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-rw-r--r--.gitignore7
-rw-r--r--.mailmap1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines80
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/rebuild-from-update-hook.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/recover-corrupted-blob-object.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt18
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/use-git-daemon.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/using-signed-tag-in-pull-request.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/i18n.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/line-range-format.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/mailmap.txt3
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt60
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-ref-iteration.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-remote.txt4
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l---------RelNotes2
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749 files changed, 47727 insertions, 20692 deletions
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 726db73..c0e00eb 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -1,7 +1,6 @@
/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
/GIT-CFLAGS
/GIT-LDFLAGS
-/GIT-GUI-VARS
/GIT-PREFIX
/GIT-PYTHON-VARS
/GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
@@ -23,6 +22,7 @@
/git-bundle
/git-cat-file
/git-check-attr
+/git-check-ignore
/git-check-ref-format
/git-checkout
/git-checkout-index
@@ -126,6 +126,7 @@
/git-remote-fd
/git-remote-ext
/git-remote-testgit
+/git-remote-testpy
/git-remote-testsvn
/git-repack
/git-replace
@@ -172,7 +173,6 @@
/git-whatchanged
/git-write-tree
/git-core-*/?*
-/gitk-git/gitk-wish
/gitweb/GITWEB-BUILD-OPTIONS
/gitweb/gitweb.cgi
/gitweb/static/gitweb.js
@@ -191,6 +191,7 @@
/test-mktemp
/test-parse-options
/test-path-utils
+/test-read-cache
/test-regex
/test-revision-walking
/test-run-command
@@ -199,6 +200,7 @@
/test-string-list
/test-subprocess
/test-svn-fe
+/test-wildmatch
/common-cmds.h
*.tar.gz
*.dsc
@@ -228,6 +230,7 @@
/cscope*
*.obj
*.lib
+*.res
*.sln
*.suo
*.ncb
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index c7e8618..48d7acf 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -73,6 +73,7 @@ Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
<nico@fluxnic.net> <nico@cam.org>
Peter Krefting <peter@softwolves.pp.se> <peter@svarten.intern.softwolves.pp.se>
Peter Krefting <peter@softwolves.pp.se> <peter@softwolves.pp.se>
+Petr Baudis <pasky@ucw.cz> <pasky@suse.cz>
Philippe Bruhat <book@cpan.org>
Ralf Thielow <ralf.thielow@gmail.com> <ralf.thielow@googlemail.com>
Ramsay Allan Jones <ramsay@ramsay1.demon.co.uk>
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index d62aebd..2c8b2d6 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -9,4 +9,5 @@ gitman.info
howto-index.txt
doc.dep
cmds-*.txt
+mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 69f7e9b..559d5f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
Like other projects, we also have some guidelines to keep to the
-code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
+code. For Git in general, three rough rules are:
- Most importantly, we never say "It's in POSIX; we'll happily
ignore your needs should your system not conform to it."
@@ -18,11 +18,12 @@ code. For git in general, three rough rules are:
judgement call, the decision based more on real world
constraints people face than what the paper standard says.
+Make your code readable and sensible, and don't try to be clever.
As for more concrete guidelines, just imitate the existing code
(this is a good guideline, no matter which project you are
contributing to). It is always preferable to match the _local_
-convention. New code added to git suite is expected to match
+convention. New code added to Git suite is expected to match
the overall style of existing code. Modifications to existing
code is expected to match the style the surrounding code already
uses (even if it doesn't match the overall style of existing code).
@@ -112,7 +113,7 @@ For C programs:
- We try to keep to at most 80 characters per line.
- - We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile git with,
+ - We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile Git with,
including old ones. That means that you should not use C99
initializers, even if a lot of compilers grok it.
@@ -164,14 +165,14 @@ For C programs:
- If you are planning a new command, consider writing it in shell
or perl first, so that changes in semantics can be easily
- changed and discussed. Many git commands started out like
+ changed and discussed. Many Git commands started out like
that, and a few are still scripts.
- - Avoid introducing a new dependency into git. This means you
+ - Avoid introducing a new dependency into Git. This means you
usually should stay away from scripting languages not already
- used in the git core command set (unless your command is clearly
+ used in the Git core command set (unless your command is clearly
separate from it, such as an importer to convert random-scm-X
- repositories to git).
+ repositories to Git).
- When we pass <string, length> pair to functions, we should try to
pass them in that order.
@@ -179,8 +180,68 @@ For C programs:
- Use Git's gettext wrappers to make the user interface
translatable. See "Marking strings for translation" in po/README.
+For Perl programs:
+
+ - Most of the C guidelines above apply.
+
+ - We try to support Perl 5.8 and later ("use Perl 5.008").
+
+ - use strict and use warnings are strongly preferred.
+
+ - Don't overuse statement modifiers unless using them makes the
+ result easier to follow.
+
+ ... do something ...
+ do_this() unless (condition);
+ ... do something else ...
+
+ is more readable than:
+
+ ... do something ...
+ unless (condition) {
+ do_this();
+ }
+ ... do something else ...
+
+ *only* when the condition is so rare that do_this() will be almost
+ always called.
+
+ - We try to avoid assignments inside "if ()" conditions.
+
+ - Learn and use Git.pm if you need that functionality.
+
+ - For Emacs, it's useful to put the following in
+ GIT_CHECKOUT/.dir-locals.el, assuming you use cperl-mode:
+
+ ;; note the first part is useful for C editing, too
+ ((nil . ((indent-tabs-mode . t)
+ (tab-width . 8)
+ (fill-column . 80)))
+ (cperl-mode . ((cperl-indent-level . 8)
+ (cperl-extra-newline-before-brace . nil)
+ (cperl-merge-trailing-else . t))))
+
+For Python scripts:
+
+ - We follow PEP-8 (http://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0008/).
+
+ - As a minimum, we aim to be compatible with Python 2.6 and 2.7.
+
+ - Where required libraries do not restrict us to Python 2, we try to
+ also be compatible with Python 3.1 and later.
+
+ - When you must differentiate between Unicode literals and byte string
+ literals, it is OK to use the 'b' prefix. Even though the Python
+ documentation for version 2.6 does not mention this prefix, it has
+ been supported since version 2.6.0.
+
Writing Documentation:
+ Most (if not all) of the documentation pages are written in the
+ AsciiDoc format in *.txt files (e.g. Documentation/git.txt), and
+ processed into HTML and manpages (e.g. git.html and git.1 in the
+ same directory).
+
Every user-visible change should be reflected in the documentation.
The same general rule as for code applies -- imitate the existing
conventions. A few commented examples follow to provide reference
@@ -230,3 +291,8 @@ Writing Documentation:
valid usage. "*" has its own pair of brackets, because it can
(optionally) be specified only when one or more of the letters is
also provided.
+
+ A note on notation:
+ Use 'git' (all lowercase) when talking about commands i.e. something
+ the user would type into a shell and use 'Git' (uppercase first letter)
+ when talking about the version control system and its properties.
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 3c538e3..0cfdc36 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -1,20 +1,41 @@
-MAN1_TXT= \
- $(filter-out $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
- $(wildcard git-*.txt)) \
- gitk.txt gitweb.txt git.txt gitremote-helpers.txt
-MAN5_TXT=gitattributes.txt gitignore.txt gitmodules.txt githooks.txt \
- gitrepository-layout.txt gitweb.conf.txt
-MAN7_TXT=gitcli.txt gittutorial.txt gittutorial-2.txt \
- gitcvs-migration.txt gitcore-tutorial.txt gitglossary.txt \
- gitdiffcore.txt gitnamespaces.txt gitrevisions.txt gitworkflows.txt
+# Guard against environment variables
+MAN1_TXT =
+MAN5_TXT =
+MAN7_TXT =
+
+MAN1_TXT += $(filter-out \
+ $(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
+ $(wildcard git-*.txt))
+MAN1_TXT += git.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitk.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitremote-helpers.txt
+MAN1_TXT += gitweb.txt
+
+MAN5_TXT += gitattributes.txt
+MAN5_TXT += githooks.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitignore.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitmodules.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitrepository-layout.txt
+MAN5_TXT += gitweb.conf.txt
+
+MAN7_TXT += gitcli.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitcore-tutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitcredentials.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitcvs-migration.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitdiffcore.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitglossary.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitnamespaces.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitrevisions.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gittutorial-2.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gittutorial.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
-MAN_XML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
-MAN_HTML=$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
+MAN_XML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
+MAN_HTML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
OBSOLETE_HTML = git-remote-helpers.html
-DOC_HTML=$(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
+DOC_HTML = $(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
ARTICLES = howto-index
ARTICLES += everyday
@@ -53,35 +74,35 @@ SP_ARTICLES += technical/api-index
DOC_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
-DOC_MAN1=$(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
-DOC_MAN5=$(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
-DOC_MAN7=$(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
-
-prefix?=$(HOME)
-bindir?=$(prefix)/bin
-htmldir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
-pdfdir?=$(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
-mandir?=$(prefix)/share/man
-man1dir=$(mandir)/man1
-man5dir=$(mandir)/man5
-man7dir=$(mandir)/man7
-# DESTDIR=
+DOC_MAN1 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
+DOC_MAN5 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
+DOC_MAN7 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
+
+prefix ?= $(HOME)
+bindir ?= $(prefix)/bin
+htmldir ?= $(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+infodir ?= $(prefix)/share/info
+pdfdir ?= $(prefix)/share/doc/git-doc
+mandir ?= $(prefix)/share/man
+man1dir = $(mandir)/man1
+man5dir = $(mandir)/man5
+man7dir = $(mandir)/man7
+# DESTDIR =
ASCIIDOC = asciidoc
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA =
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
XMLTO = xmlto
XMLTO_EXTRA =
-INSTALL?=install
+INSTALL ?= install
RM ?= rm -f
MAN_REPO = ../../git-manpages
HTML_REPO = ../../git-htmldocs
-infodir?=$(prefix)/share/info
-MAKEINFO=makeinfo
-INSTALL_INFO=install-info
-DOCBOOK2X_TEXI=docbook2x-texi
-DBLATEX=dblatex
+MAKEINFO = makeinfo
+INSTALL_INFO = install-info
+DOCBOOK2X_TEXI = docbook2x-texi
+DBLATEX = dblatex
ifndef PERL_PATH
PERL_PATH = /usr/bin/perl
endif
@@ -223,7 +244,11 @@ install-html: html
#
# Determine "include::" file references in asciidoc files.
#
-doc.dep : $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
+docdep_prereqs = \
+ mergetools-list.made $(mergetools_txt) \
+ cmd-list.made $(cmds_txt)
+
+doc.dep : $(docdep_prereqs) $(wildcard *.txt) build-docdep.perl
$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(PERL_PATH) ./build-docdep.perl >$@+ $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
mv $@+ $@
@@ -247,13 +272,27 @@ cmd-list.made: cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(MAN1_TXT)
$(PERL_PATH) ./cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
date >$@
+mergetools_txt = mergetools-diff.txt mergetools-merge.txt
+
+$(mergetools_txt): mergetools-list.made
+
+mergetools-list.made: ../git-mergetool--lib.sh $(wildcard ../mergetools/*)
+ $(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ && \
+ $(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
+ . ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
+ show_tool_names can_diff "* " || :' >mergetools-diff.txt && \
+ $(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
+ . ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
+ show_tool_names can_merge "* " || :' >mergetools-merge.txt && \
+ date >$@
+
clean:
$(RM) *.xml *.xml+ *.html *.html+ *.1 *.5 *.7
$(RM) *.texi *.texi+ *.texi++ git.info gitman.info
$(RM) *.pdf
$(RM) howto-index.txt howto/*.html doc.dep
$(RM) technical/*.html technical/api-index.txt
- $(RM) $(cmds_txt) *.made
+ $(RM) $(cmds_txt) $(mergetools_txt) *.made
$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
@@ -353,8 +392,8 @@ $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
install-webdoc : html
'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
-# You must have a clone of git-htmldocs and git-manpages repositories
-# next to the git repository itself for the following to work.
+# You must have a clone of 'git-htmldocs' and 'git-manpages' repositories
+# next to the 'git' repository itself for the following to work.
quick-install: quick-install-man
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1354ad0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,115 @@
+Git v1.8.2.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2
+------------------
+
+ * An earlier change to the attribute system introduced at v1.8.1.2 by
+ mistake stopped a pattern "dir" (without trailing slash) from
+ matching a directory "dir" (it only wanted to allow pattern "dir/"
+ to also match).
+
+ * Verification of signed tags were not done correctly when not in C
+ or en/US locale.
+
+ * 'git commit -m "$msg"' used to add an extra newline even when
+ $msg already ended with one.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" option of "git describe", when used with
+ "--all" to allow refs that are not annotated tags to be used as a
+ base of description, did not restrict the output from the command
+ to those that match the given pattern.
+
+ * An aliased command spawned from a bare repository that does not say
+ it is bare with "core.bare = yes" is treated as non-bare by mistake.
+
+ * When "format-patch" quoted a non-ascii strings on the header files,
+ it incorrectly applied rfc2047 and chopped a single character in
+ the middle of it.
+
+ * "git archive" reports a failure when asked to create an archive out
+ of an empty tree. It would be more intuitive to give an empty
+ archive back in such a case.
+
+ * "git tag -f <tag>" always said "Updated tag '<tag>'" even when
+ creating a new tag (i.e. not overwriting nor updating).
+
+ * "git cmd -- ':(top'" was not diagnosed as an invalid syntax, and
+ instead the parser kept reading beyond the end of the string.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to the ls-remote and fetch with recent version of Git.
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems can get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and looped forever.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
+ acccumulate the prefix paths.
+
+ * "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
+ filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
+ sort messages in the order the writing MUA meant to, by sorting
+ numeric segment in numeric order and non-numeric segment in
+ alphabetical order.
+
+ * When export-subst is used, "zip" output recorded incorrect
+ size of the file.
+
+ * Some platforms and users spell UTF-8 differently; retry with the
+ most official "UTF-8" when the system does not understand the
+ user-supplied encoding name that are the common alternative
+ spellings of UTF-8.
+
+ * "git branch" did not bother to check nonsense command line
+ parameters and issue errors in many cases.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * "git index-pack" had a buffer-overflow while preparing an
+ informational message when the translated version of it was too
+ long.
+
+ * Clarify in the documentation "what" gets pushed to "where" when the
+ command line to "git push" does not say these explicitly.
+
+ * In "git reflog expire", REACHABLE bit was not cleared from the
+ correct objects.
+
+ * The "--color=<when>" argument to the commands in the diff family
+ was described poorly.
+
+ * The arguments given to pre-rebase hook were not documented.
+
+ * The v4 index format was not documented.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" argument "git describe" takes uses glob
+ pattern but it wasn't obvious from the documentation.
+
+ * Some sources failed to compile on systems that lack NI_MAXHOST in
+ their system header (e.g. z/OS).
+
+ * Add an example use of "--env-filter" in "filter-branch"
+ documentation.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+ * In the v1.8.0 era, we changed symbols that do not have to be global
+ to file scope static, but a few functions in graph.c were used by
+ CGit from sideways bypassing the entry points of the API the
+ in-tree users use.
+
+ * "git merge-tree" had a typo in the logic to detect d/f conflicts,
+ which caused it to segfault in some cases.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..dab4831
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
+Git v1.8.2.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2.1
+--------------------
+
+ * Zsh completion forgot that '%' character used to signal untracked
+ files needs to be escaped with another '%'.
+
+ * A commit object whose author or committer ident are malformed
+ crashed some code that trusted that a name, an email and an
+ timestamp can always be found in it.
+
+ * The new core.commentchar configuration was not applied to a few
+ places.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" did not pass "-v/-q" options to underlying
+ "git rebase".
+
+ * When receive-pack detects error in the pack header it received in
+ order to decide which of unpack-objects or index-pack to run, it
+ returned without closing the error stream, which led to a hang
+ sideband thread.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-algorithm=algo" was understood by the command line
+ parser, but "git diff --diff-algorithm algo" was not.
+
+ * "git log -S/-G" started paying attention to textconv filter, but
+ there was no way to disable this. Make it honor --no-textconv
+ option.
+
+ * "git merge $(git rev-parse v1.8.2)" behaved quite differently from
+ "git merge v1.8.2", as if v1.8.2 were written as v1.8.2^0 and did
+ not pay much attention to the annotated tag payload. Make the code
+ notice the type of the tag object, in addition to the dwim_ref()
+ based classification the current code uses (i.e. the name appears
+ in refs/tags/) to decide when to special case merging of tags.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" and "git revert" can take more than one commit
+ on the command line these days, but it was not mentioned on the usage
+ text.
+
+ * Perl scripts like "git-svn" closed (not redirecting to /dev/null)
+ the standard error stream, which is not a very smart thing to do.
+ Later open may return file descriptor #2 for unrelated purpose, and
+ error reporting code may write into them.
+
+ * "git apply --whitespace=fix" was not prepared to see a line getting
+ longer after fixing whitespaces (e.g. tab-in-indent aka Python).
+
+ * "git diff/log --cc" did not work well with options that ignore
+ whitespace changes.
+
+ * Documentation on setting up a http server that requires
+ authentication only on the push but not fetch has been clarified.
+
+ * A few bugfixes to "git rerere" working on corner case merge
+ conflicts have been applied.
+
+ * "git bundle" did not like a bundle created using a commit without
+ any message as its one of the prerequistes.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6139482
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,19 @@
+Git v1.8.2.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2.2
+--------------------
+
+ * "rev-list --stdin" and friends kept bogus pointers into the input
+ buffer around as human readable object names. This was not a
+ huge problem but was exposed by a new change that uses these
+ names in error output.
+
+ * When "git difftool" drove "kdiff3", it mistakenly passed --auto
+ option that was meant while resolving merge conflicts.
+
+ * "git remote add" command did not diagnose extra command line
+ arguments as an error and silently ignored them.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc606ae
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,495 @@
+Git v1.8.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (this release)
+-------------------------------------------
+
+"git push $there tag v1.2.3" used to allow replacing a tag v1.2.3
+that already exists in the repository $there, if the rewritten tag
+you are pushing points at a commit that is a descendant of a commit
+that the old tag v1.2.3 points at. This was found to be error prone
+and starting with this release, any attempt to update an existing
+ref under refs/tags/ hierarchy will fail, without "--force".
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A" that does not specify what paths
+to add on the command line is run from inside a subdirectory, the
+scope of the operation has always been limited to the subdirectory.
+Many users found this counter-intuitive, given that "git commit -a"
+and other commands operate on the entire tree regardless of where you
+are. In this release, these commands give a warning message that
+suggests the users to use "git add -u/-A ." when they want to limit
+the scope to the current directory; doing so will squelch the message,
+while training their fingers.
+
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes the current branch to the branch with the same
+name, only when the current branch is set to integrate with that
+remote branch. There is a user preference configuration variable
+"push.default" to change this. If you are an old-timer who is used
+to the "matching" semantics, you can set it to "matching" to keep the
+traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future early,
+you can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" and "git add -A", that does not specify what paths
+to add on the command line is run from inside a subdirectory, these
+commands will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. Because there will be no
+mechanism to make "git add -u" behave as if "git add -u .", it is
+important for those who are used to "git add -u" (without pathspec)
+updating the index only for paths in the current subdirectory to start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ." when they mean
+it before Git 2.0 comes.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.1
+--------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Initial ports to QNX and z/OS UNIX System Services have started.
+
+ * Output from the tests is coloured using "green is okay, yellow is
+ questionable, red is bad and blue is informative" scheme.
+
+ * Mention of "GIT/Git/git" in the documentation have been updated to
+ be more uniform and consistent. The name of the system and the
+ concept it embodies is "Git"; the command the users type is "git".
+ All-caps "GIT" was merely a way to imitate "Git" typeset in small
+ caps in our ASCII text only documentation and to be avoided.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/completion) used to let the
+ default completer to suggest pathnames, which gave too many
+ irrelevant choices (e.g. "git add" would not want to add an
+ unmodified path). It learnt to use a more git-aware logic to
+ enumerate only relevant ones.
+
+ * In bare repositories, "git shortlog" and other commands now read
+ mailmap files from the tip of the history, to help running these
+ tools in server settings.
+
+ * Color specifiers, e.g. "%C(blue)Hello%C(reset)", used in the
+ "--format=" option of "git log" and friends can be disabled when
+ the output is not sent to a terminal by prefixing them with
+ "auto,", e.g. "%C(auto,blue)Hello%C(auto,reset)".
+
+ * Scripts can ask Git that wildcard patterns in pathspecs they give do
+ not have any significance, i.e. take them as literal strings.
+
+ * The patterns in .gitignore and .gitattributes files can have **/,
+ as a pattern that matches 0 or more levels of subdirectory.
+ E.g. "foo/**/bar" matches "bar" in "foo" itself or in a
+ subdirectory of "foo".
+
+ * When giving arguments without "--" disambiguation, object names
+ that come earlier on the command line must not be interpretable as
+ pathspecs and pathspecs that come later on the command line must
+ not be interpretable as object names. This disambiguation rule has
+ been tweaked so that ":/" (no other string before or after) is
+ always interpreted as a pathspec; "git cmd -- :/" is no longer
+ needed, you can just say "git cmd :/".
+
+ * Various "hint" lines Git gives when it asks the user to edit
+ messages in the editor are commented out with '#' by default. The
+ core.commentchar configuration variable can be used to customize
+ this '#' to a different character.
+
+ * "git add -u" and "git add -A" without pathspec issues warning to
+ make users aware that they are only operating on paths inside the
+ subdirectory they are in. Use ":/" (everything from the top) or
+ "." (everything from the $cwd) to disambiguate.
+
+ * "git blame" (and "git diff") learned the "--no-follow" option.
+
+ * "git branch" now rejects some nonsense combinations of command line
+ arguments (e.g. giving more than one branch name to rename) with
+ more case-specific error messages.
+
+ * "git check-ignore" command to help debugging .gitignore files has
+ been added.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" can be used to replay a root commit to an unborn
+ branch.
+
+ * "git commit" can be told to use --cleanup=whitespace by setting the
+ configuration variable commit.cleanup to 'whitespace'.
+
+ * "git diff" and other Porcelain commands can be told to use a
+ non-standard algorithm by setting diff.algorithm configuration
+ variable.
+
+ * "git fetch --mirror" and fetch that uses other forms of refspec
+ with wildcard used to attempt to update a symbolic ref that match
+ the wildcard on the receiving end, which made little sense (the
+ real ref that is pointed at by the symbolic ref would be updated
+ anyway). Symbolic refs no longer are affected by such a fetch.
+
+ * "git format-patch" now detects more cases in which a whole branch
+ is being exported, and uses the description for the branch, when
+ asked to write a cover letter for the series.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned "-v $count" option, and prepends a
+ string "v$count-" to the names of its output files, and also
+ automatically sets the subject prefix to "PATCH v$count". This
+ allows patches from rerolled series to be stored under different
+ names and makes it easier to reuse cover letter messages.
+
+ * "git log" and friends can be told with --use-mailmap option to
+ rewrite the names and email addresses of people using the mailmap
+ mechanism.
+
+ * "git log --cc --graph" now shows the combined diff output with the
+ ancestry graph.
+
+ * "git log --grep=<pattern>" honors i18n.logoutputencoding to look
+ for the pattern after fixing the log message to the specified
+ encoding.
+
+ * "git mergetool" and "git difftool" learned to list the available
+ tool backends in a more consistent manner.
+
+ * "git mergetool" is aware of TortoiseGitMerge now and uses it over
+ TortoiseMerge when available.
+
+ * "git push" now requires "-f" to update a tag, even if it is a
+ fast-forward, as tags are meant to be fixed points.
+
+ * Error messages from "git push" when it stops to prevent remote refs
+ from getting overwritten by mistake have been improved to explain
+ various situations separately.
+
+ * "git push" will stop without doing anything if the new "pre-push"
+ hook exists and exits with a failure.
+
+ * When "git rebase" fails to generate patches to be applied (e.g. due
+ to oom), it failed to detect the failure and instead behaved as if
+ there were nothing to do. A workaround to use a temporary file has
+ been applied, but we probably would want to revisit this later, as
+ it hurts the common case of not failing at all.
+
+ * Input and preconditions to "git reset" has been loosened where
+ appropriate. "git reset $fromtree Makefile" requires $fromtree to
+ be any tree (it used to require it to be a commit), for example.
+ "git reset" (without options or parameters) used to error out when
+ you do not have any commits in your history, but it now gives you
+ an empty index (to match non-existent commit you are not even on).
+
+ * "git status" says what branch is being bisected or rebased when
+ able, not just "bisecting" or "rebasing".
+
+ * "git submodule" started learning a new mode to integrate with the
+ tip of the remote branch (as opposed to integrating with the commit
+ recorded in the superproject's gitlink).
+
+ * "git upload-pack" which implements the service "ls-remote" and
+ "fetch" talk to can be told to hide ref hierarchies the server
+ side internally uses (and that clients have no business learning
+ about) with transfer.hiderefs configuration.
+
+
+Foreign Interface
+
+ * "git fast-export" has been updated for its use in the context of
+ the remote helper interface.
+
+ * A new remote helper to interact with bzr has been added to contrib/.
+
+ * "git p4" got various bugfixes around its branch handling. It is
+ also made usable with Python 2.4/2.5. In addition, its various
+ portability issues for Cygwin have been addressed.
+
+ * The remote helper to interact with Hg in contrib/ has seen a few
+ fixes.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * "git fsck" has been taught to be pickier about entries in tree
+ objects that should not be there, e.g. ".", ".git", and "..".
+
+ * Matching paths with common forms of pathspecs that contain wildcard
+ characters has been optimized further.
+
+ * We stopped paying attention to $GIT_CONFIG environment that points
+ at a single configuration file from any command other than "git config"
+ quite a while ago, but "git clone" internally set, exported, and
+ then unexported the variable during its operation unnecessarily.
+
+ * "git reset" internals has been reworked and should be faster in
+ general. We tried to be careful not to break any behaviour but
+ there could be corner cases, especially when running the command
+ from a conflicted state, that we may have missed.
+
+ * The implementation of "imap-send" has been updated to reuse xml
+ quoting code from http-push codepath, and lost a lot of unused
+ code.
+
+ * There is a simple-minded checker for the test scripts in t/
+ directory to catch most common mistakes (it is not enabled by
+ default).
+
+ * You can build with USE_WILDMATCH=YesPlease to use a replacement
+ implementation of pattern matching logic used for pathname-like
+ things, e.g. refnames and paths in the repository. This new
+ implementation is not expected change the existing behaviour of Git
+ in this release, except for "git for-each-ref" where you can now
+ say "refs/**/master" and match with both refs/heads/master and
+ refs/remotes/origin/master. We plan to use this new implementation
+ in wider places (e.g. "git ls-files '**/Makefile' may find Makefile
+ at the top-level, and "git log '**/t*.sh'" may find commits that
+ touch a shell script whose name begins with "t" at any level) in
+ future versions of Git, but we are not there yet. By building with
+ USE_WILDMATCH, using the resulting Git daily and reporting when you
+ find breakages, you can help us get closer to that goal.
+
+ * Some reimplementations of Git do not write all the stat info back
+ to the index due to their implementation limitations (e.g. jgit).
+ A configuration option can tell Git to ignore changes to most of
+ the stat fields and only pay attention to mtime and size, which
+ these implementations can reliably update. This can be used to
+ avoid excessive revalidation of contents.
+
+ * Some platforms ship with old version of expat where xmlparse.h
+ needs to be included instead of expat.h; the build procedure has
+ been taught about this.
+
+ * "make clean" on platforms that cannot compute header dependencies
+ on the fly did not work with implementations of "rm" that do not
+ like an empty argument list.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.1
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.1 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES list that does not name the
+ real path to a directory (i.e. a symbolic link) could have caused
+ the GIT_DIR discovery logic to escape the ceiling.
+
+ * When attempting to read the XDG-style $HOME/.config/git/config and
+ finding that $HOME/.config/git is a file, we gave a wrong error
+ message, instead of treating the case as "a custom config file does
+ not exist there" and moving on.
+
+ * The behaviour visible to the end users was confusing, when they
+ attempt to kill a process spawned in the editor that was in turn
+ launched by Git with SIGINT (or SIGQUIT), as Git would catch that
+ signal and die. We ignore these signals now.
+ (merge 0398fc34 pf/editor-ignore-sigint later to maint).
+
+ * A child process that was killed by a signal (e.g. SIGINT) was
+ reported in an inconsistent way depending on how the process was
+ spawned by us, with or without a shell in between.
+
+ * After failing to create a temporary file using mkstemp(), failing
+ pathname was not reported correctly on some platforms.
+
+ * We used to stuff "user@" and then append what we read from
+ /etc/mailname to come up with a default e-mail ident, but a bug
+ lost the "user@" part.
+
+ * The attribute mechanism didn't allow limiting attributes to be
+ applied to only a single directory itself with "path/" like the
+ exclude mechanism does. The initial implementation of this that
+ was merged to 'maint' and 1.8.1.2 was with a severe performance
+ degradations and needs to merge a fix-up topic.
+
+ * The smart HTTP clients forgot to verify the content-type that comes
+ back from the server side to make sure that the request is being
+ handled properly.
+
+ * "git am" did not parse datestamp correctly from Hg generated patch,
+ when it is run in a locale outside C (or en).
+
+ * "git apply" misbehaved when fixing whitespace breakages by removing
+ excess trailing blank lines.
+
+ * "git apply --summary" has been taught to make sure the similarity
+ value shown in its output is sensible, even when the input had a
+ bogus value.
+
+ * A tar archive created by "git archive" recorded a directory in a
+ way that made NetBSD's implementation of "tar" sometimes unhappy.
+
+ * "git archive" did not record uncompressed size in the header when
+ streaming a zip archive, which confused some implementations of unzip.
+
+ * "git archive" did not parse configuration values in tar.* namespace
+ correctly.
+ (merge b3873c3 jk/config-parsing-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Attempt to "branch --edit-description" an existing branch, while
+ being on a detached HEAD, errored out.
+
+ * "git clean" showed what it was going to do, but sometimes end up
+ finding that it was not allowed to do so, which resulted in a
+ confusing output (e.g. after saying that it will remove an
+ untracked directory, it found an embedded git repository there
+ which it is not allowed to remove). It now performs the actions
+ and then reports the outcome more faithfully.
+
+ * When "git clone --separate-git-dir=$over_there" is interrupted, it
+ failed to remove the real location of the $GIT_DIR it created.
+ This was most visible when interrupting a submodule update.
+
+ * "git cvsimport" mishandled timestamps at DST boundary.
+
+ * We used to have an arbitrary 32 limit for combined diff input,
+ resulting in incorrect number of leading colons shown when showing
+ the "--raw --cc" output.
+
+ * "git fetch --depth" was broken in at least three ways. The
+ resulting history was deeper than specified by one commit, it was
+ unclear how to wipe the shallowness of the repository with the
+ command, and documentation was misleading.
+ (merge cfb70e1 nd/fetch-depth-is-broken later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --all -p" that walked refs/notes/textconv/ ref can later
+ try to use the textconv data incorrectly after it gets freed.
+
+ * We forgot to close the file descriptor reading from "gpg" output,
+ killing "git log --show-signature" on a long history.
+
+ * The way "git svn" asked for password using SSH_ASKPASS and
+ GIT_ASKPASS was not in line with the rest of the system.
+
+ * The --graph code fell into infinite loop when asked to do what the
+ code did not expect.
+
+ * http transport was wrong to ask for the username when the
+ authentication is done by certificate identity.
+
+ * "git pack-refs" that ran in parallel to another process that
+ created new refs had a nasty race.
+
+ * Rebasing the history of superproject with change in the submodule
+ has been broken since v1.7.12.
+
+ * After "git add -N" and then writing a tree object out of the
+ index, the cache-tree data structure got corrupted.
+
+ * "git clone" used to allow --bare and --separate-git-dir=$there
+ options at the same time, which was nonsensical.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" lost empty merges in recent versions
+ of Git.
+
+ * "git merge --no-edit" computed who were involved in the work done
+ on the side branch, even though that information is to be discarded
+ without getting seen in the editor.
+
+ * "git merge" started calling prepare-commit-msg hook like "git
+ commit" does some time ago, but forgot to pay attention to the exit
+ status of the hook.
+
+ * A failure to push due to non-ff while on an unborn branch
+ dereferenced a NULL pointer when showing an error message.
+
+ * When users spell "cc:" in lowercase in the fake "header" in the
+ trailer part, "git send-email" failed to pick up the addresses from
+ there. As e-mail headers field names are case insensitive, this
+ script should follow suit and treat "cc:" and "Cc:" the same way.
+
+ * Output from "git status --ignored" showed an unexpected interaction
+ with "--untracked".
+
+ * "gitweb", when sorting by age to show repositories with new
+ activities first, used to sort repositories with absolutely
+ nothing in it early, which was not very useful.
+
+ * "gitweb"'s code to sanitize control characters before passing it to
+ "highlight" filter lost known-to-be-safe control characters by
+ mistake.
+
+ * "gitweb" pages served over HTTPS, when configured to show picon or
+ gravatar, referred to these external resources to be fetched via
+ HTTP, resulting in mixed contents warning in browsers.
+
+ * When a line to be wrapped has a solid run of non space characters
+ whose length exactly is the wrap width, "git shortlog -w" failed
+ to add a newline after such a line.
+
+ * Command line completion leaked an unnecessary error message while
+ looking for possible matches with paths in <tree-ish>.
+
+ * Command line completion for "tcsh" emitted an unwanted space
+ after completing a single directory name.
+
+ * Command line completion code was inadvertently made incompatible with
+ older versions of bash by using a newer array notation.
+
+ * "git push" was taught to refuse updating the branch that is
+ currently checked out long time ago, but the user manual was left
+ stale.
+ (merge 50995ed wk/man-deny-current-branch-is-default-these-days later to maint).
+
+ * Some shells do not behave correctly when IFS is unset; work it
+ around by explicitly setting it to the default value.
+
+ * Some scripted programs written in Python did not get updated when
+ PYTHON_PATH changed.
+ (cherry-pick 96a4647fca54031974cd6ad1 later to maint).
+
+ * When autoconf is used, any build on a different commit always ran
+ "config.status --recheck" even when unnecessary.
+
+ * A fix was added to the build procedure to work around buggy
+ versions of ccache broke the auto-generation of dependencies, which
+ unfortunately is still relevant because some people use ancient
+ distros.
+
+ * The autoconf subsystem passed --mandir down to generated
+ config.mak.autogen but forgot to do the same for --htmldir.
+ (merge 55d9bf0 ct/autoconf-htmldir later to maint).
+
+ * A change made on v1.8.1.x maintenance track had a nasty regression
+ to break the build when autoconf is used.
+ (merge 7f1b697 jn/less-reconfigure later to maint).
+
+ * We have been carrying a translated and long-unmaintained copy of an
+ old version of the tutorial; removed.
+
+ * t0050 had tests expecting failures from a bug that was fixed some
+ time ago.
+
+ * t4014, t9502 and t0200 tests had various portability issues that
+ broke on OpenBSD.
+
+ * t9020 and t3600 tests had various portability issues.
+
+ * t9200 runs "cvs init" on a directory that already exists, but a
+ platform can configure this fail for the current user (e.g. you
+ need to be in the cvsadmin group on NetBSD 6.0).
+
+ * t9020 and t9810 had a few non-portable shell script construct.
+
+ * Scripts to test bash completion was inherently flaky as it was
+ affected by whatever random things the user may have on $PATH.
+
+ * An element on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES could be a "logical" pathname
+ that uses a symbolic link to point at somewhere else (e.g. /home/me
+ that points at /net/host/export/home/me, and the latter directory
+ is automounted). Earlier when Git saw such a pathname e.g. /home/me
+ on this environment variable, the "ceiling" mechanism did not take
+ effect. With this release (the fix has also been merged to the
+ v1.8.1.x maintenance series), elements on GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES
+ are by default checked for such aliasing coming from symbolic
+ links. As this needs to actually resolve symbolic links for each
+ element on the GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, you can disable this
+ mechanism for some elements by listing them after an empty element
+ on the GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES. e.g. Setting /home/me::/home/him to
+ GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES makes Git resolve symbolic links in
+ /home/me when checking if the current directory is under /home/me,
+ but does not do so for /home/him.
+ (merge 7ec30aa mh/maint-ceil-absolute later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc3ea18
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,14 @@
+Git v1.8.3.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3
+------------------
+
+ * When $HOME is misconfigured to point at an unreadable directory, we
+ used to complain and die. The check has been loosened.
+
+ * Handling of negative exclude pattern for directories "!dir" was
+ broken in the update to v1.8.3.
+
+Also contains a handful of trivial code clean-ups, documentation
+updates, updates to the test suite, etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ead568e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,436 @@
+Git v1.8.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
+------------------------------------------
+
+When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
+traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
+to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
+over there). In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
+semantics that pushes only the current branch to the branch with the same
+name, and only when the current branch is set to integrate with that
+remote branch. Use the user preference configuration variable
+"push.default" to change this. If you are an old-timer who is used
+to the "matching" semantics, you can set the variable to "matching"
+to keep the traditional behaviour. If you want to live in the future
+early, you can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
+
+When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
+does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
+will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
+with "git commit -a" and other commands. There will be no
+mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
+Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
+training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
+before Git 2.0 comes. A warning is issued when these commands are
+run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
+current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
+from today's version in such a situation.
+
+In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
+that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
+and record the removal. Versions before Git 2.0, including this
+release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
+behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
+now before 2.0 is released.
+
+
+Updates since v1.8.2
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interface
+
+ * remote-hg and remote-bzr helpers (in contrib/ since v1.8.2) have
+ been updated; especially, the latter has been done in an
+ accelerated schedule (read: we may not have merged to this release
+ if we were following the usual "cook sufficiently in next before
+ unleashing it to the world" workflow) in order to help Emacs folks,
+ whose primary SCM seems to be stagnating.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A handful of updates applied to gitk, including an addition of
+ "revert" action, showing dates in tags in a nicer way, making
+ colors configurable, and support for -G'pickaxe' search.
+
+ * The prompt string generator (in contrib/completion/) learned to
+ show how many changes there are in total and how many have been
+ replayed during a "git rebase" session.
+
+ * "git branch --vv" learned to paint the name of the branch it
+ integrates with in a different color (color.branch.upstream,
+ which defaults to blue).
+
+ * In a sparsely populated working tree, "git checkout <pathspec>" no
+ longer unmarks paths that match the given pathspec that were
+ originally ignored with "--sparse" (use --ignore-skip-worktree-bits
+ option to resurrect these paths out of the index if you really want
+ to).
+
+ * "git log --format" specifier learned %C(auto) token that tells Git
+ to use color when interpolating %d (decoration), %h (short commit
+ object name), etc. for terminal output.
+
+ * "git bisect" leaves the final outcome as a comment in its bisect
+ log file.
+
+ * "git clone --reference" can now refer to a gitfile "textual symlink"
+ that points at the real location of the repository.
+
+ * "git count-objects" learned "--human-readable" aka "-H" option to
+ show various large numbers in Ki/Mi/GiB scaled as necessary.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick $blob" and "git cherry-pick $tree" are nonsense,
+ and a more readable error message e.g. "can't cherry-pick a tree"
+ is given (we used to say "expected exactly one commit").
+
+ * The "--annotate" option to "git send-email" can be turned on (or
+ off) by default with sendemail.annotate configuration variable (you
+ can use --no-annotate from the command line to override it).
+
+ * The "--cover-letter" option to "git format-patch" can be turned on
+ (or off) by default with format.coverLetter configuration
+ variable. By setting it to 'auto', you can turn it on only for a
+ series with two or more patches.
+
+ * The bash completion support (in contrib/) learned that cherry-pick
+ takes a few more options than it already knew about.
+
+ * "git help" learned "-g" option to show the list of guides just like
+ list of commands are given with "-a".
+
+ * A triangular "pull from one place, push to another place" workflow
+ is supported better by new remote.pushdefault (overrides the
+ "origin" thing) and branch.*.pushremote (overrides the
+ branch.*.remote) configuration variables.
+
+ * "git status" learned to report that you are in the middle of a
+ revert session, just like it does for a cherry-pick and a bisect
+ session.
+
+ * The handling by "git branch --set-upstream-to" against various forms
+ of erroneous inputs was suboptimal and has been improved.
