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-rw-r--r--.gitignore4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt87
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt117
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt56
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt59
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.4.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt286
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.2.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.txt164
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.3.txt121
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches69
-rw-r--r--Documentation/asciidoc.conf23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/blame-options.txt30
-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/cat-texi.perl8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt385
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-format.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-options.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/everyday.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt32
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt62
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-annotate.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-apply.txt46
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-archive.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect.txt208
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-blame.txt64
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-branch.txt54
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bundle.txt164
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-attr.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt40
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt82
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-count-objects.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-describe.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-files.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt71
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gui.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-hash-object.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-imap-send.txt99
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt76
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-file.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-index.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt113
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-name-rev.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-patch-id.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-prune.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt139
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt197
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reflog.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt38
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-revert.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt324
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shell.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-branch.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stage.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-stash.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt35
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt72
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-var.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-web--browse.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt199
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt55
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitglossary.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmodules.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gittutorial.txt47
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitworkflows.txt364
-rw-r--r--Documentation/glossary-content.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt79
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt179
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/i18n.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/mailmap.txt74
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-config.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-options.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/merge-strategies.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-formats.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pretty-options.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/rev-list-options.txt131
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt28
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt22
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls-remotes.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/urls.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/user-manual.txt51
-rwxr-xr-xGIT-VERSION-GEN2
-rw-r--r--INSTALL25
-rw-r--r--Makefile314
-rw-r--r--README16
l---------RelNotes2
-rw-r--r--abspath.c15
-rw-r--r--archive-tar.c6
-rw-r--r--archive.c19
-rw-r--r--arm/sha1.c16
-rw-r--r--arm/sha1.h15
-rw-r--r--arm/sha1_arm.S4
-rw-r--r--attr.c73
-rw-r--r--attr.h6
-rw-r--r--branch.c84
-rw-r--r--branch.h7
-rw-r--r--builtin-add.c148
-rw-r--r--builtin-apply.c401
-rw-r--r--builtin-archive.c113
-rw-r--r--builtin-blame.c484
-rw-r--r--builtin-branch.c277
-rw-r--r--builtin-bundle.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin-cat-file.c7
-rw-r--r--builtin-check-attr.c109
-rw-r--r--builtin-check-ref-format.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin-checkout-index.c176
-rw-r--r--builtin-checkout.c347
-rw-r--r--builtin-clean.c10
-rw-r--r--builtin-clone.c237
-rw-r--r--builtin-commit-tree.c18
-rw-r--r--builtin-commit.c216
-rw-r--r--builtin-config.c427
-rw-r--r--builtin-count-objects.c16
-rw-r--r--builtin-describe.c8
-rw-r--r--builtin-diff-files.c11
-rw-r--r--builtin-diff-index.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin-diff-tree.c58
-rw-r--r--builtin-diff.c36
-rw-r--r--builtin-fast-export.c35
-rw-r--r--builtin-fetch--tool.c8
-rw-r--r--builtin-fetch-pack.c27
-rw-r--r--builtin-fetch.c58
-rw-r--r--builtin-fmt-merge-msg.c59
-rw-r--r--builtin-for-each-ref.c149
-rw-r--r--builtin-fsck.c98
-rw-r--r--builtin-gc.c77
-rw-r--r--builtin-grep.c102
-rw-r--r--builtin-help.c463
-rw-r--r--builtin-http-fetch.c6
-rw-r--r--builtin-init-db.c23
-rw-r--r--builtin-log.c242
-rw-r--r--builtin-ls-files.c367
-rw-r--r--builtin-ls-remote.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin-ls-tree.c38
-rw-r--r--builtin-mailinfo.c58
-rw-r--r--builtin-merge-base.c43
-rw-r--r--builtin-merge-file.c76
-rw-r--r--builtin-merge-recursive.c1408
-rw-r--r--builtin-merge.c289
-rw-r--r--builtin-mv.c9
-rw-r--r--builtin-pack-objects.c205
-rw-r--r--builtin-prune-packed.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin-prune.c46
-rw-r--r--builtin-push.c98
-rw-r--r--builtin-read-tree.c7
-rw-r--r--builtin-receive-pack.c (renamed from receive-pack.c)214
-rw-r--r--builtin-reflog.c12
-rw-r--r--builtin-remote.c840
-rw-r--r--builtin-rerere.c35
-rw-r--r--builtin-reset.c31
-rw-r--r--builtin-rev-list.c56
-rw-r--r--builtin-rev-parse.c4
-rw-r--r--builtin-revert.c104
-rw-r--r--builtin-rm.c82
-rw-r--r--builtin-send-pack.c149
-rw-r--r--builtin-shortlog.c54
-rw-r--r--builtin-show-branch.c6
-rw-r--r--builtin-show-ref.c8
-rw-r--r--builtin-stripspace.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin-symbolic-ref.c3
-rw-r--r--builtin-tag.c81
-rw-r--r--builtin-tar-tree.c20
-rw-r--r--builtin-unpack-objects.c23
-rw-r--r--builtin-update-index.c51
-rw-r--r--builtin-update-ref.c8
-rw-r--r--builtin-upload-archive.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin-verify-pack.c5
-rw-r--r--builtin-write-tree.c2
-rw-r--r--builtin.h6
-rw-r--r--bundle.c41
-rw-r--r--cache-tree.c10
-rw-r--r--cache.h170
-rw-r--r--color.c65
-rw-r--r--color.h14
-rw-r--r--combine-diff.c61
-rw-r--r--commit.c17
-rw-r--r--commit.h8
-rw-r--r--compat/cygwin.c143
-rw-r--r--compat/cygwin.h9
-rw-r--r--compat/fnmatch/fnmatch.c (renamed from compat/fnmatch.c)0
-rw-r--r--compat/fnmatch/fnmatch.h (renamed from compat/fnmatch.h)0
-rw-r--r--compat/memmem.c5
-rw-r--r--compat/mingw.c251
-rw-r--r--compat/mingw.h39
-rw-r--r--compat/regex/regex.c (renamed from compat/regex.c)0
-rw-r--r--compat/regex/regex.h (renamed from compat/regex.h)0
-rw-r--r--compat/snprintf.c4
-rw-r--r--compat/win32.h34
-rw-r--r--compat/win32mmap.c53
-rw-r--r--compat/winansi.c18
-rw-r--r--config.c102
-rw-r--r--config.mak.in10
-rw-r--r--configure.ac439
-rw-r--r--connect.c43
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/completion/git-completion.bash787
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/difftool/git-difftool73
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/difftool/git-difftool-helper249
-rw-r--r--contrib/difftool/git-difftool.txt105
-rw-r--r--contrib/emacs/Makefile2
-rw-r--r--contrib/emacs/README39
-rw-r--r--contrib/emacs/git.el540
-rw-r--r--contrib/emacs/vc-git.el216
-rw-r--r--contrib/examples/README3
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-remote.perl2
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/examples/git-svnimport.perl36
-rw-r--r--contrib/examples/git-svnimport.txt6
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/fast-import/git-p492
-rw-r--r--contrib/fast-import/git-p4.txt69
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/fast-import/import-tars.perl16
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/git-resurrect.sh180
-rw-r--r--contrib/hooks/post-receive-email59
-rw-r--r--contrib/hooks/pre-auto-gc-battery13
-rw-r--r--contrib/hooks/setgitperms.perl4
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/rerere-train.sh52
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/stats/packinfo.pl14
-rw-r--r--contrib/vim/README40
-rw-r--r--contrib/vim/syntax/gitcommit.vim18
-rwxr-xr-xcontrib/workdir/git-new-workdir2
-rw-r--r--convert.c3
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-rwxr-xr-xgenerate-cmdlist.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xgit-add--interactive.perl280
-rwxr-xr-xgit-am.sh86
-rwxr-xr-xgit-bisect.sh274
-rw-r--r--git-compat-util.h49
-rwxr-xr-xgit-cvsserver.perl25
-rwxr-xr-xgit-filter-branch.sh150
-rw-r--r--git-gui/.gitattributes3
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-rw-r--r--git-gui/Makefile2
-rwxr-xr-xgit-gui/git-gui--askpass59
-rwxr-xr-xgit-gui/git-gui.sh787
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-rw-r--r--git-gui/po/de.po651
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-rwxr-xr-xgit-instaweb.sh69
-rwxr-xr-xgit-lost-found.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xgit-merge-octopus.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xgit-mergetool.sh153
-rwxr-xr-xgit-pull.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xgit-quiltimport.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xgit-rebase--interactive.sh318
-rwxr-xr-xgit-rebase.sh160
-rwxr-xr-xgit-repack.sh109
-rwxr-xr-xgit-request-pull.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xgit-send-email.perl650
-rwxr-xr-xgit-sh-setup.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xgit-stash.sh14
-rwxr-xr-xgit-submodule.sh152
-rwxr-xr-xgit-svn.perl586
-rwxr-xr-xgit-web--browse.sh8
-rw-r--r--git.c108
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-rw-r--r--t/t9135/svn.dump192
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9136-git-svn-recreated-branch-empty-file.sh12
-rw-r--r--t/t9136/svn.dump192
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9137-git-svn-dcommit-clobber-series.sh (renamed from t/t9106-git-svn-dcommit-clobber-series.sh)2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9200-git-cvsexportcommit.sh41
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9300-fast-import.sh102
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9301-fast-export.sh43
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh23
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9401-git-cvsserver-crlf.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9500-gitweb-standalone-no-errors.sh130
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9600-cvsimport.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9700-perl-git.sh20
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9700/test.pl28
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib.sh256
-rw-r--r--t/valgrind/.gitignore2
-rwxr-xr-xt/valgrind/analyze.sh123
-rw-r--r--t/valgrind/default.supp45
-rwxr-xr-xt/valgrind/valgrind.sh22
-rw-r--r--templates/Makefile14
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--update.sample6
-rw-r--r--templates/this--description2
-rw-r--r--test-chmtime.c91
-rw-r--r--test-ctype.c78
-rw-r--r--test-dump-cache-tree.c (renamed from dump-cache-tree.c)0
-rw-r--r--test-path-utils.c22
-rw-r--r--test-sha1.c8
-rw-r--r--test-sigchain.c22
-rw-r--r--trace.c2
-rw-r--r--transport.c45
-rw-r--r--transport.h2
-rw-r--r--tree-diff.c2
-rw-r--r--tree.c30
-rw-r--r--unpack-file.c5
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.c114
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.h1
-rw-r--r--update-server-info.c3
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c29
-rw-r--r--usage.c18
-rw-r--r--userdiff.c215
-rw-r--r--userdiff.h22
-rw-r--r--utf8.c19
-rw-r--r--utf8.h1
-rw-r--r--var.c3
-rw-r--r--walker.c7
-rw-r--r--wrapper.c93
-rw-r--r--ws.c3
-rw-r--r--wt-status.c119
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.c162
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.h21
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiff.h9
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiffi.c12
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiffi.h2
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xemit.c8
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xemit.h3
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xmerge.c237
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xpatience.c381
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xprepare.c18
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xutils.c6
849 files changed, 52119 insertions, 17797 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index a213e8e..1c57d4c 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@ git-gc
git-get-tar-commit-id
git-grep
git-hash-object
+git-help
git-http-fetch
git-http-push
git-imap-send
@@ -117,6 +118,7 @@ git-show
git-show-branch
git-show-index
git-show-ref
+git-stage
git-stash
git-status
git-stripspace
@@ -142,6 +144,7 @@ git-core-*/?*
gitk-wish
gitweb/gitweb.cgi
test-chmtime
+test-ctype
test-date
test-delta
test-dump-cache-tree
@@ -150,6 +153,7 @@ test-match-trees
test-parse-options
test-path-utils
test-sha1
+test-sigchain
common-cmds.h
*.tar.gz
*.dsc
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index f628c1f..b8bf618 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -21,8 +21,13 @@ code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
As for more concrete guidelines, just imitate the existing code
(this is a good guideline, no matter which project you are
-contributing to). But if you must have a list of rules,
-here they are.
+contributing to). It is always preferable to match the _local_
+convention. New code added to git suite is expected to match
+the overall style of existing code. Modifications to existing
+code is expected to match the style the surrounding code already
+uses (even if it doesn't match the overall style of existing code).
+
+But if you must have a list of rules, here they are.
For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
@@ -124,3 +129,6 @@ For C programs:
used in the git core command set (unless your command is clearly
separate from it, such as an importer to convert random-scm-X
repositories to git).
+
+ - When we pass <string, length> pair to functions, we should try to
+ pass them in that order.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 62269e3..144ec32 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ MAN5_TXT=gitattributes.txt gitignore.txt gitmodules.txt githooks.txt \
gitrepository-layout.txt
MAN7_TXT=gitcli.txt gittutorial.txt gittutorial-2.txt \
gitcvs-migration.txt gitcore-tutorial.txt gitglossary.txt \
- gitdiffcore.txt
+ gitdiffcore.txt gitworkflows.txt
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
MAN_XML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@ DOC_MAN7=$(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
prefix?=$(HOME)
bindir?=$(prefix)/bin
htmldir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+pdfdir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
mandir?=$(prefix)/share/man
man1dir=$(mandir)/man1
man5dir=$(mandir)/man5
@@ -44,11 +45,13 @@ MANPAGE_XSL = callouts.xsl
INSTALL?=install
RM ?= rm -f
DOC_REF = origin/man
+HTML_REF = origin/html
infodir?=$(prefix)/share/info
MAKEINFO=makeinfo
INSTALL_INFO=install-info
DOCBOOK2X_TEXI=docbook2x-texi
+DBLATEX=dblatex
ifndef PERL_PATH
PERL_PATH = /usr/bin/perl
endif
@@ -86,7 +89,11 @@ man7: $(DOC_MAN7)
info: git.info gitman.info
-install: man
+pdf: user-manual.pdf
+
+install: install-man
+
+install-man: man
$(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(man1dir)
$(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(man5dir)
$(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(man7dir)
@@ -104,6 +111,10 @@ install-info: info
echo "No directory found in $(DESTDIR)$(infodir)" >&2 ; \
fi
+install-pdf: pdf
+ $(INSTALL) -d -m 755 $(DESTDIR)$(pdfdir)
+ $(INSTALL) -m 644 user-manual.pdf $(DESTDIR)$(pdfdir)
+
install-html: html
sh ./install-webdoc.sh $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
@@ -184,17 +195,23 @@ git.info: user-manual.texi
user-manual.texi: user-manual.xml
$(RM) $@+ $@
- $(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) user-manual.xml --to-stdout | $(PERL_PATH) fix-texi.perl >$@+
+ $(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) user-manual.xml --encoding=UTF-8 --to-stdout | \
+ $(PERL_PATH) fix-texi.perl >$@+
+ mv $@+ $@
+
+user-manual.pdf: user-manual.xml
+ $(RM) $@+ $@
+ $(DBLATEX) -o $@+ -p /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.xsl -s /etc/asciidoc/dblatex/asciidoc-dblatex.sty $<
mv $@+ $@
gitman.texi: $(MAN_XML) cat-texi.perl
$(RM) $@+ $@
- ($(foreach xml,$(MAN_XML),$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) --to-stdout $(xml);)) | \
- $(PERL_PATH) cat-texi.perl $@ >$@+
+ ($(foreach xml,$(MAN_XML),$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) --encoding=UTF-8 \
+ --to-stdout $(xml);)) | $(PERL_PATH) cat-texi.perl $@ >$@+
mv $@+ $@
gitman.info: gitman.texi
- $(MAKEINFO) --no-split $*.texi
+ $(MAKEINFO) --no-split --no-validate $*.texi
$(patsubst %.txt,%.texi,$(MAN_TXT)): %.texi : %.xml
$(RM) $@+ $@
@@ -219,7 +236,12 @@ $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
install-webdoc : html
sh ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
-quick-install:
+quick-install: quick-install-man
+
+quick-install-man:
sh ./install-doc-quick.sh $(DOC_REF) $(DESTDIR)$(mandir)
+quick-install-html:
+ sh ./install-doc-quick.sh $(HTML_REF) $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
+
.PHONY: .FORCE-GIT-VERSION-FILE
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt
index f6393f8..7bfa341 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.2.2.txt
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ Fixes since v1.5.2.1
correctly when the branch name had slash in it.
- The email address of the user specified with user.email
- configuration was overriden by EMAIL environment variable.
+ configuration was overridden by EMAIL environment variable.
- The tree parser did not warn about tree entries with
nonsense file modes, and assumed they must be blobs.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9065a0e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+GIT v1.5.4.7 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since 1.5.4.7
+-------------------
+
+ * Removed support for an obsolete gitweb request URI, whose
+ implementation ran "git diff" Porcelain, instead of using plumbing,
+ which would have run an external diff command specified in the
+ repository configuration as the gitweb user.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d5e85cb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+GIT v1.5.5.6 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since 1.5.5.5
+-------------------
+
+ * Removed support for an obsolete gitweb request URI, whose
+ implementation ran "git diff" Porcelain, instead of using plumbing,
+ which would have run an external diff command specified in the
+ repository configuration as the gitweb user.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..79da23d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,10 @@
+GIT v1.5.6.6 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since 1.5.6.5
+-------------------
+
+ * Removed support for an obsolete gitweb request URI, whose
+ implementation ran "git diff" Porcelain, instead of using plumbing,
+ which would have run an external diff command specified in the
+ repository configuration as the gitweb user.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..49d7a1c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+GIT v1.6.0.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.0
+------------------
+
+* "git diff --cc" did not honor content mangling specified by
+ gitattributes and core.autocrlf when reading from the work tree.
+
+* "git diff --check" incorrectly detected new trailing blank lines when
+ whitespace check was in effect.
+
+* "git for-each-ref" tried to dereference NULL when asked for '%(body)" on
+ a tag with a single incomplete line as its payload.
+
+* "git format-patch" peeked before the beginning of a string when
+ "format.headers" variable is empty (a misconfiguration).
+
+* "git help help" did not work correctly.
+
+* "git mailinfo" (hence "git am") was unhappy when MIME multipart message
+ contained garbage after the finishing boundary.
+
+* "git mailinfo" also was unhappy when the "From: " line only had a bare
+ e-mail address.
+
+* "git merge" did not refresh the index correctly when a merge resulted in
+ a fast-forward.
+
+* "git merge" did not resolve a truly trivial merges that can be done
+ without content level merges.
+
+* "git svn dcommit" to a repository with URL that has embedded usernames
+ did not work correctly.
+
+Contains other various documentation fixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..51b32f5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,87 @@
+GIT v1.6.0.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.0.1
+--------------------
+
+* Installation on platforms that needs .exe suffix to git-* programs were
+ broken in 1.6.0.1.
+
+* Installation on filesystems without symbolic links support did not
+ work well.
+
+* In-tree documentations and test scripts now use "git foo" form to set a
+ better example, instead of the "git-foo" form (which is an acceptable
+ form if you have "PATH=$(git --exec-path):$PATH" in your script)
+
+* Many commands did not use the correct working tree location when used
+ with GIT_WORK_TREE environment settings.
+
+* Some systems needs to use compatibility fnmach and regex libraries
+ independent from each other; the compat/ area has been reorganized to
+ allow this.
+
+
+* "git apply --unidiff-zero" incorrectly applied a -U0 patch that inserts
+ a new line before the second line.
+
+* "git blame -c" did not exactly work like "git annotate" when range
+ boundaries are involved.
+
+* "git checkout file" when file is still unmerged checked out contents from
+ a random high order stage, which was confusing.
+
+* "git clone $there $here/" with extra trailing slashes after explicit
+ local directory name $here did not work as expected.
+
+* "git diff" on tracked contents with CRLF line endings did not drive "less"
+ intelligently when showing added or removed lines.
+
+* "git diff --dirstat -M" did not add changes in subdirectories up
+ correctly for renamed paths.
+
+* "git diff --cumulative" did not imply "--dirstat".
+
+* "git for-each-ref refs/heads/" did not work as expected.
+
+* "git gui" allowed users to feed patch without any context to be applied.
+
+* "git gui" botched parsing "diff" output when a line that begins with two
+ dashes and a space gets removed or a line that begins with two pluses
+ and a space gets added.
+
+* "git gui" translation updates and i18n fixes.
+
+* "git index-pack" is more careful against disk corruption while completing
+ a thin pack.
+
+* "git log -i --grep=pattern" did not ignore case; neither "git log -E
+ --grep=pattern" triggered extended regexp.
+
+* "git log --pretty="%ad" --date=short" did not use short format when
+ showing the timestamp.
+
+* "git log --author=author" match incorrectly matched with the
+ timestamp part of "author " line in commit objects.
+
+* "git log -F --author=author" did not work at all.
+
+* Build procedure for "git shell" that used stub versions of some
+ functions and globals was not understood by linkers on some platforms.
+
+* "git stash" was fooled by a stat-dirty but otherwise unmodified paths
+ and refused to work until the user refreshed the index.
+
+* "git svn" was broken on Perl before 5.8 with recent fixes to reduce
+ use of temporary files.
+
+* "git verify-pack -v" did not work correctly when given more than one
+ packfile.
+
+Also contains many documentation updates.
+
+--
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+O=v1.6.0.1-78-g3632cfc
+echo O=$(git describe maint)
+git shortlog --no-merges $O..maint
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ae05778
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,117 @@
+GIT v1.6.0.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.0.2
+--------------------
+
+* "git archive --format=zip" did not honor core.autocrlf while
+ --format=tar did.
+
+* Continuing "git rebase -i" was very confused when the user left modified
+ files in the working tree while resolving conflicts.
+
+* Continuing "git rebase -i" was also very confused when the user left
+ some staged changes in the index after "edit".
+
+* "git rebase -i" now honors the pre-rebase hook, just like the
+ other rebase implementations "git rebase" and "git rebase -m".
+
+* "git rebase -i" incorrectly aborted when there is no commit to replay.
+
+* Behaviour of "git diff --quiet" was inconsistent with "diff --exit-code"
+ with the output redirected to /dev/null.
+
+* "git diff --no-index" on binary files no longer outputs a bogus
+ "diff --git" header line.
+
+* "git diff" hunk header patterns with multiple elements separated by LF
+ were not used correctly.
+
+* Hunk headers in "git diff" default to using extended regular
+ expressions, fixing some of the internal patterns on non-GNU
+ platforms.
+
+* New config "diff.*.xfuncname" exposes extended regular expressions
+ for user specified hunk header patterns.
+
+* "git gc" when ejecting otherwise unreachable objects from packfiles into
+ loose form leaked memory.
+
+* "git index-pack" was recently broken and mishandled objects added by
+ thin-pack completion processing under memory pressure.
+
+* "git index-pack" was recently broken and misbehaved when run from inside
+ .git/objects/pack/ directory.
+
+* "git stash apply sash@{1}" was fixed to error out. Prior versions
+ would have applied stash@{0} incorrectly.
+
+* "git stash apply" now offers a better suggestion on how to continue
+ if the working tree is currently dirty.
+
+* "git for-each-ref --format=%(subject)" fixed for commits with no
+ no newline in the message body.
+
+* "git remote" fixed to protect printf from user input.
+
+* "git remote show -v" now displays all URLs of a remote.
+
+* "git checkout -b branch" was confused when branch already existed.
+
+* "git checkout -q" once again suppresses the locally modified file list.
+
+* "git clone -q", "git fetch -q" asks remote side to not send
+ progress messages, actually making their output quiet.
+
+* Cross-directory renames are no longer used when creating packs. This
+ allows more graceful behavior on filesystems like sshfs.
+
+* Stale temporary files under $GIT_DIR/objects/pack are now cleaned up
+ automatically by "git prune".
+
+* "git merge" once again removes directories after the last file has
+ been removed from it during the merge.
+
+* "git merge" did not allocate enough memory for the structure itself when
+ enumerating the parents of the resulting commit.
+
+* "git blame -C -C" no longer segfaults while trying to pass blame if
+ it encounters a submodule reference.
+
+* "git rm" incorrectly claimed that you have local modifications when a
+ path was merely stat-dirty.
+
+* "git svn" fixed to display an error message when 'set-tree' failed,
+ instead of a Perl compile error.
+
+* "git submodule" fixed to handle checking out a different commit
+ than HEAD after initializing the submodule.
+
+* The "git commit" error message when there are still unmerged
+ files present was clarified to match "git write-tree".
+
+* "git init" was confused when core.bare or core.sharedRepository are set
+ in system or user global configuration file by mistake. When --bare or
+ --shared is given from the command line, these now override such
+ settings made outside the repositories.
+
+* Some segfaults due to uncaught NULL pointers were fixed in multiple
+ tools such as apply, reset, update-index.
+
+* Solaris builds now default to OLD_ICONV=1 to avoid compile warnings;
+ Solaris 8 does not define NEEDS_LIBICONV by default.
+
+* "Git.pm" tests relied on unnecessarily more recent version of Perl.
+
+* "gitweb" triggered undef warning on commits without log messages.
+
+* "gitweb" triggered undef warnings on missing trees.
+
+* "gitweb" now removes PATH_INFO from its URLs so users don't have
+ to manually set the URL in the gitweb configuration.
+
+* Bash completion removed support for legacy "git-fetch", "git-push"
+ and "git-pull" as these are no longer installed. Dashless form
+ ("git fetch") is still however supported.
+
+Many other documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d522661
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+GIT v1.6.0.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.0.3
+--------------------
+
+* 'git add -p' said "No changes" when only binary files were changed.
+
+* 'git archive' did not work correctly in bare repositories.
+
+* 'git checkout -t -b newbranch' when you are on detached HEAD was broken.
+
+* when we refuse to detect renames because there are too many new or
+ deleted files, 'git diff' did not say how many there are.
+
+* 'git push --mirror' tried and failed to push the stash; there is no
+ point in sending it to begin with.
+
+* 'git push' did not update the remote tracking reference if the corresponding
+ ref on the remote end happened to be already up to date.
+
+* 'git pull $there $branch:$current_branch' did not work when you were on
+ a branch yet to be born.
+
+* when giving up resolving a conflicted merge, 'git reset --hard' failed
+ to remove new paths from the working tree.
+
+* 'git send-email' had a small fd leak while scanning directory.
+
+* 'git status' incorrectly reported a submodule directory as an untracked
+ directory.
+
+* 'git svn' used deprecated 'git-foo' form of subcommand invocation.
+
+* 'git update-ref -d' to remove a reference did not honor --no-deref option.
+
+* Plugged small memleaks here and there.
+
+* Also contains many documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a08bb96
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,56 @@
+GIT v1.6.0.5 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.0.4
+--------------------
+
+* "git checkout" used to crash when your HEAD was pointing at a deleted
+ branch.
+
+* "git checkout" from an un-checked-out state did not allow switching out
+ of the current branch.
+
+* "git diff" always allowed GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF and --no-ext-diff was no-op for
+ the command.
+
+* Giving 3 or more tree-ish to "git diff" is supposed to show the combined
+ diff from second and subsequent trees to the first one, but the order was
+ screwed up.
+
+* "git fast-export" did not export all tags.
+
+* "git ls-files --with-tree=<tree>" did not work with options other
+ than -c, most notably with -m.
+
+* "git pack-objects" did not make its best effort to honor --max-pack-size
+ option when a single first object already busted the given limit and
+ placed many objects in a single pack.
+
+* "git-p4" fast import frontend was too eager to trigger its keyword expansion
+ logic, even on a keyword-looking string that does not have closing '$' on the
+ same line.
+
+* "git push $there" when the remote $there is defined in $GIT_DIR/branches/$there
+ behaves more like what cg-push from Cogito used to work.
+
+* when giving up resolving a conflicted merge, "git reset --hard" failed
+ to remove new paths from the working tree.
+
+* "git tag" did not complain when given mutually incompatible set of options.
+
+* The message constructed in the internal editor was discarded when "git
+ tag -s" failed to sign the message, which was often caused by the user
+ not configuring GPG correctly.
+
+* "make check" cannot be run without sparse; people may have meant to say
+ "make test" instead, so suggest that.
+
+* Internal diff machinery had a corner case performance bug that choked on
+ a large file with many repeated contents.
+
+* "git repack" used to grab objects out of packs marked with .keep
+ into a new pack.
+
+* Many unsafe call to sprintf() style varargs functions are corrected.
+
+* Also contains quite a few documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..64ece1f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+GIT v1.6.0.6 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since 1.6.0.5
+-------------------
+
+ * "git fsck" had a deep recursion that wasted stack space.
+
+ * "git fast-export" and "git fast-import" choked on an old style
+ annotated tag that lack the tagger information.
+
+ * "git mergetool -- file" did not correctly skip "--" marker that
+ signals the end of options list.
+
+ * "git show $tag" segfaulted when an annotated $tag pointed at a
+ nonexistent object.
+
+ * "git show 2>error" when the standard output is automatically redirected
+ to the pager redirected the standard error to the pager as well; there
+ was no need to.
+
+ * "git send-email" did not correctly handle list of addresses when
+ they had quoted comma (e.g. "Lastname, Givenname" <mail@addre.ss>).
+
+ * Logic to discover branch ancestry in "git svn" was unreliable when
+ the process to fetch history was interrupted.
+
+ * Removed support for an obsolete gitweb request URI, whose
+ implementation ran "git diff" Porcelain, instead of using plumbing,
+ which would have run an external diff command specified in the
+ repository configuration as the gitweb user.
+
+Also contains numerous documentation typofixes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8c594ba
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+GIT v1.6.1.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.1
+------------------
+
+* "git add frotz/nitfol" when "frotz" is a submodule should have errored
+ out, but it didn't.
+
+* "git apply" took file modes from the patch text and updated the mode
+ bits of the target tree even when the patch was not about mode changes.
+
+* "git bisect view" on Cygwin did not launch gitk
+
+* "git checkout $tree" did not trigger an error.
+
+* "git commit" tried to remove COMMIT_EDITMSG from the work tree by mistake.
+
+* "git describe --all" complained when a commit is described with a tag,
+ which was nonsense.
+
+* "git diff --no-index --" did not trigger no-index (aka "use git-diff as
+ a replacement of diff on untracked files") behaviour.
+
+* "git format-patch -1 HEAD" on a root commit failed to produce patch
+ text.
+
+* "git fsck branch" did not work as advertised; instead it behaved the same
+ way as "git fsck".
+
+* "git log --pretty=format:%s" did not handle a multi-line subject the
+ same way as built-in log listers (i.e. shortlog, --pretty=oneline, etc.)
+
+* "git daemon", and "git merge-file" are more careful when freopen fails
+ and barf, instead of going on and writing to unopened filehandle.
+
+* "git http-push" did not like some RFC 4918 compliant DAV server
+ responses.
+
+* "git merge -s recursive" mistakenly overwritten an untracked file in the
+ work tree upon delete/modify conflict.
+
+* "git merge -s recursive" didn't leave the index unmerged for entries with
+ rename/delete conflicts.
+
+* "git merge -s recursive" clobbered untracked files in the work tree.
+
+* "git mv -k" with more than one erroneous paths misbehaved.
+
+* "git read-tree -m -u" hence branch switching incorrectly lost a
+ subdirectory in rare cases.
+
+* "git rebase -i" issued an unnecessary error message upon a user error of
+ marking the first commit to be "squash"ed.
+
+* "git shortlog" did not format a commit message with multi-line
+ subject correctly.
+
+Many documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..be37cbb
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,39 @@
+GIT v1.6.1.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.1.1
+--------------------
+
+* The logic for rename detection in internal diff used by commands like
+ "git diff" and "git blame" has been optimized to avoid loading the same
+ blob repeatedly.
+
+* We did not allow writing out a blob that is larger than 2GB for no good
+ reason.
+
+* "git format-patch -o $dir", when $dir is a relative directory, used it
+ as relative to the root of the work tree, not relative to the current
+ directory.
+
+* v1.6.1 introduced an optimization for "git push" into a repository (A)
+ that borrows its objects from another repository (B) to avoid sending
+ objects that are available in repository B, when they are not yet used
+ by repository A. However the code on the "git push" sender side was
+ buggy and did not work when repository B had new objects that are not
+ known by the sender. This caused pushing into a "forked" repository
+ served by v1.6.1 software using "git push" from v1.6.1 sometimes did not
+ work. The bug was purely on the "git push" sender side, and has been
+ corrected.
+
+* "git status -v" did not paint its diff output in colour even when
+ color.ui configuration was set.
+
+* "git ls-tree" learned --full-tree option to help Porcelain scripts that
+ want to always see the full path regardless of the current working
+ directory.
+
+* "git grep" incorrectly searched in work tree paths even when they are
+ marked as assume-unchanged. It now searches in the index entries.
+
+* "git gc" with no grace period needlessly ejected packed but unreachable
+ objects in their loose form, only to delete them right away.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6f0bde1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,32 @@
+GIT v1.6.1.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.1.2
+--------------------
+
+* "git diff --binary | git apply" pipeline did not work well when
+ a binary blob is changed to a symbolic link.
+
+* Some combinations of -b/-w/--ignore-space-at-eol to "git diff" did
+ not work as expected.
+
+* "git grep" did not pass the -I (ignore binary) option when
+ calling out an external grep program.
+
+* "git log" and friends include HEAD to the set of starting points
+ when --all is given. This makes a difference when you are not
+ on any branch.
+
+* "git mv" to move an untracked file to overwrite a tracked
+ contents misbehaved.
+
+* "git merge -s octopus" with many potential merge bases did not
+ work correctly.
+
+* RPM binary package installed the html manpages in a wrong place.
+
+Also includes minor documentation fixes and updates.
+
+
+--
+git shortlog --no-merges v1.6.1.2-33-gc789350..
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a9f1a6b
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+GIT v1.6.1.4 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.1.3
+--------------------
+
+* "git fast-export" produced wrong output with some parents missing from
+ commits, when the history is clock-skewed.
+
+* "git fast-import" sometimes failed to read back objects it just wrote
+ out and aborted, because it failed to flush stale cached data.
+
+* "git repack" did not error out when necessary object was missing in the
+ repository.
+
+Also includes minor documentation fixes and updates.
+
+--
+git shortlog --no-merges v1.6.1.3..
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..adb7cca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,286 @@
+GIT v1.6.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Updates since v1.6.0
+--------------------
+
+When some commands (e.g. "git log", "git diff") spawn pager internally, we
+used to make the pager the parent process of the git command that produces
+output. This meant that the exit status of the whole thing comes from the
+pager, not the underlying git command. We swapped the order of the
+processes around and you will see the exit code from the command from now
+on.
+
+(subsystems)
+
+* gitk can call out to git-gui to view "git blame" output; git-gui in turn
+ can run gitk from its blame view.
+
+* Various git-gui updates including updated translations.
+
+* Various gitweb updates from repo.or.cz installation.
+
+* Updates to emacs bindings.
+
+(portability)
+
+* A few test scripts used nonportable "grep" that did not work well on
+ some platforms, e.g. Solaris.
+
+* Sample pre-auto-gc script has OS X support.
+
+* Makefile has support for (ancient) FreeBSD 4.9.
+
+(performance)
+
+* Many operations that are lstat(3) heavy can be told to pre-execute
+ necessary lstat(3) in parallel before their main operations, which
+ potentially gives much improved performance for cold-cache cases or in
+ environments with weak metadata caching (e.g. NFS).
+
+* The underlying diff machinery to produce textual output has been
+ optimized, which would result in faster "git blame" processing.
+
+* Most of the test scripts (but not the ones that try to run servers)
+ can be run in parallel.
+
+* Bash completion of refnames in a repository with massive number of
+ refs has been optimized.
+
+* Cygwin port uses native stat/lstat implementations when applicable,
+ which leads to improved performance.
+
+* "git push" pays attention to alternate repositories to avoid sending
+ unnecessary objects.
+
+* "git svn" can rebuild an out-of-date rev_map file.
+
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+
+* When you mistype a command name, git helpfully suggests what it guesses
+ you might have meant to say. help.autocorrect configuration can be set
+ to a non-zero value to accept the suggestion when git can uniquely
+ guess.
+
+* The packfile machinery hopefully is more robust when dealing with
+ corrupt packs if redundant objects involved in the corruption are
+ available elsewhere.
+
+* "git add -N path..." adds the named paths as an empty blob, so that
+ subsequent "git diff" will show a diff as if they are creation events.
+
+* "git add" gained a built-in synonym for people who want to say "stage
+ changes" instead of "add contents to the staging area" which amounts
+ to the same thing.
+
+* "git apply" learned --include=paths option, similar to the existing
+ --exclude=paths option.
+
+* "git bisect" is careful about a user mistake and suggests testing of
+ merge base first when good is not a strict ancestor of bad.
+
+* "git bisect skip" can take a range of commits.
+
+* "git blame" re-encodes the commit metainfo to UTF-8 from i18n.commitEncoding
+ by default.
+
+* "git check-attr --stdin" can check attributes for multiple paths.
+
+* "git checkout --track origin/hack" used to be a syntax error. It now
+ DWIMs to create a corresponding local branch "hack", i.e. acts as if you
+ said "git checkout --track -b hack origin/hack".
+
+* "git checkout --ours/--theirs" can be used to check out one side of a
+ conflicting merge during conflict resolution.
+
+* "git checkout -m" can be used to recreate the initial conflicted state
+ during conflict resolution.
+
+* "git cherry-pick" can also utilize rerere for conflict resolution.
+
+* "git clone" learned to be verbose with -v
+
+* "git commit --author=$name" can look up author name from existing
+ commits.
+
+* output from "git commit" has been reworded in a more concise and yet
+ more informative way.
+
+* "git count-objects" reports the on-disk footprint for packfiles and
+ their corresponding idx files.
+
+* "git daemon" learned --max-connections=<count> option.
+
+* "git daemon" exports REMOTE_ADDR to record client address, so that
+ spawned programs can act differently on it.
+
+* "git describe --tags" favours closer lightweight tags than farther
+ annotated tags now.
+
+* "git diff" learned to mimic --suppress-blank-empty from GNU diff via a
+ configuration option.
+
+* "git diff" learned to put more sensible hunk headers for Python,
+ HTML and ObjC contents.
+
+* "git diff" learned to vary the a/ vs b/ prefix depending on what are
+ being compared, controlled by diff.mnemonicprefix configuration.
+
+* "git diff" learned --dirstat-by-file to count changed files, not number
+ of lines, when summarizing the global picture.
+
+* "git diff" learned "textconv" filters --- a binary or hard-to-read
+ contents can be munged into human readable form and the difference
+ between the results of the conversion can be viewed (obviously this
+ cannot produce a patch that can be applied, so this is disabled in
+ format-patch among other things).
+
+* "--cached" option to "git diff has an easier to remember synonym "--staged",
+ to ask "what is the difference between the given commit and the
+ contents staged in the index?"
+
+* "git for-each-ref" learned "refname:short" token that gives an
+ unambiguously abbreviated refname.
+
+* Auto-numbering of the subject lines is the default for "git
+ format-patch" now.
