Git directory name, where all characters except for
- alpha-numeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
+ alphanumeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
`_` (this should make it easier to use the directory
name in a filename if wanted)
%m::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index 72179d9..37781cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
running the command in a working tree controlled by Git and
at least one of the paths points outside the working tree,
or when running the command outside a working tree
- controlled by Git.
+ controlled by Git. This form implies `--exit-code`.
'git diff' [<options>] --cached [<commit>] [--] [<path>...]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index cc940eb..e8950de 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -17,9 +17,9 @@ This program dumps the given revisions in a form suitable to be piped
into 'git fast-import'.
You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement (see
-linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a kind of an interactive
-'git filter-branch'.
-
+linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a format that can be edited before being
+fed to 'git fast-import' in order to do history rewrites (an ability
+relied on by tools like 'git filter-repo').
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -75,11 +75,20 @@ produced incorrect results if you gave these options.
Before processing any input, load the marks specified in
<file>. The input file must exist, must be readable, and
must use the same format as produced by --export-marks.
+
+--mark-tags::
+ In addition to labelling blobs and commits with mark ids, also
+ label tags. This is useful in conjunction with
+ `--export-marks` and `--import-marks`, and is also useful (and
+ necessary) for exporting of nested tags. It does not hurt
+ other cases and would be the default, but many fast-import
+ frontends are not prepared to accept tags with mark
+ identifiers.
+
-Any commits that have already been marked will not be exported again.
-If the backend uses a similar --import-marks file, this allows for
-incremental bidirectional exporting of the repository by keeping the
-marks the same across runs.
+Any commits (or tags) that have already been marked will not be
+exported again. If the backend uses a similar --import-marks file,
+this allows for incremental bidirectional exporting of the repository
+by keeping the marks the same across runs.
--fake-missing-tagger::
Some old repositories have tags without a tagger. The
@@ -133,7 +142,7 @@ marks the same across runs.
Specify how to handle `encoding` header in commit objects. When
asking to 'abort' (which is the default), this program will die
when encountering such a commit object. With 'yes', the commit
- message will be reencoded into UTF-8. With 'no', the original
+ message will be re-encoded into UTF-8. With 'no', the original
encoding will be preserved.
--refspec::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 916611d..7889f95 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -352,6 +352,13 @@ and control the current import process. More detailed discussion
`commit` command. This command is optional and is not
needed to perform an import.
+`alias`::
+ Record that a mark refers to a given object without first
+ creating any new object. Using --import-marks and referring
+ to missing marks will cause fast-import to fail, so aliases
+ can provide a way to set otherwise pruned commits to a valid
+ value (e.g. the nearest non-pruned ancestor).
+
`checkpoint`::
Forces fast-import to close the current packfile, generate its
unique SHA-1 checksum and index, and start a new packfile.
@@ -406,7 +413,7 @@ change to the project.
('encoding' SP <encoding>)?
data
('from' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
- ('merge' SP <commit-ish> LF)?
+ ('merge' SP <commit-ish> LF)*
(filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)*
LF?
....
@@ -789,6 +796,7 @@ lightweight (non-annotated) tags see the `reset` command below.
....
'tag' SP <name> LF
+ mark?
'from' SP <commit-ish> LF
original-oid?
'tagger' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
@@ -928,6 +936,21 @@ a data chunk which does not have an LF as its last byte.
+
The `LF` after `<delim> LF` is optional (it used to be required).
+`alias`
+~~~~~~~
+Record that a mark refers to a given object without first creating any
+new object.
+
+....
+ 'alias' LF
+ mark
+ 'to' SP <commit-ish> LF
+ LF?
+....
+
+For a detailed description of `<commit-ish>` see above under `from`.
+
+
`checkpoint`
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Forces fast-import to close the current packfile, start a new one, and to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 6b53dd7..a530fef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -16,6 +16,19 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--original <namespace>] [-d <directory>] [-f | --force]
[--state-branch <branch>] [--] [<rev-list options>...]
+WARNING
+-------
+'git filter-branch' has a plethora of pitfalls that can produce non-obvious
+manglings of the intended history rewrite (and can leave you with little
+time to investigate such problems since it has such abysmal performance).
+These safety and performance issues cannot be backward compatibly fixed and
+as such, its use is not recommended. Please use an alternative history
+filtering tool such as https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo/[git
+filter-repo]. If you still need to use 'git filter-branch', please
+carefully read <<SAFETY>> (and <<PERFORMANCE>>) to learn about the land
+mines of filter-branch, and then vigilantly avoid as many of the hazards
+listed there as reasonably possible.
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Lets you rewrite Git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
@@ -445,36 +458,245 @@ warned.
(or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
`--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
-NOTES
------
-
-git-filter-branch allows you to make complex shell-scripted rewrites
-of your Git history, but you probably don't need this flexibility if
-you're simply _removing unwanted data_ like large files or passwords.
-For those operations you may want to consider
-http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/[The BFG Repo-Cleaner],
-a JVM-based alternative to git-filter-branch, typically at least
-10-50x faster for those use-cases, and with quite different
-characteristics:
-
-* Any particular version of a file is cleaned exactly _once_. The BFG,
- unlike git-filter-branch, does not give you the opportunity to
- handle a file differently based on where or when it was committed
- within your history. This constraint gives the core performance
- benefit of The BFG, and is well-suited to the task of cleansing bad
- data - you don't care _where_ the bad data is, you just want it
- _gone_.
-
-* By default The BFG takes full advantage of multi-core machines,
- cleansing commit file-trees in parallel. git-filter-branch cleans
- commits sequentially (i.e. in a single-threaded manner), though it
- _is_ possible to write filters that include their own parallelism,
- in the scripts executed against each commit.
-
-* The http://rtyley.github.io/bfg-repo-cleaner/#examples[command options]
- are much more restrictive than git-filter branch, and dedicated just
- to the tasks of removing unwanted data- e.g:
- `--strip-blobs-bigger-than 1M`.
+[[PERFORMANCE]]
+PERFORMANCE
+-----------
+
+The performance of git-filter-branch is glacially slow; its design makes it
+impossible for a backward-compatible implementation to ever be fast:
+
+* In editing files, git-filter-branch by design checks out each and
+ every commit as it existed in the original repo. If your repo has
+ 10\^5 files and 10\^5 commits, but each commit only modifies 5
+ files, then git-filter-branch will make you do 10\^10 modifications,
+ despite only having (at most) 5*10^5 unique blobs.
+
+* If you try and cheat and try to make git-filter-branch only work on
+ files modified in a commit, then two things happen
+
+ ** you run into problems with deletions whenever the user is simply
+ trying to rename files (because attempting to delete files that
+ don't exist looks like a no-op; it takes some chicanery to remap
+ deletes across file renames when the renames happen via arbitrary
+ user-provided shell)
+
+ ** even if you succeed at the map-deletes-for-renames chicanery, you
+ still technically violate backward compatibility because users
+ are allowed to filter files in ways that depend upon topology of
+ commits instead of filtering solely based on file contents or
+ names (though this has not been observed in the wild).
+
+* Even if you don't need to edit files but only want to e.g. rename or
+ remove some and thus can avoid checking out each file (i.e. you can
+ use --index-filter), you still are passing shell snippets for your
+ filters. This means that for every commit, you have to have a
+ prepared git repo where those filters can be run. That's a
+ significant setup.
+
+* Further, several additional files are created or updated per commit
+ by git-filter-branch. Some of these are for supporting the
+ convenience functions provided by git-filter-branch (such as map()),
+ while others are for keeping track of internal state (but could have
+ also been accessed by user filters; one of git-filter-branch's
+ regression tests does so). This essentially amounts to using the
+ filesystem as an IPC mechanism between git-filter-branch and the
+ user-provided filters. Disks tend to be a slow IPC mechanism, and
+ writing these files also effectively represents a forced
+ synchronization point between separate processes that we hit with
+ every commit.
+
+* The user-provided shell commands will likely involve a pipeline of
+ commands, resulting in the creation of many processes per commit.
+ Creating and running another process takes a widely varying amount
+ of time between operating systems, but on any platform it is very
+ slow relative to invoking a function.
+
+* git-filter-branch itself is written in shell, which is kind of slow.
+ This is the one performance issue that could be backward-compatibly
+ fixed, but compared to the above problems that are intrinsic to the
+ design of git-filter-branch, the language of the tool itself is a
+ relatively minor issue.
+
+ ** Side note: Unfortunately, people tend to fixate on the
+ written-in-shell aspect and periodically ask if git-filter-branch
+ could be rewritten in another language to fix the performance
+ issues. Not only does that ignore the bigger intrinsic problems
+ with the design, it'd help less than you'd expect: if
+ git-filter-branch itself were not shell, then the convenience
+ functions (map(), skip_commit(), etc) and the `--setup` argument
+ could no longer be executed once at the beginning of the program
+ but would instead need to be prepended to every user filter (and
+ thus re-executed with every commit).
+
+The https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo/[git filter-repo] tool is
+an alternative to git-filter-branch which does not suffer from these
+performance problems or the safety problems (mentioned below). For those
+with existing tooling which relies upon git-filter-branch, 'git
+repo-filter' also provides
+https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo/blob/master/contrib/filter-repo-demos/filter-lamely[filter-lamely],
+a drop-in git-filter-branch replacement (with a few caveats). While
+filter-lamely suffers from all the same safety issues as
+git-filter-branch, it at least ameliorates the performance issues a
+little.
+
+[[SAFETY]]
+SAFETY
+------
+
+git-filter-branch is riddled with gotchas resulting in various ways to
+easily corrupt repos or end up with a mess worse than what you started
+with:
+
+* Someone can have a set of "working and tested filters" which they
+ document or provide to a coworker, who then runs them on a different
+ OS where the same commands are not working/tested (some examples in
+ the git-filter-branch manpage are also affected by this).
+ BSD vs. GNU userland differences can really bite. If lucky, error
+ messages are spewed. But just as likely, the commands either don't
+ do the filtering requested, or silently corrupt by making some
+ unwanted change. The unwanted change may only affect a few commits,
+ so it's not necessarily obvious either. (The fact that problems
+ won't necessarily be obvious means they are likely to go unnoticed
+ until the rewritten history is in use for quite a while, at which
+ point it's really hard to justify another flag-day for another
+ rewrite.)
+
+* Filenames with spaces are often mishandled by shell snippets since
+ they cause problems for shell pipelines. Not everyone is familiar
+ with find -print0, xargs -0, git-ls-files -z, etc. Even people who
+ are familiar with these may assume such flags are not relevant
+ because someone else renamed any such files in their repo back
+ before the person doing the filtering joined the project. And
+ often, even those familiar with handling arguments with spaces may
+ not do so just because they aren't in the mindset of thinking about
+ everything that could possibly go wrong.
+
+* Non-ascii filenames can be silently removed despite being in a
+ desired directory. Keeping only wanted paths is often done using
+ pipelines like `git ls-files | grep -v ^WANTED_DIR/ | xargs git rm`.
+ ls-files will only quote filenames if needed, so folks may not
+ notice that one of the files didn't match the regex (at least not
+ until it's much too late). Yes, someone who knows about
+ core.quotePath can avoid this (unless they have other special
+ characters like \t, \n, or "), and people who use ls-files -z with
+ something other than grep can avoid this, but that doesn't mean they
+ will.
+
+* Similarly, when moving files around, one can find that filenames
+ with non-ascii or special characters end up in a different
+ directory, one that includes a double quote character. (This is
+ technically the same issue as above with quoting, but perhaps an
+ interesting different way that it can and has manifested as a
+ problem.)
+
+* It's far too easy to accidentally mix up old and new history. It's
+ still possible with any tool, but git-filter-branch almost
+ invites it. If lucky, the only downside is users getting frustrated
+ that they don't know how to shrink their repo and remove the old
+ stuff. If unlucky, they merge old and new history and end up with
+ multiple "copies" of each commit, some of which have unwanted or
+ sensitive files and others which don't. This comes about in
+ multiple different ways:
+
+ ** the default to only doing a partial history rewrite ('--all' is not
+ the default and few examples show it)
+
+ ** the fact that there's no automatic post-run cleanup
+
+ ** the fact that --tag-name-filter (when used to rename tags) doesn't
+ remove the old tags but just adds new ones with the new name
+
+ ** the fact that little educational information is provided to inform
+ users of the ramifications of a rewrite and how to avoid mixing old
+ and new history. For example, this man page discusses how users
+ need to understand that they need to rebase their changes for all
+ their branches on top of new history (or delete and reclone), but
+ that's only one of multiple concerns to consider. See the
+ "DISCUSSION" section of the git filter-repo manual page for more
+ details.
+
+* Annotated tags can be accidentally converted to lightweight tags,
+ due to either of two issues:
+
+ ** Someone can do a history rewrite, realize they messed up, restore
+ from the backups in refs/original/, and then redo their
+ git-filter-branch command. (The backup in refs/original/ is not a
+ real backup; it dereferences tags first.)
+
+ ** Running git-filter-branch with either --tags or --all in your
+ <rev-list options>. In order to retain annotated tags as
+ annotated, you must use --tag-name-filter (and must not have
+ restored from refs/original/ in a previously botched rewrite).
+
+* Any commit messages that specify an encoding will become corrupted
+ by the rewrite; git-filter-branch ignores the encoding, takes the
+ original bytes, and feeds it to commit-tree without telling it the
+ proper encoding. (This happens whether or not --msg-filter is
+ used.)
+
+* Commit messages (even if they are all UTF-8) by default become
+ corrupted due to not being updated -- any references to other commit
+ hashes in commit messages will now refer to no-longer-extant
+ commits.
+
+* There are no facilities for helping users find what unwanted crud
+ they should delete, which means they are much more likely to have
+ incomplete or partial cleanups that sometimes result in confusion
+ and people wasting time trying to understand. (For example, folks
+ tend to just look for big files to delete instead of big directories
+ or extensions, and once they do so, then sometime later folks using
+ the new repository who are going through history will notice a build
+ artifact directory that has some files but not others, or a cache of
+ dependencies (node_modules or similar) which couldn't have ever been
+ functional since it's missing some files.)
+
+* If --prune-empty isn't specified, then the filtering process can
+ create hoards of confusing empty commits
+
+* If --prune-empty is specified, then intentionally placed empty
+ commits from before the filtering operation are also pruned instead
+ of just pruning commits that became empty due to filtering rules.
+
+* If --prune-empty is specified, sometimes empty commits are missed
+ and left around anyway (a somewhat rare bug, but it happens...)
+
+* A minor issue, but users who have a goal to update all names and
+ emails in a repository may be led to --env-filter which will only
+ update authors and committers, missing taggers.
+
+* If the user provides a --tag-name-filter that maps multiple tags to
+ the same name, no warning or error is provided; git-filter-branch
+ simply overwrites each tag in some undocumented pre-defined order
+ resulting in only one tag at the end. (A git-filter-branch
+ regression test requires this surprising behavior.)
+
+Also, the poor performance of git-filter-branch often leads to safety
+issues:
+
+* Coming up with the correct shell snippet to do the filtering you
+ want is sometimes difficult unless you're just doing a trivial
+ modification such as deleting a couple files. Unfortunately, people
+ often learn if the snippet is right or wrong by trying it out, but
+ the rightness or wrongness can vary depending on special
+ circumstances (spaces in filenames, non-ascii filenames, funny
+ author names or emails, invalid timezones, presence of grafts or
+ replace objects, etc.), meaning they may have to wait a long time,
+ hit an error, then restart. The performance of git-filter-branch is
+ so bad that this cycle is painful, reducing the time available to
+ carefully re-check (to say nothing about what it does to the
+ patience of the person doing the rewrite even if they do technically
+ have more time available). This problem is extra compounded because
+ errors from broken filters may not be shown for a long time and/or
+ get lost in a sea of output. Even worse, broken filters often just
+ result in silent incorrect rewrites.
+
+* To top it all off, even when users finally find working commands,
+ they naturally want to share them. But they may be unaware that
+ their repo didn't have some special cases that someone else's does.
+ So, when someone else with a different repository runs the same
+ commands, they get hit by the problems above. Or, the user just
+ runs commands that really were vetted for special cases, but they
+ run it on a different OS where it doesn't work, as noted above.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index b9b97e6..0d4f895 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -17,9 +17,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--signature-file=<file>]
[-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
- [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
+ [--in-reply-to=<message id>] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
[--ignore-if-in-upstream]
- [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
+ [--cover-from-description=<mode>]
+ [--rfc] [--subject-prefix=<subject prefix>]
[(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
[--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet]
@@ -66,7 +67,8 @@ they are created in the current working directory. The default path
can be set with the `format.outputDirectory` configuration option.
The `-o` option takes precedence over `format.outputDirectory`.
To store patches in the current working directory even when
-`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`.
+`format.outputDirectory` points elsewhere, use `-o .`. All directory
+components will be created.
By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
@@ -159,9 +161,9 @@ Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
itself. If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
---in-reply-to=Message-Id::
+--in-reply-to=<message id>::
Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
- reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
+ reply to the given <message id>, which avoids breaking threads to
provide a new patch series.
--ignore-if-in-upstream::
@@ -171,9 +173,29 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
patches being generated, and any patch that matches is
ignored.
---subject-prefix=<Subject-Prefix>::
+--cover-from-description=<mode>::
+ Controls which parts of the cover letter will be automatically
+ populated using the branch's description.
++
+If `<mode>` is `message` or `default`, the cover letter subject will be
+populated with placeholder text. The body of the cover letter will be
+populated with the branch's description. This is the default mode when
+no configuration nor command line option is specified.
++
+If `<mode>` is `subject`, the first paragraph of the branch description will
+populate the cover letter subject. The remainder of the description will
+populate the body of the cover letter.
++
+If `<mode>` is `auto`, if the first paragraph of the branch description
+is greater than 100 bytes, then the mode will be `message`, otherwise
+`subject` will be used.
++
+If `<mode>` is `none`, both the cover letter subject and body will be
+populated with placeholder text.
+
+--subject-prefix=<subject prefix>::
Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
- line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
+ line, instead use '[<subject prefix>]'. This
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
combined with the `--numbered` option.
@@ -311,10 +333,12 @@ you can use `--suffix=-patch` to get `0001-description-of-my-change-patch`.
Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
of the hash of the commit.
---base=<commit>::
+--[no-]base[=<commit>]::
Record the base tree information to identify the state the
patch series applies to. See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
- below for details.
+ below for details. If <commit> is "auto", a base commit is
+ automatically chosen. The `--no-base` option overrides a
+ `format.useAutoBase` configuration.
--root::
Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
@@ -330,8 +354,9 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
-outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
-attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
+outputting more than one patch, add "To:" or "Cc:" headers, configure
+attachments, change the patch output directory, and sign off patches
+with configuration variables.
------------
[format]
@@ -343,7 +368,9 @@ attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
cc = <email>
attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
signOff = true
- coverletter = auto
+ outputDirectory = <directory>
+ coverLetter = auto
+ coverFromDescription = auto
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 247f765..0c114ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -115,15 +115,14 @@ NOTES
-----
'git gc' tries very hard not to delete objects that are referenced
-anywhere in your repository. In
-particular, it will keep not only objects referenced by your current set
-of branches and tags, but also objects referenced by the index,
-remote-tracking branches, refs saved by 'git filter-branch' in
-refs/original/, reflogs (which may reference commits in branches
-that were later amended or rewound), and anything else in the refs/* namespace.
-If you are expecting some objects to be deleted and they aren't, check
-all of those locations and decide whether it makes sense in your case to
-remove those references.
+anywhere in your repository. In particular, it will keep not only
+objects referenced by your current set of branches and tags, but also
+objects referenced by the index, remote-tracking branches, notes saved
+by 'git notes' under refs/notes/, reflogs (which may reference commits
+in branches that were later amended or rewound), and anything else in
+the refs/* namespace. If you are expecting some objects to be deleted
+and they aren't, check all of those locations and decide whether it
+makes sense in your case to remove those references.
On the other hand, when 'git gc' runs concurrently with another process,
there is a risk of it deleting an object that the other process is using
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 2d27969..c89fb56 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -271,6 +271,23 @@ providing this option will cause it to die.
-f <file>::
Read patterns from <file>, one per line.
++
+Passing the pattern via <file> allows for providing a search pattern
+containing a \0.
++
+Not all pattern types support patterns containing \0. Git will error
+out if a given pattern type can't support such a pattern. The
+`--perl-regexp` pattern type when compiled against the PCRE v2 backend
+has the widest support for these types of patterns.
++
+In versions of Git before 2.23.0 patterns containing \0 would be
+silently considered fixed. This was never documented, there were also
+odd and undocumented interactions between e.g. non-ASCII patterns
+containing \0 and `--ignore-case`.
++
+In future versions we may learn to support patterns containing \0 for
+more search backends, until then we'll die when the pattern type in
+question doesn't support them.
-e::
The next parameter is the pattern. This option has to be
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 5f93f80..c9d7e96 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -112,15 +112,9 @@ Other
versions are distributed as part of the Git suite for the convenience
of end users.
-A 'git gui' development repository can be obtained from:
+The official repository of the 'git gui' project can be found at:
- git clone git://repo.or.cz/git-gui.git
-
-or
-
- git clone http://repo.or.cz/r/git-gui.git
-
-or browsed online at http://repo.or.cz/w/git-gui.git/[].
+ https://github.com/prati0100/git-gui.git/
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index b406bc4..bed09bb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -76,8 +76,12 @@ produced by `--stat`, etc.
(or the function name regex <funcname>) within the <file>. You may
not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
- give zero or one positive revision arguments.
- You can specify this option more than once.
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments, and
+ <start> and <end> (or <funcname>) must exist in the starting revision.
+ You can specify this option more than once. Implies `--patch`.
+ Patch output can be suppressed using `--no-patch`, but other diff formats
+ (namely `--raw`, `--numstat`, `--shortstat`, `--dirstat`, `--summary`,
+ `--name-only`, `--name-status`, `--check`) are not currently implemented.
+
include::line-range-format.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 0b057cb..a2ea1fd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -92,21 +92,23 @@ OPTIONS
EXAMPLES
--------
- $ git ls-remote --tags ./.
- d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
- f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
- 7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
- c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
- 0918385dbd9656cab0d1d81ba7453d49bbc16250 refs/tags/junio-gpg-pub
- $ git ls-remote http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master pu rc
- 5fe978a5381f1fbad26a80e682ddd2a401966740 refs/heads/master
- c781a84b5204fb294c9ccc79f8b3baceeb32c061 refs/heads/pu
- $ git remote add korg http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
- $ git ls-remote --tags korg v\*
- d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
- f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
- c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
- 7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
+----
+$ git ls-remote --tags ./.
+d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
+f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
+7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
+c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
+0918385dbd9656cab0d1d81ba7453d49bbc16250 refs/tags/junio-gpg-pub
+$ git ls-remote http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git master pu rc
+5fe978a5381f1fbad26a80e682ddd2a401966740 refs/heads/master
+c781a84b5204fb294c9ccc79f8b3baceeb32c061 refs/heads/pu
+$ git remote add korg http://www.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
+$ git ls-remote --tags korg v\*
+d6602ec5194c87b0fc87103ca4d67251c76f233a refs/tags/v0.99
+f25a265a342aed6041ab0cc484224d9ca54b6f41 refs/tags/v0.99.1
+c5db5456ae3b0873fc659c19fafdde22313cc441 refs/tags/v0.99.2
+7ceca275d047c90c0c7d5afb13ab97efdf51bd6e refs/tags/v0.99.3
+----
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 261d5c1..2d944e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -80,9 +80,11 @@ which is reachable from both 'A' and 'B' through the parent relationship.
For example, with this topology:
- o---o---o---B
- /
- ---o---1---o---o---o---A
+....
+ o---o---o---B
+ /
+---o---1---o---o---o---A
+....
the merge base between 'A' and 'B' is '1'.
@@ -90,21 +92,25 @@ Given three commits 'A', 'B' and 'C', `git merge-base A B C` will compute the
merge base between 'A' and a hypothetical commit 'M', which is a merge
between 'B' and 'C'. For example, with this topology:
- o---o---o---o---C
- /
- / o---o---o---B
- / /
- ---2---1---o---o---o---A
+....
+ o---o---o---o---C
+ /
+ / o---o---o---B
+ / /
+---2---1---o---o---o---A
+....
the result of `git merge-base A B C` is '1'. This is because the
equivalent topology with a merge commit 'M' between 'B' and 'C' is:
- o---o---o---o---o
- / \
- / o---o---o---o---M
- / /
- ---2---1---o---o---o---A
+....
+ o---o---o---o---o
+ / \
+ / o---o---o---o---M
+ / /
+---2---1---o---o---o---A
+....
and the result of `git merge-base A M` is '1'. Commit '2' is also a
common ancestor between 'A' and 'M', but '1' is a better common ancestor,
@@ -116,11 +122,13 @@ the best common ancestor of all commits.
When the history involves criss-cross merges, there can be more than one
'best' common ancestor for two commits. For example, with this topology:
- ---1---o---A
- \ /
- X
- / \
- ---2---o---o---B
+....
+---1---o---A
+ \ /
+ X
+ / \
+---2---o---o---B
+....
both '1' and '2' are merge-bases of A and B. Neither one is better than
the other (both are 'best' merge bases). When the `--all` option is not given,
@@ -131,18 +139,22 @@ and B is (or at least used to be) to compute the merge base between
A and B, and check if it is the same as A, in which case, A is an
ancestor of B. You will see this idiom used often in older scripts.
- A=$(git rev-parse --verify A)
- if test "$A" = "$(git merge-base A B)"
- then
- ... A is an ancestor of B ...
- fi
+....
+A=$(git rev-parse --verify A)
+if test "$A" = "$(git merge-base A B)"
+then
+ ... A is an ancestor of B ...
+fi
+....
In modern git, you can say this in a more direct way:
- if git merge-base --is-ancestor A B
- then
- ... A is an ancestor of B ...
