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-rw-r--r--.cirrus.yml15
-rw-r--r--.clang-format17
-rw-r--r--.editorconfig2
-rw-r--r--.gitattributes1
-rw-r--r--.github/CONTRIBUTING.md2
-rw-r--r--.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md4
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-rw-r--r--CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md93
-rw-r--r--Documentation/.gitignore2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/CodingGuidelines41
-rw-r--r--Documentation/Makefile61
-rw-r--r--Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt1217
-rw-r--r--Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt905
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt370
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.26.0.txt344
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.3.7.txt2
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.0.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.1.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.3.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/SubmittingPatches24
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/config.txt111
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/advice.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/alias.txt22
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/diff.txt9
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/feature.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/fetch.txt28
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/fsck.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/gc.txt42
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/gpg.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/http.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/index.txt1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/interactive.txt3
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/config/pull.txt11
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/diff-format.txt22
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-rwxr-xr-xDocumentation/doc-diff90
-rw-r--r--Documentation/fetch-options.txt49
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-add.txt33
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-am.txt19
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt6
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-bundle.txt58
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cat-file.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-attr.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-checkout.txt276
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clean.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-clone.txt63
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-column.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt48
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-commit.txt97
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-config.txt77
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-credential.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-daemon.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-describe.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff-tree.txt61
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-diff.txt20
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-difftool.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-export.txt53
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fast-import.txt84
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fetch.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt284
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-format-patch.txt76
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-fsck.txt25
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gc.txt157
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-grep.txt37
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-gui.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-hash-object.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-help.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-http-backend.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-init.txt6
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-instaweb.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-log.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-files.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt34
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-ls-tree.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-base.txt100
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge-index.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-merge.txt17
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool--lib.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-mergetool.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-multi-pack-index.txt36
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-notes.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-p4.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt13
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-pull.txt7
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-push.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt5
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-range-diff.txt8
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-read-tree.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rebase.txt270
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt52
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-ext.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-fd.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txto2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote-testgit.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-remote.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-repack.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-replace.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rerere.txt12
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-reset.txt151
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-restore.txt207
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-list.txt53
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt10
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-revert.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-rm.txt61
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-send-email.txt30
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-shortlog.txt3
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-branch.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-show-ref.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-sparse-checkout.txt207
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-status.txt194
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-submodule.txt43
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-svn.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-switch.txt273
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-tag.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-index.txt24
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-update-server-info.txt11
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt1
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-web--browse.txt4
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git-worktree.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/git.txt132
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitattributes.txt31
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcli.txt26
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt21
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/giteveryday.txt29
-rw-r--r--Documentation/githooks.txt75
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitk.txt16
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitmodules.txt23
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt21
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt14
-rw-r--r--Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt16
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/separating-topic-branches.txt2
-rw-r--r--Documentation/howto/setup-git-server-over-http.txt4
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-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-allocation-growing.txt39
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt65
-rw-r--r--Documentation/technical/api-config.txt319
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l---------RelNotes2
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-rwxr-xr-xt/t6024-recursive-merge.sh135
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6025-merge-symlinks.sh95
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6026-merge-attr.sh46
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6030-bisect-porcelain.sh41
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6034-merge-rename-nocruft.sh122
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6035-merge-dir-to-symlink.sh28
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh459
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6040-tracking-info.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6042-merge-rename-corner-cases.sh540
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6043-merge-rename-directories.sh1211
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6046-merge-skip-unneeded-updates.sh232
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6047-diff3-conflict-markers.sh211
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6050-replace.sh35
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6102-rev-list-unexpected-objects.sh127
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6112-rev-list-filters-objects.sh358
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6113-rev-list-bitmap-filters.sh56
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6120-describe.sh177
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6135-pathspec-with-attrs.sh58
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6200-fmt-merge-msg.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6300-for-each-ref.sh64
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6302-for-each-ref-filter.sh13
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6500-gc.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t6501-freshen-objects.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7004-tag.sh41
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7008-filter-branch-null-sha1.sh (renamed from t/t7009-filter-branch-null-sha1.sh)0
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7012-skip-worktree-writing.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7030-verify-tag.sh38
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7060-wtstatus.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7061-wtstatus-ignore.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7064-wtstatus-pv2.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7105-reset-patch.sh21
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7107-reset-pathspec-file.sh173
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7113-post-index-change-hook.sh144
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7201-co.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7300-clean.sh85
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7400-submodule-basic.sh80
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7405-submodule-merge.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7406-submodule-update.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7407-submodule-foreach.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7410-submodule-checkout-to.sh77
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7411-submodule-config.sh17
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7412-submodule-absorbgitdirs.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7415-submodule-names.sh15
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7419-submodule-set-branch.sh93
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7420-submodule-set-url.sh55
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7500-commit-template-squash-signoff.sh9
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7501-commit-basic-functionality.sh83
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7502-commit-porcelain.sh95
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7503-pre-commit-and-pre-merge-commit-hooks.sh281
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7503-pre-commit-hook.sh139
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7505-prepare-commit-msg-hook.sh16
-rw-r--r--t/t7505/expected-rebase-i3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7508-status.sh146
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7510-signed-commit.sh60
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7512-status-help.sh104
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7513-interpret-trailers.sh73
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7517-per-repo-email.sh74
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519-status-fsmonitor.sh45
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-all1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-all-v221
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-env24
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-watchman16
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7519/fsmonitor-watchman-v2173
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7525-status-rename.sh8
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7526-commit-pathspec-file.sh164
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7600-merge.sh125
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7604-merge-custom-message.sh75
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7610-mergetool.sh326
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7612-merge-verify-signatures.sh22
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7700-repack.sh212
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7800-difftool.sh43
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7810-grep.sh22
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7811-grep-open.sh1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7812-grep-icase-non-ascii.sh31
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7814-grep-recurse-submodules.sh56
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7815-grep-binary.sh (renamed from t/t7008-grep-binary.sh)101
-rwxr-xr-xt/t7816-grep-binary-pattern.sh127
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8003-blame-corner-cases.sh37
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8013-blame-ignore-revs.sh274
-rwxr-xr-xt/t8014-blame-ignore-fuzzy.sh437
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9001-send-email.sh122
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9010-svn-fe.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9106-git-svn-commit-diff-clobber.sh3
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9115-git-svn-dcommit-funky-renames.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9116-git-svn-log.sh12
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9118-git-svn-funky-branch-names.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9120-git-svn-clone-with-percent-escapes.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9142-git-svn-shallow-clone.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9300-fast-import.sh131
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9301-fast-import-notes.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9303-fast-import-compression.sh2
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9350-fast-export.sh226
-rw-r--r--t/t9350/broken-iso-8859-7-commit-message.txt1
-rw-r--r--t/t9350/simple-iso-8859-7-commit-message.txt1
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9502-gitweb-standalone-parse-output.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9800-git-p4-basic.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9801-git-p4-branch.sh136
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9802-git-p4-filetype.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9803-git-p4-shell-metachars.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9804-git-p4-label.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9805-git-p4-skip-submit-edit.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9806-git-p4-options.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9807-git-p4-submit.sh57
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9808-git-p4-chdir.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9809-git-p4-client-view.sh6
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9810-git-p4-rcs.sh5
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9811-git-p4-label-import.sh7
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9812-git-p4-wildcards.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9813-git-p4-preserve-users.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9814-git-p4-rename.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9815-git-p4-submit-fail.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9816-git-p4-locked.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9817-git-p4-exclude.sh51
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9818-git-p4-block.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9819-git-p4-case-folding.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9820-git-p4-editor-handling.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9821-git-p4-path-variations.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9822-git-p4-path-encoding.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9823-git-p4-mock-lfs.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9824-git-p4-git-lfs.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9825-git-p4-handle-utf16-without-bom.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9826-git-p4-keep-empty-commits.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9827-git-p4-change-filetype.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9828-git-p4-map-user.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9829-git-p4-jobs.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9830-git-p4-symlink-dir.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9831-git-p4-triggers.sh4
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9832-unshelve.sh11
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9833-errors.sh32
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9902-completion.sh167
-rwxr-xr-xt/t9903-bash-prompt.sh28
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib-functions.sh382
-rw-r--r--t/test-lib.sh637
-rw-r--r--tag.c33
-rw-r--r--tag.h17
-rw-r--r--tar.h5
-rw-r--r--tempfile.h30
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--fsmonitor-watchman.sample167
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--pre-commit.sample2
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--pre-merge-commit.sample13
-rwxr-xr-xtemplates/hooks--update.sample10
-rw-r--r--trace.c2
-rw-r--r--trace.h177
-rw-r--r--trace2.c785
-rw-r--r--trace2.h490
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_cfg.c89
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_cfg.h19
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_cmd_name.c30
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_cmd_name.h24
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_dst.c391
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_dst.h38
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sid.c112
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sid.h18
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sysenv.c130
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_sysenv.h38
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tbuf.c47
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tbuf.h24
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt.h134
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt_event.c603
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt_normal.c325
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tgt_perf.c551
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tls.c180
-rw-r--r--trace2/tr2_tls.h103
-rw-r--r--trailer.c25
-rw-r--r--trailer.h4
-rw-r--r--transport-helper.c76
-rw-r--r--transport-internal.h6
-rw-r--r--transport.c179
-rw-r--r--transport.h10
-rw-r--r--tree-diff.c15
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.c221
-rw-r--r--tree-walk.h188
-rw-r--r--tree.c53
-rw-r--r--tree.h18
-rw-r--r--unicode-width.h41
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.c365
-rw-r--r--unpack-trees.h11
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.c229
-rw-r--r--upload-pack.h8
-rw-r--r--url.c15
-rw-r--r--url.h24
-rw-r--r--urlmatch.c4
-rw-r--r--urlmatch.h13
-rw-r--r--usage.c51
-rw-r--r--userdiff.c45
-rw-r--r--userdiff.h4
-rw-r--r--utf8.c71
-rw-r--r--utf8.h4
-rw-r--r--varint.h4
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/sliding_window.h2
-rw-r--r--vcs-svn/svndiff.h4
-rw-r--r--walker.c23
-rw-r--r--walker.h1
-rw-r--r--worktree.c46
-rw-r--r--worktree.h56
-rw-r--r--wrapper.c99
-rw-r--r--wt-status.c242
-rw-r--r--wt-status.h28
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.c16
-rw-r--r--xdiff-interface.h14
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiff.h4
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xdiffi.c99
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xemit.c21
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xhistogram.c2
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xinclude.h8
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xpatience.c2
-rw-r--r--xdiff/xutils.c4
1431 files changed, 240755 insertions, 83886 deletions
diff --git a/.cirrus.yml b/.cirrus.yml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c2f5fe3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.cirrus.yml
@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+env:
+ CIRRUS_CLONE_DEPTH: 1
+
+freebsd_12_task:
+ freebsd_instance:
+ image: freebsd-12-1-release-amd64
+ install_script:
+ pkg install -y gettext gmake perl5
+ create_user_script:
+ - pw useradd git
+ - chown -R git:git .