+
+ * When the interactive access to git-shell is not enabled, it issues
+ a message meant to help the system administrator to enable it. An
+ explicit way has been added to issue custom messages to refuse an
+ access over the network to help the end users who connect to the
+ service expecting an interactive shell.
+
+ * In addition to the case where the user edits the log message with
+ the "e)dit" option of "am -i", replace the "Applying: this patch"
+ message with the final log message contents after applymsg hook
+ munges it.
+
+ * "git status" suggests users to look into using --untracked=no option
+ when it takes too long.
+
+ * "git status" shows a bit more information during a rebase/bisect
+ session.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned to fetch a commit at the tip of an unadvertised
+ ref by specifying a raw object name from the command line when the
+ server side supports this feature.
+
+ * Output from "git log --graph" works better with submodule log
+ output now.
+
+ * "git count-objects -v" learned to report leftover temporary
+ packfiles and other garbage in the object store.
+
+ * A new read-only credential helper (in contrib/) to interact with
+ the .netrc/.authinfo files has been added.
+
+ * "git send-email" can be used with the credential helper system.
+
+ * There was no Porcelain way to say "I no longer am interested in
+ this submodule", once you express your interest in a submodule with
+ "submodule init". "submodule deinit" is the way to do so.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" learned to pass "-v/-q" options to underlying
+ "git rebase".
+
+ * The new "--follow-tags" option tells "git push" to push relevant
+ annotated tags when pushing branches out.
+
+ * "git merge" and "git pull" can optionally be told to inspect and
+ reject when merging a commit that does not carry a trusted GPG
+ signature.
+
+ * "git mergetool" now feeds files to the "p4merge" backend in the
+ order that matches the p4 convention, where "theirs" is usually
+ shown on the left side, which is the opposite from what other backends
+ expect.
+
+ * "show/log" now honors gpg.program configuration just like other
+ parts of the code that use GnuPG.
+
+ * "git log" that shows the difference between the parent and the
+ child has been optimized somewhat.
+
+ * "git difftool" allows the user to write into the temporary files
+ being shown; if the user makes changes to the working tree at the
+ same time, it now refrains from overwriting the copy in the working
+ tree and leaves the temporary file so that changes can be merged
+ manually.
+
+ * There was no good way to ask "I have a random string that came from
+ outside world. I want to turn it into a 40-hex object name while
+ making sure such an object exists". A new peeling suffix ^{object}
+ can be used for that purpose, together with "rev-parse --verify".
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * Updates for building under msvc.
+
+ * A handful of issues in the code that traverses the working tree to find
+ untracked and/or ignored files have been fixed, and the general
+ codepath involved in "status -u" and "clean" have been cleaned up
+ and optimized.
+
+ * The stack footprint of some codepaths that access an object from a
+ pack has been shrunk.
+
+ * The logic to coalesce the same lines removed from the parents in
+ the output from "diff -c/--cc" has been updated, but with O(n^2)
+ complexity, so this might turn out to be undesirable.
+
+ * The code to enforce permission bits on files in $GIT_DIR/ for
+ shared repositories has been simplified.
+
+ * A few codepaths know how much data they need to put in the
+ hashtables they use when they start, but still began with small tables
+ and repeatedly grew and rehashed them.
+
+ * The API to walk reflog entries from the latest to older, which was
+ necessary for operations such as "git checkout -", was cumbersome
+ to use correctly and also inefficient.
+
+ * Codepaths that inspect log-message-to-be and decide when to add a
+ new Signed-off-by line in various commands have been consolidated.
+
+ * The pkt-line API, implementation and its callers have been cleaned
+ up to make them more robust.
+
+ * The Cygwin port has a faster-but-lying lstat(2) emulation whose
+ incorrectness does not matter in practice except for a few
+ codepaths, and setting permission bits on directories is a codepath
+ that needs to use a more correct one.
+
+ * "git checkout" had repeated pathspec matches on the same paths,
+ which have been consolidated. Also a bug in "git checkout dir/"
+ that is started from an unmerged index has been fixed.
+
+ * A few bugfixes to "git rerere" working on corner case merge
+ conflicts have been applied.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.2
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.2 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * Recent versions of File::Temp (used by "git svn") started blowing
+ up when its tempfile sub is called as a class method; updated the
+ callsite to call it as a plain vanilla function to fix it.
+ (merge eafc2dd hb/git-pm-tempfile later to maint).
+
+ * Various subcommands of "git remote" simply ignored extraneous
+ command line arguments instead of diagnosing them as errors.
+
+ * When receive-pack detects an error in the pack header it received in
+ order to decide which of unpack-objects or index-pack to run, it
+ returned without closing the error stream, which led to a hung
+ sideband thread.
+
+ * Zsh completion forgot that the '%' character used to signal untracked
+ files needs to be escaped with another '%'.
+
+ * A commit object whose author or committer ident are malformed
+ crashed some code that trusted that a name, an email and a
+ timestamp can always be found in it.
+
+ * When "upload-pack" fails while generating a pack in response to
+ "git fetch" (or "git clone"), the receiving side had
+ a programming error that triggered the die handler
+ recursively.
+
+ * "rev-list --stdin" and friends kept bogus pointers into the input
+ buffer around as human readable object names. This was not a huge
+ problem but was exposed by a new change that uses these names in
+ error output.
+
+ * Smart-capable HTTP servers were not restricted via the
+ GIT_NAMESPACE mechanism when talking with commit-walking clients,
+ like they are when talking with smart HTTP clients.
+ (merge 6130f86 jk/http-dumb-namespaces later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge-tree" did not omit a merge result that is identical to
+ the "our" side in certain cases.
+ (merge aacecc3 jk/merge-tree-added-identically later to maint).
+
+ * Perl scripts like "git-svn" closed (instead of redirecting to /dev/null)
+ the standard error stream, which is not a very smart thing to do.
+ A later open may return file descriptor #2 for an unrelated purpose, and
+ error reporting code may write into it.
+
+ * "git show-branch" was not prepared to show a very long run of
+ ancestor operators e.g. foobar^2~2^2^2^2...^2~4 correctly.
+
+ * "git diff --diff-algorithm algo" is also understood as "git diff
+ --diff-algorithm=algo".
+
+ * The new core.commentchar configuration was not applied in a few
+ places.
+
+ * "git bundle" erroneously bailed out when parsing a valid bundle
+ containing a prerequisite commit without a commit message.
+
+ * "git log -S/-G" started paying attention to textconv filter, but
+ there was no way to disable this. Make it honor the --no-textconv
+ option.
+
+ * When used with the "-d temporary-directory" option, "git filter-branch"
+ failed to come back to the original working tree to perform the
+ final clean-up procedure.
+
+ * "git merge $(git rev-parse v1.8.2)" behaved quite differently from
+ "git merge v1.8.2", as if v1.8.2 were written as v1.8.2^0 and did
+ not pay much attention to the annotated tag payload. Make the code
+ notice the type of the tag object, in addition to the dwim_ref()
+ based classification the current code uses (i.e. the name appears
+ in refs/tags/) to decide when to special-case tag merging.
+
+ * Fix a 1.8.1.x regression that stopped matching "dir" (without a
+ trailing slash) to a directory "dir".
+
+ * "git apply --whitespace=fix" was not prepared to see a line getting
+ longer after fixing whitespaces (e.g. tab-in-indent aka Python).
+
+ * The prompt string generator (in contrib/completion/) did not notice
+ when we are in a middle of a "git revert" session.
+
+ * "submodule summary --summary-limit" option did not support the
+ "--option=value" form.
+
+ * "index-pack --fix-thin" used an uninitialized value to compute
+ the delta depths of objects it appends to the resulting pack.
+
+ * "index-pack --verify-stat" used a few counters outside the protection
+ of a mutex, possibly showing incorrect numbers.
+
+ * The code to keep track of what directory names are known to Git on
+ platforms with case insensitive filesystems could get confused upon a
+ hash collision between these pathnames and would loop forever.
+
+ * Annotated tags outside the refs/tags/ hierarchy were not advertised
+ correctly to ls-remote and fetch with recent versions of Git.
+
+ * Recent optimizations broke shallow clones.
+
+ * "git cmd -- ':(top'" was not diagnosed as an invalid syntax, and
+ instead the parser kept reading beyond the end of the string.
+
+ * "git tag -f <tag>" always said "Updated tag '<tag>'" even when
+ creating a new tag (i.e. neither overwriting nor updating).
+
+ * "git p4" did not behave well when the path to the root of the P4
+ client was not its real path.
+ (merge bbd8486 pw/p4-symlinked-root later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" reported a failure when asked to create an archive out
+ of an empty tree. It is more intuitive to give an empty
+ archive back in such a case.
+
+ * When "format-patch" quoted a non-ascii string in header files,
+ it incorrectly applied rfc2047 and chopped a single character in
+ the middle of the string.
+
+ * An aliased command spawned from a bare repository that does not say
+ it is bare with "core.bare = yes" was treated as non-bare by mistake.
+
+ * In "git reflog expire", the REACHABLE bit was not cleared from the
+ correct objects.
+
+ * The logic used by "git diff -M --stat" to shorten the names of
+ files before and after a rename did not work correctly when the
+ common prefix and suffix between the two filenames overlapped.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" option of "git describe", when used with
+ "--all" to allow refs that are not annotated tags to be a
+ base of description, did not restrict the output from the command
+ to those refs that match the given pattern.
+
+ * Clarify in the documentation "what" gets pushed to "where" when the
+ command line to "git push" does not say these explicitly.
+
+ * The "--color=<when>" argument to the commands in the diff family
+ was described poorly.
+
+ * The arguments given to the pre-rebase hook were not documented.
+
+ * The v4 index format was not documented.
+
+ * The "--match=<pattern>" argument "git describe" takes uses glob
+ pattern but it wasn't obvious from the documentation.
+
+ * Some sources failed to compile on systems that lack NI_MAXHOST in
+ their system header (e.g. z/OS).
+
+ * Add an example use of "--env-filter" in "filter-branch"
+ documentation.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" did not say "records a complete history" for a
+ bundle that does not have any prerequisites.
+
+ * In the v1.8.0 era, we changed symbols that do not have to be global
+ to file scope static, but a few functions in graph.c were used by
+ CGit sideways, bypassing the entry points of the API the
+ in-tree users use.
+
+ * "git update-index -h" did not do the usual "-h(elp)" thing.
+
+ * "git index-pack" had a buffer-overflow while preparing an
+ informational message when the translated version of it was too
+ long.
+
+ * 'git commit -m "$msg"' used to add an extra newline even when
+ $msg already ended with one.
+
+ * The SSL peer verification done by "git imap-send" did not ask for
+ Server Name Indication (RFC 4366), failing to connect to SSL/TLS
+ sites that serve multiple hostnames on a single IP.
+
+ * perl/Git.pm::cat_blob slurped everything in core only to write it
+ out to a file descriptor, which was not a very smart thing to do.
+
+ * "git branch" did not bother to check nonsense command line
+ parameters. It now issues errors in many cases.
+
+ * Verification of signed tags was not done correctly when not in C
+ or en/US locale.
+
+ * Some platforms and users spell UTF-8 differently; retry with the
+ most official "UTF-8" when the system does not understand the
+ user-supplied encoding name that is a common alternative
+ spelling of UTF-8.
+
+ * When export-subst is used, "zip" output recorded an incorrect
+ size of the file.
+
+ * "git am $maildir/" applied messages in an unexpected order; sort
+ filenames read from the maildir/ in a way that is more likely to
+ sort the messages in the order the writing MUA meant to, by sorting
+ numeric segments in numeric order and non-numeric segments in
+ alphabetical order.
+
+ * "git submodule update", when recursed into sub-submodules, did not
+ accumulate the prefix paths.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..69ab64e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,274 @@
+Git v1.8.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Updates since v1.8.3
+--------------------
+
+Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
+
+ * Git-gui has been updated to its 0.18.0 version.
+
+ * MediaWiki remote helper (in contrib/) has been updated to use the
+ credential helper interface from Git.pm.
+
+ * Update build for Cygwin 1.[57]. Torsten Bögershausen reports that
+ this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 ($gmane/225824) so let's try moving it
+ ahead.
+
+ * The credential helper to talk to keychain on OS X (in contrib/) has
+ been updated to kick in not just when talking http/https but also
+ imap(s) and smtp.
+
+ * Remote transport helper has been updated to report errors and
+ maintain ref hierarchy used to keep track of its own state better.
+
+ * With "export" remote-helper protocol, (1) a push that tries to
+ update a remote ref whose name is different from the pushing side
+ does not work yet, and (2) the helper may not know how to do
+ --dry-run; these problematic cases are disabled for now.
+
+ * git-remote-hg/bzr (in contrib/) updates.
+
+ * git-remote-mw (in contrib/) hints users to check the certificate,
+ when https:// connection failed.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git rm" gives a single message followed by list of paths to report
+ multiple paths that cannot be removed.
+
+ * "git rebase" can be told with ":/look for this string" syntax commits
+ to replay the changes onto and where the work to be replayed begins.
+
+ * Many tutorials teach users to set "color.ui" to "auto" as the first
+ thing after you set "user.name/email" to introduce yourselves to
+ Git. Now the variable defaults to "auto".
+
+### * "git status" learned status.branch and status.short configuration
+### variables to use --branch and --short options by default (override
+### with --no-branch and --no-short options from the command line).
+
+ * "git cmd <name>", when <name> happens to be a 40-hex string,
+ directly uses the 40-hex string as an object name, even if a ref
+ "refs/<some hierarchy>/<name>" exists. This disambiguation order
+ is unlikely to change, but we should warn about the ambiguity just
+ like we warn when more than one refs/ hierachies share the same
+ name.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned "--[no-]autostash" option to save local
+ changes instead of refusing to run (to which people's normal
+ response was to stash them and re-run). This introduced a corner
+ case breakage to "git am --abort" but it has been fixed.
+
+ * Instead of typing four capital letters "HEAD", you can say "@" now,
+ e.g. "git log @".
+
+ * "check-ignore" (new feature since 1.8.2) has been updated to work
+ more like "check-attr" over bidi-pipes.
+
+ * "git describe" learned "--first-parent" option to limit its closest
+ tagged commit search to the first-parent chain.
+
+ * "git merge foo" that might have meant "git merge origin/foo" is
+ diagnosed with a more informative error message.
+
+ * "git log -L<line>,<range>:<filename>" has been added. This may
+ still have leaks and rough edges, though.
+
+ * We used the approxidate() parser for "--expire=<timestamp>" options
+ of various commands, but it is better to treat --expire=all and
+ --expire=now a bit more specially than using the current timestamp.
+ "git gc" and "git reflog" have been updated with a new parsing
+ function for expiry dates.
+
+ * Updates to completion (both bash and zsh) helpers.
+
+ * The behaviour of the "--chain-reply-to" option of "git send-email"
+ have changed at 1.7.0, and we added a warning/advice message to
+ help users adjust to the new behaviour back then, but we kept it
+ around for too long. The message has finally been removed.
+
+ * "git fetch origin master" unlike "git fetch origin" or "git fetch"
+ did not update "refs/remotes/origin/master"; this was an early
+ design decision to keep the update of remote tracking branches
+ predictable, but in practice it turns out that people find it more
+ convenient to opportunistically update them whenever we have a
+ chance, and we have been updating them when we run "git push" which
+ already breaks the original "predictability" anyway.
+
+ * The configuration variable core.checkstat was advertised in the
+ documentation but the code expected core.statinfo instead.
+ For now, we accept both core.checkstat and core.statinfo, but the
+ latter will be removed in the longer term.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
+
+ * Uses of the platform fnmatch(3) function (many places in the code,
+ matching pathspec, .gitignore and .gitattributes to name a few)
+ have been replaced with wildmatch, allowing "foo/**/bar" that would
+ match foo/bar, foo/a/bar, foo/a/b/bar, etc.
+
+ * Memory ownership and lifetime rules for what for-each-ref feeds to
+ its callbacks have been clarified (in short, "you do not own it, so
+ make a copy if you want to keep it").
+
+ * The revision traversal logic to improve culling of irrelevant
+ parents while traversing a mergy history has been updated.
+
+ * Some leaks in unpack-trees (used in merge, cherry-pick and other
+ codepaths) have been plugged.
+
+ * The codepath to read from marks files in fast-import/export did not
+ have to accept anything but 40-hex representation of the object
+ name. Further, fast-export did not need full in-core object
+ representation to have parsed wen reading from them. These
+ codepaths have been optimized by taking advantage of these access
+ patterns.
+
+ * Object lookup logic, when the object hashtable starts to become
+ crowded, has been optimized.
+
+ * When TEST_OUTPUT_DIRECTORY setting is used, it was handled somewhat
+ inconsistently between the test framework and t/Makefile, and logic
+ to summarize the results looked at a wrong place.
+
+ * "git clone" uses a lighter-weight implementation when making sure
+ that the history behind refs are complete.
+
+ * Many warnings from sparse source checker in compat/ area has been
+ squelched.
+
+ * The code to reading and updating packed-refs file has been updated,
+ correcting corner case bugs.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.8.3
+------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.3 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * "cherry-pick" had a small leak in an error codepath.
+ (merge 706728a fc/sequencer-plug-leak later to maint).
+
+ * Logic used by git-send-email to suppress cc mishandled names like
+ "A U. Thor" <author@example.xz>, where the human readable part
+ needs to be quoted (the user input may not have the double quotes
+ around the name, and comparison was done between quoted and
+ unquoted strings).
+ (merge 1495266 mt/send-email-cc-match-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Call to discard_cache/discard_index (used when we use different
+ contents of the index in-core, in many operations like commit,
+ apply, and merge) used to leak memory that held the array of index
+ entries, which has been plugged.
+ (merge a0fc4db rs/discard-index-discard-array later to maint).
+
+ * "gitweb" forgot to clear a global variable $search_regexp upon each
+ request, mistakenly carrying over the previous search to a new one
+ when used as a persistent CGI.
+ (merge ca7a5dc cm/gitweb-project-list-persistent-cgi-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The wildmatch engine did not honor WM_CASEFOLD option correctly.
+ (merge b79c0c3 ar/wildmatch-foldcase later to maint).
+
+ * "git log -c --follow $path" segfaulted upon hitting the commit that
+ renamed the $path being followed.
+ (merge 46ec510 cb/log-follow-with-combined later to maint).
+
+ * When a reflog notation is used for implicit "current branch", we
+ did not say which branch and worse said "branch ''".
+ (merge 305ebea rr/die-on-missing-upstream later to maint).
+
+ * "difftool --dir-diff" did not copy back changes made by the
+ end-user in the diff tool backend to the working tree in some
+ cases.
+ (merge 32eaf1d ks/difftool-dir-diff-copy-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git push $there HEAD:branch" did not resolve HEAD early enough, so
+ it was easy to flip it around while push is still going on and push
+ out a branch that the user did not originally intended when the
+ command was started.
+ (merge 0f075b2 rr/push-head later to maint).
+
+ * The bash prompt code (in contrib/) displayed the name of the branch
+ being rebased when "rebase -i/-m/-p" modes are in use, but not the
+ plain vanilla "rebase".
+ (merge 1306321 fc/show-branch-in-rebase-am later to maint).
+
+ * Handling of negative exclude pattern for directories "!dir" was
+ broken in the update to v1.8.3.
+ (merge c3c327d kb/status-ignored-optim-2 later to maint).
+
+ * zsh prompt script that borrowed from bash prompt script did not
+ work due to slight differences in array variable notation between
+ these two shells.
+ (merge d0583da tg/maint-zsh-svn-remote-prompt later to maint).
+
+ * An entry for "file://" scheme in the enumeration of URL types Git
+ can take in the HTML documentation was made into a clickable link
+ by mistake.
+ (merge 4c32e36 nd/urls-doc-no-file-hyperlink-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git push --[no-]verify" was not documented.
+ (merge 90d32d1 tr/push-no-verify-doc later to maint).
+
+ * Stop installing the git-remote-testpy script that is only used for
+ testing.
+ (merge 416fda6 fc/makefile later to maint).
+
+ * "git commit --allow-empty-message -m ''" should not start an
+ editor.
+ (merge 2520677 rs/commit-m-no-edit later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge @{-1}~22" was rewritten to "git merge frotz@{1}~22"
+ incorrectly when your previous branch was "frotz" (it should be
+ rewritten to "git merge frotz~22" instead).
+ (merge 84cf246 jc/strbuf-branchname-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff -c -p" was not showing a deleted line from a hunk when
+ another hunk immediately begins where the earlier one ends.
+ (merge aac3857 mk/combine-diff-context-horizon-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git log --ancestry-path A...B" did not work as expected, as it did
+ not pay attention to the fact that the merge base between A and B
+ was the bottom of the range being specified.
+ (merge a765499 kb/ancestry-path-threedots later to maint).
+
+ * Mac OS X does not like to write(2) more than INT_MAX number of
+ bytes; work it around by chopping write(2) into smaller pieces.
+ (merge 6c642a8 fc/macos-x-clipped-write later to maint).
+
+ * Newer MacOS X encourages the programs to compile and link with
+ their CommonCrypto, not with OpenSSL.
+ (merge be4c828 da/darwin later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone foo/bar:baz" cannot be a request to clone from a remote
+ over git-over-ssh specified in the scp style. This case is now
+ detected and clones from a local repository at "foo/bar:baz".
+ (merge 6000334 nd/clone-local-with-colon later to maint).
+
+ * When $HOME is misconfigured to point at an unreadable directory, we
+ used to complain and die. Loosen the check.
+ (merge 4698c8f jn/config-ignore-inaccessible later to maint).
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) had one codepath with loose error
+ checks to lose data at the remote side.
+ (merge 3212d56 jk/subtree-do-not-push-if-split-fails later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" into a shallow repository from a repository that does
+ not know about the shallow boundary commits (e.g. a different fork
+ from the repository the current shallow repository was cloned from)
+ did not work correctly.
+ (merge 71d5f93 mh/fetch-into-shallow later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout foo" DWIMs the intended "upstream" and turns it into
+ "git checkout -t -b foo remotes/origin/foo". This codepath has been
+ updated to correctly take existing remote definitions into account.
+ (merge 229177a jh/checkout-auto-tracking later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 90133d8..d0a4733 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -103,9 +103,9 @@ without external resources. Instead of giving a URL to a mailing list
archive, summarize the relevant points of the discussion.
-(3) Generate your patch using git tools out of your commits.
+(3) Generate your patch using Git tools out of your commits.
-git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
+Git based diff tools generate unidiff which is the preferred format.
You do not have to be afraid to use -M option to "git diff" or
"git format-patch", if your patch involves file renames. The
@@ -122,7 +122,7 @@ that is fine, but please mark it as such.
(4) Sending your patches.
-People on the git mailing list need to be able to read and
+People on the Git mailing list need to be able to read and
comment on the changes you are submitting. It is important for
a developer to be able to "quote" your changes, using standard
e-mail tools, so that they may comment on specific portions of
@@ -206,7 +206,7 @@ patch.
To improve tracking of who did what, we've borrowed the
"sign-off" procedure from the Linux kernel project on patches
-that are being emailed around. Although core GIT is a lot
+that are being emailed around. Although core Git is a lot
smaller project it is a good discipline to follow it.
The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@ then you just add a line saying
Signed-off-by: Random J Developer <random@developer.example.org>
-This line can be automatically added by git if you run the git-commit
+This line can be automatically added by Git if you run the git-commit
command with the -s option.
Notice that you can place your own Signed-off-by: line when
@@ -337,7 +337,7 @@ Know the status of your patch after submission
tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
master).
-* Read the git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
+* Read the Git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
the status of various proposed changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index 1273a85..2c16c53 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
#
# Note, {0} is the manpage section, while {target} is the command.
#
-# Show GIT link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
+# Show Git link as: <command>(<section>); if section is defined, else just show
# the command.
[macros]
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index d4a51da..e9f984b 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -9,28 +9,11 @@
--show-stats::
Include additional statistics at the end of blame output.
--L <start>,<end>::
+-L <start>,<end>, -L :<regex>::
Annotate only the given line range. <start> and <end> can take
one of these forms:
- - number
-+
-If <start> or <end> is a number, it specifies an
-absolute line number (lines count from 1).
-+
-
-- /regex/
-+
-This form will use the first line matching the given
-POSIX regex. If <end> is a regex, it will search
-starting at the line given by <start>.
-+
-
-- +offset or -offset
-+
-This is only valid for <end> and will specify a number
-of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
-+
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
-l::
Show long rev (Default: off).
@@ -95,7 +78,7 @@ of lines before or after the line given by <start>.
running extra passes of inspection.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
-alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving/copying
+alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
within a file for it to associate those lines with the parent
commit. The default value is 20.
@@ -110,7 +93,7 @@ commit. The default value is 20.
looks for copies from other files in any commit.
+
<num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
-alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving/copying
+alphanumeric characters that Git must detect as moving/copying
between files for it to associate those lines with the parent
commit. And the default value is 40. If there are more than one
`-C` options given, the <num> argument of the last `-C` will
diff --git a/Documentation/cat-texi.perl b/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
index 828ec62..87437f8 100755
--- a/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
+++ b/Documentation/cat-texi.perl
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@ while (<STDIN>) {
push @menu, $1;
}
s/\(\@pxref{\[(URLS|REMOTES)\]}\)//;
+ s/\@anchor\{[^{}]*\}//g;
print TMP;
}
close TMP;
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index c5f1d68..1153585 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -1,14 +1,14 @@
CONFIGURATION FILE
------------------
-The git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
-the git command's behavior. The `.git/config` file in each repository
+The Git configuration file contains a number of variables that affect
+the Git commands' behavior. The `.git/config` file in each repository
is used to store the configuration for that repository, and
`$HOME/.gitconfig` is used to store a per-user configuration as
fallback values for the `.git/config` file. The file `/etc/gitconfig`
can be used to store a system-wide default configuration.
-The configuration variables are used by both the git plumbing
+The configuration variables are used by both the Git plumbing
and the porcelains. The variables are divided into sections, wherein
the fully qualified variable name of the variable itself is the last
dot-separated segment and the section name is everything before the last
@@ -140,10 +140,12 @@ advice.*::
can tell Git that you do not need help by setting these to 'false':
+
--
- pushNonFastForward::
+ pushUpdateRejected::
Set this variable to 'false' if you want to disable
- 'pushNonFFCurrent', 'pushNonFFDefault', and
- 'pushNonFFMatching' simultaneously.
+ 'pushNonFFCurrent', 'pushNonFFDefault',
+ 'pushNonFFMatching', 'pushAlreadyExists',
+ 'pushFetchFirst', and 'pushNeedsForce'
+ simultaneously.
pushNonFFCurrent::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-push[1] fails due to a
non-fast-forward update to the current branch.
@@ -158,12 +160,28 @@ advice.*::
'matching refs' explicitly (i.e. you used ':', or
specified a refspec that isn't your current branch) and
it resulted in a non-fast-forward error.
+ pushAlreadyExists::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ does not qualify for fast-forwarding (e.g., a tag.)
+ pushFetchFirst::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
+ object we do not have.
+ pushNeedsForce::
+ Shown when linkgit:git-push[1] rejects an update that
+ tries to overwrite a remote ref that points at an
+ object that is not a committish, or make the remote
+ ref point at an object that is not a committish.
statusHints::
Show directions on how to proceed from the current
state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1], in
the template shown when writing commit messages in
linkgit:git-commit[1], and in the help message shown
by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when switching branch.
+ statusUoption::
+ Advise to consider using the `-u` option to linkgit:git-status[1]
+ when the command takes more than 2 seconds to enumerate untracked
+ files.
commitBeforeMerge::
Advice shown when linkgit:git-merge[1] refuses to
merge to avoid overwriting local changes.
@@ -181,6 +199,9 @@ advice.*::
amWorkDir::
Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
+ rmHints::
+ In case of failure in the output of linkgit:git-rm[1],
+ show directions on how to proceed from the current state.
--
core.fileMode::
@@ -205,9 +226,9 @@ core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
core.ignorecase::
If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
- git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
+ Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
- "makefile" when git expects "Makefile", git will assume
+ "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
"Makefile".
+
@@ -216,13 +237,13 @@ will probe and set core.ignorecase true if appropriate when the repository
is created.
core.precomposeunicode::
- This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of git.
- When core.precomposeunicode=true, git reverts the unicode decomposition
+ This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of Git.
+ When core.precomposeunicode=true, Git reverts the unicode decomposition
of filenames done by Mac OS. This is useful when sharing a repository
between Mac OS and Linux or Windows.
- (Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or git under cygwin 1.7).
- When false, file names are handled fully transparent by git,
- which is backward compatible with older versions of git.
+ (Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or Git under cygwin 1.7).
+ When false, file names are handled fully transparent by Git,
+ which is backward compatible with older versions of Git.
core.trustctime::
If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
@@ -231,6 +252,12 @@ core.trustctime::
crawlers and some backup systems).
See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+core.checkstat::
+ Determines which stat fields to match between the index
+ and work tree. The user can set this to 'default' or
+ 'minimal'. Default (or explicitly 'default'), is to check
+ all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
+
core.quotepath::
The commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files',
'diff'), when not given the `-z` option, will quote
@@ -252,20 +279,20 @@ core.eol::
conversion.
core.safecrlf::
- If true, makes git check if converting `CRLF` is reversible when
+ If true, makes Git check if converting `CRLF` is reversible when
end-of-line conversion is active. Git will verify if a command
modifies a file in the work tree either directly or indirectly.
For example, committing a file followed by checking out the
same file should yield the original file in the work tree. If
this is not the case for the current setting of
- `core.autocrlf`, git will reject the file. The variable can
- be set to "warn", in which case git will only warn about an
+ `core.autocrlf`, Git will reject the file. The variable can
+ be set to "warn", in which case Git will only warn about an
irreversible conversion but continue the operation.
+
CRLF conversion bears a slight chance of corrupting data.
-When it is enabled, git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to
+When it is enabled, Git will convert CRLF to LF during commit and LF to
CRLF during checkout. A file that contains a mixture of LF and
-CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by git. For text
+CRLF before the commit cannot be recreated by Git. For text
files this is the right thing to do: it corrects line endings
such that we have only LF line endings in the repository.
But for binary files that are accidentally classified as text the
@@ -275,7 +302,7 @@ If you recognize such corruption early you can easily fix it by
setting the conversion type explicitly in .gitattributes. Right
after committing you still have the original file in your work
tree and this file is not yet corrupted. You can explicitly tell
-git that this file is binary and git will handle the file
+Git that this file is binary and Git will handle the file
appropriately.
+
Unfortunately, the desired effect of cleaning up text files with
@@ -320,7 +347,7 @@ is created.
core.gitProxy::
A "proxy command" to execute (as 'command host port') instead
of establishing direct connection to the remote server when
- using the git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
+ using the Git protocol for fetching. If the variable value is
in the "COMMAND for DOMAIN" format, the command is applied only
on hostnames ending with the specified domain string. This variable
may be set multiple times and is matched in the given order;
@@ -379,7 +406,7 @@ Note that this variable is honored even when set in a configuration
file in a ".git" subdirectory of a directory and its value differs
from the latter directory (e.g. "/path/to/.git/config" has
core.worktree set to "/different/path"), which is most likely a
-misconfiguration. Running git commands in the "/path/to" directory will
+misconfiguration. Running Git commands in the "/path/to" directory will
still use "/different/path" as the root of the work tree and can cause
confusion unless you know what you are doing (e.g. you are creating a
read-only snapshot of the same index to a location different from the
@@ -388,7 +415,7 @@ repository's usual working tree).
core.logAllRefUpdates::
Enable the reflog. Updates to a ref <ref> is logged to the file
"$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>", by appending the new and old
- SHA1, the date/time and the reason of the update, but
+ SHA-1, the date/time and the reason of the update, but
only when the file exists. If this configuration
variable is set to true, missing "$GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>"
file is automatically created for branch heads (i.e. under
@@ -411,7 +438,7 @@ core.sharedRepository::
several users in a group (making sure all the files and objects are
group-writable). When 'all' (or 'world' or 'everybody'), the
repository will be readable by all users, additionally to being
- group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), git will use permissions
+ group-shareable. When 'umask' (or 'false'), Git will use permissions
reported by umask(2). When '0xxx', where '0xxx' is an octal number,
files in the repository will have this mode value. '0xxx' will override
user's umask value (whereas the other options will only override
@@ -422,8 +449,8 @@ core.sharedRepository::
See linkgit:git-init[1]. False by default.
core.warnAmbiguousRefs::
- If true, git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
- and might match multiple refs in the .git/refs/ tree. True by default.
+ If true, Git will warn you if the ref name you passed it is ambiguous
+ and might match multiple refs in the repository. True by default.
core.compression::
An integer -1..9, indicating a default compression level.
@@ -494,7 +521,7 @@ Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
core.excludesfile::
In addition to '.gitignore' (per-directory) and
- '.git/info/exclude', git looks into this file for patterns
+ '.git/info/exclude', Git looks into this file for patterns
of files which are not meant to be tracked. "`~/`" is expanded
to the value of `$HOME` and "`~user/`" to the specified user's
home directory. Its default value is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore.
@@ -512,7 +539,7 @@ core.askpass::
core.attributesfile::
In addition to '.gitattributes' (per-directory) and
- '.git/info/attributes', git looks into this file for attributes
+ '.git/info/attributes', Git looks into this file for attributes
(see linkgit:gitattributes[5]). Path expansions are made the same
way as for `core.excludesfile`. Its default value is
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not
@@ -524,6 +551,12 @@ core.editor::
variable when it is set, and the environment variable
`GIT_EDITOR` is not set. See linkgit:git-var[1].
+core.commentchar::
+ Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
+ messages consider a line that begins with this character
+ commented, and removes them after the editor returns
+ (default '#').
+
sequence.editor::
Text editor used by `git rebase -i` for editing the rebase instruction file.
The value is meant to be interpreted by the shell when it is used.
@@ -531,9 +564,9 @@ sequence.editor::
When not configured the default commit message editor is used instead.
core.pager::
- The command that git will use to paginate output. Can
+ The command that Git will use to paginate output. Can
be overridden with the `GIT_PAGER` environment
- variable. Note that git sets the `LESS` environment
+ variable. Note that Git sets the `LESS` environment
variable to `FRSX` if it is unset when it runs the
pager. One can change these settings by setting the
`LESS` variable to some other value. Alternately,
@@ -541,11 +574,11 @@ core.pager::
global basis by setting the `core.pager` option.
Setting `core.pager` has no effect on the `LESS`
environment variable behaviour above, so if you want
- to override git's default settings this way, you need
+ to override Git's default settings this way, you need
to be explicit. For example, to disable the S option
in a backward compatible manner, set `core.pager`
to `less -+S`. This will be passed to the shell by
- git, which will translate the final command to
+ Git, which will translate the final command to
`LESS=FRSX less -+S`.
core.whitespace::
@@ -574,7 +607,7 @@ core.whitespace::
does not trigger if the character before such a carriage-return
is not a whitespace (not enabled by default).
* `tabwidth=<n>` tells how many character positions a tab occupies; this
- is relevant for `indent-with-non-tab` and when git fixes `tab-in-indent`
+ is relevant for `indent-with-non-tab` and when Git fixes `tab-in-indent`
errors. The default tab width is 8. Allowed values are 1 to 63.
core.fsyncobjectfiles::
@@ -590,7 +623,7 @@ core.preloadindex::
+
This can speed up operations like 'git diff' and 'git status' especially
on filesystems like NFS that have weak caching semantics and thus
-relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', git will do the
+relatively high IO latencies. With this set to 'true', Git will do the
index comparison to the filesystem data in parallel, allowing
overlapping IO's.
@@ -626,9 +659,9 @@ add.ignore-errors::
add.ignoreErrors::
Tells 'git add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
- option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of git accept only
+ option of linkgit:git-add[1]. Older versions of Git accept only
`add.ignore-errors`, which does not follow the usual naming
- convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of git
+ convention for configuration variables. Newer versions of Git
honor `add.ignoreErrors` as well.
alias.*::
@@ -636,7 +669,7 @@ alias.*::
after defining "alias.last = cat-file commit HEAD", the invocation
"git last" is equivalent to "git cat-file commit HEAD". To avoid
confusion and troubles with script usage, aliases that
- hide existing git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
+ hide existing Git commands are ignored. Arguments are split by
spaces, the usual shell quoting and escaping is supported.
quote pair and a backslash can be used to quote them.
+
@@ -683,7 +716,7 @@ branch.autosetupmerge::
branch.autosetuprebase::
When a new branch is created with 'git branch' or 'git checkout'
- that tracks another branch, this variable tells git to set
+ that tracks another branch, this variable tells Git to set
up pull to rebase instead of merge (see "branch.<name>.rebase").
When `never`, rebase is never automatically set to true.
When `local`, rebase is set to true for tracked branches of
@@ -697,9 +730,22 @@ branch.autosetuprebase::
This option defaults to never.
branch.<name>.remote::
- When in branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push' which
- remote to fetch from/push to. It defaults to `origin` if no remote is
- configured. `origin` is also used if you are not on any branch.
+ When on branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push'
+ which remote to fetch from/push to. The remote to push to
+ may be overridden with `remote.pushdefault` (for all branches).
+ The remote to push to, for the current branch, may be further
+ overridden by `branch.<name>.pushremote`. If no remote is
+ configured, or if you are not on any branch, it defaults to
+ `origin` for fetching and `remote.pushdefault` for pushing.
+
+branch.<name>.pushremote::
+ When on branch <name>, it overrides `branch.<name>.remote` for
+ pushing. It also overrides `remote.pushdefault` for pushing
+ from branch <name>. When you pull from one place (e.g. your
+ upstream) and push to another place (e.g. your own publishing
+ repository), you would want to set `remote.pushdefault` to
+ specify the remote to push to for all branches, and use this
+ option to override it for a specific branch.
branch.<name>.merge::
Defines, together with branch.<name>.remote, the upstream branch
@@ -735,6 +781,12 @@ branch.<name>.rebase::
it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
for details).
+branch.<name>.description::
+ Branch description, can be edited with
+ `git branch --edit-description`. Branch description is
+ automatically added in the format-patch cover letter or
+ request-pull summary.
+
browser.<tool>.cmd::
Specify the command to invoke the specified browser. The
specified command is evaluated in shell with the URLs passed
@@ -758,7 +810,8 @@ color.branch::
color.branch.<slot>::
Use customized color for branch coloration. `<slot>` is one of
`current` (the current branch), `local` (a local branch),
- `remote` (a remote-tracking branch in refs/remotes/), `plain` (other
+ `remote` (a remote-tracking branch in refs/remotes/),
+ `upstream` (upstream tracking branch), `plain` (other
refs).
+
The value for these configuration variables is a list of colors (at most
@@ -858,7 +911,7 @@ color.status.<slot>::
one of `header` (the header text of the status message),
`added` or `updated` (files which are added but not committed),
`changed` (files which are changed but not added in the index),
- `untracked` (files which are not tracked by git),
+ `untracked` (files which are not tracked by Git),
`branch` (the current branch), or
`nobranch` (the color the 'no branch' warning is shown in, defaulting
to red). The values of these variables may be specified as in
@@ -869,11 +922,12 @@ color.ui::
as `color.diff` and `color.grep` that control the use of color
per command family. Its scope will expand as more commands learn
configuration to set a default for the `--color` option. Set it
- to `always` if you want all output not intended for machine
- consumption to use color, to `true` or `auto` if you want such
- output to use color when written to the terminal, or to `false` or
- `never` if you prefer git commands not to use color unless enabled
- explicitly with some other configuration or the `--color` option.
+ to `false` or `never` if you prefer Git commands not to use
+ color unless enabled explicitly with some other configuration
+ or the `--color` option. Set it to `always` if you want all
+ output not intended for machine consumption to use color, to
+ `true` or `auto` (this is the default since Git 1.8.4) if you
+ want such output to use color when written to the terminal.
column.ui::
Specify whether supported commands should output in columns.
@@ -913,6 +967,15 @@ column.tag::
Specify whether to output tag listing in `git tag` in columns.
See `column.ui` for details.
+commit.cleanup::
+ This setting overrides the default of the `--cleanup` option in
+ `git commit`. See linkgit:git-commit[1] for details. Changing the
+ default can be useful when you always want to keep lines that begin
+ with comment character `#` in your log message, in which case you
+ would do `git config commit.cleanup whitespace` (note that you will
+ have to remove the help lines that begin with `#` in the commit log
+ template yourself, if you do this).