- fi
+....
+if git merge-base --is-ancestor A B
+then
+ ... A is an ancestor of B ...
+fi
+....
instead.
@@ -154,13 +166,15 @@ topic origin/master`, the history of remote-tracking branch
`origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
history of this shape:
- o---B2
- /
- ---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
- \
- B0
- \
- D0---D1---D (topic)
+....
+ o---B2
+ /
+---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \
+ B0
+ \
+ D0---D1---D (topic)
+....
where `origin/master` used to point at commits B0, B1, B2 and now it
points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
@@ -193,13 +207,15 @@ will find B0, and
will replay D0, D1 and D on top of B to create a new history of this
shape:
- o---B2
- /
- ---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
- \ \
- B0 D0'--D1'--D' (topic - updated)
- \
- D0---D1---D (topic - old)
+....
+ o---B2
+ /
+---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
+ \ \
+ B0 D0'--D1'--D' (topic - updated)
+ \
+ D0---D1---D (topic - old)
+....
A caveat is that older reflog entries in your repository may be
expired by `git gc`. If B0 no longer appears in the reflog of the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index 02676fb..2ab84a9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -54,20 +54,24 @@ original is first. But the argument order to the 3-way merge program
Examples:
- torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git merge-index cat MM
- This is MM from the original tree. # original
- This is modified MM in the branch A. # merge1
- This is modified MM in the branch B. # merge2
- This is modified MM in the branch B. # current contents
+----
+torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git merge-index cat MM
+This is MM from the original tree. # original
+This is modified MM in the branch A. # merge1
+This is modified MM in the branch B. # merge2
+This is modified MM in the branch B. # current contents
+----
or
- torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git merge-index cat AA MM
- cat: : No such file or directory
- This is added AA in the branch A.
- This is added AA in the branch B.
- This is added AA in the branch B.
- fatal: merge program failed
+----
+torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git merge-index cat AA MM
+cat: : No such file or directory
+This is added AA in the branch A.
+This is added AA in the branch B.
+This is added AA in the branch B.
+fatal: merge program failed
+----
where the latter example shows how 'git merge-index' will stop trying to
merge once anything has returned an error (i.e., `cat` returned an error
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 01fd52d..092529c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
- [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
+ [--no-verify] [-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [-F <file>] [<commit>...]
'git merge' (--continue | --abort | --quit)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt b/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
index 233b2b7..642d9ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-multi-pack-index - Write and verify multi-pack-indexes
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git multi-pack-index' [--object-dir=<dir>] <subcommand>
+'git multi-pack-index' [--object-dir=<dir>] [--[no-]progress] <subcommand>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -23,6 +23,10 @@ OPTIONS
`<dir>/packs/multi-pack-index` for the current MIDX file, and
`<dir>/packs` for the pack-files to index.
+--[no-]progress::
+ Turn progress on/off explicitly. If neither is specified, progress is
+ shown if standard error is connected to a terminal.
+
The following subcommands are available:
write::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index f56a5a9..ced2e82 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git notes' [list [<object>]]
'git notes' add [-f] [--allow-empty] [-F <file> | -m <msg> | (-c | -C) <object>] [<object>]
-'git notes' copy [-f] ( --stdin | <from-object> <to-object> )
+'git notes' copy [-f] ( --stdin | <from-object> [<to-object>] )
'git notes' append [--allow-empty] [-F <file> | -m <msg> | (-c | -C) <object>] [<object>]
'git notes' edit [--allow-empty] [<object>]
'git notes' show [<object>]
@@ -68,8 +68,8 @@ add::
subcommand).
copy::
- Copy the notes for the first object onto the second object.
- Abort if the second object already has notes, or if the first
+ Copy the notes for the first object onto the second object (defaults to
+ HEAD). Abort if the second object already has notes, or if the first
object has none (use -f to overwrite existing notes to the
second object). This subcommand is equivalent to:
`git notes add [-f] -C $(git notes list <from-object>) <to-object>`
diff --git a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
index 8a6ea2c..9701c1e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
@@ -57,6 +57,10 @@ to revert to color all lines according to the outer diff markers
See the ``Algorithm`` section below for an explanation why this is
needed.
+--[no-]notes[=<ref>]::
+ This flag is passed to the `git log` program
+ (see linkgit:git-log[1]) that generates the patches.
+
<range1> <range2>::
Compare the commits specified by the two ranges, where
`<range1>` is considered an older version of `<range2>`.
@@ -75,7 +79,7 @@ to revert to color all lines according to the outer diff markers
linkgit:git-diff[1]), most notably the `--color=[<when>]` and
`--no-color` options. These options are used when generating the "diff
between patches", i.e. to compare the author, commit message and diff of
-corresponding old/new commits. There is currently no means to tweak the
+corresponding old/new commits. There is currently no means to tweak most of the
diff options passed to `git log` when generating those patches.
OUTPUT STABILITY
@@ -242,7 +246,7 @@ corresponding.
The overall time needed to compute this algorithm is the time needed to
compute n+m commit diffs and then n*m diffs of patches, plus the time
-needed to compute the least-cost assigment between n and m diffs. Git
+needed to compute the least-cost assignment between n and m diffs. Git
uses an implementation of the Jonker-Volgenant algorithm to solve the
assignment problem, which has cubic runtime complexity. The matching
found in this case will look like this:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index d271842..da33f84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -436,7 +436,7 @@ support.
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-write-tree[1]; linkgit:git-ls-files[1];
-linkgit:gitignore[5]
+linkgit:gitignore[5]; linkgit:git-sparse-checkout[1];
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 6156609..0c4f038 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-rebase - Reapply commits on top of another base tip
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
- [<upstream> [<branch>]]
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>]
+ [--onto <newbase> | --keep-base] [<upstream> [<branch>]]
'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [<options>] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
--root [<branch>]
'git rebase' (--continue | --skip | --abort | --quit | --edit-todo | --show-current-patch)
@@ -217,6 +217,24 @@ As a special case, you may use "A\...B" as a shortcut for the
merge base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can
leave out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.
+--keep-base::
+ Set the starting point at which to create the new commits to the
+ merge base of <upstream> <branch>. Running
+ 'git rebase --keep-base <upstream> <branch>' is equivalent to
+ running 'git rebase --onto <upstream>... <upstream>'.
++
+This option is useful in the case where one is developing a feature on
+top of an upstream branch. While the feature is being worked on, the
+upstream branch may advance and it may not be the best idea to keep
+rebasing on top of the upstream but to keep the base commit as-is.
++
+Although both this option and --fork-point find the merge base between
+<upstream> and <branch>, this option uses the merge base as the _starting
+point_ on which new commits will be created, whereas --fork-point uses
+the merge base to determine the _set of commits_ which will be rebased.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
+
<upstream>::
Upstream branch to compare against. May be any valid commit,
not just an existing branch name. Defaults to the configured
@@ -369,6 +387,10 @@ ends up being empty, the <upstream> will be used as a fallback.
+
If either <upstream> or --root is given on the command line, then the
default is `--no-fork-point`, otherwise the default is `--fork-point`.
++
+If your branch was based on <upstream> but <upstream> was rewound and
+your branch contains commits which were dropped, this option can be used
+with `--keep-base` in order to drop those commits from your branch.
--ignore-whitespace::
--whitespace=<option>::
@@ -421,8 +443,8 @@ the `rebase-cousins` mode is turned on, such commits are instead rebased
onto `<upstream>` (or `<onto>`, if specified).
+
The `--rebase-merges` mode is similar in spirit to the deprecated
-`--preserve-merges`, but in contrast to that option works well in interactive
-rebases: commits can be reordered, inserted and dropped at will.
+`--preserve-merges` but works with interactive rebases,
+where commits can be reordered, inserted and dropped at will.
+
It is currently only possible to recreate the merge commits using the
`recursive` merge strategy; Different merge strategies can be used only via
@@ -543,8 +565,8 @@ In addition, the following pairs of options are incompatible:
* --preserve-merges and --interactive
* --preserve-merges and --signoff
* --preserve-merges and --rebase-merges
- * --rebase-merges and --strategy
- * --rebase-merges and --strategy-option
+ * --keep-base and --onto
+ * --keep-base and --root
BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES
-----------------------
@@ -832,7 +854,8 @@ Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
`--interactive` to omit, edit, squash, or fixup commits; or
if the upstream used one of `commit --amend`, `reset`, or
- `filter-branch`.
+ a full history rewriting command like
+ https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo[`filter-repo`].
The easy case
@@ -870,7 +893,7 @@ NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
--interactive` will be **resurrected**!
The idea is to manually tell 'git rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
-ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
+ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge base
between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
of the old 'subsystem', for example:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index dedf97e..25702ed 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -165,29 +165,31 @@ ref listing the commits pushed to the repository, and logs the push
certificates of signed pushes with good signatures to a logger
service:
- #!/bin/sh
- # mail out commit update information.
- while read oval nval ref
- do
- if expr "$oval" : '0*$' >/dev/null
- then
- echo "Created a new ref, with the following commits:"
- git rev-list --pretty "$nval"
- else
- echo "New commits:"
- git rev-list --pretty "$nval" "^$oval"
- fi |
- mail -s "Changes to ref $ref" commit-list@mydomain
- done
- # log signed push certificate, if any
- if test -n "${GIT_PUSH_CERT-}" && test ${GIT_PUSH_CERT_STATUS} = G
+----
+#!/bin/sh
+# mail out commit update information.
+while read oval nval ref
+do
+ if expr "$oval" : '0*$' >/dev/null
then
- (
- echo expected nonce is ${GIT_PUSH_NONCE}
- git cat-file blob ${GIT_PUSH_CERT}
- ) | mail -s "push certificate from $GIT_PUSH_CERT_SIGNER" push-log@mydomain
- fi
- exit 0
+ echo "Created a new ref, with the following commits:"
+ git rev-list --pretty "$nval"
+ else
+ echo "New commits:"
+ git rev-list --pretty "$nval" "^$oval"
+ fi |
+ mail -s "Changes to ref $ref" commit-list@mydomain
+done
+# log signed push certificate, if any
+if test -n "${GIT_PUSH_CERT-}" && test ${GIT_PUSH_CERT_STATUS} = G
+then
+ (
+ echo expected nonce is ${GIT_PUSH_NONCE}
+ git cat-file blob ${GIT_PUSH_CERT}
+ ) | mail -s "push certificate from $GIT_PUSH_CERT_SIGNER" push-log@mydomain
+fi
+exit 0
+----
The exit code from this hook invocation is ignored, however a
non-zero exit code will generate an error message.
@@ -212,8 +214,10 @@ anyway.
This hook can be used, for example, to run `git update-server-info`
if the repository is packed and is served via a dumb transport.
- #!/bin/sh
- exec git update-server-info
+----
+#!/bin/sh
+exec git update-server-info
+----
QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 246dc99..f271d75 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -123,10 +123,10 @@ The following format are available:
CREATING REPLACEMENT OBJECTS
----------------------------
-linkgit:git-filter-branch[1], linkgit:git-hash-object[1] and
-linkgit:git-rebase[1], among other git commands, can be used to create
-replacement objects from existing objects. The `--edit` option can
-also be used with 'git replace' to create a replacement object by
+linkgit:git-hash-object[1], linkgit:git-rebase[1], and
+https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo[git-filter-repo], among other git commands, can be used to
+create replacement objects from existing objects. The `--edit` option
+can also be used with 'git replace' to create a replacement object by
editing an existing object.
If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part of a
@@ -148,13 +148,13 @@ pending objects.
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-hash-object[1]
-linkgit:git-filter-branch[1]
linkgit:git-rebase[1]
linkgit:git-tag[1]
linkgit:git-branch[1]
linkgit:git-commit[1]
linkgit:git-var[1]
linkgit:git[1]
+https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo[git-filter-repo]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 97e0544..932080c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -8,34 +8,36 @@ git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...
+'git reset' [-q] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]
'git reset' [--soft | --mixed [-N] | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-In the first and second form, copy entries from `<tree-ish>` to the index.
-In the third form, set the current branch head (`HEAD`) to `<commit>`,
+In the first three forms, copy entries from `<tree-ish>` to the index.
+In the last form, set the current branch head (`HEAD`) to `<commit>`,
optionally modifying index and working tree to match.
The `<tree-ish>`/`<commit>` defaults to `HEAD` in all forms.
-'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...::
- This form resets the index entries for all `<paths>` to their
- state at `<tree-ish>`. (It does not affect the working tree or
- the current branch.)
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <pathspec>...::
+'git reset' [-q] [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]] [<tree-ish>]::
+ These forms reset the index entries for all paths that match the
+ `<pathspec>` to their state at `<tree-ish>`. (It does not affect
+ the working tree or the current branch.)
+
-This means that `git reset <paths>` is the opposite of `git add
-<paths>`. This command is equivalent to
-`git restore [--source=<tree-ish>] --staged <paths>...`.
+This means that `git reset <pathspec>` is the opposite of `git add
+<pathspec>`. This command is equivalent to
+`git restore [--source=<tree-ish>] --staged <pathspec>...`.
+
-After running `git reset <paths>` to update the index entry, you can
+After running `git reset <pathspec>` to update the index entry, you can
use linkgit:git-restore[1] to check the contents out of the index to
the working tree. Alternatively, using linkgit:git-restore[1]
and specifying a commit with `--source`, you
can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the index and to the
working tree in one go.
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]::
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<pathspec>...]::
Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index
and `<tree-ish>` (defaults to `HEAD`). The chosen hunks are applied
in reverse to the index.
@@ -101,6 +103,26 @@ OPTIONS
`reset.quiet` config option. `--quiet` and `--no-quiet` will
override the default behavior.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+<pathspec>...::
+ Limits the paths affected by the operation.
++
+For more details, see the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-restore.txt b/Documentation/git-restore.txt
index 1ab2e40..5bf60d4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-restore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-restore.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,9 @@ git-restore - Restore working tree files
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git restore' [<options>] [--source=<tree>] [--staged] [--worktree] <pathspec>...
-'git restore' (-p|--patch) [<options>] [--source=<tree>] [--staged] [--worktree] [<pathspec>...]
+'git restore' [<options>] [--source=<tree>] [--staged] [--worktree] [--] <pathspec>...
+'git restore' [<options>] [--source=<tree>] [--staged] [--worktree] --pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]
+'git restore' (-p|--patch) [<options>] [--source=<tree>] [--staged] [--worktree] [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -113,6 +114,27 @@ in linkgit:git-checkout[1] for details.
appear in the `--source` tree are removed, to make them match
`<tree>` exactly. The default is no-overlay mode.
+--pathspec-from-file=<file>::
+ Pathspec is passed in `<file>` instead of commandline args. If
+ `<file>` is exactly `-` then standard input is used. Pathspec
+ elements are separated by LF or CR/LF. Pathspec elements can be
+ quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
+ (see linkgit:git-config[1]). See also `--pathspec-file-nul` and
+ global `--literal-pathspecs`.
+
+--pathspec-file-nul::
+ Only meaningful with `--pathspec-from-file`. Pathspec elements are
+ separated with NUL character and all other characters are taken
+ literally (including newlines and quotes).
+
+\--::
+ Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
+
+<pathspec>...::
+ Limits the paths affected by the operation.
++
+For more details, see the 'pathspec' entry in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 9392760..025c911 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -9,59 +9,7 @@ git-rev-list - Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git rev-list' [ --max-count=<number> ]
- [ --skip=<number> ]
- [ --max-age=<timestamp> ]
- [ --min-age=<timestamp> ]
- [ --sparse ]
- [ --merges ]
- [ --no-merges ]
- [ --min-parents=<number> ]
- [ --no-min-parents ]
- [ --max-parents=<number> ]
- [ --no-max-parents ]
- [ --first-parent ]
- [ --remove-empty ]
- [ --full-history ]
- [ --not ]
- [ --all ]
- [ --branches[=<pattern>] ]
- [ --tags[=<pattern>] ]
- [ --remotes[=<pattern>] ]
- [ --glob=<glob-pattern> ]
- [ --ignore-missing ]
- [ --stdin ]
- [ --quiet ]
- [ --topo-order ]
- [ --parents ]
- [ --timestamp ]
- [ --left-right ]
- [ --left-only ]
- [ --right-only ]
- [ --cherry-mark ]
- [ --cherry-pick ]
- [ --encoding=<encoding> ]
- [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
- [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
- [ --extended-regexp | -E ]
- [ --fixed-strings | -F ]
- [ --date=<format>]
- [ [ --objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
- [ --unpacked ]
- [ --object-names | --no-object-names ]
- [ --filter=<filter-spec> [ --filter-print-omitted ] ] ]
- [ --missing=<missing-action> ]
- [ --pretty | --header ]
- [ --bisect ]
- [ --bisect-vars ]
- [ --bisect-all ]
- [ --merge ]
- [ --reverse ]
- [ --walk-reflogs ]
- [ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ]
- [ --count ]
- [ --use-bitmap-index ]
- <commit>... [ \-- <paths>... ]
+'git rev-list' [<options>] <commit>... [[--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index e72d332..19b12b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -262,7 +262,8 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
directory.
--show-toplevel::
- Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.
+ Show the absolute path of the top-level directory of the working
+ tree. If there is no working tree, report an error.
--show-superproject-working-tree::
Show the absolute path of the root of the superproject's
@@ -274,6 +275,13 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
Show the path to the shared index file in split index mode, or
empty if not in split-index mode.
+--show-object-format[=(storage|input|output)]::
+ Show the object format (hash algorithm) used for the repository
+ for storage inside the `.git` directory, input, or output. For
+ input, multiple algorithms may be printed, space-separated.
+ If not specified, the default is "storage".
+
+
Other Options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index d93e5d0..0a69810 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -486,11 +486,13 @@ Use gmail as the smtp server
To use 'git send-email' to send your patches through the GMail SMTP server,
edit ~/.gitconfig to specify your account settings:
- [sendemail]
- smtpEncryption = tls
- smtpServer = smtp.gmail.com
- smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
- smtpServerPort = 587
+----
+[sendemail]
+ smtpEncryption = tls
+ smtpServer = smtp.gmail.com
+ smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
+ smtpServerPort = 587
+----
If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail account, you will
need to generate an app-specific password for use with 'git send-email'. Visit
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index bc80905..a72ea7f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -76,6 +76,9 @@ them.
Paths may need to be prefixed with `--` to separate them from
options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
+:git-shortlog: 1
+include::rev-list-options.txt[]
+
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sparse-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-sparse-checkout.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..974ade2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-sparse-checkout.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,185 @@
+git-sparse-checkout(1)
+======================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-sparse-checkout - Initialize and modify the sparse-checkout
+configuration, which reduces the checkout to a set of paths
+given by a list of patterns.
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git sparse-checkout <subcommand> [options]'
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Initialize and modify the sparse-checkout configuration, which reduces
+the checkout to a set of paths given by a list of patterns.
+
+THIS COMMAND IS EXPERIMENTAL. ITS BEHAVIOR, AND THE BEHAVIOR OF OTHER
+COMMANDS IN THE PRESENCE OF SPARSE-CHECKOUTS, WILL LIKELY CHANGE IN
+THE FUTURE.
+
+
+COMMANDS
+--------
+'list'::
+ Describe the patterns in the sparse-checkout file.
+
+'init'::
+ Enable the `core.sparseCheckout` setting. If the
+ sparse-checkout file does not exist, then populate it with
+ patterns that match every file in the root directory and
+ no other directories, then will remove all directories tracked
+ by Git. Add patterns to the sparse-checkout file to
+ repopulate the working directory.
++
+To avoid interfering with other worktrees, it first enables the
+`extensions.worktreeConfig` setting and makes sure to set the
+`core.sparseCheckout` setting in the worktree-specific config file.
+
+'set'::
+ Write a set of patterns to the sparse-checkout file, as given as
+ a list of arguments following the 'set' subcommand. Update the
+ working directory to match the new patterns. Enable the
+ core.sparseCheckout config setting if it is not already enabled.
++
+When the `--stdin` option is provided, the patterns are read from
+standard in as a newline-delimited list instead of from the arguments.
+
+'disable'::
+ Disable the `core.sparseCheckout` config setting, and restore the
+ working directory to include all files. Leaves the sparse-checkout
+ file intact so a later 'git sparse-checkout init' command may
+ return the working directory to the same state.
+
+SPARSE CHECKOUT
+---------------
+
+"Sparse checkout" allows populating the working directory sparsely.
+It uses the skip-worktree bit (see linkgit:git-update-index[1]) to tell
+Git whether a file in the working directory is worth looking at. If
+the skip-worktree bit is set, then the file is ignored in the working
+directory. Git will not populate the contents of those files, which
+makes a sparse checkout helpful when working in a repository with many
+files, but only a few are important to the current user.
+
+The `$GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout` file is used to define the
+skip-worktree reference bitmap. When Git updates the working
+directory, it updates the skip-worktree bits in the index based
+on this file. The files matching the patterns in the file will
+appear in the working directory, and the rest will not.
+
+To enable the sparse-checkout feature, run `git sparse-checkout init` to
+initialize a simple sparse-checkout file and enable the `core.sparseCheckout`
+config setting. Then, run `git sparse-checkout set` to modify the patterns in
+the sparse-checkout file.
+
+To repopulate the working directory with all files, use the
+`git sparse-checkout disable` command.
+
+
+FULL PATTERN SET
+----------------
+
+By default, the sparse-checkout file uses the same syntax as `.gitignore`
+files.
+
+While `$GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout` is usually used to specify what
+files are included, you can also specify what files are _not_ included,
+using negative patterns. For example, to remove the file `unwanted`:
+
+----------------
+/*
+!unwanted
+----------------
+
+
+CONE PATTERN SET
+----------------
+
+The full pattern set allows for arbitrary pattern matches and complicated
+inclusion/exclusion rules. These can result in O(N*M) pattern matches when
+updating the index, where N is the number of patterns and M is the number
+of paths in the index. To combat this performance issue, a more restricted
+pattern set is allowed when `core.spareCheckoutCone` is enabled.
+
+The accepted patterns in the cone pattern set are:
+
+1. *Recursive:* All paths inside a directory are included.
+
+2. *Parent:* All files immediately inside a directory are included.
+
+In addition to the above two patterns, we also expect that all files in the
+root directory are included. If a recursive pattern is added, then all
+leading directories are added as parent patterns.
+
+By default, when running `git sparse-checkout init`, the root directory is
+added as a parent pattern. At this point, the sparse-checkout file contains
+the following patterns:
+
+----------------
+/*
+!/*/
+----------------
+
+This says "include everything in root, but nothing two levels below root."
+If we then add the folder `A/B/C` as a recursive pattern, the folders `A` and
+`A/B` are added as parent patterns. The resulting sparse-checkout file is
+now
+
+----------------
+/*
+!/*/
+/A/
+!/A/*/
+/A/B/
+!/A/B/*/
+/A/B/C/
+----------------
+
+Here, order matters, so the negative patterns are overridden by the positive
+patterns that appear lower in the file.
+
+If `core.sparseCheckoutCone=true`, then Git will parse the sparse-checkout file
+expecting patterns of these types. Git will warn if the patterns do not match.
+If the patterns do match the expected format, then Git will use faster hash-
+based algorithms to compute inclusion in the sparse-checkout.
+
+In the cone mode case, the `git sparse-checkout list` subcommand will list the
+directories that define the recursive patterns. For the example sparse-checkout
+file above, the output is as follows:
+
+--------------------------
+$ git sparse-checkout list
+A/B/C
+--------------------------
+
+If `core.ignoreCase=true`, then the pattern-matching algorithm will use a
+case-insensitive check. This corrects for case mismatched filenames in the
+'git sparse-checkout set' command to reflect the expected cone in the working
+directory.
+
+
+SUBMODULES
+----------
+
+If your repository contains one or more submodules, then those submodules will
+appear based on which you initialized with the `git submodule` command. If
+your sparse-checkout patterns exclude an initialized submodule, then that
+submodule will still appear in your working directory.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+
+linkgit:git-read-tree[1]
+linkgit:gitignore[5]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 8fbe12c..53e1a12 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -87,8 +87,9 @@ The `--patch` option implies `--keep-index`. You can use
save [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-q|--quiet] [<message>]::
This option is deprecated in favour of 'git stash push'. It
- differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take pathspecs,
- and any non-option arguments form the message.
+ differs from "stash push" in that it cannot take pathspecs.
+ Instead, all non-option arguments are concatenated to form the stash
+ message.
list [<options>]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index d4e8f24..7731b45 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -59,16 +59,17 @@ This is optional and defaults to the original version 'v1' format.
--untracked-files[=<mode>]::
Show untracked files.
+
+--
The mode parameter is used to specify the handling of untracked files.
It is optional: it defaults to 'all', and if specified, it must be
stuck to the option (e.g. `-uno`, but not `-u no`).
-+
+
The possible options are:
-+
+
- 'no' - Show no untracked files.
- 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories.
- 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
-+
+
When `-u` option is not used, untracked files and directories are
shown (i.e. the same as specifying `normal`), to help you avoid
forgetting to add newly created files. Because it takes extra work
@@ -78,9 +79,10 @@ Consider enabling untracked cache and split index if supported (see
`git update-index --untracked-cache` and `git update-index
--split-index`), Otherwise you can use `no` to have `git status`
return more quickly without showing untracked files.
-+
+
The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+--
--ignore-submodules[=<when>]::
Ignore changes to submodules when looking for changes. <when> can be
@@ -100,11 +102,12 @@ configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
--ignored[=<mode>]::
Show ignored files as well.
+
+--
The mode parameter is used to specify the handling of ignored files.
It is optional: it defaults to 'traditional'.
-+
+
The possible options are:
-+
+
- 'traditional' - Shows ignored files and directories, unless
--untracked-files=all is specified, in which case
individual files in ignored directories are
@@ -112,12 +115,13 @@ The possible options are:
- 'no' - Show no ignored files.