+
+* "git grep" learned to accept -z similar to GNU grep.
+
+* "git help" learned to use GIT_MAN_VIEWER environment variable before
+ using "man" program.
+
+* "git imap-send" can optionally talk SSL.
+
+* "git index-pack" is more careful against disk corruption while
+ completing a thin pack.
+
+* "git log --check" and "git log --exit-code" passes their underlying diff
+ status with their exit status code.
+
+* "git log" learned --simplify-merges, a milder variant of --full-history;
+ "gitk --simplify-merges" is easier to view than with --full-history.
+
+* "git log" learned "--source" to show what ref each commit was reached
+ from.
+
+* "git log" also learned "--simplify-by-decoration" to show the
+ birds-eye-view of the topology of the history.
+
+* "git log --pretty=format:" learned "%d" format element that inserts
+ names of tags that point at the commit.
+
+* "git merge --squash" and "git merge --no-ff" into an unborn branch are
+ noticed as user errors.
+
+* "git merge -s $strategy" can use a custom built strategy if you have a
+ command "git-merge-$strategy" on your $PATH.
+
+* "git pull" (and "git fetch") can be told to operate "-v"erbosely or
+ "-q"uietly.
+
+* "git push" can be told to reject deletion of refs with receive.denyDeletes
+ configuration.
+
+* "git rebase" honours pre-rebase hook; use --no-verify to bypass it.
+
+* "git rebase -p" uses interactive rebase machinery now to preserve the merges.
+
+* "git reflog expire branch" can be used in place of "git reflog expire
+ refs/heads/branch".
+
+* "git remote show $remote" lists remote branches one-per-line now.
+
+* "git send-email" can be given revision range instead of files and
+ maildirs on the command line, and automatically runs format-patch to
+ generate patches for the given revision range.
+
+* "git submodule foreach" subcommand allows you to iterate over checked
+ out submodules.
+
+* "git submodule sync" subcommands allows you to update the origin URL
+ recorded in submodule directories from the toplevel .gitmodules file.
+
+* "git svn branch" can create new branches on the other end.
+
+* "gitweb" can use more saner PATH_INFO based URL.
+
+(internal)
+
+* "git hash-object" learned to lie about the path being hashed, so that
+ correct gitattributes processing can be done while hashing contents
+ stored in a temporary file.
+
+* various callers of git-merge-recursive avoid forking it as an external
+ process.
+
+* Git class defined in "Git.pm" can be subclasses a bit more easily.
+
+* We used to link GNU regex library as a compatibility layer for some
+ platforms, but it turns out it is not necessary on most of them.
+
+* Some path handling routines used fixed number of buffers used alternately
+ but depending on the call depth, this arrangement led to hard to track
+ bugs. This issue is being addressed.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.6.0
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.6.0.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
+
+* Porcelains implemented as shell scripts were utterly confused when you
+ entered to a subdirectory of a work tree from sideways, following a
+ symbolic link (this may need to be backported to older releases later).
+
+* Tracking symbolic links would work better on filesystems whose lstat()
+ returns incorrect st_size value for them.
+
+* "git add" and "git update-index" incorrectly allowed adding S/F when S
+ is a tracked symlink that points at a directory D that has a path F in
+ it (we still need to fix a similar nonsense when S is a submodule and F
+ is a path in it).
+
+* "git am" after stopping at a broken patch lost --whitespace, -C, -p and
+ --3way options given from the command line initially.
+
+* "git diff --stdin" used to take two trees on a line and compared them,
+ but we dropped support for such a use case long time ago. This has
+ been resurrected.
+
+* "git filter-branch" failed to rewrite a tag name with slashes in it.
+
+* "git http-push" did not understand URI scheme other than opaquelocktoken
+ when acquiring a lock from the server (this may need to be backported to
+ older releases later).
+
+* After "git rebase -p" stopped with conflicts while replaying a merge,
+ "git rebase --continue" did not work (may need to be backported to older
+ releases).
+
+* "git revert" records relative to which parent a revert was made when
+ reverting a merge. Together with new documentation that explains issues
+ around reverting a merge and merging from the updated branch later, this
+ hopefully will reduce user confusion (this may need to be backported to
+ older releases later).
+
+* "git rm --cached" used to allow an empty blob that was added earlier to
+ be removed without --force, even when the file in the work tree has
+ since been modified.
+
+* "git push --tags --all $there" failed with generic usage message without
+ telling saying these two options are incompatible.
+
+* "git log --author/--committer" match used to potentially match the
+ timestamp part, exposing internal implementation detail. Also these did
+ not work with --fixed-strings match at all.
+
+* "gitweb" did not mark non-ASCII characters imported from external HTML fragments
+ correctly.
+
+--
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+O=v1.6.1-rc3-74-gf66bc5f
+echo O=$(git describe master)
+git shortlog --no-merges $O..master ^maint
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dfa3641
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+GIT v1.6.2.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.2
+------------------
+
+* .gitignore learned to handle backslash as a quoting mechanism for
+ comment introduction character "#".
+
+* timestamp output in --date=relative mode used to display timestamps that
+ are long time ago in the default mode; it now uses "N years M months
+ ago", and "N years ago".
+
+* git-add -i/-p now works with non-ASCII pathnames.
+
+* "git hash-object -w" did not read from the configuration file from the
+ correct .git directory.
+
+* git-send-email learned to correctly handle multiple Cc: addresses.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..28bfa53
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,35 @@
+GIT v1.6.2.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.2.1
+--------------------
+
+* A longstanding confusing description of what --pickaxe option of
+ git-diff does has been clarified in the documentation.
+
+* "git diff --pickaxe-regexp" did not count overlapping matches
+ correctly.
+
+* "git-fetch" in a repository that was not cloned from anywhere said
+ it cannot find 'origin', which was hard to understand for new people.
+
+* "git-format-patch --numbered-files --stdout" did not have to die of
+ incompatible options; it now simply ignores --numbered-files as no files
+ are produced anyway.
+
+* "git-ls-files --deleted" did not work well with GIT_DIR&GIT_WORK_TREE.
+
+* "git-read-tree A B C..." without -m option has been broken for a long
+ time.
+
+* git-send-email ignored --in-reply-to when --no-thread was given.
+
+* 'git-submodule add' did not tolerate extra slashes and ./ in the path it
+ accepted from the command line; it now is more lenient.
+
+
+---
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+O=v1.6.2.1-23-g67c176f
+echo O=$(git describe maint)
+git shortlog --no-merges $O..maint
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ad060f4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,164 @@
+GIT v1.6.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+With the next major release, "git push" into a branch that is
+currently checked out will be refused by default. You can choose
+what should happen upon such a push by setting the configuration
+variable receive.denyCurrentBranch in the receiving repository.
+
+To ease the transition plan, the receiving repository of such a
+push running this release will issue a big warning when the
+configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
+
+ http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
+ http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+
+for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
+transition plan.
+
+For a similar reason, "git push $there :$killed" to delete the branch
+$killed in a remote repository $there, if $killed branch is the current
+branch pointed at by its HEAD, gets a large warning. You can choose what
+should happen upon such a push by setting the configuration variable
+receive.denyDeleteCurrent in the receiving repository.
+
+
+Updates since v1.6.1
+--------------------
+
+(subsystems)
+
+* git-svn updates.
+
+* gitweb updates, including a new patch view and RSS/Atom feed
+ improvements.
+
+* (contrib/emacs) git.el now has commands for checking out a branch,
+ creating a branch, cherry-picking and reverting commits; vc-git.el
+ is not shipped with git anymore (it is part of official Emacs).
+
+(performance)
+
+* pack-objects autodetects the number of CPUs available and uses threaded
+ version.
+
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+
+* automatic typo correction works on aliases as well
+
+* @{-1} is a way to refer to the last branch you were on. This is
+ accepted not only where an object name is expected, but anywhere
+ a branch name is expected and acts as if you typed the branch name.
+ E.g. "git branch --track mybranch @{-1}", "git merge @{-1}", and
+ "git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{-1}" would work as expected.
+
+* When refs/remotes/origin/HEAD points at a remote tracking branch that
+ has been pruned away, many git operations issued warning when they
+ internally enumerated the refs. We now warn only when you say "origin"
+ to refer to that pruned branch.
+
+* The location of .mailmap file can be configured, and its file format was
+ enhanced to allow mapping an incorrect e-mail field as well.
+
+* "git add -p" learned 'g'oto action to jump directly to a hunk.
+
+* "git add -p" learned to find a hunk with given text with '/'.
+
+* "git add -p" optionally can be told to work with just the command letter
+ without Enter.
+
+* when "git am" stops upon a patch that does not apply, it shows the
+ title of the offending patch.
+
+* "git am --directory=<dir>" and "git am --reject" passes these options
+ to underlying "git apply".
+
+* "git am" learned --ignore-date option.
+
+* "git blame" aligns author names better when they are spelled in
+ non US-ASCII encoding.
+
+* "git clone" now makes its best effort when cloning from an empty
+ repository to set up configuration variables to refer to the remote
+ repository.
+
+* "git checkout -" is a shorthand for "git checkout @{-1}".
+
+* "git cherry" defaults to whatever the current branch is tracking (if
+ exists) when the <upstream> argument is not given.
+
+* "git cvsserver" can be told not to add extra "via git-CVS emulator" to
+ the commit log message it serves via gitcvs.commitmsgannotation
+ configuration.
+
+* "git cvsserver" learned to handle 'noop' command some CVS clients seem
+ to expect to work.
+
+* "git diff" learned a new option --inter-hunk-context to coalesce close
+ hunks together and show context between them.
+
+* The definition of what constitutes a word for "git diff --color-words"
+ can be customized via gitattributes, command line or a configuration.
+
+* "git diff" learned --patience to run "patience diff" algorithm.
+
+* "git filter-branch" learned --prune-empty option that discards commits
+ that do not change the contents.
+
+* "git fsck" now checks loose objects in alternate object stores, instead
+ of misreporting them as missing.
+
+* "git gc --prune" was resurrected to allow "git gc --no-prune" and
+ giving non-default expiration period e.g. "git gc --prune=now".
+
+* "git grep -w" and "git grep" for fixed strings have been optimized.
+
+* "git mergetool" learned -y(--no-prompt) option to disable prompting.
+
+* "git rebase -i" can transplant a history down to root to elsewhere
+ with --root option.
+
+* "git reset --merge" is a new mode that works similar to the way
+ "git checkout" switches branches, taking the local changes while
+ switching to another commit.
+
+* "git submodule update" learned --no-fetch option.
+
+* "git tag" learned --contains that works the same way as the same option
+ from "git branch".
+
+
+Fixes since v1.6.1
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.6.1.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
+
+Here are fixes that this release has, but have not been backported to
+v1.6.1.X series.
+
+* "git-add sub/file" when sub is a submodule incorrectly added the path to
+ the superproject.
+
+* "git bundle" did not exclude annotated tags even when a range given
+ from the command line wanted to.
+
+* "git filter-branch" unnecessarily refused to work when you had
+ checked out a different commit from what is recorded in the superproject
+ index in a submodule.
+
+* "git filter-branch" incorrectly tried to update a nonexistent work tree
+ at the end when it is run in a bare repository.
+
+* "git gc" did not work if your repository was created with an ancient git
+ and never had any pack files in it before.
+
+* "git mergetool" used to ignore autocrlf and other attributes
+ based content rewriting.
+
+* branch switching and merges had a silly bug that did not validate
+ the correct directory when making sure an existing subdirectory is
+ clean.
+
+* "git -p cmd" when cmd is not a built-in one left the display in funny state
+ when killed in the middle.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0d8260a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,121 @@
+GIT v1.6.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+With the next major release, "git push" into a branch that is
+currently checked out will be refused by default. You can choose
+what should happen upon such a push by setting the configuration
+variable receive.denyCurrentBranch in the receiving repository.
+
+To ease the transition plan, the receiving repository of such a
+push running this release will issue a big warning when the
+configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
+
+ http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
+ http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+
+for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
+transition plan.
+
+For a similar reason, "git push $there :$killed" to delete the branch
+$killed in a remote repository $there, if $killed branch is the current
+branch pointed at by its HEAD, gets a large warning. You can choose what
+should happen upon such a push by setting the configuration variable
+receive.denyDeleteCurrent in the receiving repository.
+
+In a future release, the default of "git push" without further
+arguments might be changed. Currently, it will push all matching
+refspecs to the current remote. A configuration variable push.default
+has been introduced to select the default behaviour. To ease the
+transition, a big warning is issued if this is not configured and a
+git push without arguments is attempted.
+
+
+Updates since v1.6.2
+--------------------
+
+(subsystems)
+
+(performance)
+
+* many uses of lstat(2) in the codepath for "git checkout" have been
+ optimized out.
+
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+
+* rsync:/path/to/repo can be used to run git over rsync for local
+ repositories. It may not be useful in practice; meant primarily for
+ testing.
+
+* (msysgit) progress output that is sent over the sideband protocol can
+ be handled appropriately in Windows console.
+
+* "--pretty=<style>" option to the log family of commands can now be
+ spelled as "--format=<style>". In addition, --format=%formatstring
+ is a short-hand for --pretty=tformat:%formatstring.
+
+* "--oneline" is a synonym for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev=commit".
+
+* If you realize that you botched the patch when you are editing hunks
+ with the 'edit' action in git-add -i/-p, you can abort the editor to
+ tell git not to apply it.
+
+* git-archive learned --output=<file> option.
+
+* git-bisect shows not just the number of remaining commits whose goodness
+ is unknown, but also shows the estimated number of remaining rounds.
+
+* You can give --date=<format> option to git-blame.
+
+* git-branch -r shows HEAD symref that points at a remote branch in
+ interest of each tracked remote repository.
+
+* git-config learned -e option to open an editor to edit the config file
+ directly.
+
+* git-clone runs post-checkout hook when run without --no-checkout.
+
+* git-format-patch can be told to use attachment with a new configuration,
+ format.attach.
+
+* git-format-patch can be told to produce deep or shallow message threads.
+
+* git-grep learned to highlight the found substrings in color.
+
+* git-imap-send learned to work around Thunderbird's inability to easily
+ disable format=flowed with a new configuration, imap.preformattedHTML.
+
+* git-rebase can be told to rebase the series even if your branch is a
+ descendant of the commit you are rebasing onto with --force-rebase
+ option.
+
+* git-rebase can be told to report diffstat with the --stat option.
+
+* Output from git-remote command has been vastly improved.
+
+* git-send-email learned --confirm option to review the Cc: list before
+ sending the messages out.
+
+(developers)
+
+* Test scripts can be run under valgrind.
+
+* Makefile learned 'coverage' option to run the test suites with
+ coverage tracking enabled.
+
+Fixes since v1.6.2
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.6.2.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
+
+Here are fixes that this release has, but have not been backported to
+v1.6.2.X series.
+
+* git-gc spent excessive amount of time to decide if an object appears
+ in a locally existing pack (if needed, backport by merging 69e020a).
+
+---
+exec >/var/tmp/1
+O=v1.6.2.1-213-g7d4e3a7
+echo O=$(git describe master)
+git shortlog --no-merges $O..master ^maint
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 841bead..8d818a2 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ run git diff --check on your changes before you commit.
(1a) Try to be nice to older C compilers
-We try to support wide range of C compilers to compile
+We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile
git with. That means that you should not use C99 initializers, even
if a lot of compilers grok it.
@@ -222,6 +222,9 @@ D-C-O. Indeed you are encouraged to do so. Do not forget to
place an in-body "From: " line at the beginning to properly attribute
the change to its true author (see (2) above).
+Also notice that a real name is used in the Signed-off-by: line. Please
+don't hide your real name.
+
Some people also put extra tags at the end.
"Acked-by:" says that the patch was reviewed by the person who
@@ -373,9 +376,36 @@ Thunderbird
(A Large Angry SCM)
+By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag them as
+being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the resulting email unusable
+by git.
+
Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
Thunderbird.
+There are two different approaches. One approach is to configure
+Thunderbird to not mangle patches. The second approach is to use
+an external editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.
+
+Approach #1 (configuration):
+
+This recipe is current as of Thunderbird 2.0.0.19. Three steps:
+ 1. Configure your mail server composition as plain text
+ Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing,
+ uncheck 'Compose Messages in HTML'.
+ 2. Configure your general composition window to not wrap
+ Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain text messages at 0
+ 3. Disable the use of format=flowed
+ Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for:
+ mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed
+ toggle it to make sure it is set to 'false'.
+
+After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
+otherwise would (cut + paste, git-format-patch | git-imap-send, etc),
+and the patches should not be mangled.
+
+Approach #2 (external editor):
+
This recipe appears to work with the current [*1*] Thunderbird from Suse.
The following Thunderbird extensions are needed:
@@ -456,3 +486,40 @@ This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.
5) Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
+
+
+Gmail
+-----
+
+GMail does not appear to have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
+interface, so this will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
+use any IMAP email client to connect to the google imap server, and forward
+the emails through that. Just make sure to disable line wrapping in that
+email client. Alternatively, use "git send-email" instead.
+
+Submitting properly formatted patches via Gmail is simple now that
+IMAP support is available. First, edit your ~/.gitconfig to specify your
+account settings:
+
+[imap]
+ folder = "[Gmail]/Drafts"
+ host = imaps://imap.gmail.com
+ user = user@gmail.com
+ pass = p4ssw0rd
+ port = 993
+ sslverify = false
+
+You might need to instead use: folder = "[Google Mail]/Drafts" if you get an error
+that the "Folder doesn't exist".
+
+Next, ensure that your Gmail settings are correct. In "Settings" the
+"Use Unicode (UTF-8) encoding for outgoing messages" should be checked.
+
+Once your commits are ready to send to the mailing list, run the following
+command to send the patch emails to your Gmail Drafts folder.
+
+ $ git format-patch -M --stdout origin/master | git imap-send
+
+Go to your Gmail account, open the Drafts folder, find the patch email, fill
+in the To: and CC: fields and send away!
+
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 40d43b7..1e735df 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -7,6 +7,9 @@
# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
# the command.
+[macros]
+(?su)[\\]?(?P<name>linkgit):(?P<target>\S*?)\[(?P<attrlist>.*?)\]=
+
[attributes]
asterisk=&#42;
plus=&#43;
@@ -40,6 +43,26 @@ endif::doctype-manpage[]
</literallayout>
{title#}</example>
endif::docbook-xsl-172[]
+
+ifdef::docbook-xsl-172[]
+ifdef::doctype-manpage[]
+# The following two small workarounds insert a simple paragraph after screen
+[listingblock]
+<example><title>{title}</title>
+<screen>
+|
+</screen><simpara></simpara>
+{title#}</example>
+
+[verseblock]
+<formalpara{id? id="{id}"}><title>{title}</title><para>
+{title%}<literallayout{id? id="{id}"}>
+{title#}<literallayout>
+|
+</literallayout><simpara></simpara>
+{title#}</para></formalpara>
+endif::doctype-manpage[]
+endif::docbook-xsl-172[]
endif::backend-docbook[]
ifdef::doctype-manpage[]
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index 5428111..1625ffc 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,14 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
Show raw timestamp (Default: off).
-S <revs-file>::
- Use revs from revs-file instead of calling linkgit:git-rev-list[1].
+ Use revisions from revs-file instead of calling linkgit:git-rev-list[1].
+
+--reverse::
+ Walk history forward instead of backward. Instead of showing
+ the revision in which a line appeared, this shows the last
+ revision in which a line has existed. This requires a range of
+ revision like START..END where the path to blame exists in
+ START.
-p::
--porcelain::
@@ -49,6 +56,13 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
Show the result incrementally in a format designed for
machine consumption.
+--encoding=<encoding>::
+ Specifies the encoding used to output author names
+ and commit summaries. Setting it to `none` makes blame
+ output unconverted data. For more information see the
+ discussion about encoding in the linkgit:git-log[1]
+ manual page.
+
--contents <file>::
When <rev> is not specified, the command annotates the
changes starting backwards from the working tree copy.
@@ -56,11 +70,19 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
tree copy has the contents of the named file (specify
`-` to make the command read from the standard input).
+--date <format>::
+ The value is one of the following alternatives:
+ {relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short}. If --date is not
+ provided, the value of the blame.date config variable is
+ used. If the blame.date config variable is also not set, the
+ iso format is used. For more information, See the discussion
+ of the --date option at linkgit:git-log[1].
+
-M|<num>|::
Detect moving lines in the file as well. When a commit
moves a block of lines in a file (e.g. the original file
has A and then B, and the commit changes it to B and
- then A), traditional 'blame' algorithm typically blames
+ then A), the traditional 'blame' algorithm typically blames
the lines that were moved up (i.e. B) to the parent and
assigns blame to the lines that were moved down (i.e. A)
to the child commit. With this option, both groups of lines
@@ -76,8 +98,8 @@ commit.
files that were modified in the same commit. This is
useful when you reorganize your program and move code
around across files. When this option is given twice,
- the command looks for copies from all other files in the
- parent for the commit that creates the file in addition.
+ the command additionally looks for copies from all other
+ files in the parent for the commit that creates the file.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving
diff --git a/Documentation/cat-texi.perl b/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
index dbc133c..828ec62 100755
--- a/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
+++ b/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
@@ -18,8 +18,12 @@ close TMP;
printf '\input texinfo
@setfilename gitman.info
-@documentencoding us-ascii
-@node Top,,%s
+@documentencoding UTF-8
+@dircategory Development
+@direntry
+* Git Man Pages: (gitman). Manual pages for Git revision control system
+@end direntry
+@node Top,,, (dir)
@top Git Manual Pages
@documentlanguage en
@menu
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 676c39b..7506755 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ blank lines are ignored.
The file consists of sections and variables. A section begins with
the name of the section in square brackets and continues until the next
section begins. Section names are not case sensitive. Only alphanumeric
-characters, '`-`' and '`.`' are allowed in section names. Each variable
+characters, `-` and `.` are allowed in section names. Each variable
must belong to some section, which means that there must be section
header before first setting of a variable.
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ in the section header, like in example below:
--------
Subsection names can contain any characters except newline (doublequote
-'`"`' and backslash have to be escaped as '`\"`' and '`\\`',
+`"` and backslash have to be escaped as `\"` and `\\`,
respectively) and are case sensitive. Section header cannot span multiple
lines. Variables may belong directly to a section or to a given subsection.
You can have `[section]` if you have `[section "subsection"]`, but you
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@ All the other lines are recognized as setting variables, in the form
'name = value'. If there is no equal sign on the line, the entire line
is taken as 'name' and the variable is recognized as boolean "true".
The variable names are case-insensitive and only alphanumeric
-characters and '`-`' are allowed. There can be more than one value
+characters and `-` are allowed. There can be more than one value
for a given variable; we say then that variable is multivalued.
Leading and trailing whitespace in a variable value is discarded.
@@ -69,15 +69,15 @@ String values may be entirely or partially enclosed in double quotes.
You need to enclose variable value in double quotes if you want to
preserve leading or trailing whitespace, or if variable value contains
beginning of comment characters (if it contains '#' or ';').
-Double quote '`"`' and backslash '`\`' characters in variable value must
-be escaped: use '`\"`' for '`"`' and '`\\`' for '`\`'.
+Double quote `"` and backslash `\` characters in variable value must
+be escaped: use `\"` for `"` and `\\` for `\`.
-The following escape sequences (beside '`\"`' and '`\\`') are recognized:
-'`\n`' for newline character (NL), '`\t`' for horizontal tabulation (HT, TAB)
-and '`\b`' for backspace (BS). No other char escape sequence, nor octal
+The following escape sequences (beside `\"` and `\\`) are recognized:
+`\n` for newline character (NL), `\t` for horizontal tabulation (HT, TAB)
+and `\b` for backspace (BS). No other char escape sequence, nor octal
char sequences are valid.
-Variable value ending in a '`\`' is continued on the next line in the
+Variable value ending in a `\` is continued on the next line in the
customary UNIX fashion.
Some variables may require special value format.
@@ -117,6 +117,17 @@ core.fileMode::
the working copy are ignored; useful on broken filesystems like FAT.
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
+ This option is only used by Cygwin implementation of Git. If false,
+ the Cygwin stat() and lstat() functions are used. This may be useful
+ if your repository consists of a few separate directories joined in
+ one hierarchy using Cygwin mount. If true, Git uses native Win32 API
+ whenever it is possible and falls back to Cygwin functions only to
+ handle symbol links. The native mode is more than twice faster than
+ normal Cygwin l/stat() functions. True by default, unless core.filemode
+ is true, in which case ignoreCygwinFSTricks is ignored as Cygwin's
+ POSIX emulation is required to support core.filemode.
+
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
working copy are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -210,6 +221,11 @@ core.gitProxy::
Can be overridden by the 'GIT_PROXY_COMMAND' environment variable
(which always applies universally, without the special "for"
handling).
++
+The special string `none` can be used as the proxy command to
+specify that no proxy be used for a given domain pattern.
+This is useful for excluding servers inside a firewall from
+proxy use, while defaulting to a common proxy for external domains.
core.ignoreStat::
If true, commands which modify both the working tree and the index
@@ -358,8 +374,22 @@ core.editor::
`EDITOR` environment variables and then finally `vi`.
core.pager::
- The command that git will use to paginate output. Can be overridden
- with the `GIT_PAGER` environment variable.
+ The command that git will use to paginate output. Can
+ be overridden with the `GIT_PAGER` environment
+ variable. Note that git sets the `LESS` environment
+ variable to `FRSX` if it is unset when it runs the
+ pager. One can change these settings by setting the
+ `LESS` variable to some other value. Alternately,
+ these settings can be overridden on a project or
+ global basis by setting the `core.pager` option.
+ Setting `core.pager` has no affect on the `LESS`
+ environment variable behaviour above, so if you want
+ to override git's default settings this way, you need
+ to be explicit. For example, to disable the S option
+ in a backward compatible manner, set `core.pager`
+ to `less -+$LESS -FRX`. This will be passed to the
+ shell by git, which will translate the final command to
+ `LESS=FRSX less -+FRSX -FRX`.
core.whitespace::
A comma separated list of common whitespace problems to
@@ -388,6 +418,15 @@ data writes properly, but can be useful for filesystems that do not use
journalling (traditional UNIX filesystems) or that only journal metadata
and not file contents (OS X's HFS+, or Linux ext3 with "data=writeback").
+core.preloadindex::
+ Enable parallel index preload for operations like 'git diff'
++
+This can speed up operations like 'git diff' and 'git status' especially
+on filesystems like NFS that have weak caching semantics and thus
+relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', git will do the
+index comparison to the filesystem data in parallel, allowing
+overlapping IO's.
+
alias.*::
Command aliases for the linkgit:git[1] command wrapper - e.g.
after defining "alias.last = cat-file commit HEAD", the invocation
@@ -514,6 +553,25 @@ color.diff.<slot>::
whitespace errors). The values of these variables may be specified as
in color.branch.<slot>.
+color.grep::
+ When set to `always`, always highlight matches. When `false` (or
+ `never`), never. When set to `true` or `auto`, use color only
+ when the output is written to the terminal. Defaults to `false`.
+
+color.grep.external::
+ The string value of this variable is passed to an external 'grep'
+ command as a command line option if match highlighting is turned
+ on. If set to an empty string, no option is passed at all,
+ turning off coloring for external 'grep' calls; this is the default.
+ For GNU grep, set it to `--color=always` to highlight matches even
+ when a pager is used.
+
+color.grep.match::
+ Use customized color for matches. The value of this variable
+ may be specified as in color.branch.<slot>. It is passed using
+ the environment variables 'GREP_COLOR' and 'GREP_COLORS' when
+ calling an external 'grep'.
+
color.interactive::
When set to `always`, always use colors for interactive prompts
and displays (such as those used by "git-add --interactive").
@@ -522,8 +580,8 @@ color.interactive::
color.interactive.<slot>::
Use customized color for 'git-add --interactive'
- output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, or `help`, for
- three distinct types of normal output from interactive
+ output. `<slot>` may be `prompt`, `header`, `help` or `error`, for
+ four distinct types of normal output from interactive
programs. The values of these variables may be specified as
in color.branch.<slot>.
@@ -547,9 +605,6 @@ color.status.<slot>::
to red). The values of these variables may be specified as in
color.branch.<slot>.
-commit.template::
- Specify a file to use as the template for new commit messages.
-
color.ui::
When set to `always`, always use colors in all git commands which
are capable of colored output. When false (or `never`), never. When
@@ -557,6 +612,9 @@ color.ui::
terminal. When more specific variables of color.* are set, they always
take precedence over this setting. Defaults to false.
+commit.template::
+ Specify a file to use as the template for new commit messages.
+
diff.autorefreshindex::
When using 'git-diff' to compare with work tree
files, do not consider stat-only change as changed.
@@ -576,6 +634,22 @@ diff.external::
you want to use an external diff program only on a subset of
your files, you might want to use linkgit:gitattributes[5] instead.
+diff.mnemonicprefix::
+ If set, 'git-diff' uses a prefix pair that is different from the
+ standard "a/" and "b/" depending on what is being compared. When
+ this configuration is in effect, reverse diff output also swaps
+ the order of the prefixes:
+'git-diff';;
+ compares the (i)ndex and the (w)ork tree;
+'git-diff HEAD';;
+ compares a (c)ommit and the (w)ork tree;
+'git diff --cached';;
+ compares a (c)ommit and the (i)ndex;
+'git-diff HEAD:file1 file2';;
+ compares an (o)bject and a (w)ork tree entity;
+'git diff --no-index a b';;
+ compares two non-git things (1) and (2).
+
diff.renameLimit::
The number of files to consider when performing the copy/rename
detection; equivalent to the 'git-diff' option '-l'.
@@ -585,6 +659,16 @@ diff.renames::
will enable basic rename detection. If set to "copies" or
"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
+diff.suppressBlankEmpty::
+ A boolean to inhibit the standard behavior of printing a space
+ before each empty output line. Defaults to false.
+
+diff.wordRegex::
+ A POSIX Extended Regular Expression used to determine what is a "word"
+ when performing word-by-word difference calculations. Character
+ sequences that match the regular expression are "words", all other
+ characters are *ignorable* whitespace.
+
fetch.unpackLimit::
If the number of objects fetched over the git native
transfer is below this
@@ -597,10 +681,11 @@ fetch.unpackLimit::
`transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
format.numbered::
- A boolean which can enable sequence numbers in patch subjects.
- Setting this option to "auto" will enable it only if there is
- more than one patch. See --numbered option in
- linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
+ A boolean which can enable or disable sequence numbers in patch
+ subjects. It defaults to "auto" which enables it only if there
+ is more than one patch. It can be enabled or disabled for all
+ messages by setting it to "true" or "false". See --numbered
+ option in linkgit:git-format-patch[1].
format.headers::
Additional email headers to include in a patch to be submitted
@@ -616,6 +701,16 @@ format.pretty::
See linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1],
linkgit:git-whatchanged[1].
+format.thread::
+ The default threading style for 'git-format-patch'. Can be
+ either a boolean value, `shallow` or `deep`. 'Shallow'
+ threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the series,
+ where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
+ `\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order.
+ 'Deep' threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
+ A true boolean value is the same as `shallow`, and a false
+ value disables threading.
+
gc.aggressiveWindow::
The window size parameter used in the delta compression
algorithm used by 'git-gc --aggressive'. This defaults
@@ -647,7 +742,9 @@ gc.packrefs::
gc.pruneexpire::
When 'git-gc' is run, it will call 'prune --expire 2.weeks.ago'.
- Override the grace period with this config variable.
+ Override the grace period with this config variable. The value
+ "now" may be used to disable this grace period and always prune
+ unreachable objects immediately.
gc.reflogexpire::
'git-reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
@@ -668,17 +765,9 @@ gc.rerereunresolved::
kept for this many days when 'git-rerere gc' is run.
The default is 15 days. See linkgit:git-rerere[1].
-rerere.autoupdate::
- When set to true, `git-rerere` updates the index with the
- resulting contents after it cleanly resolves conflicts using
- previously recorded resolution. Defaults to false.
-
-rerere.enabled::
- Activate recording of resolved conflicts, so that identical
- conflict hunks can be resolved automatically, should they
- be encountered again. linkgit:git-rerere[1] command is by
- default enabled if you create `rr-cache` directory under
- `$GIT_DIR`, but can be disabled by setting this option to false.
+gitcvs.commitmsgannotation::
+ Append this string to each commit message. Set to empty string
+ to disable this feature. Defaults to "via git-CVS emulator".
gitcvs.enabled::
Whether the CVS server interface is enabled for this repository.
@@ -688,7 +777,7 @@ gitcvs.logfile::
Path to a log file where the CVS server interface well... logs
various stuff. See linkgit:git-cvsserver[1].
-gitcvs.usecrlfattr
+gitcvs.usecrlfattr::
If true, the server will look up the `crlf` attribute for
files to determine the '-k' modes to use. If `crlf` is set,
the '-k' mode will be left blank, so cvs clients will
@@ -750,6 +839,14 @@ gui.diffcontext::
Specifies how many context lines should be used in calls to diff
made by the linkgit:git-gui[1]. The default is "5".
+gui.encoding::
+ Specifies the default encoding to use for displaying of
+ file contents in linkgit:git-gui[1] and linkgit:gitk[1].
+ It can be overridden by setting the 'encoding' attribute
+ for relevant files (see linkgit:gitattributes[5]).
+ If this option is not set, the tools default to the
+ locale encoding.
+
gui.matchtrackingbranch::
Determines if new branches created with linkgit:git-gui[1] should
default to tracking remote branches with matching names or
@@ -772,6 +869,73 @@ gui.spellingdictionary::
the linkgit:git-gui[1]. When set to "none" spell checking is turned
off.
+gui.fastcopyblame::
+ If true, 'git gui blame' uses '-C' instead of '-C -C' for original
+ location detection. It makes blame significantly faster on huge
+ repositories at the expense of less thorough copy detection.
+
+gui.copyblamethreshold::
+ Specifies the threshold to use in 'git gui blame' original location
+ detection, measured in alphanumeric characters. See the
+ linkgit:git-blame[1] manual for more information on copy detection.
+
+gui.blamehistoryctx::
+ Specifies the radius of history context in days to show in
+ linkgit:gitk[1] for the selected commit, when the `Show History
+ Context` menu item is invoked from 'git gui blame'. If this
+ variable is set to zero, the whole history is shown.
+
+guitool.<name>.cmd::
+ Specifies the shell command line to execute when the corresponding item
+ of the linkgit:git-gui[1] `Tools` menu is invoked. This option is
+ mandatory for every tool. The command is executed from the root of
+ the working directory, and in the environment it receives the name of
+ the tool as 'GIT_GUITOOL', the name of the currently selected file as
+ 'FILENAME', and the name of the current branch as 'CUR_BRANCH' (if
+ the head is detached, 'CUR_BRANCH' is empty).
+
+guitool.<name>.needsfile::
+ Run the tool only if a diff is selected in the GUI. It guarantees
+ that 'FILENAME' is not empty.
+
+guitool.<name>.noconsole::
+ Run the command silently, without creating a window to display its
+ output.
+
+guitool.<name>.norescan::
+ Don't rescan the working directory for changes after the tool
+ finishes execution.
+
+guitool.<name>.confirm::
+ Show a confirmation dialog before actually running the tool.
+
+guitool.<name>.argprompt::
+ Request a string argument from the user, and pass it to the tool
+ through the 'ARGS' environment variable. Since requesting an
+ argument implies confirmation, the 'confirm' option has no effect
+ if this is enabled. If the option is set to 'true', 'yes', or '1',
+ the dialog uses a built-in generic prompt; otherwise the exact
+ value of the variable is used.
+
+guitool.<name>.revprompt::
+ Request a single valid revision from the user, and set the
+ 'REVISION' environment variable. In other aspects this option
+ is similar to 'argprompt', and can be used together with it.
+
+guitool.<name>.revunmerged::
+ Show only unmerged branches in the 'revprompt' subdialog.
+ This is useful for tools similar to merge or rebase, but not
+ for things like checkout or reset.
+
+guitool.<name>.title::
+ Specifies the title to use for the prompt dialog. The default
+ is the tool name.
+
+guitool.<name>.prompt::
+ Specifies the general prompt string to display at the top of
+ the dialog, before subsections for 'argprompt' and 'revprompt'.
+ The default value includes the actual command.
+
help.browser::
Specify the browser that will be used to display help in the
'web' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
@@ -781,6 +945,15 @@ help.format::
Values 'man', 'info', 'web' and 'html' are supported. 'man' is
the default. 'web' and 'html' are the same.
+help.autocorrect::
+ Automatically correct and execute mistyped commands after
+ waiting for the given number of deciseconds (0.1 sec). If more
+ than one command can be deduced from the entered text, nothing
+ will be executed. If the value of this option is negative,
+ the corrected command will be executed immediately. If the
+ value is 0 - the command will be just shown but not executed.
+ This is the default.
+
http.proxy::
Override the HTTP proxy, normally configured using the 'http_proxy'
environment variable (see linkgit:curl[1]). This can be overridden
@@ -838,6 +1011,10 @@ i18n.logOutputEncoding::
Character encoding the commit messages are converted to when
running 'git-log' and friends.
+imap::
+ The configuration variables in the 'imap' section are described
+ in linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
+
instaweb.browser::
Specify the program that will be used to browse your working
repository in gitweb. See linkgit:git-instaweb[1].
@@ -857,6 +1034,13 @@ instaweb.port::
The port number to bind the gitweb httpd to. See
linkgit:git-instaweb[1].
+interactive.singlekey::
+ In interactive programs, allow the user to provide one-letter
+ input with a single key (i.e., without hitting enter).
+ Currently this is used only by the `\--patch` mode of
+ linkgit:git-add[1]. Note that this setting is silently
+ ignored if portable keystroke input is not available.
+
log.date::
Set default date-time mode for the log command. Setting log.date
value is similar to using 'git-log'\'s --date option. The value is one of the
@@ -869,12 +1053,18 @@ log.showroot::
Tools like linkgit:git-log[1] or linkgit:git-whatchanged[1], which
normally hide the root commit will now show it. True by default.
+mailmap.file::
+ The location of an augmenting mailmap file. The default
+ mailmap, located in the root of the repository, is loaded
+ first, then the mailmap file pointed to by this variable.
+ The location of the mailmap file may be in a repository
+ subdirectory, or somewhere outside of the repository itself.
+ See linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1].
+
man.viewer::
Specify the programs that may be used to display help in the
'man' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
-include::merge-config.txt[]
-
man.<tool>.cmd::
Specify the command to invoke the specified man viewer. The
specified command is evaluated in shell with the man page
@@ -884,6 +1074,8 @@ man.<tool>.path::
Override the path for the given tool that may be used to
display help in the 'man' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
+include::merge-config.txt[]
+
mergetool.<tool>.path::
Override the path for the given tool. This is useful in case
your tool is not in the PATH.