+
commit.status::
A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
@@ -980,7 +1043,7 @@ fetch.fsckObjects::
is used instead.
fetch.unpackLimit::
- If the number of objects fetched over the git native
+ If the number of objects fetched over the Git native
transfer is below this
limit, then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
files. However if the number of received objects equals or
@@ -1020,7 +1083,7 @@ format.subjectprefix::
format.signature::
The default for format-patch is to output a signature containing
- the git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
+ the Git version number. Use this variable to change that default.
Set this variable to the empty string ("") to suppress
signature generation.
@@ -1045,11 +1108,16 @@ format.thread::
value disables threading.
format.signoff::
- A boolean value which lets you enable the `-s/--signoff` option of
- format-patch by default. *Note:* Adding the Signed-off-by: line to a
- patch should be a conscious act and means that you certify you have
- the rights to submit this work under the same open source license.
- Please see the 'SubmittingPatches' document for further discussion.
+ A boolean value which lets you enable the `-s/--signoff` option of
+ format-patch by default. *Note:* Adding the Signed-off-by: line to a
+ patch should be a conscious act and means that you certify you have
+ the rights to submit this work under the same open source license.
+ Please see the 'SubmittingPatches' document for further discussion.
+
+format.coverLetter::
+ A boolean that controls whether to generate a cover-letter when
+ format-patch is invoked, but in addition can be set to "auto", to
+ generate a cover-letter only when there's more than one patch.
filter.<driver>.clean::
The command which is used to convert the content of a worktree
@@ -1133,7 +1201,7 @@ gitcvs.logfile::
gitcvs.usecrlfattr::
If true, the server will look up the end-of-line conversion
attributes for files to determine the '-k' modes to use. If
- the attributes force git to treat a file as text,
+ the attributes force Git to treat a file as text,
the '-k' mode will be left blank so CVS clients will
treat it as text. If they suppress text conversion, the file
will be set with '-kb' mode, which suppresses any newline munging
@@ -1153,7 +1221,7 @@ gitcvs.allbinary::
gitcvs.dbname::
Database used by git-cvsserver to cache revision information
- derived from the git repository. The exact meaning depends on the
+ derived from the Git repository. The exact meaning depends on the
used database driver, for SQLite (which is the default driver) this
is a filename. Supports variable substitution (see
linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for details). May not contain semicolons (`;`).
@@ -1161,7 +1229,7 @@ gitcvs.dbname::
gitcvs.dbdriver::
Used Perl DBI driver. You can specify any available driver
- for this here, but it might not work. git-cvsserver is tested
+ for this here, but it might not work. git-cvsserver is tested
with 'DBD::SQLite', reported to work with 'DBD::Pg', and
reported *not* to work with 'DBD::mysql'. Experimental feature.
May not contain double colons (`:`). Default: 'SQLite'.
@@ -1365,7 +1433,7 @@ http.proxy::
http.cookiefile::
File containing previously stored cookie lines which should be used
- in the git http session, if they match the server. The file format
+ in the Git http session, if they match the server. The file format
of the file to read cookies from should be plain HTTP headers or
the Netscape/Mozilla cookie file format (see linkgit:curl[1]).
NOTE that the file specified with http.cookiefile is only used as
@@ -1387,7 +1455,7 @@ http.sslKey::
variable.
http.sslCertPasswordProtected::
- Enable git's password prompt for the SSL certificate. Otherwise
+ Enable Git's password prompt for the SSL certificate. Otherwise
OpenSSL will prompt the user, possibly many times, if the
certificate or private key is encrypted. Can be overridden by the
'GIT_SSL_CERT_PASSWORD_PROTECTED' environment variable.
@@ -1402,6 +1470,14 @@ http.sslCAPath::
with when fetching or pushing over HTTPS. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_SSL_CAPATH' environment variable.
+http.sslTry::
+ Attempt to use AUTH SSL/TLS and encrypted data transfers
+ when connecting via regular FTP protocol. This might be needed
+ if the FTP server requires it for security reasons or you wish
+ to connect securely whenever remote FTP server supports it.
+ Default is false since it might trigger certificate verification
+ errors on misconfigured servers.
+
http.maxRequests::
How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
@@ -1434,7 +1510,7 @@ http.noEPSV::
http.useragent::
The HTTP USER_AGENT string presented to an HTTP server. The default
- value represents the version of the client git such as git/1.7.1.
+ value represents the version of the client Git such as git/1.7.1.
This option allows you to override this value to a more common value
such as Mozilla/4.0. This may be necessary, for instance, if
connecting through a firewall that restricts HTTP connections to a set
@@ -1442,7 +1518,7 @@ http.useragent::
Can be overridden by the 'GIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT' environment variable.
i18n.commitEncoding::
- Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; git itself
+ Character encoding the commit messages are stored in; Git itself
does not care per se, but this information is necessary e.g. when
importing commits from emails or in the gitk graphical history
browser (and possibly at other places in the future or in other
@@ -1515,6 +1591,10 @@ log.showroot::
Tools like linkgit:git-log[1] or linkgit:git-whatchanged[1], which
normally hide the root commit will now show it. True by default.
+log.mailmap::
+ If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
+ linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--use-mailmap`.
+
mailmap.file::
The location of an augmenting mailmap file. The default
mailmap, located in the root of the repository, is loaded
@@ -1523,6 +1603,14 @@ mailmap.file::
subdirectory, or somewhere outside of the repository itself.
See linkgit:git-shortlog[1] and linkgit:git-blame[1].
+mailmap.blob::
+ Like `mailmap.file`, but consider the value as a reference to a
+ blob in the repository. If both `mailmap.file` and
+ `mailmap.blob` are given, both are parsed, with entries from
+ `mailmap.file` taking precedence. In a bare repository, this
+ defaults to `HEAD:.mailmap`. In a non-bare repository, it
+ defaults to empty.
+
man.viewer::
Specify the programs that may be used to display help in the
'man' format. See linkgit:git-help[1].
@@ -1568,7 +1656,7 @@ mergetool.keepBackup::
`true` (i.e. keep the backup files).
mergetool.keepTemporaries::
- When invoking a custom merge tool, git uses a set of temporary
+ When invoking a custom merge tool, Git uses a set of temporary
files to pass to the tool. If the tool returns an error and this
variable is set to `true`, then these temporary files will be
preserved, otherwise they will be removed after the tool has
@@ -1596,7 +1684,7 @@ displayed.
notes.rewrite.<command>::
When rewriting commits with <command> (currently `amend` or
- `rebase`) and this variable is set to `true`, git
+ `rebase`) and this variable is set to `true`, Git
automatically copies your notes from the original to the
rewritten commit. Defaults to `true`, but see
"notes.rewriteRef" below.
@@ -1676,7 +1764,7 @@ pack.threads::
warning. This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search window
is however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and set the number of threads accordingly.
pack.indexVersion::
@@ -1688,11 +1776,11 @@ pack.indexVersion::
and this config option ignored whenever the corresponding pack is
larger than 2 GB.
+
-If you have an old git that does not understand the version 2 `*.idx` file,
+If you have an old Git that does not understand the version 2 `*.idx` file,
cloning or fetching over a non native protocol (e.g. "http" and "rsync")
that will copy both `*.pack` file and corresponding `*.idx` file from the
other side may give you a repository that cannot be accessed with your
-older version of git. If the `*.pack` file is smaller than 2 GB, however,
+older version of Git. If the `*.pack` file is smaller than 2 GB, however,
you can use linkgit:git-index-pack[1] on the *.pack file to regenerate
the `*.idx` file.
@@ -1707,7 +1795,7 @@ pack.packSizeLimit::
pager.<cmd>::
If the value is boolean, turns on or off pagination of the
- output of a particular git subcommand when writing to a tty.
+ output of a particular Git subcommand when writing to a tty.
Otherwise, turns on pagination for the subcommand using the
pager specified by the value of `pager.<cmd>`. If `--paginate`
or `--no-pager` is specified on the command line, it takes
@@ -1742,7 +1830,7 @@ pull.twohead::
The default merge strategy to use when pulling a single branch.
push.default::
- Defines the action git push should take if no refspec is given
+ Defines the action `git push` should take if no refspec is given
on the command line, no refspec is configured in the remote, and
no refspec is implied by any of the options given on the command
line. Possible values are:
@@ -1783,6 +1871,14 @@ rebase.stat::
rebase.autosquash::
If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+rebase.autostash::
+ When set to true, automatically create a temporary stash
+ before the operation begins, and apply it after the operation
+ ends. This means that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.
+ However, use with care: the final stash application after a
+ successful rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+ Defaults to false.
+
receive.autogc::
By default, git-receive-pack will run "git-gc --auto" after
receiving data from git-push and updating refs. You can stop
@@ -1828,10 +1924,24 @@ receive.denyNonFastForwards::
even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
set when initializing a shared repository.
+receive.hiderefs::
+ String(s) `receive-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
+ from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
+ definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
+ are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
+ variable is excluded, and is hidden when responding to `git
+ push`, and an attempt to update or delete a hidden ref by
+ `git push` is rejected.
+
receive.updateserverinfo::
If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
after receiving data from git-push and updating refs.
+remote.pushdefault::
+ The remote to push to by default. Overrides
+ `branch.<name>.remote` for all branches, and is overridden by
+ `branch.<name>.pushremote` for specific branches.
+
remote.<name>.url::
The URL of a remote repository. See linkgit:git-fetch[1] or
linkgit:git-push[1].
@@ -1883,7 +1993,7 @@ remote.<name>.tagopt::
linkgit:git-fetch[1].
remote.<name>.vcs::
- Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause git to interact with
+ Setting this to a value <vcs> will cause Git to interact with
the remote with the git-remote-<vcs> helper.
remotes.<group>::
@@ -1893,9 +2003,9 @@ remotes.<group>::
repack.usedeltabaseoffset::
By default, linkgit:git-repack[1] creates packs that use
delta-base offset. If you need to share your repository with
- git older than version 1.4.4, either directly or via a dumb
+ Git older than version 1.4.4, either directly or via a dumb
protocol such as http, then you need to set this option to
- "false" and repack. Access from old git versions over the
+ "false" and repack. Access from old Git versions over the
native protocol are unaffected by this option.
rerere.autoupdate::
@@ -1932,6 +2042,7 @@ sendemail.<identity>.*::
sendemail.aliasesfile::
sendemail.aliasfiletype::
+sendemail.annotate::
sendemail.bcc::
sendemail.cc::
sendemail.cccmd::
@@ -1964,7 +2075,7 @@ showbranch.default::
status.relativePaths::
By default, linkgit:git-status[1] shows paths relative to the
current directory. Setting this variable to `false` shows paths
- relative to the repository root (this was the default for git
+ relative to the repository root (this was the default for Git
prior to v1.5.4).
status.showUntrackedFiles::
@@ -2002,6 +2113,12 @@ submodule.<name>.update::
URL and other values found in the `.gitmodules` file. See
linkgit:git-submodule[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+submodule.<name>.branch::
+ The remote branch name for a submodule, used by `git submodule
+ update --remote`. Set this option to override the value found in
+ the `.gitmodules` file. See linkgit:git-submodule[1] and
+ linkgit:gitmodules[5] for details.
+
submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
This option can be used to control recursive fetching of this
submodule. It can be overridden by using the --[no-]recurse-submodules
@@ -2034,18 +2151,38 @@ transfer.fsckObjects::
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
Defaults to false.
+transfer.hiderefs::
+ This variable can be used to set both `receive.hiderefs`
+ and `uploadpack.hiderefs` at the same time to the same
+ values. See entries for these other variables.
+
transfer.unpackLimit::
When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
The default value is 100.
+uploadpack.hiderefs::
+ String(s) `upload-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
+ from its initial advertisement. Use more than one
+ definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
+ are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
+ variable is excluded, and is hidden from `git ls-remote`,
+ `git fetch`, etc. An attempt to fetch a hidden ref by `git
+ fetch` will fail. See also `uploadpack.allowtipsha1inwant`.
+
+uploadpack.allowtipsha1inwant::
+ When `uploadpack.hiderefs` is in effect, allow `upload-pack`
+ to accept a fetch request that asks for an object at the tip
+ of a hidden ref (by default, such a request is rejected).
+ see also `uploadpack.hiderefs`.
+
url.<base>.insteadOf::
Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
large number of repositories, and serves them with multiple
access methods, and some users need to use different access
methods, this feature allows people to specify any of the
- equivalent URLs and have git automatically rewrite the URL to
+ equivalent URLs and have Git automatically rewrite the URL to
the best alternative for the particular user, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
insteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is used.
@@ -2056,11 +2193,11 @@ url.<base>.pushInsteadOf::
resulting URL will be pushed to. In cases where some site serves
a large number of repositories, and serves them with multiple
access methods, some of which do not allow push, this feature
- allows people to specify a pull-only URL and have git
+ allows people to specify a pull-only URL and have Git
automatically use an appropriate URL to push, even for a
never-before-seen repository on the site. When more than one
pushInsteadOf strings match a given URL, the longest match is
- used. If a remote has an explicit pushurl, git will ignore this
+ used. If a remote has an explicit pushurl, Git will ignore this
setting for that remote.
user.email::
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 4314ad0..ac77050 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ diff.renameLimit::
detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
diff.renames::
- Tells git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
+ Tells Git to detect renames. If set to any boolean value, it
will enable basic rename detection. If set to "copies" or
"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
@@ -149,9 +149,27 @@ diff.<driver>.cachetextconv::
conversion outputs. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff.tool::
- The diff tool to be used by linkgit:git-difftool[1]. This
- option overrides `merge.tool`, and has the same valid built-in
- values as `merge.tool` minus "tortoisemerge" and plus
- "kompare". Any other value is treated as a custom diff tool,
- and there must be a corresponding `difftool.<tool>.cmd`
- option.
+ Controls which diff tool is used by linkgit:git-difftool[1].
+ This variable overrides the value configured in `merge.tool`.
+ The list below shows the valid built-in values.
+ Any other value is treated as a custom diff tool and requires
+ that a corresponding difftool.<tool>.cmd variable is defined.
+
+include::mergetools-diff.txt[]
+
+diff.algorithm::
+ Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
++
+--
+`default`, `myers`;;
+ The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
+`minimal`;;
+ Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
+ produced.
+`patience`;;
+ Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
+`histogram`;;
+ This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
+ low-occurrence common elements".
+--
++
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index bbfe8f8..a85288f 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -55,6 +55,26 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--histogram::
Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.
+--diff-algorithm={patience|minimal|histogram|myers}::
+ Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:
++
+--
+`default`, `myers`;;
+ The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the default.
+`minimal`;;
+ Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is
+ produced.
+`patience`;;
+ Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.
+`histogram`;;
+ This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
+ low-occurrence common elements".
+--
++
+For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
+non-default value and want to use the default one, then you
+have to use `--diff-algorithm=default` option.
+
--stat[=<width>[,<name-width>[,<count>]]]::
Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
@@ -283,7 +303,7 @@ few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but as a
single deletion of everything old followed by a single insertion of
everything new, and the number `m` controls this aspect of the -B
option (defaults to 60%). `-B/70%` specifies that less than 30% of the
-original should remain in the result for git to consider it a total
+original should remain in the result for Git to consider it a total
rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch will be a series of
deletion and insertion mixed together with context lines).
+
@@ -307,7 +327,7 @@ ifdef::git-log[]
endif::git-log[]
If `n` is specified, it is a threshold on the similarity
index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
- file's size). For example, `-M90%` means git should consider a
+ file's size). For example, `-M90%` means Git should consider a
delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file
hasn't changed. Without a `%` sign, the number is to be read as
a fraction, with a decimal point before it. I.e., `-M5` becomes
@@ -363,14 +383,36 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
-S<string>::
- Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
- <string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
- appearing in diff output; see the 'pickaxe' entry in
- linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more details.
+ Look for differences that change the number of occurrences of
+ the specified string (i.e. addition/deletion) in a file.
+ Intended for the scripter's use.
++
+It is useful when you're looking for an exact block of code (like a
+struct), and want to know the history of that block since it first
+came into being: use the feature iteratively to feed the interesting
+block in the preimage back into `-S`, and keep going until you get the
+very first version of the block.
-G<regex>::
- Look for differences whose added or removed line matches
- the given <regex>.
+ Look for differences whose patch text contains added/removed
+ lines that match <regex>.
++
+To illustrate the difference between `-S<regex> --pickaxe-regex` and
+`-G<regex>`, consider a commit with the following diff in the same
+file:
++
+----
++ return !regexec(regexp, two->ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+...
+- hit = !regexec(regexp, mf2.ptr, 1, &regmatch, 0);
+----
++
+While `git log -G"regexec\(regexp"` will show this commit, `git log
+-S"regexec\(regexp" --pickaxe-regex` will not (because the number of
+occurrences of that string did not change).
++
+See the 'pickaxe' entry in linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more
+information.
--pickaxe-all::
When `-S` or `-G` finds a change, show all the changes in that
@@ -378,8 +420,8 @@ ifndef::git-format-patch[]
in <string>.
--pickaxe-regex::
- Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX
- regex to match.
+ Treat the <string> given to `-S` as an extended POSIX regular
+ expression to match.
endif::git-format-patch[]
-O<orderfile>::
@@ -460,7 +502,7 @@ endif::git-format-patch[]
--ignore-submodules[=<when>]::
Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
- either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default
+ either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either contains
untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the commit recorded
in the superproject and can be used to override any settings of the
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
index 048337b..e1fba85 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So
+Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
===================================
<<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential for
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ commands in addition to the above.
<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
-of git repositories.
+of Git repositories.
Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
@@ -87,7 +87,7 @@ $ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+
<1> create a new topic branch.
<2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
-<3> you need to tell git if you added a new file; removal and
+<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
<4> to see what changes you are committing.
<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@ commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
-My typical GIT day.::
+My typical Git day.::
+
------------
$ git status <1>
@@ -332,7 +332,7 @@ Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
------------
$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
# default: off
-# description: The git server offers access to git repositories
+# description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
service git
{
disable = no
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 6e98bdf..ba1fe49 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -8,11 +8,15 @@
option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
--depth=<depth>::
- Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
+ Deepen or shorten the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
`git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote
branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
+--unshallow::
+ Convert a shallow repository to a complete one, removing all
+ the limitations imposed by shallow repositories.
+
ifndef::git-pull[]
--dry-run::
Show what would be done, without making any changes.
@@ -57,7 +61,7 @@ endif::git-pull[]
ifndef::git-pull[]
-t::
--tags::
- This is a short-hand for giving "refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*"
+ This is a short-hand for giving `refs/tags/*:refs/tags/*`
refspec from the command line, to ask all tags to be fetched
and stored locally. Because this acts as an explicit
refspec, the default refspecs (configured with the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index d0cdb07..48754cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git add' [-n] [-v] [--force | -f] [--interactive | -i] [--patch | -p]
- [--edit | -e] [--all | [--update | -u]] [--intent-to-add | -N]
- [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing] [--]
- [<pathspec>...]
+ [--edit | -e] [--[no-]all | --[no-]ignore-removal | [--update | -u]]
+ [--intent-to-add | -N] [--refresh] [--ignore-errors] [--ignore-missing]
+ [--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -100,23 +100,40 @@ apply to the index. See EDITING PATCHES below.
-u::
--update::
- Only match <pathspec> against already tracked files in
- the index rather than the working tree. That means that it
- will never stage new files, but that it will stage modified
- new contents of tracked files and that it will remove files
- from the index if the corresponding files in the working tree
- have been removed.
+ Update the index just where it already has an entry matching
+ <pathspec>. This removes as well as modifies index entries to
+ match the working tree, but adds no new files.
+
-If no <pathspec> is given, default to "."; in other words,
-update all tracked files in the current directory and its
-subdirectories.
+If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
+"."; in other words, update all tracked files in the current directory
+and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
+of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
-A::
--all::
- Like `-u`, but match <pathspec> against files in the
- working tree in addition to the index. That means that it
- will find new files as well as staging modified content and
- removing files that are no longer in the working tree.
+--no-ignore-removal::
+ Update the index not only where the working tree has a file
+ matching <pathspec> but also where the index already has an
+ entry. This adds, modifies, and removes index entries to
+ match the working tree.
++
+If no <pathspec> is given, the current version of Git defaults to
+"."; in other words, update all files in the current directory
+and its subdirectories. This default will change in a future version
+of Git, hence the form without <pathspec> should not be used.
+
+--no-all::
+--ignore-removal::
+ Update the index by adding new files that are unknown to the
+ index and files modified in the working tree, but ignore
+ files that have been removed from the working tree. This
+ option is a no-op when no <pathspec> is used.
++
+This option is primarily to help the current users of Git, whose
+"git add <pathspec>..." ignores removed files. In future versions
+of Git, "git add <pathspec>..." will be a synonym to "git add -A
+<pathspec>..." and "git add --ignore-removal <pathspec>..." will behave like
+today's "git add <pathspec>...", ignoring removed files.
-N::
--intent-to-add::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 19d57a8..5bbe7b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -9,12 +9,12 @@ git-am - Apply a series of patches from a mailbox
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--keep-cr | --no-keep-cr] [--utf8 | --no-utf8]
+'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--[no-]keep-cr] [--[no-]utf8]
[--3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
[--ignore-date] [--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace]
[--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
[--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
- [--scissors | --no-scissors]
+ [--[no-]scissors]
[(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
@@ -43,8 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
--keep-non-patch::
Pass `-b` flag to 'git mailinfo' (see linkgit:git-mailinfo[1]).
---keep-cr::
---no-keep-cr::
+--[no-]keep-cr::
With `--keep-cr`, call 'git mailsplit' (see linkgit:git-mailsplit[1])
with the same option, to prevent it from stripping CR at the end of
lines. `am.keepcr` configuration variable can be used to specify the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 634b84e..f605327 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ Reads the supplied diff output (i.e. "a patch") and applies it to files.
With the `--index` option the patch is also applied to the index, and
with the `--cached` option the patch is only applied to the index.
Without these options, the command applies the patch only to files,
-and does not require them to be in a git repository.
+and does not require them to be in a Git repository.
This command applies the patch but does not create a commit. Use
linkgit:git-am[1] to create commits from patches generated by
@@ -198,7 +198,7 @@ behavior:
* `fix` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and applies the
patch after fixing them (`strip` is a synonym --- the tool
used to consider only trailing whitespace characters as errors, and the
- fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern gits do more).
+ fix involved 'stripping' them, but modern Gits do more).
* `error` outputs warnings for a few such errors, and refuses
to apply the patch.
* `error-all` is similar to `error` but shows all errors.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
index f4504ba..163b9f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-archimport(1)
NAME
----
-git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into git
+git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into Git
SYNOPSIS
@@ -40,13 +40,13 @@ directory. To follow the development of a project that uses Arch, rerun
incremental imports.
While 'git archimport' will try to create sensible branch names for the
-archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify git branch names
-manually. To do so, write a git branch name after each <archive/branch>
+archives that it imports, it is also possible to specify Git branch names
+manually. To do so, write a Git branch name after each <archive/branch>
parameter, separated by a colon. This way, you can shorten the Arch
-branch names and convert Arch jargon to git jargon, for example mapping a
+branch names and convert Arch jargon to Git jargon, for example mapping a
"PROJECT{litdd}devo{litdd}VERSION" branch to "master".
-Associating multiple Arch branches to one git branch is possible; the
+Associating multiple Arch branches to one Git branch is possible; the
result will make the most sense only if no commits are made to the first
branch, after the second branch is created. Still, this is useful to
convert Arch repositories that had been rotated periodically.
@@ -54,14 +54,14 @@ convert Arch repositories that had been rotated periodically.
MERGES
------
-Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in git as well. git
+Patch merge data from Arch is used to mark merges in Git as well. Git
does not care much about tracking patches, and only considers a merge when a
branch incorporates all the commits since the point they forked. The end result
-is that git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
+is that Git will have a good idea of how far branches have diverged. So the
import process does lose some patch-trading metadata.
Fortunately, when you try and merge branches imported from Arch,
-git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
+Git will find a good merge base, and it has a good chance of identifying
patches that have been traded out-of-sequence between the branches.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
index 59d73e5..b97aaab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archive.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git archive' [--format=<fmt>] [--list] [--prefix=<prefix>/] [<extra>]
- [-o | --output=<file>] [--worktree-attributes]
+ [-o <file> | --output=<file>] [--worktree-attributes]
[--remote=<repo> [--exec=<git-upload-archive>]] <tree-ish>
[<path>...]
@@ -56,7 +56,8 @@ OPTIONS
Write the archive to <file> instead of stdout.
--worktree-attributes::
- Look for attributes in .gitattributes in working directory too.
+ Look for attributes in .gitattributes files in the working tree
+ as well (see <<ATTRIBUTES>>).
<extra>::
This can be any options that the archiver backend understands.
@@ -120,6 +121,7 @@ tar.<format>.remote::
user-defined formats, but true for the "tar.gz" and "tgz"
formats.
+[[ATTRIBUTES]]
ATTRIBUTES
----------
@@ -128,7 +130,7 @@ export-ignore::
added to archive files. See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
export-subst::
- If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then git will
+ If the attribute export-subst is set for a file then Git will
expand several placeholders when adding this file to an archive.
See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index ec4497e..0eed3e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -224,7 +224,7 @@ Note that the example that we will use is really a toy example, we
will be looking for the first commit that has a version like
"2.6.26-something", that is the commit that has a "SUBLEVEL = 26" line
in the top level Makefile. This is a toy example because there are
-better ways to find this commit with git than using "git bisect" (for
+better ways to find this commit with Git than using "git bisect" (for
example "git blame" or "git log -S<string>").
Driving a bisection manually
@@ -455,7 +455,7 @@ So only the W and B commits will be kept. Because commits X and Y will
have been removed by rules a) and b) respectively, and because commits
G are removed by rule b) too.
-Note for git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
+Note for Git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
given by:
-------------
@@ -710,8 +710,8 @@ Skip algorithm discussed
After step 7) (in the skip algorithm), we could check if the second
commit has been skipped and return it if it is not the case. And in
fact that was the algorithm we used from when "git bisect skip" was
-developed in git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
-git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
+developed in Git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
+Git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
But Ingo Molnar and H. Peter Anvin (another well known linux kernel
developer) both complained that sometimes the best bisection points
@@ -1025,10 +1025,10 @@ And here is what Andreas said about this work-flow <<5>>:
_____________
To give some hard figures, we used to have an average report-to-fix
cycle of 142.6 hours (according to our somewhat weird bug-tracker
-which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to git, we've
+which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to Git, we've
lowered that to 16.2 hours. Primarily because we can stay on top of
the bug fixing now, and because everyone's jockeying to get to fix
-bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let git find the bugs
+bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let Git find the bugs
for us). Each new release results in ~40% fewer bugs (almost certainly
due to how we now feel about writing tests).
_____________
@@ -1228,9 +1228,9 @@ commits in already released history, for example to change the commit
message or the author. And it can also be used instead of git "grafts"
to link a repository with another old repository.
-In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the git community, so
-it is now in the "master" branch of git's git repository and it should
-be released in git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
+In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the Git community, so
+it is now in the "master" branch of Git's Git repository and it should
+be released in Git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
One problem with "git replace" is that currently it stores all the
replacements refs in "refs/replace/", but it would be perhaps better
@@ -1324,7 +1324,7 @@ Acknowledgements
----------------
Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
-reviewing the patches I sent to the git mailing list, for discussing
+reviewing the patches I sent to the Git mailing list, for discussing
some ideas and helping me improve them, for improving "git bisect" a
lot and for his awesome work in maintaining and developing Git.
@@ -1337,7 +1337,7 @@ Many thanks to Linus Torvalds for inventing, developing and
evangelizing "git bisect", Git and Linux.
Many thanks to the many other great people who helped one way or
-another when I worked on git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
+another when I worked on Git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
Schindelin, H. Peter Anvin, Daniel Barkalow, Bill Lear, John Hawley,
Shawn O. Pierce, Jeff King, Sam Vilain, Jon Seymour.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 038514b..f986c5c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -169,14 +169,14 @@ the revision as good or bad in the usual manner.
Bisect skip
~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask git
+Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask Git
to do it for you by issuing the command:
------------
$ git bisect skip # Current version cannot be tested
------------
-But git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
+But Git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
a bad commit and one or more skipped commits.
You can even skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index e44173f..6cea7f1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@ git-blame - Show what revision and author last modified each line of a file
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
- [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>] [--abbrev=<n>]
- [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
+'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-p] [-w] [--incremental]
+ [-L n,m | -L :fn] [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
+ [--abbrev=<n>] [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@ The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git diff' or the "pickaxe"
interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
-Apart from supporting file annotation, git also supports searching the
+Apart from supporting file annotation, Git also supports searching the
development history for when a code snippet occurred in a change. This makes it
possible to track when a code snippet was added to a file, moved or copied
between files, and eventually deleted or replaced. It works by searching for
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 45a225e..b7cb625 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -22,13 +22,15 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no arguments, existing branches are listed and the current branch will
-be highlighted with an asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking
-branches to be listed, and option `-a` shows both. This list mode is also
-activated by the `--list` option (see below).
-<pattern> restricts the output to matching branches, the pattern is a shell
-wildcard (i.e., matched using fnmatch(3)).
-Multiple patterns may be given; if any of them matches, the branch is shown.
+If `--list` is given, or if there are no non-option arguments, existing
+branches are listed; the current branch will be highlighted with an
+asterisk. Option `-r` causes the remote-tracking branches to be listed,
+and option `-a` shows both local and remote branches. If a `<pattern>`
+is given, it is used as a shell wildcard to restrict the output to
+matching branches. If multiple patterns are given, a branch is shown if
+it matches any of the patterns. Note that when providing a
+`<pattern>`, you must use `--list`; otherwise the command is interpreted
+as branch creation.
With `--contains`, shows only the branches that contain the named commit
(in other words, the branches whose tip commits are descendants of the
@@ -45,7 +47,7 @@ Note that this will create the new branch, but it will not switch the
working tree to it; use "git checkout <newbranch>" to switch to the
new branch.
-When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, git sets up the
+When a local branch is started off a remote-tracking branch, Git sets up the
branch so that 'git pull' will appropriately merge from
the remote-tracking branch. This behavior may be changed via the global
`branch.autosetupmerge` configuration flag. That setting can be
@@ -193,15 +195,15 @@ start-point is either a local or remote-tracking branch.
--contains [<commit>]::
Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
- if not specified).
+ if not specified). Implies `--list`.
--merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
--no-merged [<commit>]::
Only list branches whose tips are not reachable from the
- specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+ specified commit (HEAD if not specified). Implies `--list`.
<branchname>::
The name of the branch to create or delete.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
index bc023cc..0417562 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bundle.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Some workflows require that one or more branches of development on one
machine be replicated on another machine, but the two machines cannot
-be directly connected, and therefore the interactive git protocols (git,
+be directly connected, and therefore the interactive Git protocols (git,
ssh, rsync, http) cannot be used. This command provides support for
'git fetch' and 'git pull' to operate by packaging objects and references
in an archive at the originating machine, then importing those into
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 2fb95bb..30d585a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ object type, or '-s' is used to find the object size, or '--textconv' is used
(which implies type "blob").
In the second form, a list of objects (separated by linefeeds) is provided on
-stdin, and the SHA1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
+stdin, and the SHA-1, type, and size of each object is printed on stdout.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -58,11 +58,11 @@ OPTIONS
to apply the filter to the content recorded in the index at <path>.
--batch::
- Print the SHA1, type, size, and contents of each object provided on
+ Print the SHA-1, type, size, and contents of each object provided on
stdin. May not be combined with any other options or arguments.
--batch-check::
- Print the SHA1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
+ Print the SHA-1, type, and size of each object provided on stdin. May not
be combined with any other options or arguments.
OUTPUT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 5abdbaa..a7be80d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -56,6 +56,11 @@ being queried and <info> can be either:
'set';; when the attribute is defined as true.
<value>;; when a value has been assigned to the attribute.
+Buffering happens as documented under the `GIT_FLUSH` option in
+linkgit:git[1]. The caller is responsible for avoiding deadlocks
+caused by overfilling an input buffer or reading from an empty output
+buffer.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8e1f7ab
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+git-check-ignore(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-check-ignore - Debug gitignore / exclude files
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git check-ignore' [options] pathname...
+'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin < <list-of-paths>
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+For each pathname given via the command-line or from a file via
+`--stdin`, show the pattern from .gitignore (or other input files to
+the exclude mechanism) that decides if the pathname is excluded or
+included. Later patterns within a file take precedence over earlier
+ones.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-q, --quiet::
+ Don't output anything, just set exit status. This is only
+ valid with a single pathname.
+
+-v, --verbose::
+ Also output details about the matching pattern (if any)
+ for each given pathname.
+
+--stdin::
+ Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+
+-z::
+ The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
+ below). If `--stdin` is also given, input paths are separated
+ with a NUL character instead of a linefeed character.
+
+-n, --non-matching::
+ Show given paths which don't match any pattern. This only
+ makes sense when `--verbose` is enabled, otherwise it would
+ not be possible to distinguish between paths which match a
+ pattern and those which don't.
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+
+By default, any of the given pathnames which match an ignore pattern
+will be output, one per line. If no pattern matches a given path,
+nothing will be output for that path; this means that path will not be
+ignored.
+
+If `--verbose` is specified, the output is a series of lines of the form:
+
+<source> <COLON> <linenum> <COLON> <pattern> <HT> <pathname>
+
+<pathname> is the path of a file being queried, <pattern> is the
+matching pattern, <source> is the pattern's source file, and <linenum>
+is the line number of the pattern within that source. If the pattern
+contained a `!` prefix or `/` suffix, it will be preserved in the
+output. <source> will be an absolute path when referring to the file
+configured by `core.excludesfile`, or relative to the repository root
+when referring to `.git/info/exclude` or a per-directory exclude file.
+
+If `-z` is specified, the pathnames in the output are delimited by the
+null character; if `--verbose` is also specified then null characters
+are also used instead of colons and hard tabs:
+
+<source> <NULL> <linenum> <NULL> <pattern> <NULL> <pathname> <NULL>
+
+If `-n` or `--non-matching` are specified, non-matching pathnames will
+also be output, in which case all fields in each output record except
+for <pathname> will be empty. This can be useful when running
+non-interactively, so that files can be incrementally streamed to
+STDIN of a long-running check-ignore process, and for each of these
+files, STDOUT will indicate whether that file matched a pattern or
+not. (Without this option, it would be impossible to tell whether the
+absence of output for a given file meant that it didn't match any
+pattern, or that the output hadn't been generated yet.)
+
+Buffering happens as documented under the `GIT_FLUSH` option in
+linkgit:git[1]. The caller is responsible for avoiding deadlocks
+caused by overfilling an input buffer or reading from an empty output
+buffer.
+
+EXIT STATUS
+-----------
+
+0::
+ One or more of the provided paths is ignored.
+
+1::
+ None of the provided paths are ignored.
+
+128::
+ A fatal error was encountered.
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gitignore[5]
+linkgit:gitconfig[5]
+linkgit:git-ls-files[5]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index 98009d1..fc02959 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -18,14 +18,14 @@ DESCRIPTION
Checks if a given 'refname' is acceptable, and exits with a non-zero
status if it is not.
-A reference is used in git to specify branches and tags. A
+A reference is used in Git to specify branches and tags. A
branch head is stored in the `refs/heads` hierarchy, while
a tag is stored in the `refs/tags` hierarchy of the ref namespace
(typically in `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads` and `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags`
directories or, as entries in file `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs`
if refs are packed by `git gc`).
-git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
+Git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
@@ -54,6 +54,8 @@ git imposes the following rules on how references are named:
. They cannot contain a sequence `@{`.
+. They cannot be the single character `@`.
+
. They cannot contain a `\`.
These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
@@ -83,8 +85,7 @@ typed the branch name.
OPTIONS
-------
---allow-onelevel::
---no-allow-onelevel::
+--[no-]allow-onelevel::
Controls whether one-level refnames are accepted (i.e.,
refnames that do not contain multiple `/`-separated
components). The default is `--no-allow-onelevel`.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 6f04d22..ca118ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -131,9 +131,9 @@ entries; instead, unmerged entries are ignored.
"--track" in linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
+
If no '-b' option is given, the name of the new branch will be
-derived from the remote-tracking branch. If "remotes/" or "refs/remotes/"
-is prefixed it is stripped away, and then the part up to the
-next slash (which would be the nickname of the remote) is removed.
+derived from the remote-tracking branch, by looking at the local part of
+the refspec configured for the corresponding remote, and then stripping
+the initial part up to the "*".
This would tell us to use "hack" as the local branch when branching
off of "origin/hack" (or "remotes/origin/hack", or even
"refs/remotes/origin/hack"). If the given name has no slash, or the above
@@ -180,6 +180,12 @@ branch by running "git rm -rf ." from the top level of the working tree.
Afterwards you will be ready to prepare your new files, repopulating the
working tree, by copying them from elsewhere, extracting a tarball, etc.
+--ignore-skip-worktree-bits::
+ In sparse checkout mode, `git checkout -- <paths>` would
+ update only entries matched by <paths> and sparse patterns
+ in $GIT_DIR/info/sparse-checkout. This option ignores
+ the sparse patterns and adds back any files in <paths>.
+
-m::
--merge::
When switching branches,
@@ -333,7 +339,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
tag 'v2.0' (refers to commit 'b')
------------
-In fact, we can perform all the normal git operations. But, let's look
+In fact, we can perform all the normal Git operations. But, let's look
at what happens when we then checkout master:
------------
@@ -350,7 +356,7 @@ a---b---c---d branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
It is important to realize that at this point nothing refers to commit
'f'. Eventually commit 'f' (and by extension commit 'e') will be deleted
-by the routine git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
+by the routine Git garbage collection process, unless we create a reference
before that happens. If we have not yet moved away from commit 'f',
any of these will create a reference to it:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 9f42c0d..bdc3ab8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Cleans the working tree by recursively removing files that are not
under version control, starting from the current directory.
-Normally, only files unknown to git are removed, but if the '-x'
+Normally, only files unknown to Git are removed, but if the '-x'
option is specified, ignored files are also removed. This can, for
example, be useful to remove all build products.
@@ -27,13 +27,13 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-d::
Remove untracked directories in addition to untracked files.
- If an untracked directory is managed by a different git
+ If an untracked directory is managed by a different Git
repository, it is not removed by default. Use -f option twice
if you really want to remove such a directory.
-f::
--force::
- If the git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
+ If the Git configuration variable clean.requireForce is not set
to false, 'git clean' will refuse to run unless given -f or -n.
-n::
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ OPTIONS
working directory to test a clean build.
-X::
- Remove only files ignored by git. This may be useful to rebuild
+ Remove only files ignored by Git. This may be useful to rebuild
everything from scratch, but keep manually created files.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 7fefdb0..a0727d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
[--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
[--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch]
- [--recursive|--recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
+ [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
[<directory>]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -43,7 +43,7 @@ OPTIONS
--local::
-l::
When the repository to clone from is on a local machine,
- this flag bypasses the normal "git aware" transport
+ this flag bypasses the normal "Git aware" transport
mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
The files under `.git/objects/` directory are hardlinked
@@ -54,11 +54,11 @@ this is the default, and --local is essentially a no-op. If the
repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
never use the local optimizations). Specifying `--no-local` will
override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
-git transport instead.
+Git transport instead.
+
To force copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable if you
are trying to make a back-up of your repository), but still avoid the
-usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
+usual "Git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
--no-hardlinks::
Optimize the cloning process from a repository on a
@@ -76,9 +76,9 @@ usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
*NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
it unless you understand what it does. If you clone your
repository using this option and then delete branches (or use any
-other git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
+other Git command that makes any existing commit unreferenced) in the
source repository, some objects may become unreferenced (or dangling).
-These objects may be removed by normal git operations (such as `git commit`)
+These objects may be removed by normal Git operations (such as `git commit`)
which automatically call `git gc --auto`. (See linkgit:git-gc[1].)
If these objects are removed and were referenced by the cloned repository,
then the cloned repository will become corrupt.
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
No checkout of HEAD is performed after the clone is complete.