- 'matching' - Shows ignored files and directories matching an
ignore pattern.
-+
+
When 'matching' mode is specified, paths that explicitly match an
ignored pattern are shown. If a directory matches an ignore pattern,
then it is shown, but not paths contained in the ignored directory. If
a directory does not match an ignore pattern, but all contents are
ignored, then the directory is not shown, but all contents are shown.
+--
-z::
Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF. This implies
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 0ed5c24..5232407 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)
'git submodule' [--quiet] update [<options>] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] set-branch [<options>] [--] <path>
+'git submodule' [--quiet] set-url [--] <path> <newurl>
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [<options>] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
'git submodule' [--quiet] sync [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
@@ -80,6 +81,9 @@ status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]::
does not match the SHA-1 found in the index of the containing
repository and `U` if the submodule has merge conflicts.
+
+If `--cached` is specified, this command will instead print the SHA-1
+recorded in the superproject for each submodule.
++
If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into nested
submodules, and show their status as well.
+
@@ -133,7 +137,8 @@ update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch] [--[no-]recommend-shallow] [-f|--forc
+
--
Update the registered submodules to match what the superproject
-expects by cloning missing submodules and updating the working tree of
+expects by cloning missing submodules, fetching missing commits
+in submodules and updating the working tree of
the submodules. The "updating" can be done in several ways depending
on command line options and the value of `submodule.<name>.update`
configuration variable. The command line option takes precedence over
@@ -173,12 +178,18 @@ submodule with the `--init` option.
If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
registered submodules, and update any nested submodules within.
--
-set-branch ((-d|--default)|(-b|--branch <branch>)) [--] <path>::
+set-branch (-b|--branch) <branch> [--] <path>::
+set-branch (-d|--default) [--] <path>::
Sets the default remote tracking branch for the submodule. The
`--branch` option allows the remote branch to be specified. The
`--default` option removes the submodule.<name>.branch configuration
key, which causes the tracking branch to default to 'master'.
+set-url [--] <path> <newurl>::
+ Sets the URL of the specified submodule to <newurl>. Then, it will
+ automatically synchronize the submodule's new remote URL
+ configuration.
+
summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>] [commit] [--] [<path>...]::
Show commit summary between the given commit (defaults to HEAD) and
working tree/index. For a submodule in question, a series of commits
@@ -237,7 +248,7 @@ registered submodules, and sync any nested submodules within.
absorbgitdirs::
If a git directory of a submodule is inside the submodule,
- move the git directory of the submodule into its superprojects
+ move the git directory of the submodule into its superproject's
`$GIT_DIR/modules` path and then connect the git directory and
its working directory by setting the `core.worktree` and adding
a .git file pointing to the git directory embedded in the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 3071162..6624a14 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -677,7 +677,8 @@ config key: svn.authorsProg
-s<strategy>::
--strategy=<strategy>::
-p::
---preserve-merges::
+--rebase-merges::
+--preserve-merges (DEPRECATED)::
These are only used with the 'dcommit' and 'rebase' commands.
+
Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
@@ -769,11 +770,11 @@ option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.
+
This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down
old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug
-reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git
-and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
-linkgit:git-filter-branch[1] instead. filter-branch also allows
-reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship
-info for non-"svn.authorsFile" users.
+reports, and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to
+Git and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
+https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo[git-filter-repo] instead.
+filter-repo also allows reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading
+and rewriting authorship info for non-"svn.authorsFile" users.
svn.useSvmProps::
svn-remote.<name>.useSvmProps::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 2e5599a..f6d9791 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -65,7 +65,7 @@ OPTIONS
--sign::
Make a GPG-signed tag, using the default e-mail address's key.
The default behavior of tag GPG-signing is controlled by `tag.gpgSign`
- configuration variable if it exists, or disabled oder otherwise.
+ configuration variable if it exists, or disabled otherwise.
See linkgit:git-config[1].
--no-sign::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 1c4d146..c7a6271 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
[--[no-]assume-unchanged]
[--[no-]skip-worktree]
+ [--[no-]ignore-skip-worktree-entries]
[--[no-]fsmonitor-valid]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--[no-]split-index]
@@ -113,6 +114,11 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
section "Skip-worktree bit" below for more information.
+
+--[no-]ignore-skip-worktree-entries::
+ Do not remove skip-worktree (AKA "index-only") entries even when
+ the `--remove` option was specified.
+
--[no-]fsmonitor-valid::
When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
@@ -426,7 +432,7 @@ specified by the splitIndex.sharedIndexExpire config variable (see
linkgit:git-config[1]).
To avoid deleting a shared index file that is still used, its
-modification time is updated to the current time everytime a new split
+modification time is updated to the current time every time a new split
index based on the shared index file is either created or read from.
UNTRACKED CACHE
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 9b82564..b1597ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -271,8 +271,8 @@ In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in
the working tree.
-Synching repositories
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Syncing repositories
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
include::cmds-synchingrepositories.txt[]
@@ -544,6 +544,10 @@ other
a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
linkgit:git-config[1].
+`GIT_PROGRESS_DELAY`::
+ A number controlling how many seconds to delay before showing
+ optional progress indicators. Defaults to 2.
+
`GIT_EDITOR`::
This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
@@ -928,7 +932,7 @@ Reporting Bugs
Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
subscribed to the list to send a message there. See the list archive
-at https://public-inbox.org/git for previous bug reports and other
+at https://lore.kernel.org/git for previous bug reports and other
discussions.
Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index fb1d188..508fe71 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -293,10 +293,10 @@ web front ends do not visualize the contents of these files by default.
In these cases you can tell Git the encoding of a file in the working
directory with the `working-tree-encoding` attribute. If a file with this
-attribute is added to Git, then Git reencodes the content from the
+attribute is added to Git, then Git re-encodes the content from the
specified encoding to UTF-8. Finally, Git stores the UTF-8 encoded
content in its internal data structure (called "the index"). On checkout
-the content is reencoded back to the specified encoding.
+the content is re-encoded back to the specified encoding.
Please note that using the `working-tree-encoding` attribute may have a
number of pitfalls:
@@ -498,7 +498,7 @@ command. This is achieved by using the long-running process protocol
When Git encounters the first file that needs to be cleaned or smudged,
it starts the filter and performs the handshake. In the handshake, the
welcome message sent by Git is "git-filter-client", only version 2 is
-suppported, and the supported capabilities are "clean", "smudge", and
+supported, and the supported capabilities are "clean", "smudge", and
"delay".
Afterwards Git sends a list of "key=value" pairs terminated with
@@ -810,6 +810,10 @@ patterns are available:
- `css` suitable for cascading style sheets.
+- `dts` suitable for devicetree (DTS) files.
+
+- `elixir` suitable for source code in the Elixir language.
+
- `fortran` suitable for source code in the Fortran language.
- `fountain` suitable for Fountain documents.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index 1ed3ca3..373cfa2 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -37,6 +37,12 @@ arguments. Here are the rules:
file called HEAD in your work tree, `git diff HEAD` is ambiguous, and
you have to say either `git diff HEAD --` or `git diff -- HEAD` to
disambiguate.
+
+ * Because `--` disambiguates revisions and paths in some commands, it
+ cannot be used for those commands to separate options and revisions.
+ You can use `--end-of-options` for this (it also works for commands
+ that do not distinguish between revisions in paths, in which case it
+ is simply an alias for `--`).
+
When writing a script that is expected to handle random user-input, it is
a good practice to make it explicit which arguments are which by placing
@@ -205,8 +211,8 @@ only affects the files in the working tree, but with
entries, and with `--cached`, it modifies only the index
entries.
-See also http://marc.info/?l=git&m=116563135620359 and
-http://marc.info/?l=git&m=119150393620273 for further
+See also https://lore.kernel.org/git/7v64clg5u9.fsf@assigned-by-dhcp.cox.net/ and
+https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vy7ej9g38.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/ for further
information.
Some other commands that also work on files in the working tree and/or
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index f880d21..c0b9525 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -751,7 +751,7 @@ to it.
================================================
If you make the decision to start your new branch at some
other point in the history than the current `HEAD`, you can do so by
-just telling 'git checkout' what the base of the checkout would be.
+just telling 'git switch' what the base of the checkout would be.
In other words, if you have an earlier tag or branch, you'd just do
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index adc7596..ea759fd 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -186,8 +186,7 @@ CUSTOM HELPERS
--------------
You can write your own custom helpers to interface with any system in
-which you keep credentials. See the documentation for Git's
-link:technical/api-credentials.html[credentials API] for details.
+which you keep credentials. See credential.h for details.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 82cd573..50365f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -103,6 +103,28 @@ The default 'pre-commit' hook, when enabled--and with the
`hooks.allownonascii` config option unset or set to false--prevents
the use of non-ASCII filenames.
+pre-merge-commit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is invoked by linkgit:git-merge[1], and can be bypassed
+with the `--no-verify` option. It takes no parameters, and is
+invoked after the merge has been carried out successfully and before
+obtaining the proposed commit log message to
+make a commit. Exiting with a non-zero status from this script
+causes the `git merge` command to abort before creating a commit.
+
+The default 'pre-merge-commit' hook, when enabled, runs the
+'pre-commit' hook, if the latter is enabled.
+
+This hook is invoked with the environment variable
+`GIT_EDITOR=:` if the command will not bring up an editor
+to modify the commit message.
+
+If the merge cannot be carried out automatically, the conflicts
+need to be resolved and the result committed separately (see
+linkgit:git-merge[1]). At that point, this hook will not be executed,
+but the 'pre-commit' hook will, if it is enabled.
+
prepare-commit-msg
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -425,10 +447,12 @@ post-rewrite
This hook is invoked by commands that rewrite commits
(linkgit:git-commit[1] when called with `--amend` and
-linkgit:git-rebase[1]; currently `git filter-branch` does 'not' call
-it!). Its first argument denotes the command it was invoked by:
-currently one of `amend` or `rebase`. Further command-dependent
-arguments may be passed in the future.
+linkgit:git-rebase[1]; however, full-history (re)writing tools like
+linkgit:git-fast-import[1] or
+https://github.com/newren/git-filter-repo[git-filter-repo] typically
+do not call it!). Its first argument denotes the command it was
+invoked by: currently one of `amend` or `rebase`. Further
+command-dependent arguments may be passed in the future.
The hook receives a list of the rewritten commits on stdin, in the
format
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index 1eabb0a..c653ebb 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -105,8 +105,12 @@ linkgit:git-rev-list[1] for a complete list.
(or the function name regex <funcname>) within the <file>. You may
not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
- give zero or one positive revision arguments.
- You can specify this option more than once.
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments, and
+ <start> and <end> (or <funcname>) must exist in the starting revision.
+ You can specify this option more than once. Implies `--patch`.
+ Patch output can be suppressed using `--no-patch`, but other diff formats
+ (namely `--raw`, `--numstat`, `--shortstat`, `--dirstat`, `--summary`,
+ `--name-only`, `--name-status`, `--check`) are not currently implemented.
+
*Note:* gitk (unlike linkgit:git-log[1]) currently only understands
this option if you specify it "glued together" with its argument. Do
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index f260b55..67275fd 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ submodule.<name>.ignore::
Committed differences and modifications to tracked files will show
up.
- none;; No modifiations to submodules are ignored, all of committed
+ none;; No modifications to submodules are ignored, all of committed
differences, and modifications to tracked and untracked files are
shown. This is the default option.
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ of the superproject, the setting there will override the one found in
.gitmodules.
Both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
-"--ignore-submodule" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
+"--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
affected by this setting.
--
@@ -104,14 +104,15 @@ EXAMPLES
Consider the following .gitmodules file:
- [submodule "libfoo"]
- path = include/foo
- url = git://foo.com/git/lib.git
-
- [submodule "libbar"]
- path = include/bar
- url = git://bar.com/git/lib.git
+----
+[submodule "libfoo"]
+ path = include/foo
+ url = git://foo.com/git/lib.git
+[submodule "libbar"]
+ path = include/bar
+ url = git://bar.com/git/lib.git
+----
This defines two submodules, `libfoo` and `libbar`. These are expected to
be checked out in the paths `include/foo` and `include/bar`, and for both
@@ -119,7 +120,7 @@ submodules a URL is specified which can be used for cloning the submodules.
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:git-submodule[1] linkgit:git-config[1]
+linkgit:git-submodule[1], linkgit:gitsubmodules[7], linkgit:git-config[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 43f80c8..f48a031 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -297,9 +297,13 @@ Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.
same batch are complete. Only objects which were reported
in the output of 'list' with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
+
-Optionally may output a 'lock <file>' line indicating a file under
-GIT_DIR/objects/pack which is keeping a pack until refs can be
-suitably updated.
+Optionally may output a 'lock <file>' line indicating the full path of
+a file under `$GIT_DIR/objects/pack` which is keeping a pack until
+refs can be suitably updated. The path must end with `.keep`. This is
+a mechanism to name a <pack,idx,keep> tuple by giving only the keep
+component. The kept pack will not be deleted by a concurrent repack,
+even though its objects may not be referenced until the fetch completes.
+The `.keep` file will be deleted at the conclusion of the fetch.
+
If option 'check-connectivity' is requested, the helper must output
'connectivity-ok' if the clone is self-contained and connected.
@@ -505,6 +509,11 @@ set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
Indicate that only the objects wanted need to be fetched, not
their dependents.
+'option atomic' {'true'|'false'}::
+ When pushing, request the remote server to update refs in a single atomic
+ transaction. If successful, all refs will be updated, or none will. If the
+ remote side does not support this capability, the push will fail.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-remote[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index 216b11e..1a2ef4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ objects/[0-9a-f][0-9a-f]::
here are often called 'unpacked' (or 'loose') objects.
objects/pack::
- Packs (files that store many object in compressed form,
+ Packs (files that store many objects in compressed form,
along with index files to allow them to be randomly
accessed) are found in this directory.
@@ -96,9 +96,9 @@ refs::
directory. The 'git prune' command knows to preserve
objects reachable from refs found in this directory and
its subdirectories.
- This directory is ignored (except refs/bisect and
- refs/worktree) if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
- "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/refs" will be used instead.
+ This directory is ignored (except refs/bisect,
+ refs/rewritten and refs/worktree) if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is
+ set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/refs" will be used instead.
refs/heads/`name`::
records tip-of-the-tree commit objects of branch `name`
@@ -240,8 +240,8 @@ remotes::
logs::
Records of changes made to refs are stored in this directory.
See linkgit:git-update-ref[1] for more information. This
- directory is ignored if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and
- "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/logs" will be used instead.
+ directory is ignored (except logs/HEAD) if $GIT_COMMON_DIR is
+ set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/logs" will be used instead.
logs/refs/heads/`name`::
Records all changes made to the branch tip named `name`.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
index 0a89020..c476f89 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitsubmodules(7)
NAME
----
-gitsubmodules - mounting one repository inside another
+gitsubmodules - Mounting one repository inside another
SYNOPSIS
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index 35317e7..7963a79 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -786,9 +786,9 @@ forks::
subdirectories of project root (basename) to be forks of existing
projects. For each project +$projname.git+, projects in the
+$projname/+ directory and its subdirectories will not be
- shown in the main projects list. Instead, a \'\+' mark is shown
- next to +$projname+, which links to a "forks" view that lists all
- the forks (all projects in +$projname/+ subdirectory). Additionally
+ shown in the main projects list. Instead, a \'+' mark is shown
+ next to `$projname`, which links to a "forks" view that lists all
+ the forks (all projects in `$projname/` subdirectory). Additionally
a "forks" view for a project is linked from project summary page.
+
If the project list is taken from a file (+$projects_list+ points to a
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/separating-topic-branches.txt b/Documentation/howto/separating-topic-branches.txt
index bd10274..81be0d6 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/separating-topic-branches.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/separating-topic-branches.txt
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ After I am done, I'd try a pretend-merge between "topicA" and
o---o---o---o---o---o
The last diff better not to show anything other than cleanups
-for crufts. Then I can finally clean things up:
+for cruft. Then I can finally clean things up:
$ git branch -D topic
$ git reset --hard HEAD^ ;# nuke pretend merge
diff --git a/Documentation/manpage-bold-literal.xsl b/Documentation/manpage-bold-literal.xsl
index 608eb5d..94d6c1b 100644
--- a/Documentation/manpage-bold-literal.xsl
+++ b/Documentation/manpage-bold-literal.xsl
@@ -1,12 +1,13 @@
<!-- manpage-bold-literal.xsl:
special formatting for manpages rendered from asciidoc+docbook -->
<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
+ xmlns:d="http://docbook.org/ns/docbook"
version="1.0">
<!-- render literal text as bold (instead of plain or monospace);
this makes literal text easier to distinguish in manpages
viewed on a tty -->
-<xsl:template match="literal">
+<xsl:template match="literal|d:literal">
<xsl:value-of select="$git.docbook.backslash"/>
<xsl:text>fB</xsl:text>
<xsl:apply-templates/>
diff --git a/Documentation/manpage.xsl b/Documentation/manpage.xsl
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ef64bab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/manpage.xsl
@@ -0,0 +1,3 @@
+<xsl:stylesheet xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform" version="1.0">
+ <xsl:import href="http://docbook.sourceforge.net/release/xsl-ns/current/manpages/docbook.xsl" />
+</xsl:stylesheet>
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 79a00d2..40dc4f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -34,26 +34,30 @@ set to `no` at the beginning of them.
--cleanup=<mode>::
This option determines how the merge message will be cleaned up before
- commiting. See linkgit:git-commit[1] for more details. In addition, if
+ committing. See linkgit:git-commit[1] for more details. In addition, if
the '<mode>' is given a value of `scissors`, scissors will be appended
to `MERGE_MSG` before being passed on to the commit machinery in the
case of a merge conflict.
--ff::
- When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch
- pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default
- behavior.
-
--no-ff::
- Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
- fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
- annotated (and possibly signed) tag that is not stored in
- its natural place in 'refs/tags/' hierarchy.
-
--ff-only::
- Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
- current `HEAD` is already up to date or the merge can be
- resolved as a fast-forward.
+ Specifies how a merge is handled when the merged-in history is
+ already a descendant of the current history. `--ff` is the
+ default unless merging an annotated (and possibly signed) tag
+ that is not stored in its natural place in the `refs/tags/`
+ hierarchy, in which case `--no-ff` is assumed.
++
+With `--ff`, when possible resolve the merge as a fast-forward (only
+update the branch pointer to match the merged branch; do not create a
+merge commit). When not possible (when the merged-in history is not a
+descendant of the current history), create a merge commit.
++
+With `--no-ff`, create a merge commit in all cases, even when the merge
+could instead be resolved as a fast-forward.
++
+With `--ff-only`, resolve the merge as a fast-forward when possible.
+When not possible, refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status.
-S[<keyid>]::
--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
@@ -105,6 +109,10 @@ option can be used to override --squash.
+
With --squash, --commit is not allowed, and will fail.
+--no-verify::
+ This option bypasses the pre-merge and commit-msg hooks.
+ See also linkgit:githooks[5].
+
-s <strategy>::
--strategy=<strategy>::
Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index aa66cbe..2912de7 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ The 'recursive' strategy can take the following options:
ours;;
This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved cleanly by
favoring 'our' version. Changes from the other tree that do not
- conflict with our side are reflected to the merge result.
+ conflict with our side are reflected in the merge result.
For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from our side.
+
This should not be confused with the 'ours' merge strategy, which does not
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 0795983..1a7212c 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ PRETTY FORMATS
If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format
is not 'oneline', 'email' or 'raw', an additional line is
inserted before the 'Author:' line. This line begins with
-"Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed,
+"Merge: " and the hashes of ancestral commits are printed,
separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not
necessarily be the list of the *direct* parent commits if you
have limited your view of history: for example, if you are
@@ -20,20 +20,20 @@ built-in formats:
* 'oneline'
- <sha1> <title line>
+ <hash> <title line>
+
This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'short'
- commit <sha1>
+ commit <hash>
Author: <author>
<title line>
* 'medium'
- commit <sha1>
+ commit <hash>
Author: <author>
Date: <author date>
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'full'
- commit <sha1>
+ commit <hash>
Author: <author>
Commit: <committer>
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'fuller'
- commit <sha1>
+ commit <hash>
Author: <author>
AuthorDate: <author date>
Commit: <committer>
@@ -63,9 +63,20 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
<full commit message>
+* 'reference'
+
+ <abbrev hash> (<title line>, <short author date>)
++
+This format is used to refer to another commit in a commit message and
+is the same as `--pretty='format:%C(auto)%h (%s, %ad)'`. By default,
+the date is formatted with `--date=short` unless another `--date` option
+is explicitly specified. As with any `format:` with format
+placeholders, its output is not affected by other options like
+`--decorate` and `--walk-reflogs`.
+
* 'email'
- From <sha1> <date>
+ From <hash> <date>
From: <author>
Date: <author date>
Subject: [PATCH] <title line>
@@ -75,7 +86,7 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'raw'
+
The 'raw' format shows the entire commit exactly as
-stored in the commit object. Notably, the SHA-1s are
+stored in the commit object. Notably, the hashes are
displayed in full, regardless of whether --abbrev or
--no-abbrev are used, and 'parents' information show the
true parent commits, without taking grafts or history
@@ -163,24 +174,32 @@ The placeholders are:
'%ae':: author email
'%aE':: author email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1]
or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+'%al':: author email local-part (the part before the '@' sign)
+'%aL':: author local-part (see '%al') respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%ad':: author date (format respects --date= option)
'%aD':: author date, RFC2822 style
'%ar':: author date, relative
'%at':: author date, UNIX timestamp
'%ai':: author date, ISO 8601-like format
'%aI':: author date, strict ISO 8601 format
+'%as':: author date, short format (`YYYY-MM-DD`)
'%cn':: committer name
'%cN':: committer name (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%ce':: committer email
'%cE':: committer email (respecting .mailmap, see
linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+'%cl':: author email local-part (the part before the '@' sign)
+'%cL':: author local-part (see '%cl') respecting .mailmap, see
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
'%cd':: committer date (format respects --date= option)
'%cD':: committer date, RFC2822 style
'%cr':: committer date, relative
'%ct':: committer date, UNIX timestamp
'%ci':: committer date, ISO 8601-like format
'%cI':: committer date, strict ISO 8601 format
+'%cs':: committer date, short format (`YYYY-MM-DD`)
'%d':: ref names, like the --decorate option of linkgit:git-log[1]
'%D':: ref names without the " (", ")" wrapping.
'%S':: ref name given on the command line by which the commit was reached
@@ -208,7 +227,7 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
'%GP':: show the fingerprint of the primary key whose subkey was used
to sign a signed commit
'%gD':: reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}` or `refs/stash@{2
- minutes ago`}; the format follows the rules described for the
+ minutes ago}`; the format follows the rules described for the
`-g` option. The portion before the `@` is the refname as
given on the command line (so `git log -g refs/heads/master`
would yield `refs/heads/master@{0}`).
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index e44fc8f..7a6da6d 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
where '<format>' can be one of 'oneline', 'short', 'medium',
- 'full', 'fuller', 'email', 'raw', 'format:<string>'
+ 'full', 'fuller', 'reference', 'email', 'raw', 'format:<string>'
and 'tformat:<string>'. When '<format>' is none of the above,
and has '%placeholder' in it, it acts as if
'--pretty=tformat:<format>' were given.
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@ message by 4 spaces (i.e. 'medium', which is the default, 'full',
and 'fuller').
ifndef::git-rev-list[]
---notes[=<treeish>]::
+--notes[=<ref>]::
Show the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) that annotate the
commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default
for `git log`, `git show` and `git whatchanged` commands when
@@ -68,8 +68,8 @@ By default, the notes shown are from the notes refs listed in the
`core.notesRef` and `notes.displayRef` variables (or corresponding
environment overrides). See linkgit:git-config[1] for more details.
+
-With an optional '<treeish>' argument, use the treeish to find the notes
-to display. The treeish can specify the full refname when it begins
+With an optional '<ref>' argument, use the ref to find the notes
+to display. The ref can specify the full refname when it begins
with `refs/notes/`; when it begins with `notes/`, `refs/` and otherwise
`refs/notes/` is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.
+
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
"--notes --notes=foo --no-notes --notes=bar" will only show notes
from "refs/notes/bar".
---show-notes[=<treeish>]::
+--show-notes[=<ref>]::
--[no-]standard-notes::
These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
options instead.
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index bb1251c..bfd02ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
`--all-match`).
ifndef::git-rev-list[]
+
-When `--show-notes` is in effect, the message from the notes is
+When `--notes` is in effect, the message from the notes is
matched as if it were part of the log message.
endif::git-rev-list[]
@@ -269,7 +269,7 @@ list.
exclude (that is, '{caret}commit', 'commit1..commit2',
and 'commit1\...commit2' notations cannot be used).
+
-With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` (for obvious reasons),
+With `--pretty` format other than `oneline` and `reference` (for obvious reasons),
this causes the output to have two extra lines of information
taken from the reflog. The reflog designator in the output may be shown
as `ref@{Nth}` (where `Nth` is the reverse-chronological index in the
@@ -293,6 +293,8 @@ Under `--pretty=oneline`, the commit message is
prefixed with this information on the same line.
This option cannot be combined with `--reverse`.
See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
++
+Under `--pretty=reference`, this information will not be shown at all.
--merge::
After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a
@@ -579,6 +581,7 @@ above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
+ifndef::git-shortlog[]
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
Bisection Helpers
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -634,8 +637,9 @@ This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
endif::git-rev-list[]
+endif::git-shortlog[]
-
+ifndef::git-shortlog[]
Commit Ordering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -677,7 +681,9 @@ together.
Output the commits chosen to be shown (see Commit Limiting
section above) in reverse order. Cannot be combined with
`--walk-reflogs`.