@@ -913,6 +1105,16 @@ mergetool.keepBackup::
is set to `false` then this file is not preserved. Defaults to
`true` (i.e. keep the backup files).
+mergetool.keepTemporaries::
+ When invoking a custom merge tool, git uses a set of temporary
+ files to pass to the tool. If the tool returns an error and this
+ variable is set to `true`, then these temporary files will be
+ preserved, otherwise they will be removed after the tool has
+ exited. Defaults to `false`.
+
+mergetool.prompt::
+ Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program.
+
pack.window::
The size of the window used by linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] when no
window size is given on the command line. Defaults to 10.
@@ -979,9 +1181,11 @@ pack.packSizeLimit::
linkgit:git-repack[1].
pager.<cmd>::
- Allows to set your own pager preferences for each command, overriding
- the default. If `\--pager` or `\--no-pager` is specified on the command
- line, it takes precedence over this option.
+ Allows turning on or off pagination of the output of a
+ particular git subcommand when writing to a tty. If
+ `\--paginate` or `\--no-pager` is specified on the command line,
+ it takes precedence over this option. To disable pagination for
+ all commands, set `core.pager` or `GIT_PAGER` to `cat`.
pull.octopus::
The default merge strategy to use when pulling multiple branches
@@ -990,6 +1194,63 @@ pull.octopus::
pull.twohead::
The default merge strategy to use when pulling a single branch.
+push.default::
+ Defines the action git push should take if no refspec is given
+ on the command line, no refspec is configured in the remote, and
+ no refspec is implied by any of the options given on the command
+ line.
++
+The term `current remote` means the remote configured for the current
+branch, or `origin` if no remote is configured. `origin` is also used
+if you are not on any branch. Possible values are:
++
+* `nothing` do not push anything.
+* `matching` push all matching branches to the current remote.
+ All branches having the same name in both ends are considered to be
+ matching. This is the current default value.
+* `tracking` push the current branch to the branch it is tracking.
+* `current` push the current branch to a branch of the same name on the
+ current remote.
+
+rebase.stat::
+ Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
+ rebase. False by default.
+
+receive.fsckObjects::
+ If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
+ objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
+ broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
+ Defaults to false.
+
+receive.unpackLimit::
+ If the number of objects received in a push is below this
+ limit then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
+ files. However if the number of received objects equals or
+ exceeds this limit then the received pack will be stored as
+ a pack, after adding any missing delta bases. Storing the
+ pack from a push can make the push operation complete faster,
+ especially on slow filesystems. If not set, the value of
+ `transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
+
+receive.denyDeletes::
+ If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update that deletes
+ the ref. Use this to prevent such a ref deletion via a push.
+
+receive.denyCurrentBranch::
+ If set to true or "refuse", receive-pack will deny a ref update
+ to the currently checked out branch of a non-bare repository.
+ Such a push is potentially dangerous because it brings the HEAD
+ out of sync with the index and working tree. If set to "warn",
+ print a warning of such a push to stderr, but allow the push to
+ proceed. If set to false or "ignore", allow such pushes with no
+ message. Defaults to "warn".
+
+receive.denyNonFastForwards::
+ If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
+ not a fast forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
+ even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
+ set when initializing a shared repository.
+
remote.<name>.url::
The URL of a remote repository. See linkgit:git-fetch[1] or
linkgit:git-push[1].
@@ -1039,6 +1300,18 @@ repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
"false" and repack. Access from old git versions over the
native protocol are unaffected by this option.
+rerere.autoupdate::
+ When set to true, `git-rerere` updates the index with the
+ resulting contents after it cleanly resolves conflicts using
+ previously recorded resolution. Defaults to false.
+
+rerere.enabled::
+ Activate recording of resolved conflicts, so that identical
+ conflict hunks can be resolved automatically, should they
+ be encountered again. linkgit:git-rerere[1] command is by
+ default enabled if you create `rr-cache` directory under
+ `$GIT_DIR`, but can be disabled by setting this option to false.
+
showbranch.default::
The default set of branches for linkgit:git-show-branch[1].
See linkgit:git-show-branch[1].
@@ -1075,6 +1348,11 @@ tar.umask::
archiving user's umask will be used instead. See umask(2) and
linkgit:git-archive[1].
+transfer.unpackLimit::
+ When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
+ not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
+ The default value is 100.
+
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
@@ -1103,37 +1381,6 @@ user.signingkey::
unchanged to gpg's --local-user parameter, so you may specify a key
using any method that gpg supports.
-imap::
- The configuration variables in the 'imap' section are described
- in linkgit:git-imap-send[1].
-
-receive.fsckObjects::
- If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
- objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
- broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
- Defaults to false.
-
-receive.unpackLimit::
- If the number of objects received in a push is below this
- limit then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
- files. However if the number of received objects equals or
- exceeds this limit then the received pack will be stored as
- a pack, after adding any missing delta bases. Storing the
- pack from a push can make the push operation complete faster,
- especially on slow filesystems. If not set, the value of
- `transfer.unpackLimit` is used instead.
-
-receive.denyNonFastForwards::
- If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
- not a fast forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
- even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
- set when initializing a shared repository.
-
-transfer.unpackLimit::
- When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
- not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
- The default value is 100.
-
web.browser::
Specify a web browser that may be used by some commands.
Currently only linkgit:git-instaweb[1] and linkgit:git-help[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-format.txt b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
index 400cbb3..1eeb1c7 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-format.txt
@@ -46,6 +46,22 @@ That is, from the left to the right:
. path for "dst"; only exists for C or R.
. an LF or a NUL when '-z' option is used, to terminate the record.
+Possible status letters are:
+
+- A: addition of a file
+- C: copy of a file into a new one
+- D: deletion of a file
+- M: modification of the contents or mode of a file
+- R: renaming of a file
+- T: change in the type of the file
+- U: file is unmerged (you must complete the merge before it can
+be committed)
+- X: "unknown" change type (most probably a bug, please report it)
+
+Status letters C and R are always followed by a score (denoting the
+percentage of similarity between the source and target of the move or
+copy), and are the only ones to be so.
+
<sha1> is shown as all 0's if a file is new on the filesystem
and it is out of sync with the index.
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
index 517e1eb..0f25ba7 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-generate-patch.txt
@@ -143,15 +143,15 @@ different from it.
A `-` character in the column N means that the line appears in
fileN but it does not appear in the result. A `+` character
-in the column N means that the line appears in the last file,
+in the column N means that the line appears in the result,
and fileN does not have that line (in other words, the line was
added, from the point of view of that parent).
In the above example output, the function signature was changed
from both files (hence two `-` removals from both file1 and
file2, plus `++` to mean one line that was added does not appear
-in either file1 nor file2). Also two other lines are the same
-from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with ` +`).
+in either file1 nor file2). Also eight other lines are the same
+from file1 but do not appear in file2 (hence prefixed with `{plus}`).
When shown by `git diff-tree -c`, it compares the parents of a
merge commit with the merge result (i.e. file1..fileN are the
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index cba90fd..9276fae 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -19,16 +19,12 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
ifndef::git-format-patch[]
-p::
+-u::
Generate patch (see section on generating patches).
{git-diff? This is the default.}
endif::git-format-patch[]
--u::
- Synonym for "-p".
-
-U<n>::
- Shorthand for "--unified=<n>".
-
--unified=<n>::
Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
the usual three. Implies "-p".
@@ -40,6 +36,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--patch-with-raw::
Synonym for "-p --raw".
+--patience::
+ Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
+
--stat[=width[,name-width]]::
Generate a diffstat. You can override the default
output width for 80-column terminal by "--stat=width".
@@ -59,12 +58,14 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
lines.
--dirstat[=limit]::
- Output only the sub-directories that are impacted by a diff,
- and to what degree they are impacted. You can override the
- default cut-off in percent (3) by "--dirstat=limit". If you
- want to enable "cumulative" directory statistics, you can use
- the "--cumulative" flag, which adds up percentages recursively
- even when they have been already reported for a sub-directory.
+ Output the distribution of relative amount of changes (number of lines added or
+ removed) for each sub-directory. Directories with changes below
+ a cut-off percent (3% by default) are not shown. The cut-off percent
+ can be set with "--dirstat=limit". Changes in a child directory is not
+ counted for the parent directory, unless "--cumulative" is used.
+
+--dirstat-by-file[=limit]::
+ Same as --dirstat, but counts changed files instead of lines.
--summary::
Output a condensed summary of extended header information
@@ -93,8 +94,22 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
Turn off colored diff, even when the configuration file
gives the default to color output.
---color-words::
- Show colored word diff, i.e. color words which have changed.
+--color-words[=<regex>]::
+ Show colored word diff, i.e., color words which have changed.
+ By default, words are separated by whitespace.
++
+When a <regex> is specified, every non-overlapping match of the
+<regex> is considered a word. Anything between these matches is
+considered whitespace and ignored(!) for the purposes of finding
+differences. You may want to append `|[^[:space:]]` to your regular
+expression to make sure that it matches all non-whitespace characters.
+A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
+newline.
++
+The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
+linkgit:gitattributes[1] or linkgit:git-config[1]. Giving it explicitly
+overrides any diff driver or configuration setting. Diff drivers
+override configuration settings.
--no-renames::
Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
@@ -107,9 +122,9 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--exit-code.
--full-index::
- Instead of the first handful characters, show full
- object name of pre- and post-image blob on the "index"
- line when generating a patch format output.
+ Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
+ pre- and post-image blob object names on the "index"
+ line when generating patch format output.
--binary::
In addition to --full-index, output "binary diff" that
@@ -118,7 +133,7 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--abbrev[=<n>]::
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
- lines, show only handful hexdigits prefix. This is
+ lines, show only a partial prefix. This is
independent of --full-index option above, which controls
the diff-patch output format. Non default number of
digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
@@ -135,7 +150,8 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--diff-filter=[ACDMRTUXB*]::
Select only files that are Added (`A`), Copied (`C`),
Deleted (`D`), Modified (`M`), Renamed (`R`), have their
- type (mode) changed (`T`), are Unmerged (`U`), are
+ type (i.e. regular file, symlink, submodule, ...) changed (`T`),
+ are Unmerged (`U`), are
Unknown (`X`), or have had their pairing Broken (`B`).
Any combination of the filter characters may be used.
When `*` (All-or-none) is added to the combination, all
@@ -160,7 +176,10 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
number.
-S<string>::
- Look for differences that contain the change in <string>.
+ Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
+ <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
+ appearing in diff output; see the 'pickaxe' entry in
+ linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more details.
--pickaxe-all::
When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that
@@ -187,30 +206,28 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
to by giving a <path> as an argument.
+-a::
--text::
Treat all files as text.
--a::
- Shorthand for "--text".
-
--ignore-space-at-eol::
Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
+-b::
--ignore-space-change::
Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace
at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
--b::
- Shorthand for "--ignore-space-change".
-
+-w::
--ignore-all-space::
Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores
differences even if one line has whitespace where the other
line has none.
--w::
- Shorthand for "--ignore-all-space".
+--inter-hunk-context=<lines>::
+ Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
+ of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
--exit-code::
Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
index e598cdd..9310b65 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -98,7 +98,7 @@ Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.::
------------
$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
$ cd frotz
-$ git-init
+$ git init
$ git add . <1>
$ git commit -m "import of frotz source tree."
$ git tag v2.43 <2>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 2b6d6c8..ce71838 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
- [--all | [--update | -u]] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--]
- <filepattern>...
+ [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
+ [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--] <filepattern>...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -92,6 +92,15 @@ OPTIONS
and add all untracked files that are not ignored by '.gitignore'
mechanism.
+
+-N::
+--intent-to-add::
+ Record only the fact that the path will be added later. An entry
+ for the path is placed in the index with no content. This is
+ useful for, among other things, showing the unstaged content of
+ such files with 'git diff' and committing them with 'git commit
+ -a'.
+
--refresh::
Don't add the file(s), but only refresh their stat()
information in the index.
@@ -127,7 +136,7 @@ $ git add Documentation/\\*.txt
------------
+
Note that the asterisk `\*` is quoted from the shell in this
-example; this lets the command to include the files from
+example; this lets the command include the files from
subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
* Considers adding content from all git-*.sh scripts:
@@ -136,7 +145,7 @@ subdirectories of `Documentation/` directory.
$ git add git-*.sh
------------
+
-Because this example lets shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
+Because this example lets the shell expand the asterisk (i.e. you are
listing the files explicitly), it does not consider
`subdir/git-foo.sh`.
@@ -189,8 +198,8 @@ one deletion).
update::
- This shows the status information and gives prompt
- "Update>>". When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
+ This shows the status information and issues an "Update>>"
+ prompt. When the prompt ends with double '>>', you can
make more than one selection, concatenated with whitespace or
comma. Also you can say ranges. E.g. "2-5 7,9" to choose
2,3,4,5,7,9 from the list. If the second number in a range is
@@ -229,8 +238,8 @@ add untracked::
patch::
- This lets you choose one path out of 'status' like selection.
- After choosing the path, it presents diff between the index
+ This lets you choose one path out of a 'status' like selection.
+ After choosing the path, it presents the diff between the index
and the working tree file and asks you if you want to stage
the change of each hunk. You can say:
@@ -254,13 +263,6 @@ diff::
This lets you review what will be committed (i.e. between
HEAD and index).
-Bugs
-----
-The interactive mode does not work with files whose names contain
-characters that need C-quoting. `core.quotepath` configuration can be
-used to work this limitation around to some degree, but backslash,
-double-quote and control characters will still have problems.
-
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-status[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index b9c6fac..1e71dd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -10,8 +10,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--utf8 | --no-utf8]
- [--3way] [--interactive]
- [--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>]
+ [--3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
+ [--ignore-date]
+ [--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
+ [--reject]
[<mbox> | <Maildir>...]
'git am' (--skip | --resolved | --abort)
@@ -25,8 +27,8 @@ OPTIONS
-------
<mbox>|<Maildir>...::
The list of mailbox files to read patches from. If you do not
- supply this argument, reads from the standard input. If you supply
- directories, they'll be treated as Maildirs.
+ supply this argument, the command reads from the standard input.
+ If you supply directories, they will be treated as Maildirs.
-s::
--signoff::
@@ -46,7 +48,7 @@ OPTIONS
preferred encoding if it is not UTF-8).
+
This was optional in prior versions of git, but now it is the
-default. You could use `--no-utf8` to override this.
+default. You can use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--no-utf8::
Pass `-n` flag to 'git-mailinfo' (see
@@ -55,17 +57,15 @@ default. You could use `--no-utf8` to override this.
-3::
--3way::
When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on
- 3-way merge, if the patch records the identity of blobs
- it is supposed to apply to, and we have those blobs
+ 3-way merge if the patch records the identity of blobs
+ it is supposed to apply to and we have those blobs
available locally.
--whitespace=<option>::
- This flag is passed to the 'git-apply' (see linkgit:git-apply[1])
- program that applies
- the patch.
-
-C<n>::
-p<n>::
+--directory=<dir>::
+--reject::
These flags are passed to the 'git-apply' (see linkgit:git-apply[1])
program that applies
the patch.
@@ -74,6 +74,20 @@ default. You could use `--no-utf8` to override this.
--interactive::
Run interactively.
+--committer-date-is-author-date::
+ By default the command records the date from the e-mail
+ message as the commit author date, and uses the time of
+ commit creation as the committer date. This allows the
+ user to lie about the committer date by using the same
+ timestamp as the author date.
+
+--ignore-date::
+ By default the command records the date from the e-mail
+ message as the commit author date, and uses the time of
+ commit creation as the committer date. This allows the
+ user to lie about author timestamp by using the same
+ timestamp as the committer date.
+
--skip::
Skip the current patch. This is only meaningful when
restarting an aborted patch.
@@ -107,18 +121,18 @@ the commit, after stripping common prefix "[PATCH <anything>]".
It is supposed to describe what the commit is about concisely as
a one line text.
-The body of the message (iow, after a blank line that terminates
-RFC2822 headers) can begin with "Subject: " and "From: " lines
-that are different from those of the mail header, to override
-the values of these fields.
+The body of the message (the rest of the message after the blank line
+that terminates the RFC2822 headers) can begin with "Subject: " and
+"From: " lines that are different from those of the mail header,
+to override the values of these fields.
The commit message is formed by the title taken from the
"Subject: ", a blank line and the body of the message up to
-where the patch begins. Excess whitespaces at the end of the
+where the patch begins. Excess whitespace characters at the end of the
lines are automatically stripped.
The patch is expected to be inline, directly following the
-message. Any line that is of form:
+message. Any line that is of the form:
* three-dashes and end-of-line, or
* a line that begins with "diff -", or
@@ -127,18 +141,18 @@ message. Any line that is of form:
is taken as the beginning of a patch, and the commit log message
is terminated before the first occurrence of such a line.
-When initially invoking it, you give it names of the mailboxes
-to crunch. Upon seeing the first patch that does not apply, it
-aborts in the middle,. You can recover from this in one of two ways:
+When initially invoking it, you give it the names of the mailboxes
+to process. Upon seeing the first patch that does not apply, it
+aborts in the middle. You can recover from this in one of two ways:
-. skip the current patch by re-running the command with '--skip'
+. skip the current patch by re-running the command with the '--skip'
option.
. hand resolve the conflict in the working directory, and update
- the index file to bring it in a state that the patch should
- have produced. Then run the command with '--resolved' option.
+ the index file to bring it into a state that the patch should
+ have produced. Then run the command with the '--resolved' option.
-The command refuses to process new mailboxes while `.git/rebase-apply`
+The command refuses to process new mailboxes while the `.git/rebase-apply`
directory exists, so if you decide to start over from scratch,
run `rm -f -r .git/rebase-apply` before running the command with mailbox
names.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
index 8b6b56a..0590eec 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-annotate.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-annotate(1)
NAME
----
-git-annotate - Annotate file lines with commit info
+git-annotate - Annotate file lines with commit information
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,7 +12,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Annotates each line in the given file with information from the commit
-which introduced the line. Optionally annotate from a given revision.
+which introduced the line. Optionally annotates from a given revision.
+
+The only difference between this command and linkgit:git-blame[1] is that
+they use slightly different output formats, and this command exists only
+for backward compatibility to support existing scripts, and provide a more
+familiar command name for people coming from other SCM systems.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index feb51f1..9e5baa2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -10,11 +10,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index]
- [--apply] [--no-add] [--build-fake-ancestor <file>] [-R | --reverse]
+ [--apply] [--no-add] [--build-fake-ancestor=<file>] [-R | --reverse]
[--allow-binary-replacement | --binary] [--reject] [-z]
[-pNUM] [-CNUM] [--inaccurate-eof] [--recount] [--cached]
[--whitespace=<nowarn|warn|fix|error|error-all>]
- [--exclude=PATH] [--directory=<root>] [--verbose] [<patch>...]
+ [--exclude=PATH] [--include=PATH] [--directory=<root>]
+ [--verbose] [<patch>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -24,7 +25,7 @@ and a work tree.
OPTIONS
-------
<patch>...::
- The files to read patch from. '-' can be used to read
+ The files to read the patch from. '-' can be used to read
from the standard input.
--stat::
@@ -32,8 +33,8 @@ OPTIONS
input. Turns off "apply".
--numstat::
- Similar to \--stat, but shows number of added and
- deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
+ Similar to \--stat, but shows the number of added and
+ deleted lines in decimal notation and the pathname without
abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly. For
binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
`0 0`. Turns off "apply".
@@ -59,15 +60,15 @@ OPTIONS
causes the index file to be updated.
--cached::
- Apply a patch without touching the working tree. Instead, take the
- cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index,
+ Apply a patch without touching the working tree. Instead take the
+ cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
without using the working tree. This implies '--index'.
---build-fake-ancestor <file>::
+--build-fake-ancestor=<file>::
Newer 'git-diff' output has embedded 'index information'
for each blob to help identify the original version that
the patch applies to. When this flag is given, and if
- the original versions of the blobs is available locally,
+ the original versions of the blobs are available locally,
builds a temporary index containing those blobs.
+
When a pure mode change is encountered (which has no index information),
@@ -108,13 +109,13 @@ the information is read from the current index instead.
applying a diff generated with --unified=0. To bypass these
checks use '--unidiff-zero'.
+
-Note, for the reasons stated above usage of context-free patches are
+Note, for the reasons stated above usage of context-free patches is
discouraged.
--apply::
If you use any of the options marked "Turns off
'apply'" above, 'git-apply' reads and outputs the
- information you asked without actually applying the
+ requested information without actually applying the
patch. Give this flag after those flags to also apply
the patch.
@@ -123,7 +124,7 @@ discouraged.
patch. This can be used to extract the common part between
two files by first running 'diff' on them and applying
the result with this option, which would apply the
- deletion part but not addition part.
+ deletion part but not the addition part.
--allow-binary-replacement::
--binary::
@@ -137,6 +138,17 @@ discouraged.
be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to exclude certain
files or directories.
+--include=<path-pattern>::
+ Apply changes to files matching the given path pattern. This can
+ be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to include certain
+ files or directories.
++
+When --exclude and --include patterns are used, they are examined in the
+order they appear on the command line, and the first match determines if a
+patch to each path is used. A patch to a path that does not match any
+include/exclude pattern is used by default if there is no include pattern
+on the command line, and ignored if there is any include pattern.
+
--whitespace=<action>::
When applying a patch, detect a new or modified line that has
whitespace errors. What are considered whitespace errors is
@@ -147,10 +159,10 @@ discouraged.
considered whitespace errors.
+
By default, the command outputs warning messages but applies the patch.
-When `git-apply is used for statistics and not applying a
+When `git-apply` is used for statistics and not applying a
patch, it defaults to `nowarn`.
+
-You can use different `<action>` to control this
+You can use different `<action>` values to control this
behavior:
+
* `nowarn` turns off the trailing whitespace warning.
@@ -158,7 +170,7 @@ behavior:
patch as-is (default).
* `fix` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and applies the
patch after fixing them (`strip` is a synonym --- the tool
- used to consider only trailing whitespaces as errors, and the
+ used to consider only trailing whitespace characters as errors, and the
fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern gits do more).
* `error` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and refuses
to apply the patch.
@@ -183,7 +195,7 @@ behavior:
adjusting the hunk headers appropriately).
--directory=<root>::
- Prepend <root> to all filenames. If a "-p" argument was passed, too,
+ Prepend <root> to all filenames. If a "-p" argument was also passed,
it is applied before prepending the new root.
+
For example, a patch that talks about updating `a/git-gui.sh` to `b/git-gui.sh`
@@ -209,7 +221,7 @@ ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up-to-date or clean and they
are not updated.
If --index is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
-are ignored and only the absence of presence of the corresponding
+are ignored and only the absence or presence of the corresponding
subdirectory is checked and (if possible) updated.
Author
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index 41cbf9c..c1adf59 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git archive' --format=<fmt> [--list] [--prefix=<prefix>/] [<extra>]
+ [--output=<file>]
[--remote=<repo> [--exec=<git-upload-archive>]] <tree-ish>
[path...]
@@ -22,7 +23,7 @@ prepended to the filenames in the archive.
'git-archive' behaves differently when given a tree ID versus when
given a commit ID or tag ID. In the first case the current time is
-used as modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter
+used as the modification time of each file in the archive. In the latter
case the commit time as recorded in the referenced commit object is
used instead. Additionally the commit ID is stored in a global
extended pax header if the tar format is used; it can be extracted
@@ -47,12 +48,15 @@ OPTIONS
--prefix=<prefix>/::
Prepend <prefix>/ to each filename in the archive.
+--output=<file>::
+ Write the archive to <file> instead of stdout.
+
<extra>::
- This can be any options that the archiver backend understand.
+ This can be any options that the archiver backend understands.
See next section.
--remote=<repo>::
- Instead of making a tar archive from local repository,
+ Instead of making a tar archive from the local repository,
retrieve a tar archive from a remote repository.
--exec=<git-upload-archive>::
@@ -88,12 +92,24 @@ tar.umask::
archiving user's umask will be used instead. See umask(2) for
details.
+ATTRIBUTES
+----------
+
+export-ignore::
+ Files and directories with the attribute export-ignore won't be
+ added to archive files. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
+
+export-subst::
+ If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then git will
+ expand several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.
+ See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
git archive --format=tar --prefix=junk/ HEAD | (cd /var/tmp/ && tar xf -)::
Create a tar archive that contains the contents of the
- latest commit on the current branch, and extracts it in
+ latest commit on the current branch, and extract it in the
`/var/tmp/junk` directory.
git archive --format=tar --prefix=git-1.4.0/ v1.4.0 | gzip >git-1.4.0.tar.gz::
@@ -110,6 +126,11 @@ git archive --format=zip --prefix=git-docs/ HEAD:Documentation/ > git-1.4.0-docs
Put everything in the current head's Documentation/ directory
into 'git-1.4.0-docs.zip', with the prefix 'git-docs/'.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gitattributes[5]
+
Author
------
Written by Franck Bui-Huu and Rene Scharfe.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index c7981ef..ffc02c7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-bisect(1)
NAME
----
-git-bisect - Find the change that introduced a bug by binary search
+git-bisect - Find by binary search the change that introduced a bug
SYNOPSIS
@@ -19,14 +19,14 @@ on the subcommand:
git bisect start [<bad> [<good>...]] [--] [<paths>...]
git bisect bad [<rev>]
git bisect good [<rev>...]
- git bisect skip [<rev>...]
+ git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
git bisect reset [<branch>]
git bisect visualize
git bisect replay <logfile>
git bisect log
git bisect run <cmd>...
-This command uses 'git-rev-list --bisect' to help drive the
+This command uses 'git rev-list --bisect' to help drive the
binary search process to find which change introduced a bug, given an
old "good" commit object name and a later "bad" commit object name.
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@ help" or "git bisect -h" to get a long usage description.
Basic bisect commands: start, bad, good
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The way you use it is:
+Using the Linux kernel tree as an example, basic use of the bisect
+command is as follows:
------------------------------------------------
$ git bisect start
@@ -48,61 +49,63 @@ $ git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2 # v2.6.13-rc2 was the last version
# tested that was good
------------------------------------------------
-When you give at least one bad and one good versions, it will bisect
-the revision tree and say something like:
+When you have specified at least one bad and one good version, the
+command bisects the revision tree and outputs something similar to
+the following:
------------------------------------------------
Bisecting: 675 revisions left to test after this
------------------------------------------------
-and check out the state in the middle. Now, compile that kernel, and
-boot it. Now, let's say that this booted kernel works fine, then just
-do
+The state in the middle of the set of revisions is then checked out.
+You would now compile that kernel and boot it. If the booted kernel
+works correctly, you would then issue the following command:
------------------------------------------------
$ git bisect good # this one is good
------------------------------------------------
-which will now say
+The output of this command would be something similar to the following:
------------------------------------------------
Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
------------------------------------------------
-and you continue along, compiling that one, testing it, and depending
-on whether it is good or bad, you say "git bisect good" or "git bisect
-bad", and ask for the next bisection.
+You keep repeating this process, compiling the tree, testing it, and
+depending on whether it is good or bad issuing the command "git bisect good"
+or "git bisect bad" to ask for the next bisection.
-Until you have no more left, and you'll have been left with the first
-bad kernel rev in "refs/bisect/bad".
+Eventually there will be no more revisions left to bisect, and you
+will have been left with the first bad kernel revision in "refs/bisect/bad".
Bisect reset
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Oh, and then after you want to reset to the original head, do a
+To return to the original head after a bisect session, issue the
+following command:
------------------------------------------------
$ git bisect reset
------------------------------------------------
-to get back to the original branch, instead of being on the bisection
-commit ("git bisect start" will do that for you too, actually: it will
-reset the bisection state).
+This resets the tree to the original branch instead of being on the
+bisection commit ("git bisect start" will also do that, as it resets
+the bisection state).
Bisect visualize
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-During the bisection process, you can say
+To see the currently remaining suspects in 'gitk', issue the following
+command during the bisection process:
------------
$ git bisect visualize
------------
-to see the currently remaining suspects in 'gitk'. `visualize` is a bit
-too long to type and `view` is provided as a synonym.
+`view` may also be used as a synonym for `visualize`.
-If 'DISPLAY' environment variable is not set, 'git-log' is used
-instead. You can even give command line options such as `-p` and
+If the 'DISPLAY' environment variable is not set, 'git log' is used
+instead. You can also give command line options such as `-p` and
`--stat`.
------------
@@ -112,73 +115,94 @@ $ git bisect view --stat
Bisect log and bisect replay
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The good/bad input is logged, and
+After having marked revisions as good or bad, issue the following
+command to show what has been done so far:
------------
$ git bisect log
------------
-shows what you have done so far. You can truncate its output somewhere
-and save it in a file, and run
+If you discover that you made a mistake in specifying the status of a
+revision, you can save the output of this command to a file, edit it to
+remove the incorrect entries, and then issue the following commands to
+return to a corrected state:
------------
+$ git bisect reset
$ git bisect replay that-file
------------
-if you find later you made a mistake telling good/bad about a
-revision.
-
-Avoiding to test a commit
+Avoiding testing a commit
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-If in a middle of bisect session, you know what the bisect suggested
-to try next is not a good one to test (e.g. the change the commit
+If, in the middle of a bisect session, you know that the next suggested
+revision is not a good one to test (e.g. the change the commit
introduces is known not to work in your environment and you know it
does not have anything to do with the bug you are chasing), you may
-want to find a near-by commit and try that instead.
+want to find a nearby commit and try that instead.
-It goes something like this:
+For example:
------------
-$ git bisect good/bad # previous round was good/bad.
+$ git bisect good/bad # previous round was good or bad.
Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
$ git bisect visualize # oops, that is uninteresting.
-$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 # try 3 revs before what
+$ git reset --hard HEAD~3 # try 3 revisions before what
# was suggested
------------
-Then compile and test the one you chose to try. After that, tell
-bisect what the result was as usual.
+Then compile and test the chosen revision, and afterwards mark
+the revision as good or bad in the usual manner.
Bisect skip
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you may just want git
-to do it for you using:
+Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask git
+to do it for you by issuing the command:
------------
$ git bisect skip # Current version cannot be tested
------------
But computing the commit to test may be slower afterwards and git may
-eventually not be able to tell the first bad among a bad and one or
-more "skip"ped commits.
+eventually not be able to tell the first bad commit among a bad commit
+and one or more skipped commits.
+
+You can even skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
+using the "'<commit1>'..'<commit2>'" notation. For example:
+
+------------
+$ git bisect skip v2.5..v2.6
+------------
+
+This tells the bisect process that no commit after `v2.5`, up to and
+including `v2.6`, should be tested.
+
+Note that if you also want to skip the first commit of the range you
+would issue the command:
+
+------------
+$ git bisect skip v2.5 v2.5..v2.6
+------------
+
+This tells the bisect process that the commits between `v2.5` included
+and `v2.6` included should be skipped.
+
Cutting down bisection by giving more parameters to bisect start
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-You can further cut down the number of trials if you know what part of
-the tree is involved in the problem you are tracking down, by giving
-paths parameters when you say `bisect start`, like this:
+You can further cut down the number of trials, if you know what part of
+the tree is involved in the problem you are tracking down, by specifying
+path parameters when issuing the `bisect start` command:
------------
$ git bisect start -- arch/i386 include/asm-i386
------------
-If you know beforehand more than one good commits, you can narrow the
-bisect space down without doing the whole tree checkout every time you
-give good commits. You give the bad revision immediately after `start`
-and then you give all the good revisions you have:
+If you know beforehand more than one good commit, you can narrow the
+bisect space down by specifying all of the good commits immediately after
+the bad commit when issuing the `bisect start` command:
------------
$ git bisect start v2.6.20-rc6 v2.6.20-rc4 v2.6.20-rc1 --
@@ -190,38 +214,38 @@ Bisect run
~~~~~~~~~~
If you have a script that can tell if the current source code is good
-or bad, you can automatically bisect using:
+or bad, you can bisect by issuing the command:
------------
-$ git bisect run my_script
+$ git bisect run my_script arguments
------------
-Note that the "run" script (`my_script` in the above example) should
-exit with code 0 in case the current source code is good. Exit with a
+Note that the script (`my_script` in the above example) should
+exit with code 0 if the current source code is good, and exit with a
code between 1 and 127 (inclusive), except 125, if the current
source code is bad.
-Any other exit code will abort the automatic bisect process. (A
-program that does "exit(-1)" leaves $? = 255, see exit(3) manual page,
-the value is chopped with "& 0377".)
+Any other exit code will abort the bisect process. It should be noted
+that a program that terminates via "exit(-1)" leaves $? = 255, (see the
+exit(3) manual page), as the value is chopped with "& 0377".
The special exit code 125 should be used when the current source code
-cannot be tested. If the "run" script exits with this code, the current
-revision will be skipped, see `git bisect skip` above.
-
-You may often find that during bisect you want to have near-constant
-tweaks (e.g., s/#define DEBUG 0/#define DEBUG 1/ in a header file, or
-"revision that does not have this commit needs this patch applied to
-work around other problem this bisection is not interested in")
-applied to the revision being tested.
-
-To cope with such a situation, after the inner 'git-bisect' finds the
-next revision to test, with the "run" script, you can apply that tweak
-before compiling, run the real test, and after the test decides if the
-revision (possibly with the needed tweaks) passed the test, rewind the
-tree to the pristine state. Finally the "run" script can exit with
-the status of the real test to let the "git bisect run" command loop to
-determine the outcome.
+cannot be tested. If the script exits with this code, the current
+revision will be skipped (see `git bisect skip` above).
+
+You may often find that during a bisect session you want to have
+temporary modifications (e.g. s/#define DEBUG 0/#define DEBUG 1/ in a
+header file, or "revision that does not have this commit needs this
+patch applied to work around another problem this bisection is not
+interested in") applied to the revision being tested.
+
+To cope with such a situation, after the inner 'git bisect' finds the
+next revision to test, the script can apply the patch
+before compiling, run the real test, and afterwards decide if the
+revision (possibly with the needed patch) passed the test and then
+rewind the tree to the pristine state. Finally the script should exit
+with the status of the real test to let the "git bisect run" command loop
+determine the eventual outcome of the bisect session.
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -233,44 +257,60 @@ $ git bisect start HEAD v1.2 -- # HEAD is bad, v1.2 is good
$ git bisect run make # "make" builds the app
------------
+* Automatically bisect a test failure between origin and HEAD:
++
+------------
+$ git bisect start HEAD origin -- # HEAD is bad, origin is good
+$ git bisect run make test # "make test" builds and tests
+------------
+
* Automatically bisect a broken test suite:
+
------------
$ cat ~/test.sh
#!/bin/sh
-make || exit 125 # this "skip"s broken builds
+make || exit 125 # this skips broken builds
make test # "make test" runs the test suite
$ git bisect start v1.3 v1.1 -- # v1.3 is bad, v1.1 is good
$ git bisect run ~/test.sh
------------
+
Here we use a "test.sh" custom script. In this script, if "make"
-fails, we "skip" the current commit.
+fails, we skip the current commit.
+
-It's safer to use a custom script outside the repo to prevent
+It is safer to use a custom script outside the repository to prevent
interactions between the bisect, make and test processes and the
script.
+
-And "make test" should "exit 0", if the test suite passes, and
-"exit 1" (for example) otherwise.
+"make test" should "exit 0", if the test suite passes, and
+"exit 1" otherwise.
* Automatically bisect a broken test case:
+
------------
$ cat ~/test.sh
#!/bin/sh
-make || exit 125 # this "skip"s broken builds
+make || exit 125 # this skips broken builds
~/check_test_case.sh # does the test case passes ?
$ git bisect start HEAD HEAD~10 -- # culprit is among the last 10
$ git bisect run ~/test.sh
------------
+
-Here "check_test_case.sh" should "exit 0", if the test case passes,
-and "exit 1" (for example) otherwise.
+Here "check_test_case.sh" should "exit 0" if the test case passes,
+and "exit 1" otherwise.
++
+It is safer if both "test.sh" and "check_test_case.sh" scripts are
+outside the repository to prevent interactions between the bisect,
+make and test processes and the scripts.
+
+* Automatically bisect a broken test suite:
++
+------------
+$ git bisect start HEAD HEAD~10 -- # culprit is among the last 10
+$ git bisect run sh -c "make || exit 125; ~/check_test_case.sh"
+------------
+
-It's safer if both "test.sh" and "check_test_case.sh" scripts are
-outside the repo to prevent interactions between the bisect, make and
-test processes and the scripts.
+Does the same as the previous example, but on a single line.
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index fba374d..8c7b7b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
[-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
- [<rev> | --contents <file>] [--] <file>
+ [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ DESCRIPTION
Annotates each line in the given file with information from the revision which
last modified the line. Optionally, start annotating from the given revision.
-Also it can limit the range of lines annotated.
+The command can also limit the range of lines annotated.
-This report doesn't tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
+The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git-diff' or the "pickaxe"
interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
@@ -48,26 +48,26 @@ include::blame-options.txt[]
lines between files (see `-C`) and lines moved within a
file (see `-M`). The first number listed is the score.
This is the number of alphanumeric characters detected
- to be moved between or within files. This must be above
+ as having been moved between or within files. This must be above
a certain threshold for 'git-blame' to consider those lines
of code to have been moved.
-f::
--show-name::
- Show filename in the original commit. By default
- filename is shown if there is any line that came from a
- file with different name, due to rename detection.
+ Show the filename in the original commit. By default
+ the filename is shown if there is any line that came from a
+ file with a different name, due to rename detection.
-n::
--show-number::
- Show line number in the original commit (Default: off).
+ Show the line number in the original commit (Default: off).
-s::
- Suppress author name and timestamp from the output.
+ Suppress the author name and timestamp from the output.
-w::
- Ignore whitespace when comparing parent's version and
- child's to find where the lines came from.
+ Ignore whitespace when comparing the parent's version and
+ the child's to find where the lines came from.
THE PORCELAIN FORMAT
@@ -79,17 +79,17 @@ header at the minimum has the first line which has:
- 40-byte SHA-1 of the commit the line is attributed to;
- the line number of the line in the original file;
- the line number of the line in the final file;
-- on a line that starts a group of line from a different
+- on a line that starts a group of lines from a different
commit than the previous one, the number of lines in this
group. On subsequent lines this field is absent.
This header line is followed by the following information
at least once for each commit:
-- author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
+- the author name ("author"), email ("author-mail"), time
("author-time"), and timezone ("author-tz"); similarly
for committer.
-- filename in the commit the line is attributed to.
+- the filename in the commit that the line is attributed to.
- the first line of the commit log message ("summary").
The contents of the actual line is output after the above
@@ -100,23 +100,23 @@ header elements later.