--bare::
- Make a 'bare' GIT repository. That is, instead of
+ Make a 'bare' Git repository. That is, instead of
creating `<directory>` and placing the administrative
files in `<directory>/.git`, make the `<directory>`
itself the `$GIT_DIR`. This obviously implies the `-n`
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
with a long history, and would want to send in fixes
as patches.
---single-branch::
+--[no-]single-branch::
Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
either specified by the `--branch` option or the primary
branch remote's `HEAD` points at. When creating a shallow
@@ -213,8 +213,8 @@ objects from the source repository into a pack in the cloned repository.
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
- then make a filesytem-agnostic git symbolic link to there.
- The result is git repository can be separated from working
+ then make a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link to there.
+ The result is Git repository can be separated from working
tree.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index a221169..cafdc96 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
-'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [(-m <message>)...] [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
+'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
+ [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
+
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -30,7 +32,7 @@ While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working
directory, a commit represents that state in "time", and explains how
to get there.
-Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while git
+Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
doesn't care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
`.git/HEAD`, so that we can always see what the last committed
@@ -52,6 +54,9 @@ OPTIONS
Read the commit log message from the given file. Use `-` to read
from the standard input.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+ GPG-sign commit.
+
Commit Information
------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 2105638..1a7616c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
[-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
[--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
- [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--status | --no-status]
+ [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
[-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ The content to be added can be specified in several ways:
3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command, in which
case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
record the current content of the listed files (which must already
- be known to git);
+ be known to Git);
4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
"add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ OPTIONS
--all::
Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
- told git about are not affected.
+ told Git about are not affected.
-p::
--patch::
@@ -174,20 +174,31 @@ OPTIONS
linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
--cleanup=<mode>::
- This option sets how the commit message is cleaned up.
- The '<mode>' can be one of 'verbatim', 'whitespace', 'strip',
- and 'default'. The 'default' mode will strip leading and
- trailing empty lines and #commentary from the commit message
- only if the message is to be edited. Otherwise only whitespace
- removed. The 'verbatim' mode does not change message at all,
- 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines
- and 'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
+ This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
+ cleaned up before committing. The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
+ `whitespace`, `verbatim`, or `default`.
++
+--
+strip::
+ Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace, and
+ #commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
+whitespace::
+ Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
+verbatim::
+ Do not change the message at all.
+default::
+ Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
+ Otherwise `whitespace`.
+--
++
+The default can be changed by the 'commit.cleanup' configuration
+variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
-e::
--edit::
The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
- `-m`, and from file with `-C` are usually used as the
- commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
+ `-m`, and from commit object with `-C` are usually used as
+ the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
further edit the message taken from these sources.
--no-edit::
@@ -196,14 +207,15 @@ OPTIONS
without changing its commit message.
--amend::
- Used to amend the tip of the current branch. Prepare the tree
- object you would want to replace the latest commit as usual
- (this includes the usual -i/-o and explicit paths), and the
- commit log editor is seeded with the commit message from the
- tip of the current branch. The commit you create replaces the
- current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
- the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
- discarded.
+ Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new
+ commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including
+ the effect of the `-i` and `-o` options and explicit
+ pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used
+ as the starting point, instead of an empty message, when no
+ other message is specified from the command line via options
+ such as `-m`, `-F`, `-c`, etc. The new commit has the same
+ parents and author as the current one (the `--reset-author`
+ option can countermand this).
+
--
It is a rough equivalent for:
@@ -404,7 +416,7 @@ Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
-as the commit title, and that title is used throughout git.
+as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 9ae2508..19a7be0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -114,6 +114,15 @@ rather than from all available files.
+
See also <<FILES>>.
+--local::
+ For writing options: write to the repository .git/config file.
+ This is the default behavior.
++
+For reading options: read only from the repository .git/config rather than
+from all available files.
++
+See also <<FILES>>.
+
-f config-file::
--file config-file::
Use the given config file instead of the one specified by GIT_CONFIG.
@@ -186,8 +195,7 @@ See also <<FILES>>.
Opens an editor to modify the specified config file; either
'--system', '--global', or repository (default).
---includes::
---no-includes::
+--[no-]includes::
Respect `include.*` directives in config files when looking up
values. Defaults to on.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
index 23c80ce..b300e84 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-count-objects.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-count-objects - Count unpacked number of objects and their disk consumption
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git count-objects' [-v]
+'git count-objects' [-v] [-H | --human-readable]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -20,11 +20,29 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-v::
--verbose::
- In addition to the number of loose objects and disk
- space consumed, it reports the number of in-pack
- objects, number of packs, disk space consumed by those packs,
- and number of objects that can be removed by running
- `git prune-packed`.
+ Report in more detail:
++
+count: the number of loose objects
++
+size: disk space consumed by loose objects, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
++
+in-pack: the number of in-pack objects
++
+size-pack: disk space consumed by the packs, in KiB (unless -H is specified)
++
+prune-packable: the number of loose objects that are also present in
+the packs. These objects could be pruned using `git prune-packed`.
++
+garbage: the number of files in object database that are not valid
+loose objects nor valid packs
++
+size-garbage: disk space consumed by garbage files, in KiB (unless -H is
+specified)
+
+-H::
+--human-readable::
+
+Print sizes in human readable format
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
index eeff5fa..89b7306 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,13 @@ git config credential.helper 'cache [options]'
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command caches credentials in memory for use by future git
+This command caches credentials in memory for use by future Git
programs. The stored credentials never touch the disk, and are forgotten
after a configurable timeout. The cache is accessible over a Unix
domain socket, restricted to the current user by filesystem permissions.
You probably don't want to invoke this command directly; it is meant to
-be used as a credential helper by other parts of git. See
+be used as a credential helper by other parts of Git. See
linkgit:gitcredentials[7] or `EXAMPLES` below.
OPTIONS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
index b27c03c..8481cae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@ security tradeoff, try linkgit:git-credential-cache[1], or find a helper
that integrates with secure storage provided by your operating system.
This command stores credentials indefinitely on disk for use by future
-git programs.
+Git programs.
You probably don't want to invoke this command directly; it is meant to
be used as a credential helper by other parts of git. See
@@ -63,11 +63,11 @@ stored on its own line as a URL like:
https://user:pass@example.com
------------------------------
-When git needs authentication for a particular URL context,
+When Git needs authentication for a particular URL context,
credential-store will consider that context a pattern to match against
each entry in the credentials file. If the protocol, hostname, and
username (if we already have one) match, then the password is returned
-to git. See the discussion of configuration in linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
+to Git. See the discussion of configuration in linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
for more information.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
index 810e957..7da0f13 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ Git has an internal interface for storing and retrieving credentials
from system-specific helpers, as well as prompting the user for
usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
-credentials in the same manner as git. The design of this scriptable
+credentials in the same manner as Git. The design of this scriptable
interface models the internal C API; see
-link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the git credential API] for more
+link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the Git credential API] for more
background on the concepts.
git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@ For example, if we want a password for
`https://example.com/foo.git`, we might generate the following
credential description (don't forget the blank line at the end; it
tells `git credential` that the application finished feeding all the
-infomation it has):
+information it has):
protocol=https
host=example.com
@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@ infomation it has):
password=secr3t
+
In most cases, this means the attributes given in the input will be
-repeated in the output, but git may also modify the credential
+repeated in the output, but Git may also modify the credential
description, for example by removing the `path` attribute when the
protocol is HTTP(s) and `credential.useHttpPath` is false.
+
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
index 7f79cec..00154b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsexportcommit.txt
@@ -15,8 +15,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Exports a commit from GIT to a CVS checkout, making it easier
-to merge patches from a git repository into a CVS repository.
+Exports a commit from Git to a CVS checkout, making it easier
+to merge patches from a Git repository into a CVS repository.
Specify the name of a CVS checkout using the -w switch or execute it
from the root of the CVS working copy. In the latter case GIT_DIR must
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@ OPTIONS
-w::
Specify the location of the CVS checkout to use for the export. This
option does not require GIT_DIR to be set before execution if the
- current directory is within a git repository. The default is the
+ current directory is within a Git repository. The default is the
value of 'cvsexportcommit.cvsdir'.
-W::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
index f059ea9..d1bcda2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsimport.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ performing a one-shot import of a CVS repository consider using
link:http://cvs2svn.tigris.org/cvs2git.html[cvs2git] or
link:https://github.com/BartMassey/parsecvs[parsecvs].
-Imports a CVS repository into git. It will either create a new
+Imports a CVS repository into Git. It will either create a new
repository, or incrementally import into an existing one.
Splitting the CVS log into patch sets is done by 'cvsps'.
@@ -65,18 +65,18 @@ OPTIONS
`CVS/Repository`.
-C <target-dir>::
- The git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
+ The Git repository to import to. If the directory doesn't
exist, it will be created. Default is the current directory.
-r <remote>::
- The git remote to import this CVS repository into.
+ The Git remote to import this CVS repository into.
Moves all CVS branches into remotes/<remote>/<branch>
akin to the way 'git clone' uses 'origin' by default.
-o <branch-for-HEAD>::
When no remote is specified (via -r) the 'HEAD' branch
- from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the git
- repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for git.
+ from CVS is imported to the 'origin' branch within the Git
+ repository, as 'HEAD' already has a special meaning for Git.
When a remote is specified the 'HEAD' branch is named
remotes/<remote>/master mirroring 'git clone' behaviour.
Use this option if you want to import into a different
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index 88d814a..472f5cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-cvsserver(1)
NAME
----
-git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for git
+git-cvsserver - A CVS server emulator for Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@ unless '--export-all' was given, too.
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This application is a CVS emulation layer for git.
+This application is a CVS emulation layer for Git.
It is highly functional. However, not all methods are implemented,
and for those methods that are implemented,
@@ -72,9 +72,9 @@ plugin. Most functionality works fine with both of these clients.
LIMITATIONS
-----------
-CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform GIT merges.
+CVS clients cannot tag, branch or perform Git merges.
-'git-cvsserver' maps GIT branches to CVS modules. This is very different
+'git-cvsserver' maps Git branches to CVS modules. This is very different
from what most CVS users would expect since in CVS modules usually represent
one or more directories.
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ Then provide your password via the pserver method, for example:
------
cvs -d:pserver:someuser:somepassword <at> server/path/repo.git co <HEAD_name>
------
-No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having GIT tools
+No special setup is needed for SSH access, other than having Git tools
in the PATH. If you have clients that do not accept the CVS_SERVER
environment variable, you can rename 'git-cvsserver' to `cvs`.
@@ -160,9 +160,9 @@ with CVS_SERVER (and shouldn't) as 'git-shell' understands `cvs` to mean
Note: you need to ensure each user that is going to invoke 'git-cvsserver' has
write access to the log file and to the database (see
<<dbbackend,Database Backend>>. If you want to offer write access over
-SSH, the users of course also need write access to the git repository itself.
+SSH, the users of course also need write access to the Git repository itself.
-You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a git index
+You also need to ensure that each repository is "bare" (without a Git index
file) for `cvs commit` to work. See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
[[configaccessmethod]]
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
3. If you didn't specify the CVSROOT/CVS_SERVER directly in the checkout command,
automatically saving it in your 'CVS/Root' files, then you need to set them
explicitly in your environment. CVSROOT should be set as per normal, but the
- directory should point at the appropriate git repo. As above, for SSH clients
+ directory should point at the appropriate Git repo. As above, for SSH clients
_not_ restricted to 'git-shell', CVS_SERVER should be set to 'git-cvsserver'.
+
--
@@ -197,7 +197,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
shell is bash, .bashrc may be a reasonable alternative.
5. Clients should now be able to check out the project. Use the CVS 'module'
- name to indicate what GIT 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
+ name to indicate what Git 'head' you want to check out. This also sets the
name of your newly checked-out directory, unless you tell it otherwise with
`-d <dir_name>`. For example, this checks out 'master' branch to the
`project-master` directory:
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@ allowing access over SSH.
Database Backend
----------------
-'git-cvsserver' uses one database per git head (i.e. CVS module) to
+'git-cvsserver' uses one database per Git head (i.e. CVS module) to
store information about the repository to maintain consistent
CVS revision numbers. The database needs to be
updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@ the pserver method), 'git-cvsserver' should have write access to
the database to work reliably (otherwise you need to make sure
that the database is up-to-date any time 'git-cvsserver' is executed).
-By default it uses SQLite databases in the git directory, named
+By default it uses SQLite databases in the Git directory, named
`gitcvs.<module_name>.sqlite`. Note that the SQLite backend creates
temporary files in the same directory as the database file on
write so it might not be enough to grant the users using
@@ -291,14 +291,14 @@ Variable substitution
In `dbdriver` and `dbuser` you can use the following variables:
%G::
- git directory name
+ Git directory name
%g::
- git directory name, where all characters except for
+ Git directory name, where all characters except for
alpha-numeric ones, `.`, and `-` are replaced with
`_` (this should make it easier to use the directory
name in a filename if wanted)
%m::
- CVS module/git head name
+ CVS module/Git head name
%a::
access method (one of "ext" or "pserver")
%u::
@@ -359,6 +359,43 @@ Operations supported
All the operations required for normal use are supported, including
checkout, diff, status, update, log, add, remove, commit.
+
+Most CVS command arguments that read CVS tags or revision numbers
+(typically -r) work, and also support any git refspec
+(tag, branch, commit ID, etc).
+However, CVS revision numbers for non-default branches are not well
+emulated, and cvs log does not show tags or branches at
+all. (Non-main-branch CVS revision numbers superficially resemble CVS
+revision numbers, but they actually encode a git commit ID directly,
+rather than represent the number of revisions since the branch point.)
+
+Note that there are two ways to checkout a particular branch.
+As described elsewhere on this page, the "module" parameter
+of cvs checkout is interpreted as a branch name, and it becomes
+the main branch. It remains the main branch for a given sandbox
+even if you temporarily make another branch sticky with
+cvs update -r. Alternatively, the -r argument can indicate
+some other branch to actually checkout, even though the module
+is still the "main" branch. Tradeoffs (as currently
+implemented): Each new "module" creates a new database on disk with
+a history for the given module, and after the database is created,
+operations against that main branch are fast. Or alternatively,
+-r doesn't take any extra disk space, but may be significantly slower for
+many operations, like cvs update.
+
+If you want to refer to a git refspec that has characters that are
+not allowed by CVS, you have two options. First, it may just work
+to supply the git refspec directly to the appropriate CVS -r argument;
+some CVS clients don't seem to do much sanity checking of the argument.
+Second, if that fails, you can use a special character escape mechanism
+that only uses characters that are valid in CVS tags. A sequence
+of 4 or 5 characters of the form (underscore (`"_"`), dash (`"-"`),
+one or two characters, and dash (`"-"`)) can encode various characters based
+on the one or two letters: `"s"` for slash (`"/"`), `"p"` for
+period (`"."`), `"u"` for underscore (`"_"`), or two hexadecimal digits
+for any byte value at all (typically an ASCII number, or perhaps a part
+of a UTF-8 encoded character).
+
Legacy monitoring operations are not supported (edit, watch and related).
Exports and tagging (tags and branches) are not supported at this stage.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 7e5098a..223f731 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-daemon(1)
NAME
----
-git-daemon - A really simple server for git repositories
+git-daemon - A really simple server for Git repositories
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -16,18 +16,20 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--reuseaddr] [--detach] [--pid-file=<file>]
[--enable=<service>] [--disable=<service>]
[--allow-override=<service>] [--forbid-override=<service>]
- [--access-hook=<path>]
- [--inetd | [--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>] [--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]
+ [--access-hook=<path>] [--[no-]informative-errors]
+ [--inetd |
+ [--listen=<host_or_ipaddr>] [--port=<n>]
+ [--user=<user> [--group=<group>]]]
[<directory>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A really simple TCP git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
+A really simple TCP Git daemon that normally listens on port "DEFAULT_GIT_PORT"
aka 9418. It waits for a connection asking for a service, and will serve
that service if it is enabled.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file "git-daemon-export-ok", and
-it will refuse to export any git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
+it will refuse to export any Git directory that hasn't explicitly been marked
for export this way (unless the '--export-all' parameter is specified). If you
pass some directory paths as 'git daemon' arguments, you can further restrict
the offers to a whitelist comprising of those.
@@ -37,7 +39,7 @@ By default, only `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
from 'git fetch', 'git pull', and 'git clone'.
This is ideally suited for read-only updates, i.e., pulling from
-git repositories.
+Git repositories.
An `upload-archive` also exists to serve 'git archive'.
@@ -51,7 +53,7 @@ OPTIONS
--base-path=<path>::
Remap all the path requests as relative to the given path.
- This is sort of "GIT root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
+ This is sort of "Git root" - if you run 'git daemon' with
'--base-path=/srv/git' on example.com, then if you later try to pull
'git://example.com/hello.git', 'git daemon' will interpret the path
as '/srv/git/hello.git'.
@@ -73,7 +75,7 @@ OPTIONS
whitelist.
--export-all::
- Allow pulling from all directories that look like GIT repositories
+ Allow pulling from all directories that look like Git repositories
(have the 'objects' and 'refs' subdirectories), even if they
do not have the 'git-daemon-export-ok' file.
@@ -147,6 +149,13 @@ OPTIONS
Giving these options is an error when used with `--inetd`; use
the facility of inet daemon to achieve the same before spawning
'git daemon' if needed.
++
+Like many programs that switch user id, the daemon does not reset
+environment variables such as `$HOME` when it runs git programs,
+e.g. `upload-pack` and `receive-pack`. When using this option, you
+may also want to set and export `HOME` to point at the home
+directory of `<user>` before starting the daemon, and make sure any
+Git configuration files in that directory are readable by `<user>`.
--enable=<service>::
--disable=<service>::
@@ -162,8 +171,7 @@ the facility of inet daemon to achieve the same before spawning
repository configuration. By default, all the services
are overridable.
---informative-errors::
---no-informative-errors::
+--[no-]informative-errors::
When informative errors are turned on, git-daemon will report
more verbose errors to the client, differentiating conditions
like "no such repository" from "repository not exported". This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 711040d..9439cd6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -88,6 +88,11 @@ OPTIONS
--always::
Show uniquely abbreviated commit object as fallback.
+--first-parent::
+ Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit.
+ This is useful when you wish to not match tags on branches merged
+ in the history of the target commit.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
@@ -132,7 +137,7 @@ closest tagname without any suffix:
Note that the suffix you get if you type these commands today may be
longer than what Linus saw above when he ran these commands, as your
-git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
+Git repository may have new commits whose object names begin with
975b that did not exist back then, and "-g975b" suffix alone may not
be sufficient to disambiguate these commits.
@@ -149,7 +154,9 @@ is found, its name will be output and searching will stop.
If an exact match was not found, 'git describe' will walk back
through the commit history to locate an ancestor commit which
has been tagged. The ancestor's tag will be output along with an
-abbreviation of the input committish's SHA1.
+abbreviation of the input committish's SHA-1. If '--first-parent' was
+specified then the walk will only consider the first parent of each
+commit.
If multiple tags were found during the walk then the tag which
has the fewest commits different from the input committish will be
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
index c0b7c58..a86cf62 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff-index.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-diff-index(1)
NAME
----
-git-diff-index - Compares content and mode of blobs between the index and repository
+git-diff-index - Compare a tree to the working tree or index
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree
-object with the content of the current index and, optionally
-ignoring the stat state of the file on disk. When paths are
-specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
-entries in the index are compared.
+Compares the content and mode of the blobs found in a tree object
+with the corresponding tracked files in the working tree, or with the
+corresponding paths in the index. When <path> arguments are present,
+compares only paths matching those patterns. Otherwise all tracked
+files are compared.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index f8c0601..78d6d50 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -18,14 +18,14 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Show changes between the working tree and the index or a tree, changes
-between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, or changes
-between two files on disk.
+between the index and a tree, changes between two trees, changes between
+two blob objects, or changes between two files on disk.
'git diff' [--options] [--] [<path>...]::
This form is to view the changes you made relative to
the index (staging area for the next commit). In other
- words, the differences are what you _could_ tell git to
+ words, the differences are what you _could_ tell Git to
further add to the index but you still haven't. You can
stage these changes by using linkgit:git-add[1].
+
@@ -56,11 +56,6 @@ directories. This behavior can be forced by --no-index.
This is to view the changes between two arbitrary
<commit>.
-'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
-
- This form is to view the differences between the raw
- contents of two blob objects.
-
'git diff' [--options] <commit>..<commit> [--] [<path>...]::
This is synonymous to the previous form. If <commit> on
@@ -87,6 +82,11 @@ and the range notations ("<commit>..<commit>" and
"<commit>\...<commit>") do not mean a range as defined in the
"SPECIFYING RANGES" section in linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+'git diff' [options] <blob> <blob>::
+
+ This form is to view the differences between the raw
+ contents of two blob objects.
+
OPTIONS
-------
:git-diff: 1
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 73ca702..11887e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git difftool' is a git command that allows you to compare and edit files
+'git difftool' is a Git command that allows you to compare and edit files
between revisions using common diff tools. 'git difftool' is a frontend
to 'git diff' and accepts the same options and arguments. See
linkgit:git-diff[1].
@@ -69,13 +69,14 @@ with custom merge tool commands and has the same value as `$MERGED`.
--tool-help::
Print a list of diff tools that may be used with `--tool`.
---symlinks::
---no-symlinks::
+--[no-]symlinks::
'git difftool''s default behavior is create symlinks to the
- working tree when run in `--dir-diff` mode.
+ working tree when run in `--dir-diff` mode and the right-hand
+ side of the comparison yields the same content as the file in
+ the working tree.
+
- Specifying `--no-symlinks` instructs 'git difftool' to create
- copies instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
+Specifying `--no-symlinks` instructs 'git difftool' to create copies
+instead. `--no-symlinks` is the default on Windows.
-x <command>::
--extcmd=<command>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
index d6487e1..efb0380 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-export.txt
@@ -27,15 +27,17 @@ OPTIONS
Insert 'progress' statements every <n> objects, to be shown by
'git fast-import' during import.
---signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|strip|abort)::
+--signed-tags=(verbatim|warn|warn-strip|strip|abort)::
Specify how to handle signed tags. Since any transformation
after the export can change the tag names (which can also happen
when excluding revisions) the signatures will not match.
+
When asking to 'abort' (which is the default), this program will die
-when encountering a signed tag. With 'strip', the tags will be made
-unsigned, with 'verbatim', they will be silently exported
-and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a warning.
+when encountering a signed tag. With 'strip', the tags will silently
+be made unsigned, with 'warn-strip' they will be made unsigned but a
+warning will be displayed, with 'verbatim', they will be silently
+exported and with 'warn', they will be exported, but you will see a
+warning.
--tag-of-filtered-object=(abort|drop|rewrite)::
Specify how to handle tags whose tagged object is filtered out.
@@ -66,6 +68,8 @@ produced incorrect results if you gave these options.
incremental runs. As <file> is only opened and truncated
at completion, the same path can also be safely given to
\--import-marks.
+ The file will not be written if no new object has been
+ marked/exported.
--import-marks=<file>::
Before processing any input, load the marks specified in
@@ -102,11 +106,11 @@ marks the same across runs.
different from the commit's first parent).
[<git-rev-list-args>...]::
- A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
- 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
- to export. For example, `master~10..master` causes the
- current master reference to be exported along with all objects
- added since its 10th ancestor commit.
+ A list of arguments, acceptable to 'git rev-parse' and
+ 'git rev-list', that specifies the specific objects and references
+ to export. For example, `master~10..master` causes the
+ current master reference to be exported along with all objects
+ added since its 10th ancestor commit.
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
index 8c75120..1e71754 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch-pack.txt
@@ -10,9 +10,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git fetch-pack' [--all] [--quiet|-q] [--keep|-k] [--thin] [--include-tag]
- [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>]
- [--depth=<n>] [--no-progress]
- [-v] [<host>:]<directory> [<refs>...]
+ [--upload-pack=<git-upload-pack>]
+ [--depth=<n>] [--no-progress]
+ [-v] [<host>:]<directory> [<refs>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -84,6 +84,8 @@ be in a separate packet, and the list must end with a flush packet.
--depth=<n>::
Limit fetching to ancestor-chains not longer than n.
+ 'git-upload-pack' treats the special depth 2147483647 as
+ infinite even if there is an ancestor-chain that long.
--no-progress::
Do not show the progress.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index b41d7c1..e08a028 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
-having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future git
+having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 69a40b2..e4c8e82 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Lets you rewrite git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
+Lets you rewrite Git revision history by rewriting the branches mentioned
in the <rev-list options>, applying custom filters on each revision.
Those filters can modify each tree (e.g. removing a file or running
a perl rewrite on all files) or information about each commit.
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ The command will only rewrite the _positive_ refs mentioned in the
command line (e.g. if you pass 'a..b', only 'b' will be rewritten).
If you specify no filters, the commits will be recommitted without any
changes, which would normally have no effect. Nevertheless, this may be
-useful in the future for compensating for some git bugs or such,
+useful in the future for compensating for some Git bugs or such,
therefore such a usage is permitted.
*NOTE*: This command honors `.git/info/grafts` file and refs in
@@ -397,7 +397,7 @@ git-filter-branch is often used to get rid of a subset of files,
usually with some combination of `--index-filter` and
`--subdirectory-filter`. People expect the resulting repository to
be smaller than the original, but you need a few more steps to
-actually make it smaller, because git tries hard not to lose your
+actually make it smaller, because Git tries hard not to lose your
objects until you tell it to. First make sure that:
* You really removed all variants of a filename, if a blob was moved
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 3a0f55e..bb1232a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -35,8 +35,7 @@ OPTIONS
Do not list one-line descriptions from the actual commits being
merged.
---summary::
---no-summary::
+--[no-]summary::
Synonyms to --log and --no-log; these are deprecated and will be
removed in the future.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 259dce4..3911877 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
[--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
[--ignore-if-in-upstream]
- [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix]
+ [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
[--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
- [--cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
+ [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
[<common diff options>]
[ <since> | <revision range> ]
@@ -166,6 +166,15 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
combined with the `--numbered` option.
+-v <n>::
+--reroll-count=<n>::
+ Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The
+ output filenames have `v<n>` pretended to them, and the
+ subject prefix ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the
+ `--subject-prefix` option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.
+ `--reroll-count=4` may produce `v4-0001-add-makefile.patch`
+ file that has "Subject: [PATCH v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.
+
--to=<email>::
Add a `To:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
@@ -186,7 +195,7 @@ will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
`Cc:`, and custom) headers added so far from config or command
line.
---cover-letter::
+--[no-]cover-letter::
In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can
fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
@@ -199,14 +208,14 @@ The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation for
the commit that does not belong to the commit log message proper,
and include it with the patch submission. While one can simply write
these explanations after `format-patch` has run but before sending,
-keeping them as git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
+keeping them as Git notes allows them to be maintained between versions
of the patch series (but see the discussion of the `notes.rewrite`
configuration options in linkgit:git-notes[1] to use this workflow).
--[no]-signature=<signature>::
Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the signature
is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If the
- signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the git version
+ signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git version
number.
--suffix=.<sfx>::
@@ -251,6 +260,7 @@ attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.
cc = <email>
attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
signoff = true
+ coverletter = auto
------------
@@ -380,7 +390,7 @@ Thunderbird
~~~~~~~~~~~
By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag
them as being 'format=flowed', both of which will make the
-resulting email unusable by git.
+resulting email unusable by Git.
There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line wraps,
configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use
@@ -516,8 +526,8 @@ $ git format-patch -M -B origin
Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
-Note that non-git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
-use it only when you know the recipient uses git to apply your patch.
+Note that non-Git "patch" programs won't understand renaming patches, so
+use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to apply your patch.
* Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format them
as e-mailable patches:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index da348fc..25c431d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -23,15 +23,14 @@ OPTIONS
An object to treat as the head of an unreachability trace.
+
If no objects are given, 'git fsck' defaults to using the
-index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
+index file, all SHA-1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
(unless --no-reflogs is given) as heads.
--unreachable::
Print out objects that exist but that aren't reachable from any
of the reference nodes.
---dangling::
---no-dangling::
+--[no-]dangling::
Print objects that exist but that are never 'directly' used (default).
`--no-dangling` can be used to omit this information from the output.
@@ -56,7 +55,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
($GIT_DIR/objects), but also the ones found in alternate
object pools listed in GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES
or $GIT_DIR/objects/info/alternates,
- and in packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
+ and in packed Git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
and corresponding pack subdirectories in alternate
object pools. This is now default; you can turn it off
with --no-full.
@@ -64,8 +63,8 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
--strict::
Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
recorded with g+w bit set, which was created by older
- versions of git. Existing repositories, including the
- Linux kernel, git itself, and sparse repository have old
+ versions of Git. Existing repositories, including the
+ Linux kernel, Git itself, and sparse repository have old
objects that triggers this check, but it is recommended
to check new projects with this flag.
@@ -78,8 +77,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
a blob, the contents are written into the file, rather than
its object name.
---progress::
---no-progress::
+--[no-]progress::
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by
default when it is attached to a terminal, unless
--no-progress or --verbose is specified. --progress forces
@@ -89,7 +87,7 @@ index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
DISCUSSION
----------
-git-fsck tests SHA1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking
+git-fsck tests SHA-1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking
of the resulting reachability and everything else. It prints out any
corruption it finds (missing or bad objects), and if you use the
'--unreachable' flag it will also print out objects that exist but that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index b370b02..2402ed6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -62,8 +62,9 @@ automatic consolidation of packs.
--prune=<date>::
Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
- overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`). This
- option is on by default.
+ overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`).
+ --prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age.
+ --prune is on by default.
--no-prune::
Do not prune any loose objects.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index cfecf84..8497aa4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-W | --function-context]
[-f <file>] [-e] <pattern>
[--and|--or|--not|(|)|-e <pattern>...]
- [ [--exclude-standard] [--cached | --no-index | --untracked] | <tree>...]
+ [ [--[no-]exclude-standard] [--cached | --no-index | --untracked] | <tree>...]
[--] [<pathspec>...]
DESCRIPTION
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@ OPTIONS
blobs registered in the index file.
--no-index::
- Search files in the current directory that is not managed by git.
+ Search files in the current directory that is not managed by Git.
--untracked::
In addition to searching in the tracked files in the working
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gui.txt b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
index 0041994..8144527 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gui.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gui.txt
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@ Examples
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:gitk[1]::
- The git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
+ The Git repository browser. Shows branches, commit history
and file differences. gitk is the utility started by
'git gui''s Repository Visualize actions.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index 4b0a502..02c1f12 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@ OPTIONS
--path::
Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
file does not directly influence on the hash value, but path is
- used to determine what git filters should be applied to the object
+ used to determine what Git filters should be applied to the object
before it can be placed to the object database, and, as result of
applying filters, the actual blob put into the object database may
differ from the given file. This option is mainly useful for hashing
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index 9e0b3f6..b21e9d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -3,36 +3,50 @@ git-help(1)
NAME
----
-git-help - display help information about git
+git-help - Display help information about Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git help' [-a|--all|-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND]
+'git help' [-a|--all] [-g|--guide]
+ [-i|--info|-m|--man|-w|--web] [COMMAND|GUIDE]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-With no options and no COMMAND given, the synopsis of the 'git'
-command and a list of the most commonly used git commands are printed
+With no options and no COMMAND or GUIDE given, the synopsis of the 'git'
+command and a list of the most commonly used Git commands are printed
on the standard output.
-If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, then all available commands are
+If the option '--all' or '-a' is given, all available commands are
printed on the standard output.
-If a git command is named, a manual page for that command is brought
-up. The 'man' program is used by default for this purpose, but this
-can be overridden by other options or configuration variables.
+If the option '--guide' or '-g' is given, a list of the useful
+Git guides is also printed on the standard output.
+
+If a command, or a guide, is given, a manual page for that command or
+guide is brought up. The 'man' program is used by default for this
+purpose, but this can be overridden by other options or configuration
+variables.
Note that `git --help ...` is identical to `git help ...` because the
former is internally converted into the latter.
+To display the linkgit:git[1] man page, use `git help git`.
+
+This page can be displayed with 'git help help' or `git help --help`
+
OPTIONS
-------
-a::
--all::
Prints all the available commands on the standard output. This
- option supersedes any other option.
+ option overrides any given command or guide name.
+
+-g::
+--guides::
+ Prints a list of useful guides on the standard output. This
+ option overrides any given command or guide name.
-i::
--info::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
index f4e0741..e3bcdb5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as well as clients
pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.
It verifies that the directory has the magic file
-"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any git directory
+"git-daemon-export-ok", and it will refuse to export any Git directory
that hasn't explicitly been marked for export this way (unless the
GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL environmental variable is set).
@@ -80,7 +80,30 @@ ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access,
-require authorization with a LocationMatch directive:
+require authorization for both the initial ref advertisement (which we
+detect as a push via the service parameter in the query string), and the
+receive-pack invocation itself:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} service=git-receive-pack [OR]
+RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /git-receive-pack$
+RewriteRule ^/git/ - [E=AUTHREQUIRED:yes]
+
+<LocationMatch "^/git/">
+ Order Deny,Allow
+ Deny from env=AUTHREQUIRED
+
+ AuthType Basic
+ AuthName "Git Access"
+ Require group committers
+ Satisfy Any
+ ...
+</LocationMatch>
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+If you do not have `mod_rewrite` available to match against the query
+string, it is sufficient to just protect `git-receive-pack` itself,
+like:
+
----------------------------------------------------------------
<LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
@@ -91,6 +114,15 @@ require authorization with a LocationMatch directive:
</LocationMatch>
----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+In this mode, the server will not request authentication until the
+client actually starts the object negotiation phase of the push, rather
+than during the initial contact. For this reason, you must also enable
+the `http.receivepack` config option in any repositories that should
+accept a push. The default behavior, if `http.receivepack` is not set,
+is to reject any pushes by unauthenticated users; the initial request
+will therefore report `403 Forbidden` to the client, without even giving
+an opportunity for authentication.
++
To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location
directive around the repository, or one of its parent directories:
+
@@ -158,6 +190,54 @@ ScriptAliasMatch \
ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
----------------------------------------------------------------
+Lighttpd::
+ Ensure that `mod_cgi`, `mod_alias, `mod_auth`, `mod_setenv` are
+ loaded, then set `GIT_PROJECT_ROOT` appropriately and redirect
+ all requests to the CGI:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+alias.url += ( "/git" => "/usr/lib/git-core/git-http-backend" )
+$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git" {
+ cgi.assign = ("" => "")
+ setenv.add-environment = (
+ "GIT_PROJECT_ROOT" => "/var/www/git",
+ "GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL" => ""
+ )
+}
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+$HTTP["querystring"] =~ "service=git-receive-pack" {
+ include "git-auth.conf"
+}
+$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$" {
+ include "git-auth.conf"
+}
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+where `git-auth.conf` looks something like:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+auth.require = (
+ "/" => (
+ "method" => "basic",
+ "realm" => "Git Access",
+ "require" => "valid-user"
+ )
+)
+# ...and set up auth.backend here
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To require authentication for both reads and writes:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+$HTTP["url"] =~ "^/git/private" {
+ include "git-auth.conf"
+}
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
ENVIRONMENT
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
index 070cd1e..21a33d2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-fetch.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-http-fetch(1)
NAME
----
-git-http-fetch - Download from a remote git repository via HTTP
+git-http-fetch - Download from a remote Git repository via HTTP
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Downloads a remote git repository via HTTP.
+Downloads a remote Git repository via HTTP.
*NOTE*: use of this command without -a is deprecated. The -a
behaviour will become the default in a future release.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 39e6d0d..7a4e055 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Reads a packed archive (.pack) from the specified file, and
builds a pack index file (.idx) for it. The packed archive
together with the pack index can then be placed in the
-objects/pack/ directory of a git repository.
+objects/pack/ directory of a Git repository.
OPTIONS
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@ OPTIONS
When this flag is provided, the pack is read from stdin
instead and a copy is then written to <pack-file>. If
<pack-file> is not specified, the pack is written to
- objects/pack/ directory of the current git repository with
+ objects/pack/ directory of the current Git repository with
a default name determined from the pack content. If
<pack-file> is not specified consider using --keep to
prevent a race condition between this process and
@@ -74,6 +74,9 @@ OPTIONS
--strict::
Die, if the pack contains broken objects or links.
+--check-self-contained-and-connected::
+ Die if the pack contains broken links. For internal use only.
+
--threads=<n>::
Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
deltas. This requires that index-pack be compiled with
@@ -81,7 +84,7 @@ OPTIONS
This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search
window is however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and use maximum 3 threads.
@@ -89,7 +92,7 @@ Note
----
Once the index has been created, the list of object names is sorted
-and the SHA1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
+and the SHA-1 hash of that list is printed to stdout. If --stdin was
also used then this is prefixed by either "pack\t", or "keep\t" if a
new .keep file was successfully created. This is useful to remove a
.keep file used as a lock to prevent the race with 'git repack'
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
index a21e346..648a6cd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init-db.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-init-db(1)
NAME
----
-git-init-db - Creates an empty git repository
+git-init-db - Creates an empty Git repository
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index 9ac2bba..afd721e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-init(1)
NAME
----
-git-init - Create an empty git repository or reinitialize an existing one
+git-init - Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize an existing one
SYNOPSIS
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This command creates an empty git repository - basically a `.git`
+This command creates an empty Git repository - basically a `.git`
directory with subdirectories for `objects`, `refs/heads`,
`refs/tags`, and template files. An initial `HEAD` file that
references the HEAD of the master branch is also created.
@@ -58,19 +58,19 @@ DIRECTORY" section below.)
--separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
Instead of initializing the repository where it is supposed to be,
-place a filesytem-agnostic git symbolic link there, pointing to the
-specified git path, and initialize a git repository at the path. The
-result is git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
+place a filesytem-agnostic Git symbolic link there, pointing to the
+specified path, and initialize a Git repository at the path. The
+result is Git repository can be separated from working tree. If this
is reinitialization, the repository will be moved to the specified
path.
--shared[=(false|true|umask|group|all|world|everybody|0xxx)]::
-Specify that the git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
+Specify that the Git repository is to be shared amongst several users. This
allows users belonging to the same group to push into that
repository. When specified, the config variable "core.sharedRepository" is
set so that files and directories under `$GIT_DIR` are created with the
-requested permissions. When not specified, git will use permissions reported
+requested permissions. When not specified, Git will use permissions reported
by umask(2).
The option can have the following values, defaulting to 'group' if no value
@@ -130,7 +130,7 @@ The suggested patterns and hook files are all modifiable and extensible.
EXAMPLES
--------
-Start a new git repository for an existing code base::
+Start a new Git repository for an existing code base::
+
----------------
$ cd /path/to/my/codebase
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 1d119ec..2ea79ba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-log - Show commit logs
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git log' [<options>] [<since>..<until>] [[\--] <path>...]
+'git log' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -24,13 +24,6 @@ each commit introduces are shown.
OPTIONS
-------
-<since>..<until>::
- Show only commits between the named two commits. When
- either <since> or <until> is omitted, it defaults to
- `HEAD`, i.e. the tip of the current branch.
- For a more complete list of ways to spell <since>
- and <until>, see linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
-
--follow::
Continue listing the history of a file beyond renames
(works only for a single file).
@@ -47,6 +40,11 @@ OPTIONS
Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
commit was reached.
+--use-mailmap::
+ Use mailmap file to map author and committer names and email
+ to canonical real names and email addresses. See
+ linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
+
--full-diff::
Without this flag, "git log -p <path>..." shows commits that
touch the specified paths, and diffs about the same specified
@@ -59,19 +57,41 @@ produced by --stat etc.
--log-size::
Before the log message print out its size in bytes. Intended
- mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If git is unable to
+ mainly for porcelain tools consumption. If Git is unable to
produce a valid value size is set to zero.
Note that only message is considered, if also a diff is shown
its size is not included.
+-L <start>,<end>:<file>, -L :<regex>:<file>::
+
+ Trace the evolution of the line range given by "<start>,<end>"
+ (or the funcname regex <regex>) within the <file>. You may
+ not give any pathspec limiters. This is currently limited to
+ a walk starting from a single revision, i.e., you may only
+ give zero or one positive revision arguments.
+ You can specify this option more than once.
++
+<start> and <end> can take one of these forms:
+
+include::line-range-format.txt[]
+
+<revision range>::
+ Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
+ <revision range> is specified, it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the
+ whole history leading to the current commit). `origin..HEAD`
+ specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
+ (i.e. `HEAD`), but not from `origin`. For a complete list of
+ ways to spell <revision range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
+ section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+
[\--] <path>...::
Show only commits that are enough to explain how the files
that match the specified paths came to be. See "History
Simplification" below for details and other simplification
modes.