+ build_script:
+ - su git -c gmake
+ test_script:
+ - su git -c 'gmake test'
diff --git a/.clang-format b/.clang-format
index de1c8b5..c592dda 100644
--- a/.clang-format
+++ b/.clang-format
@@ -148,8 +148,21 @@ SpacesInSquareBrackets: false
Cpp11BracedListStyle: false
# A list of macros that should be interpreted as foreach loops instead of as
-# function calls.
-ForEachMacros: ['for_each_string_list_item']
+# function calls. Taken from:
+# git grep -h '^#define [^[:space:]]*for_each[^[:space:]]*(' \
+# | sed "s,^#define \([^[:space:]]*for_each[^[:space:]]*\)(.*$, - '\1'," \
+# | sort | uniq
+ForEachMacros:
+ - 'for_each_abbrev'
+ - 'for_each_builtin'
+ - 'for_each_string_list_item'
+ - 'for_each_ut'
+ - 'for_each_wanted_builtin'
+ - 'list_for_each'
+ - 'list_for_each_dir'
+ - 'list_for_each_prev'
+ - 'list_for_each_prev_safe'
+ - 'list_for_each_safe'
# The maximum number of consecutive empty lines to keep.
MaxEmptyLinesToKeep: 1
diff --git a/.editorconfig b/.editorconfig
index 42cdc4b..f9d8196 100644
--- a/.editorconfig
+++ b/.editorconfig
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@ insert_final_newline = true
# The settings for C (*.c and *.h) files are mirrored in .clang-format. Keep
# them in sync.
-[*.{c,h,sh,perl,pl,pm}]
+[*.{c,h,sh,perl,pl,pm,txt}]
indent_style = tab
tab_width = 8
diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 9fa72ad..b08a141 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
*.pl eof=lf diff=perl
*.pm eol=lf diff=perl
*.py eol=lf diff=python
+*.bat eol=crlf
/Documentation/**/*.txt eol=lf
/command-list.txt eol=lf
/GIT-VERSION-GEN eol=lf
diff --git a/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md b/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md
index 64e605a..e7b4e2f 100644
--- a/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md
+++ b/.github/CONTRIBUTING.md
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@ Git community does not use github.com for their contributions. Instead, we use
a mailing list (git@vger.kernel.org) for code submissions, code
reviews, and bug reports.
-Nevertheless, you can use [submitGit](http://submitgit.herokuapp.com/) to
+Nevertheless, you can use [GitGitGadget](https://gitgitgadget.github.io/) to
conveniently send your Pull Requests commits to our mailing list.
Please read ["A note from the maintainer"](https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/git/git.git/plain/MaintNotes?h=todo)
diff --git a/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md b/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md
index adba13e..952c7c3 100644
--- a/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md
+++ b/.github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
Thanks for taking the time to contribute to Git! Please be advised that the
Git community does not use github.com for their contributions. Instead, we use
a mailing list (git@vger.kernel.org) for code submissions, code reviews, and
-bug reports. Nevertheless, you can use submitGit to conveniently send your Pull
-Requests commits to our mailing list.
+bug reports. Nevertheless, you can use GitGitGadget (https://gitgitgadget.github.io/)
+to conveniently send your Pull Requests commits to our mailing list.
Please read the "guidelines for contributing" linked above!
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 0d77ea5..aebe7c0 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -1,3 +1,4 @@
+/fuzz-commit-graph
/fuzz_corpora
/fuzz-pack-headers
/fuzz-pack-idx
@@ -57,6 +58,7 @@
/git-difftool
/git-difftool--helper
/git-describe
+/git-env--helper
/git-fast-export
/git-fast-import
/git-fetch
@@ -81,7 +83,7 @@
/git-init-db
/git-interpret-trailers
/git-instaweb
-/git-legacy-rebase
+/git-legacy-stash
/git-log
/git-ls-files
/git-ls-remote
@@ -121,10 +123,6 @@
/git-range-diff
/git-read-tree
/git-rebase
-/git-rebase--am
-/git-rebase--common
-/git-rebase--interactive
-/git-rebase--merge
/git-rebase--preserve-merges
/git-receive-pack
/git-reflog
@@ -135,7 +133,6 @@
/git-remote-ftps
/git-remote-fd
/git-remote-ext
-/git-remote-testgit
/git-remote-testpy
/git-remote-testsvn
/git-repack
@@ -143,6 +140,7 @@
/git-request-pull
/git-rerere
/git-reset
+/git-restore
/git-rev-list
/git-rev-parse
/git-revert
@@ -160,6 +158,7 @@
/git-show-branch
/git-show-index
/git-show-ref
+/git-sparse-checkout
/git-stage
/git-stash
/git-status
@@ -167,6 +166,7 @@
/git-submodule
/git-submodule--helper
/git-svn
+/git-switch
/git-symbolic-ref
/git-tag
/git-unpack-file
@@ -217,6 +217,7 @@
/tags
/TAGS
/cscope*
+*.hcc
*.obj
*.lib
*.res
@@ -227,5 +228,14 @@
*.user
*.idb
*.pdb
-/Debug/
-/Release/
+*.ilk
+*.iobj
+*.ipdb
+*.dll
+.vs/
+Debug/
+Release/
+/UpgradeLog*.htm
+/git.VC.VC.opendb
+/git.VC.db
+*.dSYM
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index eb7b5fc..bde7aba 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@ Alexey Shumkin <alex.crezoff@gmail.com> <zapped@mail.ru>
Alexey Shumkin <alex.crezoff@gmail.com> <Alex.Crezoff@gmail.com>
Anders Kaseorg <andersk@MIT.EDU> <andersk@ksplice.com>
Anders Kaseorg <andersk@MIT.EDU> <andersk@mit.edu>
+Andrey Mazo <ahippo@yandex.com> Mazo, Andrey <amazo@checkvideo.com>
Aneesh Kumar K.V <aneesh.kumar@gmail.com>
Amos Waterland <apw@debian.org> <apw@rossby.metr.ou.edu>
Amos Waterland <apw@debian.org> <apw@us.ibm.com>
@@ -27,8 +28,10 @@ Ben Walton <bdwalton@gmail.com> <bwalton@artsci.utoronto.ca>
Benoit Sigoure <tsunanet@gmail.com> <tsuna@lrde.epita.fr>
Bernt Hansen <bernt@norang.ca> <bernt@alumni.uwaterloo.ca>
Brandon Casey <drafnel@gmail.com> <casey@nrlssc.navy.mil>
+Brandon Williams <bwilliams.eng@gmail.com> <bmwill@google.com>
brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net>
brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
+brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> <bk2204@github.com>
Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryan.larsen@gmail.com>
Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryanlarsen@yahoo.com>
Cheng Renquan <crquan@gmail.com>
@@ -39,6 +42,8 @@ Cord Seele <cowose@gmail.com> <cowose@googlemail.com>
Christian Couder <chriscool@tuxfamily.org> <christian.couder@gmail.com>
Christian Stimming <stimming@tuhh.de> <chs@ckiste.goetheallee>
Christopher Díaz Riveros <chrisadr@gentoo.org> Christopher Diaz Riveros
+Clemens Buchacher <drizzd@gmx.net> <drizzd@aon.at>
+Clemens Buchacher <drizzd@gmx.net> <clemens.buchacher@intel.com>
Csaba Henk <csaba@gluster.com> <csaba@lowlife.hu>
Dan Johnson <computerdruid@gmail.com>
Dana L. How <danahow@gmail.com> <how@deathvalley.cswitch.com>
@@ -55,7 +60,9 @@ David S. Miller <davem@davemloft.net>
David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twopensource.com>
David Turner <novalis@novalis.org> <dturner@twosigma.com>
Derrick Stolee <dstolee@microsoft.com> <stolee@gmail.com>
+Derrick Stolee <dstolee@microsoft.com> Derrick Stolee via GitGitGadget <gitgitgadget@gmail.com>
Deskin Miller <deskinm@umich.edu>
+Đoàn Trần Công Danh <congdanhqx@gmail.com> Doan Tran Cong Danh
Dirk Süsserott <newsletter@dirk.my1.cc>
Eric Blake <eblake@redhat.com> <ebb9@byu.net>
Eric Hanchrow <eric.hanchrow@gmail.com> <offby1@blarg.net>
@@ -104,6 +111,7 @@ Jim Meyering <jim@meyering.net> <meyering@redhat.com>
Joachim Berdal Haga <cjhaga@fys.uio.no>
Joachim Jablon <joachim.jablon@people-doc.com> <ewjoachim@gmail.com>
Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de> <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de>
+Johannes Schindelin <Johannes.Schindelin@gmx.de> Johannes Schindelin via GitGitGadget <gitgitgadget@gmail.com>
Johannes Sixt <j6t@kdbg.org> <J.Sixt@eudaptics.com>
Johannes Sixt <j6t@kdbg.org> <j.sixt@viscovery.net>
Johannes Sixt <j6t@kdbg.org> <johannes.sixt@telecom.at>
@@ -207,6 +215,7 @@ Petr Baudis <pasky@ucw.cz> <pasky@suse.cz>
Petr Baudis <pasky@ucw.cz> <xpasky@machine>
Phil Hord <hordp@cisco.com> <phil.hord@gmail.com>
Philip Jägenstedt <philip@foolip.org> <philip.jagenstedt@gmail.com>
+Philip Oakley <philipoakley@iee.email> <philipoakley@iee.org> # secondary <philipoakley@dunelm.org.uk>
Philipp A. Hartmann <pah@qo.cx> <ph@sorgh.de>
Philippe Bruhat <book@cpan.org>
Ralf Thielow <ralf.thielow@gmail.com> <ralf.thielow@googlemail.com>
@@ -281,6 +290,7 @@ William Pursell <bill.pursell@gmail.com>
YONETANI Tomokazu <y0n3t4n1@gmail.com> <qhwt+git@les.ath.cx>
YONETANI Tomokazu <y0n3t4n1@gmail.com> <y0netan1@dragonflybsd.org>
YOSHIFUJI Hideaki <yoshfuji@linux-ipv6.org>
+Yi-Jyun Pan <pan93412@gmail.com>
# the two anonymous contributors are different persons:
anonymous <linux@horizon.com>
anonymous <linux@horizon.net>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index 03c8e4c..fc5730b 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -8,6 +8,8 @@ os:
- linux
- osx
+osx_image: xcode10.1
+
compiler:
- clang
- gcc
@@ -19,16 +21,10 @@ matrix:
compiler:
addons:
before_install:
- - env: jobname=Windows
+ - env: jobname=linux-gcc-4.8
os: linux
+ dist: trusty
compiler:
- addons:
- before_install:
- script:
- - >
- test "$TRAVIS_REPO_SLUG" != "git/git" ||
- ci/run-windows-build.sh $TRAVIS_BRANCH $(git rev-parse HEAD)
- after_failure:
- env: jobname=Linux32
os: linux
compiler:
diff --git a/.tsan-suppressions b/.tsan-suppressions
index 8c85014..5ba86d6 100644
--- a/.tsan-suppressions
+++ b/.tsan-suppressions
@@ -8,3 +8,9 @@
# in practice it (hopefully!) doesn't matter.
race:^want_color$
race:^transfer_debug$
+
+# A boolean value, which tells whether the replace_map has been initialized or
+# not, is read racily with an update. As this variable is written to only once,
+# and it's OK if the value change right after reading it, this shouldn't be a
+# problem.
+race:^lookup_replace_object$
diff --git a/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md b/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc4645d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/CODE_OF_CONDUCT.md
@@ -0,0 +1,93 @@
+# Git Code of Conduct
+
+This code of conduct outlines our expectations for participants within
+the Git community, as well as steps for reporting unacceptable behavior.
+We are committed to providing a welcoming and inspiring community for
+all and expect our code of conduct to be honored. Anyone who violates
+this code of conduct may be banned from the community.
+
+## Our Pledge
+
+In the interest of fostering an open and welcoming environment, we as
+contributors and maintainers pledge to make participation in our project and
+our community a harassment-free experience for everyone, regardless of age,
+body size, disability, ethnicity, sex characteristics, gender identity and
+expression, level of experience, education, socio-economic status,
+nationality, personal appearance, race, religion, or sexual identity and
+orientation.
+
+## Our Standards
+
+Examples of behavior that contributes to creating a positive environment
+include:
+
+* Using welcoming and inclusive language
+* Being respectful of differing viewpoints and experiences
+* Gracefully accepting constructive criticism
+* Focusing on what is best for the community
+* Showing empathy towards other community members
+
+Examples of unacceptable behavior by participants include:
+
+* The use of sexualized language or imagery and unwelcome sexual attention or
+ advances
+* Trolling, insulting/derogatory comments, and personal or political attacks
+* Public or private harassment
+* Publishing others' private information, such as a physical or electronic
+ address, without explicit permission
+* Other conduct which could reasonably be considered inappropriate in a
+ professional setting
+
+## Our Responsibilities
+
+Project maintainers are responsible for clarifying the standards of acceptable
+behavior and are expected to take appropriate and fair corrective action in
+response to any instances of unacceptable behavior.
+
+Project maintainers have the right and responsibility to remove, edit, or
+reject comments, commits, code, wiki edits, issues, and other contributions
+that are not aligned to this Code of Conduct, or to ban temporarily or
+permanently any contributor for other behaviors that they deem inappropriate,
+threatening, offensive, or harmful.
+
+## Scope
+
+This Code of Conduct applies within all project spaces, and it also applies
+when an individual is representing the project or its community in public
+spaces. Examples of representing a project or community include using an
+official project e-mail address, posting via an official social media account,
+or acting as an appointed representative at an online or offline event.
+Representation of a project may be further defined and clarified by project
+maintainers.
+
+## Enforcement
+
+Instances of abusive, harassing, or otherwise unacceptable behavior may be
+reported by contacting the project team at git@sfconservancy.org. All
+complaints will be reviewed and investigated and will result in a response
+that is deemed necessary and appropriate to the circumstances. The project
+team is obligated to maintain confidentiality with regard to the reporter of
+an incident. Further details of specific enforcement policies may be posted
+separately.
+
+Project maintainers who do not follow or enforce the Code of Conduct in good
+faith may face temporary or permanent repercussions as determined by other
+members of the project's leadership.
+
+The project leadership team can be contacted by email as a whole at
+git@sfconservancy.org, or individually:
+
+ - Ævar Arnfjörð Bjarmason <avarab@gmail.com>
+ - Christian Couder <christian.couder@gmail.com>
+ - Jeff King <peff@peff.net>
+ - Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
+
+## Attribution
+
+This Code of Conduct is adapted from the [Contributor Covenant][homepage],
+version 1.4, available at https://www.contributor-covenant.org/version/1/4/code-of-conduct.html
+
+[homepage]: https://www.contributor-covenant.org
+
+For answers to common questions about this code of conduct, see
+https://www.contributor-covenant.org/faq
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index 3ef54e0..9022d48 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -13,3 +13,5 @@ mergetools-*.txt
manpage-base-url.xsl
SubmittingPatches.txt
tmp-doc-diff/
+GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
+/GIT-EXCLUDED-PROGRAMS
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 8579530..ed4e443 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@ For shell scripts specifically (not exhaustive):
- If you want to find out if a command is available on the user's
$PATH, you should use 'type <command>', instead of 'which <command>'.
- The output of 'which' is not machine parseable and its exit code
+ The output of 'which' is not machine parsable and its exit code
is not reliable across platforms.
- We use POSIX compliant parameter substitutions and avoid bashisms;
@@ -195,10 +195,30 @@ For C programs:
by e.g. "echo DEVELOPER=1 >>config.mak".
- We try to support a wide range of C compilers to compile Git with,
- including old ones. That means that you should not use C99
- initializers, even if a lot of compilers grok it.
+ including old ones. You should not use features from newer C
+ standard, even if your compiler groks them.
- - Variables have to be declared at the beginning of the block.
+ There are a few exceptions to this guideline:
+
+ . since early 2012 with e1327023ea, we have been using an enum
+ definition whose last element is followed by a comma. This, like
+ an array initializer that ends with a trailing comma, can be used
+ to reduce the patch noise when adding a new identifier at the end.
+
+ . since mid 2017 with cbc0f81d, we have been using designated
+ initializers for struct (e.g. "struct t v = { .val = 'a' };").
+
+ . since mid 2017 with 512f41cf, we have been using designated
+ initializers for array (e.g. "int array[10] = { [5] = 2 }").
+
+ These used to be forbidden, but we have not heard any breakage
+ report, and they are assumed to be safe.
+
+ - Variables have to be declared at the beginning of the block, before
+ the first statement (i.e. -Wdeclaration-after-statement).
+
+ - Declaring a variable in the for loop "for (int i = 0; i < 10; i++)"
+ is still not allowed in this codebase.
- NULL pointers shall be written as NULL, not as 0.
@@ -412,6 +432,12 @@ For C programs:
must be declared with "extern" in header files. However, function
declarations should not use "extern", as that is already the default.
+ - You can launch gdb around your program using the shorthand GIT_DEBUGGER.
+ Run `GIT_DEBUGGER=1 ./bin-wrappers/git foo` to simply use gdb as is, or
+ run `GIT_DEBUGGER="<debugger> <debugger-args>" ./bin-wrappers/git foo` to
+ use your own debugger and arguments. Example: `GIT_DEBUGGER="ddd --gdb"
+ ./bin-wrappers/git log` (See `wrap-for-bin.sh`.)
+
For Perl programs:
- Most of the C guidelines above apply.