SPECIFYING RANGES
-----------------
-Unlike 'git-blame' and 'git-annotate' in older git, the extent
-of annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
+Unlike 'git-blame' and 'git-annotate' in older versions of git, the extent
+of the annotation can be limited to both line ranges and revision
ranges. When you are interested in finding the origin for
-ll. 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use `-L` option like these
+lines 40-60 for file `foo`, you can use the `-L` option like so
(they mean the same thing -- both ask for 21 lines starting at
line 40):
git blame -L 40,60 foo
git blame -L 40,+21 foo
-Also you can use regular expression to specify the line range.
+Also you can use a regular expression to specify the line range:
git blame -L '/^sub hello {/,/^}$/' foo
-would limit the annotation to the body of `hello` subroutine.
+which limits the annotation to the body of the `hello` subroutine.
-When you are not interested in changes older than the version
+When you are not interested in changes older than version
v2.6.18, or changes older than 3 weeks, you can use revision
range specifiers similar to 'git-rev-list':
@@ -129,7 +129,7 @@ commit v2.6.18 or the most recent commit that is more than 3
weeks old in the above example) are blamed for that range
boundary commit.
-A particularly useful way is to see if an added file have lines
+A particularly useful way is to see if an added file has lines
created by copy-and-paste from existing files. Sometimes this
indicates that the developer was being sloppy and did not
refactor the code properly. You can first find the commit that
@@ -162,26 +162,32 @@ annotated.
+
Line numbers count from 1.
-. The first time that commit shows up in the stream, it has various
+. The first time that a commit shows up in the stream, it has various
other information about it printed out with a one-word tag at the
- beginning of each line about that "extended commit info" (author,
- email, committer, dates, summary etc).
+ beginning of each line describing the extra commit information (author,
+ email, committer, dates, summary, etc.).
-. Unlike Porcelain format, the filename information is always
+. Unlike the Porcelain format, the filename information is always
given and terminates the entry:
"filename" <whitespace-quoted-filename-goes-here>
+
-and thus it's really quite easy to parse for some line- and word-oriented
+and thus it is really quite easy to parse for some line- and word-oriented
parser (which should be quite natural for most scripting languages).
+
[NOTE]
For people who do parsing: to make it more robust, just ignore any
-lines in between the first and last one ("<sha1>" and "filename" lines)
-where you don't recognize the tag-words (or care about that particular
+lines between the first and last one ("<sha1>" and "filename" lines)
+where you do not recognize the tag words (or care about that particular
one) at the beginning of the "extended information" lines. That way, if
there is ever added information (like the commit encoding or extended
-commit commentary), a blame viewer won't ever care.
+commit commentary), a blame viewer will not care.
+
+
+MAPPING AUTHORS
+---------------
+
+include::mailmap.txt[]
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 6103d62..31ba7f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -18,19 +18,19 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no arguments, existing branches are listed, the current branch will
+With no arguments, existing branches are listed and the current branch will
be highlighted with an asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking
branches to be listed, and option `-a` shows both.
-With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contains the named commit
-(in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendant of the
+With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
+(in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
named commit). With `--merged`, only branches merged into the named
commit (i.e. the branches whose tip commits are reachable from the named
commit) will be listed. With `--no-merged` only branches not merged into
-the named commit will be listed. Missing <commit> argument defaults to
-'HEAD' (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
+the named commit will be listed. If the <commit> argument is missing it
+defaults to 'HEAD' (i.e. the tip of the current branch).
-In its second form, a new branch named <branchname> will be created.
+In the command's second form, a new branch named <branchname> will be created.
It will start out with a head equal to the one given as <start-point>.
If no <start-point> is given, the branch will be created with a head
equal to that of the currently checked out branch.
@@ -57,9 +57,9 @@ has a reflog then the reflog will also be deleted.
Use -r together with -d to delete remote-tracking branches. Note, that it
only makes sense to delete remote-tracking branches if they no longer exist
-in remote repository or if 'git-fetch' was configured not to fetch
-them again. See also 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for way to
-clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
+in the remote repository or if 'git-fetch' was configured not to fetch
+them again. See also the 'prune' subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1] for a
+way to clean up all obsolete remote-tracking branches.
OPTIONS
@@ -76,14 +76,14 @@ OPTIONS
based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
-f::
- Force the creation of a new branch even if it means deleting
- a branch that already exists with the same name.
+ Reset <branchname> to <startpoint> if <branchname> exists
+ already. Without `-f` 'git-branch' refuses to change an existing branch.
-m::
Move/rename a branch and the corresponding reflog.
-M::
- Move/rename a branch even if the new branchname already exists.
+ Move/rename a branch even if the new branch name already exists.
--color::
Color branches to highlight current, local, and remote branches.
@@ -103,17 +103,17 @@ OPTIONS
Show sha1 and commit subject line for each head.
--abbrev=<length>::
- Alter minimum display length for sha1 in output listing,
- default value is 7.
+ Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
+ The default value is 7.
--no-abbrev::
- Display the full sha1s in output listing rather than abbreviating them.
+ Display the full sha1s in the output listing rather than abbreviating them.
--track::
- When creating a new branch, set up configuration so that 'git-pull'
+ When creating a new branch, set up the configuration so that 'git-pull'
will automatically retrieve data from the start point, which must be
a branch. Use this if you always pull from the same upstream branch
- into the new branch, and if you don't want to use "git pull
+ into the new branch, and if you do not want to use "git pull
<repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
@@ -149,13 +149,13 @@ OPTIONS
<newbranch>::
The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
- <branchname> applies.
+ <branchname> apply.
Examples
--------
-Start development off of a known tag::
+Start development from a known tag::
+
------------
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@ $ git checkout my2.6.14
<1> This step and the next one could be combined into a single step with
"checkout -b my2.6.14 v2.6.14".
-Delete unneeded branch::
+Delete an unneeded branch::
+
------------
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/.../git.git my.git
@@ -176,21 +176,21 @@ $ git branch -d -r origin/todo origin/html origin/man <1>
$ git branch -D test <2>
------------
+
-<1> Delete remote-tracking branches "todo", "html", "man". Next 'fetch' or
-'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to. See
-linkgit:git-fetch[1].
-<2> Delete "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch is
-currently checked out) does not have all commits from test branch.
+<1> Delete the remote-tracking branches "todo", "html" and "man". The next
+'fetch' or 'pull' will create them again unless you configure them not to.
+See linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+<2> Delete the "test" branch even if the "master" branch (or whichever branch
+is currently checked out) does not have all commits from the test branch.
Notes
-----
-If you are creating a branch that you want to immediately checkout, it's
+If you are creating a branch that you want to checkout immediately, it is
easier to use the git checkout command with its `-b` option to create
a branch and check it out with a single command.
-The options `--contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged` serves three related
+The options `--contains`, `--merged` and `--no-merged` serve three related
but different purposes:
- `--contains <commit>` is used to find all branches which will need
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index 1b66ab7..aee7e4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -19,13 +19,13 @@ DESCRIPTION
Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
-be directly connected so the interactive git protocols (git, ssh,
-rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
+be directly connected, and therefore the interactive git protocols (git,
+ssh, rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
'git-fetch' and 'git-pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
another repository using 'git-fetch' and 'git-pull'
after moving the archive by some means (i.e., by sneakernet). As no
-direct connection between repositories exists, the user must specify a
+direct connection between the repositories exists, the user must specify a
basis for the bundle that is held by the destination repository: the
bundle assumes that all objects in the basis are already in the
destination repository.
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ verify <file>::
bundle format itself as well as checking that the prerequisite
commits exist and are fully linked in the current repository.
'git-bundle' prints a list of missing commits, if any, and exits
- with non-zero status.
+ with a non-zero status.
list-heads <file>::
Lists the references defined in the bundle. If followed by a
@@ -53,14 +53,14 @@ list-heads <file>::
unbundle <file>::
Passes the objects in the bundle to 'git-index-pack'
for storage in the repository, then prints the names of all
- defined references. If a reflist is given, only references
- matching those in the given list are printed. This command is
+ defined references. If a list of references is given, only
+ references matching those in the list are printed. This command is
really plumbing, intended to be called only by 'git-fetch'.
[git-rev-list-args...]::
A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git-rev-parse' and
- 'git-rev-list', that specify the specific objects and references
- to transport. For example, "master~10..master" causes the
+ 'git-rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
+ to transport. For example, `master\~10..master` causes the
current master reference to be packaged along with all objects
added since its 10th ancestor commit. There is no explicit
limit to the number of references and objects that may be
@@ -71,98 +71,134 @@ unbundle <file>::
A list of references used to limit the references reported as
available. This is principally of use to 'git-fetch', which
expects to receive only those references asked for and not
- necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git-bundle' is
- acting like 'git-fetch-pack').
+ necessarily everything in the pack (in this case, 'git-bundle' acts
+ like 'git-fetch-pack').
SPECIFYING REFERENCES
---------------------
'git-bundle' will only package references that are shown by
'git-show-ref': this includes heads, tags, and remote heads. References
-such as master~1 cannot be packaged, but are perfectly suitable for
+such as `master\~1` cannot be packaged, but are perfectly suitable for
defining the basis. More than one reference may be packaged, and more
than one basis can be specified. The objects packaged are those not
contained in the union of the given bases. Each basis can be
-specified explicitly (e.g., ^master~10), or implicitly (e.g.,
-master~10..master, master --since=10.days.ago).
+specified explicitly (e.g. `^master\~10`), or implicitly (e.g.
+`master\~10..master`, `--since=10.days.ago master`).
It is very important that the basis used be held by the destination.
-It is okay to err on the side of conservatism, causing the bundle file
-to contain objects already in the destination as these are ignored
+It is okay to err on the side of caution, causing the bundle file
+to contain objects already in the destination, as these are ignored
when unpacking at the destination.
EXAMPLE
-------
-Assume two repositories exist as R1 on machine A, and R2 on machine B.
+Assume you want to transfer the history from a repository R1 on machine A
+to another repository R2 on machine B.
For whatever reason, direct connection between A and B is not allowed,
-but we can move data from A to B via some mechanism (CD, email, etc).
-We want to update R2 with developments made on branch master in R1.
+but we can move data from A to B via some mechanism (CD, email, etc.).
+We want to update R2 with development made on the branch master in R1.
-To create the bundle you have to specify the basis. You have some options:
+To bootstrap the process, you can first create a bundle that does not have
+any basis. You can use a tag to remember up to what commit you last
+processed, in order to make it easy to later update the other repository
+with an incremental bundle:
-- Without basis.
-+
-This is useful when sending the whole history.
+----------------
+machineA$ cd R1
+machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle master
+machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
+----------------
-------------
-$ git bundle create mybundle master
-------------
+Then you transfer file.bundle to the target machine B. If you are creating
+the repository on machine B, then you can clone from the bundle as if it
+were a remote repository instead of creating an empty repository and then
+pulling or fetching objects from the bundle:
-- Using temporally tags.
-+
-We set a tag in R1 (lastR2bundle) after the previous such transport,
-and move it afterwards to help build the bundle.
+----------------
+machineB$ git clone /home/me/tmp/file.bundle R2
+----------------
-------------
-$ git bundle create mybundle master ^lastR2bundle
-$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
-------------
+This will define a remote called "origin" in the resulting repository that
+lets you fetch and pull from the bundle. The $GIT_DIR/config file in R2 will
+have an entry like this:
-- Using a tag present in both repositories
+------------------------
+[remote "origin"]
+ url = /home/me/tmp/file.bundle
+ fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
+------------------------
+
+To update the resulting mine.git repository, you can fetch or pull after
+replacing the bundle stored at /home/me/tmp/file.bundle with incremental
+updates.
+
+After working some more in the original repository, you can create an
+incremental bundle to update the other repository:
+
+----------------
+machineA$ cd R1
+machineA$ git bundle create file.bundle lastR2bundle..master
+machineA$ git tag -f lastR2bundle master
+----------------
+
+You then transfer the bundle to the other machine to replace
+/home/me/tmp/file.bundle, and pull from it.
+
+----------------
+machineB$ cd R2
+machineB$ git pull
+----------------
-------------
-$ git bundle create mybundle master ^v1.0.0
-------------
+If you know up to what commit the intended recipient repository should
+have the necessary objects, you can use that knowledge to specify the
+basis, giving a cut-off point to limit the revisions and objects that go
+in the resulting bundle. The previous example used lastR2bundle tag
+for this purpose, but you can use any other options that you would give to
+the linkgit:git-log[1] command. Here are more examples:
-- A basis based on time.
+You can use a tag that is present in both:
-------------
-$ git bundle create mybundle master --since=10.days.ago
-------------
+----------------
+$ git bundle create mybundle v1.0.0..master
+----------------
-- With a limit on the number of commits
+You can use a basis based on time:
-------------
-$ git bundle create mybundle master -n 10
-------------
+----------------
+$ git bundle create mybundle --since=10.days master
+----------------
-Then you move mybundle from A to B, and in R2 on B:
+You can use the number of commits:
-------------
+----------------
+$ git bundle create mybundle -10 master
+----------------
+
+You can run `git-bundle verify` to see if you can extract from a bundle
+that was created with a basis:
+
+----------------
$ git bundle verify mybundle
-$ git fetch mybundle master:localRef
-------------
+----------------
-With something like this in the config in R2:
+This will list what commits you must have in order to extract from the
+bundle and will error out if you do not have them.
-------------------------
-[remote "bundle"]
- url = /home/me/tmp/file.bdl
- fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
-------------------------
+A bundle from a recipient repository's point of view is just like a
+regular repository which it fetches or pulls from. You can, for example, map
+references when fetching:
-You can first sneakernet the bundle file to ~/tmp/file.bdl and
-then these commands on machine B:
+----------------
+$ git fetch mybundle master:localRef
+----------------
-------------
-$ git ls-remote bundle
-$ git fetch bundle
-$ git pull bundle
-------------
+You can also see what references it offers.
-would treat it as if it is talking with a remote side over the
-network.
+----------------
+$ git ls-remote mybundle
+----------------
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 668f697..b191276 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-cat-file(1)
NAME
----
-git-cat-file - Provide content or type/size information for repository objects
+git-cat-file - Provide content or type and size information for repository objects
SYNOPSIS
@@ -14,19 +14,19 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-In the first form, provides content or type of objects in the repository. The
-type is required unless '-t' or '-p' is used to find the object type, or '-s'
-is used to find the object size.
+In its first form, the command provides the content or the type of an object in
+the repository. The type is required unless '-t' or '-p' is used to find the
+object type, or '-s' is used to find the object size.
-In the second form, a list of object (separated by LFs) is provided on stdin,
-and the SHA1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
+In the second form, a list of objects (separated by linefeeds) is provided on
+stdin, and the SHA1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
OPTIONS
-------
<object>::
The name of the object to show.
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see
- "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
+ the "SPECIFYING REVISIONS" section in linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
-t::
Instead of the content, show the object type identified by
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ OPTIONS
stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
--batch-check::
- Print the SHA1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not be
- combined with any other options or arguments.
+ Print the SHA1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
+ be combined with any other options or arguments.
OUTPUT
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 2b821f2..50824e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -3,25 +3,84 @@ git-check-attr(1)
NAME
----
-git-check-attr - Display gitattributes information.
+git-check-attr - Display gitattributes information
SYNOPSIS
--------
+[verse]
'git check-attr' attr... [--] pathname...
+'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] attr... < <list-of-paths>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-For every pathname, this command will list if each attr is 'unspecified',
+For every pathname, this command will list if each attribute is 'unspecified',
'set', or 'unset' as a gitattribute on that pathname.
OPTIONS
-------
+--stdin::
+ Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+
+-z::
+ Only meaningful with `--stdin`; paths are separated with a
+ NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+
\--::
- Interpret all preceding arguments as attributes, and all following
+ Interpret all preceding arguments as attributes and all following
arguments as path names. If not supplied, only the first argument will
be treated as an attribute.
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+The output is of the form:
+<path> COLON SP <attribute> COLON SP <info> LF
+
+<path> is the path of a file being queried, <attribute> is an attribute
+being queried and <info> can be either:
+
+'unspecified';; when the attribute is not defined for the path.
+'unset';; when the attribute is defined as false.
+'set';; when the attribute is defined as true.
+<value>;; when a value has been assigned to the attribute.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+In the examples, the following '.gitattributes' file is used:
+---------------
+*.java diff=java -crlf myAttr
+NoMyAttr.java !myAttr
+README caveat=unspecified
+---------------
+
+* Listing a single attribute:
+---------------
+$ git check-attr diff org/example/MyClass.java
+org/example/MyClass.java: diff: java
+---------------
+
+* Listing multiple attributes for a file:
+---------------
+$ git check-attr crlf diff myAttr -- org/example/MyClass.java
+org/example/MyClass.java: crlf: unset
+org/example/MyClass.java: diff: java
+org/example/MyClass.java: myAttr: set
+---------------
+
+* Listing an attribute for multiple files:
+---------------
+$ git check-attr myAttr -- org/example/MyClass.java org/example/NoMyAttr.java
+org/example/MyClass.java: myAttr: set
+org/example/NoMyAttr.java: myAttr: unspecified
+---------------
+
+* Not all values are equally unambiguous:
+---------------
+$ git check-attr caveat README
+README: caveat: unspecified
+---------------
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 034223c..171b683 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-check-ref-format(1)
NAME
----
-git-check-ref-format - Make sure ref name is well formed
+git-check-ref-format - Ensures that a reference name is well formed
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -11,40 +11,40 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits non-zero if
-it is not.
+Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits with a non-zero
+status if it is not.
A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
-branch head is stored under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` directory, and
-a tag is stored under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` directory. git
-imposes the following rules on how refs are named:
+branch head is stored under the `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` directory, and
+a tag is stored under the `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` directory. git
+imposes the following rules on how references are named:
-. It can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
+. They can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
- dot `.`;
+ dot `.`.
-. It cannot have two consecutive dots `..` anywhere;
+. They cannot have two consecutive dots `..` anywhere.
-. It cannot have ASCII control character (i.e. bytes whose
+. They cannot have ASCII control characters (i.e. bytes whose
values are lower than \040, or \177 `DEL`), space, tilde `~`,
caret `{caret}`, colon `:`, question-mark `?`, asterisk `*`,
- or open bracket `[` anywhere;
+ or open bracket `[` anywhere.
-. It cannot end with a slash `/`.
+. They cannot end with a slash `/`.
-These rules makes it easy for shell script based tools to parse
-refnames, pathname expansion by the shell when a refname is used
+These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
+reference names, pathname expansion by the shell when a reference name is used
unquoted (by mistake), and also avoids ambiguities in certain
-refname expressions (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]). Namely:
+reference name expressions (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]):
-. double-dot `..` are often used as in `ref1..ref2`, and in some
- context this notation means `{caret}ref1 ref2` (i.e. not in
- ref1 and in ref2).
+. A double-dot `..` is often used as in `ref1..ref2`, and in some
+ contexts this notation means `{caret}ref1 ref2` (i.e. not in
+ `ref1` and in `ref2`).
-. tilde `~` and caret `{caret}` are used to introduce postfix
+. A tilde `~` and caret `{caret}` are used to introduce the postfix
'nth parent' and 'peel onion' operation.
-. colon `:` is used as in `srcref:dstref` to mean "use srcref\'s
+. A colon `:` is used as in `srcref:dstref` to mean "use srcref\'s
value and store it in dstref" in fetch and push operations.
It may also be used to select a specific object such as with
'git-cat-file': "git cat-file blob v1.3.3:refs.c".
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 5aa69c0..1a6c19e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-checkout - Checkout a branch or paths to the working tree
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [[--track | --no-track] -b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
-'git checkout' [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
+'git checkout' [-q] [-f] [-t | --track | --no-track] [-b <new_branch> [-l]] [-m] [<branch>]
+'git checkout' [-f|--ours|--theirs|-m|--conflict=<style>] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -21,16 +21,26 @@ specified, <new_branch>. Using -b will cause <new_branch> to
be created; in this case you can use the --track or --no-track
options, which will be passed to `git branch`.
+As a convenience, --track will default to creating a branch whose
+name is constructed from the specified branch name by stripping
+the first namespace level.
+
When <paths> are given, this command does *not* switch
branches. It updates the named paths in the working tree from
-the index file (i.e. it runs `git checkout-index -f -u`), or
-from a named commit. In
-this case, the `-f` and `-b` options are meaningless and giving
-either of them results in an error. <tree-ish> argument can be
+the index file, or from a named <tree-ish> (most often a commit). In
+this case, the `-b` and `--track` options are meaningless and giving
+either of them results in an error. The <tree-ish> argument can be
used to specify a specific tree-ish (i.e. commit, tag or tree)
to update the index for the given paths before updating the
working tree.
+The index may contain unmerged entries after a failed merge. By
+default, if you try to check out such an entry from the index, the
+checkout operation will fail and nothing will be checked out.
+Using -f will ignore these unmerged entries. The contents from a
+specific side of the merge can be checked out of the index by
+using --ours or --theirs. With -m, changes made to the working tree
+file can be discarded to recreate the original conflicted merge result.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -38,8 +48,17 @@ OPTIONS
Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
-f::
- Proceed even if the index or the working tree differs
- from HEAD. This is used to throw away local changes.
+ When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
+ working tree differs from HEAD. This is used to throw away
+ local changes.
++
+When checking out paths from the index, do not fail upon unmerged
+entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
+
+--ours::
+--theirs::
+ When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
+ ('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
-b::
Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
@@ -56,9 +75,19 @@ OPTIONS
<repository> <refspec>" explicitly. This behavior is the default
when the start point is a remote branch. Set the
branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable to `false` if you want
- 'git-checkout' and 'git-branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
+ 'git checkout' and 'git branch' to always behave as if '--no-track' were
given. Set it to `always` if you want this behavior when the
- start-point is either a local or remote branch.
+ start point is either a local or remote branch.
++
+If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
+derived from the remote branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
+is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
+next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
+This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
+off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
+"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
+guessing results in an empty name, the guessing is aborted. You can
+explicitly give a name with '-b' in such a case.
--no-track::
Ignore the branch.autosetupmerge configuration variable.
@@ -69,7 +98,9 @@ OPTIONS
based sha1 expressions such as "<branchname>@\{yesterday}".
-m::
- If you have local modifications to one or more files that
+--merge::
+ When switching branches,
+ if you have local modifications to one or more files that
are different between the current branch and the branch to
which you are switching, the command refuses to switch
branches in order to preserve your modifications in context.
@@ -81,6 +112,16 @@ When a merge conflict happens, the index entries for conflicting
paths are left unmerged, and you need to resolve the conflicts
and mark the resolved paths with `git add` (or `git rm` if the merge
should result in deletion of the path).
++
+When checking out paths from the index, this option lets you recreate
+the conflicted merge in the specified paths.
+
+--conflict=<style>::
+ The same as --merge option above, but changes the way the
+ conflicting hunks are presented, overriding the
+ merge.conflictstyle configuration variable. Possible values are
+ "merge" (default) and "diff3" (in addition to what is shown by
+ "merge" style, shows the original contents).
<new_branch>::
Name for the new branch.
@@ -91,6 +132,10 @@ should result in deletion of the path).
+
When this parameter names a non-branch (but still a valid commit object),
your HEAD becomes 'detached'.
++
+As a special case, the `"@\{-N\}"` syntax for the N-th last branch
+checks out the branch (instead of detaching). You may also specify
+`-` which is synonymous with `"@\{-1\}"`.
Detached HEAD
@@ -106,12 +151,12 @@ $ git checkout v2.6.18
------------
Earlier versions of git did not allow this and asked you to
-create a temporary branch using `-b` option, but starting from
+create a temporary branch using the `-b` option, but starting from
version 1.5.0, the above command 'detaches' your HEAD from the
-current branch and directly point at the commit named by the tag
-(`v2.6.18` in the above example).
+current branch and directly points at the commit named by the tag
+(`v2.6.18` in the example above).
-You can use usual git commands while in this state. You can use
+You can use all git commands while in this state. You can use
`git reset --hard $othercommit` to further move around, for
example. You can make changes and create a new commit on top of
a detached HEAD. You can even create a merge by using `git
@@ -145,7 +190,7 @@ $ git checkout hello.c <3>
------------
+
<1> switch branch
-<2> take out a file out of other commit
+<2> take a file out of another commit
<3> restore hello.c from HEAD of current branch
+
If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
@@ -156,7 +201,7 @@ You should instead write:
$ git checkout -- hello.c
------------
-. After working in a wrong branch, switching to the correct
+. After working in the wrong branch, switching to the correct
branch would be done using:
+
------------
@@ -164,7 +209,7 @@ $ git checkout mytopic
------------
+
However, your "wrong" branch and correct "mytopic" branch may
-differ in files that you have locally modified, in which case,
+differ in files that you have modified locally, in which case
the above checkout would fail like this:
+
------------
@@ -190,7 +235,6 @@ the `-m` option, you would see something like this:
------------
$ git checkout -m mytopic
Auto-merging frotz
-merge: warning: conflicts during merge
ERROR: Merge conflict in frotz
fatal: merge program failed
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index 837fb08..b764130 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -55,13 +55,12 @@ OPTIONS
-n::
--no-commit::
- Usually the command automatically creates a commit with
- a commit log message stating which commit was
- cherry-picked. This flag applies the change necessary
- to cherry-pick the named commit to your working tree
- and the index, but does not make the commit. In addition,
- when this option is used, your index does not have to match
- the HEAD commit. The cherry-pick is done against the
+ Usually the command automatically creates a commit.
+ This flag applies the change necessary to cherry-pick
+ the named commit to your working tree and the index,
+ but does not make the commit. In addition, when this
+ option is used, your index does not have to match the
+ HEAD commit. The cherry-pick is done against the
beginning state of your index.
+
This is useful when cherry-picking more than one commits'
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
index 74d14c4..7deefda 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ git-cherry - Find commits not merged upstream
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git cherry' [-v] <upstream> [<head>] [<limit>]
+'git cherry' [-v] [<upstream> [<head> [<limit>]]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -51,6 +51,7 @@ OPTIONS
<upstream>::
Upstream branch to compare against.
+ Defaults to the first tracked remote branch, if available.
<head>::
Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 0e14e73..95f08b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -90,6 +90,11 @@ then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
Operate quietly. This flag is also passed to the `rsync'
command when given.
+--verbose::
+-v::
+ Display the progressbar, even in case the standard output is not
+ a terminal.
+
--no-checkout::
-n::
No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 92ab3ab..b8834ba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -79,9 +79,9 @@ Diagnostics
You don't exist. Go away!::
The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
Your parents must have hated you!::
- The password(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+ The passwd(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
Your sysadmin must hate you!::
- The password(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+ The passwd(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
Discussion
----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 0e25bb8..b5d81be 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -29,7 +29,8 @@ The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
- record the current content of the listed files;
+ record the current content of the listed files (which must already
+ be known to git);
4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
"add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
@@ -75,8 +76,10 @@ OPTIONS
read the message from the standard input.
--author=<author>::
- Override the author name used in the commit. Use
- `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format.
+ Override the author name used in the commit. You can use the
+ standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise,
+ an existing commit that matches the given string and its author
+ name is used.
-m <msg>::
--message=<msg>::
@@ -92,7 +95,8 @@ OPTIONS
-s::
--signoff::
- Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+ Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
+ log message.
-n::
--no-verify::
@@ -142,6 +146,10 @@ It is a rough equivalent for:
------
but can be used to amend a merge commit.
--
++
+You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
+amend a commit that has already been published. (See the "RECOVERING
+FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
-i::
--include::
@@ -158,7 +166,7 @@ but can be used to amend a merge commit.
'git-commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
in which case this option can be omitted.
If this option is specified together with '--amend', then
- no paths need be specified, which can be used to amend
+ no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
the last commit without committing changes that have
already been staged.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 28e1861..7131ee3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] name [value [value_regex]]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --add name value
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --replace-all name [value [value_regex]]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git config' [<file-option>] [-z|--null] -l | --list
'git config' [<file-option>] --get-color name [default]
'git config' [<file-option>] --get-colorbool name [stdout-is-tty]
+'git config' [<file-option>] -e | --edit
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -130,6 +131,10 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
in the config file will cause the value to be multiplied
by 1024, 1048576, or 1073741824 prior to output.
+--bool-or-int::
+ 'git-config' will ensure that the output matches the format of
+ either --bool or --int, as described above.
+
-z::
--null::
For all options that output values and/or keys, always
@@ -157,6 +162,11 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
output. The optional `default` parameter is used instead, if
there is no color configured for `name`.
+-e::
+--edit::
+ Opens an editor to modify the specified config file; either
+ '--system', '--global', or repository (default).
+
[[FILES]]
FILES
-----
@@ -279,7 +289,7 @@ If you want to know all the values for a multivar, do:
% git config --get-all core.gitproxy
------------
-If you like to live dangerous, you can replace *all* core.gitproxy by a
+If you like to live dangerously, you can replace *all* core.gitproxy by a
new one with
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index 75a8da1..6bc1c21 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -21,8 +21,9 @@ OPTIONS
--verbose::
In addition to the number of loose objects and disk
space consumed, it reports the number of in-pack
- objects, number of packs, and number of objects that can be
- removed by running `git prune-packed`.
+ objects, number of packs, disk space consumed by those packs,
+ and number of objects that can be removed by running
+ `git prune-packed`.
Author
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index b7a8c10..3123725 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -24,6 +24,9 @@ repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
Splitting the CVS log into patch sets is done by 'cvsps'.
At least version 2.1 is required.
+*WARNING:* for certain situations the import leads to incorrect results.
+Please see the section <<issues,ISSUES>> for further reference.
+
You should *never* do any work of your own on the branches that are
created by 'git-cvsimport'. By default initial import will create and populate a
"master" branch from the CVS repository's main branch which you're free
@@ -164,6 +167,37 @@ If '-v' is specified, the script reports what it is doing.
Otherwise, success is indicated the Unix way, i.e. by simply exiting with
a zero exit status.
+[[issues]]
+ISSUES
+------
+Problems related to timestamps:
+
+ * If timestamps of commits in the cvs repository are not stable enough
+ to be used for ordering commits
+ * If any files were ever "cvs import"ed more than once (e.g., import of
+ more than one vendor release)
+ * If the timestamp order of different files cross the revision order
+ within the commit matching time window
+
+Problems related to branches:
+
+ * Branches on which no commits have been made are not imported
+ * All files from the branching point are added to a branch even if
+ never added in cvs
+ * files added to the source branch *after* a daughter branch was
+ created: If previously no commit was made on the daugther branch they
+ will erroneously be added to the daughter branch in git
+
+Problems related to tags:
+
+* Multiple tags on the same revision are not imported
+
+If you suspect that any of these issues may apply to the repository you
+want to import consider using these alternative tools which proved to be
+more stable in practise:
+
+* cvs2git (part of cvs2svn), `http://cvs2svn.tigris.org`
+* parsecvs, `http://cgit.freedesktop.org/~keithp/parsecvs`
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index c2d3c90..785779e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
SSH:
[verse]
-export CVS_SERVER=git-cvsserver
+export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"
'cvs' -d :ext:user@server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
pserver (/etc/inetd.conf):
@@ -109,7 +109,7 @@ Note: Newer CVS versions (>= 1.12.11) also support specifying
CVS_SERVER directly in CVSROOT like
------
-cvs -d ":ext;CVS_SERVER=git-cvsserver:user@server/path/repo.git" co <HEAD_name>
+cvs -d ":ext;CVS_SERVER=git cvsserver:user@server/path/repo.git" co <HEAD_name>
------
This has the advantage that it will be saved in your 'CVS/Root' files and
you don't need to worry about always setting the correct environment
@@ -158,7 +158,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
--
------
export CVSROOT=:ext:user@server:/var/git/project.git
- export CVS_SERVER=git-cvsserver
+ export CVS_SERVER="git cvsserver"
------
--
4. For SSH clients that will make commits, make sure their server-side
@@ -283,7 +283,7 @@ To get a checkout with the Eclipse CVS client:
Protocol notes: If you are using anonymous access via pserver, just select that.
Those using SSH access should choose the 'ext' protocol, and configure 'ext'
access on the Preferences->Team->CVS->ExtConnection pane. Set CVS_SERVER to
-'git-cvsserver'. Note that password support is not good when using 'ext',
+"'git cvsserver'". Note that password support is not good when using 'ext',
you will definitely want to have SSH keys setup.
Alternatively, you can just use the non-standard extssh protocol that Eclipse
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 4ba4b75..36f00ae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git daemon' [--verbose] [--syslog] [--export-all]
- [--timeout=n] [--init-timeout=n] [--strict-paths]
- [--base-path=path] [--user-path | --user-path=path]
+ [--timeout=n] [--init-timeout=n] [--max-connections=n]
+ [--strict-paths] [--base-path=path] [--base-path-relaxed]
+ [--user-path | --user-path=path]
[--interpolated-path=pathtemplate]
[--reuseaddr] [--detach] [--pid-file=file]
[--enable=service] [--disable=service]
@@ -99,15 +100,19 @@ OPTIONS
it takes for the server to process the sub-request and time spent
waiting for next client's request.
+--max-connections::
+ Maximum number of concurrent clients, defaults to 32. Set it to
+ zero for no limit.
+
--syslog::
Log to syslog instead of stderr. Note that this option does not imply
--verbose, thus by default only error conditions will be logged.
--user-path::
--user-path=path::
- Allow ~user notation to be used in requests. When
+ Allow {tilde}user notation to be used in requests. When
specified with no parameter, requests to
- git://host/~alice/foo is taken as a request to access
+ git://host/{tilde}alice/foo is taken as a request to access
'foo' repository in the home directory of user `alice`.
If `--user-path=path` is specified, the same request is
taken as a request to access `path/foo` repository in
@@ -265,6 +270,15 @@ selectively enable/disable services per repository::
----------------------------------------------------------------
+ENVIRONMENT
+-----------
+'git-daemon' will set REMOTE_ADDR to the IP address of the client
+that connected to it, if the IP address is available. REMOTE_ADDR will
+be available in the environment of hooks called when
+services are performed.
+
+
+
Author
------
Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>, YOSHIFUJI Hideaki
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index c4dbc2a..b231dbb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -18,6 +18,9 @@ shown. Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of
additional commits on top of the tagged object and the
abbreviated object name of the most recent commit.
+By default (without --all or --tags) `git describe` only shows
+annotated tags. For more information about creating annotated tags
+see the -a and -s options to linkgit:git-tag[1].
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -26,11 +29,13 @@ OPTIONS
--all::
Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
- found in `.git/refs/`.
+ found in `.git/refs/`. This option enables matching
+ any known branch, remote branch, or lightweight tag.
--tags::
Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any tag
- found in `.git/refs/tags`.
+ found in `.git/refs/tags`. This option enables matching
+ a lightweight (non-annotated) tag.
--contains::
Instead of finding the tag that predates the commit, find
@@ -38,7 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
Automatically implies --tags.
--abbrev=<n>::
- Instead of using the default 8 hexadecimal digits as the
+ Instead of using the default 7 hexadecimal digits as the
abbreviated object name, use <n> digits.
--candidates=<n>::
@@ -82,7 +87,7 @@ With something like git.git current tree, I get:
v1.0.4-14-g2414721
i.e. the current head of my "parent" branch is based on v1.0.4,
-but since it has a handful commits on top of that,
+but since it has a few commits on top of that,
describe has added the number of additional commits ("14") and
an abbreviated object name for the commit itself ("2414721")
at the end.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
index 5c8c1d9..c526141 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-files.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,10 @@ OPTIONS
-------
include::diff-options.txt[]
--1 -2 -3 or --base --ours --theirs, and -0::
+-1 --base::
+-2 --ours::
+-3 --theirs::
+-0::
Diff against the "base" version, "our branch" or "their
branch" respectively. With these options, diffs for
merged entries are not shown.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
index 1fdf20d..23b7abd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt
@@ -43,19 +43,28 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
show tree entry itself as well as subtrees. Implies -r.
--root::
- When '--root' is specified the initial commit will be showed as a big
+ When '--root' is specified the initial commit will be shown as a big
creation event. This is equivalent to a diff against the NULL tree.
--stdin::
When '--stdin' is specified, the command does not take
<tree-ish> arguments from the command line. Instead, it
- reads either one <commit> or a list of <commit>
- separated with a single space from its standard input.
+ reads lines containing either two <tree>, one <commit>, or a
+ list of <commit> from its standard input. (Use a single space
+ as separator.)
+
-When a single commit is given on one line of such input, it compares
-the commit with its parents. The following flags further affects its
-behavior. The remaining commits, when given, are used as if they are
+When two trees are given, it compares the first tree with the second.
+When a single commit is given, it compares the commit with its
+parents. The remaining commits, when given, are used as if they are
parents of the first commit.
++
+When comparing two trees, the ID of both trees (separated by a space
+and terminated by a newline) is printed before the difference. When
+comparing commits, the ID of the first (or only) commit, followed by a
+newline, is printed.
++
+The following flags further affect the behavior when comparing
+commits (but not trees).
-m::
By default, 'git-diff-tree --stdin' does not show
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index c53eba5..a2f192f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -33,6 +33,7 @@ forced by --no-index.
commit relative to the named <commit>. Typically you
would want comparison with the latest commit, so if you
do not give <commit>, it defaults to HEAD.
+ --staged is a synonym of --cached.
'git diff' [--options] <commit> [--] [<path>...]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index b974e21..0c9eb56 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
This program dumps the given revisions in a form suitable to be piped
into 'git-fast-import'.
-You can use it as a human readable bundle replacement (see
+You can use it as a human-readable bundle replacement (see
linkgit:git-bundle[1]), or as a kind of an interactive
'git-filter-branch'.
@@ -65,6 +65,12 @@ If the backend uses a similar \--import-marks file, this allows for
incremental bidirectional exporting of the repository by keeping the
marks the same across runs.
+--fake-missing-tagger::
+ Some old repositories have tags without a tagger. The
+ fast-import protocol was pretty strict about that, and did not
+ allow that. So fake a tagger to be able to fast-import the
+ output.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index b0e710d..237f85e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,9 @@ the objects and will not converge with the original branch. You will not
be able to easily push and distribute the rewritten branch on top of the
original branch. Please do not use this command if you do not know the
full implications, and avoid using it anyway, if a simple single commit
-would suffice to fix your problem.
+would suffice to fix your problem. (See the "RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM
+REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1] for further information about
+rewriting published history.)
Always verify that the rewritten version is correct: The original refs,
if different from the rewritten ones, will be stored in the namespace
@@ -89,7 +91,9 @@ OPTIONS
--index-filter <command>::
This is the filter for rewriting the index. It is similar to the
tree filter but does not check out the tree, which makes it much
- faster. For hairy cases, see linkgit:git-update-index[1].
+ faster. Frequently used with `git rm \--cached
+ \--ignore-unmatch ...`, see EXAMPLES below. For hairy
+ cases, see linkgit:git-update-index[1].
--parent-filter <command>::
This is the filter for rewriting the commit's parent list.