+
-To prevent confusion with options and branch names, paths may need to
-be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from options or refnames.
+Paths may need to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from
+options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
include::rev-list-options.txt[]
@@ -133,6 +153,11 @@ Examples
This makes sense only when following a strict policy of merging all
topic branches when staying on a single integration branch.
+git log -L '/int main/',/^}/:main.c::
+
+ Shows how the function `main()` in the file 'main.c' evolved
+ over time.
+
`git log -3`::
Limits the number of commits to show to 3.
@@ -167,7 +192,7 @@ log.showroot::
`git log -p` output would be shown without a diff attached.
The default is `true`.
-mailmap.file::
+mailmap.*::
See linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
notes.displayRef::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index 4b28292..c0856a6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -92,7 +92,7 @@ OPTIONS
directory and its subdirectories in <file>.
--exclude-standard::
- Add the standard git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
+ Add the standard Git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
in each directory, and the user's global exclusion file.
--error-unmatch::
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ which case it outputs:
'git ls-files --unmerged' and 'git ls-files --stage' can be used to examine
detailed information on unmerged paths.
-For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA1 pair,
+For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA-1 pair,
the index records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage
1, A in stage 2, and B in stage 3. This information can be used by
the user (or the porcelain) to see what should eventually be recorded at the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 97e7a8e..164a3c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-mailinfo - Extracts patch and authorship from a single e-mail message
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
+'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--[no-]scissors] <msg> <patch>
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
index e0df1b3..02676fb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-index.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This looks up the <file>(s) in the index and, if there are any merge
-entries, passes the SHA1 hash for those files as arguments 1, 2, 3 (empty
+entries, passes the SHA-1 hash for those files as arguments 1, 2, 3 (empty
argument if no file), and <file> as argument 4. File modes for the three
files are passed as arguments 5, 6 and 7.
@@ -41,13 +41,13 @@ If 'git merge-index' is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
processes them in turn only stopping if merge returns a non-zero exit
code.
-Typically this is run with a script calling git's imitation of
+Typically this is run with a script calling Git's imitation of
the 'merge' command from the RCS package.
A sample script called 'git merge-one-file' is included in the
distribution.
-ALERT ALERT ALERT! The git "merge object order" is different from the
+ALERT ALERT ALERT! The Git "merge object order" is different from the
RCS 'merge' program merge object order. In the above ordering, the
original is first. But the argument order to the 3-way merge program
'merge' is to have the original in the middle. Don't ask me why.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 7780863..8c7f2f6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@ especially if those changes were further modified after the merge
was started), 'git merge --abort' will in some cases be unable to
reconstruct the original (pre-merge) changes. Therefore:
-*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with uncommitted changes is
-discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a state that is hard to
+*Warning*: Running 'git merge' with non-trivial uncommitted changes is
+discouraged: while possible, it may leave you in a state that is hard to
back out of in the case of a conflict.
@@ -76,8 +76,7 @@ The 'git fmt-merge-msg' command can be
used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
invocations.
---rerere-autoupdate::
---no-rerere-autoupdate::
+--[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
@@ -202,10 +201,10 @@ of the merge. Among the changes made to the common ancestor's version,
non-overlapping ones (that is, you changed an area of the file while the
other side left that area intact, or vice versa) are incorporated in the
final result verbatim. When both sides made changes to the same area,
-however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
+however, Git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.
-By default, git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
+By default, Git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:
------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
index f98a41b..055550b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-mergetool{litdd}lib(1)
NAME
----
-git-mergetool--lib - Common git merge tool shell scriptlets
+git-mergetool--lib - Common Git merge tool shell scriptlets
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
The 'git-mergetool{litdd}lib' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up functions for working
-with git merge tools.
+with Git merge tools.
Before sourcing 'git-mergetool{litdd}lib', your script must set `TOOL_MODE`
to define the operation mode for the functions listed below.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 6b563c5..07137f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-mergetool - Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve merge conflicts
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y|--no-prompt|--prompt] [<file>...]
+'git mergetool' [--tool=<tool>] [-y | --[no-]prompt] [<file>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
index 65e167a..3ca158b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -28,9 +28,9 @@ A tag signature file has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
tagger <tagger>
followed by some 'optional' free-form message (some tags created
-by older git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
+by older Git may not have `tagger` line). The message, when
exists, is separated by a blank line from the header. The
-message part may contain a signature that git itself doesn't
+message part may contain a signature that Git itself doesn't
care about, but that can be verified with gpg.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mv.txt b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
index e3c8448..e93fcb4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mv.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mv.txt
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ OPTIONS
-k::
Skip move or rename actions which would lead to an error
condition. An error happens when a source is neither existing nor
- controlled by GIT, or when it would overwrite an existing
+ controlled by Git, or when it would overwrite an existing
file unless '-f' is given.
-n::
--dry-run::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index beff622..c579fbc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -18,13 +18,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This command provides a way to interact with p4 repositories
-using git.
+using Git.
-Create a new git repository from an existing p4 repository using
+Create a new Git repository from an existing p4 repository using
'git p4 clone', giving it one or more p4 depot paths. Incorporate
new commits from p4 changes with 'git p4 sync'. The 'sync' command
is also used to include new branches from other p4 depot paths.
-Submit git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
+Submit Git changes back to p4 using 'git p4 submit'. The command
'git p4 rebase' does a sync plus rebases the current branch onto
the updated p4 remote branch.
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@ EXAMPLE
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
------------
-* Do some work in the newly created git repository:
+* Do some work in the newly created Git repository:
+
------------
$ cd project
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@ $ vi foo.h
$ git commit -a -m "edited foo.h"
------------
-* Update the git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
+* Update the Git repository with recent changes from p4, rebasing your
work on top:
+
------------
@@ -64,21 +64,21 @@ COMMANDS
Clone
~~~~~
-Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new git directory
+Generally, 'git p4 clone' is used to create a new Git directory
from an existing p4 repository:
------------
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project
------------
This:
-1. Creates an empty git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
+1. Creates an empty Git repository in a subdirectory called 'project'.
+
2. Imports the full contents of the head revision from the given p4
-depot path into a single commit in the git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
+depot path into a single commit in the Git branch 'refs/remotes/p4/master'.
+
3. Creates a local branch, 'master' from this remote and checks it out.
-To reproduce the entire p4 history in git, use the '@all' modifier on
+To reproduce the entire p4 history in Git, use the '@all' modifier on
the depot path:
------------
$ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
@@ -88,13 +88,13 @@ $ git p4 clone //depot/path/project@all
Sync
~~~~
As development continues in the p4 repository, those changes can
-be included in the git repository using:
+be included in the Git repository using:
------------
$ git p4 sync
------------
-This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as git commits.
+This command finds new changes in p4 and imports them as Git commits.
-P4 repositories can be added to an existing git repository using
+P4 repositories can be added to an existing Git repository using
'git p4 sync' too:
------------
$ mkdir repo-git
@@ -103,14 +103,19 @@ $ git init
$ git p4 sync //path/in/your/perforce/depot
------------
This imports the specified depot into
-'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing git repository. The
+'refs/remotes/p4/master' in an existing Git repository. The
'--branch' option can be used to specify a different branch to
be used for the p4 content.
-If a git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
+If a Git repository includes branches 'refs/remotes/origin/p4', these
will be fetched and consulted first during a 'git p4 sync'. Since
importing directly from p4 is considerably slower than pulling changes
-from a git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
+from a Git remote, this can be useful in a multi-developer environment.
+
+If there are multiple branches, doing 'git p4 sync' will automatically
+use the "BRANCH DETECTION" algorithm to try to partition new changes
+into the right branch. This can be overridden with the '--branch'
+option to specify just a single branch to update.
Rebase
@@ -127,13 +132,13 @@ $ git p4 rebase
Submit
~~~~~~
-Submitting changes from a git repository back to the p4 repository
+Submitting changes from a Git repository back to the p4 repository
requires a separate p4 client workspace. This should be specified
-using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the git configuration
+using the 'P4CLIENT' environment variable or the Git configuration
variable 'git-p4.client'. The p4 client must exist, but the client root
will be created and populated if it does not already exist.
-To submit all changes that are in the current git branch but not in
+To submit all changes that are in the current Git branch but not in
the 'p4/master' branch, use:
------------
$ git p4 submit
@@ -149,7 +154,7 @@ be overridden using the '--origin=' command-line option.
The p4 changes will be created as the user invoking 'git p4 submit'. The
'--preserve-user' option will cause ownership to be modified
-according to the author of the git commit. This option requires admin
+according to the author of the Git commit. This option requires admin
privileges in p4, which can be granted using 'p4 protect'.
@@ -173,12 +178,14 @@ subsequent 'sync' operations.
--branch <branch>::
Import changes into given branch. If the branch starts with
- 'refs/', it will be used as is, otherwise the path 'refs/heads/'
- will be prepended. The default branch is 'master'. If used
- with an initial clone, no HEAD will be checked out.
+ 'refs/', it will be used as is. Otherwise if it does not start
+ with 'p4/', that prefix is added. The branch is assumed to
+ name a remote tracking, but this can be modified using
+ '--import-local', or by giving a full ref name. The default
+ branch is 'master'.
+
This example imports a new remote "p4/proj2" into an existing
-git repository:
+Git repository:
+
----
$ git init
@@ -199,11 +206,11 @@ git repository:
--detect-labels::
Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
- them as tags in git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
+ them as tags in Git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
--import-labels::
- Import labels from p4 into git.
+ Import labels from p4 into Git.
--import-local::
By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
@@ -219,12 +226,12 @@ git repository:
specifier.
--keep-path::
- The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to git, by
+ The mapping of file names from the p4 depot path to Git, by
default, involves removing the entire depot path. With this
- option, the full p4 depot path is retained in git. For example,
+ option, the full p4 depot path is retained in Git. For example,
path '//depot/main/foo/bar.c', when imported from
'//depot/main/', becomes 'foo/bar.c'. With '--keep-path', the
- git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
+ Git path is instead 'depot/main/foo/bar.c'.
--use-client-spec::
Use a client spec to find the list of interesting files in p4.
@@ -236,7 +243,7 @@ These options can be used in an initial 'clone', along with the 'sync'
options described above.
--destination <directory>::
- Where to create the git repository. If not provided, the last
+ Where to create the Git repository. If not provided, the last
component in the p4 depot path is used to create a new
directory.
@@ -266,12 +273,12 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
requires p4 admin privileges.
--export-labels::
- Export tags from git as p4 labels. Tags found in git are applied
+ Export tags from Git as p4 labels. Tags found in Git are applied
to the perforce working directory.
--dry-run, -n::
Show just what commits would be submitted to p4; do not change
- state in git or p4.
+ state in Git or p4.
--prepare-p4-only::
Apply a commit to the p4 workspace, opening, adding and deleting
@@ -287,6 +294,11 @@ These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
to bypass the prompt, causing conflicting commits to be automatically
skipped, or to quit trying to apply commits, without prompting.
+--branch <branch>::
+ After submitting, sync this named branch instead of the default
+ p4/master. See the "Sync options" section above for more
+ information.
+
Rebase options
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
@@ -312,12 +324,12 @@ p4 revision specifier on the end:
"//depot/proj1@all //depot/proj2@all"::
Import all changes from both named depot paths into a single
repository. Only files below these directories are included.
- There is not a subdirectory in git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
+ There is not a subdirectory in Git for each "proj1" and "proj2".
You must use the '--destination' option when specifying more
than one depot path. The revision specifier must be specified
identically on each depot path. If there are files in the
depot paths with the same name, the path with the most recently
- updated version of the file is the one that appears in git.
+ updated version of the file is the one that appears in Git.
See 'p4 help revisions' for the full syntax of p4 revision specifiers.
@@ -334,11 +346,11 @@ configuration file. This allows future 'git p4 submit' commands to
work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
not have a command-line option.
-The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'Git p4'
+The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'. 'git p4'
knows only a subset of the view syntax. It understands multi-line
mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
around whitespace. Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
-'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'Git p4' will complain
+'...', and only when it is at the end of the path. 'git p4' will complain
if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist. If multiple depot
@@ -354,7 +366,7 @@ variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
BRANCH DETECTION
----------------
-P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as git. Instead,
+P4 does not have the same concept of a branch as Git. Instead,
p4 organizes its content as a directory tree, where by convention
different logical branches are in different locations in the tree.
The 'p4 branch' command is used to maintain mappings between
@@ -364,7 +376,7 @@ can use these mappings to determine branch relationships.
If you have a repository where all the branches of interest exist as
subdirectories of a single depot path, you can use '--detect-branches'
when cloning or syncing to have 'git p4' automatically find
-subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in git.
+subdirectories in p4, and to generate these as branches in Git.
For example, if the P4 repository structure is:
----
@@ -386,7 +398,7 @@ called 'master', and one for //depot/branch1 called 'depot/branch1'.
However, it is not necessary to create branches in p4 to be able to use
them like branches. Because it is difficult to infer branch
-relationships automatically, a git configuration setting
+relationships automatically, a Git configuration setting
'git-p4.branchList' can be used to explicitly identify branch
relationships. It is a list of "source:destination" pairs, like a
simple p4 branch specification, where the "source" and "destination" are
@@ -394,15 +406,17 @@ the path elements in the p4 repository. The example above relied on the
presence of the p4 branch. Without p4 branches, the same result will
occur with:
----
+git init depot
+cd depot
git config git-p4.branchList main:branch1
-git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all
+git p4 clone --detect-branches //depot@all .
----
PERFORMANCE
-----------
The fast-import mechanism used by 'git p4' creates one pack file for
-each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, git garbage compression
+each invocation of 'git p4 sync'. Normally, Git garbage compression
(linkgit:git-gc[1]) automatically compresses these to fewer pack files,
but explicit invocation of 'git repack -adf' may improve performance.
@@ -440,9 +454,9 @@ git-p4.client::
Clone and sync variables
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
git-p4.syncFromOrigin::
- Because importing commits from other git repositories is much faster
+ Because importing commits from other Git repositories is much faster
than importing them from p4, a mechanism exists to find p4 changes
- first in git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
+ first in Git remotes. If branches exist under 'refs/remote/origin/p4',
those will be fetched and used when syncing from p4. This
variable can be set to 'false' to disable this behavior.
@@ -494,7 +508,7 @@ git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
Detect copies harder. See linkgit:git-diff[1]. A boolean.
git-p4.preserveUser::
- On submit, re-author changes to reflect the git author,
+ On submit, re-author changes to reflect the Git author,
regardless of who invokes 'git p4 submit'.
git-p4.allowMissingP4Users::
@@ -531,7 +545,7 @@ git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
present.
git-p4.exportLabels::
- Export git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
+ Export Git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
@@ -543,11 +557,11 @@ git-p4.conflict::
IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
----------------------
-* Changesets from p4 are imported using git fast-import.
+* Changesets from p4 are imported using Git fast-import.
* Cloning or syncing does not require a p4 client; file contents are
collected using 'p4 print'.
* Submitting requires a p4 client, which is not in the same location
- as the git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
+ as the Git repository. Patches are applied, one at a time, to
this p4 client and submitted from there.
* Each commit imported by 'git p4' has a line at the end of the log
message indicating the p4 depot location and change number. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 20c8551..d94edcd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ A pack index file (.idx) is generated for fast, random access to the
objects in the pack. Placing both the index file (.idx) and the packed
archive (.pack) in the pack/ subdirectory of $GIT_OBJECT_DIRECTORY (or
any of the directories on $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES)
-enables git to read from the pack archive.
+enables Git to read from the pack archive.
The 'git unpack-objects' command can read the packed archive and
expand the objects contained in the pack into "one-file
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ base-name::
Write into a pair of files (.pack and .idx), using
<base-name> to determine the name of the created file.
When this option is used, the two files are written in
- <base-name>-<SHA1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA1> is a hash
+ <base-name>-<SHA-1>.{pack,idx} files. <SHA-1> is a hash
of the sorted object names to make the resulting filename
based on the pack content, and written to the standard
output of the command.
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@ base-name::
--include-tag::
Include unasked-for annotated tags if the object they
reference was included in the resulting packfile. This
- can be useful to send new tags to native git clients.
+ can be useful to send new tags to native Git clients.
--window=<n>::
--depth=<n>::
@@ -185,14 +185,14 @@ base-name::
option only makes sense in conjunction with --stdout.
+
Note: A thin pack violates the packed archive format by omitting
-required objects and is thus unusable by git without making it
+required objects and is thus unusable by Git without making it
self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
(see linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) to restore the self-contained property.
--delta-base-offset::
A packed archive can express the base object of a delta as
either a 20-byte object name or as an offset in the
- stream, but ancient versions of git don't understand the
+ stream, but ancient versions of Git don't understand the
latter. By default, 'git pack-objects' only uses the
former format for better compatibility. This option
allows the command to use the latter format for
@@ -202,7 +202,7 @@ self-contained. Use `git index-pack --fix-thin`
+
Note: Porcelain commands such as `git gc` (see linkgit:git-gc[1]),
`git repack` (see linkgit:git-repack[1]) pass this option by default
-in modern git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
+in modern Git when they put objects in your repository into pack files.
So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
--threads=<n>::
@@ -212,7 +212,7 @@ So does `git bundle` (see linkgit:git-bundle[1]) when it creates a bundle.
This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor machines.
The required amount of memory for the delta search window is
however multiplied by the number of threads.
- Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+ Specifying 0 will cause Git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
and set the number of threads accordingly.
--index-version=<version>[,<offset>]::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 90268f0..312c3b1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A "patch ID" is nothing but a SHA1 of the diff associated with a patch, with
+A "patch ID" is nothing but a SHA-1 of the diff associated with a patch, with
whitespace and line numbers ignored. As such, it's "reasonably stable", but at
the same time also reasonably unique, i.e., two patches that have the same "patch
ID" are almost guaranteed to be the same thing.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index 638456b..24ab07a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -59,8 +59,8 @@ and a log message from the user describing the changes.
See linkgit:git-merge[1] for details, including how conflicts
are presented and handled.
-In git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
-`git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of git, running 'git pull'
+In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use
+`git reset --merge`. *Warning*: In older versions of Git, running 'git pull'
with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
in a state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@ must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules should
be fetched too (see linkgit:git-config[1] and linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
That might be necessary to get the data needed for merging submodule
- commits, a feature git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
+ commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of a
merge will not be checked out in the submodule, "git submodule update"
has to be called afterwards to bring the work tree up to date with the
merge result.
@@ -228,7 +228,7 @@ Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already checked
out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new submodule in the
just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule itself can not be
fetched, making it impossible to check out that submodule later without
-having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future git
+having to do a fetch again. This is expected to be fixed in a future Git
version.
SEE ALSO
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 8b637d3..f7dfe48 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -9,9 +9,9 @@ git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
+'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
- [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
+ [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -23,6 +23,17 @@ You can make interesting things happen to a repository
every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
+When the command line does not specify where to push with the
+`<repository>` argument, `branch.*.remote` configuration for the
+current branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the
+configuration is missing, it defaults to 'origin'.
+
+When the command line does not specify what to push with `<refspec>...`
+arguments or `--all`, `--mirror`, `--tags` options, the command finds
+the default `<refspec>` by consulting `remote.*.push` configuration,
+and if it is not found, honors `push.default` configuration to decide
+what to push (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of `push.default`).
+
OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
------------------
@@ -33,13 +44,10 @@ OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
<refspec>...::
+ Specify what destination ref to update with what source object.
The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
- `+`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
+ `+`, followed by the source object <src>, followed
by a colon `:`, followed by the destination ref <dst>.
- It is used to specify with what <src> object the <dst> ref
- in the remote repository is to be updated. If not specified,
- the behavior of the command is controlled by the `push.default`
- configuration variable.
+
The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push, but
it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as `master~4` or
@@ -51,10 +59,11 @@ be named. If `:`<dst> is omitted, the same ref as <src> will be
updated.
+
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
-on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
-update can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading `+`,
-you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
-fast-forward. This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
+on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if <dst> is not
+a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it can fast-forward
+<dst>. By having the optional leading `+`, you can tell Git to update
+the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by default (e.g., it is not a
+fast-forward.) This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>. See
EXAMPLES below for details.
+
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
@@ -63,12 +72,9 @@ Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
+
The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
-directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
+directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
-already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
-if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
-nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below) and
-no `push.default` configuration variable is set.
+already exists on the remote side.
--all::
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
@@ -111,6 +117,12 @@ no `push.default` configuration variable is set.
addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
line.
+--follow-tags::
+ Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option,
+ and also push annotated tags in `refs/tags` that are missing
+ from the remote but are pointing at committish that are
+ reachable from the refs being pushed.
+
--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>::
--exec=<git-receive-pack>::
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
@@ -124,6 +136,15 @@ no `push.default` configuration variable is set.
not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
This flag disables the check. This can cause the
remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
+ Note that `--force` applies to all the refs that are pushed,
+ hence using it with `push.default` set to `matching` or with
+ multiple push destinations configured with `remote.*.push`
+ may overwrite refs other than the current branch (including
+ local refs that are strictly behind their remote counterpart).
+ To force a push to only one branch, use a `+` in front of the
+ refspec to push (e.g `git push origin +master` to force a push
+ to the `master` branch). See the `<refspec>...` section above
+ for details.
--repo=<repository>::
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
@@ -150,8 +171,7 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
linkgit:git-pull[1] and other commands. For more information,
see 'branch.<name>.merge' in linkgit:git-config[1].
---thin::
---no-thin::
+--[no-]thin::
These options are passed to linkgit:git-send-pack[1]. A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
@@ -176,7 +196,7 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
- used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
+ used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
@@ -184,6 +204,11 @@ useful if you write an alias or script around 'git push'.
be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
+--[no-]verify::
+ Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]). The
+ default is \--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the
+ push. With \--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
+
include::urls-remotes.txt[]
@@ -191,7 +216,7 @@ OUTPUT
------
The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
-section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
+section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
locally or via ssh).
The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
diff --git a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
index 7f112f3..a356196 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Applies a quilt patchset onto the current git branch, preserving
+Applies a quilt patchset onto the current Git branch, preserving
the patch boundaries, patch order, and patch descriptions present
in the quilt patchset.
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ the patch description is displayed and the user is asked to
interactively enter the author of the patch.
If a subject is not found in the patch description the patch name is
-preserved as the 1 line subject in the git description.
+preserved as the 1 line subject in the Git description.
OPTIONS
-------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index da067ec..c84854a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ parameter can be any valid commit-ish.
In case of conflict, 'git rebase' will stop at the first problematic commit
and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use 'git diff' to locate
the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
-file you edit, you need to tell git that the conflict has been resolved,
+file you edit, you need to tell Git that the conflict has been resolved,
typically this would be done with
@@ -208,6 +208,9 @@ rebase.stat::
rebase.autosquash::
If set to true enable '--autosquash' option by default.
+rebase.autostash::
+ If set to true enable '--autostash' option by default.
+
OPTIONS
-------
--onto <newbase>::
@@ -394,6 +397,13 @@ If the '--autosquash' option is enabled by default using the
configuration variable `rebase.autosquash`, this option can be
used to override and disable this setting.
+--[no-]autostash::
+ Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation
+ begins, and apply it after the operation ends. This means
+ that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use
+ with care: the final stash application after a successful
+ rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
+
--no-ff::
With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 7fe2d22..70791b9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@ The reflog will cover all recent actions (HEAD reflog records branch switching
as well). It is an alias for `git log -g --abbrev-commit --pretty=oneline`;
see linkgit:git-log[1].
-The reflog is useful in various git commands, to specify the old value
+The reflog is useful in various Git commands, to specify the old value
of a reference. For example, `HEAD@{2}` means "where HEAD used to be
two moves ago", `master@{one.week.ago}` means "where master used to
point to one week ago", and so on. See linkgit:gitrevisions[7] for
@@ -67,14 +67,19 @@ them.
--expire=<time>::
Entries older than this time are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration `gc.reflogExpire`,
- which in turn defaults to 90 days.
+ which in turn defaults to 90 days. --expire=all prunes
+ entries regardless of their age; --expire=never turns off
+ pruning of reachable entries (but see --expire-unreachable).
--expire-unreachable=<time>::
Entries older than this time and not reachable from
the current tip of the branch are pruned. Without the
option it is taken from configuration
`gc.reflogExpireUnreachable`, which in turn defaults to
- 30 days.
+ 30 days. --expire-unreachable=all prunes unreachable
+ entries regardless of their age; --expire-unreachable=never
+ turns off early pruning of unreachable entries (but see
+ --expire).
--all::
Instead of listing <refs> explicitly, prune all refs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
index 8a8e1d7..8cfc748 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ git remote add <nick> "ext::<command>[ <arguments>...]"
DESCRIPTION
-----------
This remote helper uses the specified '<command>' to connect
-to a remote git server.
+to a remote Git server.
Data written to stdin of the specified '<command>' is assumed
to be sent to a git:// server, git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack
@@ -33,12 +33,12 @@ The following sequences have a special meaning:
'%s'::
Replaced with name (receive-pack, upload-pack, or
- upload-archive) of the service git wants to invoke.
+ upload-archive) of the service Git wants to invoke.
'%S'::
Replaced with long name (git-receive-pack,
git-upload-pack, or git-upload-archive) of the service
- git wants to invoke.
+ Git wants to invoke.
'%G' (must be the first characters in an argument)::
This argument will not be passed to '<command>'. Instead, it
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ GIT_EXT_SERVICE_NOPREFIX::
EXAMPLES:
---------
-This remote helper is transparently used by git when
+This remote helper is transparently used by Git when
you use commands such as "git fetch <URL>", "git clone <URL>",
, "git push <URL>" or "git remote add <nick> <URL>", where <URL>
begins with `ext::`. Examples:
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
edit .ssh/config.
"ext::socat -t3600 - ABSTRACT-CONNECT:/git-server %G/somerepo"::
- Represents repository with path /somerepo accessable over
+ Represents repository with path /somerepo accessible over
git protocol at abstract namespace address /git-server.
"ext::git-server-alias foo %G/repo"::
@@ -100,14 +100,14 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
Represents a repository with path /repo accessed using the
helper program "git-server-alias foo". The hostname for the
remote server passed in the protocol stream will be "foo"
- (this allows multiple virtual git servers to share a
+ (this allows multiple virtual Git servers to share a
link-level address).
"ext::git-server-alias foo %G/repo% with% spaces %Vfoo"::
Represents a repository with path '/repo with spaces' accessed
using the helper program "git-server-alias foo". The hostname for
the remote server passed in the protocol stream will be "foo"
- (this allows multiple virtual git servers to share a
+ (this allows multiple virtual Git servers to share a
link-level address).
"ext::git-ssl foo.example /bar"::
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@ begins with `ext::`. Examples:
Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the git list
+Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara, Jonathan Nieder and the Git list
<git@vger.kernel.org>
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
index f095d57..933c2ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt
@@ -11,14 +11,14 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This helper uses specified file descriptors to connect to a remote git server.
+This helper uses specified file descriptors to connect to a remote Git server.
This is not meant for end users but for programs and scripts calling git
fetch, push or archive.
If only <infd> is given, it is assumed to be a bidirectional socket connected
-to remote git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
+to remote Git server (git-upload-pack, git-receive-pack or
git-upload-achive). If both <infd> and <outfd> are given, they are assumed
-to be pipes connected to a remote git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
+to be pipes connected to a remote Git server (<infd> being the inbound pipe
and <outfd> being the outbound pipe.
It is assumed that any handshaking procedures have already been completed
@@ -52,7 +52,7 @@ EXAMPLES
Documentation
--------------
-Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
+Documentation by Ilari Liusvaara and the Git list <git@vger.kernel.org>
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
index 4c871b9..f791d73 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ testcase for the remote-helper functionality, and as an example to
show remote-helper authors one possible implementation.
The best way to learn more is to read the comments and source code in
-'git-remote-testgit.py'.
+'git-remote-testgit'.
SEE ALSO
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index e8c396b..581bb4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
'git remote' [-v | --verbose]
-'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--tags|--no-tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
+'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--[no-]tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
'git remote rename' <old> <new>
'git remote remove' <name>
'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | -d | <branch>)
@@ -18,8 +18,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git remote set-url' [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]
'git remote set-url --add' [--push] <name> <newurl>
'git remote set-url --delete' [--push] <name> <url>
-'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'show' [-n] <name>
-'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>
+'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'show' [-n] <name>...
+'git remote prune' [-n | --dry-run] <name>...
'git remote' [-v | --verbose] 'update' [-p | --prune] [(<group> | <remote>)...]
DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 51131d0..e0b4057 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -16,13 +16,13 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Adds a 'replace' reference in `refs/replace/` namespace.
-The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the object that is
-replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the
+The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA-1 of the object that is
+replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA-1 of the
replacement object.
Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist.
-Replacement references will be used by default by all git commands
+Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands
except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
fsck).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 978d8da..a404b47 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -8,20 +8,20 @@ git-reset - Reset current HEAD to the specified state
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-sh>] [--] [<paths>...]
'git reset' [--soft | --mixed | --hard | --merge | --keep] [-q] [<commit>]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-In the first and second form, copy entries from <commit> to the index.
+In the first and second form, copy entries from <tree-ish> to the index.
In the third form, set the current branch head (HEAD) to <commit>, optionally
-modifying index and working tree to match. The <commit> defaults to HEAD
-in all forms.
+modifying index and working tree to match. The <tree-ish>/<commit> defaults
+to HEAD in all forms.
-'git reset' [-q] [<commit>] [--] <paths>...::
+'git reset' [-q] [<tree-ish>] [--] <paths>...::
This form resets the index entries for all <paths> to their
- state at <commit>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
+ state at <tree-ish>. (It does not affect the working tree, nor
the current branch.)
+
This means that `git reset <paths>` is the opposite of `git add
@@ -34,9 +34,9 @@ Alternatively, using linkgit:git-checkout[1] and specifying a commit, you
can copy the contents of a path out of a commit to the index and to the
working tree in one go.
-'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<commit>] [--] [<paths>...]::
+'git reset' (--patch | -p) [<tree-ish>] [--] [<paths>...]::
Interactively select hunks in the difference between the index
- and <commit> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
+ and <tree-ish> (defaults to HEAD). The chosen hunks are applied
in reverse to the index.
+
This means that `git reset -p` is the opposite of `git add -p`, i.e.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 38fafca..65ac27e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:
$ git rev-list A...B
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
-'rev-list' is a very essential git command, since it
+'rev-list' is a very essential Git command, since it
provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For
this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be
used by commands as different as 'git bisect' and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index 3c63561..947d62f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Many git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
+Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags
(i.e. parameters that begin with a dash '-') and parameters
meant for the underlying 'git rev-list' command they use internally
and flags and parameters for the other commands they use
@@ -60,8 +60,19 @@ OPTIONS
instead.
--verify::
- The parameter given must be usable as a single, valid
- object name. Otherwise barf and abort.
+ Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it
+ can be turned into a raw 20-byte SHA-1 that can be used to
+ access the object database. If so, emit it to the standard
+ output; otherwise, error out.
++
+If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object in
+your object database and/or can be used as a specific type of object
+you require, you can add "^{type}" peeling operator to the parmeter.
+For example, `git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}"` will make sure `$VAR`
+names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a commit, or an
+annotated tag that points at a commit). To make sure that `$VAR`
+names an existing object of any type, `git rev-parse "$VAR^{object}"`
+can be used.
-q::
--quiet::
@@ -84,7 +95,7 @@ OPTIONS
one.
--symbolic::
- Usually the object names are output in SHA1 form (with
+ Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with
possible '{caret}' prefix); this option makes them output in a
form as close to the original input as possible.
@@ -147,7 +158,7 @@ shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (`?`,
relative to the current working directory.
+
If `$GIT_DIR` is not defined and the current directory
-is not detected to lie in a git repository or work tree
+is not detected to lie in a Git repository or work tree
print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--is-inside-git-dir::
@@ -169,7 +180,7 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
--short::
--short=number::
- Instead of outputting the full SHA1 values of object names try to
+ Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to
abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is specified
7 is used. The minimum length is 4.
@@ -187,9 +198,11 @@ print a message to stderr and exit with nonzero status.
Flags and parameters to be parsed.
--resolve-git-dir <path>::
- Check if <path> is a valid git-dir or a git-file pointing to a valid
- git-dir. If <path> is a valid git-dir the resolved path to git-dir will
- be printed.
+ Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that
+ points at a valid repository, and print the location of the
+ repository. If <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path
+ to the real repository is printed.
+
include::revisions.txt[]
@@ -306,12 +319,12 @@ $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD
* Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell variable:
+
------------
-$ git rev-parse --verify $REV
+$ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}
------------
+
This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.
-* Same as above:
+* Similar to above:
+
------------
$ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index 70152e8..f79c9d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ git-revert - Revert some existing commits
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git revert' [--edit | --no-edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] <commit>...
+'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] <commit>...
'git revert' --continue
'git revert' --quit
'git revert' --abort
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rm.txt b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
index 262436b..1d876c2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rm.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rm.txt
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
<file>...::
Files to remove. Fileglobs (e.g. `*.c`) can be given to
- remove all matching files. If you want git to expand
+ remove all matching files. If you want Git to expand
file glob characters, you may need to shell-escape them.
A leading directory name
(e.g. `dir` to remove `dir/file1` and `dir/file2`) can be
@@ -74,8 +74,8 @@ DISCUSSION
The <file> list given to the command can be exact pathnames,
file glob patterns, or leading directory names. The command
-removes only the paths that are known to git. Giving the name of
-a file that you have not told git about does not remove that file.
+removes only the paths that are known to Git. Giving the name of
+a file that you have not told Git about does not remove that file.
File globbing matches across directory boundaries. Thus, given
two directories `d` and `d2`, there is a difference between
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@ git diff --name-only --diff-filter=D -z | xargs -0 git rm --cached
Submodules
~~~~~~~~~~
Only submodules using a gitfile (which means they were cloned
-with a git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
+with a Git version 1.7.8 or newer) will be removed from the work
tree, as their repository lives inside the .git directory of the
superproject. If a submodule (or one of those nested inside it)
still uses a .git directory, `git rm` will fail - no matter if forced
@@ -149,6 +149,10 @@ files that aren't ignored are present in the submodules work tree.
Ignored files are deemed expendable and won't stop a submodule's work
tree from being removed.
+If you only want to remove the local checkout of a submodule from your
+work tree without committing the removal,
+use linkgit:git-submodule[1] `deinit` instead.
+
EXAMPLES
--------
`git rm Documentation/\*.txt`::
@@ -156,7 +160,7 @@ EXAMPLES
`Documentation` directory and any of its subdirectories.
+
Note that the asterisk `*` is quoted from the shell in this
-example; this lets git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames
+example; this lets Git, and not the shell, expand the pathnames
of files and subdirectories under the `Documentation/` directory.
`git rm -f git-*.sh`::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index eeb561c..40a9a9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -45,8 +45,9 @@ Composing
~~~~~~~~~
--annotate::
- Review and edit each patch you're about to send. See the
- CONFIGURATION section for 'sendemail.multiedit'.
+ Review and edit each patch you're about to send. Default is the value
+ of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
+ 'sendemail.multiedit'.
--bcc=<address>::
Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
@@ -67,7 +68,7 @@ The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
(what you type after the headers and a blank line) only contains blank
-(or GIT: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
+(or Git: prefixed) lines the summary won't be sent, but From, Subject,
and In-Reply-To headers will be used unless they are removed.
+
Missing From or In-Reply-To headers will be prompted for.
@@ -164,8 +165,8 @@ Sending
Furthermore, passwords need not be specified in configuration files
or on the command line. If a username has been specified (with
'--smtp-user' or a 'sendemail.smtpuser'), but no password has been
-specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then the
-user is prompted for a password while the input is masked for privacy.
+specified (with '--smtp-pass' or 'sendemail.smtppass'), then
+a password is obtained using 'git-credential'.
--smtp-server=<host>::
If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index bd3eaa6..dc3a568 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-send-pack(1)
NAME
----
-git-send-pack - Push objects over git protocol to another repository
+git-send-pack - Push objects over Git protocol to another repository
SYNOPSIS
diff --git a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
index 5e5f1c8..5d709d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-sh-setup.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-sh-setup(1)
NAME
----
-git-sh-setup - Common git shell script setup code
+git-sh-setup - Common Git shell script setup code
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ Porcelain-ish scripts and/or are writing new ones.
The 'git sh-setup' scriptlet is designed to be sourced (using
`.`) by other shell scripts to set up some variables pointing at
-the normal git directories and a few helper shell functions.
+the normal Git directories and a few helper shell functions.
Before sourcing it, your script should set up a few variables;
`USAGE` (and `LONG_USAGE`, if any) is used to define message
@@ -82,6 +82,12 @@ get_author_ident_from_commit::
outputs code for use with eval to set the GIT_AUTHOR_NAME,
GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL and GIT_AUTHOR_DATE variables for a given commit.
+create_virtual_base::
+ modifies the first file so only lines in common with the
+ second file remain. If there is insufficient common material,
+ then the first file is left empty. The result is suitable
+ as a virtual base input for a 3-way merge.
+
GIT
---
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shell.txt b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
index 9b92506..c35051b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shell.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shell.txt
@@ -9,25 +9,81 @@ git-shell - Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH access
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-'git shell' [-c <command> <argument>]
+'chsh' -s $(command -v git-shell) <user>
+'git clone' <user>`@localhost:/path/to/repo.git`
+'ssh' <user>`@localhost`
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-A login shell for SSH accounts to provide restricted Git access. When
-'-c' is given, the program executes <command> non-interactively;
-<command> can be one of 'git receive-pack', 'git upload-pack', 'git
-upload-archive', 'cvs server', or a command in COMMAND_DIR. The shell
-is started in interactive mode when no arguments are given; in this
-case, COMMAND_DIR must exist, and any of the executables in it can be
-invoked.
+This is a login shell for SSH accounts to provide restricted Git access.
+It permits execution only of server-side Git commands implementing the
+pull/push functionality, plus custom commands present in a subdirectory
+named `git-shell-commands` in the user's home directory.
-'cvs server' is a special command which executes git-cvsserver.
+COMMANDS
+--------
+
+'git shell' accepts the following commands after the '-c' option:
+
+'git receive-pack <argument>'::
+'git upload-pack <argument>'::
+'git upload-archive <argument>'::
+ Call the corresponding server-side command to support
+ the client's 'git push', 'git fetch', or 'git archive --remote'
+ request.
+'cvs server'::
+ Imitate a CVS server. See linkgit:git-cvsserver[1].
+
+If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell' will
+also handle other, custom commands by running
+"`git-shell-commands/<command> <arguments>`" from the user's home
+directory.
+
+INTERACTIVE USE
+---------------
+
+By default, the commands above can be executed only with the '-c'
+option; the shell is not interactive.
-COMMAND_DIR is the path "$HOME/git-shell-commands". The user must have
-read and execute permissions to the directory in order to execute the
-programs in it. The programs are executed with a cwd of $HOME, and
-<argument> is parsed as a command-line string.
+If a `~/git-shell-commands` directory is present, 'git shell'
+can also be run interactively (with no arguments). If a `help`
+command is present in the `git-shell-commands` directory, it is
+run to provide the user with an overview of allowed actions. Then a
+"git> " prompt is presented at which one can enter any of the
+commands from the `git-shell-commands` directory, or `exit` to close
+the connection.
+
+Generally this mode is used as an administrative interface to allow
+users to list repositories they have access to, create, delete, or
+rename repositories, or change repository descriptions and
+permissions.
+
+If a `no-interactive-login` command exists, then it is run and the
+interactive shell is aborted.
+
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+To disable interactive logins, displaying a greeting instead:
++
+----------------
+$ chsh -s /usr/bin/git-shell
+$ mkdir $HOME/git-shell-commands
+$ cat >$HOME/git-shell-commands/no-interactive-login <<\EOF
+#!/bin/sh
+printf '%s\n' "Hi $USER! You've successfully authenticated, but I do not"
+printf '%s\n' "provide interactive shell access."