@@ -580,11 +606,14 @@ Writing Documentation:
or commands:
Literal examples (e.g. use of command-line options, command names,
- branch names, configuration and environment variables) must be
- typeset in monospace (i.e. wrapped with backticks):
+ branch names, URLs, pathnames (files and directories), configuration and
+ environment variables) must be typeset in monospace (i.e. wrapped with
+ backticks):
`--pretty=oneline`
`git rev-list`
`remote.pushDefault`
+ `http://git.example.com`
+ `.git/config`
`GIT_DIR`
`HEAD`
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index d5d936e..8fe829c 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -7,12 +7,14 @@ ARTICLES =
SP_ARTICLES =
OBSOLETE_HTML =
+-include GIT-EXCLUDED-PROGRAMS
+
MAN1_TXT += $(filter-out \
+ $(patsubst %,%.txt,$(EXCLUDED_PROGRAMS)) \
$(addsuffix .txt, $(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES)), \
$(wildcard git-*.txt))
MAN1_TXT += git.txt
MAN1_TXT += gitk.txt
-MAN1_TXT += gitremote-helpers.txt
MAN1_TXT += gitweb.txt
MAN5_TXT += gitattributes.txt
@@ -30,20 +32,26 @@ MAN7_TXT += gitdiffcore.txt
MAN7_TXT += giteveryday.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitglossary.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitnamespaces.txt
+MAN7_TXT += gitremote-helpers.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitrevisions.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitsubmodules.txt
MAN7_TXT += gittutorial-2.txt
MAN7_TXT += gittutorial.txt
MAN7_TXT += gitworkflows.txt
+ifdef MAN_FILTER
+MAN_TXT = $(filter $(MAN_FILTER),$(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT))
+else
MAN_TXT = $(MAN1_TXT) $(MAN5_TXT) $(MAN7_TXT)
+MAN_FILTER = $(MAN_TXT)
+endif
+
MAN_XML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.xml,$(MAN_TXT))
MAN_HTML = $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(MAN_TXT))
GIT_MAN_REF = master
OBSOLETE_HTML += everyday.html
OBSOLETE_HTML += git-remote-helpers.html
-DOC_HTML = $(MAN_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
ARTICLES += howto-index
ARTICLES += git-tools
@@ -68,6 +76,8 @@ SP_ARTICLES += howto/maintain-git
API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
SP_ARTICLES += $(API_DOCS)
+TECH_DOCS += MyFirstContribution
+TECH_DOCS += MyFirstObjectWalk
TECH_DOCS += SubmittingPatches
TECH_DOCS += technical/hash-function-transition
TECH_DOCS += technical/http-protocol
@@ -89,11 +99,13 @@ TECH_DOCS += technical/trivial-merge
SP_ARTICLES += $(TECH_DOCS)
SP_ARTICLES += technical/api-index
-DOC_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
+ARTICLES_HTML += $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES) $(SP_ARTICLES))
+HTML_FILTER ?= $(ARTICLES_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML)
+DOC_HTML = $(MAN_HTML) $(filter $(HTML_FILTER),$(ARTICLES_HTML) $(OBSOLETE_HTML))
-DOC_MAN1 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(MAN1_TXT))
-DOC_MAN5 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(MAN5_TXT))
-DOC_MAN7 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(MAN7_TXT))
+DOC_MAN1 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.1,$(filter $(MAN_FILTER),$(MAN1_TXT)))
+DOC_MAN5 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.5,$(filter $(MAN_FILTER),$(MAN5_TXT)))
+DOC_MAN7 = $(patsubst %.txt,%.7,$(filter $(MAN_FILTER),$(MAN7_TXT)))
prefix ?= $(HOME)
bindir ?= $(prefix)/bin
@@ -112,7 +124,8 @@ ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml11
ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook
ASCIIDOC_CONF = -f asciidoc.conf
ASCIIDOC_COMMON = $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) $(ASCIIDOC_CONF) \
- -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION)
+ -amanversion=$(GIT_VERSION) \
+ -amanmanual='Git Manual' -amansource='Git'
TXT_TO_HTML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_HTML)
TXT_TO_XML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK)
MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
@@ -186,11 +199,13 @@ ifdef USE_ASCIIDOCTOR
ASCIIDOC = asciidoctor
ASCIIDOC_CONF =
ASCIIDOC_HTML = xhtml5
-ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook45
+ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK = docbook5
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode -atabsize=8
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
DBLATEX_COMMON =
+XMLTO_EXTRA += --skip-validation
+XMLTO_EXTRA += -x manpage.xsl
endif
SHELL_PATH ?= $(SHELL)
@@ -324,6 +339,15 @@ mergetools-list.made: ../git-mergetool--lib.sh $(wildcard ../mergetools/*)
show_tool_names can_merge "* " || :' >mergetools-merge.txt && \
date >$@
+TRACK_ASCIIDOCFLAGS = $(subst ','\'',$(ASCIIDOC_COMMON):$(ASCIIDOC_HTML):$(ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK))
+
+GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS: FORCE
+ @FLAGS='$(TRACK_ASCIIDOCFLAGS)'; \
+ if test x"$$FLAGS" != x"`cat GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS 2>/dev/null`" ; then \
+ echo >&2 " * new asciidoc flags"; \
+ echo "$$FLAGS" >GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS; \
+ fi
+
clean:
$(RM) *.xml *.xml+ *.html *.html+ *.1 *.5 *.7
$(RM) *.texi *.texi+ *.texi++ git.info gitman.info
@@ -333,13 +357,14 @@ clean:
$(RM) SubmittingPatches.txt
$(RM) $(cmds_txt) $(mergetools_txt) *.made
$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
+ $(RM) GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
-$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
+$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(TXT_TO_HTML) -d manpage -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
-$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
+$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(TXT_TO_HTML) -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
@@ -347,16 +372,16 @@ $(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf
manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
$(QUIET_GEN)sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
-%.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl
+%.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl $(wildcard manpage*.xsl)
$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
$(XMLTO) -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
-%.xml : %.txt asciidoc.conf
+%.xml : %.txt asciidoc.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(TXT_TO_XML) -d manpage -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
-user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf
+user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
$(TXT_TO_XML) -d book -o $@+ $< && \
mv $@+ $@
@@ -366,7 +391,8 @@ technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
$(QUIET_GEN)cd technical && '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./api-index.sh
technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
-$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf
+$(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index $(TECH_DOCS)): %.html : %.txt \
+ asciidoc.conf GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) $*.txt
SubmittingPatches.txt: SubmittingPatches
@@ -423,7 +449,7 @@ $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES)) : %.html : %.txt
WEBDOC_DEST = /pub/software/scm/git/docs
howto/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
-$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
+$(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $< | \
$(TXT_TO_HTML) - >$@+ && \
@@ -457,4 +483,9 @@ print-man1:
lint-docs::
$(QUIET_LINT)$(PERL_PATH) lint-gitlink.perl
+ifeq ($(wildcard po/Makefile),po/Makefile)
+doc-l10n install-l10n::
+ $(MAKE) -C po $@
+endif
+
.PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..427274d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1217 @@
+My First Contribution to the Git Project
+========================================
+:sectanchors:
+
+[[summary]]
+== Summary
+
+This is a tutorial demonstrating the end-to-end workflow of creating a change to
+the Git tree, sending it for review, and making changes based on comments.
+
+[[prerequisites]]
+=== Prerequisites
+
+This tutorial assumes you're already fairly familiar with using Git to manage
+source code. The Git workflow steps will largely remain unexplained.
+
+[[related-reading]]
+=== Related Reading
+
+This tutorial aims to summarize the following documents, but the reader may find
+useful additional context:
+
+- `Documentation/SubmittingPatches`
+- `Documentation/howto/new-command.txt`
+
+[[getting-help]]
+=== Getting Help
+
+If you get stuck, you can seek help in the following places.
+
+==== git@vger.kernel.org
+
+This is the main Git project mailing list where code reviews, version
+announcements, design discussions, and more take place. Those interested in
+contributing are welcome to post questions here. The Git list requires
+plain-text-only emails and prefers inline and bottom-posting when replying to
+mail; you will be CC'd in all replies to you. Optionally, you can subscribe to
+the list by sending an email to majordomo@vger.kernel.org with "subscribe git"
+in the body. The https://lore.kernel.org/git[archive] of this mailing list is
+available to view in a browser.
+
+==== https://groups.google.com/forum/#!forum/git-mentoring[git-mentoring@googlegroups.com]
+
+This mailing list is targeted to new contributors and was created as a place to
+post questions and receive answers outside of the public eye of the main list.
+Veteran contributors who are especially interested in helping mentor newcomers
+are present on the list. In order to avoid search indexers, group membership is
+required to view messages; anyone can join and no approval is required.
+
+==== https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] on Freenode
+
+This IRC channel is for conversations between Git contributors. If someone is
+currently online and knows the answer to your question, you can receive help
+in real time. Otherwise, you can read the
+https://colabti.org/irclogger/irclogger_logs/git-devel[scrollback] to see
+whether someone answered you. IRC does not allow offline private messaging, so
+if you try to private message someone and then log out of IRC, they cannot
+respond to you. It's better to ask your questions in the channel so that you
+can be answered if you disconnect and so that others can learn from the
+conversation.
+
+[[getting-started]]
+== Getting Started
+
+[[cloning]]
+=== Clone the Git Repository
+
+Git is mirrored in a number of locations. Clone the repository from one of them;
+https://git-scm.com/downloads suggests one of the best places to clone from is
+the mirror on GitHub.
+
+----
+$ git clone https://github.com/git/git git
+$ cd git
+----
+
+[[dependencies]]
+=== Installing Dependencies
+
+To build Git from source, you need to have a handful of dependencies installed
+on your system. For a hint of what's needed, you can take a look at
+`INSTALL`, paying close attention to the section about Git's dependencies on
+external programs and libraries. That document mentions a way to "test-drive"
+our freshly built Git without installing; that's the method we'll be using in
+this tutorial.
+
+Make sure that your environment has everything you need by building your brand
+new clone of Git from the above step:
+
+----
+$ make
+----
+
+NOTE: The Git build is parallelizable. `-j#` is not included above but you can
+use it as you prefer, here and elsewhere.
+
+[[identify-problem]]
+=== Identify Problem to Solve
+
+////
+Use + to indicate fixed-width here; couldn't get ` to work nicely with the
+quotes around "Pony Saying 'Um, Hello'".
+////
+In this tutorial, we will add a new command, +git psuh+, short for ``Pony Saying
+`Um, Hello''' - a feature which has gone unimplemented despite a high frequency
+of invocation during users' typical daily workflow.
+
+(We've seen some other effort in this space with the implementation of popular
+commands such as `sl`.)
+
+[[setup-workspace]]
+=== Set Up Your Workspace
+
+Let's start by making a development branch to work on our changes. Per
+`Documentation/SubmittingPatches`, since a brand new command is a new feature,
+it's fine to base your work on `master`. However, in the future for bugfixes,
+etc., you should check that document and base it on the appropriate branch.
+
+For the purposes of this document, we will base all our work on the `master`
+branch of the upstream project. Create the `psuh` branch you will use for
+development like so:
+
+----
+$ git checkout -b psuh origin/master
+----
+
+We'll make a number of commits here in order to demonstrate how to send a topic
+with multiple patches up for review simultaneously.