@@ -120,6 +124,10 @@ You can use the 'map' convenience function in this filter, and other
convenience functions, too. For example, calling 'skip_commit "$@"'
will leave out the current commit (but not its changes! If you want
that, use 'git-rebase' instead).
++
+You can also use the 'git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"' instead of
+'git commit-tree "$@"' if you don't wish to keep commits with a single parent
+and that makes no change to the tree.
--tag-name-filter <command>::
This is the filter for rewriting tag names. When passed,
@@ -149,6 +157,16 @@ to other tags will be rewritten to point to the underlying commit.
The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
project root.
+--prune-empty::
+ Some kind of filters will generate empty commits, that left the tree
+ untouched. This switch allow git-filter-branch to ignore such
+ commits. Though, this switch only applies for commits that have one
+ and only one parent, it will hence keep merges points. Also, this
+ option is not compatible with the use of '--commit-filter'. Though you
+ just need to use the function 'git_commit_non_empty_tree "$@"' instead
+ of the 'git commit-tree "$@"' idiom in your commit filter to make that
+ happen.
+
--original <namespace>::
Use this option to set the namespace where the original commits
will be stored. The default value is 'refs/original'.
@@ -188,10 +206,14 @@ However, if the file is absent from the tree of some commit,
a simple `rm filename` will fail for that tree and commit.
Thus you may instead want to use `rm -f filename` as the script.
-A significantly faster version:
+Using `\--index-filter` with 'git-rm' yields a significantly faster
+version. Like with using `rm filename`, `git rm --cached filename`
+will fail if the file is absent from the tree of a commit. If you
+want to "completely forget" a file, it does not matter when it entered
+history, so we also add `\--ignore-unmatch`:
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm --cached filename' HEAD
+git filter-branch --index-filter 'git rm --cached --ignore-unmatch filename' HEAD
--------------------------------------------------------------------------
Now, you will get the rewritten history saved in HEAD.
@@ -318,6 +340,47 @@ git filter-branch --index-filter \
---------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Checklist for Shrinking a Repository
+------------------------------------
+
+git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
+usually with some combination of `\--index-filter` and
+`\--subdirectory-filter`. People expect the resulting repository to
+be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to
+actually make it smaller, because git tries hard not to lose your
+objects until you tell it to. First make sure that:
+
+* You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved
+ over its lifetime. `git log \--name-only \--follow \--all \--
+ filename` can help you find renames.
+
+* You really filtered all refs: use `\--tag-name-filter cat \--
+ \--all` when calling git-filter-branch.
+
+Then there are two ways to get a smaller repository. A safer way is
+to clone, that keeps your original intact.
+
+* Clone it with `git clone +++file:///path/to/repo+++`. The clone
+ will not have the removed objects. See linkgit:git-clone[1]. (Note
+ that cloning with a plain path just hardlinks everything!)
+
+If you really don't want to clone it, for whatever reasons, check the
+following points instead (in this order). This is a very destructive
+approach, so *make a backup* or go back to cloning it. You have been
+warned.
+
+* Remove the original refs backed up by git-filter-branch: say `git
+ for-each-ref \--format="%(refname)" refs/original/ | xargs -n 1 git
+ update-ref -d`.
+
+* Expire all reflogs with `git reflog expire \--expire=now \--all`.
+
+* Garbage collect all unreferenced objects with `git gc \--prune=now`
+ (or if your git-gc is not new enough to support arguments to
+ `\--prune`, use `git repack -ad; git prune` instead).
+
+
Author
------
Written by Petr "Pasky" Baudis <pasky@suse.cz>,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index eae6c0e..5061d3e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Iterate over all refs that match `<pattern>` and show them
according to the given `<format>`, after sorting them according
-to the given set of `<key>`. If `<max>` is given, stop after
+to the given set of `<key>`. If `<count>` is given, stop after
showing that many refs. The interpolated values in `<format>`
can optionally be quoted as string literals in the specified
host language allowing their direct evaluation in that language.
@@ -74,6 +74,7 @@ For all objects, the following names can be used:
refname::
The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
+ For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
objecttype::
The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index adb4ea7..c2eb5fa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git format-patch' [-k] [-o <dir> | --stdout] [--thread]
- [--attach[=<boundary>] | --inline[=<boundary>]]
+ [--attach[=<boundary>] | --inline[=<boundary>] |
+ [--no-attach]]
[-s | --signoff] [<common diff options>]
[-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
@@ -46,7 +47,8 @@ applies to that command line and you do not get "everything
since the beginning of the time". If you want to format
everything since project inception to one commit, say "git
format-patch \--root <commit>" to make it clear that it is the
-latter case.
+latter case. If you want to format a single commit, you can do
+this with "git format-patch -1 <commit>".
By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
@@ -58,8 +60,10 @@ output, unless the --stdout option is specified.
If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise
they are created in the current working directory.
-If -n is specified, instead of "[PATCH] Subject", the first line
-is formatted as "[PATCH n/m] Subject".
+By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
+the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
+Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use -n. To omit
+patch numbers from the subject, use -N
If given --thread, 'git-format-patch' will generate In-Reply-To and
References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
@@ -81,7 +85,7 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
-n::
--numbered::
- Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format.
+ Name output in '[PATCH n/m]' format, even with a single patch.
-N::
--no-numbered::
@@ -93,7 +97,6 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
--numbered-files::
Output file names will be a simple number sequence
without the default first line of the commit appended.
- Mutually exclusive with the --stdout option.
-k::
--keep-subject::
@@ -114,15 +117,27 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
second part, with "Content-Disposition: attachment".
+--no-attach::
+ Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
+ configuration setting.
+
--inline[=<boundary>]::
Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
second part, with "Content-Disposition: inline".
---thread::
+--thread[=<style>]::
Add In-Reply-To and References headers to make the second and
subsequent mails appear as replies to the first. Also generates
the Message-Id header to reference.
++
+The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
+'Shallow' threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
+series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
+`\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order. 'Deep'
+threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one. If not
+specified, defaults to the 'format.thread' configuration, or `shallow`
+if that is not set.
--in-reply-to=Message-Id::
Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
@@ -171,7 +186,8 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message
in the repository configuration, new defaults for the subject prefix
-and file suffix, and number patches when outputting more than one.
+and file suffix, control attachements, and number patches when outputting
+more than one.
------------
[format]
@@ -180,6 +196,7 @@ and file suffix, and number patches when outputting more than one.
suffix = .txt
numbered = auto
cc = <email>
+ attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index d5a7647..287c4fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -79,7 +79,8 @@ that aren't readable from any of the specified head nodes.
So for example
- git fsck --unreachable HEAD $(cat .git/refs/heads/*)
+ git fsck --unreachable HEAD \
+ $(git for-each-ref --format="%(objectname)" refs/heads)
will do quite a _lot_ of verification on the tree. There are a few
extra validity tests to be added (make sure that tree objects are
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 7086eea..b292e98 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-gc - Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the local repository
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet]
+'git gc' [--aggressive] [--auto] [--quiet] [--prune=<date> | --no-prune]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -59,6 +59,14 @@ are consolidated into a single pack by using the `-A` option of
'git-repack'. Setting `gc.autopacklimit` to 0 disables
automatic consolidation of packs.
+--prune=<date>::
+ Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
+ overrideable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`). This
+ option is on by default.
+
+--no-prune::
+ Do not prune any loose objects.
+
--quiet::
Suppress all progress reports.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index fa4d133..fccb82d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
[-F | --fixed-strings] [-n]
[-l | --files-with-matches] [-L | --files-without-match]
+ [-z | --null]
[-c | --count] [--all-match]
+ [--color | --no-color]
[-A <post-context>] [-B <pre-context>] [-C <context>]
[-f <file>] [-e] <pattern>
[--and|--or|--not|(|)|-e <pattern>...] [<tree>...]
@@ -94,11 +96,23 @@ OPTIONS
For better compatibility with 'git-diff', --name-only is a
synonym for --files-with-matches.
+-z::
+--null::
+ Output \0 instead of the character that normally follows a
+ file name.
+
-c::
--count::
Instead of showing every matched line, show the number of
lines that match.
+--color::
+ Show colored matches.
+
+--no-color::
+ Turn off match highlighting, even when the configuration file
+ gives the default to color output.
+
-[ABC] <context>::
Show `context` trailing (`A` -- after), or leading (`B`
-- before), or both (`C` -- context) lines, and place a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 0e650f4..d0bc98b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -65,9 +65,28 @@ git gui blame v0.99.8 Makefile::
example the file is read from the object database and not
the working directory.
+git gui blame --line=100 Makefile::
+
+ Loads annotations as described above and automatically
+ scrolls the view to center on line '100'.
+
git gui citool::
Make one commit and return to the shell when it is complete.
+ This command returns a non-zero exit code if the window was
+ closed in any way other than by making a commit.
+
+git gui citool --amend::
+
+ Automatically enter the 'Amend Last Commit' mode of
+ the interface.
+
+git gui citool --nocommit::
+
+ Behave as normal citool, but instead of making a commit
+ simply terminate with a zero exit code. It still checks
+ that the index does not contain any unmerged entries, so
+ you can use it as a GUI version of linkgit:git-mergetool[1]
git citool::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index ac928e1..0af40cf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,9 @@ git-hash-object - Compute object ID and optionally creates a blob from a file
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--stdin | --stdin-paths] [--] <file>...
+[verse]
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--path=<file>|--no-filters] [--stdin] [--] <file>...
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths < <list-of-paths>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -35,6 +37,22 @@ OPTIONS
--stdin-paths::
Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+--path::
+ Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
+ file does not directly influence on the hash value, but path is
+ used to determine what git filters should be applied to the object
+ before it can be placed to the object database, and, as result of
+ applying filters, the actual blob put into the object database may
+ differ from the given file. This option is mainly useful for hashing
+ temporary files located outside of the working directory or files
+ read from stdin.
+
+--no-filters::
+ Hash the contents as is, ignoring any input filter that would
+ have been chosen by the attributes mechanism, including crlf
+ conversion. If the file is read from standard input then this
+ is always implied, unless the --path option is given.
+
Author
------
Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index f414583..d9b9c34 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -112,7 +112,9 @@ For example, this configuration:
will try to use konqueror first. But this may fail (for example if
DISPLAY is not set) and in that case emacs' woman mode will be tried.
-If everything fails the 'man' program will be tried anyway.
+If everything fails, or if no viewer is configured, the viewer specified
+in the GIT_MAN_VIEWER environment variable will be tried. If that
+fails too, the 'man' program will be tried anyway.
man.<tool>.path
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index b3d8da3..024084b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-imap-send(1)
NAME
----
-git-imap-send - Dump a mailbox from stdin into an imap folder
+git-imap-send - Send a collection of patches from stdin to an IMAP folder
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,9 +13,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command uploads a mailbox generated with git-format-patch
-into an imap drafts folder. This allows patches to be sent as
-other email is sent with mail clients that cannot read mailbox
+This command uploads a mailbox generated with 'git-format-patch'
+into an IMAP drafts folder. This allows patches to be sent as
+other email is when using mail clients that cannot read mailbox
files directly.
Typical usage is something like:
@@ -26,24 +26,99 @@ git format-patch --signoff --stdout --attach origin | git imap-send
CONFIGURATION
-------------
-'git-imap-send' requires the following values in the repository
-configuration file (shown with examples):
+To use the tool, imap.folder and either imap.tunnel or imap.host must be set
+to appropriate values.
+
+Variables
+~~~~~~~~~
+
+imap.folder::
+ The folder to drop the mails into, which is typically the Drafts
+ folder. For example: "INBOX.Drafts", "INBOX/Drafts" or
+ "[Gmail]/Drafts". Required to use imap-send.
+
+imap.tunnel::
+ Command used to setup a tunnel to the IMAP server through which
+ commands will be piped instead of using a direct network connection
+ to the server. Required when imap.host is not set to use imap-send.
+
+imap.host::
+ A URL identifying the server. Use a `imap://` prefix for non-secure
+ connections and a `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
+ Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required to use imap-send
+ otherwise.
+
+imap.user::
+ The username to use when logging in to the server.
+
+imap.password::
+ The password to use when logging in to the server.
+
+imap.port::
+ An integer port number to connect to on the server.
+ Defaults to 143 for imap:// hosts and 993 for imaps:// hosts.
+ Ignored when imap.tunnel is set.
+
+imap.sslverify::
+ A boolean to enable/disable verification of the server certificate
+ used by the SSL/TLS connection. Default is `true`. Ignored when
+ imap.tunnel is set.
+
+imap.preformattedHTML::
+ A boolean to enable/disable the use of html encoding when sending
+ a patch. An html encoded patch will be bracketed with <pre>
+ and have a content type of text/html. Ironically, enabling this
+ option causes Thunderbird to send the patch as a plain/text,
+ format=fixed email. Default is `false`.
+
+Examples
+~~~~~~~~
+
+Using tunnel mode:
..........................
[imap]
- Folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ tunnel = "ssh -q -C user@example.com /usr/bin/imapd ./Maildir 2> /dev/null"
+..........................
+Using direct mode:
+
+.........................
[imap]
- Tunnel = "ssh -q user@server.com /usr/bin/imapd ./Maildir 2> /dev/null"
+ folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ host = imap://imap.example.com
+ user = bob
+ pass = p4ssw0rd
+..........................
+Using direct mode with SSL:
+
+.........................
[imap]
- Host = imap.server.com
- User = bob
- Pass = pwd
- Port = 143
+ folder = "INBOX.Drafts"
+ host = imaps://imap.example.com
+ user = bob
+ pass = p4ssw0rd
+ port = 123
+ sslverify = false
..........................
+CAUTION
+-------
+It is still your responsibility to make sure that the email message
+sent by your email program meets the standards of your project.
+Many projects do not like patches to be attached. Some mail
+agents will transform patches (e.g. wrap lines, send them as
+format=flowed) in ways that make them fail. You will get angry
+flames ridiculing you if you don't check this.
+
+Thunderbird in particular is known to be problematic. Thunderbird
+users may wish to visit this web page for more information:
+ http://kb.mozillazine.org/Plain_text_e-mail_-_Thunderbird#Completely_plain_email
+
+
BUGS
----
Doesn't handle lines starting with "From " in the message body.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 0446bad..34cf4e5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git log' <option>...
+'git log' [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -40,6 +40,10 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
--decorate::
Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown.
+--source::
+ Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
+ commit was reached.
+
--full-diff::
Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
@@ -57,8 +61,11 @@ include::diff-options.txt[]
Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown
its size is not included.
-<path>...::
- Show only commits that affect any of the specified paths.
+[\--] <path>...::
+ Show only commits that affect any of the specified paths. To
+ prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need
+ to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from options or
+ refnames.
include::rev-list-options.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 9f85d60..057a021 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -126,7 +126,7 @@ OPTIONS
--abbrev[=<n>]::
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
- lines, show only handful hexdigits prefix.
+ lines, show only a partial prefix.
Non default number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
\--::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
index 4c7262f..f68e5c5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git ls-tree' [-d] [-r] [-t] [-l] [-z]
- [--name-only] [--name-status] [--full-name] [--abbrev=[<n>]]
+ [--name-only] [--name-status] [--full-name] [--full-tree] [--abbrev=[<n>]]
<tree-ish> [paths...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -30,6 +30,8 @@ in the current working directory. Note that:
'sub/dir' in 'HEAD'). You don't want to give a tree that is not at the
root level (e.g. 'git ls-tree -r HEAD:sub dir') in this case, as that
would result in asking for 'sub/sub/dir' in the 'HEAD' commit.
+ However, the current working directory can be ignored by passing
+ --full-tree option.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -59,13 +61,17 @@ OPTIONS
--abbrev[=<n>]::
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
- lines, show only handful hexdigits prefix.
+ lines, show only a partial prefix.
Non default number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
--full-name::
Instead of showing the path names relative to the current working
directory, show the full path names.
+--full-tree::
+ Do not limit the listing to the current working directory.
+ Implies --full-name.
+
paths::
When paths are given, show them (note that this isn't really raw
pathnames, but rather a list of patterns to match). Otherwise
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 31eccea..8d95aaa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reading a single e-mail message from the standard input, and
+Reads a single e-mail message from the standard input, and
writes the commit log message in <msg> file, and the patches in
<patch> file. The author name, e-mail and e-mail subject are
written out to the standard output to be used by 'git-am'
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 1a7ecbf..767486c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -8,26 +8,80 @@ git-merge-base - Find as good common ancestors as possible for a merge
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git merge-base' [--all] <commit> <commit>
+'git merge-base' [--all] <commit> <commit>...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git-merge-base' finds as good a common ancestor as possible between
-the two commits. That is, given two commits A and B, `git merge-base A
-B` will output a commit which is reachable from both A and B through
-the parent relationship.
+'git-merge-base' finds best common ancestor(s) between two commits to use
+in a three-way merge. One common ancestor is 'better' than another common
+ancestor if the latter is an ancestor of the former. A common ancestor
+that does not have any better common ancestor is a 'best common
+ancestor', i.e. a 'merge base'. Note that there can be more than one
+merge base for a pair of commits.
-Given a selection of equally good common ancestors it should not be
-relied on to decide in any particular way.
-
-The 'git-merge-base' algorithm is still in flux - use the source...
+Among the two commits to compute the merge base from, one is specified by
+the first commit argument on the command line; the other commit is a
+(possibly hypothetical) commit that is a merge across all the remaining
+commits on the command line. As the most common special case, specifying only
+two commits on the command line means computing the merge base between
+the given two commits.
OPTIONS
-------
--all::
- Output all common ancestors for the two commits instead of
- just one.
+ Output all merge bases for the commits, instead of just one.
+
+DISCUSSION
+----------
+
+Given two commits 'A' and 'B', `git merge-base A B` will output a commit
+which is reachable from both 'A' and 'B' through the parent relationship.
+
+For example, with this topology:
+
+ o---o---o---B
+ /
+ ---o---1---o---o---o---A
+
+the merge base between 'A' and 'B' is '1'.
+
+Given three commits 'A', 'B' and 'C', `git merge-base A B C` will compute the
+merge base between 'A' and a hypothetical commit 'M', which is a merge
+between 'B' and 'C'. For example, with this topology:
+
+ o---o---o---o---C
+ /
+ / o---o---o---B
+ / /
+ ---2---1---o---o---o---A
+
+the result of `git merge-base A B C` is '1'. This is because the
+equivalent topology with a merge commit 'M' between 'B' and 'C' is:
+
+
+ o---o---o---o---o
+ / \
+ / o---o---o---o---M
+ / /
+ ---2---1---o---o---o---A
+
+and the result of `git merge-base A M` is '1'. Commit '2' is also a
+common ancestor between 'A' and 'M', but '1' is a better common ancestor,
+because '2' is an ancestor of '1'. Hence, '2' is not a merge base.
+
+When the history involves criss-cross merges, there can be more than one
+'best' common ancestor for two commits. For example, with this topology:
+
+ ---1---o---A
+ \ /
+ X
+ / \
+ ---2---o---o---B
+
+both '1' and '2' are merge-bases of A and B. Neither one is better than
+the other (both are 'best' merge bases). When the `--all` option is not given,
+it is unspecified which best one is output.
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
index 024ec01..3035373 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
@@ -15,17 +15,17 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git-file-merge' incorporates all changes that lead from the `<base-file>`
+'git-merge-file' incorporates all changes that lead from the `<base-file>`
to `<other-file>` into `<current-file>`. The result ordinarily goes into
`<current-file>`. 'git-merge-file' is useful for combining separate changes
to an original. Suppose `<base-file>` is the original, and both
-`<current-file>` and `<other-file>` are modifications of `<base-file>`.
-Then 'git-merge-file' combines both changes.
+`<current-file>` and `<other-file>` are modifications of `<base-file>`,
+then 'git-merge-file' combines both changes.
A conflict occurs if both `<current-file>` and `<other-file>` have changes
in a common segment of lines. If a conflict is found, 'git-merge-file'
-normally outputs a warning and brackets the conflict with <<<<<<< and
->>>>>>> lines. A typical conflict will look like this:
+normally outputs a warning and brackets the conflict with lines containing
+<<<<<<< and >>>>>>> markers. A typical conflict will look like this:
<<<<<<< A
lines in file A
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ OPTIONS
`<current-file>`.
-q::
- Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
+ Quiet; do not warn about conflicts.
EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index ff088c5..123e6d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -29,11 +29,11 @@ OPTIONS
Instead of stopping at the first failed merge, do all of them
in one shot - continue with merging even when previous merges
returned errors, and only return the error code after all the
- merges are over.
+ merges.
-q::
- Do not complain about failed merge program (the merge program
- failure usually indicates conflicts during merge). This is for
+ Do not complain about a failed merge program (a merge program
+ failure usually indicates conflicts during the merge). This is for
porcelains which might want to emit custom messages.
If 'git-merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
index dbb0c18..f869a7f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-tree.txt
@@ -14,14 +14,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Reads three treeish, and output trivial merge results and
conflicting stages to the standard output. This is similar to
-what three-way read-tree -m does, but instead of storing the
+what three-way 'git read-tree -m' does, but instead of storing the
results in the index, the command outputs the entries to the
standard output.
This is meant to be used by higher level scripts to compute
-merge results outside index, and stuff the results back into the
+merge results outside of the index, and stuff the results back into the
index. For this reason, the output from the command omits
-entries that match <branch1> tree.
+entries that match the <branch1> tree.
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 17a15ac..427ad90 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -41,7 +41,7 @@ include::merge-strategies.txt[]
If you tried a merge which resulted in a complex conflicts and
-would want to start over, you can recover with 'git-reset'.
+want to start over, you can recover with 'git-reset'.
CONFIGURATION
-------------
@@ -69,20 +69,20 @@ Three kinds of merge can happen:
simplest case, called "Already up-to-date."
* `HEAD` is already contained in the merged commit. This is the
- most common case especially when involved through 'git pull':
- you are tracking an upstream repository, committed no local
+ most common case especially when invoked from 'git pull':
+ you are tracking an upstream repository, have committed no local
changes and now you want to update to a newer upstream revision.
- Your `HEAD` (and the index) is updated to at point the merged
+ Your `HEAD` (and the index) is updated to point at the merged
commit, without creating an extra merge commit. This is
called "Fast-forward".
* Both the merged commit and `HEAD` are independent and must be
- tied together by a merge commit that has them both as its parents.
+ tied together by a merge commit that has both of them as its parents.
The rest of this section describes this "True merge" case.
The chosen merge strategy merges the two commits into a single
new source tree.
-When things cleanly merge, these things happen:
+When things merge cleanly, this is what happens:
1. The results are updated both in the index file and in your
working tree;
@@ -91,16 +91,16 @@ When things cleanly merge, these things happen:
4. The `HEAD` pointer gets advanced.
Because of 2., we require that the original state of the index
-file to match exactly the current `HEAD` commit; otherwise we
+file matches exactly the current `HEAD` commit; otherwise we
will write out your local changes already registered in your
index file along with the merge result, which is not good.
-Because 1. involves only the paths different between your
+Because 1. involves only those paths differing between your
branch and the remote branch you are pulling from during the
merge (which is typically a fraction of the whole tree), you can
have local modifications in your working tree as long as they do
not overlap with what the merge updates.
-When there are conflicts, these things happen:
+When there are conflicts, the following happens:
1. `HEAD` stays the same.
@@ -111,28 +111,105 @@ When there are conflicts, these things happen:
versions; stage1 stores the version from the common ancestor,
stage2 from `HEAD`, and stage3 from the remote branch (you
can inspect the stages with `git ls-files -u`). The working
- tree files have the result of "merge" program; i.e. 3-way
- merge result with familiar conflict markers `<<< === >>>`.
+ tree files contain the result of the "merge" program; i.e. 3-way
+ merge results with familiar conflict markers `<<< === >>>`.
4. No other changes are done. In particular, the local
modifications you had before you started merge will stay the
same and the index entries for them stay as they were,
i.e. matching `HEAD`.
+HOW CONFLICTS ARE PRESENTED
+---------------------------
+
+During a merge, the working tree files are updated to reflect the result
+of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor's version,
+non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the file while the
+other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are incorporated in the
+final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same area,
+however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
+resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.
+
+By default, git uses the same style as that is used by "merge" program
+from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:
+
+------------
+Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
+ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
+<<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
+Conflict resolution is hard;
+let's go shopping.
+=======
+Git makes conflict resolution easy.
+>>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
+And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.
+------------
+
+The area where a pair of conflicting changes happened is marked with markers
+`<<<<<<<`, `=======`, and `>>>>>>>`. The part before the `=======`
+is typically your side, and the part afterwards is typically their side.
+
+The default format does not show what the original said in the conflicting
+area. You cannot tell how many lines are deleted and replaced with
+Barbie's remark on your side. The only thing you can tell is that your
+side wants to say it is hard and you'd prefer to go shopping, while the
+other side wants to claim it is easy.
+
+An alternative style can be used by setting the "merge.conflictstyle"
+configuration variable to "diff3". In "diff3" style, the above conflict
+may look like this:
+
+------------
+Here are lines that are either unchanged from the common
+ancestor, or cleanly resolved because only one side changed.
+<<<<<<< yours:sample.txt
+Conflict resolution is hard;
+let's go shopping.
+|||||||
+Conflict resolution is hard.
+=======
+Git makes conflict resolution easy.
+>>>>>>> theirs:sample.txt
+And here is another line that is cleanly resolved or unmodified.
+------------
+
+In addition to the `<<<<<<<`, `=======`, and `>>>>>>>` markers, it uses
+another `|||||||` marker that is followed by the original text. You can
+tell that the original just stated a fact, and your side simply gave in to
+that statement and gave up, while the other side tried to have a more
+positive attitude. You can sometimes come up with a better resolution by
+viewing the original.
+
+
+HOW TO RESOLVE CONFLICTS
+------------------------
+
After seeing a conflict, you can do two things:
- * Decide not to merge. The only clean-up you need are to reset
+ * Decide not to merge. The only clean-ups you need are to reset
the index file to the `HEAD` commit to reverse 2. and to clean
up working tree changes made by 2. and 3.; 'git-reset --hard' can
be used for this.
- * Resolve the conflicts. `git diff` would report only the
- conflicting paths because of the above 2. and 3.
- Edit the working tree files into a desirable shape
- ('git mergetool' can ease this task), 'git-add' or 'git-rm'
- them, to make the index file contain what the merge result
- should be, and run 'git-commit' to commit the result.
+ * Resolve the conflicts. Git will mark the conflicts in
+ the working tree. Edit the files into shape and
+ 'git-add' them to the index. Use 'git-commit' to seal the deal.
+
+You can work through the conflict with a number of tools:
+
+ * Use a mergetool. 'git mergetool' to launch a graphical
+ mergetool which will work you through the merge.
+
+ * Look at the diffs. 'git diff' will show a three-way diff,
+ highlighting changes from both the HEAD and remote versions.
+
+ * Look at the diffs on their own. 'git log --merge -p <path>'
+ will show diffs first for the HEAD version and then the
+ remote version.
+ * Look at the originals. 'git show :1:filename' shows the
+ common ancestor, 'git show :2:filename' shows the HEAD
+ version and 'git show :3:filename' shows the remote version.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index e0b2703..5d3c632 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ git-mergetool - Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [<file>]...
+'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y|--no-prompt|--prompt] [<file>]...
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -22,7 +22,8 @@ with merge conflicts.
OPTIONS
-------
--t or --tool=<tool>::
+-t <tool>::
+--tool=<tool>::
Use the merge resolution program specified by <tool>.
Valid merge tools are:
kdiff3, tkdiff, meld, xxdiff, emerge, vimdiff, gvimdiff, ecmerge, and opendiff
@@ -38,7 +39,7 @@ can configure the absolute path to kdiff3 by setting
`mergetool.kdiff3.path`. Otherwise, 'git-mergetool' assumes the
tool is available in PATH.
+
-Instead of running one of the known merge tool programs
+Instead of running one of the known merge tool programs,
'git-mergetool' can be customized to run an alternative program
by specifying the command line to invoke in a configuration
variable `mergetool.<tool>.cmd`.
@@ -55,11 +56,21 @@ of the file to which the merge tool should write the result of the
merge resolution.
+
If the custom merge tool correctly indicates the success of a
-merge resolution with its exit code then the configuration
+merge resolution with its exit code, then the configuration
variable `mergetool.<tool>.trustExitCode` can be set to `true`.
Otherwise, 'git-mergetool' will prompt the user to indicate the
success of the resolution after the custom tool has exited.
+-y::
+--no-prompt::
+ Don't prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution
+ program.
+
+--prompt::
+ Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program.
+ This is the default behaviour; the option is provided to
+ override any configuration settings.
+
Author
------
Written by Theodore Y Ts'o <tytso@mit.edu>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
index abd2237..7ca8a7b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-name-rev.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ Enter 'git-name-rev':
------------
% git name-rev 33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a
-33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a tags/v0.99^0~940
+33db5f4d9027a10e477ccf054b2c1ab94f74c85a tags/v0.99~940
------------
Now you are wiser, because you know that it happened 940 revisions before v0.99.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 8c354bd..7d4c1a7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -109,6 +109,11 @@ base-name::
The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
+--honor-pack-keep::
+ This flag causes an object already in a local pack that
+ has a .keep file to be ignored, even if it appears in the
+ standard input.
+
--incremental::
This flag causes an object already in a pack ignored
even if it appears in the standard input.
@@ -116,7 +121,7 @@ base-name::
--local::
This flag is similar to `--incremental`; instead of
ignoring all packed objects, it only ignores objects
- that are packed and not in the local object store
+ that are packed and/or not in the local object store
(i.e. borrowed from an alternate).
--non-empty::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 477785e..253fc0f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ IOW, you can use this thing to look for likely duplicate commits.
When dealing with 'git-diff-tree' output, it takes advantage of
the fact that the patch is prefixed with the object name of the
-commit, and outputs two 40-byte hexadecimal string. The first
+commit, and outputs two 40-byte hexadecimal strings. The first
string is the patch ID, and the second string is the commit ID.
This can be used to make a mapping from patch ID to commit ID.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-prune.txt b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
index 54f1dab..da6055d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-prune.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-prune.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-prune - Prune all unreachable objects from the object database
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git-prune' [-n] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
+'git-prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>] [--] [<head>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -34,6 +34,9 @@ OPTIONS
Do not remove anything; just report what it would
remove.
+-v::
+ Report all removed objects.
+
\--::
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 45c9643..fd53c49 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -9,8 +9,8 @@ git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git push' [--all] [--dry-run] [--tags] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
- [--repo=all] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
+'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
+ [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
[<repository> <refspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -24,40 +24,45 @@ every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
-OPTIONS
--------
+OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
+------------------
<repository>::
The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
- operation. See the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below.
+ operation. This parameter can be either a URL
+ (see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
+ of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
<refspec>...::
- The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is
- `+?<src>:<dst>`; that is, an optional plus `{plus}`, followed
- by the source ref, followed by a colon `:`, followed by
- the destination ref.
+ The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
+ `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+ by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
+ It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
+ in the remote repository is to be updated.
+
-The <src> side represents the source branch (or arbitrary
-"SHA1 expression", such as `master~4` (four parents before the
-tip of `master` branch); see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]) that you
-want to push. The <dst> side represents the destination location.
+The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
+it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
+`HEAD` (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]).
+
-The local ref that matches <src> is used
-to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst> (or, if no <dst> was
-specified, the same ref that <src> referred to locally). If
-the optional leading plus `+` is used, the remote ref is updated
-even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
+The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
+push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
+be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
+updated.
+
-`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
+The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
+on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
+update can fast forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
+you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
+fast forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
+EXAMPLES below for details.
+
-A parameter <ref> without a colon pushes the <ref> from the source
-repository to the destination repository under the same name.
+`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
+
Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
+
-The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
-directs git to push "matching" heads: for every head that exists on
-the local side, the remote side is updated if a head of the same name
+The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
+directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
+the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
@@ -86,14 +91,12 @@ nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
line.
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
+--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
a directory on the default $PATH.
---exec=<git-receive-pack>::
- Same as \--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>.
-
-f::
--force::
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
@@ -101,9 +104,23 @@ nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
This flag disables the check. This can cause the
remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
---repo=<repo>::
- When no repository is specified the command defaults to
- "origin"; this overrides it.
+--repo=<repository>::
+ This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
+ passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git-push' derives the
+ remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
+ branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
+ the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
+ can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
+ the difference between these two commands
++
+--------------------------
+git push public #1
+git push --repo=public #2
+--------------------------
++
+is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
+only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
+useful if you write an alias or script around 'git-push'.
--thin::
--no-thin::
@@ -170,6 +187,28 @@ reason::
Examples
--------
+git push::
+ Works like `git push <remote>`, where <remote> is the
+ current branch's remote (or `origin`, if no remote is
+ configured for the current branch).
+
+git push origin::
+ Without additional configuration, works like
+ `git push origin :`.
++
+The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can be
+configured by setting the `push` option of the remote.
++
+For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to `origin`
+use `git config remote.origin.push HEAD`. Any valid <refspec> (like
+the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the default for
+`git push origin`.
+
+git push origin :::
+ Push "matching" branches to `origin`. See
+ <refspec> in the <<OPTIONS,OPTIONS>> section above for a
+ description of "matching" branches.
+
git push origin master::
Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
(most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
@@ -177,9 +216,9 @@ git push origin master::
with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
created.
-git push origin :experimental::
- Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
- (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
+git push origin HEAD::
+ A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
+ remote.
git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
@@ -187,6 +226,11 @@ git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
`refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
+git push origin HEAD:master::
+ Push the current branch to the remote ref matching `master` in the
+ `origin` repository. This form is convenient to push the current
+ branch without thinking about its local name.
+
git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
@@ -194,6 +238,35 @@ git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
the ref name on its own will work.
+git push origin :experimental::
+ Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
+ (e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
+
+git push origin {plus}dev:master::
+ Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
+ allowing non-fast forward updates. *This can leave unreferenced
+ commits dangling in the origin repository.* Consider the
+ following situation, where a fast forward is not possible:
++
+----
+ o---o---o---A---B origin/master
+ \
+ X---Y---Z dev
+----
++
+The above command would change the origin repository to
++
+----
+ A---B (unnamed branch)
+ /
+ o---o---o---X---Y---Z master
+----
++
+Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic name,
+and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be removed by
+a `git gc` command on the origin repository.
+
+
Author
------
Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>, later rewritten in C
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index 6f4b9b0..7160fa1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -160,7 +160,10 @@ Here are the "carry forward" rules:
0 nothing nothing nothing (does not happen)
1 nothing nothing exists use M
2 nothing exists nothing remove path from index
- 3 nothing exists exists use M
+ 3 nothing exists exists, use M if "initial checkout"
+ H == M keep index otherwise
+ exists fail
+ H != M
clean I==H I==M
------------------
@@ -207,6 +210,12 @@ you picked it up via e-mail in a patch form), `git diff-index
merge, but it would not show in `git diff-index --cached $M`
output after two-tree merge.
+Case #3 is slightly tricky and needs explanation. The result from this
+rule logically should be to remove the path if the user staged the removal
+of the path and then switching to a new branch. That however will prevent
+the initial checkout from happening, so the rule is modified to use M (new
+tree) only when the contents of the index is empty. Otherwise the removal
+of the path is kept as long as $H and $M are the same.
3-Way Merge
~~~~~~~~~~~
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 59c1b02..3d5a066 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -8,10 +8,11 @@ git-rebase - Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [-v | --verbose] [-m | --merge]
- [-s <strategy> | --strategy=<strategy>]
- [-C<n>] [ --whitespace=<option>] [-p | --preserve-merges]
- [--onto <newbase>] <upstream> [<branch>]
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--onto <newbase>]
+ <upstream> [<branch>]
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] --onto <newbase>
+ --root [<branch>]
+
'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort
DESCRIPTION
@@ -22,7 +23,8 @@ it remains on the current branch.
All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not
in <upstream> are saved to a temporary area. This is the same set
-of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD`.
+of commits that would be shown by `git log <upstream>..HEAD` (or
+`git log HEAD`, if --root is specified).
The current branch is reset to <upstream>, or <newbase> if the
--onto option was supplied. This has the exact same effect as
@@ -92,7 +94,7 @@ branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch
from the latter branch, using `rebase --onto`.
First let's assume your 'topic' is based on branch 'next'.
-For example feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
+For example, a feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
functionality which is found in 'next'.
------------
@@ -103,9 +105,9 @@ functionality which is found in 'next'.
o---o---o topic
------------
-We would want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master',
-for example because the functionality 'topic' branch depend on
-got merged into more stable 'master' branch, like this:
+We want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master'; for example,
+because the functionality on which 'topic' depends was merged into the
+more stable 'master' branch. We want our tree to look like this:
------------
o---o---o---o---o master
@@ -190,6 +192,13 @@ Alternatively, you can undo the 'git-rebase' with
git rebase --abort
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+
+rebase.stat::
+ Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
+ rebase. False by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
<newbase>::
@@ -230,7 +239,18 @@ OPTIONS
-v::
--verbose::
- Display a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase.
+ Be verbose. Implies --stat.
+
+--stat::
+ Show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. The
+ diffstat is also controlled by the configuration option rebase.stat.
+
+-n::
+--no-stat::
+ Do not show a diffstat as part of the rebase process.
+
+--no-verify::
+ This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also linkgit:githooks[5].
-C<n>::
Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before
@@ -238,9 +258,22 @@ OPTIONS
context exist they all must match. By default no context is
ever ignored.
---whitespace=<nowarn|warn|error|error-all|strip>::
+-f::
+--force-rebase::
+ Force the rebase even if the current branch is a descendant
+ of the commit you are rebasing onto. Normally the command will
+ exit with the message "Current branch is up to date" in such a
+ situation.
+
+--whitespace=<option>::
This flag is passed to the 'git-apply' program
(see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
+ Incompatible with the --interactive option.
+
+--committer-date-is-author-date::
+--ignore-date::
+ These flags are passed to 'git-am' to easily change the dates
+ of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
-i::
--interactive::
@@ -250,18 +283,25 @@ OPTIONS
-p::
--preserve-merges::
- Instead of ignoring merges, try to recreate them. This option
- only works in interactive mode.
+ Instead of ignoring merges, try to recreate them.
+
+--root::
+ Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
+ limiting them with an <upstream>. This allows you to rebase
+ the root commit(s) on a branch. Must be used with --onto, and
+ will skip changes already contained in <newbase> (instead of
+ <upstream>). When used together with --preserve-merges, 'all'
+ root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
+ instead.
include::merge-strategies.txt[]
NOTES
-----
-When you rebase a branch, you are changing its history in a way that
-will cause problems for anyone who already has a copy of the branch
-in their repository and tries to pull updates from you. You should
-understand the implications of using 'git-rebase' on a repository that
-you share.
+
+You should understand the implications of using 'git-rebase' on a
+repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
+below.
When the git-rebase command is run, it will first execute a "pre-rebase"
hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity checks and
@@ -396,6 +436,127 @@ consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use
after each commit, test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.
+RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE
+-------------------------------
+
+Rebasing (or any other form of rewriting) a branch that others have
+based work on is a bad idea: anyone downstream of it is forced to
+manually fix their history. This section explains how to do the fix
+from the downstream's point of view. The real fix, however, would be
+to avoid rebasing the upstream in the first place.
+
+To illustrate, suppose you are in a situation where someone develops a
+'subsystem' branch, and you are working on a 'topic' that is dependent
+on this 'subsystem'. You might end up with a history like the
+following:
+
+------------
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \
+ o---o---o---o---o subsystem
+ \
+ *---*---* topic
+------------
+
+If 'subsystem' is rebased against 'master', the following happens:
+
+------------
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \ \
+ o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
+ \
+ *---*---* topic
+------------
+
+If you now continue development as usual, and eventually merge 'topic'
+to 'subsystem', the commits from 'subsystem' will remain duplicated forever:
+
+------------
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \ \
+ o---o---o---o---o o'--o'--o'--o'--o'--M subsystem
+ \ /
+ *---*---*-..........-*--* topic
+------------
+
+Such duplicates are generally frowned upon because they clutter up
+history, making it harder to follow. To clean things up, you need to
+transplant the commits on 'topic' to the new 'subsystem' tip, i.e.,
+rebase 'topic'. This becomes a ripple effect: anyone downstream from
+'topic' is forced to rebase too, and so on!
+
+There are two kinds of fixes, discussed in the following subsections:
+
+Easy case: The changes are literally the same.::
+
+ This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase was a simple rebase and
+ had no conflicts.
+
+Hard case: The changes are not the same.::
+
+ This happens if the 'subsystem' rebase had conflicts, or used
+ `\--interactive` to omit, edit, or squash commits; or if the
+ upstream used one of `commit \--amend`, `reset`, or
+ `filter-branch`.
+
+
+The easy case
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
+'subsystem' are literally the same before and after the rebase
+'subsystem' did.
+
+In that case, the fix is easy because 'git-rebase' knows to skip
+changes that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say
+(assuming you're on 'topic')
+------------
+ $ git rebase subsystem
+------------
+you will end up with the fixed history
+------------
+ o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o master
+ \
+ o'--o'--o'--o'--o' subsystem
+ \
+ *---*---* topic
+------------
+
+
+The hard case
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Things get more complicated if the 'subsystem' changes do not exactly
+correspond to the ones before the rebase.
+
+NOTE: While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
+ even in the hard case, it may have unintended consequences. For
+ example, a commit that was removed via `git rebase
+ \--interactive` will be **resurrected**!
+
+The idea is to manually tell 'git-rebase' "where the old 'subsystem'
+ended and your 'topic' began", that is, what the old merge-base
+between them was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit
+of the old 'subsystem', for example:
+
+* With the 'subsystem' reflog: after 'git-fetch', the old tip of
+ 'subsystem' is at `subsystem@\{1}`. Subsequent fetches will
+ increase the number. (See linkgit:git-reflog[1].)
+
+* Relative to the tip of 'topic': knowing that your 'topic' has three
+ commits, the old tip of 'subsystem' must be `topic~3`.
+
+You can then transplant the old `subsystem..topic` to the new tip by
+saying (for the reflog case, and assuming you are on 'topic' already):
+------------
+ $ git rebase --onto subsystem subsystem@{1}
+------------
+
+The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad:
+'everyone' downstream from 'topic' will now have to perform a "hard
+case" recovery too!
+
+
Authors
------
Written by Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 6b2f8c4..514f03c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ post-receive Hook
-----------------
After all refs were updated (or attempted to be updated), if any
ref update was successful, and if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-receive
-file exists and is executable, it will be invoke once with no
+file exists and is executable, it will be invoked once with no
parameters. The standard input of the hook will be one line
for each successfully updated ref:
@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@ post-update Hook
----------------
After all other processing, if at least one ref was updated, and
if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update file exists and is executable, then
-post-update will called with the list of refs that have been updated.
+post-update will be called with the list of refs that have been updated.
This can be used to implement any repository wide cleanup tasks.
The exit code from this hook invocation is ignored; the only thing
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index d99236e..7f7a544 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ updated. This command is to manage the information recorded in it.
The subcommand "expire" is used to prune older reflog entries.
Entries older than `expire` time, or entries older than
-`expire-unreachable` time and are not reachable from the current
+`expire-unreachable` time and not reachable from the current
tip, are removed from the reflog. This is typically not used
directly by the end users -- instead, see linkgit:git-gc[1].
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ them.
which in turn defaults to 90 days.
--expire-unreachable=<time>::
- Entries older than this time and are not reachable from
+ Entries older than this time and not reachable from
the current tip of the branch are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration
`gc.reflogExpireUnreachable`, which in turn defaults to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index bb99810..c9c0e6f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[verse]
'git remote' [-v | --verbose]
'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--mirror] <name> <url>
+'git remote rename' <old> <new>
'git remote rm' <name>
+'git remote set-head' <name> [-a | -d | <branch>]
'git remote show' [-n] <name>
'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>
'git remote update' [group]
@@ -52,8 +54,7 @@ is created. You can give more than one `-t <branch>` to track
multiple branches without grabbing all branches.
+
With `-m <master>` option, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is set
-up to point at remote's `<master>` branch instead of whatever
-branch the `HEAD` at the remote repository actually points at.
+up to point at remote's `<master>` branch. See also the set-head command.
+
In mirror mode, enabled with `\--mirror`, the refs will not be stored
in the 'refs/remotes/' namespace, but in 'refs/heads/'. This option
@@ -61,11 +62,44 @@ only makes sense in bare repositories. If a remote uses mirror
mode, furthermore, `git push` will always behave as if `\--mirror`
was passed.
+'rename'::
+
+Rename the remote named <old> to <new>. All remote tracking branches and
+configuration settings for the remote are updated.
++
+In case <old> and <new> are the same, and <old> is a file under
+`$GIT_DIR/remotes` or `$GIT_DIR/branches`, the remote is converted to
+the configuration file format.
+
'rm'::
Remove the remote named <name>. All remote tracking branches and
configuration settings for the remote are removed.
+'set-head'::
+
+Sets or deletes the default branch (`$GIT_DIR/remotes/<name>/HEAD`) for
+the named remote. Having a default branch for a remote is not required,
+but allows the name of the remote to be specified in lieu of a specific
+branch. For example, if the default branch for `origin` is set to
+`master`, then `origin` may be specified wherever you would normally
+specify `origin/master`.
++
+With `-d`, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is deleted.
++
+With `-a`, the remote is queried to determine its `HEAD`, then
+`$GIT_DIR/remotes/<name>/HEAD` is set to the same branch. e.g., if the remote
+`HEAD` is pointed at `next`, "`git remote set-head origin -a`" will set
+`$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD` to `refs/remotes/origin/next`. This will
+only work if `refs/remotes/origin/next` already exists; if not it must be
+fetched first.
++
+Use `<branch>` to set `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<name>/HEAD` explicitly. e.g., "git
+remote set-head origin master" will set `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes/origin/HEAD` to
+`refs/remotes/origin/master`. This will only work if
+`refs/remotes/origin/master` already exists; if not it must be fetched first.
++
+
'show'::
Gives some information about the remote <name>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index 38ac609..aaa8852 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -38,12 +38,11 @@ OPTIONS
dangling.
-A::
- Same as `-a`, but any unreachable objects in a previous
- pack become loose, unpacked objects, instead of being
- left in the old pack. Unreachable objects are never
- intentionally added to a pack, even when repacking.
- When used with '-d', this option
- prevents unreachable objects from being immediately
+ Same as `-a`, unless '-d' is used. Then any unreachable
+ objects in a previous pack become loose, unpacked objects,
+ instead of being left in the old pack. Unreachable objects
+ are never intentionally added to a pack, even when repacking.
+ This option prevents unreachable objects from being immediately
deleted by way of being left in the old pack and then
removed. Instead, the loose unreachable objects
will be pruned according to normal expiry rules
@@ -60,7 +59,7 @@ OPTIONS
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
-f::
- Pass the `--no-reuse-delta` option to 'git-pack-objects'. See
+ Pass the `--no-reuse-object` option to `git-pack-objects`, see
linkgit:git-pack-objects[1].
-q::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 6abaeac..abb25d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git reset' [--mixed | --soft | --hard] [-q] [<commit>]
+'git reset' [--mixed | --soft | --hard | --merge] [-q] [<commit>]
'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...
DESCRIPTION
@@ -45,6 +45,11 @@ OPTIONS
switched to. Any changes to tracked files in the working tree
since <commit> are lost.
+--merge::
+ Resets the index to match the tree recorded by the named commit,
+ and updates the files that are different between the named commit
+ and the current commit in the working tree.
+
-q::
Be quiet, only report errors.
@@ -82,7 +87,9 @@ $ git reset --hard HEAD~3 <1>
+
<1> The last three commits (HEAD, HEAD^, and HEAD~2) were bad
and you do not want to ever see them again. Do *not* do this if
-you have already given these commits to somebody else.
+you have already given these commits to somebody else. (See the
+"RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1] for
+the implications of doing so.)
Undo a commit, making it a topic branch::
+
@@ -128,7 +135,7 @@ Undo a merge or pull::
$ git pull <1>
Auto-merging nitfol
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in nitfol
-Automatic merge failed/prevented; fix up by hand
+Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
$ git reset --hard <2>
$ git pull . topic/branch <3>
Updating from 41223... to 13134...
@@ -150,6 +157,28 @@ tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it
brings your index file and the working tree back to that state,
and resets the tip of the branch to that commit.
+Undo a merge or pull inside a dirty work tree::
++
+------------
+$ git pull <1>
+Auto-merging nitfol
+Merge made by recursive.
+ nitfol | 20 +++++----
+ ...
+$ git reset --merge ORIG_HEAD <2>
+------------
++
+<1> Even if you may have local modifications in your
+working tree, you can safely say "git pull" when you know
+that the change in the other branch does not overlap with
+them.
+<2> After inspecting the result of the merge, you may find
+that the change in the other branch is unsatisfactory. Running
+"git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD" will let you go back to where you
+were, but it will discard your local changes, which you do not
+want. "git reset --merge" keeps your local changes.
+
+
Interrupted workflow::
+
Suppose you are interrupted by an urgent fix request while you
@@ -175,6 +204,8 @@ $ git reset <3>
<3> At this point the index file still has all the WIP changes you
committed as 'snapshot WIP'. This updates the index to show your
WIP files as uncommitted.
++
+See also linkgit:git-stash[1].
Reset a single file in the index::
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index fd1de92..1c9cc28 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -32,9 +32,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[ \--cherry-pick ]
[ \--encoding[=<encoding>] ]
[ \--(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ]
- [ \--regexp-ignore-case | \-i ]
- [ \--extended-regexp | \-E ]
- [ \--fixed-strings | \-F ]
+ [ \--regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
+ [ \--extended-regexp | -E ]
+ [ \--fixed-strings | -F ]
[ \--date={local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short} ]
[ [\--objects | \--objects-edge] [ \--unpacked ] ]
[ \--pretty | \--header ]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 2921da3..5ed2bc8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -212,6 +212,9 @@ when you run 'git-merge'.
reflog of the current branch. For example, if you are on the
branch 'blabla', then '@\{1\}' means the same as 'blabla@\{1\}'.
+* The special construct '@\{-<n>\}' means the <n>th branch checked out
+ before the current one.
+
* A suffix '{caret}' to a revision parameter means the first parent of
that commit object. '{caret}<n>' means the <n>th parent (i.e.
'rev{caret}'
@@ -296,18 +299,18 @@ previous section means the set of commits reachable from that
commit, following the commit ancestry chain.
To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix `{caret}`
-notation is used. E.g. "`{caret}r1 r2`" means commits reachable
+notation is used. E.g. `{caret}r1 r2` means commits reachable
from `r2` but exclude the ones reachable from `r1`.
This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
for it. When you have two commits `r1` and `r2` (named according
to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask
for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
-from r1 by "`{caret}r1 r2`" and it can be written as "`r1..r2`".
+from r1 by `{caret}r1 r2` and it can be written as `r1..r2`.
-A similar notation "`r1\...r2`" is called symmetric difference
+A similar notation `r1\...r2` is called symmetric difference
of `r1` and `r2` and is defined as
-"`r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)`".
+`r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)`.
It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
`r1` or `r2` but not from both.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 98cfa3c..5e11758 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -15,6 +15,15 @@ Given one existing commit, revert the change the patch introduces, and record a
new commit that records it. This requires your working tree to be clean (no
modifications from the HEAD commit).
+Note: 'git revert' is used to record a new commit to reverse the
+effect of an earlier commit (often a faulty one). If you want to
+throw away all uncommitted changes in your working directory, you
+should see linkgit:git-reset[1], particularly the '--hard' option. If
+you want to extract specific files as they were in another commit, you
+should see linkgit:git-checkout[1], specifically the 'git checkout
+<commit> -- <filename>' syntax. Take care with these alternatives as
+both will discard uncommitted changes in your working directory.
+
OPTIONS
-------
<commit>::
@@ -35,6 +44,14 @@ OPTIONS
option specifies the parent number (starting from 1) of
the mainline and allows revert to reverse the change
relative to the specified parent.
++
+Reverting a merge commit declares that you will never want the tree changes
+brought in by the merge. As a result, later merges will only bring in tree
+changes introduced by commits that are not ancestors of the previously
+reverted merge. This may or may not be what you want.
++
+See the link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+more details.
--no-edit::
With this option, 'git-revert' will not start the commit
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index e2437f3..10dfd66 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,7 @@ git-send-email - Send a collection of patches as emails
SYNOPSIS
--------
-'git send-email' [options] <file|directory> [... file|directory]
-
+'git send-email' [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
DESCRIPTION
@@ -20,39 +19,54 @@ The header of the email is configurable by command line options. If not
specified on the command line, the user will be prompted with a ReadLine
enabled interface to provide the necessary information.
+There are two formats accepted for patch files:
+
+1. mbox format files
++
+This is what linkgit:git-format-patch[1] generates. Most headers and MIME
+formatting are ignored.
+
+2. The original format used by Greg Kroah-Hartman's 'send_lots_of_email.pl'
+script
++
+This format expects the first line of the file to contain the "Cc:" value
+and the "Subject:" of the message as the second line.
+
+
OPTIONS
-------
-The options available are:
+
+Composing
+~~~~~~~~~
--bcc::
- Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email.
+ Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
+ 'sendemail.bcc'.
+
The --bcc option must be repeated for each user you want on the bcc list.
--cc::
Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
+ Default is the value of 'sendemail.cc'.
+
The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
---cc-cmd::
- Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
- should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
- Output of this command must be single email address per line.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccmd' configuration value.
-
---chain-reply-to::
---no-chain-reply-to::
- If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
- email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
- the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
- this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
- entire patch series.
- Default is the value of the 'sendemail.chainreplyto' configuration
- value; if that is unspecified, default to --chain-reply-to.
+--annotate::
+ Review each patch you're about to send in an editor. The setting
+ 'sendemail.multiedit' defines if this will spawn one editor per patch
+ or one for all of them at once.
--compose::
Use $GIT_EDITOR, core.editor, $VISUAL, or $EDITOR to edit an
introductory message for the patch series.
++
+When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
+In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
+(what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
+(or GIT: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
+and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
++
+Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
--from::
Specify the sender of the emails. This will default to
@@ -66,22 +80,47 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
is not set, this will be prompted for.
---signed-off-by-cc::
---no-signed-off-by-cc::
- If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
- cc list.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffcc' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
+--subject::
+ Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
+ Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
+ is not set, this will be prompted for.
---quiet::
- Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
- all that is output.
+--to::
+ Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
+ will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
+ value of the 'sendemail.to' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
+ this will be prompted for.
++
+The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
---identity::
- A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
- 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
- values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
- the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
+
+Sending
+~~~~~~~
+
+--envelope-sender::
+ Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
+ This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
+ subscribed to a list. If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
+ suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of
+ the 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
+ unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
+
+--smtp-encryption::
+ Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
+ value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
+ 'sendemail.smtpencryption'.
+
+--smtp-pass::
+ Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
+ argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
+ the password. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtppass',
+ however '--smtp-pass' always overrides this value.
++
+Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
+or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
+'--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpuser'), but no password has been
+specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then the
+user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
--smtp-server::
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
@@ -96,108 +135,126 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
--smtp-server-port::
Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
servers typically listen to smtp port 25 and ssmtp port
- 465).
+ 465). This can be set with 'sendemail.smtpserverport'.
+
+--smtp-ssl::
+ Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption ssl'.
--smtp-user::
- Username for SMTP-AUTH. In place of this option, the following
- configuration variables can be specified:
-+
---
- * sendemail.smtpuser
- * sendemail.<identity>.smtpuser (see sendemail.identity).
---
-+
-However, --smtp-user always overrides these variables.
-+
-If a username is not specified (with --smtp-user or a
-configuration variable), then authentication is not attempted.
+ Username for SMTP-AUTH. Default is the value of 'sendemail.smtpuser';
+ if a username is not specified (with '--smtp-user' or 'sendemail.smtpuser'),
+ then authentication is not attempted.
---smtp-pass::
- Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
- argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
- the password.
-+
-In place of this option, the following configuration variables
-can be specified:
-+
---
- * sendemail.smtppass
- * sendemail.<identity>.smtppass (see sendemail.identity).
---
-+
-However, --smtp-pass always overrides these variables.
-+
-Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
-or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
---smtp-user or a configuration variable), but no password has been
-specified (with --smtp-pass or a configuration variable), then the
-user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
---smtp-encryption::
- Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'. Any other
- value reverts to plain SMTP. Default is the value of
- 'sendemail.smtpencryption'.
+Automating
+~~~~~~~~~~
---smtp-ssl::
- Legacy alias for '--smtp-encryption=ssl'.
+--cc-cmd::
+ Specify a command to execute once per patch file which
+ should generate patch file specific "Cc:" entries.
+ Output of this command must be single email address per line.
+ Default is the value of 'sendemail.cccmd' configuration value.
---subject::
- Specify the initial subject of the email thread.
- Only necessary if --compose is also set. If --compose
- is not set, this will be prompted for.
+--[no-]chain-reply-to::
+ If this is set, each email will be sent as a reply to the previous
+ email sent. If disabled with "--no-chain-reply-to", all emails after
+ the first will be sent as replies to the first email sent. When using
+ this, it is recommended that the first file given be an overview of the
+ entire patch series. Default is the value of the 'sendemail.chainreplyto'
+ configuration value; if that is unspecified, default to --chain-reply-to.
---suppress-from::
---no-suppress-from::
- If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressfrom' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
+--identity::
+ A configuration identity. When given, causes values in the
+ 'sendemail.<identity>' subsection to take precedence over
+ values in the 'sendemail' section. The default identity is
+ the value of 'sendemail.identity'.
+
+--[no-]signed-off-by-cc::
+ If this is set, add emails found in Signed-off-by: or Cc: lines to the
+ cc list. Default is the value of 'sendemail.signedoffbycc' configuration
+ value; if that is unspecified, default to --signed-off-by-cc.
--suppress-cc::
Specify an additional category of recipients to suppress the
- auto-cc of. 'self' will avoid including the sender, 'author' will
- avoid including the patch author, 'cc' will avoid including anyone
- mentioned in Cc lines in the patch, 'sob' will avoid including
- anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by lines, and 'cccmd' will avoid
- running the --cc-cmd. 'all' will suppress all auto cc values.
- Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppresscc' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
- specified, as well as 'sob' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
-
---thread::
---no-thread::
+ auto-cc of:
++
+--
+- 'author' will avoid including the patch author
+- 'self' will avoid including the sender
+- 'cc' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the patch header
+ except for self (use 'self' for that).
+- 'ccbody' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Cc lines in the
+ patch body (commit message) except for self (use 'self' for that).
+- 'sob' will avoid including anyone mentioned in Signed-off-by lines except
+ for self (use 'self' for that).
+- 'cccmd' will avoid running the --cc-cmd.
+- 'body' is equivalent to 'sob' + 'ccbody'
+- 'all' will suppress all auto cc values.
+--
++
+Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppresscc' configuration value; if
+that is unspecified, default to 'self' if --suppress-from is
+specified, as well as 'body' if --no-signed-off-cc is specified.
+
+--[no-]suppress-from::
+ If this is set, do not add the From: address to the cc: list.
+ Default is the value of 'sendemail.suppressfrom' configuration
+ value; if that is unspecified, default to --no-suppress-from.
+
+--[no-]thread::
If this is set, the In-Reply-To header will be set on each email sent.
If disabled with "--no-thread", no emails will have the In-Reply-To
- header set.
- Default is the value of the 'sendemail.thread' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, default to --thread.
+ header set. Default is the value of the 'sendemail.thread' configuration
+ value; if that is unspecified, default to --thread.
+
+
+Administering
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+--confirm::
+ Confirm just before sending:
++
+--
+- 'always' will always confirm before sending
+- 'never' will never confirm before sending
+- 'cc' will confirm before sending when send-email has automatically
+ added addresses from the patch to the Cc list
+- 'compose' will confirm before sending the first message when using --compose.
+- 'auto' is equivalent to 'cc' + 'compose'
+--
++
+Default is the value of 'sendemail.confirm' configuration value; if that
+is unspecified, default to 'auto' unless any of the suppress options
+have been specified, in which case default to 'compose'.
--dry-run::
Do everything except actually send the emails.
---envelope-sender::
- Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
- This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
- subscribed to a list. If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
- suitable privileges for the -f parameter.
+--quiet::
+ Make git-send-email less verbose. One line per email should be
+ all that is output.
---to::
- Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated.
- Generally, this will be the upstream maintainer of the
- project involved.
- Default is the value of the 'sendemail.to' configuration value;
- if that is unspecified, this will be prompted for.
+--[no-]validate::
+ Perform sanity checks on patches.
+ Currently, validation means the following:
+
-The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
+--
+ * Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
+ is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
+--
++
+Default is the value of 'sendemail.validate'; if this is not set,
+default to '--validate'.
+
+--[no-]format-patch::
+ When an argument may be understood either as a reference or as a file name,
+ choose to understand it as a format-patch argument ('--format-patch')
+ or as a file name ('--no-format-patch'). By default, when such a conflict
+ occurs, git send-email will fail.
CONFIGURATION
-------------
-sendemail.identity::
- The default configuration identity. When specified,
- 'sendemail.<identity>.<item>' will have higher precedence than
- 'sendemail.<item>'. This is useful to declare multiple SMTP
- identities and to hoist sensitive authentication information
- out of the repository and into the global configuration file.
sendemail.aliasesfile::
To avoid typing long email addresses, point this to one or more
@@ -207,38 +264,17 @@ sendemail.aliasfiletype::
Format of the file(s) specified in sendemail.aliasesfile. Must be
one of 'mutt', 'mailrc', 'pine', or 'gnus'.
-sendemail.to::
- Email address (or alias) to always send to.
-
-sendemail.cccmd::
- Command to execute to generate per patch file specific "Cc:"s.
+sendemail.multiedit::
+ If true (default), a single editor instance will be spawned to edit
+ files you have to edit (patches when '--annotate' is used, and the
+ summary when '--compose' is used). If false, files will be edited one
+ after the other, spawning a new editor each time.
-sendemail.bcc::
- Email address (or alias) to always bcc.
+sendemail.confirm::
+ Sets the default for whether to confirm before sending. Must be
+ one of 'always', 'never', 'cc', 'compose', or 'auto'. See '--confirm'
+ in the previous section for the meaning of these values.
-sendemail.chainreplyto::
- Boolean value specifying the default to the '--chain_reply_to'
- parameter.
-
-sendemail.smtpserver::
- Default SMTP server to use.
-
-sendemail.smtpserverport::
- Default SMTP server port to use.
-
-sendemail.smtpuser::
- Default SMTP-AUTH username.
-
-sendemail.smtppass::
- Default SMTP-AUTH password.
-
-sendemail.smtpencryption::
- Default encryption method. Use 'ssl' for SSL (and specify an
- appropriate port), or 'tls' for TLS. Takes precedence over
- 'smtpssl' if both are specified.
-
-sendemail.smtpssl::
- Legacy boolean that sets 'smtpencryption=ssl' if enabled.
Author
------
@@ -247,10 +283,12 @@ Written by Ryan Anderson <ryan@michonline.com>
git-send-email is originally based upon
send_lots_of_email.pl by Greg Kroah-Hartman.
+
Documentation
--------------
Documentation by Ryan Anderson
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index ff420f8..3f8d973 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -18,8 +18,9 @@ of server-side GIT commands implementing the pull/push functionality.
The commands can be executed only by the '-c' option; the shell is not
interactive.
-Currently, only the 'git-receive-pack' and 'git-upload-pack' commands
-are permitted to be called, with a single required argument.
+Currently, only three commands are permitted to be called, 'git-receive-pack'
+'git-upload-pack' with a single required argument or 'cvs server' (to invoke
+'git-cvsserver').
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index 7ccf31c..42463a9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -45,19 +45,16 @@ OPTIONS
and subsequent lines are indented by `indent2` spaces. `width`,
`indent1`, and `indent2` default to 76, 6 and 9 respectively.
-FILES
------
-
-If the file `.mailmap` exists, it will be used for mapping author
-email addresses to a real author name. One mapping per line, first
-the author name followed by the email address enclosed by
-'<' and '>'. Use hash '#' for comments. Example:
-
-------------
-# Keep alphabetized
-Adam Morrow <adam@localhost.localdomain>
-Eve Jones <eve@laptop.(none)>
-------------
+
+MAPPING AUTHORS
+---------------
+
+The `.mailmap` feature is used to coalesce together commits by the same
+person in the shortlog, where their name and/or email address was
+spelled differently.
+
+include::mailmap.txt[]
+
Author
------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index d3f2588..7e9ff37 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
<rev>::
Arbitrary extended SHA1 expression (see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1])
- that typically names a branch HEAD or a tag.
+ that typically names a branch head or a tag.
<glob>::
A glob pattern that matches branch or tag names under
@@ -99,12 +99,12 @@ OPTIONS
will show the revisions given by "git rev-list {caret}master
topic1 topic2"
+-g::
--reflog[=<n>[,<base>]] [<ref>]::
Shows <n> most recent ref-log entries for the given
ref. If <base> is given, <n> entries going back from
that entry. <base> can be specified as count or date.
- `-g` can be used as a short-hand for this option. When
- no explicit <ref> parameter is given, it defaults to the
+ When no explicit <ref> parameter is given, it defaults to the
current branch (or `HEAD` if it is detached).
Note that --more, --list, --independent and --merge-base options
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@ only the primary branches. In addition, if you happen to be on
your topic branch, it is shown as well.
------------
-$ git show-branch --reflog='10,1 hour ago' --list master
+$ git show-branch --reflog="10,1 hour ago" --list master
------------
shows 10 reflog entries going back from the tip as of 1 hour ago.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stage.txt b/Documentation/git-stage.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7f251a5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-stage.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+git-stage(1)
+==============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-stage - Add file contents to the staging area
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git stage' args...
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This is a synonym for linkgit:git-add[1]. Please refer to the
+documentation of that command.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 49e2296..051f94d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ perform a pull, and then unstash, like this:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
$ git pull
-...
+ ...
file foobar not up to date, cannot merge.
$ git stash
$ git pull
@@ -174,7 +174,7 @@ make a commit to a temporary branch to store your changes away, and
return to your original branch to make the emergency fix, like this:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
-... hack hack hack ...
+# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git checkout -b my_wip
$ git commit -a -m "WIP"
$ git checkout master
@@ -182,18 +182,18 @@ $ edit emergency fix
$ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
$ git checkout my_wip
$ git reset --soft HEAD^
-... continue hacking ...
+# ... continue hacking ...
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
You can use 'git-stash' to simplify the above, like this:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
-... hack hack hack ...
+# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git stash
$ edit emergency fix
$ git commit -a -m "Fix in a hurry"
$ git stash apply
-... continue hacking ...
+# ... continue hacking ...
----------------------------------------------------------------
Testing partial commits::
@@ -203,13 +203,13 @@ more commits out of the changes in the work tree, and you want to test
each change before committing:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
-... hack hack hack ...
+# ... hack hack hack ...
$ git add --patch foo # add just first part to the index
$ git stash save --keep-index # save all other changes to the stash
$ edit/build/test first part
-$ git commit foo -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
+$ git commit -m 'First part' # commit fully tested change
$ git stash pop # prepare to work on all other changes
-... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
+# ... repeat above five steps until one commit remains ...
$ edit/build/test remaining parts
$ git commit foo -m 'Remaining parts'
----------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index bf33b0c..3b8df44 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -12,8 +12,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b branch] [--] <repository> <path>
'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
-'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [-N|--no-fetch] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--summary-limit <n>] [commit] [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach <command>
+'git submodule' [--quiet] sync [--] [<path>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -85,7 +87,7 @@ use by subsequent users cloning the superproject. If the URL is
given relative to the superproject's repository, the presumption
is the superproject and submodule repositories will be kept
together in the same relative location, and only the
-superproject's URL need be provided: git-submodule will correctly
+superproject's URL needs to be provided: git-submodule will correctly
locate the submodule using the relative URL in .gitmodules.
status::
@@ -123,6 +125,30 @@ summary::
in the submodule between the given super project commit and the
index or working tree (switched by --cached) are shown.
+foreach::
+ Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule.
+ The command has access to the variables $path and $sha1:
+ $path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the
+ superproject, and $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the superproject.
+ Any submodules defined in the superproject but not checked out are
+ ignored by this command. Unless given --quiet, foreach prints the name
+ of each submodule before evaluating the command.
+ A non-zero return from the command in any submodule causes
+ the processing to terminate. This can be overridden by adding '|| :'
+ to the end of the command.
++
+As an example, "git submodule foreach 'echo $path `git rev-parse HEAD`' will
+show the path and currently checked out commit for each submodule.
+
+sync::
+ Synchronizes submodules' remote URL configuration setting
+ to the value specified in .gitmodules. This is useful when
+ submodule URLs change upstream and you need to update your local
+ repositories accordingly.
++
+"git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while
+"git submodule sync -- A" synchronizes submodule "A" only.
+
OPTIONS
-------
-q::
@@ -146,6 +172,11 @@ OPTIONS
(the default). This limit only applies to modified submodules. The
size is always limited to 1 for added/deleted/typechanged submodules.
+-N::
+--no-fetch::
+ This option is only valid for the update command.
+ Don't fetch new objects from the remote site.
+
<path>...::
Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command
to only operate on the submodules found at the specified paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 1e644ca..cda3389 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -92,6 +92,30 @@ COMMANDS
.git/config file may be specified as an optional command-line
argument.
+--localtime;;
+ Store Git commit times in the local timezone instead of UTC. This
+ makes 'git-log' (even without --date=local) show the same times
+ that `svn log` would in the local timezone.
+
+This doesn't interfere with interoperating with the Subversion
+repository you cloned from, but if you wish for your local Git
+repository to be able to interoperate with someone else's local Git
+repository, either don't use this option or you should both use it in
+the same local timezone.
+
+--ignore-paths=<regex>;;
+ This allows one to specify Perl regular expression that will
+ cause skipping of all matching paths from checkout from SVN.
+ Examples:
+
+ --ignore-paths="^doc" - skip "doc*" directory for every fetch.
+
+ --ignore-paths="^[^/]+/(?:branches|tags)" - skip "branches"
+ and "tags" of first level directories.
+
+ Regular expression is not persistent, you should specify
+ it every time when fetching.
+
'clone'::
Runs 'init' and 'fetch'. It will automatically create a
directory based on the basename of the URL passed to it;
@@ -109,7 +133,7 @@ COMMANDS
This works similarly to `svn update` or 'git-pull' except that
it preserves linear history with 'git-rebase' instead of
-'git-merge' for ease of dcommiting with 'git-svn'.
+'git-merge' for ease of dcommitting with 'git-svn'.
This accepts all options that 'git-svn fetch' and 'git-rebase'
accept. However, '--fetch-all' only fetches from the current
@@ -145,10 +169,30 @@ and have no uncommitted changes.
reused if a user is later given access to an alternate transport
method (e.g. `svn+ssh://` or `https://`) for commit.
+config key: svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
+
+config key: svn.commiturl (overwrites all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl options)
+
Using this option for any other purpose (don't ask)
is very strongly discouraged.
--
+'branch'::
+ Create a branch in the SVN repository.
+
+-m;;
+--message;;
+ Allows to specify the commit message.
+
+-t;;
+--tag;;
+ Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
+ specified during git svn init.
+
+'tag'::
+ Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
+ 'branch -t'.
+
'log'::
This should make it easy to look up svn log messages when svn
users refer to -r/--revision numbers.
@@ -372,7 +416,8 @@ Passed directly to 'git-rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
-n::
--dry-run::
-This can be used with the 'dcommit' and 'rebase' commands.
+This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and 'tag'
+commands.
For 'dcommit', print out the series of git arguments that would show
which diffs would be committed to SVN.
@@ -381,6 +426,9 @@ For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
repository associated with the current branch and the URL of svn
repository that will be fetched from.
+For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
+creating the branch or tag.
+
--
ADVANCED OPTIONS
@@ -455,6 +503,14 @@ svn-remote.<name>.rewriteRoot::
the repository with a public http:// or svn:// URL in the
metadata so users of it will see the public URL.
+svn.brokenSymlinkWorkaround::
+This disables potentially expensive checks to workaround broken symlinks
+checked into SVN by broken clients. Set this option to "false" if you
+track a SVN repository with many empty blobs that are not symlinks.
+This option may be changed while "git-svn" is running and take effect on
+the next revision fetched. If unset, git-svn assumes this option to be
+"true".
+
--
Since the noMetadata, rewriteRoot, useSvnsyncProps and useSvmProps
@@ -473,7 +529,7 @@ Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project:
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Clone a repo (like git clone):
- git svn clone http://svn.foo.org/project/trunk
+ git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project/trunk
# Enter the newly cloned directory:
cd trunk
# You should be on master branch, double-check with git-branch
@@ -495,9 +551,11 @@ Tracking and contributing to an entire Subversion-managed project
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Clone a repo (like git clone):
- git svn clone http://svn.foo.org/project -T trunk -b branches -t tags
+ git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project -T trunk -b branches -t tags
# View all branches and tags you have cloned:
git branch -r
+# Create a new branch in SVN
+ git svn branch waldo
# Reset your master to trunk (or any other branch, replacing 'trunk'
# with the appropriate name):
git reset --hard remotes/trunk
@@ -514,7 +572,7 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git-clone':
------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Do the initial import on a server
- ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.foo.org/project
+ ssh server "cd /pub && git svn clone http://svn.example.com/project
# Clone locally - make sure the refs/remotes/ space matches the server
mkdir project
cd project
@@ -522,8 +580,10 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git-clone':
git remote add origin server:/pub/project
git config --add remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
git fetch
+# Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
+ git checkout -b master FETCH_HEAD
# Initialize git-svn locally (be sure to use the same URL and -T/-b/-t options as were used on server)
- git svn init http://svn.foo.org/project
+ git svn init http://svn.example.com/project
# Pull the latest changes from Subversion
git svn rebase
------------------------------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 046ab35..533d18b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
<name> [<commit> | <object>]
'git tag' -d <name>...
-'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [<pattern>]
+'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [<pattern>]
'git tag' -v <name>...
DESCRIPTION
@@ -68,9 +68,12 @@ OPTIONS
List tags with names that match the given pattern (or all if no pattern is given).
Typing "git tag" without arguments, also lists all tags.
+--contains <commit>::
+ Only list tags which contain the specified commit.
+
-m <msg>::
Use the given tag message (instead of prompting).
- If multiple `-m` options are given, there values are
+ If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
concatenated as separate paragraphs.
Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
is given.
@@ -207,7 +210,7 @@ determines who are interested in whose tags.
A one-shot pull is a sign that a commit history is now crossing
the boundary between one circle of people (e.g. "people who are
-primarily interested in networking part of the kernel") who may
+primarily interested in the networking part of the kernel") who may
have their own set of tags (e.g. "this is the third release
candidate from the networking group to be proposed for general
consumption with 2.6.21 release") to another circle of people
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 1d9d81a..25e0bbe 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@ OPTIONS
default behavior is to error out. This option makes
'git-update-index' continue anyway.
---ignore-submodules:
+--ignore-submodules::
Do not try to update submodules. This option is only respected
when passed before --refresh.
@@ -78,9 +78,9 @@ OPTIONS
--assume-unchanged::
--no-assume-unchanged::
- When these flags are specified, the object name recorded
+ When these flags are specified, the object names recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
- sets and unsets the "assume unchanged" bit for the
+ set and unset the "assume unchanged" bit for the
paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
checking the working tree files for possible
modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
@@ -122,7 +122,7 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
'git-update-index' refuses an attempt to add `path/file`.
Similarly if a file `path/file` exists, a file `path`
cannot be added. With --replace flag, existing entries
- that conflicts with the entry being added are
+ that conflict with the entry being added are
automatically removed with warning messages.
--stdin::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index 3647dd6..e2f4c09 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ OPTIONS
Cause the logical variables to be listed. In addition, all the
variables of the git configuration file .git/config are listed
as well. (However, the configuration variables listing functionality
- is deprecated in favor of 'git-config -l'.)
+ is deprecated in favor of 'git config -l'.)
EXAMPLE
--------
@@ -41,9 +41,9 @@ Diagnostics
You don't exist. Go away!::
The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
Your parents must have hated you!::
- The password(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+ The passwd(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
Your sysadmin must hate you!::
- The password(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+ The passwd(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index 36afad8..278cf73 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@ The following browsers (or commands) are currently supported:
* lynx
* dillo
* open (this is the default under Mac OS X GUI)
+* start (this is the default under MinGW)
Custom commands may also be specified.
@@ -77,7 +78,7 @@ the URLs passed as arguments.
Note about konqueror
--------------------
-When 'konqueror' is specified by the a command line option or a
+When 'konqueror' is specified by a command line option or a
configuration variable, we launch 'kfmclient' to try to open the HTML
man page on an already opened konqueror in a new tab if possible.
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 1bc295d..7513c57 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -43,14 +43,35 @@ unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
-* link:v1.6.0/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0]
+* link:v1.6.2.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.2.1]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.2.1.txt[1.6.2.1],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.2.txt[1.6.2].
+
+* link:v1.6.1.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.1.3]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.1.3.txt[1.6.1.3],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.1.2.txt[1.6.1.2],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.1.1.txt[1.6.1.1],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.1.txt[1.6.1].
+
+* link:v1.6.0.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.0.6]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.0.6.txt[1.6.0.6],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.0.5.txt[1.6.0.5],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.0.4.txt[1.6.0.4],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.0.3.txt[1.6.0.3],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.0.2.txt[1.6.0.2],
+ link:RelNotes-1.6.0.1.txt[1.6.0.1],
link:RelNotes-1.6.0.txt[1.6.0].