+exit 128
+EOF
+$ chmod +x $HOME/git-shell-commands/no-interactive-login
+----------------
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+ssh(1),
+linkgit:git-daemon[1],
+contrib/git-shell-commands/README
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index c308e91..31af7f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-shortlog - Summarize 'git log' output
SYNOPSIS
--------
[verse]
-git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [-h] [-n] [-s] [-e] [-w]
-'git shortlog' [-n|--numbered] [-s|--summary] [-e|--email] [-w[<width>[,<indent1>[,<indent2>]]]] <commit>...
+git log --pretty=short | 'git shortlog' [<options>]
+'git shortlog' [<options>] [<revision range>] [[\--] <path>...]
DESCRIPTION
-----------
@@ -26,10 +26,6 @@ reference to the current repository.
OPTIONS
-------
--h::
---help::
- Print a short usage message and exit.
-
-n::
--numbered::
Sort output according to the number of commits per author instead
@@ -60,6 +56,21 @@ OPTIONS
If width is `0` (zero) then indent the lines of the output without wrapping
them.
+<revision range>::
+ Show only commits in the specified revision range. When no
+ <revision range> is specified, it defaults to `HEAD` (i.e. the
+ whole history leading to the current commit). `origin..HEAD`
+ specifies all the commits reachable from the current commit
+ (i.e. `HEAD`), but not from `origin`. For a complete list of
+ ways to spell <revision range>, see the "Specifying Ranges"
+ section of linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
+
+[\--] <path>...::
+ Consider only commits that are enough to explain how the files
+ that match the specified paths came to be.
++
+Paths may need to be prefixed with "\-- " to separate them from
+options or the revision range, when confusion arises.
MAPPING AUTHORS
---------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index a8e77b5..a515648 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@ no <rev> nor <glob> is given on the command line.
OPTIONS
-------
<rev>::
- Arbitrary extended SHA1 expression (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7])
+ Arbitrary extended SHA-1 expression (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7])
that typically names a branch head or a tag.
<glob>::
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ displayed, indented N places. If a commit is on the I-th
branch, the I-th indentation character shows a `+` sign;
otherwise it shows a space. Merge commits are denoted by
a `-` sign. Each commit shows a short name that
-can be used as an extended SHA1 to name that commit.
+can be used as an extended SHA-1 to name that commit.
The following example shows three branches, "master", "fixes"
and "mhf":
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index 2dcbbb2..fbdc8ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -14,12 +14,12 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with
+Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with
'git pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
-offset and SHA1 of each object.
+offset and SHA-1 of each object.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index 5dbcd47..de4d352 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -50,8 +50,8 @@ OPTIONS
-s::
--hash[=<n>]::
- Only show the SHA1 hash, not the reference name. When combined with
- --dereference the dereferenced tag will still be shown after the SHA1.
+ Only show the SHA-1 hash, not the reference name. When combined with
+ --dereference the dereferenced tag will still be shown after the SHA-1.
--verify::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 9f1ef9a..9046df9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@ DESCRIPTION
Displays paths that have differences between the index file and the
current HEAD commit, paths that have differences between the working
tree and the index file, and paths in the working tree that are not
-tracked by git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
+tracked by Git (and are not ignored by linkgit:gitignore[5]). The first
are what you _would_ commit by running `git commit`; the second and
third are what you _could_ commit by running 'git add' before running
`git commit`.
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ OPTIONS
--porcelain::
Give the output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
This is similar to the short output, but will remain stable
- across git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
+ across Git versions and regardless of user configuration. See
below for details.
--long::
@@ -46,15 +46,21 @@ OPTIONS
Show untracked files.
+
The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
-specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
-default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
+specify the handling of untracked files.
+
The possible options are:
+
- - 'no' - Show no untracked files
- - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
+ - 'no' - Show no untracked files.
+ - 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories.
- 'all' - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
+
+When `-u` option is not used, untracked files and directories are
+shown (i.e. the same as specifying `normal`), to help you avoid
+forgetting to add newly created files. Because it takes extra work
+to find untracked files in the filesystem, this mode may take some
+time in a large working tree. You can use `no` to have `git status`
+return more quickly without showing untracked files.
++
The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
@@ -96,7 +102,7 @@ The default, long format, is designed to be human readable,
verbose and descriptive. Its contents and format are subject to change
at any time.
-The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other git commands, are
+The paths mentioned in the output, unlike many other Git commands, are
made relative to the current directory if you are working in a
subdirectory (this is on purpose, to help cutting and pasting). See
the status.relativePaths config option below.
@@ -168,7 +174,7 @@ Porcelain Format
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The porcelain format is similar to the short format, but is guaranteed
-not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between git versions or
+not to change in a backwards-incompatible way between Git versions or
based on user configuration. This makes it ideal for parsing by scripts.
The description of the short format above also describes the porcelain
format, with a few exceptions:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
index a80d946..c87bfcb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Clean the input in the manner used by 'git' for text such as commit
+Clean the input in the manner used by Git for text such as commit
messages, notes, tags and branch descriptions.
With no arguments, this will:
@@ -35,7 +35,13 @@ OPTIONS
-------
-s::
--strip-comments::
- Skip and remove all lines starting with '#'.
+ Skip and remove all lines starting with comment character (default '#').
+
+-c::
+--comment-lines::
+ Prepend comment character and blank to each line. Lines will automatically
+ be terminated with a newline. On empty lines, only the comment character
+ will be prepended.
EXAMPLES
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 3493784..e576713 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -13,8 +13,10 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
-'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [-N|--no-fetch] [-f|--force] [--rebase]
- [--reference <repository>] [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] [--] <path>...
+'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
+ [-f|--force] [--rebase] [--reference <repository>]
+ [--merge] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
[commit] [--] [<path>...]
'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
@@ -75,6 +77,8 @@ argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
"humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
+The <path> is also used as the submodule's logical name in its
+configuration entries unless `--name` is used to specify a logical name.
+
<repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
@@ -91,7 +95,7 @@ working directory is used instead.
<path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule to
exist in the superproject. If <path> does not exist, then the
submodule is created by cloning from the named URL. If <path> does
-exist and is already a valid git repository, then this is added
+exist and is already a valid Git repository, then this is added
to the changeset without cloning. This second form is provided
to ease creating a new submodule from scratch, and presumes
the user will later push the submodule to the given URL.
@@ -122,8 +126,10 @@ linkgit:git-status[1] and linkgit:git-diff[1] will provide that information
too (and can also report changes to a submodule's work tree).
init::
- Initialize the submodules, i.e. register each submodule name
- and url found in .gitmodules into .git/config.
+ Initialize the submodules recorded in the index (which were
+ added and committed elsewhere) by copying submodule
+ names and urls from .gitmodules to .git/config.
+ Optional <path> arguments limit which submodules will be initialized.
It will also copy the value of `submodule.$name.update` into
.git/config.
The key used in .git/config is `submodule.$name.url`.
@@ -134,6 +140,19 @@ init::
the explicit 'init' step if you do not intend to customize
any submodule locations.
+deinit::
+ Unregister the given submodules, i.e. remove the whole
+ `submodule.$name` section from .git/config together with their work
+ tree. Further calls to `git submodule update`, `git submodule foreach`
+ and `git submodule sync` will skip any unregistered submodules until
+ they are initialized again, so use this command if you don't want to
+ have a local checkout of the submodule in your work tree anymore. If
+ you really want to remove a submodule from the repository and commit
+ that use linkgit:git-rm[1] instead.
++
+If `--force` is specified, the submodule's work tree will be removed even if
+it contains local modifications.
+
update::
Update the registered submodules, i.e. clone missing submodules and
checkout the commit specified in the index of the containing repository.
@@ -208,11 +227,15 @@ OPTIONS
-b::
--branch::
Branch of repository to add as submodule.
+ The name of the branch is recorded as `submodule.<path>.branch` in
+ `.gitmodules` for `update --remote`.
-f::
--force::
- This option is only valid for add and update commands.
+ This option is only valid for add, deinit and update commands.
When running add, allow adding an otherwise ignored submodule path.
+ When running deinit the submodule work trees will be removed even if
+ they contain local changes.
When running update, throw away local changes in submodules when
switching to a different commit; and always run a checkout operation
in the submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
@@ -236,6 +259,27 @@ OPTIONS
(the default). This limit only applies to modified submodules. The
size is always limited to 1 for added/deleted/typechanged submodules.
+--remote::
+ This option is only valid for the update command. Instead of using
+ the superproject's recorded SHA-1 to update the submodule, use the
+ status of the submodule's remote tracking branch. The remote used
+ is branch's remote (`branch.<name>.remote`), defaulting to `origin`.
+ The remote branch used defaults to `master`, but the branch name may
+ be overridden by setting the `submodule.<name>.branch` option in
+ either `.gitmodules` or `.git/config` (with `.git/config` taking
+ precedence).
++
+This works for any of the supported update procedures (`--checkout`,
+`--rebase`, etc.). The only change is the source of the target SHA-1.
+For example, `submodule update --remote --merge` will merge upstream
+submodule changes into the submodules, while `submodule update
+--merge` will merge superproject gitlink changes into the submodules.
++
+In order to ensure a current tracking branch state, `update --remote`
+fetches the submodule's remote repository before calculating the
+SHA-1. If you don't want to fetch, you should use `submodule update
+--remote --no-fetch`.
+
-N::
--no-fetch::
This option is only valid for the update command.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 69decb1..aad452f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-svn(1)
NAME
----
-git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and git
+git-svn - Bidirectional operation between a Subversion repository and Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,8 +12,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and git.
-It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a git
+'git svn' is a simple conduit for changesets between Subversion and Git.
+It provides a bidirectional flow of changes between a Subversion and a Git
repository.
'git svn' can track a standard Subversion repository,
@@ -21,15 +21,15 @@ following the common "trunk/branches/tags" layout, with the --stdlayout option.
It can also follow branches and tags in any layout with the -T/-t/-b options
(see options to 'init' below, and also the 'clone' command).
-Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the git
+Once tracking a Subversion repository (with any of the above methods), the Git
repository can be updated from Subversion by the 'fetch' command and
-Subversion updated from git by the 'dcommit' command.
+Subversion updated from Git by the 'dcommit' command.
COMMANDS
--------
'init'::
- Initializes an empty git repository with additional
+ Initializes an empty Git repository with additional
metadata directories for 'git svn'. The Subversion URL
may be specified as a command-line argument, or as full
URL arguments to -T/-t/-b. Optionally, the target
@@ -85,6 +85,10 @@ COMMANDS
When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
of '--ignore-paths'.
+--include-paths=<regex>;;
+ When passed to 'init' or 'clone' this regular expression will
+ be preserved as a config key. See 'fetch' for a description
+ of '--include-paths'.
--no-minimize-url;;
When tracking multiple directories (using --stdlayout,
--branches, or --tags options), git svn will attempt to connect
@@ -146,6 +150,14 @@ Skip "branches" and "tags" of first level directories;;
------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
+--include-paths=<regex>;;
+ This allows one to specify a Perl regular expression that will
+ cause the inclusion of only matching paths from checkout from SVN.
+ The '--include-paths' option should match for every 'fetch'
+ (including automatic fetches due to 'clone', 'dcommit',
+ 'rebase', etc) on a given repository. '--ignore-paths' takes
+ precedence over '--include-paths'.
+
--log-window-size=<n>;;
Fetch <n> log entries per request when scanning Subversion history.
The default is 100. For very large Subversion repositories, larger
@@ -199,9 +211,9 @@ and have no uncommitted changes.
Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
not there is a diff between SVN and head). This will create
- a revision in SVN for each commit in git.
+ a revision in SVN for each commit in Git.
+
-When an optional git branch name (or a git commit object name)
+When an optional Git branch name (or a Git commit object name)
is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified
branch, not on the current branch.
+
@@ -245,7 +257,7 @@ first have already been pushed into SVN.
patch), "all" (accept all patches), or "quit".
+
'git svn dcommit' returns immediately if answer if "no" or "quit", without
- commiting anything to SVN.
+ committing anything to SVN.
'branch'::
Create a branch in the SVN repository.
@@ -259,13 +271,15 @@ first have already been pushed into SVN.
Create a tag by using the tags_subdir instead of the branches_subdir
specified during git svn init.
--d;;
---destination;;
+-d<path>;;
+--destination=<path>;;
+
If more than one --branches (or --tags) option was given to the 'init'
or 'clone' command, you must provide the location of the branch (or
- tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. The value of this
- option must match one of the paths specified by a --branches (or
- --tags) option. You can see these paths with the commands
+ tag) you wish to create in the SVN repository. <path> specifies which
+ path to use to create the branch or tag and should match the pattern
+ on the left-hand side of one of the configured branches or tags
+ refspecs. You can see these refspecs with the commands
+
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.branches
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.tags
@@ -286,6 +300,11 @@ where <name> is the name of the SVN repository as specified by the -R option to
git config --get-all svn-remote.<name>.commiturl
+
+--parents;;
+ Create parent folders. This parameter is equivalent to the parameter
+ --parents on svn cp commands and is useful for non-standard repository
+ layouts.
+
'tag'::
Create a tag in the SVN repository. This is a shorthand for
'branch -t'.
@@ -316,7 +335,7 @@ New features:
+
--
--show-commit;;
- shows the git commit sha1, as well
+ shows the Git commit sha1, as well
--oneline;;
our version of --pretty=oneline
--
@@ -337,15 +356,25 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
+
--git-format;;
Produce output in the same format as 'git blame', but with
- SVN revision numbers instead of git commit hashes. In this mode,
+ SVN revision numbers instead of Git commit hashes. In this mode,
changes that haven't been committed to SVN (including local
working-copy edits) are shown as revision 0.
'find-rev'::
When given an SVN revision number of the form 'rN', returns the
- corresponding git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
+ corresponding Git commit hash (this can optionally be followed by a
tree-ish to specify which branch should be searched). When given a
tree-ish, returns the corresponding SVN revision number.
++
+--before;;
+ Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision, instead find
+ the commit corresponding to the state of the SVN repository (on the
+ current branch) at the specified revision.
++
+--after;;
+ Don't require an exact match if given an SVN revision; if there is
+ not an exact match return the closest match searching forward in the
+ history.
'set-tree'::
You should consider using 'dcommit' instead of this command.
@@ -368,7 +397,7 @@ Any other arguments are passed directly to 'git log'
the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
'mkdirs'::
- Attempts to recreate empty directories that core git cannot track
+ Attempts to recreate empty directories that core Git cannot track
based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
"git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
@@ -500,9 +529,9 @@ order. Only the leading sha1 is read from each line, so
+
Remove directories from the SVN tree if there are no files left
behind. SVN can version empty directories, and they are not
-removed by default if there are no files left in them. git
+removed by default if there are no files left in them. Git
cannot version empty directories. Enabling this flag will make
-the commit to SVN act like git.
+the commit to SVN act like Git.
+
[verse]
config key: svn.rmdir
@@ -589,7 +618,7 @@ Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
This can be used with the 'dcommit', 'rebase', 'branch' and
'tag' commands.
+
-For 'dcommit', print out the series of git arguments that would show
+For 'dcommit', print out the series of Git arguments that would show
which diffs would be committed to SVN.
+
For 'rebase', display the local branch associated with the upstream svn
@@ -600,14 +629,14 @@ For 'branch' and 'tag', display the urls that will be used for copying when
creating the branch or tag.
--use-log-author::
- When retrieving svn commits into git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
+ When retrieving svn commits into Git (as part of 'fetch', 'rebase', or
'dcommit' operations), look for the first `From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line
in the log message and use that as the author string.
--add-author-from::
- When committing to svn from git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
+ When committing to svn from Git (as part of 'commit-diff', 'set-tree' or 'dcommit'
operations), if the existing log message doesn't already have a
`From:` or `Signed-off-by:` line, append a `From:` line based on the
- git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
+ Git commit's author string. If you use this, then `--use-log-author`
will retrieve a valid author string for all commits.
@@ -632,7 +661,7 @@ ADVANCED OPTIONS
one of the repository layout options --trunk, --tags,
--branches, --stdlayout). For each tracked branch, try to find
out where its revision was copied from, and set
- a suitable parent in the first git commit for the branch.
+ a suitable parent in the first Git commit for the branch.
This is especially helpful when we're tracking a directory
that has been moved around within the repository. If this
feature is disabled, the branches created by 'git svn' will all
@@ -664,7 +693,7 @@ option for (hopefully) obvious reasons.
+
This option is NOT recommended as it makes it difficult to track down
old references to SVN revision numbers in existing documentation, bug
-reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to git
+reports and archives. If you plan to eventually migrate from SVN to Git
and are certain about dropping SVN history, consider
linkgit:git-filter-branch[1] instead. filter-branch also allows
reformatting of metadata for ease-of-reading and rewriting authorship
@@ -704,7 +733,7 @@ svn-remote.<name>.rewriteUUID::
svn-remote.<name>.pushurl::
- Similar to git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
+ Similar to Git's 'remote.<name>.pushurl', this key is designed
to be used in cases where 'url' points to an SVN repository
via a read-only transport, to provide an alternate read/write
transport. It is assumed that both keys point to the same
@@ -758,15 +787,15 @@ Tracking and contributing to the trunk of a Subversion-managed project
cd trunk
# You should be on master branch, double-check with 'git branch'
git branch
-# Do some work and commit locally to git:
+# Do some work and commit locally to Git:
git commit ...
# Something is committed to SVN, rebase your local changes against the
# latest changes in SVN:
git svn rebase
-# Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using git) to SVN,
+# Now commit your changes (that were committed previously using Git) to SVN,
# as well as automatically updating your working HEAD:
git svn dcommit
-# Append svn:ignore settings to the default git exclude file:
+# Append svn:ignore settings to the default Git exclude file:
git svn show-ignore >> .git/info/exclude
------------------------------------------------------------------------
@@ -806,7 +835,7 @@ have each person clone that repository with 'git clone':
git remote add origin server:/pub/project
git config --replace-all remote.origin.fetch '+refs/remotes/*:refs/remotes/*'
git fetch
-# Prevent fetch/pull from remote git server in the future,
+# Prevent fetch/pull from remote Git server in the future,
# we only want to use git svn for future updates
git config --remove-section remote.origin
# Create a local branch from one of the branches just fetched
@@ -839,14 +868,14 @@ While 'git svn' can track
copy history (including branches and tags) for repositories adopting a
standard layout, it cannot yet represent merge history that happened
inside git back upstream to SVN users. Therefore it is advised that
-users keep history as linear as possible inside git to ease
+users keep history as linear as possible inside Git to ease
compatibility with SVN (see the CAVEATS section below).
HANDLING OF SVN BRANCHES
------------------------
If 'git svn' is configured to fetch branches (and --follow-branches
-is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple git branches for one
-SVN branch, where the addtional branches have names of the form
+is in effect), it sometimes creates multiple Git branches for one
+SVN branch, where the additional branches have names of the form
'branchname@nnn' (with nnn an SVN revision number). These additional
branches are created if 'git svn' cannot find a parent commit for the
first commit in an SVN branch, to connect the branch to the history of
@@ -855,17 +884,17 @@ the other branches.
Normally, the first commit in an SVN branch consists
of a copy operation. 'git svn' will read this commit to get the SVN
revision the branch was created from. It will then try to find the
-git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
+Git commit that corresponds to this SVN revision, and use that as the
parent of the branch. However, it is possible that there is no suitable
-git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
+Git commit to serve as parent. This will happen, among other reasons,
if the SVN branch is a copy of a revision that was not fetched by 'git
svn' (e.g. because it is an old revision that was skipped with
'--revision'), or if in SVN a directory was copied that is not tracked
by 'git svn' (such as a branch that is not tracked at all, or a
subdirectory of a tracked branch). In these cases, 'git svn' will still
-create a git branch, but instead of using an existing git commit as the
+create a Git branch, but instead of using an existing Git commit as the
parent of the branch, it will read the SVN history of the directory the
-branch was copied from and create appropriate git commits. This is
+branch was copied from and create appropriate Git commits. This is
indicated by the message "Initializing parent: <branchname>".
Additionally, it will create a special branch named
@@ -875,15 +904,15 @@ created parent commit of the branch. If in SVN the branch was deleted
and later recreated from a different version, there will be multiple
such branches with an '@'.
-Note that this may mean that multiple git commits are created for a
+Note that this may mean that multiple Git commits are created for a
single SVN revision.
An example: in an SVN repository with a standard
trunk/tags/branches layout, a directory trunk/sub is created in r.100.
In r.200, trunk/sub is branched by copying it to branches/. 'git svn
-clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new git
+clone -s' will then create a branch 'sub'. It will also create new Git
commits for r.100 through r.199 and use these as the history of branch
-'sub'. Thus there will be two git commits for each revision from r.100
+'sub'. Thus there will be two Git commits for each revision from r.100
to r.199 (one containing trunk/, one containing trunk/sub/). Finally,
it will create a branch 'sub@200' pointing to the new parent commit of
branch 'sub' (i.e. the commit for r.200 and trunk/sub/).
@@ -894,13 +923,13 @@ CAVEATS
For the sake of simplicity and interoperating with Subversion,
it is recommended that all 'git svn' users clone, fetch and dcommit
directly from the SVN server, and avoid all 'git clone'/'pull'/'merge'/'push'
-operations between git repositories and branches. The recommended
-method of exchanging code between git branches and users is
+operations between Git repositories and branches. The recommended
+method of exchanging code between Git branches and users is
'git format-patch' and 'git am', or just 'dcommit'ing to the SVN repository.
Running 'git merge' or 'git pull' is NOT recommended on a branch you
plan to 'dcommit' from because Subversion users cannot see any
-merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a git branch
+merges you've made. Furthermore, if you merge or pull from a Git branch
that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
branch.
@@ -919,7 +948,7 @@ any 'git svn' metadata, or config. So repositories created and managed with
using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
at all.
-Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any git branches you 'git push' to
+Since 'dcommit' uses rebase internally, any Git branches you 'git push' to
before 'dcommit' on will require forcing an overwrite of the existing ref
on the remote repository. This is generally considered bad practice,
see the linkgit:git-push[1] documentation for details.
@@ -931,7 +960,7 @@ dcommit with SVN is analogous to that.
When cloning an SVN repository, if none of the options for describing
the repository layout is used (--trunk, --tags, --branches,
---stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a git repository with
+--stdlayout), 'git svn clone' will create a Git repository with
completely linear history, where branches and tags appear as separate
directories in the working copy. While this is the easiest way to get a
copy of a complete repository, for projects with many branches it will
@@ -947,7 +976,7 @@ branches and tags is required, the options '--trunk' / '--branches' /
When using multiple --branches or --tags, 'git svn' does not automatically
handle name collisions (for example, if two branches from different paths have
the same name, or if a branch and a tag have the same name). In these cases,
-use 'init' to set up your git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
+use 'init' to set up your Git repository then, before your first 'fetch', edit
the .git/config file so that the branches and tags are associated with
different name spaces. For example:
@@ -960,12 +989,12 @@ BUGS
We ignore all SVN properties except svn:executable. Any unhandled
properties are logged to $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log
-Renamed and copied directories are not detected by git and hence not
+Renamed and copied directories are not detected by Git and hence not
tracked when committing to SVN. I do not plan on adding support for
this as it's quite difficult and time-consuming to get working for all
-the possible corner cases (git doesn't do it, either). Committing
+the possible corner cases (Git doesn't do it, either). Committing
renamed and copied files is fully supported if they're similar enough
-for git to detect them.
+for Git to detect them.
In SVN, it is possible (though discouraged) to commit changes to a tag
(because a tag is just a directory copy, thus technically the same as a
@@ -977,7 +1006,7 @@ CONFIGURATION
-------------
'git svn' stores [svn-remote] configuration information in the
-repository .git/config file. It is similar the core git
+repository .git/config file. It is similar the core Git
[remote] sections except 'fetch' keys do not accept glob
arguments; but they are instead handled by the 'branches'
and 'tags' keys. Since some SVN repositories are oddly
@@ -1010,6 +1039,25 @@ comma-separated list of names within braces. For example:
tags = tags/{1.0,2.0}/src:refs/remotes/tags/*
------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Multiple fetch, branches, and tags keys are supported:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+[svn-remote "messy-repo"]
+ url = http://server.org/svn
+ fetch = trunk/project-a:refs/remotes/project-a/trunk
+ fetch = branches/demos/june-project-a-demo:refs/remotes/project-a/demos/june-demo
+ branches = branches/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/branches/*
+ branches = branches/demos/2011/*:refs/remotes/project-a/2011-demos/*
+ tags = tags/server/*:refs/remotes/project-a/tags/*
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Creating a branch in such a configuration requires disambiguating which
+location to use using the -d or --destination flag:
+
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$ git svn branch -d branches/server release-2-3-0
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+
Note that git-svn keeps track of the highest revision in which a branch
or tag has appeared. If the subset of branches or tags is changed after
fetching, then .git/svn/.metadata must be manually edited to remove (or
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index ea28e39..22894cb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@ in the tag message.
If `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given and `-a`, `-s`, and `-u <key-id>`
are absent, `-a` is implied.
-Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA1 object name of the commit object is
+Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA-1 object name of the commit object is
created (i.e. a lightweight tag).
A GnuPG signed tag object will be created when `-s` or `-u
@@ -248,7 +248,7 @@ $ git pull git://git..../proj.git master
In such a case, you do not want to automatically follow the other
person's tags.
-One important aspect of git is its distributed nature, which
+One important aspect of Git is its distributed nature, which
largely means there is no inherent "upstream" or
"downstream" in the system. On the face of it, the above
example might seem to indicate that the tag namespace is owned
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tools.txt b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
index a96403c..78a0d95 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tools.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tools.txt
@@ -1,11 +1,11 @@
-A short git tools survey
+A short Git tools survey
========================
Introduction
------------
-Apart from git contrib/ area there are some others third-party tools
+Apart from Git contrib/ area there are some others third-party tools
you may want to look.
This document presents a brief summary of each tool and the corresponding
@@ -17,26 +17,26 @@ Alternative/Augmentative Porcelains
- *Cogito* (http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/cogito/)
- Cogito is a version control system layered on top of the git tree history
+ Cogito is a version control system layered on top of the Git tree history
storage system. It aims at seamless user interface and ease of use,
- providing generally smoother user experience than the "raw" Core GIT
+ providing generally smoother user experience than the "raw" Core Git
itself and indeed many other version control systems.
Cogito is no longer maintained as most of its functionality
- is now in core GIT.
+ is now in core Git.
- *pg* (http://www.spearce.org/category/projects/scm/pg/)
- pg is a shell script wrapper around GIT to help the user manage a set of
- patches to files. pg is somewhat like quilt or StGIT, but it does have a
+ pg is a shell script wrapper around Git to help the user manage a set of
+ patches to files. pg is somewhat like quilt or StGit, but it does have a
slightly different feature set.
- *StGit* (http://www.procode.org/stgit/)
- Stacked GIT provides a quilt-like patch management functionality in the
- GIT environment. You can easily manage your patches in the scope of GIT
+ Stacked Git provides a quilt-like patch management functionality in the
+ Git environment. You can easily manage your patches in the scope of Git
until they get merged upstream.
@@ -45,33 +45,33 @@ History Viewers
- *gitk* (shipped with git-core)
- gitk is a simple Tk GUI for browsing history of GIT repositories easily.
+ gitk is a simple Tk GUI for browsing history of Git repositories easily.
- *gitview* (contrib/)
- gitview is a GTK based repository browser for git
+ gitview is a GTK based repository browser for Git
- *gitweb* (shipped with git-core)
- GITweb provides full-fledged web interface for GIT repositories.
+ Gitweb provides full-fledged web interface for Git repositories.
- *qgit* (http://digilander.libero.it/mcostalba/)
- QGit is a git/StGIT GUI viewer built on Qt/C++. QGit could be used
+ QGit is a git/StGit GUI viewer built on Qt/C++. QGit could be used
to browse history and directory tree, view annotated files, commit
changes cherry picking single files or applying patches.
- Currently it is the fastest and most feature rich among the git
+ Currently it is the fastest and most feature rich among the Git
viewers and commit tools.
- *tig* (http://jonas.nitro.dk/tig/)
- tig by Jonas Fonseca is a simple git repository browser
+ tig by Jonas Fonseca is a simple Git repository browser
written using ncurses. Basically, it just acts as a front-end
for git-log and git-show/git-diff. Additionally, you can also
- use it as a pager for git commands.
+ use it as a pager for Git commands.
Foreign SCM interface
@@ -80,20 +80,20 @@ Foreign SCM interface
- *git-svn* (shipped with git-core)
git-svn is a simple conduit for changesets between a single Subversion
- branch and git.
+ branch and Git.
- *quilt2git / git2quilt* (http://home-tj.org/wiki/index.php/Misc)
These utilities convert patch series in a quilt repository and commit
- series in git back and forth.
+ series in Git back and forth.
- *hg-to-git* (contrib/)
- hg-to-git converts a Mercurial repository into a git one, and
+ hg-to-git converts a Mercurial repository into a Git one, and
preserves the full branch history in the process. hg-to-git can
- also be used in an incremental way to keep the git repository
+ also be used in an incremental way to keep the Git repository
in sync with the master Mercurial repository.
@@ -102,14 +102,14 @@ Others
- *(h)gct* (http://www.cyd.liu.se/users/~freku045/gct/)
- Commit Tool or (h)gct is a GUI enabled commit tool for git and
+ Commit Tool or (h)gct is a GUI enabled commit tool for Git and
Mercurial (hg). It allows the user to view diffs, select which files
to committed (or ignored / reverted) write commit messages and
perform the commit itself.
- *git.el* (contrib/)
- This is an Emacs interface for git. The user interface is modeled on
+ This is an Emacs interface for Git. The user interface is modelled on
pcl-cvs. It has been developed on Emacs 21 and will probably need some
tweaking to work on XEmacs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index dd36d13..e0a8702 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,8 @@ SYNOPSIS
[--refresh] [-q] [--unmerged] [--ignore-missing]
[(--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>)...]
[--chmod=(+|-)x]
- [--assume-unchanged | --no-assume-unchanged]
- [--skip-worktree | --no-skip-worktree]
+ [--[no-]assume-unchanged]
+ [--[no-]skip-worktree]
[--ignore-submodules]
[--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
[--info-only] [--index-info]
@@ -77,15 +77,14 @@ OPTIONS
--chmod=(+|-)x::
Set the execute permissions on the updated files.
---assume-unchanged::
---no-assume-unchanged::
+--[no-]assume-unchanged::
When these flags are specified, the object names recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "assume unchanged" bit for the
- paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, git stops
+ paths. When the "assume unchanged" bit is on, Git stops
checking the working tree files for possible
modifications, so you need to manually unset the bit to
- tell git when you change the working tree file. This is
+ tell Git when you change the working tree file. This is
sometimes helpful when working with a big project on a
filesystem that has very slow lstat(2) system call
(e.g. cifs).
@@ -102,8 +101,7 @@ you will need to handle the situation manually.
Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.
---skip-worktree::
---no-skip-worktree::
+--[no-]skip-worktree::
When one of these flags is specified, the object name recorded
for the paths are not updated. Instead, these options
set and unset the "skip-worktree" bit for the paths. See
@@ -247,7 +245,7 @@ $ git update-index --index-info
------------
The first line of the input feeds 0 as the mode to remove the
-path; the SHA1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
+path; the SHA-1 does not matter as long as it is well formatted.
Then the second and third line feeds stage 1 and stage 2 entries
for that path. After the above, we would end up with this:
@@ -261,18 +259,18 @@ $ git ls-files -s
Using ``assume unchanged'' bit
------------------------------
-Many operations in git depend on your filesystem to have an
+Many operations in Git depend on your filesystem to have an
efficient `lstat(2)` implementation, so that `st_mtime`
information for working tree files can be cheaply checked to see
if the file contents have changed from the version recorded in
the index file. Unfortunately, some filesystems have
inefficient `lstat(2)`. If your filesystem is one of them, you
can set "assume unchanged" bit to paths you have not changed to
-cause git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
-path does not mean git will check the contents of the file to
-see if it has changed -- it makes git to omit any checking and
+cause Git not to do this check. Note that setting this bit on a
+path does not mean Git will check the contents of the file to
+see if it has changed -- it makes Git to omit any checking and
assume it has *not* changed. When you make changes to working
-tree files, you have to explicitly tell git about it by dropping
+tree files, you have to explicitly tell Git about it by dropping
"assume unchanged" bit, either before or after you modify them.
In order to set "assume unchanged" bit, use `--assume-unchanged`
@@ -282,7 +280,7 @@ have the "assume unchanged" bit set, use `git ls-files -v`
The command looks at `core.ignorestat` configuration variable. When
this is true, paths updated with `git update-index paths...` and
-paths updated with other git commands that update both index and
+paths updated with other Git commands that update both index and
working tree (e.g. 'git apply --index', 'git checkout-index -u',
and 'git read-tree -u') are automatically marked as "assume
unchanged". Note that "assume unchanged" bit is *not* set if
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index d377a35..0df13ff 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@ in ref value. Log lines are formatted as:
Where "oldsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value previously
stored in <ref>, "newsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value of
<newvalue> and "committer" is the committer's name, email address
-and date in the standard GIT committer ident format.
+and date in the standard Git committer ident format.
Optionally with -m:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index 4d52d38..d09bbb5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
Invoked by 'git archive --remote' and sends a generated archive to the
-other end over the git protocol.
+other end over the Git protocol.
This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user. The UI
for the protocol is on the 'git archive' side, and the program pair
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
index 71f1608..0abc806 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
--strict::
- Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no git directory.
+ Do not try <directory>/.git/ if <directory> is no Git directory.
--timeout=<n>::
Interrupt transfer after <n> seconds of inactivity.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index 67edf58..44ff954 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-var(1)
NAME
----
-git-var - Show a git logical variable
+git-var - Show a Git logical variable
SYNOPSIS
@@ -13,13 +13,13 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Prints a git logical variable.
+Prints a Git logical variable.
OPTIONS
-------
-l::
Cause the logical variables to be listed. In addition, all the
- variables of the git configuration file .git/config are listed
+ variables of the Git configuration file .git/config are listed
as well. (However, the configuration variables listing functionality
is deprecated in favor of `git config -l`.)
@@ -35,10 +35,10 @@ GIT_AUTHOR_IDENT::
The author of a piece of code.
GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT::
- The person who put a piece of code into git.
+ The person who put a piece of code into Git.
GIT_EDITOR::
- Text editor for use by git commands. The value is meant to be
+ Text editor for use by Git commands. The value is meant to be
interpreted by the shell when it is used. Examples: `~/bin/vi`,
`$SOME_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE`, `"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe"
--nofork`. The order of preference is the `$GIT_EDITOR`
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ ifdef::git-default-editor[]
endif::git-default-editor[]
GIT_PAGER::
- Text viewer for use by git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
+ Text viewer for use by Git commands (e.g., 'less'). The value
is meant to be interpreted by the shell. The order of preference
is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then the default chosen at
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
index cd23076..526ba7b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-pack.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-verify-pack(1)
NAME
----
-git-verify-pack - Validate packed git archive files
+git-verify-pack - Validate packed Git archive files
SYNOPSIS
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-Reads given idx file for packed git archive created with the
+Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with the
'git pack-objects' command and verifies idx file and the
corresponding pack file.
@@ -40,11 +40,11 @@ OUTPUT FORMAT
-------------
When specifying the -v option the format used is:
- SHA1 type size size-in-pack-file offset-in-packfile
+ SHA-1 type size size-in-pack-file offset-in-packfile
for objects that are not deltified in the pack, and
- SHA1 type size size-in-packfile offset-in-packfile depth base-SHA1
+ SHA-1 type size size-in-packfile offset-in-packfile depth base-SHA-1
for objects that are deltified.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
index 5ff76e8..f88ba96 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
@@ -21,7 +21,7 @@ OPTIONS
Print the contents of the tag object before validating it.
<tag>...::
- SHA1 identifiers of git tag objects.
+ SHA-1 identifiers of Git tag objects.
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
index c2bc87b..ba79cb4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-web--browse.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ git-web{litdd}browse(1)
NAME
----
-git-web--browse - git helper script to launch a web browser
+git-web--browse - Git helper script to launch a web browser
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ OPTIONS
-c <conf.var>::
--config=<conf.var>::
- CONF.VAR is looked up in the git config files. If it's set,
+ CONF.VAR is looked up in the Git config files. If it's set,
then its value specifies the browser that should be used.
CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
index 6c8f510..c600b61 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-whatchanged.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ This manual page describes only the most frequently used options.
OPTIONS
-------
-p::
- Show textual diffs, instead of the git internal diff
+ Show textual diffs, instead of the Git internal diff
output format that is useful only to tell the changed
paths and their nature of changes.
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ OPTIONS
exclusive, top inclusive).
-r::
- Show git internal diff output, but for the whole tree,
+ Show Git internal diff output, but for the whole tree,
not just the top level.
-m::
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 9129917..8944546 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -27,11 +27,11 @@ commands. The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
in-depth introduction.
After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
-page to learn what commands git offers. You can learn more about
-individual git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
+page to learn what commands Git offers. You can learn more about
+individual Git commands with "git help command". linkgit:gitcli[7]
manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
-Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
+Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest Git documentation
can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
ifdef::stalenotes[]
@@ -39,10 +39,24 @@ ifdef::stalenotes[]
============
You are reading the documentation for the latest (possibly
-unreleased) version of git, that is available from 'master'
+unreleased) version of Git, that is available from 'master'
branch of the `git.git` repository.
Documentation for older releases are available here:
+* link:v1.8.3.1/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.3.1]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt[1.8.3.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.3.txt[1.8.3].
+
+* link:v1.8.2.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.2.3]
+
+* release notes for
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.3.txt[1.8.2.3],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.2.txt[1.8.2.2],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.1.txt[1.8.2.1],
+ link:RelNotes/1.8.2.txt[1.8.2].
+
* link:v1.8.1.6/git.html[documentation for release 1.8.1.6]
* release notes for
@@ -360,12 +374,12 @@ endif::stalenotes[]
OPTIONS
-------
--version::
- Prints the git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
+ Prints the Git suite version that the 'git' program came from.
--help::
Prints the synopsis and a list of the most commonly used
commands. If the option '--all' or '-a' is given then all
- available commands are printed. If a git command is named this
+ available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this
option will bring up the manual page for that command.
+
Other options are available to control how the manual page is
@@ -380,22 +394,22 @@ help ...`.
'git config' (subkeys separated by dots).
--exec-path[=<path>]::
- Path to wherever your core git programs are installed.
+ Path to wherever your core Git programs are installed.
This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
environment variable. If no path is given, 'git' will print
the current setting and then exit.
--html-path::
- Print the path, without trailing slash, where git's HTML
+ Print the path, without trailing slash, where Git's HTML
documentation is installed and exit.
--man-path::
Print the manpath (see `man(1)`) for the man pages for
- this version of git and exit.
+ this version of Git and exit.
--info-path::
Print the path where the Info files documenting this
- version of git are installed and exit.
+ version of Git are installed and exit.
-p::
--paginate::
@@ -405,7 +419,7 @@ help ...`.
below).
--no-pager::
- Do not pipe git output into a pager.
+ Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
--git-dir=<path>::
Set the path to the repository. This can also be controlled by
@@ -421,7 +435,7 @@ help ...`.
more detailed discussion).
--namespace=<path>::
- Set the git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
+ Set the Git namespace. See linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for more
details. Equivalent to setting the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment
variable.
@@ -431,14 +445,19 @@ help ...`.
directory.
--no-replace-objects::
- Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
+ Do not use replacement refs to replace Git objects. See
linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
+--literal-pathspecs::
+ Treat pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. This is
+ equivalent to setting the `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS` environment
+ variable to `1`.
+
GIT COMMANDS
------------
-We divide git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
+We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
("plumbing") commands.
High-level commands (porcelain)
@@ -475,7 +494,7 @@ include::cmds-foreignscminterface.txt[]
Low-level commands (plumbing)
-----------------------------
-Although git includes its
+Although Git includes its
own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are sufficient to support
development of alternative porcelains. Developers of such porcelains
might start by reading about linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
@@ -595,7 +614,7 @@ Identifier Terminology
Symbolic Identifiers
--------------------
-Any git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
+Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following
symbolic notation:
HEAD::
@@ -631,13 +650,13 @@ Please see linkgit:gitglossary[7].
Environment Variables
---------------------
-Various git commands use the following environment variables:
+Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
-The git Repository
+The Git Repository
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-These environment variables apply to 'all' core git commands. Nb: it
+These environment variables apply to 'all' core Git commands. Nb: it
is worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above
-git so take care if using Cogito etc.