+endif::git-shortlog[]
+ifndef::git-shortlog[]
Object Traversal
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -756,6 +762,22 @@ explicitly-given commit or tree.
Note that the form '--filter=sparse:path=<path>' that wants to read
from an arbitrary path on the filesystem has been dropped for security
reasons.
++
+Multiple '--filter=' flags can be specified to combine filters. Only
+objects which are accepted by every filter are included.
++
+The form '--filter=combine:<filter1>+<filter2>+...<filterN>' can also be
+used to combined several filters, but this is harder than just repeating
+the '--filter' flag and is usually not necessary. Filters are joined by
+'{plus}' and individual filters are %-encoded (i.e. URL-encoded).
+Besides the '{plus}' and '%' characters, the following characters are
+reserved and also must be encoded: `~!@#$^&*()[]{}\;",<>?`+&#39;&#96;+
+as well as all characters with ASCII code &lt;= `0x20`, which includes
+space and newline.
++
+Other arbitrary characters can also be encoded. For instance,
+'combine:tree:3+blob:none' and 'combine:tree%3A3+blob%3Anone' are
+equivalent.
--no-filter::
Turn off any previous `--filter=` argument.
@@ -801,7 +823,9 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
--do-walk::
Overrides a previous `--no-walk`.
+endif::git-shortlog[]
+ifndef::git-shortlog[]
Commit Formatting
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -957,7 +981,9 @@ ifdef::git-rev-list[]
counts and print the count for equivalent commits separated
by a tab.
endif::git-rev-list[]
+endif::git-shortlog[]
+ifndef::git-shortlog[]
ifndef::git-rev-list[]
Diff Formatting
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -1000,3 +1026,4 @@ options may be given. See linkgit:git-diff-files[1] for more options.
-t::
Show the tree objects in the diff output. This implies `-r`.
endif::git-rev-list[]
+endif::git-shortlog[]
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 5a59b54..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,39 +0,0 @@
-allocation growing API
-======================
-
-Dynamically growing an array using realloc() is error prone and boring.
-
-Define your array with:
-
-* a pointer (`item`) that points at the array, initialized to `NULL`
- (although please name the variable based on its contents, not on its
- type);
-
-* an integer variable (`alloc`) that keeps track of how big the current
- allocation is, initialized to `0`;
-
-* another integer variable (`nr`) to keep track of how many elements the
- array currently has, initialized to `0`.
-
-Then before adding `n`th element to the item, call `ALLOC_GROW(item, n,
-alloc)`. This ensures that the array can hold at least `n` elements by
-calling `realloc(3)` and adjusting `alloc` variable.
-
-------------
-sometype *item;
-size_t nr;
-size_t alloc
-
-for (i = 0; i < nr; i++)
- if (we like item[i] already)
- return;
-
-/* we did not like any existing one, so add one */
-ALLOC_GROW(item, nr + 1, alloc);
-item[nr++] = value you like;
-------------
-
-You are responsible for updating the `nr` variable.
-
-If you need to specify the number of elements to allocate explicitly
-then use the macro `REALLOC_ARRAY(item, alloc)` instead of `ALLOC_GROW`.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 870c8ed..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,65 +0,0 @@
-argv-array API
-==============
-
-The argv-array API allows one to dynamically build and store
-NULL-terminated lists. An argv-array maintains the invariant that the
-`argv` member always points to a non-NULL array, and that the array is
-always NULL-terminated at the element pointed to by `argv[argc]`. This
-makes the result suitable for passing to functions expecting to receive
-argv from main(), or the link:api-run-command.html[run-command API].
-
-The string-list API (documented in string-list.h) is similar, but cannot be
-used for these purposes; instead of storing a straight string pointer,
-it contains an item structure with a `util` field that is not compatible
-with the traditional argv interface.
-
-Each `argv_array` manages its own memory. Any strings pushed into the
-array are duplicated, and all memory is freed by argv_array_clear().
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct argv_array`::
-
- A single array. This should be initialized by assignment from
- `ARGV_ARRAY_INIT`, or by calling `argv_array_init`. The `argv`
- member contains the actual array; the `argc` member contains the
- number of elements in the array, not including the terminating
- NULL.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`argv_array_init`::
- Initialize an array. This is no different than assigning from
- `ARGV_ARRAY_INIT`.
-
-`argv_array_push`::
- Push a copy of a string onto the end of the array.
-
-`argv_array_pushl`::
- Push a list of strings onto the end of the array. The arguments
- should be a list of `const char *` strings, terminated by a NULL
- argument.
-
-`argv_array_pushf`::
- Format a string and push it onto the end of the array. This is a
- convenience wrapper combining `strbuf_addf` and `argv_array_push`.
-
-`argv_array_pushv`::
- Push a null-terminated array of strings onto the end of the array.
-
-`argv_array_pop`::
- Remove the final element from the array. If there are no
- elements in the array, do nothing.
-
-`argv_array_clear`::
- Free all memory associated with the array and return it to the
- initial, empty state.
-
-`argv_array_detach`::
- Disconnect the `argv` member from the `argv_array` struct and
- return it. The caller is responsible for freeing the memory used
- by the array, and by the strings it references. After detaching,
- the `argv_array` is in a reinitialized state and can be pushed
- into again.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 7d20716..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-config.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,319 +0,0 @@
-config API
-==========
-
-The config API gives callers a way to access Git configuration files
-(and files which have the same syntax). See linkgit:git-config[1] for a
-discussion of the config file syntax.
-
-General Usage
--------------
-
-Config files are parsed linearly, and each variable found is passed to a
-caller-provided callback function. The callback function is responsible
-for any actions to be taken on the config option, and is free to ignore
-some options. It is not uncommon for the configuration to be parsed
-several times during the run of a Git program, with different callbacks
-picking out different variables useful to themselves.
-
-A config callback function takes three parameters:
-
-- the name of the parsed variable. This is in canonical "flat" form: the
- section, subsection, and variable segments will be separated by dots,
- and the section and variable segments will be all lowercase. E.g.,
- `core.ignorecase`, `diff.SomeType.textconv`.
-
-- the value of the found variable, as a string. If the variable had no
- value specified, the value will be NULL (typically this means it
- should be interpreted as boolean true).
-
-- a void pointer passed in by the caller of the config API; this can
- contain callback-specific data
-
-A config callback should return 0 for success, or -1 if the variable
-could not be parsed properly.
-
-Basic Config Querying
----------------------
-
-Most programs will simply want to look up variables in all config files
-that Git knows about, using the normal precedence rules. To do this,
-call `git_config` with a callback function and void data pointer.
-
-`git_config` will read all config sources in order of increasing
-priority. Thus a callback should typically overwrite previously-seen
-entries with new ones (e.g., if both the user-wide `~/.gitconfig` and
-repo-specific `.git/config` contain `color.ui`, the config machinery
-will first feed the user-wide one to the callback, and then the
-repo-specific one; by overwriting, the higher-priority repo-specific
-value is left at the end).
-
-The `config_with_options` function lets the caller examine config
-while adjusting some of the default behavior of `git_config`. It should
-almost never be used by "regular" Git code that is looking up
-configuration variables. It is intended for advanced callers like
-`git-config`, which are intentionally tweaking the normal config-lookup
-process. It takes two extra parameters:
-
-`config_source`::
-If this parameter is non-NULL, it specifies the source to parse for
-configuration, rather than looking in the usual files. See `struct
-git_config_source` in `config.h` for details. Regular `git_config` defaults
-to `NULL`.
-
-`opts`::
-Specify options to adjust the behavior of parsing config files. See `struct
-config_options` in `config.h` for details. As an example: regular `git_config`
-sets `opts.respect_includes` to `1` by default.
-
-Reading Specific Files
-----------------------
-
-To read a specific file in git-config format, use
-`git_config_from_file`. This takes the same callback and data parameters
-as `git_config`.
-
-Querying For Specific Variables
--------------------------------
-
-For programs wanting to query for specific variables in a non-callback
-manner, the config API provides two functions `git_config_get_value`
-and `git_config_get_value_multi`. They both read values from an internal
-cache generated previously from reading the config files.
-
-`int git_config_get_value(const char *key, const char **value)`::
-
- Finds the highest-priority value for the configuration variable `key`,
- stores the pointer to it in `value` and returns 0. When the
- configuration variable `key` is not found, returns 1 without touching
- `value`. The caller should not free or modify `value`, as it is owned
- by the cache.
-
-`const struct string_list *git_config_get_value_multi(const char *key)`::
-
- Finds and returns the value list, sorted in order of increasing priority
- for the configuration variable `key`. When the configuration variable
- `key` is not found, returns NULL. The caller should not free or modify
- the returned pointer, as it is owned by the cache.
-
-`void git_config_clear(void)`::
-
- Resets and invalidates the config cache.
-
-The config API also provides type specific API functions which do conversion
-as well as retrieval for the queried variable, including:
-
-`int git_config_get_int(const char *key, int *dest)`::
-
- Finds and parses the value to an integer for the configuration variable
- `key`. Dies on error; otherwise, stores the value of the parsed integer in
- `dest` and returns 0. When the configuration variable `key` is not found,
- returns 1 without touching `dest`.
-
-`int git_config_get_ulong(const char *key, unsigned long *dest)`::
-
- Similar to `git_config_get_int` but for unsigned longs.
-
-`int git_config_get_bool(const char *key, int *dest)`::
-
- Finds and parses the value into a boolean value, for the configuration
- variable `key` respecting keywords like "true" and "false". Integer
- values are converted into true/false values (when they are non-zero or
- zero, respectively). Other values cause a die(). If parsing is successful,
- stores the value of the parsed result in `dest` and returns 0. When the
- configuration variable `key` is not found, returns 1 without touching
- `dest`.
-
-`int git_config_get_bool_or_int(const char *key, int *is_bool, int *dest)`::
-
- Similar to `git_config_get_bool`, except that integers are copied as-is,
- and `is_bool` flag is unset.
-
-`int git_config_get_maybe_bool(const char *key, int *dest)`::
-
- Similar to `git_config_get_bool`, except that it returns -1 on error
- rather than dying.
-
-`int git_config_get_string_const(const char *key, const char **dest)`::
-
- Allocates and copies the retrieved string into the `dest` parameter for
- the configuration variable `key`; if NULL string is given, prints an
- error message and returns -1. When the configuration variable `key` is
- not found, returns 1 without touching `dest`.
-
-`int git_config_get_string(const char *key, char **dest)`::
-
- Similar to `git_config_get_string_const`, except that retrieved value
- copied into the `dest` parameter is a mutable string.
-
-`int git_config_get_pathname(const char *key, const char **dest)`::
-
- Similar to `git_config_get_string`, but expands `~` or `~user` into
- the user's home directory when found at the beginning of the path.
-
-`git_die_config(const char *key, const char *err, ...)`::
-
- First prints the error message specified by the caller in `err` and then
- dies printing the line number and the file name of the highest priority
- value for the configuration variable `key`.
-
-`void git_die_config_linenr(const char *key, const char *filename, int linenr)`::
-
- Helper function which formats the die error message according to the
- parameters entered. Used by `git_die_config()`. It can be used by callers
- handling `git_config_get_value_multi()` to print the correct error message
- for the desired value.
-
-See test-config.c for usage examples.
-
-Value Parsing Helpers
----------------------
-
-To aid in parsing string values, the config API provides callbacks with
-a number of helper functions, including:
-
-`git_config_int`::
-Parse the string to an integer, including unit factors. Dies on error;
-otherwise, returns the parsed result.
-
-`git_config_ulong`::
-Identical to `git_config_int`, but for unsigned longs.
-
-`git_config_bool`::
-Parse a string into a boolean value, respecting keywords like "true" and
-"false". Integer values are converted into true/false values (when they
-are non-zero or zero, respectively). Other values cause a die(). If
-parsing is successful, the return value is the result.
-
-`git_config_bool_or_int`::
-Same as `git_config_bool`, except that integers are returned as-is, and
-an `is_bool` flag is unset.
-
-`git_parse_maybe_bool`::
-Same as `git_config_bool`, except that it returns -1 on error rather
-than dying.
-
-`git_config_string`::
-Allocates and copies the value string into the `dest` parameter; if no
-string is given, prints an error message and returns -1.
-
-`git_config_pathname`::
-Similar to `git_config_string`, but expands `~` or `~user` into the
-user's home directory when found at the beginning of the path.
-
-Include Directives
-------------------
-
-By default, the config parser does not respect include directives.
-However, a caller can use the special `git_config_include` wrapper
-callback to support them. To do so, you simply wrap your "real" callback
-function and data pointer in a `struct config_include_data`, and pass
-the wrapper to the regular config-reading functions. For example:
-
--------------------------------------------
-int read_file_with_include(const char *file, config_fn_t fn, void *data)
-{
- struct config_include_data inc = CONFIG_INCLUDE_INIT;
- inc.fn = fn;
- inc.data = data;
- return git_config_from_file(git_config_include, file, &inc);
-}
--------------------------------------------
-
-`git_config` respects includes automatically. The lower-level
-`git_config_from_file` does not.
-
-Custom Configsets
------------------
-
-A `config_set` can be used to construct an in-memory cache for
-config-like files that the caller specifies (i.e., files like `.gitmodules`,
-`~/.gitconfig` etc.). For example,
-
-----------------------------------------
-struct config_set gm_config;
-git_configset_init(&gm_config);
-int b;
-/* we add config files to the config_set */
-git_configset_add_file(&gm_config, ".gitmodules");
-git_configset_add_file(&gm_config, ".gitmodules_alt");
-
-if (!git_configset_get_bool(gm_config, "submodule.frotz.ignore", &b)) {
- /* hack hack hack */
-}
-
-/* when we are done with the configset */
-git_configset_clear(&gm_config);
-----------------------------------------
-
-Configset API provides functions for the above mentioned work flow, including:
-
-`void git_configset_init(struct config_set *cs)`::
-
- Initializes the config_set `cs`.
-
-`int git_configset_add_file(struct config_set *cs, const char *filename)`::
-
- Parses the file and adds the variable-value pairs to the `config_set`,
- dies if there is an error in parsing the file. Returns 0 on success, or
- -1 if the file does not exist or is inaccessible. The user has to decide
- if he wants to free the incomplete configset or continue using it when
- the function returns -1.
-
-`int git_configset_get_value(struct config_set *cs, const char *key, const char **value)`::
-
- Finds the highest-priority value for the configuration variable `key`
- and config set `cs`, stores the pointer to it in `value` and returns 0.
- When the configuration variable `key` is not found, returns 1 without
- touching `value`. The caller should not free or modify `value`, as it
- is owned by the cache.
-
-`const struct string_list *git_configset_get_value_multi(struct config_set *cs, const char *key)`::
-
- Finds and returns the value list, sorted in order of increasing priority
- for the configuration variable `key` and config set `cs`. When the
- configuration variable `key` is not found, returns NULL. The caller
- should not free or modify the returned pointer, as it is owned by the cache.
-
-`void git_configset_clear(struct config_set *cs)`::
-
- Clears `config_set` structure, removes all saved variable-value pairs.
-
-In addition to above functions, the `config_set` API provides type specific
-functions in the vein of `git_config_get_int` and family but with an extra
-parameter, pointer to struct `config_set`.
-They all behave similarly to the `git_config_get*()` family described in
-"Querying For Specific Variables" above.
-
-Writing Config Files
---------------------
-
-Git gives multiple entry points in the Config API to write config values to
-files namely `git_config_set_in_file` and `git_config_set`, which write to
-a specific config file or to `.git/config` respectively. They both take a
-key/value pair as parameter.
-In the end they both call `git_config_set_multivar_in_file` which takes four
-parameters:
-
-- the name of the file, as a string, to which key/value pairs will be written.
-
-- the name of key, as a string. This is in canonical "flat" form: the section,
- subsection, and variable segments will be separated by dots, and the section
- and variable segments will be all lowercase.
- E.g., `core.ignorecase`, `diff.SomeType.textconv`.
-
-- the value of the variable, as a string. If value is equal to NULL, it will
- remove the matching key from the config file.
-
-- the value regex, as a string. It will disregard key/value pairs where value
- does not match.
-
-- a multi_replace value, as an int. If value is equal to zero, nothing or only
- one matching key/value is replaced, else all matching key/values (regardless
- how many) are removed, before the new pair is written.
-
-It returns 0 on success.
-
-Also, there are functions `git_config_rename_section` and
-`git_config_rename_section_in_file` with parameters `old_name` and `new_name`
-for renaming or removing sections in the config files. If NULL is passed
-through `new_name` parameter, the section will be removed from the config file.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 75368f2..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,271 +0,0 @@
-credentials API
-===============
-
-The credentials API provides an abstracted way of gathering username and
-password credentials from the user (even though credentials in the wider
-world can take many forms, in this document the word "credential" always
-refers to a username and password pair).
-
-This document describes two interfaces: the C API that the credential
-subsystem provides to the rest of Git, and the protocol that Git uses to
-communicate with system-specific "credential helpers". If you are
-writing Git code that wants to look up or prompt for credentials, see
-the section "C API" below. If you want to write your own helper, see
-the section on "Credential Helpers" below.
-
-Typical setup
--------------
-
-------------
-+-----------------------+
-| Git code (C) |--- to server requiring --->
-| | authentication
-|.......................|
-| C credential API |--- prompt ---> User
-+-----------------------+
- ^ |
- | pipe |
- | v
-+-----------------------+
-| Git credential helper |
-+-----------------------+
-------------
-
-The Git code (typically a remote-helper) will call the C API to obtain
-credential data like a login/password pair (credential_fill). The
-API will itself call a remote helper (e.g. "git credential-cache" or
-"git credential-store") that may retrieve credential data from a
-store. If the credential helper cannot find the information, the C API
-will prompt the user. Then, the caller of the API takes care of
-contacting the server, and does the actual authentication.
-
-C API
------
-
-The credential C API is meant to be called by Git code which needs to
-acquire or store a credential. It is centered around an object
-representing a single credential and provides three basic operations:
-fill (acquire credentials by calling helpers and/or prompting the user),
-approve (mark a credential as successfully used so that it can be stored
-for later use), and reject (mark a credential as unsuccessful so that it
-can be erased from any persistent storage).
-
-Data Structures
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
-`struct credential`::
-
- This struct represents a single username/password combination
- along with any associated context. All string fields should be
- heap-allocated (or NULL if they are not known or not applicable).
- The meaning of the individual context fields is the same as
- their counterparts in the helper protocol; see the section below
- for a description of each field.
-+
-The `helpers` member of the struct is a `string_list` of helpers. Each
-string specifies an external helper which will be run, in order, to
-either acquire or store credentials. See the section on credential
-helpers below. This list is filled-in by the API functions
-according to the corresponding configuration variables before
-consulting helpers, so there usually is no need for a caller to
-modify the helpers field at all.
-+
-This struct should always be initialized with `CREDENTIAL_INIT` or
-`credential_init`.
-
-
-Functions
-~~~~~~~~~
-
-`credential_init`::
-
- Initialize a credential structure, setting all fields to empty.
-
-`credential_clear`::
-
- Free any resources associated with the credential structure,
- returning it to a pristine initialized state.
-
-`credential_fill`::
-
- Instruct the credential subsystem to fill the username and
- password fields of the passed credential struct by first
- consulting helpers, then asking the user. After this function
- returns, the username and password fields of the credential are
- guaranteed to be non-NULL. If an error occurs, the function will
- die().
-
-`credential_reject`::
-
- Inform the credential subsystem that the provided credentials
- have been rejected. This will cause the credential subsystem to
- notify any helpers of the rejection (which allows them, for
- example, to purge the invalid credentials from storage). It
- will also free() the username and password fields of the
- credential and set them to NULL (readying the credential for
- another call to `credential_fill`). Any errors from helpers are
- ignored.
-
-`credential_approve`::
-
- Inform the credential subsystem that the provided credentials
- were successfully used for authentication. This will cause the
- credential subsystem to notify any helpers of the approval, so
- that they may store the result to be used again. Any errors
- from helpers are ignored.
-
-`credential_from_url`::
-
- Parse a URL into broken-down credential fields.
-
-Example
-~~~~~~~
-
-The example below shows how the functions of the credential API could be
-used to login to a fictitious "foo" service on a remote host:
-
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-int foo_login(struct foo_connection *f)
-{
- int status;
- /*
- * Create a credential with some context; we don't yet know the
- * username or password.
- */
-
- struct credential c = CREDENTIAL_INIT;
- c.protocol = xstrdup("foo");
- c.host = xstrdup(f->hostname);
-
- /*
- * Fill in the username and password fields by contacting
- * helpers and/or asking the user. The function will die if it
- * fails.
- */
- credential_fill(&c);
-
- /*
- * Otherwise, we have a username and password. Try to use it.
- */
- status = send_foo_login(f, c.username, c.password);
- switch (status) {
- case FOO_OK:
- /* It worked. Store the credential for later use. */
- credential_accept(&c);
- break;
- case FOO_BAD_LOGIN:
- /* Erase the credential from storage so we don't try it
- * again. */
- credential_reject(&c);
- break;
- default:
- /*
- * Some other error occurred. We don't know if the
- * credential is good or bad, so report nothing to the
- * credential subsystem.
- */
- }
-
- /* Free any associated resources. */
- credential_clear(&c);
-
- return status;
-}
------------------------------------------------------------------------
-
-
-Credential Helpers
-------------------
-
-Credential helpers are programs executed by Git to fetch or save
-credentials from and to long-term storage (where "long-term" is simply
-longer than a single Git process; e.g., credentials may be stored
-in-memory for a few minutes, or indefinitely on disk).
-
-Each helper is specified by a single string in the configuration
-variable `credential.helper` (and others, see linkgit:git-config[1]).
-The string is transformed by Git into a command to be executed using
-these rules:
-
- 1. If the helper string begins with "!", it is considered a shell
- snippet, and everything after the "!" becomes the command.
-
- 2. Otherwise, if the helper string begins with an absolute path, the
- verbatim helper string becomes the command.
-
- 3. Otherwise, the string "git credential-" is prepended to the helper
- string, and the result becomes the command.
-
-The resulting command then has an "operation" argument appended to it
-(see below for details), and the result is executed by the shell.
-
-Here are some example specifications:
-
-----------------------------------------------------
-# run "git credential-foo"
-foo
-
-# same as above, but pass an argument to the helper
-foo --bar=baz
-
-# the arguments are parsed by the shell, so use shell
-# quoting if necessary
-foo --bar="whitespace arg"
-
-# you can also use an absolute path, which will not use the git wrapper
-/path/to/my/helper --with-arguments
-
-# or you can specify your own shell snippet
-!f() { echo "password=`cat $HOME/.secret`"; }; f
-----------------------------------------------------
-
-Generally speaking, rule (3) above is the simplest for users to specify.
-Authors of credential helpers should make an effort to assist their
-users by naming their program "git-credential-$NAME", and putting it in
-the $PATH or $GIT_EXEC_PATH during installation, which will allow a user
-to enable it with `git config credential.helper $NAME`.
-
-When a helper is executed, it will have one "operation" argument
-appended to its command line, which is one of:
-
-`get`::
-
- Return a matching credential, if any exists.
-
-`store`::
-
- Store the credential, if applicable to the helper.
-
-`erase`::
-
- Remove a matching credential, if any, from the helper's storage.
-
-The details of the credential will be provided on the helper's stdin
-stream. The exact format is the same as the input/output format of the
-`git credential` plumbing command (see the section `INPUT/OUTPUT
-FORMAT` in linkgit:git-credential[1] for a detailed specification).
-
-For a `get` operation, the helper should produce a list of attributes
-on stdout in the same format. A helper is free to produce a subset, or
-even no values at all if it has nothing useful to provide. Any provided
-attributes will overwrite those already known about by Git. If a helper
-outputs a `quit` attribute with a value of `true` or `1`, no further
-helpers will be consulted, nor will the user be prompted (if no
-credential has been provided, the operation will then fail).
-
-For a `store` or `erase` operation, the helper's output is ignored.
-If it fails to perform the requested operation, it may complain to
-stderr to inform the user. If it does not support the requested
-operation (e.g., a read-only store), it should silently ignore the
-request.
-
-If a helper receives any other operation, it should silently ignore the
-request. This leaves room for future operations to be added (older
-helpers will just ignore the new requests).
-
-See also
---------
-
-linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
-
-linkgit:git-config[1] (See configuration variables `credential.*`)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 30fc0e9..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-diff.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,174 +0,0 @@
-diff API
-========
-
-The diff API is for programs that compare two sets of files (e.g. two
-trees, one tree and the index) and present the found difference in
-various ways. The calling program is responsible for feeding the API
-pairs of files, one from the "old" set and the corresponding one from
-"new" set, that are different. The library called through this API is
-called diffcore, and is responsible for two things.
-
-* finding total rewrites (`-B`), renames (`-M`) and copies (`-C`), and
- changes that touch a string (`-S`), as specified by the caller.
-
-* outputting the differences in various formats, as specified by the
- caller.
-
-Calling sequence
-----------------
-
-* Prepare `struct diff_options` to record the set of diff options, and
- then call `repo_diff_setup()` to initialize this structure. This
- sets up the vanilla default.
-
-* Fill in the options structure to specify desired output format, rename
- detection, etc. `diff_opt_parse()` can be used to parse options given
- from the command line in a way consistent with existing git-diff
- family of programs.
-
-* Call `diff_setup_done()`; this inspects the options set up so far for
- internal consistency and make necessary tweaking to it (e.g. if
- textual patch output was asked, recursive behaviour is turned on);
- the callback set_default in diff_options can be used to tweak this more.
-
-* As you find different pairs of files, call `diff_change()` to feed
- modified files, `diff_addremove()` to feed created or deleted files,
- or `diff_unmerge()` to feed a file whose state is 'unmerged' to the
- API. These are thin wrappers to a lower-level `diff_queue()` function
- that is flexible enough to record any of these kinds of changes.