-* link:v1.5.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.5]
+* link:v1.5.6.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.6.6]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.5.6.6.txt[1.5.6.6],
link:RelNotes-1.5.6.5.txt[1.5.6.5],
link:RelNotes-1.5.6.4.txt[1.5.6.4],
link:RelNotes-1.5.6.3.txt[1.5.6.3],
@@ -58,18 +79,22 @@ Documentation for older releases are available here:
link:RelNotes-1.5.6.1.txt[1.5.6.1],
link:RelNotes-1.5.6.txt[1.5.6].
-* link:v1.5.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.4]
+* link:v1.5.5.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.5.6]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.5.5.6.txt[1.5.5.6],
+ link:RelNotes-1.5.5.5.txt[1.5.5.5],
link:RelNotes-1.5.5.4.txt[1.5.5.4],
link:RelNotes-1.5.5.3.txt[1.5.5.3],
link:RelNotes-1.5.5.2.txt[1.5.5.2],
link:RelNotes-1.5.5.1.txt[1.5.5.1],
link:RelNotes-1.5.5.txt[1.5.5].
-* link:v1.5.4.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.5]
+* link:v1.5.4.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.5.4.7]
* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes-1.5.4.7.txt[1.5.4.7],
+ link:RelNotes-1.5.4.6.txt[1.5.4.6],
link:RelNotes-1.5.4.5.txt[1.5.4.5],
link:RelNotes-1.5.4.4.txt[1.5.4.4],
link:RelNotes-1.5.4.3.txt[1.5.4.3],
@@ -497,7 +522,8 @@ other
'GIT_PAGER'::
This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
- a pager.
+ a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
+ linkgit:git-config[1].
'GIT_SSH'::
If this environment variable is set then 'git-fetch'
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index db16b0c..55668e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ gitattributes - defining attributes per path
SYNOPSIS
--------
-$GIT_DIR/info/attributes, gitattributes
+$GIT_DIR/info/attributes, .gitattributes
DESCRIPTION
@@ -18,10 +18,10 @@ A `gitattributes` file is a simple text file that gives
Each line in `gitattributes` file is of form:
- glob attr1 attr2 ...
+ pattern attr1 attr2 ...
-That is, a glob pattern followed by an attributes list,
-separated by whitespaces. When the glob pattern matches the
+That is, a pattern followed by an attributes list,
+separated by whitespaces. When the pattern matches the
path in question, the attributes listed on the line are given to
the path.
@@ -48,13 +48,14 @@ Set to a value::
Unspecified::
- No glob pattern matches the path, and nothing says if
+ No pattern matches the path, and nothing says if
the path has or does not have the attribute, the
attribute for the path is said to be Unspecified.
-When more than one glob pattern matches the path, a later line
+When more than one pattern matches the path, a later line
overrides an earlier line. This overriding is done per
-attribute.
+attribute. The rules how the pattern matches paths are the
+same as in `.gitignore` files; see linkgit:gitignore[5].
When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, git
consults `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file (which has the highest
@@ -105,9 +106,8 @@ Set::
Unset::
- Unsetting the `crlf` attribute on a path is meant to
- mark the path as a "binary" file. The path never goes
- through line endings conversion upon checkin/checkout.
+ Unsetting the `crlf` attribute on a path tells git not to
+ attempt any end-of-line conversion upon checkin or checkout.
Unspecified::
@@ -164,8 +164,8 @@ few exceptions. Even though...
`ident`
^^^^^^^
-When the attribute `ident` is set to a path, git replaces
-`$Id$` in the blob object with `$Id:`, followed by
+When the attribute `ident` is set for a path, git replaces
+`$Id$` in the blob object with `$Id:`, followed by the
40-character hexadecimal blob object name, followed by a dollar
sign `$` upon checkout. Any byte sequence that begins with
`$Id:` and ends with `$` in the worktree file is replaced
@@ -214,10 +214,15 @@ with `crlf`, and then `ident` and fed to `filter`.
Generating diff text
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The attribute `diff` affects if 'git-diff' generates textual
-patch for the path or just says `Binary files differ`. It also
-can affect what line is shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@`
-line.
+`diff`
+^^^^^^
+
+The attribute `diff` affects how 'git' generates diffs for particular
+files. It can tell git whether to generate a textual patch for the path
+or to treat the path as a binary file. It can also affect what line is
+shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@` line, tell git to use an
+external command to generate the diff, or ask git to convert binary
+files to a text format before generating the diff.
Set::
@@ -228,7 +233,8 @@ Set::
Unset::
A path to which the `diff` attribute is unset will
- generate `Binary files differ`.
+ generate `Binary files differ` (or a binary patch, if
+ binary patches are enabled).
Unspecified::
@@ -239,21 +245,21 @@ Unspecified::
String::
- Diff is shown using the specified custom diff driver.
- The driver program is given its input using the same
- calling convention as used for GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
- program. This name is also used for custom hunk header
- selection.
+ Diff is shown using the specified diff driver. Each driver may
+ specify one or more options, as described in the following
+ section. The options for the diff driver "foo" are defined
+ by the configuration variables in the "diff.foo" section of the
+ git config file.
-Defining a custom diff driver
-^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Defining an external diff driver
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
The definition of a diff driver is done in `gitconfig`, not
`gitattributes` file, so strictly speaking this manual page is a
wrong place to talk about it. However...
-To define a custom diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
+To define an external diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
`$GIT_DIR/config` file (or `$HOME/.gitconfig` file) like this:
----------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -271,31 +277,31 @@ See linkgit:git[1] for details.
Defining a custom hunk-header
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-Each group of changes (called "hunk") in the textual diff output
+Each group of changes (called a "hunk") in the textual diff output
is prefixed with a line of the form:
@@ -k,l +n,m @@ TEXT
-The text is called 'hunk header', and by default a line that
-begins with an alphabet, an underscore or a dollar sign is used,
-which matches what GNU 'diff -p' output uses. This default
-selection however is not suited for some contents, and you can
-use customized pattern to make a selection.
+This is called a 'hunk header'. The "TEXT" portion is by default a line
+that begins with an alphabet, an underscore or a dollar sign; this
+matches what GNU 'diff -p' output uses. This default selection however
+is not suited for some contents, and you can use a customized pattern
+to make a selection.
-First in .gitattributes, you would assign the `diff` attribute
+First, in .gitattributes, you would assign the `diff` attribute
for paths.
------------------------
*.tex diff=tex
------------------------
-Then, you would define "diff.tex.funcname" configuration to
+Then, you would define a "diff.tex.xfuncname" configuration to
specify a regular expression that matches a line that you would
-want to appear as the hunk header, like this:
+want to appear as the hunk header "TEXT", like this:
------------------------
[diff "tex"]
- funcname = "^\\(\\\\\\(sub\\)*section{.*\\)$"
+ xfuncname = "^(\\\\(sub)*section\\{.*)$"
------------------------
Note. A single level of backslashes are eaten by the
@@ -312,18 +318,87 @@ patterns are available:
- `bibtex` suitable for files with BibTeX coded references.
-- `java` suitable for source code in the Java lanugage.
+- `cpp` suitable for source code in the C and C++ languages.
+
+- `html` suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.
+
+- `java` suitable for source code in the Java language.
+
+- `objc` suitable for source code in the Objective-C language.
- `pascal` suitable for source code in the Pascal/Delphi language.
+- `php` suitable for source code in the PHP language.
+
+- `python` suitable for source code in the Python language.
+
- `ruby` suitable for source code in the Ruby language.
- `tex` suitable for source code for LaTeX documents.
+Customizing word diff
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+You can customize the rules that `git diff --color-words` uses to
+split words in a line, by specifying an appropriate regular expression
+in the "diff.*.wordRegex" configuration variable. For example, in TeX
+a backslash followed by a sequence of letters forms a command, but
+several such commands can be run together without intervening
+whitespace. To separate them, use a regular expression such as
+
+------------------------
+[diff "tex"]
+ wordRegex = "\\\\[a-zA-Z]+|[{}]|\\\\.|[^\\{}[:space:]]+"
+------------------------
+
+A built-in pattern is provided for all languages listed in the
+previous section.
+
+
+Performing text diffs of binary files
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+
+Sometimes it is desirable to see the diff of a text-converted
+version of some binary files. For example, a word processor
+document can be converted to an ASCII text representation, and
+the diff of the text shown. Even though this conversion loses
+some information, the resulting diff is useful for human
+viewing (but cannot be applied directly).
+
+The `textconv` config option is used to define a program for
+performing such a conversion. The program should take a single
+argument, the name of a file to convert, and produce the
+resulting text on stdout.
+
+For example, to show the diff of the exif information of a
+file instead of the binary information (assuming you have the
+exif tool installed):
+
+------------------------
+[diff "jpg"]
+ textconv = exif
+------------------------
+
+NOTE: The text conversion is generally a one-way conversion;
+in this example, we lose the actual image contents and focus
+just on the text data. This means that diffs generated by
+textconv are _not_ suitable for applying. For this reason,
+only `git diff` and the `git log` family of commands (i.e.,
+log, whatchanged, show) will perform text conversion. `git
+format-patch` will never generate this output. If you want to
+send somebody a text-converted diff of a binary file (e.g.,
+because it quickly conveys the changes you have made), you
+should generate it separately and send it as a comment _in
+addition to_ the usual binary diff that you might send.
+
+
Performing a three-way merge
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+`merge`
+^^^^^^^
+
The attribute `merge` affects how three versions of a file is
merged when a file-level merge is necessary during `git merge`,
and other programs such as `git revert` and `git cherry-pick`.
@@ -482,6 +557,58 @@ in the file. E.g. the string `$Format:%H$` will be replaced by the
commit hash.
+Viewing files in GUI tools
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+`encoding`
+^^^^^^^^^^
+
+The value of this attribute specifies the character encoding that should
+be used by GUI tools (e.g. linkgit:gitk[1] and linkgit:git-gui[1]) to
+display the contents of the relevant file. Note that due to performance
+considerations linkgit:gitk[1] does not use this attribute unless you
+manually enable per-file encodings in its options.
+
+If this attribute is not set or has an invalid value, the value of the
+`gui.encoding` configuration variable is used instead
+(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+
+
+USING ATTRIBUTE MACROS
+----------------------
+
+You do not want any end-of-line conversions applied to, nor textual diffs
+produced for, any binary file you track. You would need to specify e.g.
+
+------------
+*.jpg -crlf -diff
+------------
+
+but that may become cumbersome, when you have many attributes. Using
+attribute macros, you can specify groups of attributes set or unset at
+the same time. The system knows a built-in attribute macro, `binary`:
+
+------------
+*.jpg binary
+------------
+
+which is equivalent to the above. Note that the attribute macros can only
+be "Set" (see the above example that sets "binary" macro as if it were an
+ordinary attribute --- setting it in turn unsets "crlf" and "diff").
+
+
+DEFINING ATTRIBUTE MACROS
+-------------------------
+
+Custom attribute macros can be defined only in the `.gitattributes` file
+at the toplevel (i.e. not in any subdirectory). The built-in attribute
+macro "binary" is equivalent to:
+
+------------
+[attr]binary -diff -crlf
+------------
+
+
EXAMPLE
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index 29e5929..be39ed7 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -46,20 +46,20 @@ Here are the rules regarding the "flags" that you should follow when you are
scripting git:
* it's preferred to use the non dashed form of git commands, which means that
- you should prefer `"git foo"` to `"git-foo"`.
+ you should prefer `git foo` to `git-foo`.
- * splitting short options to separate words (prefer `"git foo -a -b"`
- to `"git foo -ab"`, the latter may not even work).
+ * splitting short options to separate words (prefer `git foo -a -b`
+ to `git foo -ab`, the latter may not even work).
* when a command line option takes an argument, use the 'sticked' form. In
- other words, write `"git foo -oArg"` instead of `"git foo -o Arg"` for short
- options, and `"git foo --long-opt=Arg"` instead of `"git foo --long-opt Arg"`
+ other words, write `git foo -oArg` instead of `git foo -o Arg` for short
+ options, and `git foo --long-opt=Arg` instead of `git foo --long-opt Arg`
for long options. An option that takes optional option-argument must be
written in the 'sticked' form.
* when you give a revision parameter to a command, make sure the parameter is
not ambiguous with a name of a file in the work tree. E.g. do not write
- `"git log -1 HEAD"` but write `"git log -1 HEAD --"`; the former will not work
+ `git log -1 HEAD` but write `git log -1 HEAD --`; the former will not work
if you happen to have a file called `HEAD` in the work tree.
@@ -99,17 +99,17 @@ usage: git-describe [options] <committish>*
Negating options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Options with long option names can be negated by prefixing `"--no-"`. For
-example, `"git branch"` has the option `"--track"` which is 'on' by default. You
-can use `"--no-track"` to override that behaviour. The same goes for `"--color"`
-and `"--no-color"`.
+Options with long option names can be negated by prefixing `--no-`. For
+example, `git branch` has the option `--track` which is 'on' by default. You
+can use `--no-track` to override that behaviour. The same goes for `--color`
+and `--no-color`.
Aggregating short options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Commands that support the enhanced option parser allow you to aggregate short
-options. This means that you can for example use `"git rm -rf"` or
-`"git clean -fdx"`.
+options. This means that you can for example use `git rm -rf` or
+`git clean -fdx`.
Separating argument from the option
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index a417e59..7ba5e58 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -899,7 +899,7 @@ file, which had no differences in the `mybranch` branch), and say:
----------------
Auto-merging hello
CONFLICT (content): Merge conflict in hello
- Automatic merge failed; fix up by hand
+ Automatic merge failed; fix conflicts and then commit the result.
----------------
It tells you that it did an "Automatic merge", which
@@ -993,14 +993,14 @@ would be different)
----------------
Updating from ae3a2da... to a80b4aa....
-Fast forward
+Fast forward (no commit created; -m option ignored)
example | 1 +
hello | 1 +
2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
----------------
-Because your branch did not contain anything more than what are
-already merged into the `master` branch, the merge operation did
+Because your branch did not contain anything more than what had
+already been merged into the `master` branch, the merge operation did
not actually do a merge. Instead, it just updated the top of
the tree of your branch to that of the `master` branch. This is
often called 'fast forward' merge.
@@ -1243,10 +1243,10 @@ $ git ls-files --stage
------------
In our example of only two files, we did not have unchanged
-files so only 'example' resulted in collapsing, but in real-life
-large projects, only small number of files change in one commit,
-and this 'collapsing' tends to trivially merge most of the paths
-fairly quickly, leaving only a handful the real changes in non-zero
+files so only 'example' resulted in collapsing. But in real-life
+large projects, when only a small number of files change in one commit,
+this 'collapsing' tends to trivially merge most of the paths
+fairly quickly, leaving only a handful of real changes in non-zero
stages.
To look at only non-zero stages, use `\--unmerged` flag:
@@ -1265,9 +1265,8 @@ file, using 3-way merge. This is done by giving
------------
$ git merge-index git-merge-one-file hello
-Auto-merging hello.
-merge: warning: conflicts during merge
-ERROR: Merge conflict in hello.
+Auto-merging hello
+ERROR: Merge conflict in hello
fatal: merge program failed
------------
@@ -1353,7 +1352,7 @@ $ GIT_DIR=my-git.git git init
------------
Make sure this directory is available for others you want your
-changes to be pulled by via the transport of your choice. Also
+changes to be pulled via the transport of your choice. Also
you need to make sure that you have the 'git-receive-pack'
program on the `$PATH`.
@@ -1447,7 +1446,7 @@ public repository you might want to repack & prune often, or
never.
If you run `git repack` again at this point, it will say
-"Nothing to pack". Once you continue your development and
+"Nothing new to pack.". Once you continue your development and
accumulate the changes, running `git repack` again will create a
new pack, that contains objects created since you packed your
repository the last time. We recommend that you pack your project
@@ -1512,7 +1511,7 @@ You can repack this private repository whenever you feel like.
6. Push your changes to the public repository, and announce it
to the public.
-7. Every once in a while, "git-repack" the public repository.
+7. Every once in a while, 'git-repack' the public repository.
Go back to step 5. and continue working.
@@ -1690,8 +1689,11 @@ to follow, not easier.
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
-linkgit:everyday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
+linkgit:gittutorial[7],
+linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
+linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
+linkgit:git-help[1],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index 2bdbc3d..e8041bc 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -36,11 +36,25 @@ files:
- 'git-diff-tree' compares contents of two "tree" objects;
-In all of these cases, the commands themselves compare
-corresponding paths in the two sets of files. The result of
-comparison is passed from these commands to what is internally
-called "diffcore", in a format similar to what is output when
-the -p option is not used. E.g.
+In all of these cases, the commands themselves first optionally limit
+the two sets of files by any pathspecs given on their command-lines,
+and compare corresponding paths in the two resulting sets of files.
+
+The pathspecs are used to limit the world diff operates in. They remove
+the filepairs outside the specified sets of pathnames. E.g. If the
+input set of filepairs included:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+:100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M junkfile
+------------------------------------------------
+
+but the command invocation was `git diff-files myfile`, then the
+junkfile entry would be removed from the list because only "myfile"
+is under consideration.
+
+The result of comparison is passed from these commands to what is
+internally called "diffcore", in a format similar to what is output
+when the -p option is not used. E.g.
------------------------------------------------
in-place edit :100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M file0
@@ -52,9 +66,8 @@ unmerged :000000 000000 0000000... 0000000... U file6
The diffcore mechanism is fed a list of such comparison results
(each of which is called "filepair", although at this point each
of them talks about a single file), and transforms such a list
-into another list. There are currently 6 such transformations:
+into another list. There are currently 5 such transformations:
-- diffcore-pathspec
- diffcore-break
- diffcore-rename
- diffcore-merge-broken
@@ -62,38 +75,14 @@ into another list. There are currently 6 such transformations:
- diffcore-order
These are applied in sequence. The set of filepairs 'git-diff-{asterisk}'
-commands find are used as the input to diffcore-pathspec, and
-the output from diffcore-pathspec is used as the input to the
+commands find are used as the input to diffcore-break, and
+the output from diffcore-break is used as the input to the
next transformation. The final result is then passed to the
output routine and generates either diff-raw format (see Output
format sections of the manual for 'git-diff-{asterisk}' commands) or
diff-patch format.
-diffcore-pathspec: For Ignoring Files Outside Our Consideration
----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-The first transformation in the chain is diffcore-pathspec, and
-is controlled by giving the pathname parameters to the
-'git-diff-{asterisk}' commands on the command line. The pathspec is used
-to limit the world diff operates in. It removes the filepairs
-outside the specified set of pathnames. E.g. If the input set
-of filepairs included:
-
-------------------------------------------------
-:100644 100644 bcd1234... 0123456... M junkfile
-------------------------------------------------
-
-but the command invocation was `git diff-files myfile`, then the
-junkfile entry would be removed from the list because only "myfile"
-is under consideration.
-
-Implementation note. For performance reasons, 'git-diff-tree'
-uses the pathname parameters on the command line to cull set of
-filepairs it feeds the diffcore mechanism itself, and does not
-use diffcore-pathspec, but the end result is the same.
-
-
diffcore-break: For Splitting Up "Complete Rewrites"
----------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
index 565719e..d77a45a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
@@ -16,8 +16,10 @@ include::glossary-content.txt[]
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:gittutorial[7], linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
-linkgit:everyday[7], linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
+linkgit:gittutorial[7],
+linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
+linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 046a2a7..1fd512b 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -15,11 +15,15 @@ DESCRIPTION
Hooks are little scripts you can place in `$GIT_DIR/hooks`
directory to trigger action at certain points. When
-'git-init' is run, a handful example hooks are copied in the
+'git-init' is run, a handful of example hooks are copied into the
`hooks` directory of the new repository, but by default they are
all disabled. To enable a hook, rename it by removing its `.sample`
suffix.
+NOTE: It is also a requirement for a given hook to be executable.
+However - in a freshly initialized repository - the `.sample` files are
+executable by default.
+
This document describes the currently defined hooks.
applypatch-msg
@@ -86,13 +90,13 @@ This hook is invoked by 'git-commit' right after preparing the
default log message, and before the editor is started.
It takes one to three parameters. The first is the name of the file
-that the commit log message. The second is the source of the commit
-message, and can be: `message` (if a `\-m` or `\-F` option was
-given); `template` (if a `\-t` option was given or the
+that contains the commit log message. The second is the source of the commit
+message, and can be: `message` (if a `-m` or `-F` option was
+given); `template` (if a `-t` option was given or the
configuration option `commit.template` is set); `merge` (if the
commit is a merge or a `.git/MERGE_MSG` file exists); `squash`
(if a `.git/SQUASH_MSG` file exists); or `commit`, followed by
-a commit SHA1 (if a `\-c`, `\-C` or `\--amend` option was given).
+a commit SHA1 (if a `-c`, `-C` or `\--amend` option was given).
If the exit status is non-zero, 'git-commit' will abort.
@@ -130,6 +134,13 @@ parameter, and is invoked after a commit is made.
This hook is meant primarily for notification, and cannot affect
the outcome of 'git-commit'.
+pre-rebase
+----------
+
+This hook is called by 'git-rebase' and can be used to prevent a branch
+from getting rebased.
+
+
post-checkout
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index 6e827cd..cf465cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ git repository.
OPTIONS
-------
-To control which revisions to shown, the command takes options applicable to
+To control which revisions to show, the command takes options applicable to
the 'git-rev-list' command (see linkgit:git-rev-list[1]).
This manual page describes only the most
frequently used options.
@@ -47,7 +47,20 @@ frequently used options.
After an attempt to merge stops with conflicts, show the commits on
the history between two branches (i.e. the HEAD and the MERGE_HEAD)
- that modify the conflicted files.
+ that modify the conflicted files and do not exist on all the heads
+ being merged.
+
+--argscmd=<command>::
+ Command to be run each time gitk has to determine the list of
+ <revs> to show. The command is expected to print on its standard
+ output a list of additional revs to be shown, one per line.
+ Use this instead of explicitly specifying <revs> if the set of
+ commits to show may vary between refreshes.
+
+--select-commit=<ref>::
+
+ Automatically select the specified commit after loading the graph.
+ Default behavior is equivalent to specifying '--select-commit=HEAD'.
<revs>::
@@ -61,14 +74,14 @@ frequently used options.
<path>...::
Limit commits to the ones touching files in the given paths. Note, to
- avoid ambiguity wrt. revision names use "--" to separate the paths
+ avoid ambiguity with respect to revision names use "--" to separate the paths
from any preceding options.
Examples
--------
gitk v2.6.12.. include/scsi drivers/scsi::
- Show as the changes since version 'v2.6.12' that changed any
+ Show the changes since version 'v2.6.12' that changed any
file in the include/scsi or drivers/scsi subdirectories
gitk --since="2 weeks ago" \-- gitk::
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index f8d122a..d1a17e2 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ gitmodules - defining submodule properties
SYNOPSIS
--------
-gitmodules
+$GIT_WORK_DIR/.gitmodules
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index a969b3f..1befca9 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -134,7 +134,8 @@ hooks::
Hooks are customization scripts used by various git
commands. A handful of sample hooks are installed when
'git-init' is run, but all of them are disabled by
- default. To enable, they need to be made executable.
+ default. To enable, the `.sample` suffix has to be
+ removed from the filename by renaming.
Read linkgit:githooks[5] for more details about
each hook.
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
index 6609046..dc8fc3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
@@ -32,22 +32,27 @@ Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
$ echo 'hello world' > file.txt
$ git add .
$ git commit -a -m "initial commit"
-Created initial commit 54196cc2703dc165cbd373a65a4dcf22d50ae7f7
+[master (root-commit) 54196cc] initial commit
+ 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
create mode 100644 file.txt
$ echo 'hello world!' >file.txt
$ git commit -a -m "add emphasis"
-Created commit c4d59f390b9cfd4318117afde11d601c1085f241
+[master c4d59f3] add emphasis
+ 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 1 deletions(-)
------------------------------------------------
-What are the 40 digits of hex that git responded to the commit with?
+What are the 7 digits of hex that git responded to the commit with?
We saw in part one of the tutorial that commits have names like this.
It turns out that every object in the git history is stored under
-such a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA1 hash of the object's
+a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA1 hash of the object's
contents; among other things, this ensures that git will never store
the same data twice (since identical data is given an identical SHA1
name), and that the contents of a git object will never change (since
-that would change the object's name as well).
+that would change the object's name as well). The 7 char hex strings
+here are simply the abbreviation of such 40 character long strings.
+Abbreviations can be used everywhere where the 40 character strings
+can be used, so long as they are unambiguous.
It is expected that the content of the commit object you created while
following the example above generates a different SHA1 hash than
@@ -420,6 +425,7 @@ linkgit:gittutorial[7],
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
+linkgit:git-help[1],
link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index 48d1454..c5d5596 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -26,6 +26,15 @@ First, note that you can get documentation for a command such as
$ man git-log
------------------------------------------------
+or:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git help log
+------------------------------------------------
+
+With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see
+linkgit:git-help[1] for more information.
+
It is a good idea to introduce yourself to git with your name and
public email address before doing any operation. The easiest
way to do so is:
@@ -299,9 +308,7 @@ alice$ git pull /home/bob/myrepo master
This merges the changes from Bob's "master" branch into Alice's
current branch. If Alice has made her own changes in the meantime,
-then she may need to manually fix any conflicts. (Note that the
-"master" argument in the above command is actually unnecessary, as it
-is the default.)
+then she may need to manually fix any conflicts.
The "pull" command thus performs two operations: it fetches changes
from a remote branch, then merges them into the current branch.
@@ -321,10 +328,37 @@ pulling, like this:
------------------------------------------------
alice$ git fetch /home/bob/myrepo master
-alice$ git log -p ..FETCH_HEAD
+alice$ git log -p HEAD..FETCH_HEAD
------------------------------------------------
This operation is safe even if Alice has uncommitted local changes.
+The range notation HEAD..FETCH_HEAD" means "show everything that is reachable
+from the FETCH_HEAD but exclude anything that is reachable from HEAD.
+Alice already knows everything that leads to her current state (HEAD),
+and reviewing what Bob has in his state (FETCH_HEAD) that she has not
+seen with this command
+
+If Alice wants to visualize what Bob did since their histories forked
+she can issue the following command:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ gitk HEAD..FETCH_HEAD
+------------------------------------------------
+
+This uses the same two-dot range notation we saw earlier with 'git log'.
+
+Alice may want to view what both of them did since they forked.
+She can use three-dot form instead of the two-dot form:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ gitk HEAD...FETCH_HEAD
+------------------------------------------------
+
+This means "show everything that is reachable from either one, but
+exclude anything that is reachable from both of them".
+
+Please note that these range notation can be used with both gitk
+and "git log".
After inspecting what Bob did, if there is nothing urgent, Alice may
decide to continue working without pulling from Bob. If Bob's history
@@ -554,7 +588,7 @@ list. When the history has lines of development that diverged and
then merged back together, the order in which 'git-log' presents
those commits is meaningless.
-Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the linux kernel,
+Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the Linux kernel,
or git itself) have frequent merges, and 'gitk' does a better job of
visualizing their history. For example,
@@ -606,7 +640,7 @@ digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
* linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-am[1]: These convert
series of git commits into emailed patches, and vice versa,
- useful for projects such as the linux kernel which rely heavily
+ useful for projects such as the Linux kernel which rely heavily
on emailed patches.
* linkgit:git-bisect[1]: When there is a regression in your
@@ -626,6 +660,7 @@ linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
+linkgit:git-help[1],
link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2b021e3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,364 @@
+gitworkflows(7)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+gitworkflows - An overview of recommended workflows with git
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+git *
+
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This document attempts to write down and motivate some of the workflow
+elements used for `git.git` itself. Many ideas apply in general,
+though the full workflow is rarely required for smaller projects with
+fewer people involved.
+
+We formulate a set of 'rules' for quick reference, while the prose
+tries to motivate each of them. Do not always take them literally;
+you should value good reasons for your actions higher than manpages
+such as this one.
+
+
+SEPARATE CHANGES
+----------------
+
+As a general rule, you should try to split your changes into small
+logical steps, and commit each of them. They should be consistent,
+working independently of any later commits, pass the test suite, etc.
+This makes the review process much easier, and the history much more
+useful for later inspection and analysis, for example with
+linkgit:git-blame[1] and linkgit:git-bisect[1].
+
+To achieve this, try to split your work into small steps from the very
+beginning. It is always easier to squash a few commits together than
+to split one big commit into several. Don't be afraid of making too
+small or imperfect steps along the way. You can always go back later
+and edit the commits with `git rebase \--interactive` before you
+publish them. You can use `git stash save \--keep-index` to run the
+test suite independent of other uncommitted changes; see the EXAMPLES
+section of linkgit:git-stash[1].
+
+
+MANAGING BRANCHES
+-----------------
+
+There are two main tools that can be used to include changes from one
+branch on another: linkgit:git-merge[1] and
+linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1].
+
+Merges have many advantages, so we try to solve as many problems as
+possible with merges alone. Cherry-picking is still occasionally
+useful; see "Merging upwards" below for an example.
+
+Most importantly, merging works at the branch level, while
+cherry-picking works at the commit level. This means that a merge can
+carry over the changes from 1, 10, or 1000 commits with equal ease,
+which in turn means the workflow scales much better to a large number
+of contributors (and contributions). Merges are also easier to
+understand because a merge commit is a "promise" that all changes from
+all its parents are now included.
+
+There is a tradeoff of course: merges require a more careful branch
+management. The following subsections discuss the important points.
+
+
+Graduation
+~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As a given feature goes from experimental to stable, it also
+"graduates" between the corresponding branches of the software.
+`git.git` uses the following 'integration branches':
+
+* 'maint' tracks the commits that should go into the next "maintenance
+ release", i.e., update of the last released stable version;
+
+* 'master' tracks the commits that should go into the next release;
+
+* 'next' is intended as a testing branch for topics being tested for
+ stability for master.
+
+There is a fourth official branch that is used slightly differently:
+
+* 'pu' (proposed updates) is an integration branch for things that are
+ not quite ready for inclusion yet (see "Integration Branches"
+ below).
+
+Each of the four branches is usually a direct descendant of the one
+above it.
+
+Conceptually, the feature enters at an unstable branch (usually 'next'
+or 'pu'), and "graduates" to 'master' for the next release once it is
+considered stable enough.
+
+
+Merging upwards
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The "downwards graduation" discussed above cannot be done by actually
+merging downwards, however, since that would merge 'all' changes on
+the unstable branch into the stable one. Hence the following:
+
+.Merge upwards
+[caption="Rule: "]
+=====================================
+Always commit your fixes to the oldest supported branch that require
+them. Then (periodically) merge the integration branches upwards into each
+other.
+=====================================
+
+This gives a very controlled flow of fixes. If you notice that you
+have applied a fix to e.g. 'master' that is also required in 'maint',
+you will need to cherry-pick it (using linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1])
+downwards. This will happen a few times and is nothing to worry about
+unless you do it very frequently.
+
+
+Topic branches
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Any nontrivial feature will require several patches to implement, and
+may get extra bugfixes or improvements during its lifetime.
+
+Committing everything directly on the integration branches leads to many
+problems: Bad commits cannot be undone, so they must be reverted one
+by one, which creates confusing histories and further error potential
+when you forget to revert part of a group of changes. Working in
+parallel mixes up the changes, creating further confusion.
+
+Use of "topic branches" solves these problems. The name is pretty
+self explanatory, with a caveat that comes from the "merge upwards"
+rule above:
+
+.Topic branches
+[caption="Rule: "]
+=====================================
+Make a side branch for every topic (feature, bugfix, ...). Fork it off
+at the oldest integration branch that you will eventually want to merge it
+into.
+=====================================
+
+Many things can then be done very naturally:
+
+* To get the feature/bugfix into an integration branch, simply merge
+ it. If the topic has evolved further in the meantime, merge again.
+ (Note that you do not necessarily have to merge it to the oldest
+ integration branch first. For example, you can first merge a bugfix
+ to 'next', give it some testing time, and merge to 'maint' when you
+ know it is stable.)
+
+* If you find you need new features from the branch 'other' to continue
+ working on your topic, merge 'other' to 'topic'. (However, do not
+ do this "just habitually", see below.)
+
+* If you find you forked off the wrong branch and want to move it
+ "back in time", use linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+
+Note that the last point clashes with the other two: a topic that has
+been merged elsewhere should not be rebased. See the section on
+RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE in linkgit:git-rebase[1].
+
+We should point out that "habitually" (regularly for no real reason)
+merging an integration branch into your topics -- and by extension,
+merging anything upstream into anything downstream on a regular basis
+-- is frowned upon:
+
+.Merge to downstream only at well-defined points
+[caption="Rule: "]
+=====================================
+Do not merge to downstream except with a good reason: upstream API
+changes affect your branch; your branch no longer merges to upstream
+cleanly; etc.
+=====================================
+
+Otherwise, the topic that was merged to suddenly contains more than a
+single (well-separated) change. The many resulting small merges will
+greatly clutter up history. Anyone who later investigates the history
+of a file will have to find out whether that merge affected the topic
+in development. An upstream might even inadvertently be merged into a
+"more stable" branch. And so on.
+
+
+Throw-away integration
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If you followed the last paragraph, you will now have many small topic
+branches, and occasionally wonder how they interact. Perhaps the
+result of merging them does not even work? But on the other hand, we
+want to avoid merging them anywhere "stable" because such merges
+cannot easily be undone.
+
+The solution, of course, is to make a merge that we can undo: merge
+into a throw-away branch.
+
+.Throw-away integration branches
+[caption="Rule: "]
+=====================================
+To test the interaction of several topics, merge them into a
+throw-away branch. You must never base any work on such a branch!
+=====================================
+
+If you make it (very) clear that this branch is going to be deleted
+right after the testing, you can even publish this branch, for example
+to give the testers a chance to work with it, or other developers a
+chance to see if their in-progress work will be compatible. `git.git`
+has such an official throw-away integration branch called 'pu'.
+
+
+DISTRIBUTED WORKFLOWS
+---------------------
+
+After the last section, you should know how to manage topics. In
+general, you will not be the only person working on the project, so
+you will have to share your work.
+
+Roughly speaking, there are two important workflows: merge and patch.
+The important difference is that the merge workflow can propagate full
+history, including merges, while patches cannot. Both workflows can
+be used in parallel: in `git.git`, only subsystem maintainers use
+the merge workflow, while everyone else sends patches.
+
+Note that the maintainer(s) may impose restrictions, such as
+"Signed-off-by" requirements, that all commits/patches submitted for
+inclusion must adhere to. Consult your project's documentation for
+more information.
+
+
+Merge workflow
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The merge workflow works by copying branches between upstream and
+downstream. Upstream can merge contributions into the official
+history; downstream base their work on the official history.
+
+There are three main tools that can be used for this:
+
+* linkgit:git-push[1] copies your branches to a remote repository,
+ usually to one that can be read by all involved parties;
+
+* linkgit:git-fetch[1] that copies remote branches to your repository;
+ and
+
+* linkgit:git-pull[1] that does fetch and merge in one go.
+
+Note the last point. Do 'not' use 'git-pull' unless you actually want
+to merge the remote branch.
+
+Getting changes out is easy:
+
+.Push/pull: Publishing branches/topics
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+=====================================
+`git push <remote> <branch>` and tell everyone where they can fetch
+from.
+=====================================
+
+You will still have to tell people by other means, such as mail. (Git
+provides the linkgit:git-request-pull[1] to send preformatted pull
+requests to upstream maintainers to simplify this task.)
+
+If you just want to get the newest copies of the integration branches,
+staying up to date is easy too:
+
+.Push/pull: Staying up to date
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+=====================================
+Use `git fetch <remote>` or `git remote update` to stay up to date.
+=====================================
+
+Then simply fork your topic branches from the stable remotes as
+explained earlier.
+
+If you are a maintainer and would like to merge other people's topic
+branches to the integration branches, they will typically send a
+request to do so by mail. Such a request looks like
+
+-------------------------------------
+Please pull from
+ <url> <branch>
+-------------------------------------
+
+In that case, 'git-pull' can do the fetch and merge in one go, as
+follows.
+
+.Push/pull: Merging remote topics
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+=====================================
+`git pull <url> <branch>`
+=====================================
+
+Occasionally, the maintainer may get merge conflicts when he tries to
+pull changes from downstream. In this case, he can ask downstream to
+do the merge and resolve the conflicts themselves (perhaps they will
+know better how to resolve them). It is one of the rare cases where
+downstream 'should' merge from upstream.
+
+
+Patch workflow
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If you are a contributor that sends changes upstream in the form of
+emails, you should use topic branches as usual (see above). Then use
+linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to generate the corresponding emails
+(highly recommended over manually formatting them because it makes the
+maintainer's life easier).
+
+.format-patch/am: Publishing branches/topics
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+=====================================
+* `git format-patch -M upstream..topic` to turn them into preformatted
+ patch files
+* `git send-email --to=<recipient> <patches>`
+=====================================
+
+See the linkgit:git-format-patch[1] and linkgit:git-send-email[1]
+manpages for further usage notes.
+
+If the maintainer tells you that your patch no longer applies to the
+current upstream, you will have to rebase your topic (you cannot use a
+merge because you cannot format-patch merges):
+
+.format-patch/am: Keeping topics up to date
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+=====================================
+`git pull --rebase <url> <branch>`
+=====================================
+
+You can then fix the conflicts during the rebase. Presumably you have
+not published your topic other than by mail, so rebasing it is not a
+problem.
+
+If you receive such a patch series (as maintainer, or perhaps as a
+reader of the mailing list it was sent to), save the mails to files,
+create a new topic branch and use 'git-am' to import the commits:
+
+.format-patch/am: Importing patches
+[caption="Recipe: "]
+=====================================
+`git am < patch`
+=====================================
+
+One feature worth pointing out is the three-way merge, which can help
+if you get conflicts: `git am -3` will use index information contained
+in patches to figure out the merge base. See linkgit:git-am[1] for
+other options.
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gittutorial[7],
+linkgit:git-push[1],
+linkgit:git-pull[1],
+linkgit:git-merge[1],
+linkgit:git-rebase[1],
+linkgit:git-format-patch[1],
+linkgit:git-send-email[1],
+linkgit:git-am[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 9b4a4f4..4fc1cf1 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -183,7 +183,8 @@ to point at the new commit.
and potentially aborted, and allow for a post-notification after the
operation is done. The hook scripts are found in the
`$GIT_DIR/hooks/` directory, and are enabled by simply
- making them executable.
+ removing the `.sample` suffix from the filename. In earlier versions
+ of git you had to make them executable.
[[def_index]]index::
A collection of files with stat information, whose contents are stored
@@ -261,7 +262,7 @@ This commit is referred to as a "merge commit", or sometimes just a
'origin' is used for that purpose. New upstream updates
will be fetched into remote <<def_tracking_branch,tracking branches>> named
origin/name-of-upstream-branch, which you can see using
- "`git branch -r`".