+Git so take care if using Cogito etc.
'GIT_INDEX_FILE'::
This environment allows the specification of an alternate
@@ -651,10 +670,10 @@ git so take care if using Cogito etc.
directory is used.
'GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_DIRECTORIES'::
- Due to the immutable nature of git objects, old objects can be
+ Due to the immutable nature of Git objects, old objects can be
archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
- of git object directories which can be used to search for git
+ of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
'GIT_DIR'::
@@ -664,19 +683,17 @@ git so take care if using Cogito etc.
The '--git-dir' command-line option also sets this value.
'GIT_WORK_TREE'::
- Set the path to the working tree. The value will not be
- used in combination with repositories found automatically in
- a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
+ Set the path to the root of the working tree.
This can also be controlled by the '--work-tree' command line
option and the core.worktree configuration variable.
'GIT_NAMESPACE'::
- Set the git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
+ Set the Git namespace; see linkgit:gitnamespaces[7] for details.
The '--namespace' command-line option also sets this value.
'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES'::
This should be a colon-separated list of absolute paths. If
- set, it is a list of directories that git should not chdir up
+ set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir up
into while looking for a repository directory (useful for
excluding slow-loading network directories). It will not
exclude the current working directory or a GIT_DIR set on the
@@ -691,15 +708,15 @@ git so take care if using Cogito etc.
'GIT_DISCOVERY_ACROSS_FILESYSTEM'::
When run in a directory that does not have ".git" repository
- directory, git tries to find such a directory in the parent
+ directory, Git tries to find such a directory in the parent
directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable
- can be set to true to tell git not to stop at filesystem
+ can be set to true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem
boundaries. Like 'GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES', this will not affect
an explicit repository directory set via 'GIT_DIR' or on the
command line.
-git Commits
+Git Commits
~~~~~~~~~~~
'GIT_AUTHOR_NAME'::
'GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL'::
@@ -710,13 +727,13 @@ git Commits
'EMAIL'::
see linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
-git Diffs
+Git Diffs
~~~~~~~~~
'GIT_DIFF_OPTS'::
Only valid setting is "--unified=??" or "-u??" to set the
number of context lines shown when a unified diff is created.
This takes precedence over any "-U" or "--unified" option
- value passed on the git diff command line.
+ value passed on the Git diff command line.
'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF'::
When the environment variable 'GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF' is set, the
@@ -730,7 +747,7 @@ where:
<old|new>-file:: are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read the
contents of <old|new>,
- <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
+ <old|new>-hex:: are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
<old|new>-mode:: are the octal representation of the file modes.
+
The file parameters can point at the user's working file
@@ -751,13 +768,13 @@ other
'GIT_PAGER'::
This environment variable overrides `$PAGER`. If it is set
- to an empty string or to the value "cat", git will not launch
+ to an empty string or to the value "cat", Git will not launch
a pager. See also the `core.pager` option in
linkgit:git-config[1].
'GIT_EDITOR'::
This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
- It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
+ It is used by several Git commands when, on interactive mode,
an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
@@ -781,7 +798,7 @@ personal `.ssh/config` file. Please consult your ssh documentation
for further details.
'GIT_ASKPASS'::
- If this environment variable is set, then git commands which need to
+ If this environment variable is set, then Git commands which need to
acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP authentication)
will call this program with a suitable prompt as command line argument
and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the 'core.askpass'
@@ -798,35 +815,59 @@ for further details.
'GIT_FLUSH'::
If this environment variable is set to "1", then commands such
as 'git blame' (in incremental mode), 'git rev-list', 'git log',
- and 'git whatchanged' will force a flush of the output stream
- after each commit-oriented record have been flushed. If this
+ 'git check-attr', 'git check-ignore', and 'git whatchanged' will
+ force a flush of the output stream after each record have been
+ flushed. If this
variable is set to "0", the output of these commands will be done
using completely buffered I/O. If this environment variable is
- not set, git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
+ not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
'GIT_TRACE'::
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true" (comparison
- is case insensitive), git will print `trace:` messages on
+ is case insensitive), Git will print `trace:` messages on
stderr telling about alias expansion, built-in command
execution and external command execution.
If this variable is set to an integer value greater than 1
- and lower than 10 (strictly) then git will interpret this
+ and lower than 10 (strictly) then Git will interpret this
value as an open file descriptor and will try to write the
trace messages into this file descriptor.
Alternatively, if this variable is set to an absolute path
- (starting with a '/' character), git will interpret this
+ (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
into it.
+'GIT_TRACE_PACK_ACCESS'::
+ If this variable is set to a path, a file will be created at
+ the given path logging all accesses to any packs. For each
+ access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
+ recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some
+ pack-related performance problems.
+
+'GIT_TRACE_PACKET'::
+ If this variable is set, it shows a trace of all packets
+ coming in or out of a given program. This can help with
+ debugging object negotiation or other protocol issues. Tracing
+ is turned off at a packet starting with "PACK".
+
+GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
+ Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
+ pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
+ running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
+ for commits that touch the path `*.c`, not any paths that the
+ glob `*.c` matches. You might want this if you are feeding
+ literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
+ `git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
+
+
Discussion[[Discussion]]
------------------------
More detail on the following is available from the
-link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
+link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7].
-A git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
+A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
things, a compressed object database representing the complete history
of the project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
@@ -843,7 +884,7 @@ The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than one
parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
-All objects are named by the SHA1 hash of their contents, normally
+All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally
written as a string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique.
The entire history leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing
just that commit. A fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this
@@ -853,9 +894,9 @@ When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for
efficiency may later be compressed together into "pack files".
Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref
-may contain the SHA1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
-with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA1 name of the most
-recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA1 names of
+may contain the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs
+with names beginning `ref/head/` contain the SHA-1 name of the most
+recent commit (or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of
tags of interest are stored under `ref/tags/`. A special ref named
`HEAD` contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
@@ -876,12 +917,12 @@ FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
---------------------
See the references in the "description" section to get started
-using git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
+using Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary
for a first-time user.
-The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
+The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[Git concepts chapter of the
user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
-introductions to the underlying git architecture.
+introductions to the underlying Git architecture.
See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
@@ -889,7 +930,7 @@ See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
examples.
The internals are documented in the
-link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
+link:technical/api-index.html[Git API documentation].
Users migrating from CVS may also want to
read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
@@ -898,7 +939,7 @@ read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
Authors
-------
Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
-C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the git mailing list
+C Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list
<git@vger.kernel.org>. http://www.ohloh.net/p/git/contributors/summary
gives you a more complete list of contributors.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 2698f63..b322a26 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ attribute. The rules how the pattern matches paths are the
same as in `.gitignore` files; see linkgit:gitignore[5].
Unlike `.gitignore`, negative patterns are forbidden.
-When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, git
+When deciding what attributes are assigned to a path, Git
consults `$GIT_DIR/info/attributes` file (which has the highest
precedence), `.gitattributes` file in the same directory as the
path in question, and its parent directories up to the toplevel of the
@@ -94,7 +94,7 @@ the name of the attribute prefixed with an exclamation point `!`.
EFFECTS
-------
-Certain operations by git can be influenced by assigning
+Certain operations by Git can be influenced by assigning
particular attributes to a path. Currently, the following
operations are attributes-aware.
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@ Checking-out and checking-in
These attributes affect how the contents stored in the
repository are copied to the working tree files when commands
such as 'git checkout' and 'git merge' run. They also affect how
-git stores the contents you prepare in the working tree in the
+Git stores the contents you prepare in the working tree in the
repository upon 'git add' and 'git commit'.
`text`
@@ -124,22 +124,22 @@ Set::
Unset::
- Unsetting the `text` attribute on a path tells git not to
+ Unsetting the `text` attribute on a path tells Git not to
attempt any end-of-line conversion upon checkin or checkout.
Set to string value "auto"::
When `text` is set to "auto", the path is marked for automatic
- end-of-line normalization. If git decides that the content is
+ end-of-line normalization. If Git decides that the content is
text, its line endings are normalized to LF on checkin.
Unspecified::
- If the `text` attribute is unspecified, git uses the
+ If the `text` attribute is unspecified, Git uses the
`core.autocrlf` configuration variable to determine if the
file should be converted.
-Any other value causes git to act as if `text` has been left
+Any other value causes Git to act as if `text` has been left
unspecified.
`eol`
@@ -151,13 +151,13 @@ content checks, effectively setting the `text` attribute.
Set to string value "crlf"::
- This setting forces git to normalize line endings for this
+ This setting forces Git to normalize line endings for this
file on checkin and convert them to CRLF when the file is
checked out.
Set to string value "lf"::
- This setting forces git to normalize line endings to LF on
+ This setting forces Git to normalize line endings to LF on
checkin and prevents conversion to CRLF when the file is
checked out.
@@ -176,11 +176,11 @@ crlf=input eol=lf
End-of-line conversion
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-While git normally leaves file contents alone, it can be configured to
+While Git normally leaves file contents alone, it can be configured to
normalize line endings to LF in the repository and, optionally, to
convert them to CRLF when files are checked out.
-Here is an example that will make git normalize .txt, .vcproj and .sh
+Here is an example that will make Git normalize .txt, .vcproj and .sh
files, ensure that .vcproj files have CRLF and .sh files have LF in
the working directory, and prevent .jpg files from being normalized
regardless of their content.
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@ regardless of their content.
Other source code management systems normalize all text files in their
repositories, and there are two ways to enable similar automatic
-normalization in git.
+normalization in Git.
If you simply want to have CRLF line endings in your working directory
regardless of the repository you are working with, you can set the
@@ -219,9 +219,9 @@ attribute to "auto" for _all_ files.
* text=auto
------------------------
-This ensures that all files that git considers to be text will have
+This ensures that all files that Git considers to be text will have
normalized (LF) line endings in the repository. The `core.eol`
-configuration variable controls which line endings git will use for
+configuration variable controls which line endings Git will use for
normalized files in your working directory; the default is to use the
native line ending for your platform, or CRLF if `core.autocrlf` is
set.
@@ -234,7 +234,7 @@ directory:
-------------------------------------------------
$ echo "* text=auto" >>.gitattributes
-$ rm .git/index # Remove the index to force git to
+$ rm .git/index # Remove the index to force Git to
$ git reset # re-scan the working directory
$ git status # Show files that will be normalized
$ git add -u
@@ -249,17 +249,17 @@ unset their `text` attribute before running 'git add -u'.
manual.pdf -text
------------------------
-Conversely, text files that git does not detect can have normalization
+Conversely, text files that Git does not detect can have normalization
enabled manually.
------------------------
weirdchars.txt text
------------------------
-If `core.safecrlf` is set to "true" or "warn", git verifies if
+If `core.safecrlf` is set to "true" or "warn", Git verifies if
the conversion is reversible for the current setting of
-`core.autocrlf`. For "true", git rejects irreversible
-conversions; for "warn", git only prints a warning but accepts
+`core.autocrlf`. For "true", Git rejects irreversible
+conversions; for "warn", Git only prints a warning but accepts
an irreversible conversion. The safety triggers to prevent such
a conversion done to the files in the work tree, but there are a
few exceptions. Even though...
@@ -280,7 +280,7 @@ few exceptions. Even though...
`ident`
^^^^^^^
-When the attribute `ident` is set for a path, git replaces
+When the attribute `ident` is set for a path, Git replaces
`$Id$` in the blob object with `$Id:`, followed by the
40-character hexadecimal blob object name, followed by a dollar
sign `$` upon checkout. Any byte sequence that begins with
@@ -311,7 +311,7 @@ the appropriate filter program, the project should still be usable.
Another use of the content filtering is to store the content that cannot
be directly used in the repository (e.g. a UUID that refers to the true
-content stored outside git, or an encrypted content) and turn it into a
+content stored outside Git, or an encrypted content) and turn it into a
usable form upon checkout (e.g. download the external content, or decrypt
the encrypted content).
@@ -397,7 +397,7 @@ clean/smudge filter or text/eol/ident attributes, merging anything
where the attribute is not in place would normally cause merge
conflicts.
-To prevent these unnecessary merge conflicts, git can be told to run a
+To prevent these unnecessary merge conflicts, Git can be told to run a
virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages of a file when
resolving a three-way merge by setting the `merge.renormalize`
configuration variable. This prevents changes caused by check-in
@@ -417,11 +417,11 @@ Generating diff text
`diff`
^^^^^^
-The attribute `diff` affects how 'git' generates diffs for particular
-files. It can tell git whether to generate a textual patch for the path
+The attribute `diff` affects how Git generates diffs for particular
+files. It can tell Git whether to generate a textual patch for the path
or to treat the path as a binary file. It can also affect what line is
-shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@` line, tell git to use an
-external command to generate the diff, or ask git to convert binary
+shown on the hunk header `@@ -k,l +n,m @@` line, tell Git to use an
+external command to generate the diff, or ask Git to convert binary
files to a text format before generating the diff.
Set::
@@ -449,7 +449,7 @@ String::
specify one or more options, as described in the following
section. The options for the diff driver "foo" are defined
by the configuration variables in the "diff.foo" section of the
- git config file.
+ Git config file.
Defining an external diff driver
@@ -467,7 +467,7 @@ To define an external diff driver `jcdiff`, add a section to your
command = j-c-diff
----------------------------------------------------------------
-When git needs to show you a diff for the path with `diff`
+When Git needs to show you a diff for the path with `diff`
attribute set to `jcdiff`, it calls the command you specified
with the above configuration, i.e. `j-c-diff`, with 7
parameters, just like `GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF` program is called.
@@ -606,7 +606,7 @@ should generate it separately and send it as a comment _in
addition to_ the usual binary diff that you might send.
Because text conversion can be slow, especially when doing a
-large number of them with `git log -p`, git provides a mechanism
+large number of them with `git log -p`, Git provides a mechanism
to cache the output and use it in future diffs. To enable
caching, set the "cachetextconv" variable in your diff driver's
config. For example:
@@ -619,7 +619,7 @@ config. For example:
This will cache the result of running "exif" on each blob
indefinitely. If you change the textconv config variable for a
-diff driver, git will automatically invalidate the cache entries
+diff driver, Git will automatically invalidate the cache entries
and re-run the textconv filter. If you want to invalidate the
cache manually (e.g., because your version of "exif" was updated
and now produces better output), you can remove the cache
@@ -640,7 +640,7 @@ output to resemble unified diff. You are free to locate and report
changes in the most appropriate way for your data format.
A textconv, by comparison, is much more limiting. You provide a
-transformation of the data into a line-oriented text format, and git
+transformation of the data into a line-oriented text format, and Git
uses its regular diff tools to generate the output. There are several
advantages to choosing this method:
@@ -650,7 +650,7 @@ advantages to choosing this method:
odt2txt).
2. Git diff features. By performing only the transformation step
- yourself, you can still utilize many of git's diff features,
+ yourself, you can still utilize many of Git's diff features,
including colorization, word-diff, and combined diffs for merges.
3. Caching. Textconv caching can speed up repeated diffs, such as those
@@ -675,7 +675,7 @@ attribute in the `.gitattributes` file:
*.ps -diff
------------------------
-This will cause git to generate `Binary files differ` (or a binary
+This will cause Git to generate `Binary files differ` (or a binary
patch, if binary patches are enabled) instead of a regular diff.
However, one may also want to specify other diff driver attributes. For
@@ -831,7 +831,7 @@ control per path.
Set::
- Notice all types of potential whitespace errors known to git.
+ Notice all types of potential whitespace errors known to Git.
The tab width is taken from the value of the `core.whitespace`
configuration variable.
@@ -863,7 +863,7 @@ archive files.
`export-subst`
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
-If the attribute `export-subst` is set for a file then git will expand
+If the attribute `export-subst` is set for a file then Git will expand
several placeholders when adding this file to an archive. The
expansion depends on the availability of a commit ID, i.e., if
linkgit:git-archive[1] has been given a tree instead of a commit or a
@@ -961,7 +961,7 @@ abc -foo -bar
the attributes given to path `t/abc` are computed as follows:
1. By examining `t/.gitattributes` (which is in the same
- directory as the path in question), git finds that the first
+ directory as the path in question), Git finds that the first
line matches. `merge` attribute is set. It also finds that
the second line matches, and attributes `foo` and `bar`
are unset.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index 3bc1500..9ac5088 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcli(7)
NAME
----
-gitcli - git command line interface and conventions
+gitcli - Git command line interface and conventions
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ gitcli
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This manual describes the convention used throughout git CLI.
+This manual describes the convention used throughout Git CLI.
Many commands take revisions (most often "commits", but sometimes
"tree-ish", depending on the context and command) and paths as their
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@ arguments. Here are the rules:
between the HEAD commit and the work tree as a whole". You can say
`git diff HEAD --` to ask for the latter.
- * Without disambiguating `--`, git makes a reasonable guess, but errors
+ * Without disambiguating `--`, Git makes a reasonable guess, but errors
out and asking you to disambiguate when ambiguous. E.g. if you have a
file called HEAD in your work tree, `git diff HEAD` is ambiguous, and
you have to say either `git diff HEAD --` or `git diff -- HEAD` to
@@ -60,9 +60,9 @@ see `hello.c` in your working tree with the former, but with the latter
you will.
Here are the rules regarding the "flags" that you should follow when you are
-scripting git:
+scripting Git:
- * it's preferred to use the non dashed form of git commands, which means that
+ * it's preferred to use the non dashed form of Git commands, which means that
you should prefer `git foo` to `git-foo`.
* splitting short options to separate words (prefer `git foo -a -b`
@@ -90,7 +90,7 @@ scripting git:
ENHANCED OPTION PARSER
----------------------
-From the git 1.5.4 series and further, many git commands (not all of them at the
+From the Git 1.5.4 series and further, many Git commands (not all of them at the
time of the writing though) come with an enhanced option parser.
Here is a list of the facilities provided by this option parser.
@@ -107,17 +107,18 @@ couple of magic command line options:
---------------------------------------------
$ git describe -h
usage: git describe [options] <committish>*
+ or: git describe [options] --dirty
--contains find the tag that comes after the commit
--debug debug search strategy on stderr
- --all use any ref in .git/refs
- --tags use any tag in .git/refs/tags
- --abbrev [<n>] use <n> digits to display SHA-1s
- --candidates <n> consider <n> most recent tags (default: 10)
+ --all use any ref
+ --tags use any tag, even unannotated
+ --long always use long format
+ --abbrev[=<n>] use <n> digits to display SHA-1s
---------------------------------------------
--help-all::
- Some git commands take options that are only used for plumbing or that
+ Some Git commands take options that are only used for plumbing or that
are deprecated, and such options are hidden from the default usage. This
option gives the full list of options.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 5325c5a..f538a87 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcore-tutorial(7)
NAME
----
-gitcore-tutorial - A git core tutorial for developers
+gitcore-tutorial - A Git core tutorial for developers
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -12,17 +12,17 @@ git *
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This tutorial explains how to use the "core" git commands to set up and
-work with a git repository.
+This tutorial explains how to use the "core" Git commands to set up and
+work with a Git repository.
-If you just need to use git as a revision control system you may prefer
-to start with "A Tutorial Introduction to GIT" (linkgit:gittutorial[7]) or
-link:user-manual.html[the GIT User Manual].
+If you just need to use Git as a revision control system you may prefer
+to start with "A Tutorial Introduction to Git" (linkgit:gittutorial[7]) or
+link:user-manual.html[the Git User Manual].
However, an understanding of these low-level tools can be helpful if
-you want to understand git's internals.
+you want to understand Git's internals.
-The core git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
+The core Git is often called "plumbing", with the prettier user
interfaces on top of it called "porcelain". You may not want to use the
plumbing directly very often, but it can be good to know what the
plumbing does for when the porcelain isn't flushing.
@@ -40,19 +40,19 @@ Deeper technical details are often marked as Notes, which you can
skip on your first reading.
-Creating a git repository
+Creating a Git repository
-------------------------
-Creating a new git repository couldn't be easier: all git repositories start
+Creating a new Git repository couldn't be easier: all Git repositories start
out empty, and the only thing you need to do is find yourself a
subdirectory that you want to use as a working tree - either an empty
one for a totally new project, or an existing working tree that you want
-to import into git.
+to import into Git.
For our first example, we're going to start a totally new repository from
scratch, with no pre-existing files, and we'll call it 'git-tutorial'.
To start up, create a subdirectory for it, change into that
-subdirectory, and initialize the git infrastructure with 'git init':
+subdirectory, and initialize the Git infrastructure with 'git init':
------------------------------------------------
$ mkdir git-tutorial
@@ -60,13 +60,13 @@ $ cd git-tutorial
$ git init
------------------------------------------------
-to which git will reply
+to which Git will reply
----------------
Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
----------------
-which is just git's way of saying that you haven't been doing anything
+which is just Git's way of saying that you haven't been doing anything
strange, and that it will have created a local `.git` directory setup for
your new project. You will now have a `.git` directory, and you can
inspect that with 'ls'. For your new empty project, it should show you
@@ -102,13 +102,13 @@ start out expecting to work on the `master` branch.
However, this is only a convention, and you can name your branches
anything you want, and don't have to ever even 'have' a `master`
-branch. A number of the git tools will assume that `.git/HEAD` is
+branch. A number of the Git tools will assume that `.git/HEAD` is
valid, though.
[NOTE]
-An 'object' is identified by its 160-bit SHA1 hash, aka 'object name',
+An 'object' is identified by its 160-bit SHA-1 hash, aka 'object name',
and a reference to an object is always the 40-byte hex
-representation of that SHA1 name. The files in the `refs`
+representation of that SHA-1 name. The files in the `refs`
subdirectory are expected to contain these hex references
(usually with a final `\n` at the end), and you should thus
expect to see a number of 41-byte files containing these
@@ -119,18 +119,18 @@ populating your tree.
An advanced user may want to take a look at linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
after finishing this tutorial.
-You have now created your first git repository. Of course, since it's
+You have now created your first Git repository. Of course, since it's
empty, that's not very useful, so let's start populating it with data.
-Populating a git repository
+Populating a Git repository
---------------------------
We'll keep this simple and stupid, so we'll start off with populating a
few trivial files just to get a feel for it.
Start off with just creating any random files that you want to maintain
-in your git repository. We'll start off with a few bad examples, just to
+in your Git repository. We'll start off with a few bad examples, just to
get a feel for how this works:
------------------------------------------------
@@ -146,7 +146,7 @@ but to actually check in your hard work, you will have to go through two steps:
- commit that index file as an object.
-The first step is trivial: when you want to tell git about any changes
+The first step is trivial: when you want to tell Git about any changes
to your working tree, you use the 'git update-index' program. That
program normally just takes a list of filenames you want to update, but
to avoid trivial mistakes, it refuses to add new entries to the index
@@ -160,10 +160,10 @@ So to populate the index with the two files you just created, you can do
$ git update-index --add hello example
------------------------------------------------
-and you have now told git to track those two files.
+and you have now told Git to track those two files.
In fact, as you did that, if you now look into your object directory,
-you'll notice that git will have added two new objects to the object
+you'll notice that Git will have added two new objects to the object
database. If you did exactly the steps above, you should now be able to do
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@ $ git cat-file -t 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238
----------------
where the `-t` tells 'git cat-file' to tell you what the "type" of the
-object is. git will tell you that you have a "blob" object (i.e., just a
+object is. Git will tell you that you have a "blob" object (i.e., just a
regular file), and you can see the contents with
----------------
@@ -214,28 +214,28 @@ Anyway, as we mentioned previously, you normally never actually take a
look at the objects themselves, and typing long 40-character hex
names is not something you'd normally want to do. The above digression
was just to show that 'git update-index' did something magical, and
-actually saved away the contents of your files into the git object
+actually saved away the contents of your files into the Git object
database.
Updating the index did something else too: it created a `.git/index`
file. This is the index that describes your current working tree, and
something you should be very aware of. Again, you normally never worry
about the index file itself, but you should be aware of the fact that
-you have not actually really "checked in" your files into git so far,
-you've only *told* git about them.
+you have not actually really "checked in" your files into Git so far,
+you've only *told* Git about them.
-However, since git knows about them, you can now start using some of the
-most basic git commands to manipulate the files or look at their status.
+However, since Git knows about them, you can now start using some of the
+most basic Git commands to manipulate the files or look at their status.
-In particular, let's not even check in the two files into git yet, we'll
+In particular, let's not even check in the two files into Git yet, we'll
start off by adding another line to `hello` first:
------------------------------------------------
$ echo "It's a new day for git" >>hello
------------------------------------------------
-and you can now, since you told git about the previous state of `hello`, ask
-git what has changed in the tree compared to your old index, using the
+and you can now, since you told Git about the previous state of `hello`, ask
+Git what has changed in the tree compared to your old index, using the
'git diff-files' command:
------------
@@ -282,11 +282,11 @@ index 557db03..263414f 100644
------------
-Committing git state
+Committing Git state
--------------------
-Now, we want to go to the next stage in git, which is to take the files
-that git knows about in the index, and commit them as a real tree. We do
+Now, we want to go to the next stage in Git, which is to take the files
+that Git knows about in the index, and commit them as a real tree. We do
that in two phases: creating a 'tree' object, and committing that 'tree'
object as a 'commit' object together with an explanation of what the
tree was all about, along with information of how we came to that state.
@@ -296,7 +296,7 @@ There are no options or other input: `git write-tree` will take the
current index state, and write an object that describes that whole
index. In other words, we're now tying together all the different
filenames with their contents (and their permissions), and we're
-creating the equivalent of a git "directory" object:
+creating the equivalent of a Git "directory" object:
------------------------------------------------
$ git write-tree
@@ -415,9 +415,9 @@ regardless of whether the `--cached` flag is used or not. The `--cached`
flag really only determines whether the file *contents* to be compared
come from the working tree or not.
-This is not hard to understand, as soon as you realize that git simply
+This is not hard to understand, as soon as you realize that Git simply
never knows (or cares) about files that it is not told about
-explicitly. git will never go *looking* for files to compare, it
+explicitly. Git will never go *looking* for files to compare, it
expects you to tell it what the files are, and that's what the index
is there for.
================
@@ -433,7 +433,7 @@ update the index cache:
$ git update-index hello
------------------------------------------------
-(note how we didn't need the `--add` flag this time, since git knew
+(note how we didn't need the `--add` flag this time, since Git knew
about the file already).
Note what happens to the different 'git diff-{asterisk}' versions here.
@@ -464,7 +464,7 @@ this point (you can continue to edit things and update the index), you
can just leave an empty message. Otherwise `git commit` will commit
the change for you.
-You've now made your first real git commit. And if you're interested in
+You've now made your first real Git commit. And if you're interested in
looking at what `git commit` really does, feel free to investigate:
it's a few very simple shell scripts to generate the helpful (?) commit
message headers, and a few one-liners that actually do the
@@ -535,7 +535,7 @@ all, but just show the actual commit message.
In fact, together with the 'git rev-list' program (which generates a
list of revisions), 'git diff-tree' ends up being a veritable fount of
changes. A trivial (but very useful) script called 'git whatchanged' is
-included with git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
+included with Git which does exactly this, and shows a log of recent
activities.
To see the whole history of our pitiful little git-tutorial project, you
@@ -563,19 +563,19 @@ the log.showroot configuration variable to false. Having this, you
can still show it for each command just adding the `--root` option,
which is a flag for 'git diff-tree' accepted by both commands.
-With that, you should now be having some inkling of what git does, and
+With that, you should now be having some inkling of what Git does, and
can explore on your own.
[NOTE]
Most likely, you are not directly using the core
-git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain such as 'git add', `git-rm'
+Git Plumbing commands, but using Porcelain such as 'git add', `git-rm'
and `git-commit'.
Tagging a version
-----------------
-In git, there are two kinds of tags, a "light" one, and an "annotated tag".
+In Git, there are two kinds of tags, a "light" one, and an "annotated tag".
A "light" tag is technically nothing more than a branch, except we put
it in the `.git/refs/tags/` subdirectory instead of calling it a `head`.
@@ -598,7 +598,7 @@ obviously be an empty diff, but if you continue to develop and commit
stuff, you can use your tag as an "anchor-point" to see what has changed
since you tagged it.
-An "annotated tag" is actually a real git object, and contains not only a
+An "annotated tag" is actually a real Git object, and contains not only a
pointer to the state you want to tag, but also a small tag name and
message, along with optionally a PGP signature that says that yes,
you really did
@@ -623,17 +623,17 @@ name for the state at that point.
Copying repositories
--------------------
-git repositories are normally totally self-sufficient and relocatable.
+Git repositories are normally totally self-sufficient and relocatable.
Unlike CVS, for example, there is no separate notion of
-"repository" and "working tree". A git repository normally *is* the
-working tree, with the local git information hidden in the `.git`
+"repository" and "working tree". A Git repository normally *is* the
+working tree, with the local Git information hidden in the `.git`
subdirectory. There is nothing else. What you see is what you got.
[NOTE]
-You can tell git to split the git internal information from
+You can tell Git to split the Git internal information from
the directory that it tracks, but we'll ignore that for now: it's not
how normal projects work, and it's really only meant for special uses.
-So the mental model of "the git information is always tied directly to
+So the mental model of "the Git information is always tied directly to
the working tree that it describes" may not be technically 100%
accurate, but it's a good model for all normal use.
@@ -649,13 +649,13 @@ $ rm -rf git-tutorial
and it will be gone. There's no external repository, and there's no
history outside the project you created.
- - if you want to move or duplicate a git repository, you can do so. There
+ - if you want to move or duplicate a Git repository, you can do so. There
is 'git clone' command, but if all you want to do is just to
create a copy of your repository (with all the full history that
went along with it), you can do so with a regular
`cp -a git-tutorial new-git-tutorial`.
+
-Note that when you've moved or copied a git repository, your git index
+Note that when you've moved or copied a Git repository, your Git index
file (which caches various information, notably some of the "stat"
information for the files involved) will likely need to be refreshed.
So after you do a `cp -a` to create a new copy, you'll want to do
@@ -667,7 +667,7 @@ $ git update-index --refresh
in the new repository to make sure that the index file is up-to-date.
Note that the second point is true even across machines. You can
-duplicate a remote git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
+duplicate a remote Git repository with *any* regular copy mechanism, be it
'scp', 'rsync' or 'wget'.
When copying a remote repository, you'll want to at a minimum update the
@@ -694,23 +694,23 @@ The above can also be written as simply
$ git reset
----------------
-and in fact a lot of the common git command combinations can be scripted
+and in fact a lot of the common Git command combinations can be scripted
with the `git xyz` interfaces. You can learn things by just looking
at what the various git scripts do. For example, `git reset` used to be
the above two lines implemented in 'git reset', but some things like
'git status' and 'git commit' are slightly more complex scripts around
-the basic git commands.
+the basic Git commands.
Many (most?) public remote repositories will not contain any of
the checked out files or even an index file, and will *only* contain the
-actual core git files. Such a repository usually doesn't even have the
-`.git` subdirectory, but has all the git files directly in the
+actual core Git files. Such a repository usually doesn't even have the
+`.git` subdirectory, but has all the Git files directly in the
repository.
-To create your own local live copy of such a "raw" git repository, you'd
+To create your own local live copy of such a "raw" Git repository, you'd
first create your own subdirectory for the project, and then copy the
raw repository contents into the `.git` directory. For example, to
-create your own copy of the git repository, you'd do the following
+create your own copy of the Git repository, you'd do the following
----------------
$ mkdir my-git
@@ -725,7 +725,7 @@ $ git read-tree HEAD
----------------
to populate the index. However, now you have populated the index, and
-you have all the git internal files, but you will notice that you don't
+you have all the Git internal files, but you will notice that you don't
actually have any of the working tree files to work on. To get
those, you'd check them out with
@@ -757,13 +757,13 @@ repository, and checked it out.
Creating a new branch
---------------------
-Branches in git are really nothing more than pointers into the git
+Branches in Git are really nothing more than pointers into the Git
object database from within the `.git/refs/` subdirectory, and as we
already discussed, the `HEAD` branch is nothing but a symlink to one of
these object pointers.
You can at any time create a new branch by just picking an arbitrary
-point in the project history, and just writing the SHA1 name of that
+point in the project history, and just writing the SHA-1 name of that
object into a file under `.git/refs/heads/`. You can use any filename you
want (and indeed, subdirectories), but the convention is that the
"normal" branch is called `master`. That's just a convention, though,
@@ -849,7 +849,7 @@ $ git commit -m "Some work." -i hello
Here, we just added another line to `hello`, and we used a shorthand for
doing both `git update-index hello` and `git commit` by just giving the
filename directly to `git commit`, with an `-i` flag (it tells
-git to 'include' that file in addition to what you have done to
+Git to 'include' that file in addition to what you have done to
the index file so far when making the commit). The `-m` flag is to give the
commit log message from the command line.
@@ -900,7 +900,7 @@ where the first argument is going to be used as the commit message if
the merge can be resolved automatically.
Now, in this case we've intentionally created a situation where the
-merge will need to be fixed up by hand, though, so git will do as much
+merge will need to be fixed up by hand, though, so Git will do as much
of it as it can automatically (which in this case is just merge the `example`
file, which had no differences in the `mybranch` branch), and say:
@@ -939,7 +939,7 @@ After you're done, start up `gitk --all` to see graphically what the
history looks like. Notice that `mybranch` still exists, and you can
switch to it, and continue to work with it if you want to. The
`mybranch` branch will not contain the merge, but next time you merge it
-from the `master` branch, git will know how you merged it, so you'll not
+from the `master` branch, Git will know how you merged it, so you'll not
have to do _that_ merge again.
Another useful tool, especially if you do not always work in X-Window
@@ -1028,7 +1028,7 @@ Merging external work
---------------------
It's usually much more common that you merge with somebody else than
-merging with your own branches, so it's worth pointing out that git
+merging with your own branches, so it's worth pointing out that Git
makes that very easy too, and in fact, it's not that different from
doing a 'git merge'. In fact, a remote merge ends up being nothing
more than "fetch the work from a remote repository into a temporary tag"
@@ -1068,7 +1068,7 @@ and requires you to have a log-in privilege over `ssh` to the
remote machine. It finds out the set of objects the other side
lacks by exchanging the head commits both ends have and
transfers (close to) minimum set of objects. It is by far the
-most efficient way to exchange git objects between repositories.
+most efficient way to exchange Git objects between repositories.
Local directory::
`/path/to/repo.git/`
@@ -1077,7 +1077,7 @@ This transport is the same as SSH transport but uses 'sh' to run
both ends on the local machine instead of running other end on
the remote machine via 'ssh'.
-git Native::
+Git Native::
`git://remote.machine/path/to/repo.git/`
+
This transport was designed for anonymous downloading. Like SSH
@@ -1099,8 +1099,8 @@ necessary objects. Because of this behavior, they are
sometimes also called 'commit walkers'.
+
The 'commit walkers' are sometimes also called 'dumb
-transports', because they do not require any git aware smart
-server like git Native transport does. Any stock HTTP server
+transports', because they do not require any Git aware smart
+server like Git Native transport does. Any stock HTTP server
that does not even support directory index would suffice. But
you must prepare your repository with 'git update-server-info'
to help dumb transport downloaders.
@@ -1233,7 +1233,7 @@ file (the first tree goes to stage 1, the second to stage 2,
etc.). After reading three trees into three stages, the paths
that are the same in all three stages are 'collapsed' into stage
0. Also paths that are the same in two of three stages are
-collapsed into stage 0, taking the SHA1 from either stage 2 or
+collapsed into stage 0, taking the SHA-1 from either stage 2 or
stage 3, whichever is different from stage 1 (i.e. only one side
changed from the common ancestor).
@@ -1321,7 +1321,7 @@ update the public repository from it. This is often called
[NOTE]
This public repository could further be mirrored, and that is
-how git repositories at `kernel.org` are managed.
+how Git repositories at `kernel.org` are managed.
Publishing the changes from your local (private) repository to
your remote (public) repository requires a write privilege on
@@ -1340,7 +1340,7 @@ done only once.
on the remote machine. The communication between the two over
the network internally uses an SSH connection.
-Your private repository's git directory is usually `.git`, but
+Your private repository's Git directory is usually `.git`, but
your public repository is often named after the project name,
i.e. `<project>.git`. Let's create such a public repository for
project `my-git`. After logging into the remote machine, create
@@ -1350,7 +1350,7 @@ an empty directory:
$ mkdir my-git.git
------------
-Then, make that directory into a git repository by running
+Then, make that directory into a Git repository by running
'git init', but this time, since its name is not the usual
`.git`, we do things slightly differently:
@@ -1389,7 +1389,7 @@ This synchronizes your public repository to match the named
branch head (i.e. `master` in this case) and objects reachable
from them in your current repository.
-As a real example, this is how I update my public git
+As a real example, this is how I update my public Git
repository. Kernel.org mirror network takes care of the
propagation to other publicly visible machines:
@@ -1402,9 +1402,9 @@ Packing your repository
-----------------------
Earlier, we saw that one file under `.git/objects/??/` directory
-is stored for each git object you create. This representation
+is stored for each Git object you create. This representation
is efficient to create atomically and safely, but
-not so convenient to transport over the network. Since git objects are
+not so convenient to transport over the network. Since Git objects are
immutable once they are created, there is a way to optimize the
storage by "packing them together". The command
@@ -1472,14 +1472,14 @@ repositories every once in a while.
Working with Others
-------------------
-Although git is a truly distributed system, it is often
+Although Git is a truly distributed system, it is often
convenient to organize your project with an informal hierarchy
of developers. Linux kernel development is run this way. There
is a nice illustration (page 17, "Merges to Mainline") in
link:http://www.xenotime.net/linux/mentor/linux-mentoring-2006.pdf[Randy Dunlap's presentation].
It should be stressed that this hierarchy is purely *informal*.
-There is nothing fundamental in git that enforces the "chain of
+There is nothing fundamental in Git that enforces the "chain of
patch flow" this hierarchy implies. You do not have to pull
from only one remote repository.
@@ -1592,7 +1592,7 @@ Working with Others, Shared Repository Style
If you are coming from CVS background, the style of cooperation
suggested in the previous section may be new to you. You do not
-have to worry. git supports "shared public repository" style of
+have to worry. Git supports "shared public repository" style of
cooperation you are probably more familiar with as well.
See linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7] for the details.
@@ -1602,7 +1602,7 @@ Bundling your work together
It is likely that you will be working on more than one thing at
a time. It is easy to manage those more-or-less independent tasks
-using branches with git.
+using branches with Git.
We have already seen how branches work previously,
with "fun and work" example using two branches. The idea is the
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index 7dfffc0..47576be 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcredentials(7)
NAME
----
-gitcredentials - providing usernames and passwords to git
+gitcredentials - providing usernames and passwords to Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -18,13 +18,13 @@ DESCRIPTION
Git will sometimes need credentials from the user in order to perform
operations; for example, it may need to ask for a username and password
in order to access a remote repository over HTTP. This manual describes
-the mechanisms git uses to request these credentials, as well as some
+the mechanisms Git uses to request these credentials, as well as some
features to avoid inputting these credentials repeatedly.
REQUESTING CREDENTIALS
----------------------
-Without any credential helpers defined, git will try the following
+Without any credential helpers defined, Git will try the following
strategies to ask the user for usernames and passwords:
1. If the `GIT_ASKPASS` environment variable is set, the program
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@ for a password. It is generally configured by adding this to your config:
username = me
---------------------------------------
-Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs from which git can
+Credential helpers, on the other hand, are external programs from which Git can
request both usernames and passwords; they typically interface with secure
storage provided by the OS or other programs.
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ store::
You may also have third-party helpers installed; search for
`credential-*` in the output of `git help -a`, and consult the
documentation of individual helpers. Once you have selected a helper,
-you can tell git to use it by putting its name into the
+you can tell Git to use it by putting its name into the
credential.helper variable.
1. Find a helper.
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@ credential-foo
$ git help credential-foo
-------------------------------------------
-3. Tell git to use it.
+3. Tell Git to use it.
+
-------------------------------------------
$ git config --global credential.helper foo
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@ $ git config --global credential.helper foo
If there are multiple instances of the `credential.helper` configuration
variable, each helper will be tried in turn, and may provide a username,
-password, or nothing. Once git has acquired both a username and a
+password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both a username and a
password, no more helpers will be tried.