-
-* Once you finish feeding the pairs of files, call `diffcore_std()`.
- This will tell the diffcore library to go ahead and do its work.
-
-* Calling `diff_flush()` will produce the output.
-
-
-Data structures
----------------
-
-* `struct diff_filespec`
-
-This is the internal representation for a single file (blob). It
-records the blob object name (if known -- for a work tree file it
-typically is a NUL SHA-1), filemode and pathname. This is what the
-`diff_addremove()`, `diff_change()` and `diff_unmerge()` synthesize and
-feed `diff_queue()` function with.
-
-* `struct diff_filepair`
-
-This records a pair of `struct diff_filespec`; the filespec for a file
-in the "old" set (i.e. preimage) is called `one`, and the filespec for a
-file in the "new" set (i.e. postimage) is called `two`. A change that
-represents file creation has NULL in `one`, and file deletion has NULL
-in `two`.
-
-A `filepair` starts pointing at `one` and `two` that are from the same
-filename, but `diffcore_std()` can break pairs and match component
-filespecs with other filespecs from a different filepair to form new
-filepair. This is called 'rename detection'.
-
-* `struct diff_queue`
-
-This is a collection of filepairs. Notable members are:
-
-`queue`::
-
- An array of pointers to `struct diff_filepair`. This
- dynamically grows as you add filepairs;
-
-`alloc`::
-
- The allocated size of the `queue` array;
-
-`nr`::
-
- The number of elements in the `queue` array.
-
-
-* `struct diff_options`
-
-This describes the set of options the calling program wants to affect
-the operation of diffcore library with.
-
-Notable members are:
-
-`output_format`::
- The output format used when `diff_flush()` is run.
-
-`context`::
- Number of context lines to generate in patch output.
-
-`break_opt`, `detect_rename`, `rename-score`, `rename_limit`::
- Affects the way detection logic for complete rewrites, renames
- and copies.
-
-`abbrev`::
- Number of hexdigits to abbreviate raw format output to.
-
-`pickaxe`::
- A constant string (can and typically does contain newlines to
- look for a block of text, not just a single line) to filter out
- the filepairs that do not change the number of strings contained
- in its preimage and postimage of the diff_queue.
-
-`flags`::
- This is mostly a collection of boolean options that affects the
- operation, but some do not have anything to do with the diffcore
- library.
-
-`touched_flags`::
- Records whether a flag has been changed due to user request
- (rather than just set/unset by default).
-
-`set_default`::
- Callback which allows tweaking the options in diff_setup_done().
-
-BINARY, TEXT;;
- Affects the way how a file that is seemingly binary is treated.
-
-FULL_INDEX;;
- Tells the patch output format not to use abbreviated object
- names on the "index" lines.
-
-FIND_COPIES_HARDER;;
- Tells the diffcore library that the caller is feeding unchanged
- filepairs to allow copies from unmodified files be detected.
-
-COLOR_DIFF;;
- Output should be colored.
-
-COLOR_DIFF_WORDS;;
- Output is a colored word-diff.
-
-NO_INDEX;;
- Tells diff-files that the input is not tracked files but files
- in random locations on the filesystem.
-
-ALLOW_EXTERNAL;;
- Tells output routine that it is Ok to call user specified patch
- output routine. Plumbing disables this to ensure stable output.
-
-QUIET;;
- Do not show any output.
-
-REVERSE_DIFF;;
- Tells the library that the calling program is feeding the
- filepairs reversed; `one` is two, and `two` is one.
-
-EXIT_WITH_STATUS;;
- For communication between the calling program and the options
- parser; tell the calling program to signal the presence of
- difference using program exit code.
-
-HAS_CHANGES;;
- Internal; used for optimization to see if there is any change.
-
-SILENT_ON_REMOVE;;
- Affects if diff-files shows removed files.
-
-RECURSIVE, TREE_IN_RECURSIVE;;
- Tells if tree traversal done by tree-diff should recursively
- descend into a tree object pair that are different in preimage
- and postimage set.
-
-(JC)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 5abb8e8..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,130 +0,0 @@
-directory listing API
-=====================
-
-The directory listing API is used to enumerate paths in the work tree,
-optionally taking `.git/info/exclude` and `.gitignore` files per
-directory into account.
-
-Data structure
---------------
-
-`struct dir_struct` structure is used to pass directory traversal
-options to the library and to record the paths discovered. A single
-`struct dir_struct` is used regardless of whether or not the traversal
-recursively descends into subdirectories.
-
-The notable options are:
-
-`exclude_per_dir`::
-
- The name of the file to be read in each directory for excluded
- files (typically `.gitignore`).
-
-`flags`::
-
- A bit-field of options:
-
-`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`:::
-
- Return just ignored files in `entries[]`, not untracked
- files. This flag is mutually exclusive with
- `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`.
-
-`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO`:::
-
- Similar to `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`, but return ignored files in
- `ignored[]` in addition to untracked files in
- `entries[]`. This flag is mutually exclusive with
- `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED`.
-
-`DIR_KEEP_UNTRACKED_CONTENTS`:::
-
- Only has meaning if `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` is also set; if this is set, the
- untracked contents of untracked directories are also returned in
- `entries[]`.
-
-`DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO_MODE_MATCHING`:::
-
- Only has meaning if `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` is also set; if
- this is set, returns ignored files and directories that match
- an exclude pattern. If a directory matches an exclude pattern,
- then the directory is returned and the contained paths are
- not. A directory that does not match an exclude pattern will
- not be returned even if all of its contents are ignored. In
- this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
-+
-If this is set, files and directories that explicitly match an ignore
-pattern are reported. Implicitly ignored directories (directories that
-do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
-are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
-
-`DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED`:::
-
- Special mode for git-add. Return ignored files in `ignored[]` and
- untracked files in `entries[]`. Only returns ignored files that match
- pathspec exactly (no wildcards). Does not recurse into ignored
- directories.
-
-`DIR_SHOW_OTHER_DIRECTORIES`:::
-
- Include a directory that is not tracked.
-
-`DIR_HIDE_EMPTY_DIRECTORIES`:::
-
- Do not include a directory that is not tracked and is empty.
-
-`DIR_NO_GITLINKS`:::
-
- If set, recurse into a directory that looks like a Git
- directory. Otherwise it is shown as a directory.
-
-The result of the enumeration is left in these fields:
-
-`entries[]`::
-
- An array of `struct dir_entry`, each element of which describes
- a path.
-
-`nr`::
-
- The number of members in `entries[]` array.
-
-`alloc`::
-
- Internal use; keeps track of allocation of `entries[]` array.
-
-`ignored[]`::
-
- An array of `struct dir_entry`, used for ignored paths with the
- `DIR_SHOW_IGNORED_TOO` and `DIR_COLLECT_IGNORED` flags.
-
-`ignored_nr`::
-
- The number of members in `ignored[]` array.
-
-Calling sequence
-----------------
-
-Note: index may be looked at for .gitignore files that are CE_SKIP_WORKTREE
-marked. If you to exclude files, make sure you have loaded index first.
-
-* Prepare `struct dir_struct dir` and clear it with `memset(&dir, 0,
- sizeof(dir))`.
-
-* To add single exclude pattern, call `add_exclude_list()` and then
- `add_exclude()`.
-
-* To add patterns from a file (e.g. `.git/info/exclude`), call
- `add_excludes_from_file()` , and/or set `dir.exclude_per_dir`. A
- short-hand function `setup_standard_excludes()` can be used to set
- up the standard set of exclude settings.
-
-* Set options described in the Data Structure section above.
-
-* Call `read_directory()`.
-
-* Use `dir.entries[]`.
-
-* Call `clear_directory()` when none of the contained elements are no longer in use.
-
-(JC)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 45f0df6..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,154 +0,0 @@
-gitattributes API
-=================
-
-gitattributes mechanism gives a uniform way to associate various
-attributes to set of paths.
-
-
-Data Structure
---------------
-
-`struct git_attr`::
-
- An attribute is an opaque object that is identified by its name.
- Pass the name to `git_attr()` function to obtain the object of
- this type. The internal representation of this structure is
- of no interest to the calling programs. The name of the
- attribute can be retrieved by calling `git_attr_name()`.
-
-`struct attr_check_item`::
-
- This structure represents one attribute and its value.
-
-`struct attr_check`::
-
- This structure represents a collection of `attr_check_item`.
- It is passed to `git_check_attr()` function, specifying the
- attributes to check, and receives their values.
-
-
-Attribute Values
-----------------
-
-An attribute for a path can be in one of four states: Set, Unset,
-Unspecified or set to a string, and `.value` member of `struct
-attr_check_item` records it. There are three macros to check these:
-
-`ATTR_TRUE()`::
-
- Returns true if the attribute is Set for the path.
-
-`ATTR_FALSE()`::
-
- Returns true if the attribute is Unset for the path.
-
-`ATTR_UNSET()`::
-
- Returns true if the attribute is Unspecified for the path.
-
-If none of the above returns true, `.value` member points at a string
-value of the attribute for the path.
-
-
-Querying Specific Attributes
-----------------------------
-
-* Prepare `struct attr_check` using attr_check_initl()
- function, enumerating the names of attributes whose values you are
- interested in, terminated with a NULL pointer. Alternatively, an
- empty `struct attr_check` can be prepared by calling
- `attr_check_alloc()` function and then attributes you want to
- ask about can be added to it with `attr_check_append()`
- function.
-
-* Call `git_check_attr()` to check the attributes for the path.
-
-* Inspect `attr_check` structure to see how each of the
- attribute in the array is defined for the path.
-
-
-Example
--------
-
-To see how attributes "crlf" and "ident" are set for different paths.
-
-. Prepare a `struct attr_check` with two elements (because
- we are checking two attributes):
-
-------------
-static struct attr_check *check;
-static void setup_check(void)
-{
- if (check)
- return; /* already done */
- check = attr_check_initl("crlf", "ident", NULL);
-}
-------------
-
-. Call `git_check_attr()` with the prepared `struct attr_check`:
-
-------------
- const char *path;
-
- setup_check();
- git_check_attr(path, check);
-------------
-
-. Act on `.value` member of the result, left in `check->items[]`:
-
-------------
- const char *value = check->items[0].value;
-
- if (ATTR_TRUE(value)) {
- The attribute is Set, by listing only the name of the
- attribute in the gitattributes file for the path.
- } else if (ATTR_FALSE(value)) {
- The attribute is Unset, by listing the name of the
- attribute prefixed with a dash - for the path.
- } else if (ATTR_UNSET(value)) {
- The attribute is neither set nor unset for the path.
- } else if (!strcmp(value, "input")) {
- If none of ATTR_TRUE(), ATTR_FALSE(), or ATTR_UNSET() is
- true, the value is a string set in the gitattributes
- file for the path by saying "attr=value".
- } else if (... other check using value as string ...) {
- ...
- }
-------------
-
-To see how attributes in argv[] are set for different paths, only
-the first step in the above would be different.
-
-------------
-static struct attr_check *check;
-static void setup_check(const char **argv)
-{
- check = attr_check_alloc();
- while (*argv) {
- struct git_attr *attr = git_attr(*argv);
- attr_check_append(check, attr);
- argv++;
- }
-}
-------------
-
-
-Querying All Attributes
------------------------
-
-To get the values of all attributes associated with a file:
-
-* Prepare an empty `attr_check` structure by calling
- `attr_check_alloc()`.
-
-* Call `git_all_attrs()`, which populates the `attr_check`
- with the attributes attached to the path.
-
-* Iterate over the `attr_check.items[]` array to examine
- the attribute names and values. The name of the attribute
- described by an `attr_check.items[]` object can be retrieved via
- `git_attr_name(check->items[i].attr)`. (Please note that no items
- will be returned for unset attributes, so `ATTR_UNSET()` will return
- false for all returned `attr_check.items[]` objects.)
-
-* Free the `attr_check` struct by calling `attr_check_free()`.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-grep.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-grep.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index a69cc89..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-grep.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,8 +0,0 @@
-grep API
-========
-
-Talk about <grep.h>, things like:
-
-* grep_buffer()
-
-(JC)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index d0d1707..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,173 +0,0 @@
-history graph API
-=================
-
-The graph API is used to draw a text-based representation of the commit
-history. The API generates the graph in a line-by-line fashion.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-Core functions:
-
-* `graph_init()` creates a new `struct git_graph`
-
-* `graph_update()` moves the graph to a new commit.
-
-* `graph_next_line()` outputs the next line of the graph into a strbuf. It
- does not add a terminating newline.
-
-* `graph_padding_line()` outputs a line of vertical padding in the graph. It
- is similar to `graph_next_line()`, but is guaranteed to never print the line
- containing the current commit. Where `graph_next_line()` would print the
- commit line next, `graph_padding_line()` prints a line that simply extends
- all branch lines downwards one row, leaving their positions unchanged.
-
-* `graph_is_commit_finished()` determines if the graph has output all lines
- necessary for the current commit. If `graph_update()` is called before all
- lines for the current commit have been printed, the next call to
- `graph_next_line()` will output an ellipsis, to indicate that a portion of
- the graph was omitted.
-
-The following utility functions are wrappers around `graph_next_line()` and
-`graph_is_commit_finished()`. They always print the output to stdout.
-They can all be called with a NULL graph argument, in which case no graph
-output will be printed.
-
-* `graph_show_commit()` calls `graph_next_line()` and
- `graph_is_commit_finished()` until one of them return non-zero. This prints
- all graph lines up to, and including, the line containing this commit.
- Output is printed to stdout. The last line printed does not contain a
- terminating newline.
-
-* `graph_show_oneline()` calls `graph_next_line()` and prints the result to
- stdout. The line printed does not contain a terminating newline.
-
-* `graph_show_padding()` calls `graph_padding_line()` and prints the result to
- stdout. The line printed does not contain a terminating newline.
-
-* `graph_show_remainder()` calls `graph_next_line()` until
- `graph_is_commit_finished()` returns non-zero. Output is printed to stdout.
- The last line printed does not contain a terminating newline. Returns 1 if
- output was printed, and 0 if no output was necessary.
-
-* `graph_show_strbuf()` prints the specified strbuf to stdout, prefixing all
- lines but the first with a graph line. The caller is responsible for
- ensuring graph output for the first line has already been printed to stdout.
- (This can be done with `graph_show_commit()` or `graph_show_oneline()`.) If
- a NULL graph is supplied, the strbuf is printed as-is.
-
-* `graph_show_commit_msg()` is similar to `graph_show_strbuf()`, but it also
- prints the remainder of the graph, if more lines are needed after the strbuf
- ends. It is better than directly calling `graph_show_strbuf()` followed by
- `graph_show_remainder()` since it properly handles buffers that do not end in
- a terminating newline. The output printed by `graph_show_commit_msg()` will
- end in a newline if and only if the strbuf ends in a newline.
-
-Data structure
---------------
-`struct git_graph` is an opaque data type used to store the current graph
-state.
-
-Calling sequence
-----------------
-
-* Create a `struct git_graph` by calling `graph_init()`. When using the
- revision walking API, this is done automatically by `setup_revisions()` if
- the '--graph' option is supplied.
-
-* Use the revision walking API to walk through a group of contiguous commits.
- The `get_revision()` function automatically calls `graph_update()` each time
- it is invoked.
-
-* For each commit, call `graph_next_line()` repeatedly, until
- `graph_is_commit_finished()` returns non-zero. Each call to
- `graph_next_line()` will output a single line of the graph. The resulting
- lines will not contain any newlines. `graph_next_line()` returns 1 if the
- resulting line contains the current commit, or 0 if this is merely a line
- needed to adjust the graph before or after the current commit. This return
- value can be used to determine where to print the commit summary information
- alongside the graph output.
-
-Limitations
------------
-
-* `graph_update()` must be called with commits in topological order. It should
- not be called on a commit if it has already been invoked with an ancestor of
- that commit, or the graph output will be incorrect.
-
-* `graph_update()` must be called on a contiguous group of commits. If
- `graph_update()` is called on a particular commit, it should later be called
- on all parents of that commit. Parents must not be skipped, or the graph
- output will appear incorrect.
-+
-`graph_update()` may be used on a pruned set of commits only if the parent list
-has been rewritten so as to include only ancestors from the pruned set.
-
-* The graph API does not currently support reverse commit ordering. In
- order to implement reverse ordering, the graphing API needs an
- (efficient) mechanism to find the children of a commit.
-
-Sample usage
-------------
-
-------------
-struct commit *commit;
-struct git_graph *graph = graph_init(opts);
-
-while ((commit = get_revision(opts)) != NULL) {
- while (!graph_is_commit_finished(graph))
- {
- struct strbuf sb;
- int is_commit_line;
-
- strbuf_init(&sb, 0);
- is_commit_line = graph_next_line(graph, &sb);
- fputs(sb.buf, stdout);
-
- if (is_commit_line)
- log_tree_commit(opts, commit);
- else
- putchar(opts->diffopt.line_termination);
- }
-}
-------------
-
-Sample output
--------------
-
-The following is an example of the output from the graph API. This output does
-not include any commit summary information--callers are responsible for
-outputting that information, if desired.
-
-------------
-*
-*
-*
-|\
-* |
-| | *
-| \ \
-| \ \
-*-. \ \
-|\ \ \ \
-| | * | |
-| | | | | *
-| | | | | *
-| | | | | *
-| | | | | |\
-| | | | | | *
-| * | | | | |
-| | | | | * \
-| | | | | |\ |
-| | | | * | | |
-| | | | * | | |
-* | | | | | | |
-| |/ / / / / /
-|/| / / / / /
-* | | | | | |
-|/ / / / / /
-* | | | | |
-| | | | | *
-| | | | |/
-| | | | *
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-merge.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-merge.txt
index 9dc1bed..487d4d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-merge.txt
@@ -28,77 +28,9 @@ and `diff.c` for examples.
* `struct ll_merge_options`
-This describes the set of options the calling program wants to affect
-the operation of a low-level (single file) merge. Some options:
-
-`virtual_ancestor`::
- Behave as though this were part of a merge between common
- ancestors in a recursive merge.
- If a helper program is specified by the
- `[merge "<driver>"] recursive` configuration, it will
- be used (see linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
-
-`variant`::
- Resolve local conflicts automatically in favor
- of one side or the other (as in 'git merge-file'
- `--ours`/`--theirs`/`--union`). Can be `0`,
- `XDL_MERGE_FAVOR_OURS`, `XDL_MERGE_FAVOR_THEIRS`, or
- `XDL_MERGE_FAVOR_UNION`.
-
-`renormalize`::
- Resmudge and clean the "base", "theirs" and "ours" files
- before merging. Use this when the merge is likely to have
- overlapped with a change in smudge/clean or end-of-line
- normalization rules.
+Check ll-merge.h for details.
Low-level (single file) merge
-----------------------------
-`ll_merge`::
-
- Perform a three-way single-file merge in core. This is
- a thin wrapper around `xdl_merge` that takes the path and
- any merge backend specified in `.gitattributes` or
- `.git/info/attributes` into account. Returns 0 for a
- clean merge.
-
-Calling sequence:
-
-* Prepare a `struct ll_merge_options` to record options.
- If you have no special requests, skip this and pass `NULL`
- as the `opts` parameter to use the default options.
-
-* Allocate an mmbuffer_t variable for the result.
-
-* Allocate and fill variables with the file's original content
- and two modified versions (using `read_mmfile`, for example).
-
-* Call `ll_merge()`.
-
-* Read the merged content from `result_buf.ptr` and `result_buf.size`.
-
-* Release buffers when finished. A simple
- `free(ancestor.ptr); free(ours.ptr); free(theirs.ptr);
- free(result_buf.ptr);` will do.
-
-If the modifications do not merge cleanly, `ll_merge` will return a
-nonzero value and `result_buf` will generally include a description of
-the conflict bracketed by markers such as the traditional `<<<<<<<`
-and `>>>>>>>`.
-
-The `ancestor_label`, `our_label`, and `their_label` parameters are
-used to label the different sides of a conflict if the merge driver
-supports this.
-
-Everything else
----------------
-
-Talk about <merge-recursive.h> and merge_file():
-
- - merge_trees() to merge with rename detection
- - merge_recursive() for ancestor consolidation
- - try_merge_command() for other strategies
- - conflict format
- - merge options
-
-(Daniel, Miklos, Stephan, JC)
+Check ll-merge.h for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 5b29622..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-object-access.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,15 +0,0 @@
-object access API
-=================
-
-Talk about <sha1-file.c> and <object.h> family, things like
-
-* read_sha1_file()
-* read_object_with_reference()
-* has_sha1_file()
-* write_sha1_file()
-* pretend_object_file()
-* lookup_{object,commit,tag,blob,tree}
-* parse_{object,commit,tag,blob,tree}
-* Use of object flags
-
-(JC, Shawn, Daniel, Dscho, Linus)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index c97428c..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-oid-array.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,90 +0,0 @@
-oid-array API
-==============
-
-The oid-array API provides storage and manipulation of sets of object
-identifiers. The emphasis is on storage and processing efficiency,
-making them suitable for large lists. Note that the ordering of items is
-not preserved over some operations.
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct oid_array`::
-
- A single array of object IDs. This should be initialized by
- assignment from `OID_ARRAY_INIT`. The `oid` member contains
- the actual data. The `nr` member contains the number of items in
- the set. The `alloc` and `sorted` members are used internally,
- and should not be needed by API callers.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`oid_array_append`::
- Add an item to the set. The object ID will be placed at the end of
- the array (but note that some operations below may lose this
- ordering).
-
-`oid_array_lookup`::
- Perform a binary search of the array for a specific object ID.
- If found, returns the offset (in number of elements) of the
- object ID. If not found, returns a negative integer. If the array
- is not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting it.
-
-`oid_array_clear`::
- Free all memory associated with the array and return it to the
- initial, empty state.
-
-`oid_array_for_each`::
- Iterate over each element of the list, executing the callback
- function for each one. Does not sort the list, so any custom
- hash order is retained. If the callback returns a non-zero
- value, the iteration ends immediately and the callback's
- return is propagated; otherwise, 0 is returned.
-
-`oid_array_for_each_unique`::
- Iterate over each unique element of the list in sorted order,
- but otherwise behave like `oid_array_for_each`. If the array
- is not sorted, this function has the side effect of sorting
- it.
-
-`oid_array_filter`::
- Apply the callback function `want` to each entry in the array,
- retaining only the entries for which the function returns true.
- Preserve the order of the entries that are retained.
-
-Examples
---------
-
------------------------------------------
-int print_callback(const struct object_id *oid,
- void *data)
-{
- printf("%s\n", oid_to_hex(oid));
- return 0; /* always continue */
-}
-
-void some_func(void)
-{
- struct sha1_array hashes = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
- struct object_id oid;
-
- /* Read objects into our set */
- while (read_object_from_stdin(oid.hash))
- oid_array_append(&hashes, &oid);
-
- /* Check if some objects are in our set */
- while (read_object_from_stdin(oid.hash)) {
- if (oid_array_lookup(&hashes, &oid) >= 0)
- printf("it's in there!\n");
-
- /*
- * Print the unique set of objects. We could also have
- * avoided adding duplicate objects in the first place,
- * but we would end up re-sorting the array repeatedly.
- * Instead, this will sort once and then skip duplicates
- * in linear time.
- */
- oid_array_for_each_unique(&hashes, print_callback, NULL);
-}
------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-quote.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-quote.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index e8a1bce..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-quote.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,10 +0,0 @@
-quote API
-=========
-
-Talk about <quote.h>, things like
-
-* sq_quote and unquote
-* c_style quote and unquote
-* quoting for foreign languages
-
-(JC)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index ad9d019..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,78 +0,0 @@
-ref iteration API
-=================
-
-
-Iteration of refs is done by using an iterate function which will call a
-callback function for every ref. The callback function has this
-signature:
-
- int handle_one_ref(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid,
- int flags, void *cb_data);
-
-There are different kinds of iterate functions which all take a
-callback of this type. The callback is then called for each found ref
-until the callback returns nonzero. The returned value is then also
-returned by the iterate function.
-
-Iteration functions
--------------------
-
-* `head_ref()` just iterates the head ref.
-
-* `for_each_ref()` iterates all refs.
-
-* `for_each_ref_in()` iterates all refs which have a defined prefix and
- strips that prefix from the passed variable refname.
-
-* `for_each_tag_ref()`, `for_each_branch_ref()`, `for_each_remote_ref()`,
- `for_each_replace_ref()` iterate refs from the respective area.
-
-* `for_each_glob_ref()` iterates all refs that match the specified glob
- pattern.
-
-* `for_each_glob_ref_in()` the previous and `for_each_ref_in()` combined.
-
-* Use `refs_` API for accessing submodules. The submodule ref store could
- be obtained with `get_submodule_ref_store()`.
-
-* `for_each_rawref()` can be used to learn about broken ref and symref.
-
-* `for_each_reflog()` iterates each reflog file.
-
-Submodules
-----------
-
-If you want to iterate the refs of a submodule you first need to add the
-submodules object database. You can do this by a code-snippet like
-this:
-
- const char *path = "path/to/submodule"
- if (add_submodule_odb(path))
- die("Error submodule '%s' not populated.", path);
-
-`add_submodule_odb()` will return zero on success. If you
-do not do this you will get an error for each ref that it does not point
-to a valid object.
-
-Note: As a side-effect of this you cannot safely assume that all
-objects you lookup are available in superproject. All submodule objects
-will be available the same way as the superprojects objects.
-
-Example:
---------
-
-----
-static int handle_remote_ref(const char *refname,
- const unsigned char *sha1, int flags, void *cb_data)
-{
- struct strbuf *output = cb_data;
- strbuf_addf(output, "%s\n", refname);
- return 0;
-}
-
-...