+
+[[code-it-up]]
+== Code It Up!
+
+NOTE: A reference implementation can be found at
+https://github.com/nasamuffin/git/tree/psuh.
+
+[[add-new-command]]
+=== Adding a New Command
+
+Lots of the subcommands are written as builtins, which means they are
+implemented in C and compiled into the main `git` executable. Implementing the
+very simple `psuh` command as a built-in will demonstrate the structure of the
+codebase, the internal API, and the process of working together as a contributor
+with the reviewers and maintainer to integrate this change into the system.
+
+Built-in subcommands are typically implemented in a function named "cmd_"
+followed by the name of the subcommand, in a source file named after the
+subcommand and contained within `builtin/`. So it makes sense to implement your
+command in `builtin/psuh.c`. Create that file, and within it, write the entry
+point for your command in a function matching the style and signature:
+
+----
+int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+----
+
+We'll also need to add the declaration of psuh; open up `builtin.h`, find the
+declaration for `cmd_pull`, and add a new line for `psuh` immediately before it,
+in order to keep the declarations alphabetically sorted:
+
+----
+int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+----
+
+Be sure to `#include "builtin.h"` in your `psuh.c`.
+
+Go ahead and add some throwaway printf to that function. This is a decent
+starting point as we can now add build rules and register the command.
+
+NOTE: Your throwaway text, as well as much of the text you will be adding over
+the course of this tutorial, is user-facing. That means it needs to be
+localizable. Take a look at `po/README` under "Marking strings for translation".
+Throughout the tutorial, we will mark strings for translation as necessary; you
+should also do so when writing your user-facing commands in the future.
+
+----
+int cmd_psuh(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ printf(_("Pony saying hello goes here.\n"));
+ return 0;
+}
+----
+
+Let's try to build it. Open `Makefile`, find where `builtin/pull.o` is added
+to `BUILTIN_OBJS`, and add `builtin/psuh.o` in the same way next to it in
+alphabetical order. Once you've done so, move to the top-level directory and
+build simply with `make`. Also add the `DEVELOPER=1` variable to turn on
+some additional warnings:
+
+----
+$ echo DEVELOPER=1 >config.mak
+$ make
+----
+
+NOTE: When you are developing the Git project, it's preferred that you use the
+`DEVELOPER` flag; if there's some reason it doesn't work for you, you can turn
+it off, but it's a good idea to mention the problem to the mailing list.
+
+Great, now your new command builds happily on its own. But nobody invokes it.
+Let's change that.
+
+The list of commands lives in `git.c`. We can register a new command by adding
+a `cmd_struct` to the `commands[]` array. `struct cmd_struct` takes a string
+with the command name, a function pointer to the command implementation, and a
+setup option flag. For now, let's keep mimicking `push`. Find the line where
+`cmd_push` is registered, copy it, and modify it for `cmd_psuh`, placing the new
+line in alphabetical order (immediately before `cmd_pull`).
+
+The options are documented in `builtin.h` under "Adding a new built-in." Since
+we hope to print some data about the user's current workspace context later,
+we need a Git directory, so choose `RUN_SETUP` as your only option.
+
+Go ahead and build again. You should see a clean build, so let's kick the tires
+and see if it works. There's a binary you can use to test with in the
+`bin-wrappers` directory.
+
+----
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git psuh
+----
+
+Check it out! You've got a command! Nice work! Let's commit this.
+
+`git status` reveals modified `Makefile`, `builtin.h`, and `git.c` as well as
+untracked `builtin/psuh.c` and `git-psuh`. First, let's take care of the binary,
+which should be ignored. Open `.gitignore` in your editor, find `/git-pull`, and
+add an entry for your new command in alphabetical order:
+
+----
+...
+/git-prune-packed
+/git-psuh
+/git-pull
+/git-push
+/git-quiltimport
+/git-range-diff
+...
+----
+
+Checking `git status` again should show that `git-psuh` has been removed from
+the untracked list and `.gitignore` has been added to the modified list. Now we
+can stage and commit:
+
+----
+$ git add Makefile builtin.h builtin/psuh.c git.c .gitignore
+$ git commit -s
+----
+
+You will be presented with your editor in order to write a commit message. Start
+the commit with a 50-column or less subject line, including the name of the
+component you're working on, followed by a blank line (always required) and then
+the body of your commit message, which should provide the bulk of the context.
+Remember to be explicit and provide the "Why" of your change, especially if it
+couldn't easily be understood from your diff. When editing your commit message,
+don't remove the Signed-off-by line which was added by `-s` above.
+
+----
+psuh: add a built-in by popular demand
+
+Internal metrics indicate this is a command many users expect to be
+present. So here's an implementation to help drive customer
+satisfaction and engagement: a pony which doubtfully greets the user,
+or, a Pony Saying "Um, Hello" (PSUH).
+
+This commit message is intentionally formatted to 72 columns per line,
+starts with a single line as "commit message subject" that is written as
+if to command the codebase to do something (add this, teach a command
+that). The body of the message is designed to add information about the
+commit that is not readily deduced from reading the associated diff,
+such as answering the question "why?".
+
+Signed-off-by: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+----
+
+Go ahead and inspect your new commit with `git show`. "psuh:" indicates you
+have modified mainly the `psuh` command. The subject line gives readers an idea
+of what you've changed. The sign-off line (`-s`) indicates that you agree to
+the Developer's Certificate of Origin 1.1 (see the
+`Documentation/SubmittingPatches` +++[[dco]]+++ header).
+
+For the remainder of the tutorial, the subject line only will be listed for the
+sake of brevity. However, fully-fleshed example commit messages are available
+on the reference implementation linked at the top of this document.
+
+[[implementation]]
+=== Implementation
+
+It's probably useful to do at least something besides printing out a string.
+Let's start by having a look at everything we get.
+
+Modify your `cmd_psuh` implementation to dump the args you're passed, keeping
+existing `printf()` calls in place:
+
+----
+ int i;
+
+ ...
+
+ printf(Q_("Your args (there is %d):\n",
+ "Your args (there are %d):\n",
+ argc),
+ argc);
+ for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
+ printf("%d: %s\n", i, argv[i]);
+
+ printf(_("Your current working directory:\n<top-level>%s%s\n"),
+ prefix ? "/" : "", prefix ? prefix : "");
+
+----
+
+Build and try it. As you may expect, there's pretty much just whatever we give
+on the command line, including the name of our command. (If `prefix` is empty
+for you, try `cd Documentation/ && ../bin-wrappers/git psuh`). That's not so
+helpful. So what other context can we get?
+
+Add a line to `#include "config.h"`. Then, add the following bits to the
+function body:
+
+----
+ const char *cfg_name;
+
+...
+
+ git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
+ if (git_config_get_string_const("user.name", &cfg_name) > 0)
+ printf(_("No name is found in config\n"));
+ else
+ printf(_("Your name: %s\n"), cfg_name);
+----
+
+`git_config()` will grab the configuration from config files known to Git and
+apply standard precedence rules. `git_config_get_string_const()` will look up
+a specific key ("user.name") and give you the value. There are a number of
+single-key lookup functions like this one; you can see them all (and more info
+about how to use `git_config()`) in `Documentation/technical/api-config.txt`.
+
+You should see that the name printed matches the one you see when you run:
+
+----
+$ git config --get user.name
+----
+
+Great! Now we know how to check for values in the Git config. Let's commit this
+too, so we don't lose our progress.
+
+----
+$ git add builtin/psuh.c
+$ git commit -sm "psuh: show parameters & config opts"
+----
+
+NOTE: Again, the above is for sake of brevity in this tutorial. In a real change
+you should not use `-m` but instead use the editor to write a meaningful
+message.
+
+Still, it'd be nice to know what the user's working context is like. Let's see
+if we can print the name of the user's current branch. We can mimic the
+`git status` implementation; the printer is located in `wt-status.c` and we can
+see that the branch is held in a `struct wt_status`.
+
+`wt_status_print()` gets invoked by `cmd_status()` in `builtin/commit.c`.
+Looking at that implementation we see the status config being populated like so:
+
+----
+status_init_config(&s, git_status_config);
+----
+
+But as we drill down, we can find that `status_init_config()` wraps a call
+to `git_config()`. Let's modify the code we wrote in the previous commit.
+
+Be sure to include the header to allow you to use `struct wt_status`:
+----
+#include "wt-status.h"
+----
+
+Then modify your `cmd_psuh` implementation to declare your `struct wt_status`,
+prepare it, and print its contents:
+
+----
+ struct wt_status status;
+
+...
+
+ wt_status_prepare(the_repository, &status);
+ git_config(git_default_config, &status);
+
+...
+
+ printf(_("Your current branch: %s\n"), status.branch);
+----
+
+Run it again. Check it out - here's the (verbose) name of your current branch!
+
+Let's commit this as well.
+
+----
+$ git add builtin/psuh.c
+$ git commit -sm "psuh: print the current branch"
+----
+
+Now let's see if we can get some info about a specific commit.
+
+Luckily, there are some helpers for us here. `commit.h` has a function called
+`lookup_commit_reference_by_name` to which we can simply provide a hardcoded
+string; `pretty.h` has an extremely handy `pp_commit_easy()` call which doesn't
+require a full format object to be passed.
+
+Add the following includes:
+
+----
+#include "commit.h"
+#include "pretty.h"
+----
+
+Then, add the following lines within your implementation of `cmd_psuh()` near
+the declarations and the logic, respectively.
+
+----
+ struct commit *c = NULL;
+ struct strbuf commitline = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+...
+
+ c = lookup_commit_reference_by_name("origin/master");
+
+ if (c != NULL) {
+ pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, c, &commitline);
+ printf(_("Current commit: %s\n"), commitline.buf);
+ }
+----
+
+The `struct strbuf` provides some safety belts to your basic `char*`, one of
+which is a length member to prevent buffer overruns. It needs to be initialized
+nicely with `STRBUF_INIT`. Keep it in mind when you need to pass around `char*`.