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@ Git considers each credential to have a context defined by a URL. This context
is used to look up context-specific configuration, and is passed to any
helpers, which may use it as an index into secure storage.
-For instance, imagine we are accessing `https://example.com/foo.git`. When git
+For instance, imagine we are accessing `https://example.com/foo.git`. When Git
looks into a config file to see if a section matches this context, it will
consider the two a match if the context is a more-specific subset of the
pattern in the config file. For example, if you have this in your config file:
@@ -133,10 +133,10 @@ context would not match:
username = foo
--------------------------------------
-because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match `foo.example.com`; git
+because the hostnames differ. Nor would it match `foo.example.com`; Git
compares hostnames exactly, without considering whether two hosts are part of
the same domain. Likewise, a config entry for `http://example.com` would not
-match: git compares the protocols exactly.
+match: Git compares the protocols exactly.
CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
@@ -164,7 +164,7 @@ username::
useHttpPath::
- By default, git does not consider the "path" component of an http URL
+ By default, Git does not consider the "path" component of an http URL
to be worth matching via external helpers. This means that a credential
stored for `https://example.com/foo.git` will also be used for
`https://example.com/bar.git`. If you do want to distinguish these
@@ -175,7 +175,7 @@ CUSTOM HELPERS
--------------
You can write your own custom helpers to interface with any system in
-which you keep credentials. See the documentation for git's
+which you keep credentials. See the documentation for Git's
link:technical/api-credentials.html[credentials API] for details.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
index aeb0cdc..5ab5b07 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitcvs-migration(7)
NAME
----
-gitcvs-migration - git for CVS users
+gitcvs-migration - Git for CVS users
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ important than any other. However, you can emulate the CVS model by
designating a single shared repository which people can synchronize with;
this document explains how to do that.
-Some basic familiarity with git is required. Having gone through
+Some basic familiarity with Git is required. Having gone through
linkgit:gittutorial[7] and
linkgit:gitglossary[7] should be sufficient.
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@ other than `master`.
Setting Up a Shared Repository
------------------------------
-We assume you have already created a git repository for your project,
+We assume you have already created a Git repository for your project,
possibly created from scratch or from a tarball (see
linkgit:gittutorial[7]), or imported from an already existing CVS
repository (see the next section).
@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@ Next, give every team member read/write access to this repository. One
easy way to do this is to give all the team members ssh access to the
machine where the repository is hosted. If you don't want to give them a
full shell on the machine, there is a restricted shell which only allows
-users to do git pushes and pulls; see linkgit:git-shell[1].
+users to do Git pushes and pulls; see linkgit:git-shell[1].
Put all the committers in the same group, and make the repository
writable by that group:
@@ -125,7 +125,7 @@ of the project you are interested in and run linkgit:git-cvsimport[1]:
$ git cvsimport -C <destination> <module>
-------------------------------------------
-This puts a git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
+This puts a Git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
<destination>, which will be created if necessary.
The import checks out from CVS every revision of every file. Reportedly
@@ -133,8 +133,8 @@ cvsimport can average some twenty revisions per second, so for a
medium-sized project this should not take more than a couple of minutes.
Larger projects or remote repositories may take longer.
-The main trunk is stored in the git branch named `origin`, and additional
-CVS branches are stored in git branches with the same names. The most
+The main trunk is stored in the Git branch named `origin`, and additional
+CVS branches are stored in Git branches with the same names. The most
recent version of the main trunk is also left checked out on the `master`
branch, so you can start adding your own changes right away.
@@ -160,10 +160,10 @@ You can enforce finer grained permissions using update hooks. See
link:howto/update-hook-example.txt[Controlling access to branches using
update hooks].
-Providing CVS Access to a git Repository
+Providing CVS Access to a Git Repository
----------------------------------------
-It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a git repository, so
+It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a Git repository, so
that developers can still use CVS; see linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for
details.
@@ -171,8 +171,8 @@ Alternative Development Models
------------------------------
CVS users are accustomed to giving a group of developers commit access to
-a common repository. As we've seen, this is also possible with git.
-However, the distributed nature of git allows other development models,
+a common repository. As we've seen, this is also possible with Git.
+However, the distributed nature of Git allows other development models,
and you may want to first consider whether one of them might be a better
fit for your project.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index daf1782..c8b3e51 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -108,7 +108,7 @@ it changes it to:
For the purpose of breaking a filepair, diffcore-break examines
the extent of changes between the contents of the files before
and after modification (i.e. the contents that have "bcd1234..."
-and "0123456..." as their SHA1 content ID, in the above
+and "0123456..." as their SHA-1 content ID, in the above
example). The amount of deletion of original contents and
insertion of new material are added together, and if it exceeds
the "break score", the filepair is broken into two. The break
@@ -222,26 +222,35 @@ version prefixed with '+'.
diffcore-pickaxe: For Detecting Addition/Deletion of Specified String
---------------------------------------------------------------------
-This transformation is used to find filepairs that represent
-changes that touch a specified string, and is controlled by the
--S option and the `--pickaxe-all` option to the 'git diff-*'
-commands.
-
-When diffcore-pickaxe is in use, it checks if there are
-filepairs whose "result" side and whose "origin" side have
-different number of specified string. Such a filepair represents
-"the string appeared in this changeset". It also checks for the
-opposite case that loses the specified string.
-
-When `--pickaxe-all` is not in effect, diffcore-pickaxe leaves
-only such filepairs that touch the specified string in its
-output. When `--pickaxe-all` is used, diffcore-pickaxe leaves all
-filepairs intact if there is such a filepair, or makes the
-output empty otherwise. The latter behaviour is designed to
-make reviewing of the changes in the context of the whole
+This transformation limits the set of filepairs to those that change
+specified strings between the preimage and the postimage in a certain
+way. -S<block of text> and -G<regular expression> options are used to
+specify different ways these strings are sought.
+
+"-S<block of text>" detects filepairs whose preimage and postimage
+have different number of occurrences of the specified block of text.
+By definition, it will not detect in-file moves. Also, when a
+changeset moves a file wholesale without affecting the interesting
+string, diffcore-rename kicks in as usual, and `-S` omits the filepair
+(since the number of occurrences of that string didn't change in that
+rename-detected filepair). When used with `--pickaxe-regex`, treat
+the <block of text> as an extended POSIX regular expression to match,
+instead of a literal string.
+
+"-G<regular expression>" (mnemonic: grep) detects filepairs whose
+textual diff has an added or a deleted line that matches the given
+regular expression. This means that it will detect in-file (or what
+rename-detection considers the same file) moves, which is noise. The
+implementation runs diff twice and greps, and this can be quite
+expensive.
+
+When `-S` or `-G` are used without `--pickaxe-all`, only filepairs
+that match their respective criterion are kept in the output. When
+`--pickaxe-all` is used, if even one filepair matches their respective
+criterion in a changeset, the entire changeset is kept. This behavior
+is designed to make reviewing changes in the context of the whole
changeset easier.
-
diffcore-order: For Sorting the Output Based on Filenames
---------------------------------------------------------
@@ -254,7 +263,7 @@ pattern. Filepairs that match a glob pattern on an earlier line
in the file are output before ones that match a later line, and
filepairs that do not match any glob pattern are output last.
-As an example, a typical orderfile for the core git probably
+As an example, a typical orderfile for the core Git probably
would look like this:
------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
index d77a45a..e52de7d 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitglossary.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitglossary(7)
NAME
----
-gitglossary - A GIT Glossary
+gitglossary - A Git Glossary
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@ SEE ALSO
linkgit:gittutorial[7],
linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 4eed86b..d48bf4d 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ githooks(5)
NAME
----
-githooks - Hooks used by git
+githooks - Hooks used by Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -99,7 +99,7 @@ given); `template` (if a `-t` option was given or the
configuration option `commit.template` is set); `merge` (if the
commit is a merge or a `.git/MERGE_MSG` file exists); `squash`
(if a `.git/SQUASH_MSG` file exists); or `commit`, followed by
-a commit SHA1 (if a `-c`, `-C` or `--amend` option was given).
+a commit SHA-1 (if a `-c`, `-C` or `--amend` option was given).
If the exit status is non-zero, 'git commit' will abort.
@@ -108,7 +108,7 @@ it is not suppressed by the `--no-verify` option. A non-zero exit
means a failure of the hook and aborts the commit. It should not
be used as replacement for pre-commit hook.
-The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with git comments
+The sample `prepare-commit-msg` hook that comes with Git comments
out the `Conflicts:` part of a merge's commit message.
commit-msg
@@ -178,6 +178,35 @@ save and restore any form of metadata associated with the working tree
(eg: permissions/ownership, ACLS, etc). See contrib/hooks/setgitperms.perl
for an example of how to do this.
+pre-push
+~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is called by 'git push' and can be used to prevent a push from taking
+place. The hook is called with two parameters which provide the name and
+location of the destination remote, if a named remote is not being used both
+values will be the same.
+
+Information about what is to be pushed is provided on the hook's standard
+input with lines of the form:
+
+ <local ref> SP <local sha1> SP <remote ref> SP <remote sha1> LF
+
+For instance, if the command +git push origin master:foreign+ were run the
+hook would receive a line like the following:
+
+ refs/heads/master 67890 refs/heads/foreign 12345
+
+although the full, 40-character SHA-1s would be supplied. If the foreign ref
+does not yet exist the `<remote SHA-1>` will be 40 `0`. If a ref is to be
+deleted, the `<local ref>` will be supplied as `(delete)` and the `<local
+SHA-1>` will be 40 `0`. If the local commit was specified by something other
+than a name which could be expanded (such as `HEAD~`, or a SHA-1) it will be
+supplied as it was originally given.
+
+If this hook exits with a non-zero status, 'git push' will abort without
+pushing anything. Information about why the push is rejected may be sent
+to the user by writing to standard error.
+
[[pre-receive]]
pre-receive
~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -277,7 +306,7 @@ for the user.
The default 'post-receive' hook is empty, but there is
a sample script `post-receive-email` provided in the `contrib/hooks`
-directory in git distribution, which implements sending commit
+directory in Git distribution, which implements sending commit
emails.
[[post-update]]
@@ -305,7 +334,7 @@ them.
When enabled, the default 'post-update' hook runs
'git update-server-info' to keep the information used by dumb
transports (e.g., HTTP) up-to-date. If you are publishing
-a git repository that is accessible via HTTP, you should
+a Git repository that is accessible via HTTP, you should
probably enable this hook.
Both standard output and standard error output are forwarded to
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index 1b82fe1..54e334e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -13,12 +13,12 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
A `gitignore` file specifies intentionally untracked files that
-git should ignore.
-Files already tracked by git are not affected; see the NOTES
+Git should ignore.
+Files already tracked by Git are not affected; see the NOTES
below for details.
Each line in a `gitignore` file specifies a pattern.
-When deciding whether to ignore a path, git normally checks
+When deciding whether to ignore a path, Git normally checks
`gitignore` patterns from multiple sources, with the following
order of precedence, from highest to lowest (within one level of
precedence, the last matching pattern decides the outcome):
@@ -53,17 +53,17 @@ be used.
the repository but are specific to one user's workflow) should go into
the `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude` file.
- * Patterns which a user wants git to
+ * Patterns which a user wants Git to
ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary files generated by
the user's editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
`core.excludesfile` in the user's `~/.gitconfig`. Its default value is
$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or
empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.
-The underlying git plumbing tools, such as
+The underlying Git plumbing tools, such as
'git ls-files' and 'git read-tree', read
`gitignore` patterns specified by command-line options, or from
-files specified by command-line options. Higher-level git
+files specified by command-line options. Higher-level Git
tools, such as 'git status' and 'git add',
use patterns from the sources specified above.
@@ -89,15 +89,15 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
a match with a directory. In other words, `foo/` will match a
directory `foo` and paths underneath it, but will not match a
regular file or a symbolic link `foo` (this is consistent
- with the way how pathspec works in general in git).
+ with the way how pathspec works in general in Git).
- - If the pattern does not contain a slash '/', git treats it as
+ - If the pattern does not contain a slash '/', Git treats it as
a shell glob pattern and checks for a match against the
pathname relative to the location of the `.gitignore` file
(relative to the toplevel of the work tree if not from a
`.gitignore` file).
- - Otherwise, git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable
+ - Otherwise, Git treats the pattern as a shell glob suitable
for consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname.
For example, "Documentation/{asterisk}.html" matches
@@ -108,11 +108,30 @@ PATTERN FORMAT
For example, "/{asterisk}.c" matches "cat-file.c" but not
"mozilla-sha1/sha1.c".
+Two consecutive asterisks ("`**`") in patterns matched against
+full pathname may have special meaning:
+
+ - A leading "`**`" followed by a slash means match in all
+ directories. For example, "`**/foo`" matches file or directory
+ "`foo`" anywhere, the same as pattern "`foo`". "**/foo/bar"
+ matches file or directory "`bar`" anywhere that is directly
+ under directory "`foo`".
+
+ - A trailing "/**" matches everything inside. For example,
+ "abc/**" matches all files inside directory "abc", relative
+ to the location of the `.gitignore` file, with infinite depth.
+
+ - A slash followed by two consecutive asterisks then a slash
+ matches zero or more directories. For example, "`a/**/b`"
+ matches "`a/b`", "`a/x/b`", "`a/x/y/b`" and so on.
+
+ - Other consecutive asterisks are considered invalid.
+
NOTES
-----
The purpose of gitignore files is to ensure that certain files
-not tracked by git remain untracked.
+not tracked by Git remain untracked.
To ignore uncommitted changes in a file that is already tracked,
use 'git update-index {litdd}assume-unchanged'.
@@ -160,13 +179,15 @@ Another example:
$ echo '!/vmlinux*' >arch/foo/kernel/.gitignore
--------------------------------------------------------------
-The second .gitignore prevents git from ignoring
+The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
`arch/foo/kernel/vmlinux.lds.S`.
SEE ALSO
--------
-linkgit:git-rm[1], linkgit:git-update-index[1],
-linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5]
+linkgit:git-rm[1],
+linkgit:git-update-index[1],
+linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5],
+linkgit:git-check-ignore[1]
GIT
---
diff --git a/Documentation/gitk.txt b/Documentation/gitk.txt
index a17a354..c17e760 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitk.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitk.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitk(1)
NAME
----
-gitk - The git repository browser
+gitk - The Git repository browser
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@ the files in the trees of each revision.
Historically, gitk was the first repository browser. It's written in tcl/tk
and started off in a separate repository but was later merged into the main
-git repository.
+Git repository.
OPTIONS
-------
@@ -108,10 +108,10 @@ SEE ALSO
'gitview(1)'::
A repository browser written in Python using Gtk. It's based on
- 'bzrk(1)' and distributed in the contrib area of the git repository.
+ 'bzrk(1)' and distributed in the contrib area of the Git repository.
'tig(1)'::
- A minimal repository browser and git tool output highlighter written
+ A minimal repository browser and Git tool output highlighter written
in C using Ncurses.
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index ab3e91c..6a1ca4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ $GIT_WORK_DIR/.gitmodules
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-The `.gitmodules` file, located in the top-level directory of a git
+The `.gitmodules` file, located in the top-level directory of a Git
working tree, is a text file with a syntax matching the requirements
of linkgit:git-config[1].
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ option of 'git submodule add'. Each submodule section also contains the
following required keys:
submodule.<name>.path::
- Defines the path, relative to the top-level directory of the git
+ Defines the path, relative to the top-level directory of the Git
working tree, where the submodule is expected to be checked out.
The path name must not end with a `/`. All submodule paths must
be unique within the .gitmodules file.
@@ -49,6 +49,11 @@ submodule.<name>.update::
This config option is overridden if 'git submodule update' is given
the '--merge', '--rebase' or '--checkout' options.
+submodule.<name>.branch::
+ A remote branch name for tracking updates in the upstream submodule.
+ If the option is not specified, it defaults to 'master'. See the
+ `--remote` documentation in linkgit:git-submodule[1] for details.
+
submodule.<name>.fetchRecurseSubmodules::
This option can be used to control recursive fetching of this
submodule. If this option is also present in the submodules entry in
diff --git a/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt b/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
index c6713cf..7685e36 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitnamespaces.txt
@@ -29,7 +29,7 @@ prevent duplication between new objects added to the repositories
without ongoing maintenance, while namespaces do.
To specify a namespace, set the `GIT_NAMESPACE` environment variable to
-the namespace. For each ref namespace, git stores the corresponding
+the namespace. For each ref namespace, Git stores the corresponding
refs in a directory under `refs/namespaces/`. For example,
`GIT_NAMESPACE=foo` will store refs under `refs/namespaces/foo/`. You
can also specify namespaces via the `--namespace` option to
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 0f21367..0827f69 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -14,17 +14,17 @@ DESCRIPTION
-----------
Remote helper programs are normally not used directly by end users,
-but they are invoked by git when it needs to interact with remote
-repositories git does not support natively. A given helper will
-implement a subset of the capabilities documented here. When git
+but they are invoked by Git when it needs to interact with remote
+repositories Git does not support natively. A given helper will
+implement a subset of the capabilities documented here. When Git
needs to interact with a repository using a remote helper, it spawns
the helper as an independent process, sends commands to the helper's
standard input, and expects results from the helper's standard
output. Because a remote helper runs as an independent process from
-git, there is no need to re-link git to add a new helper, nor any
-need to link the helper with the implementation of git.
+Git, there is no need to re-link Git to add a new helper, nor any
+need to link the helper with the implementation of Git.
-Every helper must support the "capabilities" command, which git
+Every helper must support the "capabilities" command, which Git
uses to determine what other commands the helper will accept. Those
other commands can be used to discover and update remote refs,
transport objects between the object database and the remote repository,
@@ -39,15 +39,15 @@ INVOCATION
----------
Remote helper programs are invoked with one or (optionally) two
-arguments. The first argument specifies a remote repository as in git;
+arguments. The first argument specifies a remote repository as in Git;
it is either the name of a configured remote or a URL. The second
argument specifies a URL; it is usually of the form
'<transport>://<address>', but any arbitrary string is possible.
The 'GIT_DIR' environment variable is set up for the remote helper
and can be used to determine where to store additional data or from
-which directory to invoke auxiliary git commands.
+which directory to invoke auxiliary Git commands.
-When git encounters a URL of the form '<transport>://<address>', where
+When Git encounters a URL of the form '<transport>://<address>', where
'<transport>' is a protocol that it cannot handle natively, it
automatically invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with the full URL as
the second argument. If such a URL is encountered directly on the
@@ -55,14 +55,14 @@ command line, the first argument is the same as the second, and if it
is encountered in a configured remote, the first argument is the name
of that remote.
-A URL of the form '<transport>::<address>' explicitly instructs git to
+A URL of the form '<transport>::<address>' explicitly instructs Git to
invoke 'git remote-<transport>' with '<address>' as the second
argument. If such a URL is encountered directly on the command line,
the first argument is '<address>', and if it is encountered in a
configured remote, the first argument is the name of that remote.
Additionally, when a configured remote has 'remote.<name>.vcs' set to
-'<transport>', git explicitly invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with
+'<transport>', Git explicitly invokes 'git remote-<transport>' with
'<name>' as the first argument. If set, the second argument is
'remote.<name>.url'; otherwise, the second argument is omitted.
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@ Capabilities
~~~~~~~~~~~~
Each remote helper is expected to support only a subset of commands.
-The operations a helper supports are declared to git in the response
+The operations a helper supports are declared to Git in the response
to the `capabilities` command (see COMMANDS, below).
In the following, we list all defined capabilities and for
@@ -114,10 +114,10 @@ Supported commands: 'list for-push', 'push'.
+
Supported commands: 'list for-push', 'export'.
-If a helper advertises 'connect', git will use it if possible and
+If a helper advertises 'connect', Git will use it if possible and
fall back to another capability if the helper requests so when
connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
-When choosing between 'push' and 'export', git prefers 'push'.
+When choosing between 'push' and 'export', Git prefers 'push'.
Other frontends may have some other order of preference.
@@ -126,7 +126,7 @@ Capabilities for Fetching
'connect'::
Can try to connect to 'git upload-pack' (for fetching),
'git receive-pack', etc for communication using the
- git's native packfile protocol. This
+ Git's native packfile protocol. This
requires a bidirectional, full-duplex connection.
+
Supported commands: 'connect'.
@@ -143,10 +143,10 @@ Supported commands: 'list', 'fetch'.
+
Supported commands: 'list', 'import'.
-If a helper advertises 'connect', git will use it if possible and
+If a helper advertises 'connect', Git will use it if possible and
fall back to another capability if the helper requests so when
connecting (see the 'connect' command under COMMANDS).
-When choosing between 'fetch' and 'import', git prefers 'fetch'.
+When choosing between 'fetch' and 'import', Git prefers 'fetch'.
Other frontends may have some other order of preference.
Miscellaneous capabilities
@@ -159,11 +159,11 @@ Miscellaneous capabilities
carried out.
'refspec' <refspec>::
- This modifies the 'import' capability, allowing the produced
- fast-import stream to modify refs in a private namespace
- instead of writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly.
+ For remote helpers that implement 'import' or 'export', this capability
+ allows the refs to be constrained to a private namespace, instead of
+ writing to refs/heads or refs/remotes directly.
It is recommended that all importers providing the 'import'
- capability use this.
+ capability use this. It's mandatory for 'export'.
+
A helper advertising the capability
`refspec refs/heads/*:refs/svn/origin/branches/*`
@@ -183,25 +183,29 @@ there is an implied `refspec *:*`.
to retrieve information about blobs and trees that already exist in
fast-import's memory. This requires a channel from fast-import to the
remote-helper.
- If it is advertised in addition to "import", git establishes a pipe from
+ If it is advertised in addition to "import", Git establishes a pipe from
fast-import to the remote-helper's stdin.
- It follows that git and fast-import are both connected to the
- remote-helper's stdin. Because git can send multiple commands to
+ It follows that Git and fast-import are both connected to the
+ remote-helper's stdin. Because Git can send multiple commands to
the remote-helper it is required that helpers that use 'bidi-import'
buffer all 'import' commands of a batch before sending data to fast-import.
This is to prevent mixing commands and fast-import responses on the
helper's stdin.
'export-marks' <file>::
- This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing git to dump the
+ This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to dump the
internal marks table to <file> when complete. For details,
read up on '--export-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
'import-marks' <file>::
- This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing git to load the
+ This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to load the
marks specified in <file> before processing any input. For details,
read up on '--import-marks=<file>' in linkgit:git-fast-export[1].
+'signed-tags'::
+ This modifies the 'export' capability, instructing Git to pass
+ '--signed-tags=verbatim' to linkgit:git-fast-export[1]. In the
+ absence of this capability, Git will use '--signed-tags=warn-strip'.
@@ -213,7 +217,7 @@ Commands are given by the caller on the helper's standard input, one per line.
'capabilities'::
Lists the capabilities of the helper, one per line, ending
with a blank line. Each capability may be preceded with '*',
- which marks them mandatory for git versions using the remote
+ which marks them mandatory for Git versions using the remote
helper to understand. Any unknown mandatory capability is a
fatal error.
+
@@ -376,7 +380,7 @@ OPTIONS
-------
The following options are defined and (under suitable circumstances)
-set by git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
+set by Git if the remote helper has the 'option' capability.
'option verbosity' <n>::
Changes the verbosity of messages displayed by the helper.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index 9f62886..aa03882 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -12,12 +12,24 @@ $GIT_DIR/*
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-You may find these things in your git repository (`.git`
-directory for a repository associated with your working tree, or
-`<project>.git` directory for a public 'bare' repository. It is
-also possible to have a working tree where `.git` is a plain
-ASCII file containing `gitdir: <path>`, i.e. the path to the
-real git repository).
+A Git repository comes in two different flavours:
+
+ * a `.git` directory at the root of the working tree;
+
+ * a `<project>.git` directory that is a 'bare' repository
+ (i.e. without its own working tree), that is typically used for
+ exchanging histories with others by pushing into it and fetching
+ from it.
+
+*Note*: Also you can have a plain text file `.git` at the root of
+your working tree, containing `gitdir: <path>` to point at the real
+directory that has the repository. This mechanism is often used for
+a working tree of a submodule checkout, to allow you in the
+containing superproject to `git checkout` a branch that does not
+have the submodule. The `checkout` has to remove the entire
+submodule working tree, without losing the submodule repository.
+
+These things may exist in a Git repository.
objects::
Object store associated with this repository. Usually
@@ -94,7 +106,7 @@ refs/remotes/`name`::
from a remote repository.
refs/replace/`<obj-sha1>`::
- records the SHA1 of the object that replaces `<obj-sha1>`.
+ records the SHA-1 of the object that replaces `<obj-sha1>`.
This is similar to info/grafts and is internally used and
maintained by linkgit:git-replace[1]. Such refs can be exchanged
between repositories while grafts are not.
@@ -108,7 +120,7 @@ HEAD::
A symref (see glossary) to the `refs/heads/` namespace
describing the currently active branch. It does not mean
much if the repository is not associated with any working tree
- (i.e. a 'bare' repository), but a valid git repository
+ (i.e. a 'bare' repository), but a valid Git repository
*must* have the HEAD file; some porcelains may use it to
guess the designated "default" branch of the repository
(usually 'master'). It is legal if the named branch
@@ -131,7 +143,7 @@ branches::
and not likely to be found in modern repositories.
hooks::
- Hooks are customization scripts used by various git
+ Hooks are customization scripts used by various Git
commands. A handful of sample hooks are installed when
'git init' is run, but all of them are disabled by
default. To enable, the `.sample` suffix has to be
@@ -169,9 +181,13 @@ info/exclude::
This file, by convention among Porcelains, stores the
exclude pattern list. `.gitignore` is the per-directory
ignore file. 'git status', 'git add', 'git rm' and
- 'git clean' look at it but the core git commands do not look
+ 'git clean' look at it but the core Git commands do not look
at it. See also: linkgit:gitignore[5].
+info/sparse-checkout::
+ This file stores sparse checkout patterns.
+ See also: linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
+
remotes::
Stores shorthands for URL and default refnames for use
when interacting with remote repositories via 'git fetch',
@@ -195,6 +211,9 @@ shallow::
and maintained by shallow clone mechanism. See `--depth`
option to linkgit:git-clone[1] and linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+modules::
+ Contains the git-repositories of the submodules.
+
SEE ALSO
--------
linkgit:git-init[1],
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
index fc4789f..c0ed6d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitrevisions(7)
NAME
----
-gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for git
+gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for Git
SYNOPSIS
--------
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
index e00a4d2..3109ea8 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gittutorial-2(7)
NAME
----
-gittutorial-2 - A tutorial introduction to git: part two
+gittutorial-2 - A tutorial introduction to Git: part two
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -16,11 +16,11 @@ DESCRIPTION
You should work through linkgit:gittutorial[7] before reading this tutorial.
The goal of this tutorial is to introduce two fundamental pieces of
-git's architecture--the object database and the index file--and to
+Git's architecture--the object database and the index file--and to
provide the reader with everything necessary to understand the rest
-of the git documentation.
+of the Git documentation.
-The git object database
+The Git object database
-----------------------
Let's start a new project and create a small amount of history:
@@ -42,25 +42,25 @@ $ git commit -a -m "add emphasis"
1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
------------------------------------------------
-What are the 7 digits of hex that git responded to the commit with?
+What are the 7 digits of hex that Git responded to the commit with?
We saw in part one of the tutorial that commits have names like this.
-It turns out that every object in the git history is stored under
-a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA1 hash of the object's
-contents; among other things, this ensures that git will never store
-the same data twice (since identical data is given an identical SHA1
-name), and that the contents of a git object will never change (since
+It turns out that every object in the Git history is stored under
+a 40-digit hex name. That name is the SHA-1 hash of the object's
+contents; among other things, this ensures that Git will never store
+the same data twice (since identical data is given an identical SHA-1
+name), and that the contents of a Git object will never change (since
that would change the object's name as well). The 7 char hex strings
here are simply the abbreviation of such 40 character long strings.
Abbreviations can be used everywhere where the 40 character strings
can be used, so long as they are unambiguous.
It is expected that the content of the commit object you created while
-following the example above generates a different SHA1 hash than
+following the example above generates a different SHA-1 hash than
the one shown above because the commit object records the time when
it was created and the name of the person performing the commit.
-We can ask git about this particular object with the `cat-file`
+We can ask Git about this particular object with the `cat-file`
command. Don't copy the 40 hex digits from this example but use those
from your own version. Note that you can shorten it to only a few
characters to save yourself typing all 40 hex digits:
@@ -80,14 +80,14 @@ A tree can refer to one or more "blob" objects, each corresponding to
a file. In addition, a tree can also refer to other tree objects,
thus creating a directory hierarchy. You can examine the contents of
any tree using ls-tree (remember that a long enough initial portion
-of the SHA1 will also work):
+of the SHA-1 will also work):
------------------------------------------------
$ git ls-tree 92b8b694
100644 blob 3b18e512dba79e4c8300dd08aeb37f8e728b8dad file.txt
------------------------------------------------
-Thus we see that this tree has one file in it. The SHA1 hash is a
+Thus we see that this tree has one file in it. The SHA-1 hash is a
reference to that file's data:
------------------------------------------------
@@ -102,11 +102,11 @@ $ git cat-file blob 3b18e512
hello world
------------------------------------------------
-Note that this is the old file data; so the object that git named in
+Note that this is the old file data; so the object that Git named in
its response to the initial tree was a tree with a snapshot of the
directory state that was recorded by the first commit.
-All of these objects are stored under their SHA1 names inside the git
+All of these objects are stored under their SHA-1 names inside the Git
directory:
------------------------------------------------
@@ -142,7 +142,7 @@ ref: refs/heads/master
As you can see, this tells us which branch we're currently on, and it
tells us this by naming a file under the .git directory, which itself
-contains a SHA1 name referring to a commit object, which we can
+contains a SHA-1 name referring to a commit object, which we can
examine with cat-file:
------------------------------------------------
@@ -191,7 +191,7 @@ Besides blobs, trees, and commits, the only remaining type of object
is a "tag", which we won't discuss here; refer to linkgit:git-tag[1]
for details.
-So now we know how git uses the object database to represent a
+So now we know how Git uses the object database to represent a
project's history:
* "commit" objects refer to "tree" objects representing the
@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ project's history:
Note, by the way, that lots of commands take a tree as an argument.
But as we can see above, a tree can be referred to in many different
-ways--by the SHA1 name for that tree, by the name of a commit that
+ways--by the SHA-1 name for that tree, by the name of a commit that
refers to the tree, by the name of a branch whose head refers to that
tree, etc.--and most such commands can accept any of these names.
@@ -403,21 +403,21 @@ What next?
At this point you should know everything necessary to read the man
pages for any of the git commands; one good place to start would be
-with the commands mentioned in link:everyday.html[Everyday git]. You
+with the commands mentioned in link:everyday.html[Everyday Git]. You
should be able to find any unknown jargon in linkgit:gitglossary[7].
The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] provides a more
-comprehensive introduction to git.
+comprehensive introduction to Git.
linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7] explains how to
-import a CVS repository into git, and shows how to use git in a
+import a CVS repository into Git, and shows how to use Git in a
CVS-like way.
-For some interesting examples of git use, see the
+For some interesting examples of Git use, see the
link:howto-index.html[howtos].
-For git developers, linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] goes
-into detail on the lower-level git mechanisms involved in, for
+For Git developers, linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] goes
+into detail on the lower-level Git mechanisms involved in, for
example, creating a new commit.
SEE ALSO
@@ -427,7 +427,7 @@ linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7],
linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index f1cb6f3..8262196 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gittutorial(7)
NAME
----
-gittutorial - A tutorial introduction to git (for version 1.5.1 or newer)
+gittutorial - A tutorial introduction to Git (for version 1.5.1 or newer)
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -13,10 +13,10 @@ git *
DESCRIPTION
-----------
-This tutorial explains how to import a new project into git, make
+This tutorial explains how to import a new project into Git, make
changes to it, and share changes with other developers.
-If you are instead primarily interested in using git to fetch a project,
+If you are instead primarily interested in using Git to fetch a project,
for example, to test the latest version, you may prefer to start with
the first two chapters of link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual].
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@ $ git help log
With the latter, you can use the manual viewer of your choice; see
linkgit:git-help[1] for more information.
-It is a good idea to introduce yourself to git with your name and
+It is a good idea to introduce yourself to Git with your name and
public email address before doing any operation. The easiest
way to do so is:
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@ Importing a new project
-----------------------
Assume you have a tarball project.tar.gz with your initial work. You
-can place it under git revision control as follows.
+can place it under Git revision control as follows.
------------------------------------------------
$ tar xzf project.tar.gz
@@ -67,14 +67,14 @@ Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
You've now initialized the working directory--you may notice a new
directory created, named ".git".
-Next, tell git to take a snapshot of the contents of all files under the
+Next, tell Git to take a snapshot of the contents of all files under the
current directory (note the '.'), with 'git add':
------------------------------------------------
$ git add .
------------------------------------------------
-This snapshot is now stored in a temporary staging area which git calls
+This snapshot is now stored in a temporary staging area which Git calls
the "index". You can permanently store the contents of the index in the
repository with 'git commit':
@@ -83,7 +83,7 @@ $ git commit
------------------------------------------------
This will prompt you for a commit message. You've now stored the first
-version of your project in git.
+version of your project in Git.
Making changes
--------------
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character)
line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more
thorough description. The text up to the first blank line in a commit
message is treated as the commit title, and that title is used
-throughout git. For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a
+throughout Git. For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a
commit into email, and it uses the title on the Subject line and the
rest of the commit in the body.
@@ -180,7 +180,7 @@ $ git log --stat --summary
Managing branches
-----------------
-A single git repository can maintain multiple branches of
+A single Git repository can maintain multiple branches of
development. To create a new branch named "experimental", use
------------------------------------------------
@@ -276,10 +276,10 @@ $ git branch -D crazy-idea
Branches are cheap and easy, so this is a good way to try something
out.
-Using git for collaboration
+Using Git for collaboration
---------------------------
-Suppose that Alice has started a new project with a git repository in
+Suppose that Alice has started a new project with a Git repository in
/home/alice/project, and that Bob, who has a home directory on the
same machine, wants to contribute.
@@ -320,7 +320,7 @@ Note that in general, Alice would want her local changes committed before
initiating this "pull". If Bob's work conflicts with what Alice did since
their histories forked, Alice will use her working tree and the index to
resolve conflicts, and existing local changes will interfere with the
-conflict resolution process (git will still perform the fetch but will
+conflict resolution process (Git will still perform the fetch but will
refuse to merge --- Alice will have to get rid of her local changes in
some way and pull again when this happens).
@@ -422,7 +422,7 @@ bob$ git pull
-------------------------------------
Note that he doesn't need to give the path to Alice's repository;
-when Bob cloned Alice's repository, git stored the location of her
+when Bob cloned Alice's repository, Git stored the location of her
repository in the repository configuration, and that location is
used for pulls:
@@ -450,7 +450,7 @@ perform clones and pulls using the ssh protocol:
bob$ git clone alice.org:/home/alice/project myrepo
-------------------------------------
-Alternatively, git has a native protocol, or can use rsync or http;
+Alternatively, Git has a native protocol, or can use rsync or http;
see linkgit:git-pull[1] for details.
Git can also be used in a CVS-like mode, with a central repository
@@ -518,7 +518,7 @@ share this name with other people (for example, to identify a release
version), you should create a "tag" object, and perhaps sign it; see
linkgit:git-tag[1] for details.
-Any git command that needs to know a commit can take any of these
+Any Git command that needs to know a commit can take any of these
names. For example:
-------------------------------------
@@ -554,9 +554,9 @@ files it manages in your current directory. So
$ git grep "hello"
-------------------------------------
-is a quick way to search just the files that are tracked by git.
+is a quick way to search just the files that are tracked by Git.
-Many git commands also take sets of commits, which can be specified
+Many Git commands also take sets of commits, which can be specified
in a number of ways. Here are some examples with 'git log':
-------------------------------------
@@ -592,7 +592,7 @@ then merged back together, the order in which 'git log' presents
those commits is meaningless.
Most projects with multiple contributors (such as the Linux kernel,
-or git itself) have frequent merges, and 'gitk' does a better job of
+or Git itself) have frequent merges, and 'gitk' does a better job of
visualizing their history. For example,
-------------------------------------
@@ -623,7 +623,7 @@ Next Steps
This tutorial should be enough to perform basic distributed revision
control for your projects. However, to fully understand the depth
-and power of git you need to understand two simple ideas on which it
+and power of Git you need to understand two simple ideas on which it
is based:
* The object database is the rather elegant system used to
@@ -636,7 +636,7 @@ is based:
Part two of this tutorial explains the object
database, the index file, and a few other odds and ends that you'll
-need to make the most of git. You can find it at linkgit:gittutorial-2[7].
+need to make the most of Git. You can find it at linkgit:gittutorial-2[7].
If you don't want to continue with that right away, a few other
digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
@@ -656,7 +656,7 @@ digressions that may be interesting at this point are:
* linkgit:gitworkflows[7]: Gives an overview of recommended
workflows.
- * link:everyday.html[Everyday GIT with 20 Commands Or So]
+ * link:everyday.html[Everyday Git with 20 Commands Or So]
* linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7]: Git for CVS users.
@@ -668,7 +668,7 @@ linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
linkgit:gitglossary[7],
linkgit:git-help[1],
linkgit:gitworkflows[7],
-link:everyday.html[Everyday git],
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git],
link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
GIT
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index 4947455..ea0526e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@ gitweb.conf(5)
NAME
----
-gitweb.conf - Gitweb (git web interface) configuration file
+gitweb.conf - Gitweb (Git web interface) configuration file
SYNOPSIS
--------
@@ -79,7 +79,7 @@ stops declaring it.
You can include other configuration file using read_config_file()
subroutine. For example, one might want to put gitweb configuration
related to access control for viewing repositories via Gitolite (one
-of git repository management tools) in a separate file, e.g. in
+of Git repository management tools) in a separate file, e.g. in
'/etc/gitweb-gitolite.conf'. To include it, put
--------------------------------------------------
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@ and installing gitweb.
Location of repositories
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The configuration variables described below control how gitweb finds
-git repositories, and how repositories are displayed and accessed.
+Git repositories, and how repositories are displayed and accessed.
See also "Repositories" and later subsections in linkgit:gitweb[1] manpage.
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@ will fall back to scanning the `$projectroot` directory for repositories.
$project_maxdepth::
If `$projects_list` variable is unset, gitweb will recursively
- scan filesystem for git repositories. The `$project_maxdepth`
+ scan filesystem for Git repositories. The `$project_maxdepth`
is used to limit traversing depth, relative to `$projectroot`
(starting point); it means that directories which are further
from `$projectroot` than `$project_maxdepth` will be skipped.
@@ -200,7 +200,7 @@ our $export_ok = "git-daemon-export-ok";
+
If not set (default), it means that this feature is disabled.
+
-See also more involved example in "Controlling access to git repositories"
+See also more involved example in "Controlling access to Git repositories"
subsection on linkgit:gitweb[1] manpage.
$strict_export::
@@ -222,18 +222,18 @@ The values of these variables are paths on the filesystem.
$GIT::
Core git executable to use. By default set to `$GIT_BINDIR/git`, which
- in turn is by default set to `$(bindir)/git`. If you use git installed
+ in turn is by default set to `$(bindir)/git`. If you use Git installed
from a binary package, you should usually set this to "/usr/bin/git".
This can just be "git" if your web server has a sensible PATH; from
security point of view it is better to use absolute path to git binary.
- If you have multiple git versions installed it can be used to choose
+ If you have multiple Git versions installed it can be used to choose
which one to use. Must be (correctly) set for gitweb to be able to
work.
$mimetypes_file::
File to use for (filename extension based) guessing of MIME types before
trying '/etc/mime.types'. *NOTE* that this path, if relative, is taken
- as relative to the current git repository, not to CGI script. If unset,
+ as relative to the current Git repository, not to CGI script. If unset,
only '/etc/mime.types' is used (if present on filesystem). If no mimetypes
file is found, mimetype guessing based on extension of file is disabled.
Unset by default.
@@ -343,8 +343,8 @@ $logo_url::
$logo_label::
URI and label (title) for the Git logo link (or your site logo,
if you chose to use d