-
- struct strbuf output = STRBUF_INIT;
- for_each_remote_ref(handle_remote_ref, &output);
- printf("%s", output.buf);
-----
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index f10941b..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,127 +0,0 @@
-Remotes configuration API
-=========================
-
-The API in remote.h gives access to the configuration related to
-remotes. It handles all three configuration mechanisms historically
-and currently used by Git, and presents the information in a uniform
-fashion. Note that the code also handles plain URLs without any
-configuration, giving them just the default information.
-
-struct remote
--------------
-
-`name`::
-
- The user's nickname for the remote
-
-`url`::
-
- An array of all of the url_nr URLs configured for the remote
-
-`pushurl`::
-
- An array of all of the pushurl_nr push URLs configured for the remote
-
-`push`::
-
- An array of refspecs configured for pushing, with
- push_refspec being the literal strings, and push_refspec_nr
- being the quantity.
-
-`fetch`::
-
- An array of refspecs configured for fetching, with
- fetch_refspec being the literal strings, and fetch_refspec_nr
- being the quantity.
-
-`fetch_tags`::
-
- The setting for whether to fetch tags (as a separate rule from
- the configured refspecs); -1 means never to fetch tags, 0
- means to auto-follow tags based on the default heuristic, 1
- means to always auto-follow tags, and 2 means to fetch all
- tags.
-
-`receivepack`, `uploadpack`::
-
- The configured helper programs to run on the remote side, for
- Git-native protocols.
-
-`http_proxy`::
-
- The proxy to use for curl (http, https, ftp, etc.) URLs.
-
-`http_proxy_authmethod`::
-
- The method used for authenticating against `http_proxy`.
-
-struct remotes can be found by name with remote_get(), and iterated
-through with for_each_remote(). remote_get(NULL) will return the
-default remote, given the current branch and configuration.
-
-struct refspec
---------------
-
-A struct refspec holds the parsed interpretation of a refspec. If it
-will force updates (starts with a '+'), force is true. If it is a
-pattern (sides end with '*') pattern is true. src and dest are the
-two sides (including '*' characters if present); if there is only one
-side, it is src, and dst is NULL; if sides exist but are empty (i.e.,
-the refspec either starts or ends with ':'), the corresponding side is
-"".
-
-An array of strings can be parsed into an array of struct refspecs
-using parse_fetch_refspec() or parse_push_refspec().
-
-remote_find_tracking(), given a remote and a struct refspec with
-either src or dst filled out, will fill out the other such that the
-result is in the "fetch" specification for the remote (note that this
-evaluates patterns and returns a single result).
-
-struct branch
--------------
-
-Note that this may end up moving to branch.h
-
-struct branch holds the configuration for a branch. It can be looked
-up with branch_get(name) for "refs/heads/{name}", or with
-branch_get(NULL) for HEAD.
-
-It contains:
-
-`name`::
-
- The short name of the branch.
-
-`refname`::
-
- The full path for the branch ref.
-
-`remote_name`::
-
- The name of the remote listed in the configuration.
-
-`merge_name`::
-
- An array of the "merge" lines in the configuration.
-
-`merge`::
-
- An array of the struct refspecs used for the merge lines. That
- is, merge[i]->dst is a local tracking ref which should be
- merged into this branch by default.
-
-`merge_nr`::
-
- The number of merge configurations
-
-branch_has_merge_config() returns true if the given branch has merge
-configuration given.
-
-Other stuff
------------
-
-There is other stuff in remote.h that is related, in general, to the
-process of interacting with remotes.
-
-(Daniel Barkalow)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 03f9ea6..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,72 +0,0 @@
-revision walking API
-====================
-
-The revision walking API offers functions to build a list of revisions
-and then iterate over that list.
-
-Calling sequence
-----------------
-
-The walking API has a given calling sequence: first you need to
-initialize a rev_info structure, then add revisions to control what kind
-of revision list do you want to get, finally you can iterate over the
-revision list.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`repo_init_revisions`::
-
- Initialize a rev_info structure with default values. The third
- parameter may be NULL or can be prefix path, and then the `.prefix`
- variable will be set to it. This is typically the first function you
- want to call when you want to deal with a revision list. After calling
- this function, you are free to customize options, like set
- `.ignore_merges` to 0 if you don't want to ignore merges, and so on. See
- `revision.h` for a complete list of available options.
-
-`add_pending_object`::
-
- This function can be used if you want to add commit objects as revision
- information. You can use the `UNINTERESTING` object flag to indicate if
- you want to include or exclude the given commit (and commits reachable
- from the given commit) from the revision list.
-+
-NOTE: If you have the commits as a string list then you probably want to
-use setup_revisions(), instead of parsing each string and using this
-function.
-
-`setup_revisions`::
-
- Parse revision information, filling in the `rev_info` structure, and
- removing the used arguments from the argument list. Returns the number
- of arguments left that weren't recognized, which are also moved to the
- head of the argument list. The last parameter is used in case no
- parameter given by the first two arguments.
-
-`prepare_revision_walk`::
-
- Prepares the rev_info structure for a walk. You should check if it
- returns any error (non-zero return code) and if it does not, you can
- start using get_revision() to do the iteration.
-
-`get_revision`::
-
- Takes a pointer to a `rev_info` structure and iterates over it,
- returning a `struct commit *` each time you call it. The end of the
- revision list is indicated by returning a NULL pointer.
-
-`reset_revision_walk`::
-
- Reset the flags used by the revision walking api. You can use
- this to do multiple sequential revision walks.
-
-Data structures
----------------
-
-Talk about <revision.h>, things like:
-
-* two diff_options, one for path limiting, another for output;
-* remaining functions;
-
-(Linus, JC, Dscho)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 8bf3e37..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,264 +0,0 @@
-run-command API
-===============
-
-The run-command API offers a versatile tool to run sub-processes with
-redirected input and output as well as with a modified environment
-and an alternate current directory.
-
-A similar API offers the capability to run a function asynchronously,
-which is primarily used to capture the output that the function
-produces in the caller in order to process it.
-
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`child_process_init`::
-
- Initialize a struct child_process variable.
-
-`start_command`::
-
- Start a sub-process. Takes a pointer to a `struct child_process`
- that specifies the details and returns pipe FDs (if requested).
- See below for details.
-
-`finish_command`::
-
- Wait for the completion of a sub-process that was started with
- start_command().
-
-`run_command`::
-
- A convenience function that encapsulates a sequence of
- start_command() followed by finish_command(). Takes a pointer
- to a `struct child_process` that specifies the details.
-
-`run_command_v_opt`, `run_command_v_opt_cd_env`::
-
- Convenience functions that encapsulate a sequence of
- start_command() followed by finish_command(). The argument argv
- specifies the program and its arguments. The argument opt is zero
- or more of the flags `RUN_COMMAND_NO_STDIN`, `RUN_GIT_CMD`,
- `RUN_COMMAND_STDOUT_TO_STDERR`, or `RUN_SILENT_EXEC_FAILURE`
- that correspond to the members .no_stdin, .git_cmd,
- .stdout_to_stderr, .silent_exec_failure of `struct child_process`.
- The argument dir corresponds the member .dir. The argument env
- corresponds to the member .env.
-
-`child_process_clear`::
-
- Release the memory associated with the struct child_process.
- Most users of the run-command API don't need to call this
- function explicitly because `start_command` invokes it on
- failure and `finish_command` calls it automatically already.
-
-The functions above do the following:
-
-. If a system call failed, errno is set and -1 is returned. A diagnostic
- is printed.
-
-. If the program was not found, then -1 is returned and errno is set to
- ENOENT; a diagnostic is printed only if .silent_exec_failure is 0.
-
-. Otherwise, the program is run. If it terminates regularly, its exit
- code is returned. No diagnostic is printed, even if the exit code is
- non-zero.
-
-. If the program terminated due to a signal, then the return value is the
- signal number + 128, ie. the same value that a POSIX shell's $? would
- report. A diagnostic is printed.
-
-
-`start_async`::
-
- Run a function asynchronously. Takes a pointer to a `struct
- async` that specifies the details and returns a set of pipe FDs
- for communication with the function. See below for details.
-
-`finish_async`::
-
- Wait for the completion of an asynchronous function that was
- started with start_async().
-
-`run_hook`::
-
- Run a hook.
- The first argument is a pathname to an index file, or NULL
- if the hook uses the default index file or no index is needed.
- The second argument is the name of the hook.
- The further arguments correspond to the hook arguments.
- The last argument has to be NULL to terminate the arguments list.
- If the hook does not exist or is not executable, the return
- value will be zero.
- If it is executable, the hook will be executed and the exit
- status of the hook is returned.
- On execution, .stdout_to_stderr and .no_stdin will be set.
- (See below.)
-
-
-Data structures
----------------
-
-* `struct child_process`
-
-This describes the arguments, redirections, and environment of a
-command to run in a sub-process.
-
-The caller:
-
-1. allocates and clears (using child_process_init() or
- CHILD_PROCESS_INIT) a struct child_process variable;
-2. initializes the members;
-3. calls start_command();
-4. processes the data;
-5. closes file descriptors (if necessary; see below);
-6. calls finish_command().
-
-The .argv member is set up as an array of string pointers (NULL
-terminated), of which .argv[0] is the program name to run (usually
-without a path). If the command to run is a git command, set argv[0] to
-the command name without the 'git-' prefix and set .git_cmd = 1.
-
-Note that the ownership of the memory pointed to by .argv stays with the
-caller, but it should survive until `finish_command` completes. If the
-.argv member is NULL, `start_command` will point it at the .args
-`argv_array` (so you may use one or the other, but you must use exactly
-one). The memory in .args will be cleaned up automatically during
-`finish_command` (or during `start_command` when it is unsuccessful).
-
-The members .in, .out, .err are used to redirect stdin, stdout,
-stderr as follows:
-
-. Specify 0 to request no special redirection. No new file descriptor
- is allocated. The child process simply inherits the channel from the
- parent.
-
-. Specify -1 to have a pipe allocated; start_command() replaces -1
- by the pipe FD in the following way:
-
- .in: Returns the writable pipe end into which the caller writes;
- the readable end of the pipe becomes the child's stdin.
-
- .out, .err: Returns the readable pipe end from which the caller
- reads; the writable end of the pipe end becomes child's
- stdout/stderr.
-
- The caller of start_command() must close the so returned FDs
- after it has completed reading from/writing to it!
-
-. Specify a file descriptor > 0 to be used by the child:
-
- .in: The FD must be readable; it becomes child's stdin.
- .out: The FD must be writable; it becomes child's stdout.
- .err: The FD must be writable; it becomes child's stderr.
-
- The specified FD is closed by start_command(), even if it fails to
- run the sub-process!
-
-. Special forms of redirection are available by setting these members
- to 1:
-
- .no_stdin, .no_stdout, .no_stderr: The respective channel is
- redirected to /dev/null.
-
- .stdout_to_stderr: stdout of the child is redirected to its
- stderr. This happens after stderr is itself redirected.
- So stdout will follow stderr to wherever it is
- redirected.
-
-To modify the environment of the sub-process, specify an array of
-string pointers (NULL terminated) in .env:
-
-. If the string is of the form "VAR=value", i.e. it contains '='
- the variable is added to the child process's environment.
-
-. If the string does not contain '=', it names an environment
- variable that will be removed from the child process's environment.
-
-If the .env member is NULL, `start_command` will point it at the
-.env_array `argv_array` (so you may use one or the other, but not both).
-The memory in .env_array will be cleaned up automatically during
-`finish_command` (or during `start_command` when it is unsuccessful).
-
-To specify a new initial working directory for the sub-process,
-specify it in the .dir member.
-
-If the program cannot be found, the functions return -1 and set
-errno to ENOENT. Normally, an error message is printed, but if
-.silent_exec_failure is set to 1, no message is printed for this
-special error condition.
-
-
-* `struct async`
-
-This describes a function to run asynchronously, whose purpose is
-to produce output that the caller reads.
-
-The caller:
-
-1. allocates and clears (memset(&asy, 0, sizeof(asy));) a
- struct async variable;
-2. initializes .proc and .data;
-3. calls start_async();
-4. processes communicates with proc through .in and .out;
-5. closes .in and .out;
-6. calls finish_async().
-
-The members .in, .out are used to provide a set of fd's for
-communication between the caller and the callee as follows:
-
-. Specify 0 to have no file descriptor passed. The callee will
- receive -1 in the corresponding argument.
-
-. Specify < 0 to have a pipe allocated; start_async() replaces
- with the pipe FD in the following way:
-
- .in: Returns the writable pipe end into which the caller
- writes; the readable end of the pipe becomes the function's
- in argument.
-
- .out: Returns the readable pipe end from which the caller
- reads; the writable end of the pipe becomes the function's
- out argument.
-
- The caller of start_async() must close the returned FDs after it
- has completed reading from/writing from them.
-
-. Specify a file descriptor > 0 to be used by the function:
-
- .in: The FD must be readable; it becomes the function's in.
- .out: The FD must be writable; it becomes the function's out.
-
- The specified FD is closed by start_async(), even if it fails to
- run the function.
-
-The function pointer in .proc has the following signature:
-
- int proc(int in, int out, void *data);
-
-. in, out specifies a set of file descriptors to which the function
- must read/write the data that it needs/produces. The function
- *must* close these descriptors before it returns. A descriptor
- may be -1 if the caller did not configure a descriptor for that
- direction.
-
-. data is the value that the caller has specified in the .data member
- of struct async.
-
-. The return value of the function is 0 on success and non-zero
- on failure. If the function indicates failure, finish_async() will
- report failure as well.
-
-
-There are serious restrictions on what the asynchronous function can do
-because this facility is implemented by a thread in the same address
-space on most platforms (when pthreads is available), but by a pipe to
-a forked process otherwise:
-
-. It cannot change the program's state (global variables, environment,
- etc.) in a way that the caller notices; in other words, .in and .out
- are the only communication channels to the caller.
-
-. It must not change the program's state that the caller of the
- facility also uses.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index eb1fa98..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-setup.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,47 +0,0 @@
-setup API
-=========
-
-Talk about
-
-* setup_git_directory()
-* setup_git_directory_gently()
-* is_inside_git_dir()
-* is_inside_work_tree()
-* setup_work_tree()
-
-(Dscho)
-
-Pathspec
---------
-
-See glossary-context.txt for the syntax of pathspec. In memory, a
-pathspec set is represented by "struct pathspec" and is prepared by
-parse_pathspec(). This function takes several arguments:
-
-- magic_mask specifies what features that are NOT supported by the
- following code. If a user attempts to use such a feature,
- parse_pathspec() can reject it early.
-
-- flags specifies other things that the caller wants parse_pathspec to
- perform.
-
-- prefix and args come from cmd_* functions
-
-parse_pathspec() helps catch unsupported features and reject them
-politely. At a lower level, different pathspec-related functions may
-not support the same set of features. Such pathspec-sensitive
-functions are guarded with GUARD_PATHSPEC(), which will die in an
-unfriendly way when an unsupported feature is requested.
-
-The command designers are supposed to make sure that GUARD_PATHSPEC()
-never dies. They have to make sure all unsupported features are caught
-by parse_pathspec(), not by GUARD_PATHSPEC. grepping GUARD_PATHSPEC()
-should give the designers all pathspec-sensitive codepaths and what
-features they support.
-
-A similar process is applied when a new pathspec magic is added. The
-designer lifts the GUARD_PATHSPEC restriction in the functions that
-support the new magic. At the same time (s)he has to make sure this
-new feature will be caught at parse_pathspec() in commands that cannot
-handle the new magic in some cases. grepping parse_pathspec() should
-help.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-sigchain.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-sigchain.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 9e1189e..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-sigchain.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,41 +0,0 @@
-sigchain API
-============
-
-Code often wants to set a signal handler to clean up temporary files or
-other work-in-progress when we die unexpectedly. For multiple pieces of
-code to do this without conflicting, each piece of code must remember
-the old value of the handler and restore it either when:
-
- 1. The work-in-progress is finished, and the handler is no longer
- necessary. The handler should revert to the original behavior
- (either another handler, SIG_DFL, or SIG_IGN).
-
- 2. The signal is received. We should then do our cleanup, then chain
- to the next handler (or die if it is SIG_DFL).
-
-Sigchain is a tiny library for keeping a stack of handlers. Your handler
-and installation code should look something like:
-
-------------------------------------------
- void clean_foo_on_signal(int sig)
- {
- clean_foo();
- sigchain_pop(sig);
- raise(sig);
- }
-
- void other_func()
- {
- sigchain_push_common(clean_foo_on_signal);
- mess_up_foo();
- clean_foo();
- }
-------------------------------------------
-
-Handlers are given the typedef of sigchain_fun. This is the same type
-that is given to signal() or sigaction(). It is perfectly reasonable to
-push SIG_DFL or SIG_IGN onto the stack.
-
-You can sigchain_push and sigchain_pop individual signals. For
-convenience, sigchain_push_common will push the handler onto the stack
-for many common signals.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index fb06089..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,66 +0,0 @@
-submodule config cache API
-==========================
-
-The submodule config cache API allows to read submodule
-configurations/information from specified revisions. Internally
-information is lazily read into a cache that is used to avoid
-unnecessary parsing of the same .gitmodules files. Lookups can be done by
-submodule path or name.
-
-Usage
------
-
-To initialize the cache with configurations from the worktree the caller
-typically first calls `gitmodules_config()` to read values from the
-worktree .gitmodules and then to overlay the local git config values
-`parse_submodule_config_option()` from the config parsing
-infrastructure.
-
-The caller can look up information about submodules by using the
-`submodule_from_path()` or `submodule_from_name()` functions. They return
-a `struct submodule` which contains the values. The API automatically
-initializes and allocates the needed infrastructure on-demand. If the
-caller does only want to lookup values from revisions the initialization
-can be skipped.
-
-If the internal cache might grow too big or when the caller is done with
-the API, all internally cached values can be freed with submodule_free().
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct submodule`::
-
- This structure is used to return the information about one
- submodule for a certain revision. It is returned by the lookup
- functions.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`void submodule_free(struct repository *r)`::
-
- Use these to free the internally cached values.
-
-`int parse_submodule_config_option(const char *var, const char *value)`::
-
- Can be passed to the config parsing infrastructure to parse
- local (worktree) submodule configurations.
-
-`const struct submodule *submodule_from_path(const unsigned char *treeish_name, const char *path)`::
-
- Given a tree-ish in the superproject and a path, return the
- submodule that is bound at the path in the named tree.
-
-`const struct submodule *submodule_from_name(const unsigned char *treeish_name, const char *name)`::
-
- The same as above but lookup by name.
-
-Whenever a submodule configuration is parsed in `parse_submodule_config_option`
-via e.g. `gitmodules_config()`, it will overwrite the null_sha1 entry.
-So in the normal case, when HEAD:.gitmodules is parsed first and then overlayed
-with the repository configuration, the null_sha1 entry contains the local
-configuration of a submodule (e.g. consolidated values from local git
-configuration and the .gitmodules file in the worktree).
-
-For an example usage see test-submodule-config.c.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-trace.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-trace.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index fadb597..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-trace.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,140 +0,0 @@
-trace API
-=========
-
-The trace API can be used to print debug messages to stderr or a file. Trace
-code is inactive unless explicitly enabled by setting `GIT_TRACE*` environment
-variables.
-
-The trace implementation automatically adds `timestamp file:line ... \n` to
-all trace messages. E.g.:
-
-------------
-23:59:59.123456 git.c:312 trace: built-in: git 'foo'
-00:00:00.000001 builtin/foo.c:99 foo: some message
-------------
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct trace_key`::
-
- Defines a trace key (or category). The default (for API functions that
- don't take a key) is `GIT_TRACE`.
-+
-E.g. to define a trace key controlled by environment variable `GIT_TRACE_FOO`:
-+
-------------
-static struct trace_key trace_foo = TRACE_KEY_INIT(FOO);
-
-static void trace_print_foo(const char *message)
-{
- trace_printf_key(&trace_foo, "%s", message);
-}
-------------
-+
-Note: don't use `const` as the trace implementation stores internal state in
-the `trace_key` structure.
-
-Functions
----------
-
-`int trace_want(struct trace_key *key)`::
-
- Checks whether the trace key is enabled. Used to prevent expensive
- string formatting before calling one of the printing APIs.
-
-`void trace_disable(struct trace_key *key)`::
-
- Disables tracing for the specified key, even if the environment
- variable was set.
-
-`void trace_printf(const char *format, ...)`::
-`void trace_printf_key(struct trace_key *key, const char *format, ...)`::
-
- Prints a formatted message, similar to printf.
-
-`void trace_argv_printf(const char **argv, const char *format, ...)``::
-
- Prints a formatted message, followed by a quoted list of arguments.
-
-`void trace_strbuf(struct trace_key *key, const struct strbuf *data)`::
-
- Prints the strbuf, without additional formatting (i.e. doesn't
- choke on `%` or even `\0`).
-
-`uint64_t getnanotime(void)`::
-
- Returns nanoseconds since the epoch (01/01/1970), typically used
- for performance measurements.
-+
-Currently there are high precision timer implementations for Linux (using
-`clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)`) and Windows (`QueryPerformanceCounter`).
-Other platforms use `gettimeofday` as time source.
-
-`void trace_performance(uint64_t nanos, const char *format, ...)`::
-`void trace_performance_since(uint64_t start, const char *format, ...)`::
-
- Prints the elapsed time (in nanoseconds), or elapsed time since
- `start`, followed by a formatted message. Enabled via environment
- variable `GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE`. Used for manual profiling, e.g.:
-+
-------------
-uint64_t start = getnanotime();
-/* code section to measure */
-trace_performance_since(start, "foobar");
-------------
-+
-------------
-uint64_t t = 0;
-for (;;) {
- /* ignore */
- t -= getnanotime();
- /* code section to measure */
- t += getnanotime();
- /* ignore */
-}
-trace_performance(t, "frotz");
-------------
-
-Bugs & Caveats
---------------
-
-GIT_TRACE_* environment variables can be used to tell Git to show
-trace output to its standard error stream. Git can often spawn a pager
-internally to run its subcommand and send its standard output and
-standard error to it.
-
-Because GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE trace is generated only at the very end
-of the program with atexit(), which happens after the pager exits, it
-would not work well if you send its log to the standard error output
-and let Git spawn the pager at the same time.
-
-As a work around, you can for example use '--no-pager', or set
-GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE to another file descriptor which is redirected
-to stderr, or set GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE to a file specified by its
-absolute path.
-
-For example instead of the following command which by default may not
-print any performance information:
-
-------------
-GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE=2 git log -1
-------------
-
-you may want to use:
-
-------------
-GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE=2 git --no-pager log -1
-------------
-
-or:
-
-------------
-GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE=3 3>&2 git log -1
-------------
-
-or:
-
-------------
-GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE=/path/to/log/file git log -1
-------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt
index 71eb081..4f07cea 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt
@@ -128,7 +128,7 @@ yields
------------
$ cat ~/log.event
-{"event":"version","sid":"sid":"20190408T191610.507018Z-H9b68c35f-P000059a8","thread":"main","time":"2019-01-16T17:28:42.620713Z","file":"common-main.c","line":38,"evt":"1","exe":"2.20.1.155.g426c96fcdb"}
+{"event":"version","sid":"sid":"20190408T191610.507018Z-H9b68c35f-P000059a8","thread":"main","time":"2019-01-16T17:28:42.620713Z","file":"common-main.c","line":38,"evt":"2","exe":"2.20.1.155.g426c96fcdb"}
{"event":"start","sid":"20190408T191610.507018Z-H9b68c35f-P000059a8","thread":"main","time":"2019-01-16T17:28:42.621027Z","file":"common-main.c","line":39,"t_abs":0.001173,"argv":["git","version"]}
{"event":"cmd_name","sid":"20190408T191610.507018Z-H9b68c35f-P000059a8","thread":"main","time":"2019-01-16T17:28:42.621122Z","file":"git.c","line":432,"name":"version","hierarchy":"version"}
{"event":"exit","sid":"20190408T191610.507018Z-H9b68c35f-P000059a8","thread":"main","time":"2019-01-16T17:28:42.621236Z","file":"git.c","line":662,"t_abs":0.001227,"code":0}
@@ -142,10 +142,9 @@ system or global config value to one of the following:
include::../trace2-target-values.txt[]
-If the target already exists and is a directory, the traces will be
-written to files (one per process) underneath the given directory. They
-will be named according to the last component of the SID (optionally
-followed by a counter to avoid filename collisions).
+When trace files are written to a target directory, they will be named according
+to the last component of the SID (optionally followed by a counter to avoid
+filename collisions).
== Trace2 API
@@ -179,7 +178,7 @@ describe the simplified forms.
== Public API
-All Trace2 API functions send a messsage to all of the active
+All Trace2 API functions send a message to all of the active
Trace2 Targets. This section describes the set of available
messages.
@@ -189,261 +188,36 @@ purposes.
=== Basic Command Messages
These are concerned with the lifetime of the overall git process.
-
-`void trace2_initialize_clock()`::
-
- Initialize the Trace2 start clock and nothing else. This should
- be called at the very top of main() to capture the process start
- time and reduce startup order dependencies.
-
-`void trace2_initialize()`::
-
- Determines if any Trace2 Targets should be enabled and
- initializes the Trace2 facility. This includes setting up the
- Trace2 thread local storage (TLS).
-+
-This function emits a "version" message containing the version of git
-and the Trace2 protocol.
-+
-This function should be called from `main()` as early as possible in
-the life of the process after essential process initialization.
-
-`int trace2_is_enabled()`::
-
- Returns 1 if Trace2 is enabled (at least one target is
- active).
-
-`void trace2_cmd_start(int argc, const char **argv)`::
-
- Emits a "start" message containing the process command line
- arguments.
-
-`int trace2_cmd_exit(int exit_code)`::
-
- Emits an "exit" message containing the process exit-code and
- elapsed time.
-+
-Returns the exit-code.
-
-`void trace2_cmd_error(const char *fmt, va_list ap)`::
-
- Emits an "error" message containing a formatted error message.