+ `git branch -r`.
[[def_pack]]pack::
A set of objects which have been compressed into one file (to save space
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 554909f..0000000
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebase-and-edit.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,79 +0,0 @@
-Date: Sat, 13 Aug 2005 22:16:02 -0700 (PDT)
-From: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
-To: Steve French <smfrench@austin.rr.com>
-cc: git@vger.kernel.org
-Subject: Re: sending changesets from the middle of a git tree
-Abstract: In this article, Linus demonstrates how a broken commit
- in a sequence of commits can be removed by rewinding the head and
- reapplying selected changes.
-
-On Sat, 13 Aug 2005, Linus Torvalds wrote:
-
-> That's correct. Same things apply: you can move a patch over, and create a
-> new one with a modified comment, but basically the _old_ commit will be
-> immutable.
-
-Let me clarify.
-
-You can entirely _drop_ old branches, so commits may be immutable, but
-nothing forces you to keep them. Of course, when you drop a commit, you'll
-always end up dropping all the commits that depended on it, and if you
-actually got somebody else to pull that commit you can't drop it from
-_their_ repository, but undoing things is not impossible.
-
-For example, let's say that you've made a mess of things: you've committed
-three commits "old->a->b->c", and you notice that "a" was broken, but you
-want to save "b" and "c". What you can do is
-
- # Create a branch "broken" that is the current code
- # for reference
- git branch broken
-
- # Reset the main branch to three parents back: this
- # effectively undoes the three top commits
- git reset HEAD^^^
- git checkout -f
-
- # Check the result visually to make sure you know what's
- # going on
- gitk --all
-
- # Re-apply the two top ones from "broken"
- #
- # First "parent of broken" (aka b):
- git-diff-tree -p broken^ | git-apply --index
- git commit --reedit=broken^
-
- # Then "top of broken" (aka c):
- git-diff-tree -p broken | git-apply --index
- git commit --reedit=broken
-
-and you've now re-applied (and possibly edited the comments) the two
-commits b/c, and commit "a" is basically gone (it still exists in the
-"broken" branch, of course).
-
-Finally, check out the end result again:
-
- # Look at the new commit history
- gitk --all
-
-to see that everything looks sensible.
-
-And then, you can just remove the broken branch if you decide you really
-don't want it:
-
- # remove 'broken' branch
- git branch -d broken
-
- # Prune old objects if you're really really sure
- git prune
-
-And yeah, I'm sure there are other ways of doing this. And as usual, the
-above is totally untested, and I just wrote it down in this email, so if
-I've done something wrong, you'll have to figure it out on your own ;)
-
- Linus
--
-To unsubscribe from this list: send the line "unsubscribe git" in
-the body of a message to majordomo@vger.kernel.org
-More majordomo info at http://vger.kernel.org/majordomo-info.html
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
index d214d4b..74a1c0c 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/rebase-from-internal-branch.txt
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@ the kind of task StGIT is designed to do.
I just have done a simpler one, this time using only the core
GIT tools.
-I had a handful commits that were ahead of master in pu, and I
+I had a handful of commits that were ahead of master in pu, and I
wanted to add some documentation bypassing my usual habit of
placing new things in pu first. At the beginning, the commit
ancestry graph looked like this:
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3b4a390
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
+Date: Fri, 19 Dec 2008 00:45:19 -0800
+From: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>, Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
+Subject: Re: Odd merge behaviour involving reverts
+Abstract: Sometimes a branch that was already merged to the mainline
+ is later found to be faulty. Linus and Junio give guidance on
+ recovering from such a premature merge and continuing development
+ after the offending branch is fixed.
+Message-ID: <7vocz8a6zk.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org>
+References: <alpine.LFD.2.00.0812181949450.14014@localhost.localdomain>
+
+Alan <alan@clueserver.org> said:
+
+ I have a master branch. We have a branch off of that that some
+ developers are doing work on. They claim it is ready. We merge it
+ into the master branch. It breaks something so we revert the merge.
+ They make changes to the code. they get it to a point where they say
+ it is ok and we merge again.
+
+ When examined, we find that code changes made before the revert are
+ not in the master branch, but code changes after are in the master
+ branch.
+
+and asked for help recovering from this situation.
+
+The history immediately after the "revert of the merge" would look like
+this:
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W
+ /
+ ---A---B
+
+where A and B are on the side development that was not so good, M is the
+merge that brings these premature changes into the mainline, x are changes
+unrelated to what the side branch did and already made on the mainline,
+and W is the "revert of the merge M" (doesn't W look M upside down?).
+IOW, "diff W^..W" is similar to "diff -R M^..M".
+
+Such a "revert" of a merge can be made with:
+
+ $ git revert -m 1 M
+
+After the developers of the side branch fix their mistakes, the history
+may look like this:
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x
+ /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+
+where C and D are to fix what was broken in A and B, and you may already
+have some other changes on the mainline after W.
+
+If you merge the updated side branch (with D at its tip), none of the
+changes made in A nor B will be in the result, because they were reverted
+by W. That is what Alan saw.
+
+Linus explains the situation:
+
+ Reverting a regular commit just effectively undoes what that commit
+ did, and is fairly straightforward. But reverting a merge commit also
+ undoes the _data_ that the commit changed, but it does absolutely
+ nothing to the effects on _history_ that the merge had.
+
+ So the merge will still exist, and it will still be seen as joining
+ the two branches together, and future merges will see that merge as
+ the last shared state - and the revert that reverted the merge brought
+ in will not affect that at all.
+
+ So a "revert" undoes the data changes, but it's very much _not_ an
+ "undo" in the sense that it doesn't undo the effects of a commit on
+ the repository history.
+
+ So if you think of "revert" as "undo", then you're going to always
+ miss this part of reverts. Yes, it undoes the data, but no, it doesn't
+ undo history.
+
+In such a situation, you would want to first revert the previous revert,
+which would make the history look like this:
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---Y
+ /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+
+where Y is the revert of W. Such a "revert of the revert" can be done
+with:
+
+ $ git revert W
+
+This history would (ignoring possible conflicts between what W and W..Y
+changed) be equivalent to not having W nor Y at all in the history:
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x-------x----
+ /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+
+and merging the side branch again will not have conflict arising from an
+earlier revert and revert of the revert.
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x-------x-------*
+ / /
+ ---A---B-------------------C---D
+
+Of course the changes made in C and D still can conflict with what was
+done by any of the x, but that is just a normal merge conflict.
+
+On the other hand, if the developers of the side branch discarded their
+faulty A and B, and redone the changes on top of the updated mainline
+after the revert, the history would have looked like this:
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---x
+ / \
+ ---A---B A'--B'--C'
+
+If you reverted the revert in such a case as in the previous example:
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---x---Y---*
+ / \ /
+ ---A---B A'--B'--C'
+
+where Y is the revert of W, A' and B' are rerolled A and B, and there may
+also be a further fix-up C' on the side branch. "diff Y^..Y" is similar
+to "diff -R W^..W" (which in turn means it is similar to "diff M^..M"),
+and "diff A'^..C'" by definition would be similar but different from that,
+because it is a rerolled series of the earlier change. There will be a
+lot of overlapping changes that result in conflicts. So do not do "revert
+of revert" blindly without thinking..
+
+ ---o---o---o---M---x---x---W---x---x
+ / \
+ ---A---B A'--B'--C'
+
+In the history with rebased side branch, W (and M) are behind the merge
+base of the updated branch and the tip of the mainline, and they should
+merge without the past faulty merge and its revert getting in the way.
+
+To recap, these are two very different scenarios, and they want two very
+different resolution strategies:
+
+ - If the faulty side branch was fixed by adding corrections on top, then
+ doing a revert of the previous revert would be the right thing to do.
+
+ - If the faulty side branch whose effects were discarded by an earlier
+ revert of a merge was rebuilt from scratch (i.e. rebasing and fixing,
+ as you seem to have interpreted), then re-merging the result without
+ doing anything else fancy would be the right thing to do.
+
+However, there are things to keep in mind when reverting a merge (and
+reverting such a revert).
+
+For example, think about what reverting a merge (and then reverting the
+revert) does to bisectability. Ignore the fact that the revert of a revert
+is undoing it - just think of it as a "single commit that does a lot".
+Because that is what it does.
+
+When you have a problem you are chasing down, and you hit a "revert this
+merge", what you're hitting is essentially a single commit that contains
+all the changes (but obviously in reverse) of all the commits that got
+merged. So it's debugging hell, because now you don't have lots of small
+changes that you can try to pinpoint which _part_ of it changes.
+
+But does it all work? Sure it does. You can revert a merge, and from a
+purely technical angle, git did it very naturally and had no real
+troubles. It just considered it a change from "state before merge" to
+"state after merge", and that was it. Nothing complicated, nothing odd,
+nothing really dangerous. Git will do it without even thinking about it.
+
+So from a technical angle, there's nothing wrong with reverting a merge,
+but from a workflow angle it's something that you generally should try to
+avoid.
+
+If at all possible, for example, if you find a problem that got merged
+into the main tree, rather than revert the merge, try _really_ hard to
+bisect the problem down into the branch you merged, and just fix it, or
+try to revert the individual commit that caused it.
+
+Yes, it's more complex, and no, it's not always going to work (sometimes
+the answer is: "oops, I really shouldn't have merged it, because it wasn't
+ready yet, and I really need to undo _all_ of the merge"). So then you
+really should revert the merge, but when you want to re-do the merge, you
+now need to do it by reverting the revert.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
index 4032748..622ee5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@ Then, add something like this to your httpd.conf
Require valid-user
</Location>
- Debian automatically reads all files under /etc/apach2/conf.d.
+ Debian automatically reads all files under /etc/apache2/conf.d.
The password file can be somewhere else, but it has to be readable by
Apache and preferably not readable by the world.
diff --git a/Documentation/i18n.txt b/Documentation/i18n.txt
index fb0d7da..708da6c 100644
--- a/Documentation/i18n.txt
+++ b/Documentation/i18n.txt
@@ -7,11 +7,11 @@ At the core level, git is character encoding agnostic.
to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts. There is no such
thing as pathname encoding translation.
- - The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequence
+ - The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences
of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core
level.
- - The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequence of non-NUL
+ - The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL
bytes.
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ project find it more convenient to use legacy encodings, git
does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in
mind.
-. 'git-commit-tree' (hence, 'git-commit' which uses it) issues
+. 'git-commit' and 'git-commit-tree' issues
a warning if the commit log message given to it does not look
like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your
project uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to
@@ -37,9 +37,9 @@ of `i18n.commitencoding` in its `encoding` header. This is to
help other people who look at them later. Lack of this header
implies that the commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
-. 'git-log', 'git-show' and friends looks at the `encoding`
- header of a commit object, and tries to re-code the log
- message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
+. 'git-log', 'git-show', 'git-blame' and friends look at the
+ `encoding` header of a commit object, and try to re-code the
+ log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You can
specify the desired output encoding with
`i18n.logoutputencoding` in `.git/config` file, like this:
+
diff --git a/Documentation/mailmap.txt b/Documentation/mailmap.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..288f04e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/mailmap.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,74 @@
+If the file `.mailmap` exists at the toplevel of the repository, or at
+the location pointed to by the mailmap.file configuration option, it
+is used to map author and committer names and email addresses to
+canonical real names and email addresses.
+
+In the simple form, each line in the file consists of the canonical
+real name of an author, whitespace, and an email address used in the
+commit (enclosed by '<' and '>') to map to the name. For example:
+--
+ Proper Name <commit@email.xx>
+--
+
+The more complex forms are:
+--
+ <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
+--
+which allows mailmap to replace only the email part of a commit, and:
+--
+ Proper Name <proper@email.xx> <commit@email.xx>
+--
+which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
+commit matching the specified commit email address, and:
+--
+ Proper Name <proper@email.xx> Commit Name <commit@email.xx>
+--
+which allows mailmap to replace both the name and the email of a
+commit matching both the specified commit name and email address.
+
+Example 1: Your history contains commits by two authors, Jane
+and Joe, whose names appear in the repository under several forms:
+
+------------
+Joe Developer <joe@example.com>
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@example.com>
+Jane Doe <jane@laptop.(none)>
+Jane D. <jane@desktop.(none)>
+------------
+
+Now suppose that Joe wants his middle name initial used, and Jane
+prefers her family name fully spelled out. A proper `.mailmap` file
+would look like:
+
+------------
+Jane Doe <jane@desktop.(none)>
+Joe R. Developer <joe@example.com>
+------------
+
+Note how there is no need for an entry for <jane@laptop.(none)>, because the
+real name of that author is already correct.
+
+Example 2: Your repository contains commits from the following
+authors:
+
+------------
+nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
+nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
+nick2 <nick2@company.xx>
+santa <me@company.xx>
+claus <me@company.xx>
+CTO <cto@coompany.xx>
+------------
+
+Then you might want a `.mailmap` file that looks like:
+------------
+<cto@company.xx> <cto@coompany.xx>
+Some Dude <some@dude.xx> nick1 <bugs@company.xx>
+Other Author <other@author.xx> nick2 <bugs@company.xx>
+Other Author <other@author.xx> <nick2@company.xx>
+Santa Claus <santa.claus@northpole.xx> <me@company.xx>
+------------
+
+Use hash '#' for comments that are either on their own line, or after
+the email address.
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-config.txt b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
index 00277e0..1ff08ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
@@ -1,6 +1,10 @@
-merge.stat::
- Whether to print the diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and merge result
- at the end of the merge. True by default.
+merge.conflictstyle::
+ Specify the style in which conflicted hunks are written out to
+ working tree files upon merge. The default is "merge", which
+ shows a `<<<<<<<` conflict marker, changes made by one side,
+ a `=======` marker, changes made by the other side, and then
+ a `>>>>>>>` marker. An alternate style, "diff3", adds a `|||||||`
+ marker and the original text before the `=======` marker.
merge.log::
Whether to include summaries of merged commits in newly created
@@ -11,6 +15,10 @@ merge.renameLimit::
during a merge; if not specified, defaults to the value of
diff.renameLimit.
+merge.stat::
+ Whether to print the diffstat between ORIG_HEAD and the merge result
+ at the end of the merge. True by default.
+
merge.tool::
Controls which merge resolution program is used by
linkgit:git-mergetool[1]. Valid built-in values are: "kdiff3",
@@ -24,10 +32,10 @@ merge.verbosity::
message if conflicts were detected. Level 1 outputs only
conflicts, 2 outputs conflicts and file changes. Level 5 and
above outputs debugging information. The default is level 2.
- Can be overridden by 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY' environment variable.
+ Can be overridden by the 'GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY' environment variable.
merge.<driver>.name::
- Defines a human readable name for a custom low-level
+ Defines a human-readable name for a custom low-level
merge driver. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
merge.<driver>.driver::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 007909a..637b53f 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -1,10 +1,18 @@
+-q::
+--quiet::
+ Operate quietly.
+
+-v::
+--verbose::
+ Be verbose.
+
--stat::
Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.
-n::
--no-stat::
- Do not show diffstat at the end of the merge.
+ Do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge.
--summary::
--no-summary::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index 1276f85..4365b7e 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -3,15 +3,15 @@ MERGE STRATEGIES
resolve::
This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch
- and another branch you pulled from) using 3-way merge
+ and another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge
algorithm. It tries to carefully detect criss-cross
merge ambiguities and is considered generally safe and
fast.
recursive::
- This can only resolve two heads using 3-way merge
- algorithm. When there are more than one common
- ancestors that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a
+ This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge
+ algorithm. When there is more than one common
+ ancestor that can be used for 3-way merge, it creates a
merged tree of the common ancestors and uses that as
the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without
@@ -22,11 +22,11 @@ recursive::
pulling or merging one branch.
octopus::
- This resolves more than two-head case, but refuses to do
- complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is
+ This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do
+ a complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is
primarily meant to be used for bundling topic branch
heads together. This is the default merge strategy when
- pulling or merging more than one branches.
+ pulling or merging more than one branch.
ours::
This resolves any number of heads, but the result of the
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index c11d495..5c6e678 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
commit <sha1>
Author: <author>
- Date: <author date>
+ Date: <author date>
<title line>
@@ -49,9 +49,9 @@ This is designed to be as compact as possible.
* 'fuller'
commit <sha1>
- Author: <author>
+ Author: <author>
AuthorDate: <author date>
- Commit: <committer>
+ Commit: <committer>
CommitDate: <committer date>
<title line>
@@ -101,21 +101,24 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%P': parent hashes
- '%p': abbreviated parent hashes
- '%an': author name
-- '%aN': author name (respecting .mailmap)
+- '%aN': author name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ae': author email
-- '%ad': author date
+- '%aE': author email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
+- '%ad': author date (format respects --date= option)
- '%aD': author date, RFC2822 style
- '%ar': author date, relative
- '%at': author date, UNIX timestamp
- '%ai': author date, ISO 8601 format
- '%cn': committer name
-- '%cN': committer name (respecting .mailmap)
+- '%cN': committer name (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%ce': committer email
+- '%cE': committer email (respecting .mailmap, see linkgit:git-shortlog[1] or linkgit:git-blame[1])
- '%cd': committer date
- '%cD': committer date, RFC2822 style
- '%cr': committer date, relative
- '%ct': committer date, UNIX timestamp
- '%ci': committer date, ISO 8601 format
+- '%d': ref names, like the --decorate option of linkgit:git-log[1]
- '%e': encoding
- '%s': subject
- '%b': body
@@ -123,6 +126,7 @@ The placeholders are:
- '%Cgreen': switch color to green
- '%Cblue': switch color to blue
- '%Creset': reset color
+- '%C(...)': color specification, as described in color.branch.* config option
- '%m': left, right or boundary mark
- '%n': newline
- '%x00': print a byte from a hex code
@@ -148,3 +152,12 @@ $ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef \
4da45be
7134973
---------------------
++
+In addition, any unrecognized string that has a `%` in it is interpreted
+as if it has `tformat:` in front of it. For example, these two are
+equivalent:
++
+---------------------
+$ git log -2 --pretty=tformat:%h 4da45bef
+$ git log -2 --pretty=%h 4da45bef
+---------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 6d66c74..bff9499 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
--pretty[='<format>']::
+--format[='<format>']::
Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format,
where '<format>' can be one of 'oneline', 'short', 'medium',
@@ -10,13 +11,17 @@ configuration (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
--abbrev-commit::
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object
- name, show only handful hexdigits prefix. Non default number of
+ name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of
digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies
diff output, if it is displayed).
+
This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for
people using 80-column terminals.
+--oneline::
+ This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit"
+ used together.
+
--encoding[=<encoding>]::
The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message
in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index ebdd948..f9811f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -5,15 +5,14 @@
of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
<refspec>::
- The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is
- `+?<src>:<dst>`; that is, an optional plus `{plus}`, followed
- by the source ref, followed by a colon `:`, followed by
- the destination ref.
+ The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
+ `{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+ by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
+
The remote ref that matches <src>
is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local
ref that matches it is fast forwarded using <src>.
-Again, if the optional plus `+` is used, the local ref
+If the optional plus `+` is used, the local ref
is updated even if it does not result in a fast forward
update.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 735cf07..7dd237c 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ include::pretty-options.txt[]
Synonym for `--date=relative`.
---date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short}::
+--date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}::
Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
as when using "--pretty". `log.date` config variable sets a default
@@ -31,6 +31,8 @@ format, often found in E-mail messages.
+
`--date=short` shows only date but not time, in `YYYY-MM-DD` format.
+
+`--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw git format `%s %z` format.
++
`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original timezone
(either committer's or author's).
@@ -174,6 +176,10 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
+--all-match::
+ Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
+ --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
+
-i::
--regexp-ignore-case::
@@ -218,6 +224,21 @@ endif::git-rev-list[]
Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/` are listed on the
command line as '<commit>'.
+--branches::
+
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` are listed
+ on the command line as '<commit>'.
+
+--tags::
+
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are listed
+ on the command line as '<commit>'.
+
+--remotes::
+
+ Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
+ on the command line as '<commit>'.
+
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
--stdin::
@@ -281,8 +302,52 @@ See also linkgit:git-reflog[1].
History Simplification
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-When optional paths are given, 'git-rev-list' simplifies commits with
-various strategies, according to the options you have selected.
+Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the
+commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of
+'History Simplification', one part is selecting the commits and the other
+is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.
+
+The following options select the commits to be shown:
+
+<paths>::
+
+ Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.
+
+--simplify-by-decoration::
+
+ Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.
+
+Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.
+
+The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:
+
+Default mode::
+
+ Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the
+ final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side
+ branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches
+ with the same content)
+
+--full-history::
+
+ As the default mode but does not prune some history.
+
+--dense::
+
+ Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a
+ meaningful history.
+
+--sparse::
+
+ All commits in the simplified history are shown.
+
+--simplify-merges::
+
+ Additional option to '--full-history' to remove some needless
+ merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected
+ commits contributing to this merge.
+
+A more detailed explanation follows.
Suppose you specified `foo` as the <paths>. We shall call commits
that modify `foo` !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff
@@ -409,6 +474,56 @@ Note that without '\--full-history', this still simplifies merges: if
one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other
sides of the merge are never walked.
+Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:
+
+--simplify-merges::
+
+ First, build a history graph in the same way that
+ '\--full-history' with parent rewriting does (see above).
++
+Then simplify each commit `C` to its replacement `C'` in the final
+history according to the following rules:
++
+--
+* Set `C'` to `C`.
++
+* Replace each parent `P` of `C'` with its simplification `P'`. In
+ the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and
+ remove duplicates.
++
+* If after this parent rewriting, `C'` is a root or merge commit (has
+ zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains.
+ Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.
+--
++
+The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to
+'\--full-history' with parent rewriting. The example turns into:
++
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+ .-A---M---N---O
+ / / /
+ I B D
+ \ / /
+ `---------'
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------
++
+Note the major differences in `N` and `P` over '\--full-history':
++
+--
+* `N`'s parent list had `I` removed, because it is an ancestor of the
+ other parent `M`. Still, `N` remained because it is !TREESAME.
++
+* `P`'s parent list similarly had `I` removed. `P` was then
+ removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.
+--
+
+The '\--simplify-by-decoration' option allows you to view only the
+big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits
+that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME
+(in other words, kept after history simplification rules described
+above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the
+contents of the paths given on the command line. All other
+commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).
ifdef::git-rev-list[]
Bisection Helpers
@@ -420,14 +535,14 @@ Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
- $ git-rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
+ $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
outputs 'midpoint', the output of the two commands
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
- $ git-rev-list foo ^midpoint
- $ git-rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
+ $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
+ $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which
@@ -453,11 +568,11 @@ This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
commits. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only
one displayed by `--bisect`.)
-
++
This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
may not compile for example).
-
++
This option can be used along with `--bisect-vars`, in this case,
after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if
`--bisect-vars` had been used alone.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 539863b..e66ca9f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -66,6 +66,12 @@ Steps to parse options
non-option arguments in `argv[]`.
`argc` is updated appropriately because of the assignment.
+
+You can also pass NULL instead of a usage array as fourth parameter of
+parse_options(), to avoid displaying a help screen with usage info and
+option list. This should only be done if necessary, e.g. to implement
+a limited parser for only a subset of the options that needs to be run
+before the full parser, which in turn shows the full help message.
++
Flags are the bitwise-or of:
`PARSE_OPT_KEEP_DASHDASH`::
@@ -77,6 +83,28 @@ Flags are the bitwise-or of:
Using this flag, processing is stopped at the first non-option
argument.
+`PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ARGV0`::
+ Keep the first argument, which contains the program name. It's
+ removed from argv[] by default.
+
+`PARSE_OPT_KEEP_UNKNOWN`::
+ Keep unknown arguments instead of erroring out. This doesn't
+ work for all combinations of arguments as users might expect
+ it to do. E.g. if the first argument in `--unknown --known`
+ takes a value (which we can't know), the second one is
+ mistakenly interpreted as a known option. Similarly, if
+ `PARSE_OPT_STOP_AT_NON_OPTION` is set, the second argument in
+ `--unknown value` will be mistakenly interpreted as a
+ non-option, not as a value belonging to the unknown option,
+ the parser early. That's why parse_options() errors out if
+ both options are set.
+
+`PARSE_OPT_NO_INTERNAL_HELP`::
+ By default, parse_options() handles `-h`, `--help` and
+ `--help-all` internally, by showing a help screen. This option
+ turns it off and allows one to add custom handlers for these
+ options, or to just leave them unknown.
+
Data Structure
--------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
index 75aa5d4..2efe7a4 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ Functions
start_command() followed by finish_command(). Takes a pointer
to a `struct child_process` that specifies the details.
-`run_command_v_opt`, `run_command_v_opt_cd`, `run_command_v_opt_cd_env`::
+`run_command_v_opt`, `run_command_v_opt_cd_env`::
Convenience functions that encapsulate a sequence of
start_command() followed by finish_command(). The argument argv
@@ -52,6 +52,21 @@ Functions
Wait for the completion of an asynchronous function that was
started with start_async().
+`run_hook`::
+
+ Run a hook.
+ The first argument is a pathname to an index file, or NULL
+ if the hook uses the default index file or no index is needed.
+ The second argument is the name of the hook.
+ The further arguments correspond to the hook arguments.
+ The last argument has to be NULL to terminate the arguments list.
+ If the hook does not exist or is not executable, the return
+ value will be zero.
+ If it is executable, the hook will be executed and the exit
+ status of the hook is returned.
+ On execution, .stdout_to_stderr and .no_stdin will be set.
+ (See below.)
+
Data structures
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
index a9668e5..7438149 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-strbuf.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ allocated memory or not), use `strbuf_detach()` to unwrap a memory
buffer from its strbuf shell in a safe way. That is the sole supported
way. This will give you a malloced buffer that you can later `free()`.
+
-However, it it totally safe to modify anything in the string pointed by
+However, it is totally safe to modify anything in the string pointed by
the `buf` member, between the indices `0` and `len-1` (inclusive).
. The `buf` member is a byte array that has at least `len + 1` bytes
@@ -133,8 +133,10 @@ Functions
* Adding data to the buffer
-NOTE: All of these functions in this section will grow the buffer as
- necessary.
+NOTE: All of the functions in this section will grow the buffer as necessary.
+If they fail for some reason other than memory shortage and the buffer hadn't
+been allocated before (i.e. the `struct strbuf` was set to `STRBUF_INIT`),
+then they will free() it.
`strbuf_addch`::
@@ -205,6 +207,13 @@ In order to facilitate caching and to make it possible to give
parameters to the callback, `strbuf_expand()` passes a context pointer,
which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
+`strbuf_expand_dict_cb`::
+
+ Used as callback for `strbuf_expand()`, expects an array of
+ struct strbuf_expand_dict_entry as context, i.e. pairs of
+ placeholder and replacement string. The array needs to be
+ terminated by an entry with placeholder set to NULL.
+
`strbuf_addf`::
Add a formatted string to the buffer.
@@ -213,7 +222,7 @@ which can be used by the programmer of the callback as she sees fit.
Read a given size of data from a FILE* pointer to the buffer.
+
-NOTE: The buffer is rewinded if the read fails. If -1 is returned,
+NOTE: The buffer is rewound if the read fails. If -1 is returned,
`errno` must be consulted, like you would do for `read(3)`.
`strbuf_read()`, `strbuf_read_file()` and `strbuf_getline()` has the
same behaviour as well.
@@ -228,6 +237,11 @@ same behaviour as well.
Read the contents of a file, specified by its path. The third argument
can be used to give a hint about the file size, to avoid reallocs.
+`strbuf_readlink`::
+
+ Read the target of a symbolic link, specified by its path. The third
+ argument can be used to give a hint about the size, to avoid reallocs.
+
`strbuf_getline`::
Read a line from a FILE* pointer. The second argument specifies the line
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
index 6bdf034..48bb97f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/racy-git.txt
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@ them, and give the same timestamp to the index file:
This will make all index entries racily clean. The linux-2.6
project, for example, there are over 20,000 files in the working
-tree. On my Athron 64X2 3800+, after the above:
+tree. On my Athlon 64 X2 3800+, after the above:
$ /usr/bin/time git diff-files
1.68user 0.54system 0:02.22elapsed 100%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 0maxresident)k
diff --git a/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt b/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt
index 504ae8a..41ec777 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt
@@ -68,13 +68,22 @@ This file should have the following format:
------------
`<url>` is required; `#<head>` is optional.
-When you do not provide a refspec on the command line,
-git will use the following refspec, where `<head>` defaults to `master`,
-and `<repository>` is the name of this file
-you provided in the command line.
+
+Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following
+refspecs, if you don't provide one on the command line.
+`<branch>` is the name of this file in `$GIT_DIR/branches` and
+`<head>` defaults to `master`.
+
+git fetch uses:
+
+------------
+ refs/heads/<head>:refs/heads/<branch>
+------------
+
+git push uses:
------------
- refs/heads/<head>:<repository>
+ HEAD:refs/heads/<head>
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/urls.txt b/Documentation/urls.txt
index fa34c67..5355ebc 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls.txt
@@ -6,10 +6,10 @@ to name the remote repository:
===============================================================
- rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
-- http://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
-- https://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
-- git://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
-- git://host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/
+- http://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
+- https://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
+- git://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
+- git://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/~user/path/to/repo.git/
- ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
- ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
- ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index 08d1310..e33b29b 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -13,17 +13,27 @@ to build and test a particular version of a software project, search for
regressions, and so on.
People needing to do actual development will also want to read
-<<Developing-with-git>> and <<sharing-development>>.
+<<Developing-With-git>> and <<sharing-development>>.
Further chapters cover more specialized topics.
Comprehensive reference documentation is available through the man
-pages. For a command such as "git clone <repo>", just use
+pages, or linkgit:git-help[1] command. For example, for the command
+"git clone <repo>", you can either use:
------------------------------------------------
$ man git-clone
------------------------------------------------
+or:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git help clone
+------------------------------------------------
+
+With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see
+linkgit:git-help[1] for more information.
+
See also <<git-quick-start>> for a brief overview of git commands,
without any explanation.
@@ -49,7 +59,7 @@ project in mind, here are some interesting examples:
------------------------------------------------
# git itself (approx. 10MB download):
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git
- # the linux kernel (approx. 150MB download):
+ # the Linux kernel (approx. 150MB download):
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux-2.6.git
------------------------------------------------
@@ -389,7 +399,7 @@ the order it uses to decide which to choose when there are multiple
references with the same shorthand name, see the "SPECIFYING
REVISIONS" section of linkgit:git-rev-parse[1].
-[[Updating-a-repository-with-git-fetch]]
+[[Updating-a-repository-With-git-fetch]]
Updating a repository with git-fetch
------------------------------------
@@ -536,7 +546,7 @@ $ git bisect skip
-------------------------------------------------
In this case, though, git may not eventually be able to tell the first
-bad one between some first skipped commits and a latter bad commit.
+bad one between some first skipped commits and a later bad commit.
There are also ways to automate the bisecting process if you have a
test script that can tell a good from a bad commit. See
@@ -945,7 +955,7 @@ echo "git diff --stat --summary -M v$last v$new > ../diffstat-$new"
and then he just cut-and-pastes the output commands after verifying that
they look OK.
-[[Finding-comments-with-given-content]]
+[[Finding-comments-With-given-Content]]
Finding commits referencing a file with given content
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -962,7 +972,7 @@ Figuring out why this works is left as an exercise to the (advanced)
student. The linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-diff-tree[1], and
linkgit:git-hash-object[1] man pages may prove helpful.
-[[Developing-with-git]]
+[[Developing-With-git]]
Developing with git
===================
@@ -999,7 +1009,7 @@ $ git init
If you have some initial content (say, a tarball):
-------------------------------------------------
-$ tar -xzvf project.tar.gz
+$ tar xzvf project.tar.gz
$ cd project
$ git init
$ git add . # include everything below ./ in the first commit:
@@ -1126,10 +1136,10 @@ Ignoring files
A project will often generate files that you do 'not' want to track with git.
This typically includes files generated by a build process or temporary
backup files made by your editor. Of course, 'not' tracking files with git
-is just a matter of 'not' calling "`git-add`" on them. But it quickly becomes
+is just a matter of 'not' calling `git-add` on them. But it quickly becomes
annoying to have these untracked files lying around; e.g. they make
-"`git add .`" practically useless, and they keep showing up in the output of
-"`git status`".
+`git add .` practically useless, and they keep showing up in the output of
+`git status`.
You can tell git to ignore certain files by creating a file called .gitignore
in the top level of your working directory, with contents such as:
@@ -1330,7 +1340,7 @@ These will display all commits which exist only on HEAD or on
MERGE_HEAD, and which touch an unmerged file.
You may also use linkgit:git-mergetool[1], which lets you merge the
-unmerged files using external tools such as emacs or kdiff3.
+unmerged files using external tools such as Emacs or kdiff3.
Each time you resolve the conflicts in a file and update the index:
@@ -1497,7 +1507,7 @@ so on a different branch and then coming back), unstash the
work-in-progress changes.
------------------------------------------------
-$ git stash "work in progress for foo feature"
+$ git stash save "work in progress for foo feature"
------------------------------------------------
This command will save your changes away to the `stash`, and
@@ -1665,7 +1675,7 @@ dangling objects can arise in other situations.
Sharing development with others
===============================
-[[getting-updates-with-git-pull]]
+[[getting-updates-With-git-pull]]
Getting updates with git-pull
-----------------------------
@@ -1673,7 +1683,7 @@ After you clone a repository and make a few changes of your own, you
may wish to check the original repository for updates and merge them
into your own work.
-We have already seen <<Updating-a-repository-with-git-fetch,how to
+We have already seen <<Updating-a-repository-With-git-fetch,how to
keep remote tracking branches up to date>> with linkgit:git-fetch[1],
and how to merge two branches. So you can merge in changes from the
original repository's master branch with:
@@ -1784,7 +1794,7 @@ Public git repositories
Another way to submit changes to a project is to tell the maintainer
of that project to pull the changes from your repository using
-linkgit:git-pull[1]. In the section "<<getting-updates-with-git-pull,
+linkgit:git-pull[1]. In the section "<<getting-updates-With-git-pull,
Getting updates with git-pull>>" we described this as a way to get
updates from the "main" repository, but it works just as well in the
other direction.
@@ -1994,7 +2004,7 @@ $ git push ssh://yourserver.com/~you/proj.git +master
Normally whenever a branch head in a public repository is modified, it
is modified to point to a descendant of the commit that it pointed to
before. By forcing a push in this situation, you break that convention.
-(See <<problems-with-rewriting-history>>.)
+(See <<problems-With-rewriting-history>>.)
Nevertheless, this is a common practice for people that need a simple
way to publish a work-in-progress patch series, and it is an acceptable
@@ -2563,7 +2573,7 @@ There are numerous other tools, such as StGIT, which exist for the
purpose of maintaining a patch series. These are outside of the scope of
this manual.
-[[problems-with-rewriting-history]]
+[[problems-With-rewriting-history]]
Problems with rewriting history
-------------------------------
@@ -4356,7 +4366,9 @@ $ git remote show example # get details
* remote example
URL: git://example.com/project.git
Tracked remote branches
- master next ...
+ master
+ next
+ ...
$ git fetch example # update branches from example
$ git branch -r # list all remote branches
-----------------------------------------------
@@ -4560,4 +4572,3 @@ Alternates, clone -reference, etc.
More on recovery from repository corruption. See:
http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=117263864820799&w=2
http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=117147855503798&w=2
- http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=117147855503798&w=2
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index 156dc13..97fc1e0 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
#!/bin/sh
GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v1.6.0.GIT
+DEF_VER=v1.6.2.GIT
LF='
'
diff --git a/INSTALL b/INSTALL
index 2bae53f..ae7f750 100644
--- a/INSTALL
+++ b/INSTALL
@@ -6,7 +6,7 @@ will install the git programs in your own ~/bin/ directory. If you want
to do a global install, you can do
$ make prefix=/usr all doc info ;# as yourself
- # make prefix=/usr install install-doc install-info ;# as root
+ # make prefix=/usr install install-doc install-html install-info ;# as root
(or prefix=/usr/local, of course). Just like any program suite
that uses $prefix, the built results have some paths encoded,
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ set up install paths (via config.mak.autogen), so you can write instead
$ make configure ;# as yourself
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr ;# as yourself
$ make all doc ;# as yourself
- # make install install-doc ;# as root
+ # make install install-doc install-html;# as root
Issues of note:
@@ -89,13 +89,25 @@ Issues of note:
inclined to install the tools, the default build target
("make all") does _not_ build them.
+ "make doc" builds documentation in man and html formats; there are
+ also "make man", "make html" and "make info". Note that "make html"
+ requires asciidoc, but not xmlto. "make man" (and thus make doc)
+ requires both.
+
+ "make install-doc" installs documentation in man format only; there
+ are also "make install-man", "make install-html" and "make
+ install-info".
+
Building and installing the info file additionally requires
makeinfo and docbook2X. Version 0.8.3 is known to work.
+ Building and installing the pdf file additionally requires
+ dblatex. Version 0.2.7 with asciidoc >= 8.2.7 is known to work.
+
The documentation is written for AsciiDoc 7, but "make
ASCIIDOC8=YesPlease doc" will let you format with AsciiDoc 8.
- Alternatively, pre-formatted documentation are available in
+ Alternatively, pre-formatted documentation is available in
"html" and "man" branches of the git repository itself. For
example, you could:
@@ -117,6 +129,13 @@ Issues of note:
http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/
+ There are also "make quick-install-doc", "make quick-install-man"
+ and "make quick-install-html" which install preformatted man pages
+ and html documentation.
+ This does not require asciidoc/xmlto, but it only works from within
+ a cloned checkout of git.git with these two extra branches, and will
+ not work for the maintainer for obvious chicken-and-egg reasons.
+
It has been reported that docbook-xsl version 1.72 and 1.73 are
buggy; 1.72 misformats manual pages for callouts, and 1.73 needs
the patch in contrib/patches/docbook-xsl-manpages-charmap.patch
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 53ab4b5..7867eac 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -23,6 +23,9 @@ all::
# Define NO_EXPAT if you do not have expat installed. git-http-push is
# not built, and you cannot push using http:// and https:// transports.
#
+# Define EXPATDIR=/foo/bar if your expat header and library files are in
+# /foo/bar/include and /foo/bar/lib directories.
+#
# Define NO_D_INO_IN_DIRENT if you don't have d_ino in your struct dirent.
#
# Define NO_D_TYPE_IN_DIRENT if your platform defines DT_UNKNOWN but lacks
@@ -90,6 +93,8 @@ all::
#
# Define NO_MMAP if you want to avoid mmap.
#
+# Define NO_PTHREADS if you do not have or do not want to use Pthreads.
+#
#