+
+`lookup_commit_reference_by_name` resolves the name you pass it, so you can play
+with the value there and see what kind of things you can come up with.
+
+`pp_commit_easy` is a convenience wrapper in `pretty.h` that takes a single
+format enum shorthand, rather than an entire format struct. It then
+pretty-prints the commit according to that shorthand. These are similar to the
+formats available with `--pretty=FOO` in many Git commands.
+
+Build it and run, and if you're using the same name in the example, you should
+see the subject line of the most recent commit in `origin/master` that you know
+about. Neat! Let's commit that as well.
+
+----
+$ git add builtin/psuh.c
+$ git commit -sm "psuh: display the top of origin/master"
+----
+
+[[add-documentation]]
+=== Adding Documentation
+
+Awesome! You've got a fantastic new command that you're ready to share with the
+community. But hang on just a minute - this isn't very user-friendly. Run the
+following:
+
+----
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git help psuh
+----
+
+Your new command is undocumented! Let's fix that.
+
+Take a look at `Documentation/git-*.txt`. These are the manpages for the
+subcommands that Git knows about. You can open these up and take a look to get
+acquainted with the format, but then go ahead and make a new file
+`Documentation/git-psuh.txt`. Like with most of the documentation in the Git
+project, help pages are written with AsciiDoc (see CodingGuidelines, "Writing
+Documentation" section). Use the following template to fill out your own
+manpage:
+
+// Surprisingly difficult to embed AsciiDoc source within AsciiDoc.
+[listing]
+....
+git-psuh(1)
+===========
+
+NAME
+----
+git-psuh - Delight users' typo with a shy horse
+
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-psuh [<arg>...]'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+...
+
+OPTIONS[[OPTIONS]]
+------------------
+...
+
+OUTPUT
+------
+...
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
+....
+
+The most important pieces of this to note are the file header, underlined by =,
+the NAME section, and the SYNOPSIS, which would normally contain the grammar if
+your command took arguments. Try to use well-established manpage headers so your
+documentation is consistent with other Git and UNIX manpages; this makes life
+easier for your user, who can skip to the section they know contains the
+information they need.
+
+Now that you've written your manpage, you'll need to build it explicitly. We
+convert your AsciiDoc to troff which is man-readable like so:
+
+----
+$ make all doc
+$ man Documentation/git-psuh.1
+----
+
+or
+
+----
+$ make -C Documentation/ git-psuh.1
+$ man Documentation/git-psuh.1
+----
+
+NOTE: You may need to install the package `asciidoc` to get this to work.
+
+While this isn't as satisfying as running through `git help`, you can at least
+check that your help page looks right.
+
+You can also check that the documentation coverage is good (that is, the project
+sees that your command has been implemented as well as documented) by running
+`make check-docs` from the top-level.
+
+Go ahead and commit your new documentation change.
+
+[[add-usage]]
+=== Adding Usage Text
+
+Try and run `./bin-wrappers/git psuh -h`. Your command should crash at the end.
+That's because `-h` is a special case which your command should handle by
+printing usage.
+
+Take a look at `Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt`. This is a handy
+tool for pulling out options you need to be able to handle, and it takes a
+usage string.
+
+In order to use it, we'll need to prepare a NULL-terminated array of usage
+strings and a `builtin_psuh_options` array.
+
+Add a line to `#include "parse-options.h"`.
+
+At global scope, add your array of usage strings:
+
+----
+static const char * const psuh_usage[] = {
+ N_("git psuh [<arg>...]"),
+ NULL,
+};
+----
+
+Then, within your `cmd_psuh()` implementation, we can declare and populate our
+`option` struct. Ours is pretty boring but you can add more to it if you want to
+explore `parse_options()` in more detail:
+
+----
+ struct option options[] = {
+ OPT_END()
+ };
+----
+
+Finally, before you print your args and prefix, add the call to
+`parse-options()`:
+
+----
+ argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, psuh_usage, 0);
+----
+
+This call will modify your `argv` parameter. It will strip the options you
+specified in `options` from `argv` and the locations pointed to from `options`
+entries will be updated. Be sure to replace your `argc` with the result from
+`parse_options()`, or you will be confused if you try to parse `argv` later.
+
+It's worth noting the special argument `--`. As you may be aware, many Unix
+commands use `--` to indicate "end of named parameters" - all parameters after
+the `--` are interpreted merely as positional arguments. (This can be handy if
+you want to pass as a parameter something which would usually be interpreted as
+a flag.) `parse_options()` will terminate parsing when it reaches `--` and give
+you the rest of the options afterwards, untouched.
+
+Now that you have a usage hint, you can teach Git how to show it in the general
+command list shown by `git help git` or `git help -a`, which is generated from
+`command-list.txt`. Find the line for 'git-pull' so you can add your 'git-psuh'
+line above it in alphabetical order. Now, we can add some attributes about the
+command which impacts where it shows up in the aforementioned help commands. The
+top of `command-list.txt` shares some information about what each attribute
+means; in those help pages, the commands are sorted according to these
+attributes. `git psuh` is user-facing, or porcelain - so we will mark it as
+"mainporcelain". For "mainporcelain" commands, the comments at the top of
+`command-list.txt` indicate we can also optionally add an attribute from another
+list; since `git psuh` shows some information about the user's workspace but
+doesn't modify anything, let's mark it as "info". Make sure to keep your
+attributes in the same style as the rest of `command-list.txt` using spaces to
+align and delineate them:
+
+----
+git-prune-packed plumbingmanipulators
+git-psuh mainporcelain info
+git-pull mainporcelain remote
+git-push mainporcelain remote
+----
+
+Build again. Now, when you run with `-h`, you should see your usage printed and
+your command terminated before anything else interesting happens. Great!
+
+Go ahead and commit this one, too.
+
+[[testing]]
+== Testing
+
+It's important to test your code - even for a little toy command like this one.
+Moreover, your patch won't be accepted into the Git tree without tests. Your
+tests should:
+
+* Illustrate the current behavior of the feature
+* Prove the current behavior matches the expected behavior
+* Ensure the externally-visible behavior isn't broken in later changes
+
+So let's write some tests.
+
+Related reading: `t/README`
+
+[[overview-test-structure]]
+=== Overview of Testing Structure
+
+The tests in Git live in `t/` and are named with a 4-digit decimal number using
+the schema shown in the Naming Tests section of `t/README`.
+
+[[write-new-test]]
+=== Writing Your Test
+
+Since this a toy command, let's go ahead and name the test with t9999. However,
+as many of the family/subcmd combinations are full, best practice seems to be
+to find a command close enough to the one you've added and share its naming
+space.
+
+Create a new file `t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh`. Begin with the header as so (see
+"Writing Tests" and "Source 'test-lib.sh'" in `t/README`):
+
+----
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='git-psuh test
+
+This test runs git-psuh and makes sure it does not crash.'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+----
+
+Tests are framed inside of a `test_expect_success` in order to output TAP
+formatted results. Let's make sure that `git psuh` doesn't exit poorly and does
+mention the right animal somewhere:
+
+----
+test_expect_success 'runs correctly with no args and good output' '
+ git psuh >actual &&
+ test_i18ngrep Pony actual
+'
+----
+
+Indicate that you've run everything you wanted by adding the following at the
+bottom of your script:
+
+----
+test_done
+----
+
+Make sure you mark your test script executable:
+
+----
+$ chmod +x t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh
+----
+
+You can get an idea of whether you created your new test script successfully
+by running `make -C t test-lint`, which will check for things like test number
+uniqueness, executable bit, and so on.
+
+[[local-test]]
+=== Running Locally
+
+Let's try and run locally:
+
+----
+$ make
+$ cd t/ && prove t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh
+----
+
+You can run the full test suite and ensure `git-psuh` didn't break anything:
+
+----
+$ cd t/
+$ prove -j$(nproc) --shuffle t[0-9]*.sh
+----
+
+NOTE: You can also do this with `make test` or use any testing harness which can
+speak TAP. `prove` can run concurrently. `shuffle` randomizes the order the
+tests are run in, which makes them resilient against unwanted inter-test
+dependencies. `prove` also makes the output nicer.
+
+Go ahead and commit this change, as well.
+
+[[ready-to-share]]
+== Getting Ready to Share
+
+You may have noticed already that the Git project performs its code reviews via
+emailed patches, which are then applied by the maintainer when they are ready
+and approved by the community. The Git project does not accept patches from
+pull requests, and the patches emailed for review need to be formatted a
+specific way. At this point the tutorial diverges, in order to demonstrate two
+different methods of formatting your patchset and getting it reviewed.
+
+The first method to be covered is GitGitGadget, which is useful for those
+already familiar with GitHub's common pull request workflow. This method
+requires a GitHub account.
+
+The second method to be covered is `git send-email`, which can give slightly
+more fine-grained control over the emails to be sent. This method requires some
+setup which can change depending on your system and will not be covered in this
+tutorial.
+
+Regardless of which method you choose, your engagement with reviewers will be
+the same; the review process will be covered after the sections on GitGitGadget
+and `git send-email`.
+
+[[howto-ggg]]
+== Sending Patches via GitGitGadget
+
+One option for sending patches is to follow a typical pull request workflow and
+send your patches out via GitGitGadget. GitGitGadget is a tool created by
+Johannes Schindelin to make life as a Git contributor easier for those used to
+the GitHub PR workflow. It allows contributors to open pull requests against its
+mirror of the Git project, and does some magic to turn the PR into a set of
+emails and send them out for you. It also runs the Git continuous integration
+suite for you. It's documented at http://gitgitgadget.github.io.
+
+[[create-fork]]
+=== Forking `git/git` on GitHub
+
+Before you can send your patch off to be reviewed using GitGitGadget, you will
+need to fork the Git project and upload your changes. First thing - make sure
+you have a GitHub account.
+
+Head to the https://github.com/git/git[GitHub mirror] and look for the Fork
+button. Place your fork wherever you deem appropriate and create it.