-
-`void trace2_cmd_path(const char *pathname)`::
-
- Emits a "cmd_path" message with the full pathname of the
- current process.
+e.g: `void trace2_initialize_clock()`, `void trace2_initialize()`,
+`int trace2_is_enabled()`, `void trace2_cmd_start(int argc, const char **argv)`.
=== Command Detail Messages
These are concerned with describing the specific Git command
after the command line, config, and environment are inspected.
-
-`void trace2_cmd_name(const char *name)`::
-
- Emits a "cmd_name" message with the canonical name of the
- command, for example "status" or "checkout".
-
-`void trace2_cmd_mode(const char *mode)`::
-
- Emits a "cmd_mode" message with a qualifier name to further
- describe the current git command.
-+
-This message is intended to be used with git commands having multiple
-major modes. For example, a "checkout" command can checkout a new
-branch or it can checkout a single file, so the checkout code could
-emit a cmd_mode message of "branch" or "file".
-
-`void trace2_cmd_alias(const char *alias, const char **argv_expansion)`::
-
- Emits an "alias" message containing the alias used and the
- argument expansion.
-
-`void trace2_def_param(const char *parameter, const char *value)`::
-
- Emits a "def_param" message containing a key/value pair.
-+
-This message is intended to report some global aspect of the current
-command, such as a configuration setting or command line switch that
-significantly affects program performance or behavior, such as
-`core.abbrev`, `status.showUntrackedFiles`, or `--no-ahead-behind`.
-
-`void trace2_cmd_list_config()`::
-
- Emits a "def_param" messages for "important" configuration
- settings.
-+
-The environment variable `GIT_TRACE2_CONFIG_PARAMS` or the `trace2.configParams`
-config value can be set to a
-list of patterns of important configuration settings, for example:
-`core.*,remote.*.url`. This function will iterate over all config
-settings and emit a "def_param" message for each match.
-
-`void trace2_cmd_set_config(const char *key, const char *value)`::
-
- Emits a "def_param" message for a new or updated key/value
- pair IF `key` is considered important.
-+
-This is used to hook into `git_config_set()` and catch any
-configuration changes and update a value previously reported by
-`trace2_cmd_list_config()`.
-
-`void trace2_def_repo(struct repository *repo)`::
-
- Registers a repository with the Trace2 layer. Assigns a
- unique "repo-id" to `repo->trace2_repo_id`.
-+
-Emits a "worktree" messages containing the repo-id and the worktree
-pathname.
-+
-Region and data messages (described later) may refer to this repo-id.
-+
-The main/top-level repository will have repo-id value 1 (aka "r1").
-+
-The repo-id field is in anticipation of future in-proc submodule
-repositories.
+e.g: `void trace2_cmd_name(const char *name)`,
+`void trace2_cmd_mode(const char *mode)`.
=== Child Process Messages
These are concerned with the various spawned child processes,
including shell scripts, git commands, editors, pagers, and hooks.
-`void trace2_child_start(struct child_process *cmd)`::
-
- Emits a "child_start" message containing the "child-id",
- "child-argv", and "child-classification".
-+
-Before calling this, set `cmd->trace2_child_class` to a name
-describing the type of child process, for example "editor".
-+
-This function assigns a unique "child-id" to `cmd->trace2_child_id`.
-This field is used later during the "child_exit" message to associate
-it with the "child_start" message.
-+
-This function should be called before spawning the child process.
-
-`void trace2_child_exit(struct child_proess *cmd, int child_exit_code)`::
-
- Emits a "child_exit" message containing the "child-id",
- the child's elapsed time and exit-code.
-+
-The reported elapsed time includes the process creation overhead and
-time spend waiting for it to exit, so it may be slightly longer than
-the time reported by the child itself.
-+
-This function should be called after reaping the child process.
-
-`int trace2_exec(const char *exe, const char **argv)`::
-
- Emits a "exec" message containing the "exec-id" and the
- argv of the new process.
-+
-This function should be called before calling one of the `exec()`
-variants, such as `execvp()`.
-+
-This function returns a unique "exec-id". This value is used later
-if the exec() fails and a "exec-result" message is necessary.
-
-`void trace2_exec_result(int exec_id, int error_code)`::
-
- Emits a "exec_result" message containing the "exec-id"
- and the error code.
-+
-On Unix-based systems, `exec()` does not return if successful.
-This message is used to indicate that the `exec()` failed and
-that the current program is continuing.
+e.g: `void trace2_child_start(struct child_process *cmd)`.
=== Git Thread Messages
These messages are concerned with Git thread usage.
-`void trace2_thread_start(const char *thread_name)`::
-
- Emits a "thread_start" message.
-+
-The `thread_name` field should be a descriptive name, such as the
-unique name of the thread-proc. A unique "thread-id" will be added
-to the name to uniquely identify thread instances.
-+
-Region and data messages (described later) may refer to this thread
-name.
-+
-This function must be called by the thread-proc of the new thread
-(so that TLS data is properly initialized) and not by the caller
-of `pthread_create()`.
-
-`void trace2_thread_exit()`::
-
- Emits a "thread_exit" message containing the thread name
- and the thread elapsed time.
-+
-This function must be called by the thread-proc before it returns
-(so that the coorect TLS data is used and cleaned up. It should
-not be called by the caller of `pthread_join()`.
+e.g: `void trace2_thread_start(const char *thread_name)`.
=== Region and Data Messages
These are concerned with recording performance data
-over regions or spans of code.
-
-`void trace2_region_enter(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo)`::
-
-`void trace2_region_enter_printf(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo, const char *fmt, ...)`::
-
-`void trace2_region_enter_printf_va(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo, const char *fmt, va_list ap)`::
-
- Emits a thread-relative "region_enter" message with optional
- printf string.
-+
-This function pushes a new region nesting stack level on the current
-thread and starts a clock for the new stack frame.
-+
-The `category` field is an arbitrary category name used to classify
-regions by feature area, such as "status" or "index". At this time
-it is only just printed along with the rest of the message. It may
-be used in the future to filter messages.
-+
-The `label` field is an arbitrary label used to describe the activity
-being started, such as "read_recursive" or "do_read_index".
-+
-The `repo` field, if set, will be used to get the "repo-id", so that
-recursive oerations can be attributed to the correct repository.
-
-`void trace2_region_leave(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo)`::
-
-`void trace2_region_leave_printf(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo, const char *fmt, ...)`::
-
-`void trace2_region_leave_printf_va(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo, const char *fmt, va_list ap)`::
-
- Emits a thread-relative "region_leave" message with optional
- printf string.
-+
-This function pops the region nesting stack on the current thread
-and reports the elapsed time of the stack frame.
-+
-The `category`, `label`, and `repo` fields are the same as above.
-The `category` and `label` do not need to match the correpsonding
-"region_enter" message, but it makes the data stream easier to
-understand.
-
-`void trace2_data_string(const char *category, const struct repository *repo, const char *key, const char * value)`::
-
-`void trace2_data_intmax(const char *category, const struct repository *repo, const char *key, intmax value)`::
-
-`void trace2_data_json(const char *category, const struct repository *repo, const char *key, const struct json_writer *jw)`::
+over regions or spans of code. e.g:
+`void trace2_region_enter(const char *category, const char *label, const struct repository *repo)`.
- Emits a region- and thread-relative "data" or "data_json" message.
-+
-This is a key/value pair message containing information about the
-current thread, region stack, and repository. This could be used
-to print the number of files in a directory during a multi-threaded
-recursive tree walk.
-
-`void trace2_printf(const char *fmt, ...)`::
-
-`void trace2_printf_va(const char *fmt, va_list ap)`::
-
- Emits a region- and thread-relative "printf" message.
+Refer to trace2.h for details about all trace2 functions.
== Trace2 Target Formats
@@ -605,17 +379,35 @@ only present on the "start" and "atexit" events.
==== Event-Specific Key/Value Pairs
`"version"`::
- This event gives the version of the executable and the EVENT format.
+ This event gives the version of the executable and the EVENT format. It
+ should always be the first event in a trace session. The EVENT format
+ version will be incremented if new event types are added, if existing
+ fields are removed, or if there are significant changes in
+ interpretation of existing events or fields. Smaller changes, such as
+ adding a new field to an existing event, will not require an increment
+ to the EVENT format version.
+
------------
{
"event":"version",
...
- "evt":"1", # EVENT format version
+ "evt":"2", # EVENT format version
"exe":"2.20.1.155.g426c96fcdb" # git version
}
------------
+`"discard"`::
+ This event is written to the git-trace2-discard sentinel file if there
+ are too many files in the target trace directory (see the
+ trace2.maxFiles config option).
++
+------------
+{
+ "event":"discard",
+ ...
+}
+------------
+
`"start"`::
This event contains the complete argv received by main().
+
@@ -799,7 +591,7 @@ with "?".
Note that the session-id of the child process is not available to
the current/spawning process, so the child's PID is reported here as
a hint for post-processing. (But it is only a hint because the child
-proces may be a shell script which doesn't have a session-id.)
+process may be a shell script which doesn't have a session-id.)
+
Note that the `t_rel` field contains the observed run time in seconds
for the child process (starting before the fork/exec/spawn and
@@ -1159,7 +951,7 @@ d0 | main | atexit | | 0.028809 | |
+
Regions may be nested. This causes messages to be indented in the
PERF target, for example.
-Elapsed times are relative to the start of the correpsonding nesting
+Elapsed times are relative to the start of the corresponding nesting
level as expected. For example, if we add region message to:
+
----------------
@@ -1354,7 +1146,7 @@ d0 | main | atexit | | 0.030027 | |
In this example, the preload region took 0.009122 seconds. The 7 threads
took between 0.006069 and 0.008947 seconds to work on their portion of
the index. Thread "th01" worked on 508 items at offset 0. Thread "th02"
-worked on 508 items at offset 2032. Thread "th04" worked on 508 itemts
+worked on 508 items at offset 2032. Thread "th04" worked on 508 items
at offset 508.
+
This example also shows that thread names are assigned in a racy manner
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index bde1862..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-tree-walking.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,147 +0,0 @@
-tree walking API
-================
-
-The tree walking API is used to traverse and inspect trees.
-
-Data Structures
----------------
-
-`struct name_entry`::
-
- An entry in a tree. Each entry has a sha1 identifier, pathname, and
- mode.
-
-`struct tree_desc`::
-
- A semi-opaque data structure used to maintain the current state of the
- walk.
-+
-* `buffer` is a pointer into the memory representation of the tree. It always
-points at the current entry being visited.
-
-* `size` counts the number of bytes left in the `buffer`.
-
-* `entry` points to the current entry being visited.
-
-`struct traverse_info`::
-
- A structure used to maintain the state of a traversal.
-+
-* `prev` points to the traverse_info which was used to descend into the
-current tree. If this is the top-level tree `prev` will point to
-a dummy traverse_info.
-
-* `name` is the entry for the current tree (if the tree is a subtree).
-
-* `pathlen` is the length of the full path for the current tree.
-
-* `conflicts` can be used by callbacks to maintain directory-file conflicts.
-
-* `fn` is a callback called for each entry in the tree. See Traversing for more
-information.
-
-* `data` can be anything the `fn` callback would want to use.
-
-* `show_all_errors` tells whether to stop at the first error or not.
-
-Initializing
-------------
-
-`init_tree_desc`::
-
- Initialize a `tree_desc` and decode its first entry. The buffer and
- size parameters are assumed to be the same as the buffer and size
- members of `struct tree`.
-
-`fill_tree_descriptor`::
-
- Initialize a `tree_desc` and decode its first entry given the
- object ID of a tree. Returns the `buffer` member if the latter
- is a valid tree identifier and NULL otherwise.
-
-`setup_traverse_info`::
-
- Initialize a `traverse_info` given the pathname of the tree to start
- traversing from. The `base` argument is assumed to be the `path`
- member of the `name_entry` being recursed into unless the tree is a
- top-level tree in which case the empty string ("") is used.
-
-Walking
--------
-
-`tree_entry`::
-
- Visit the next entry in a tree. Returns 1 when there are more entries
- left to visit and 0 when all entries have been visited. This is
- commonly used in the test of a while loop.
-
-`tree_entry_len`::
-
- Calculate the length of a tree entry's pathname. This utilizes the
- memory structure of a tree entry to avoid the overhead of using a
- generic strlen().
-
-`update_tree_entry`::
-
- Walk to the next entry in a tree. This is commonly used in conjunction
- with `tree_entry_extract` to inspect the current entry.
-
-`tree_entry_extract`::
-
- Decode the entry currently being visited (the one pointed to by
- `tree_desc's` `entry` member) and return the sha1 of the entry. The
- `pathp` and `modep` arguments are set to the entry's pathname and mode
- respectively.
-
-`get_tree_entry`::
-
- Find an entry in a tree given a pathname and the sha1 of a tree to
- search. Returns 0 if the entry is found and -1 otherwise. The third
- and fourth parameters are set to the entry's sha1 and mode
- respectively.
-
-Traversing
-----------
-
-`traverse_trees`::
-
- Traverse `n` number of trees in parallel. The `fn` callback member of
- `traverse_info` is called once for each tree entry.
-
-`traverse_callback_t`::
- The arguments passed to the traverse callback are as follows:
-+
-* `n` counts the number of trees being traversed.
-
-* `mask` has its nth bit set if something exists in the nth entry.
-
-* `dirmask` has its nth bit set if the nth tree's entry is a directory.
-
-* `entry` is an array of size `n` where the nth entry is from the nth tree.
-
-* `info` maintains the state of the traversal.
-
-+
-Returning a negative value will terminate the traversal. Otherwise the
-return value is treated as an update mask. If the nth bit is set the nth tree
-will be updated and if the bit is not set the nth tree entry will be the
-same in the next callback invocation.
-
-`make_traverse_path`::
-
- Generate the full pathname of a tree entry based from the root of the
- traversal. For example, if the traversal has recursed into another
- tree named "bar" the pathname of an entry "baz" in the "bar"
- tree would be "bar/baz".
-
-`traverse_path_len`::
-
- Calculate the length of a pathname returned by `make_traverse_path`.
- This utilizes the memory structure of a tree entry to avoid the
- overhead of using a generic strlen().
-
-Authors
--------
-
-Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> and Linus Torvalds
-<torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-xdiff-interface.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-xdiff-interface.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 6296eca..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-xdiff-interface.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,7 +0,0 @@
-xdiff interface API
-===================
-
-Talk about our calling convention to xdiff library, including
-xdiff_emit_consume_fn.
-
-(Dscho, JC)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
index 729fbcb..808fa30 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
@@ -22,11 +22,11 @@ as "commit-graph" either in the .git/objects/info directory or in the info
directory of an alternate.
The commit-graph file stores the commit graph structure along with some
-extra metadata to speed up graph walks. By listing commit OIDs in lexi-
-cographic order, we can identify an integer position for each commit and
-refer to the parents of a commit using those integer positions. We use
-binary search to find initial commits and then use the integer positions
-for fast lookups during the walk.
+extra metadata to speed up graph walks. By listing commit OIDs in
+lexicographic order, we can identify an integer position for each commit
+and refer to the parents of a commit using those integer positions. We
+use binary search to find initial commits and then use the integer
+positions for fast lookups during the walk.
A consumer may load the following info for a commit from the graph:
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ have generation number represented by the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_ZERO = 0.
Since the commit-graph file is closed under reachability, we can guarantee
the following weaker condition on all commits:
- If A and B are commits with generation numbers N amd M, respectively,
+ If A and B are commits with generation numbers N and M, respectively,
and N < M, then A cannot reach B.
Note how the strict inequality differs from the inequality when we have
@@ -323,14 +323,14 @@ Related Links
[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=8
Chromium work item for: Serialized Commit Graph
-[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20110713070517.GC18566@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+[1] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20110713070517.GC18566@sigill.intra.peff.net/
An abandoned patch that introduced generation numbers.
-[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170908033403.q7e6dj7benasrjes@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+[2] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170908033403.q7e6dj7benasrjes@sigill.intra.peff.net/
Discussion about generation numbers on commits and how they interact
with fsck.
-[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170908034739.4op3w4f2ma5s65ku@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+[3] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170908034739.4op3w4f2ma5s65ku@sigill.intra.peff.net/
More discussion about generation numbers and not storing them inside
commit objects. A valuable quote:
@@ -342,9 +342,9 @@ Related Links
commit objects (i.e., packv4 or something like the "metapacks" I
proposed a few years ago)."
-[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/20180108154822.54829-1-git@jeffhostetler.com/T/#u
+[4] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20180108154822.54829-1-git@jeffhostetler.com/T/#u
A patch to remove the ahead-behind calculation from 'status'.
-[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/f27db281-abad-5043-6d71-cbb083b1c877@gmail.com/
+[5] https://lore.kernel.org/git/f27db281-abad-5043-6d71-cbb083b1c877@gmail.com/
A discussion of a "two-dimensional graph position" that can allow reading
multiple commit-graph chains at the same time.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
index 2ae8fa4..5b2db3b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -531,7 +531,7 @@ Until Git protocol gains SHA-256 support, using SHA-256 based storage
on public-facing Git servers is strongly discouraged. Once Git
protocol gains SHA-256 support, SHA-256 based servers are likely not
to support SHA-1 compatibility, to avoid what may be a very expensive
-hash reencode during clone and to encourage peers to modernize.
+hash re-encode during clone and to encourage peers to modernize.
The design described here allows fetches by SHA-1 clients of a
personal SHA-256 repository because it's not much more difficult than
@@ -602,7 +602,7 @@ git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{sha256}
Choice of Hash
--------------
-In early 2005, around the time that Git was written, Xiaoyun Wang,
+In early 2005, around the time that Git was written, Xiaoyun Wang,
Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu announced an attack finding SHA-1
collisions in 2^69 operations. In August they published details.
Luckily, no practical demonstrations of a collision in full SHA-1 were
@@ -730,7 +730,7 @@ adoption.
Using hash functions in parallel
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-(e.g. https://public-inbox.org/git/22708.8913.864049.452252@chiark.greenend.org.uk/ )
+(e.g. https://lore.kernel.org/git/22708.8913.864049.452252@chiark.greenend.org.uk/ )
Objects newly created would be addressed by the new hash, but inside
such an object (e.g. commit) it is still possible to address objects
using the old hash function.
@@ -783,7 +783,7 @@ bmwill@google.com, jonathantanmy@google.com, jrnieder@gmail.com,
sbeller@google.com
Initial version sent to
-http://public-inbox.org/git/20170304011251.GA26789@aiede.mtv.corp.google.com
+http://lore.kernel.org/git/20170304011251.GA26789@aiede.mtv.corp.google.com
2017-03-03 jrnieder@gmail.com
Incorporated suggestions from jonathantanmy and sbeller:
@@ -820,8 +820,8 @@ Later history:
edits. This document history is no longer being maintained as it
would now be superfluous to the commit log
-[1] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
-[2] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
-[3] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
-[4] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170304224936.rqqtkdvfjgyezsht@genre.crustytoothpaste.net
-[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/CAJo=hJtoX9=AyLHHpUJS7fueV9ciZ_MNpnEPHUz8Whui6g9F0A@mail.gmail.com/
+[1] http://lore.kernel.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
+[2] http://lore.kernel.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
+[3] http://lore.kernel.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
+[4] http://lore.kernel.org/git/20170304224936.rqqtkdvfjgyezsht@genre.crustytoothpaste.net
+[5] https://lore.kernel.org/git/CAJo=hJtoX9=AyLHHpUJS7fueV9ciZ_MNpnEPHUz8Whui6g9F0A@mail.gmail.com/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index 7c4d67a..faa25c5 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -318,7 +318,7 @@ The remaining data of each directory block is grouped by type:
== End of Index Entry
The End of Index Entry (EOIE) is used to locate the end of the variable
- length index entries and the begining of the extensions. Code can take
+ length index entries and the beginning of the extensions. Code can take
advantage of this to quickly locate the index extensions without having
to parse through all of the index entries.
@@ -351,7 +351,7 @@ The remaining data of each directory block is grouped by type:
- A number of index offset entries each consisting of:
- - 32-bit offset from the begining of the file to the first cache entry
+ - 32-bit offset from the beginning of the file to the first cache entry
in this block of entries.
- 32-bit count of cache entries in this block
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt b/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt
index d7e5763..4e76314 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/multi-pack-index.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ Design Details
directory of an alternate. It refers only to packfiles in that
same directory.
-- The pack.multiIndex config setting must be on to consume MIDX files.
+- The core.multiPackIndex config setting must be on to consume MIDX files.
- The file format includes parameters for the object ID hash
function, so a future change of hash algorithm does not require
@@ -102,8 +102,8 @@ Related Links
[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=6
Chromium work item for: Multi-Pack Index (MIDX)
-[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20180107181459.222909-1-dstolee@microsoft.com/
+[1] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20180107181459.222909-1-dstolee@microsoft.com/
An earlier RFC for the multi-pack-index feature
-[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/alpine.DEB.2.20.1803091557510.23109@alexmv-linux/
+[2] https://lore.kernel.org/git/alpine.DEB.2.20.1803091557510.23109@alexmv-linux/
Git Merge 2018 Contributor's summit notes (includes discussion of MIDX)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index c73e72d..d5ce4ee 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -644,7 +644,7 @@ update was successful, or 'ng [refname] [error]' if the update was not.
command-ok = PKT-LINE("ok" SP refname)
command-fail = PKT-LINE("ng" SP refname SP error-msg)
- error-msg = 1*(OCTECT) ; where not "ok"
+ error-msg = 1*(OCTET) ; where not "ok"
----
Updates can be unsuccessful for a number of reasons. The reference can have
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
index 896c7b3..b9e17e7 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
@@ -30,12 +30,20 @@ advance* during clone and fetch operations and thereby reduce download
times and disk usage. Missing objects can later be "demand fetched"
if/when needed.
+A remote that can later provide the missing objects is called a
+promisor remote, as it promises to send the objects when
+requested. Initially Git supported only one promisor remote, the origin
+remote from which the user cloned and that was configured in the
+"extensions.partialClone" config option. Later support for more than
+one promisor remote has been implemented.
+
Use of partial clone requires that the user be online and the origin
-remote be available for on-demand fetching of missing objects. This may
-or may not be problematic for the user. For example, if the user can
-stay within the pre-selected subset of the source tree, they may not
-encounter any missing objects. Alternatively, the user could try to
-pre-fetch various objects if they know that they are going offline.
+remote or other promisor remotes be available for on-demand fetching
+of missing objects. This may or may not be problematic for the user.
+For example, if the user can stay within the pre-selected subset of
+the source tree, they may not encounter any missing objects.
+Alternatively, the user could try to pre-fetch various objects if they
+know that they are going offline.
Non-Goals
@@ -100,18 +108,18 @@ or commits that reference missing trees.
Handling Missing Objects
------------------------
-- An object may be missing due to a partial clone or fetch, or missing due
- to repository corruption. To differentiate these cases, the local
- repository specially indicates such filtered packfiles obtained from the
- promisor remote as "promisor packfiles".
+- An object may be missing due to a partial clone or fetch, or missing
+ due to repository corruption. To differentiate these cases, the
+ local repository specially indicates such filtered packfiles
+ obtained from promisor remotes as "promisor packfiles".
+
These promisor packfiles consist of a "<name>.promisor" file with
arbitrary contents (like the "<name>.keep" files), in addition to
their "<name>.pack" and "<name>.idx" files.
- The local repository considers a "promisor object" to be an object that
- it knows (to the best of its ability) that the promisor remote has promised
- that it has, either because the local repository has that object in one of
+ it knows (to the best of its ability) that promisor remotes have promised
+ that they have, either because the local repository has that object in one of
its promisor packfiles, or because another promisor object refers to it.
+
When Git encounters a missing object, Git can see if it is a promisor object
@@ -123,12 +131,12 @@ expensive-to-modify list of missing objects.[a]
- Since almost all Git code currently expects any referenced object to be
present locally and because we do not want to force every command to do
a dry-run first, a fallback mechanism is added to allow Git to attempt
- to dynamically fetch missing objects from the promisor remote.
+ to dynamically fetch missing objects from promisor remotes.
+
When the normal object lookup fails to find an object, Git invokes
-fetch-object to try to get the object from the server and then retry
-the object lookup. This allows objects to be "faulted in" without
-complicated prediction algorithms.
+promisor_remote_get_direct() to try to get the object from a promisor
+remote and then retry the object lookup. This allows objects to be
+"faulted in" without complicated prediction algorithms.
+
For efficiency reasons, no check as to whether the missing object is
actually a promisor object is performed.
@@ -157,8 +165,7 @@ and prefetch those objects in bulk.
+
We are not happy with this global variable and would like to remove it,
but that requires significant refactoring of the object code to pass an
-additional flag. We hope that concurrent efforts to add an ODB API can
-encompass this.
+additional flag.
Fetching Missing Objects
@@ -182,21 +189,63 @@ has been updated to not use any object flags when the corresponding argument
though they are not necessary.
+Using many promisor remotes
+---------------------------
+
+Many promisor remotes can be configured and used.
+
+This allows for example a user to have multiple geographically-close
+cache servers for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do
+filtered `git-fetch` commands from the central server.
+
+When fetching objects, promisor remotes are tried one after the other
+until all the objects have been fetched.
+
+Remotes that are considered "promisor" remotes are those specified by
+the following configuration variables:
+
+- `extensions.partialClone = <name>`
+
+- `remote.<name>.promisor = true`
+
+- `remote.<name>.partialCloneFilter = ...`
+
+Only one promisor remote can be configured using the
+`extensions.partialClone` config variable. This promisor remote will
+be the last one tried when fetching objects.
+
+We decided to make it the last one we try, because it is likely that
+someone using many promisor remotes is doing so because the other
+promisor remotes are better for some reason (maybe they are closer or
+faster for some kind of objects) than the origin, and the origin is
+likely to be the remote specified by extensions.partialClone.
+
+This justification is not very strong, but one choice had to be made,
+and anyway the long term plan should be to make the order somehow
+fully configurable.
+
+For now though the other promisor remotes will be tried in the order
+they appear in the config file.
+
Current Limitations
-------------------
-- The remote used for a partial clone (or the first partial fetch
- following a regular clone) is marked as the "promisor remote".
+- It is not possible to specify the order in which the promisor
+ remotes are tried in other ways than the order in which they appear
+ in the config file.
+
-We are currently limited to a single promisor remote and only that
-remote may be used for subsequent partial fetches.
+It is also not possible to specify an order to be used when fetching
+from one remote and a different order when fetching from another
+remote.
+
+- It is not possible to push only specific objects to a promisor
+ remote.
+
-We accept this limitation because we believe initial users of this
-feature will be using it on repositories with a strong single central
-server.
+It is not possible to push at the same time to multiple promisor
+remote in a specific order.
-- Dynamic object fetching will only ask the promisor remote for missing
- objects. We assume that the promisor remote has a complete view of the
+- Dynamic object fetching will only ask promisor remotes for missing
+ objects. We assume that promisor remotes have a complete view of the
repository and can satisfy all such requests.
- Repack essentially treats promisor and non-promisor packfiles as 2
@@ -218,15 +267,17 @@ server.
Future Work
-----------
-- Allow more than one promisor remote and define a strategy for fetching
- missing objects from specific promisor remotes or of iterating over the
- set of promisor remotes until a missing object is found.
+- Improve the way to specify the order in which promisor remotes are
+ tried.
+
-A user might want to have multiple geographically-close cache servers
-for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do filtered `git-fetch`
-commands from the central server, for example.
+For example this could allow to specify explicitly something like:
+"When fetching from this remote, I want to use these promisor remotes
+in this order, though, when pushing or fetching to that remote, I want
+to use those promisor remotes in that order."
+
+- Allow pushing to promisor remotes.
+
-Or the user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
+The user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
- Allow repack to work on promisor packfiles (while keeping them distinct
@@ -299,26 +350,26 @@ Related Links
[0] https://crbug.com/git/2
Bug#2: Partial Clone
-[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+[1] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
Subject: [RFC] Add support for downloading blobs on demand +
Date: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:52:53 -0500
-[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
+[2] https://lore.kernel.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
Subject: [PATCH 00/18] Partial clone (from clone to lazy fetch in 18 patches) +
Date: Fri, 29 Sep 2017 13:11:36 -0700
-[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
+[3] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
Subject: Proposal for missing blob support in Git repos +
Date: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 15:13:46 -0700
-[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/ +
+[4] https://lore.kernel.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/ +
Subject: [PATCH 00/10] RFC Partial Clone and Fetch +
Date: Wed, 8 Mar 2017 18:50:29 +0000
-[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+[5] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
Subject: [PATCH v7 00/10] refactor the filter process code into a reusable module +
Date: Fri, 5 May 2017 11:27:52 -0400
-[6] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+[6] https://lore.kernel.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
Subject: [RFC/PATCH v2 0/1] Add support for downloading blobs on demand +
Date: Fri, 14 Jul 2017 09:26:50 -0400
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
index 40f91f6..7e3766c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -252,7 +252,7 @@ A `fetch` request can take the following arguments:
ofs-delta
Indicate that the client understands PACKv2 with delta referring
to its base by position in pack rather than by an oid. That is,
- they can read OBJ_OFS_DELTA (ake type 6) in a packfile.
+ they can read OBJ_OFS_DELTA (aka type 6) in a packfile.
If the 'shallow' feature is advertised the following arguments can be
included in the clients request as well as the potential addition of the
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
index 4a8be4d..ceda4bb 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@ of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tglx/history.git
only fixes the issue for file systems with exactly 1 ns or 1 s
resolution. Other file systems are still broken in current Linux
kernels (e.g. CEPH, CIFS, NTFS, UDF), see
-https://lkml.org/lkml/2015/6/9/714
+https://lore.kernel.org/lkml/5577240D.7020309@gmail.com/
Racy Git
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt b/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt
index aa22d7a..af5f9fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/rerere.txt
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@ early A became C or B, a late X became Y or Z". We can see there are
4 combinations of ("B or C", "C or B") x ("X or Y", "Y or X").
By sorting, the conflict is given its canonical name, namely, "an
-early part became B or C, a late part becames X or Y", and whenever
+early part became B or C, a late part became X or Y", and whenever
any of these four patterns appear, and we can get to the same conflict
and resolution that we saw earlier.
diff --git a/Documentation/trace2-target-values.txt b/Documentation/trace2-target-values.txt
index 27d3c64..3985b6d 100644
--- a/Documentation/trace2-target-values.txt
+++ b/Documentation/trace2-target-values.txt
@@ -2,7 +2,9 @@
* `0` or `false` - Disables the target.
* `1` or `true` - Writes to `STDERR`.
* `[2-9]` - Writes to the already opened file descriptor.
-* `<absolute-pathname>` - Writes to the file in append mode.
+* `<absolute-pathname>` - Writes to the file in append mode. If the target
+already exists and is a directory, the traces will be written to files (one
+per process) underneath the given directory.
* `af_unix:[<socket_type>:]<absolute-pathname>` - Write to a
Unix DomainSocket (on platforms that support them). Socket
type can be either `stream` or `dgram`; if omitted Git will
diff --git a/Documentation/urls.txt b/Documentation/urls.txt
index bc354fe..1c229d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls.txt
@@ -53,6 +53,9 @@ These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except the former implies
--local option.
endif::git-clone[]
+'git clone', 'git fetch' and 'git pull', but not 'git push', will also
+accept a suitable bundle file. See linkgit:git-bundle[1].
+
When Git doesn't know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
attempts to use the 'remote-<transport>' remote helper, if one
exists. To explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index 8bce75b..8336529 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,4 @@
-Git User Manual
-===============
+= Git User Manual
Git is a fast distributed revision control system.
@@ -41,12 +40,10 @@ complete.
[[repositories-and-branches]]
-Repositories and Branches
-=========================
+== Repositories and Branches
[[how-to-get-a-git-repository]]
-How to get a Git repository
----------------------------
+=== How to get a Git repository
It will be useful to have a Git repository to experiment with as you
read this manual.
@@ -73,8 +70,7 @@ top-level directory named `.git`, which contains all the information
about the history of the project.
[[how-to-check-out]]
-How to check out a different version of a project
--------------------------------------------------
+=== How to check out a different version of a project
Git is best thought of as a tool for storing the history of a collection
of files. It stores the history as a compressed collection of
@@ -151,8 +147,7 @@ with no way to find the history it used to point to; so use this command
carefully.
[[understanding-commits]]
-Understanding History: Commits
-------------------------------
+=== Understanding History: Commits
Every change in the history of a project is represented by a commit.
The linkgit:git-show[1] command shows the most recent commit on the
@@ -202,8 +197,7 @@ history, including file data and directory contents, is stored in an object
with a name that is a hash of its contents.
[[understanding-reachability]]
-Understanding history: commits, parents, and reachability
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Understanding history: commits, parents, and reachability
Every commit (except the very first commit in a project) also has a
parent commit which shows what happened before this commit.
@@ -227,8 +221,7 @@ that Y is a descendant of X, or that there is a chain of parents
leading from commit Y to commit X.
[[history-diagrams]]
-Understanding history: History diagrams
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Understanding history: History diagrams
We will sometimes represent Git history using diagrams like the one
below. Commits are shown as "o", and the links between them with
@@ -247,8 +240,7 @@ If we need to talk about a particular commit, the character "o" may
be replaced with another letter or number.
[[what-is-a-branch]]
-Understanding history: What is a branch?
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Understanding history: What is a branch?
When we need to be precise, we will use the word "branch" to mean a line
of development, and "branch head" (or just "head") to mean a reference
@@ -261,8 +253,7 @@ However, when no confusion will result, we often just use the term
"branch" both for branches and for branch heads.
[[manipulating-branches]]
-Manipulating branches
----------------------
+=== Manipulating branches
Creating, deleting, and modifying branches is quick and easy; here's
a summary of the commands:
@@ -299,8 +290,7 @@ ref: refs/heads/master
------------------------------------------------
[[detached-head]]
-Examining an old version without creating a new branch
-------------------------------------------------------
+=== Examining an old version without creating a new branch
The `git switch` command normally expects a branch head, but will also
accept an arbitrary commit when invoked with --detach; for example,
@@ -340,8 +330,7 @@ make up a name for the new branch. You can still create a new branch
(or tag) for this version later if you decide to.
[[examining-remote-branches]]
-Examining branches from a remote repository
--------------------------------------------
+=== Examining branches from a remote repository
The "master" branch that was created at the time you cloned is a copy
of the HEAD in the repository that you cloned from. That repository
@@ -383,8 +372,7 @@ Note that the name "origin" is just the name that Git uses by default
to refer to the repository that you cloned from.
[[how-git-stores-references]]
-Naming branches, tags, and other references
--------------------------------------------
+=== Naming branches, tags, and other references
Branches, remote-tracking branches, and tags are all references to
commits. All references are named with a slash-separated path name
@@ -413,8 +401,7 @@ references with the same shorthand name, see the "SPECIFYING
REVISIONS" section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
[[Updating-a-repository-With-git-fetch]]
-Updating a repository with git fetch
-------------------------------------
+=== Updating a repository with git fetch
After you clone a repository and commit a few changes of your own, you
may wish to check the original repository for updates.
@@ -425,8 +412,7 @@ repository. It will not touch any of your own branches--not even the
"master" branch that was created for you on clone.
[[fetching-branches]]
-Fetching branches from other repositories
------------------------------------------
+=== Fetching branches from other repositories
You can also track branches from repositories other than the one you
cloned from, using linkgit:git-remote[1]:
@@ -474,8 +460,7 @@ text editor. (See the "CONFIGURATION FILE" section of
linkgit:git-config[1] for details.)
[[exploring-git-history]]
-Exploring Git history
-=====================
+== Exploring Git history
Git is best thought of as a tool for storing the history of a
collection of files. It does this by storing compressed snapshots of
@@ -489,8 +474,7 @@ We start with one specialized tool that is useful for finding the
commit that introduced a bug into a project.
[[using-bisect]]
-How to use bisect to find a regression
---------------------------------------
+=== How to use bisect to find a regression
Suppose version 2.6.18 of your project worked, but the version at
"master" crashes. Sometimes the best way to find the cause of such a
@@ -572,8 +556,7 @@ linkgit:git-bisect[1] for more information about this and other `git
bisect` features.
[[naming-commits]]
-Naming commits
---------------
+=== Naming commits
We have seen several ways of naming commits already:
@@ -637,8 +620,7 @@ e05db0fd4f31dde7005f075a84f96b360d05984b
-------------------------------------------------
[[creating-tags]]
-Creating tags
--------------
+=== Creating tags
We can also create a tag to refer to a particular commit; after
running
@@ -655,8 +637,7 @@ should create a tag object instead; see the linkgit:git-tag[1] man page
for details.
[[browsing-revisions]]
-Browsing revisions
-------------------
+=== Browsing revisions
The linkgit:git-log[1] command can show lists of commits. On its
own, it shows all commits reachable from the parent commit; but you
@@ -697,8 +678,7 @@ multiple independent lines of development, the particular order that
commits are listed in may be somewhat arbitrary.
[[generating-diffs]]
-Generating diffs
-----------------
+=== Generating diffs
You can generate diffs between any two versions using
linkgit:git-diff[1]:
@@ -726,8 +706,7 @@ will generate a file with a patch for each commit reachable from test
but not from master.
[[viewing-old-file-versions]]
-Viewing old file versions
--------------------------
+=== Viewing old file versions
You can always view an old version of a file by just checking out the
correct revision first. But sometimes it is more convenient to be
@@ -742,12 +721,10 @@ Before the colon may be anything that names a commit, and after it
may be any path to a file tracked by Git.
[[history-examples]]
-Examples
---------
+=== Examples
[[counting-commits-on-a-branch]]
-Counting the number of commits on a branch
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Counting the number of commits on a branch
Suppose you want to know how many commits you've made on `mybranch`
since it diverged from `origin`:
@@ -765,8 +742,7 @@ $ git rev-list origin..mybranch | wc -l
-------------------------------------------------
[[checking-for-equal-branches]]
-Check whether two branches point at the same history
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Check whether two branches point at the same history
Suppose you want to check whether two branches point at the same point
in history.
@@ -798,8 +774,7 @@ $ git log origin...master
will return no commits when the two branches are equal.
[[finding-tagged-descendants]]
-Find first tagged version including a given fix
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Find first tagged version including a given fix
Suppose you know that the commit e05db0fd fixed a certain problem.
You'd like to find the earliest tagged release that contains that
@@ -883,8 +858,7 @@ shows that e05db0fd is reachable from itself, from v1.5.0-rc1,
and from v1.5.0-rc2, and not from v1.5.0-rc0.
[[showing-commits-unique-to-a-branch]]
-Showing commits unique to a given branch
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Showing commits unique to a given branch
Suppose you would like to see all the commits reachable from the branch
head named `master` but not from any other head in your repository.
@@ -931,8 +905,7 @@ $ gitk $( git show-ref --heads ) --not $( git show-ref --tags )
syntax such as `--not`.)
[[making-a-release]]
-Creating a changelog and tarball for a software release
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Creating a changelog and tarball for a software release
The linkgit:git-archive[1] command can create a tar or zip archive from
any version of a project; for example:
@@ -983,8 +956,7 @@ and then he just cut-and-pastes the output commands after verifying that
they look OK.
[[Finding-commits-With-given-Content]]
-Finding commits referencing a file with given content
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Finding commits referencing a file with given content
Somebody hands you a copy of a file, and asks which commits modified a
file such that it contained the given content either before or after the
@@ -1000,12 +972,10 @@ student. The linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-diff-tree[1], and
linkgit:git-hash-object[1] man pages may prove helpful.
[[Developing-With-git]]
-Developing with Git
-===================
+== Developing with Git
[[telling-git-your-name]]
-Telling Git your name
----------------------
+=== Telling Git your name
Before creating any commits, you should introduce yourself to Git.
The easiest way to do so is to use linkgit:git-config[1]:
@@ -1030,8 +1000,7 @@ also edit it with your favorite editor.
[[creating-a-new-repository]]
-Creating a new repository
--------------------------
+=== Creating a new repository
Creating a new repository from scratch is very easy:
@@ -1052,8 +1021,7 @@ $ git commit
-------------------------------------------------
[[how-to-make-a-commit]]
-How to make a commit
---------------------
+=== How to make a commit
Creating a new commit takes three steps:
@@ -1148,8 +1116,7 @@ for inclusion in the index (by right-clicking on the diff hunk and
choosing "Stage Hunk For Commit").
[[creating-good-commit-messages]]
-Creating good commit messages
------------------------------
+=== Creating good commit messages
Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
@@ -1162,8 +1129,7 @@ rest of the commit in the body.
[[ignoring-files]]
-Ignoring files
---------------
+=== Ignoring files
A project will often generate files that you do 'not' want to track with Git.
This typically includes files generated by a build process or temporary
@@ -1205,8 +1171,7 @@ Some Git commands can also take exclude patterns directly on the
command line. See linkgit:gitignore[5] for the details.
[[how-to-merge]]
-How to merge
-------------
+=== How to merge
You can rejoin two diverging branches of development using
linkgit:git-merge[1]:
@@ -1254,8 +1219,7 @@ has two parents, one pointing to the top of the current branch, and
one to the top of the other branch.
[[resolving-a-merge]]
-Resolving a merge
------------------
+=== Resolving a merge
When a merge isn't resolved automatically, Git leaves the index and
the working tree in a special state that gives you all the
@@ -1297,8 +1261,7 @@ The above is all you need to know to resolve a simple merge. But Git
also provides more information to help resolve conflicts:
[[conflict-resolution]]
-Getting conflict-resolution help during a merge
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Getting conflict-resolution help during a merge
All of the changes that Git was able to merge automatically are
already added to the index file, so linkgit:git-diff[1] shows only
@@ -1401,8 +1364,7 @@ the different stages of that file will be "collapsed", after which
`git diff` will (by default) no longer show diffs for that file.
[[undoing-a-merge]]
-Undoing a merge
----------------
+=== Undoing a merge
If you get stuck and decide to just give up and throw the whole mess
away, you can always return to the pre-merge state with
@@ -1423,8 +1385,7 @@ itself have been merged into another branch, as doing so may confuse
further merges.
[[fast-forwards]]
-Fast-forward merges
--------------------
+=== Fast-forward merges
There is one special case not mentioned above, which is treated
differently. Normally, a merge results in a merge commit, with two
@@ -1438,8 +1399,7 @@ to point at the head of the merged-in branch, without any new commits being
created.
[[fixing-mistakes]]
-Fixing mistakes
----------------
+=== Fixing mistakes
If you've messed up the working tree, but haven't yet committed your
mistake, you can return the entire working tree to the last committed
@@ -1463,8 +1423,7 @@ fundamentally different ways to fix the problem:
a branch that has had its history changed.
[[reverting-a-commit]]
-Fixing a mistake with a new commit
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Fixing a mistake with a new commit
Creating a new commit that reverts an earlier change is very easy;
just pass the linkgit:git-revert[1] command a reference to the bad
@@ -1490,8 +1449,7 @@ conflicts manually, just as in the case of <<resolving-a-merge,
resolving a merge>>.
[[fixing-a-mistake-by-rewriting-history]]
-Fixing a mistake by rewriting history
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Fixing a mistake by rewriting history
If the problematic commit is the most recent commit, and you have not
yet made that commit public, then you may just
@@ -1518,8 +1476,7 @@ this is an advanced topic to be left for
<<cleaning-up-history,another chapter>>.
[[checkout-of-path]]
-Checking out an old version of a file
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Checking out an old version of a file
In the process of undoing a previous bad change, you may find it
useful to check out an older version of a particular file using
@@ -1543,8 +1500,7 @@ $ git show HEAD^:path/to/file
which will display the given version of the file.
[[interrupted-work]]
-Temporarily setting aside work in progress
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Temporarily setting aside work in progress
While you are in the middle of working on something complicated, you
find an unrelated but obvious and trivial bug. You would like to fix it
@@ -1575,8 +1531,7 @@ $ git stash pop
[[ensuring-good-performance]]
-Ensuring good performance
--------------------------
+=== Ensuring good performance
On large repositories, Git depends on compression to keep the history
information from taking up too much space on disk or in memory. Some
@@ -1587,12 +1542,10 @@ to avoid automatic compression kicking in when it is not convenient.
[[ensuring-reliability]]
-Ensuring reliability
---------------------
+=== Ensuring reliability
[[checking-for-corruption]]
-Checking the repository for corruption
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Checking the repository for corruption
The linkgit:git-fsck[1] command runs a number of self-consistency checks
on the repository, and reports on any problems. This may take some
@@ -1618,12 +1571,10 @@ You can run `git fsck --no-dangling` to suppress these messages, and still
view real errors.
[[recovering-lost-changes]]
-Recovering lost changes
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Recovering lost changes
[[reflogs]]
-Reflogs
-^^^^^^^
+===== Reflogs
Say you modify a branch with <<fixing-mistakes,`git reset --hard`>>,
and then realize that the branch was the only reference you had to
@@ -1670,8 +1621,7 @@ same project, the reflog history is not shared: it tells you only about
how the branches in your local repository have changed over time.
[[dangling-object-recovery]]
-Examining dangling objects
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+===== Examining dangling objects
In some situations the reflog may not be able to save you. For example,
suppose you delete a branch, then realize you need the history it
@@ -1715,12 +1665,10 @@ dangling objects can arise in other situations.
[[sharing-development]]
-Sharing development with others
-===============================
+== Sharing development with others
[[getting-updates-With-git-pull]]
-Getting updates with git pull
------------------------------
+=== Getting updates with git pull
After you clone a repository and commit a few changes of your own, you
may wish to check the original repository for updates and merge them
@@ -1783,8 +1731,7 @@ $ git merge branch
are roughly equivalent.
[[submitting-patches]]
-Submitting patches to a project
--------------------------------
+=== Submitting patches to a project
If you just have a few changes, the simplest way to submit them may
just be to send them as patches in email:
@@ -1812,8 +1759,7 @@ Consult the mailing list for your project first to determine
their requirements for submitting patches.
[[importing-patches]]
-Importing patches to a project
-------------------------------
+=== Importing patches to a project
Git also provides a tool called linkgit:git-am[1] (am stands for
"apply mailbox"), for importing such an emailed series of patches.
@@ -1845,8 +1791,7 @@ the original mailbox, with authorship and commit log message each
taken from the message containing each patch.
[[public-repositories]]
-Public Git repositories
------------------------
+=== Public Git repositories
Another way to submit changes to a project is to tell the maintainer
of that project to pull the changes from your repository using
@@ -1886,21 +1831,22 @@ pull from that repository. So the flow of changes, in a situation
where there is one other developer with a public repository, looks
like this:
- you push
- your personal repo ------------------> your public repo
- ^ |
- | |
- | you pull | they pull
- | |
- | |
- | they push V
- their public repo <------------------- their repo
+....
+ you push
+your personal repo ------------------> your public repo
+ ^ |
+ | |
+ | you pull | they pull
+ | |
+ | |
+ | they push V
+their public repo <------------------- their repo
+....
We explain how to do this in the following sections.
[[setting-up-a-public-repository]]
-Setting up a public repository
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Setting up a public repository
Assume your personal repository is in the directory `~/proj`. We
first create a new clone of the repository and tell `git daemon` that it
@@ -1920,8 +1866,7 @@ public repository. You can use scp, rsync, or whatever is most
convenient.
[[exporting-via-git]]
-Exporting a Git repository via the Git protocol
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Exporting a Git repository via the Git protocol
This is the preferred method.
@@ -1942,8 +1887,7 @@ linkgit:git-daemon[1] man page for details. (See especially the
examples section.)
[[exporting-via-http]]
-Exporting a git repository via HTTP
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Exporting a git repository via HTTP
The Git protocol gives better performance and reliability, but on a
host with a web server set up, HTTP exports may be simpler to set up.
@@ -1975,8 +1919,7 @@ for a slightly more sophisticated setup using WebDAV which also
allows pushing over HTTP.)
[[pushing-changes-to-a-public-repository]]
-Pushing changes to a public repository
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Pushing changes to a public repository
Note that the two techniques outlined above (exporting via
<<exporting-via-http,http>> or <<exporting-via-git,git>>) allow other
@@ -2035,8 +1978,7 @@ See the explanations of the `remote.<name>.url`,
linkgit:git-config[1] for details.
[[forcing-push]]
-What to do when a push fails
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== What to do when a push fails
If a push would not result in a <<fast-forwards,fast-forward>> of the
remote branch, then it will fail with an error like:
@@ -2090,8 +2032,7 @@ pull, or by a fetch followed by a rebase; see the
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7] for more.
[[setting-up-a-shared-repository]]
-Setting up a shared repository
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Setting up a shared repository
Another way to collaborate is by using a model similar to that
commonly used in CVS, where several developers with special rights
@@ -2121,8 +2062,7 @@ advantages over the central shared repository:
"out".
[[setting-up-gitweb]]
-Allowing web browsing of a repository
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Allowing web browsing of a repository
The gitweb cgi script provides users an easy way to browse your
project's revisions, file contents and logs without having to install
@@ -2138,8 +2078,7 @@ linkgit:gitweb[1] for instructions on details setting up a permanent
installation with a CGI or Perl capable server.
[[how-to-get-a-git-repository-with-minimal-history]]
-How to get a Git repository with minimal history
-------------------------------------------------
+=== How to get a Git repository with minimal history
A <<def_shallow_clone,shallow clone>>, with its truncated
history, is useful when one is interested only in recent history
@@ -2158,12 +2097,10 @@ have to result in huge conflicts. This limitation may make such
a repository unsuitable to be used in merge based workflows.
[[sharing-development-examples]]
-Examples
---------
+=== Examples
[[maintaining-topic-branches]]
-Maintaining topic branches for a Linux subsystem maintainer
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+==== Maintaining topic branches for a Linux subsystem maintainer
This describes how Tony Luck uses Git in his role as maintainer of the
IA64 architecture for the Linux kernel.
@@ -2459,8 +2396,7 @@ done
[[cleaning-up-history]]
-Rewriting history and maintaining patch series
-==============================================
+== Rewriting history and maintaining patch series
Normally commits are only added to a project, never taken away or
replaced. Git is designed with this assumption, and violating it will
@@ -2470,8 +2406,7 @@ However, there is a situation in which it can be useful to violate this
assumption.
[[patch-series]]
-Creating the perfect patch series
----------------------------------
+=== Creating the perfect patch series
Suppose you are a contributor to a large project, and you want to add a
complicated feature, and to present it to the other developers in a way
@@ -2503,8 +2438,7 @@ use them, and then explain some of the problems that can arise because
you are rewriting history.
[[using-git-rebase]]
-Keeping a patch series up to date using git rebase
---------------------------------------------------
+=== Keeping a patch series up to date using git rebase
Suppose that you create a branch `mywork` on a remote-tracking branch
`origin`, and create some commits on top of it:
@@ -2591,8 +2525,7 @@ the rebase. See <<interactive-rebase>> for details, and
<<reordering-patch-series>> for alternatives.
[[rewriting-one-commit]]
-Rewriting a single commit
--------------------------
+=== Rewriting a single commit
We saw in <<fixing-a-mistake-by-rewriting-history>> that you can replace the
most recent commit using
@@ -2610,8 +2543,7 @@ If you need to amend commits from deeper in your history, you can
use <<interactive-rebase,interactive rebase's `edit` instruction>>.
[[reordering-patch-series]]
-Reordering or selecting from a patch series
--------------------------------------------