+
+[[upload-to-fork]]
+=== Uploading to Your Own Fork
+
+To upload your branch to your own fork, you'll need to add the new fork as a
+remote. You can use `git remote -v` to show the remotes you have added already.
+From your new fork's page on GitHub, you can press "Clone or download" to get
+the URL; then you need to run the following to add, replacing your own URL and
+remote name for the examples provided:
+
+----
+$ git remote add remotename git@github.com:remotename/git.git
+----
+
+or to use the HTTPS URL:
+
+----
+$ git remote add remotename https://github.com/remotename/git/.git
+----
+
+Run `git remote -v` again and you should see the new remote showing up.
+`git fetch remotename` (with the real name of your remote replaced) in order to
+get ready to push.
+
+Next, double-check that you've been doing all your development in a new branch
+by running `git branch`. If you didn't, now is a good time to move your new
+commits to their own branch.
+
+As mentioned briefly at the beginning of this document, we are basing our work
+on `master`, so go ahead and update as shown below, or using your preferred
+workflow.
+
+----
+$ git checkout master
+$ git pull -r
+$ git rebase master psuh
+----
+
+Finally, you're ready to push your new topic branch! (Due to our branch and
+command name choices, be careful when you type the command below.)
+
+----
+$ git push remotename psuh
+----
+
+Now you should be able to go and check out your newly created branch on GitHub.
+
+[[send-pr-ggg]]
+=== Sending a PR to GitGitGadget
+
+In order to have your code tested and formatted for review, you need to start by
+opening a Pull Request against `gitgitgadget/git`. Head to
+https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git and open a PR either with the "New pull
+request" button or the convenient "Compare & pull request" button that may
+appear with the name of your newly pushed branch.
+
+Review the PR's title and description, as it's used by GitGitGadget as the cover
+letter for your change. When you're happy, submit your pull request.
+
+[[run-ci-ggg]]
+=== Running CI and Getting Ready to Send
+
+If it's your first time using GitGitGadget (which is likely, as you're using
+this tutorial) then someone will need to give you permission to use the tool.
+As mentioned in the GitGitGadget documentation, you just need someone who
+already uses it to comment on your PR with `/allow <username>`. GitGitGadget
+will automatically run your PRs through the CI even without the permission given
+but you will not be able to `/submit` your changes until someone allows you to
+use the tool.
+
+NOTE: You can typically find someone who can `/allow` you on GitGitGadget by
+either examining recent pull requests where someone has been granted `/allow`
+(https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git/pulls?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=is%3Apr+is%3Aopen+%22%2Fallow%22[Search:
+is:pr is:open "/allow"]), in which case both the author and the person who
+granted the `/allow` can now `/allow` you, or by inquiring on the
+https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] IRC channel on Freenode
+linking your pull request and asking for someone to `/allow` you.
+
+If the CI fails, you can update your changes with `git rebase -i` and push your
+branch again:
+
+----
+$ git push -f remotename psuh
+----
+
+In fact, you should continue to make changes this way up until the point when
+your patch is accepted into `next`.
+
+////
+TODO https://github.com/gitgitgadget/gitgitgadget/issues/83
+It'd be nice to be able to verify that the patch looks good before sending it
+to everyone on Git mailing list.
+[[check-work-ggg]]
+=== Check Your Work
+////
+
+[[send-mail-ggg]]
+=== Sending Your Patches
+
+Now that your CI is passing and someone has granted you permission to use
+GitGitGadget with the `/allow` command, sending out for review is as simple as
+commenting on your PR with `/submit`.
+
+[[responding-ggg]]
+=== Updating With Comments
+
+Skip ahead to <<reviewing,Responding to Reviews>> for information on how to
+reply to review comments you will receive on the mailing list.
+
+Once you have your branch again in the shape you want following all review
+comments, you can submit again:
+
+----
+$ git push -f remotename psuh
+----
+
+Next, go look at your pull request against GitGitGadget; you should see the CI
+has been kicked off again. Now while the CI is running is a good time for you
+to modify your description at the top of the pull request thread; it will be
+used again as the cover letter. You should use this space to describe what
+has changed since your previous version, so that your reviewers have some idea
+of what they're looking at. When the CI is done running, you can comment once
+more with `/submit` - GitGitGadget will automatically add a v2 mark to your
+changes.
+
+[[howto-git-send-email]]
+== Sending Patches with `git send-email`
+
+If you don't want to use GitGitGadget, you can also use Git itself to mail your
+patches. Some benefits of using Git this way include finer grained control of
+subject line (for example, being able to use the tag [RFC PATCH] in the subject)
+and being able to send a ``dry run'' mail to yourself to ensure it all looks
+good before going out to the list.
+
+[[setup-git-send-email]]
+=== Prerequisite: Setting Up `git send-email`
+
+Configuration for `send-email` can vary based on your operating system and email
+provider, and so will not be covered in this tutorial, beyond stating that in
+many distributions of Linux, `git-send-email` is not packaged alongside the
+typical `git` install. You may need to install this additional package; there
+are a number of resources online to help you do so. You will also need to
+determine the right way to configure it to use your SMTP server; again, as this
+configuration can change significantly based on your system and email setup, it
+is out of scope for the context of this tutorial.
+
+[[format-patch]]
+=== Preparing Initial Patchset
+
+Sending emails with Git is a two-part process; before you can prepare the emails
+themselves, you'll need to prepare the patches. Luckily, this is pretty simple:
+
+----
+$ git format-patch --cover-letter -o psuh/ master..psuh
+----
+
+The `--cover-letter` parameter tells `format-patch` to create a cover letter
+template for you. You will need to fill in the template before you're ready
+to send - but for now, the template will be next to your other patches.
+
+The `-o psuh/` parameter tells `format-patch` to place the patch files into a
+directory. This is useful because `git send-email` can take a directory and
+send out all the patches from there.
+
+`master..psuh` tells `format-patch` to generate patches for the difference
+between `master` and `psuh`. It will make one patch file per commit. After you
+run, you can go have a look at each of the patches with your favorite text
+editor and make sure everything looks alright; however, it's not recommended to
+make code fixups via the patch file. It's a better idea to make the change the
+normal way using `git rebase -i` or by adding a new commit than by modifying a
+patch.
+
+NOTE: Optionally, you can also use the `--rfc` flag to prefix your patch subject
+with ``[RFC PATCH]'' instead of ``[PATCH]''. RFC stands for ``request for
+comments'' and indicates that while your code isn't quite ready for submission,
+you'd like to begin the code review process. This can also be used when your
+patch is a proposal, but you aren't sure whether the community wants to solve
+the problem with that approach or not - to conduct a sort of design review. You
+may also see on the list patches marked ``WIP'' - this means they are incomplete
+but want reviewers to look at what they have so far. You can add this flag with
+`--subject-prefix=WIP`.
+
+Check and make sure that your patches and cover letter template exist in the
+directory you specified - you're nearly ready to send out your review!
+
+[[cover-letter]]
+=== Preparing Email
+
+In addition to an email per patch, the Git community also expects your patches
+to come with a cover letter, typically with a subject line [PATCH 0/x] (where
+x is the number of patches you're sending). Since you invoked `format-patch`
+with `--cover-letter`, you've already got a template ready. Open it up in your
+favorite editor.
+
+You should see a number of headers present already. Check that your `From:`
+header is correct. Then modify your `Subject:` to something which succinctly
+covers the purpose of your entire topic branch, for example:
+
+----
+Subject: [PATCH 0/7] adding the 'psuh' command
+----
+
+Make sure you retain the ``[PATCH 0/X]'' part; that's what indicates to the Git
+community that this email is the beginning of a review, and many reviewers
+filter their email for this type of flag.
+
+You'll need to add some extra parameters when you invoke `git send-email` to add
+the cover letter.
+
+Next you'll have to fill out the body of your cover letter. This is an important
+component of change submission as it explains to the community from a high level
+what you're trying to do, and why, in a way that's more apparent than just
+looking at your diff. Be sure to explain anything your diff doesn't make clear
+on its own.
+
+Here's an example body for `psuh`:
+
+----
+Our internal metrics indicate widespread interest in the command
+git-psuh - that is, many users are trying to use it, but finding it is
+unavailable, using some unknown workaround instead.
+
+The following handful of patches add the psuh command and implement some
+handy features on top of it.
+
+This patchset is part of the MyFirstContribution tutorial and should not
+be merged.
+----
+
+The template created by `git format-patch --cover-letter` includes a diffstat.
+This gives reviewers a summary of what they're in for when reviewing your topic.
+The one generated for `psuh` from the sample implementation looks like this:
+
+----
+ Documentation/git-psuh.txt | 40 +++++++++++++++++++++
+ Makefile | 1 +
+ builtin.h | 1 +
+ builtin/psuh.c | 73 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+ git.c | 1 +
+ t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh | 12 +++++++
+ 6 files changed, 128 insertions(+)
+ create mode 100644 Documentation/git-psuh.txt
+ create mode 100644 builtin/psuh.c
+ create mode 100755 t/t9999-psuh-tutorial.sh
+----
+
+Finally, the letter will include the version of Git used to generate the
+patches. You can leave that string alone.
+
+[[sending-git-send-email]]
+=== Sending Email
+
+At this point you should have a directory `psuh/` which is filled with your
+patches and a cover letter. Time to mail it out! You can send it like this:
+
+----
+$ git send-email --to=target@example.com psuh/*.patch
+----
+
+NOTE: Check `git help send-email` for some other options which you may find
+valuable, such as changing the Reply-to address or adding more CC and BCC lines.
+
+NOTE: When you are sending a real patch, it will go to git@vger.kernel.org - but
+please don't send your patchset from the tutorial to the real mailing list! For
+now, you can send it to yourself, to make sure you understand how it will look.
+
+After you run the command above, you will be presented with an interactive
+prompt for each patch that's about to go out. This gives you one last chance to
+edit or quit sending something (but again, don't edit code this way). Once you
+press `y` or `a` at these prompts your emails will be sent! Congratulations!
+
+Awesome, now the community will drop everything and review your changes. (Just
+kidding - be patient!)
+
+[[v2-git-send-email]]
+=== Sending v2
+
+Skip ahead to <<reviewing,Responding to Reviews>> for information on how to
+handle comments from reviewers. Continue this section when your topic branch is
+shaped the way you want it to look for your patchset v2.
+
+When you're ready with the next iteration of your patch, the process is fairly
+similar.
+
+First, generate your v2 patches again:
+
+----
+$ git format-patch -v2 --cover-letter -o psuh/ master..psuh
+----
+
+This will add your v2 patches, all named like `v2-000n-my-commit-subject.patch`,
+to the `psuh/` directory. You may notice that they are sitting alongside the v1
+patches; that's fine, but be careful when you are ready to send them.
+
+Edit your cover letter again. Now is a good time to mention what's different
+between your last version and now, if it's something significant. You do not
+need the exact same body in your second cover letter; focus on explaining to
+reviewers the changes you've made that may not be as visible.
+
+You will also need to go and find the Message-Id of your previous cover letter.
+You can either note it when you send the first series, from the output of `git
+send-email`, or you can look it up on the
+https://lore.kernel.org/git[mailing list]. Find your cover letter in the
+archives, click on it, then click "permalink" or "raw" to reveal the Message-Id
+header. It should match:
+
+----
+Message-Id: <foo.12345.author@example.com>
+----
+
+Your Message-Id is `<foo.12345.author@example.com>`. This example will be used
+below as well; make sure to replace it with the correct Message-Id for your
+**previous cover letter** - that is, if you're sending v2, use the Message-Id
+from v1; if you're sending v3, use the Message-Id from v2.
+
+While you're looking at the email, you should also note who is CC'd, as it's
+common practice in the mailing list to keep all CCs on a thread. You can add
+these CC lines directly to your cover letter with a line like so in the header
+(before the Subject line):
+
+----
+CC: author@example.com, Othe R <other@example.com>
+----
+
+Now send the emails again, paying close attention to which messages you pass in
+to the command:
+
+----
+$ git send-email --to=target@example.com
+ --in-reply-to="<foo.12345.author@example.com>"
+ psuh/v2*
+----
+
+[[single-patch]]
+=== Bonus Chapter: One-Patch Changes
+
+In some cases, your very small change may consist of only one patch. When that
+happens, you only need to send one email. Your commit message should already be
+meaningful and explain at a high level the purpose (what is happening and why)
+of your patch, but if you need to supply even more context, you can do so below
+the `---` in your patch. Take the example below, which was generated with `git
+format-patch` on a single commit, and then edited to add the content between
+the `---` and the diffstat.
+
+----
+From 1345bbb3f7ac74abde040c12e737204689a72723 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
+From: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+Date: Thu, 18 Apr 2019 15:11:02 -0700
+Subject: [PATCH] README: change the grammar
+
+I think it looks better this way. This part of the commit message will
+end up in the commit-log.
+
+Signed-off-by: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+---
+Let's have a wild discussion about grammar on the mailing list. This
+part of my email will never end up in the commit log. Here is where I
+can add additional context to the mailing list about my intent, outside
+of the context of the commit log. This section was added after `git
+format-patch` was run, by editing the patch file in a text editor.
+
+ README.md | 2 +-
+ 1 file changed, 1 insertion(+), 1 deletion(-)
+
+diff --git a/README.md b/README.md
+index 88f126184c..38da593a60 100644
+--- a/README.md
++++ b/README.md
+@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
+ Git - fast, scalable, distributed revision control system
+ =========================================================
+
+-Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
++Git is a fast, scalable, and distributed revision control system with an
+ unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
+ and full access to internals.
+
+--
+2.21.0.392.gf8f6787159e-goog
+----
+
+[[now-what]]
+== My Patch Got Emailed - Now What?
+
+[[reviewing]]
+=== Responding to Reviews
+
+After a few days, you will hopefully receive a reply to your patchset with some
+comments. Woohoo! Now you can get back to work.
+
+It's good manners to reply to each comment, notifying the reviewer that you have
+made the change requested, feel the original is better, or that the comment
+inspired you to do something a new way which is superior to both the original
+and the suggested change. This way reviewers don't need to inspect your v2 to
+figure out whether you implemented their comment or not.
+
+If you are going to push back on a comment, be polite and explain why you feel
+your original is better; be prepared that the reviewer may still disagree with
+you, and the rest of the community may weigh in on one side or the other. As
+with all code reviews, it's important to keep an open mind to doing something a
+different way than you originally planned; other reviewers have a different
+perspective on the project than you do, and may be thinking of a valid side
+effect which had not occurred to you. It is always okay to ask for clarification
+if you aren't sure why a change was suggested, or what the reviewer is asking
+you to do.
+
+Make sure your email client has a plaintext email mode and it is turned on; the
+Git list rejects HTML email. Please also follow the mailing list etiquette
+outlined in the
+https://kernel.googlesource.com/pub/scm/git/git/+/todo/MaintNotes[Maintainer's
+Note], which are similar to etiquette rules in most open source communities
+surrounding bottom-posting and inline replies.
+
+When you're making changes to your code, it is cleanest - that is, the resulting
+commits are easiest to look at - if you use `git rebase -i` (interactive
+rebase). Take a look at this
+https://www.oreilly.com/library/view/git-pocket-guide/9781449327507/ch10.html[overview]
+from O'Reilly. The general idea is to modify each commit which requires changes;
+this way, instead of having a patch A with a mistake, a patch B which was fine
+and required no upstream reviews in v1, and a patch C which fixes patch A for
+v2, you can just ship a v2 with a correct patch A and correct patch B. This is
+changing history, but since it's local history which you haven't shared with
+anyone, that is okay for now! (Later, it may not make sense to do this; take a
+look at the section below this one for some context.)
+
+[[after-approval]]
+=== After Review Approval
+
+The Git project has four integration branches: `pu`, `next`, `master`, and
+`maint`. Your change will be placed into `pu` fairly early on by the maintainer
+while it is still in the review process; from there, when it is ready for wider
+testing, it will be merged into `next`. Plenty of early testers use `next` and
+may report issues. Eventually, changes in `next` will make it to `master`,
+which is typically considered stable. Finally, when a new release is cut,
+`maint` is used to base bugfixes onto. As mentioned at the beginning of this
+document, you can read `Documents/SubmittingPatches` for some more info about
+the use of the various integration branches.
+
+Back to now: your code has been lauded by the upstream reviewers. It is perfect.
+It is ready to be accepted. You don't need to do anything else; the maintainer
+will merge your topic branch to `next` and life is good.
+
+However, if you discover it isn't so perfect after this point, you may need to
+take some special steps depending on where you are in the process.
+
+If the maintainer has announced in the "What's cooking in git.git" email that
+your topic is marked for `next` - that is, that they plan to merge it to `next`
+but have not yet done so - you should send an email asking the maintainer to
+wait a little longer: "I've sent v4 of my series and you marked it for `next`,
+but I need to change this and that - please wait for v5 before you merge it."
+
+If the topic has already been merged to `next`, rather than modifying your
+patches with `git rebase -i`, you should make further changes incrementally -
+that is, with another commit, based on top of the maintainer's topic branch as
+detailed in https://github.com/gitster/git. Your work is still in the same topic
+but is now incremental, rather than a wholesale rewrite of the topic branch.
+
+The topic branches in the maintainer's GitHub are mirrored in GitGitGadget, so
+if you're sending your reviews out that way, you should be sure to open your PR
+against the appropriate GitGitGadget/Git branch.
+
+If you're using `git send-email`, you can use it the same way as before, but you
+should generate your diffs from `<topic>..<mybranch>` and base your work on
+`<topic>` instead of `master`.
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..aa828df
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstObjectWalk.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,905 @@
+= My First Object Walk
+
+== What's an Object Walk?
+
+The object walk is a key concept in Git - this is the process that underpins
+operations like object transfer and fsck. Beginning from a given commit, the
+list of objects is found by walking parent relationships between commits (commit
+X based on commit W) and containment relationships between objects (tree Y is
+contained within commit X, and blob Z is located within tree Y, giving our
+working tree for commit X something like `y/z.txt`).
+
+A related concept is the revision walk, which is focused on commit objects and
+their parent relationships and does not delve into other object types. The
+revision walk is used for operations like `git log`.
+
+=== Related Reading
+
+- `Documentation/user-manual.txt` under "Hacking Git" contains some coverage of
+ the revision walker in its various incarnations.
+- `revision.h`
+- https://eagain.net/articles/git-for-computer-scientists/[Git for Computer Scientists]
+ gives a good overview of the types of objects in Git and what your object
+ walk is really describing.
+
+== Setting Up
+
+Create a new branch from `master`.
+
+----
+git checkout -b revwalk origin/master
+----
+
+We'll put our fiddling into a new command. For fun, let's name it `git walken`.
+Open up a new file `builtin/walken.c` and set up the command handler:
+
+----
+/*
+ * "git walken"
+ *
+ * Part of the "My First Object Walk" tutorial.
+ */
+
+#include "builtin.h"
+
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ trace_printf(_("cmd_walken incoming...\n"));
+ return 0;
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `trace_printf()` differs from `printf()` in that it can be turned on or
+off at runtime. For the purposes of this tutorial, we will write `walken` as
+though it is intended for use as a "plumbing" command: that is, a command which
+is used primarily in scripts, rather than interactively by humans (a "porcelain"
+command). So we will send our debug output to `trace_printf()` instead. When
+running, enable trace output by setting the environment variable `GIT_TRACE`.
+
+Add usage text and `-h` handling, like all subcommands should consistently do
+(our test suite will notice and complain if you fail to do so).
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ const char * const walken_usage[] = {
+ N_("git walken"),
+ NULL,
+ }
+ struct option options[] = {
+ OPT_END()
+ };
+
+ argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, walken_usage, 0);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Also add the relevant line in `builtin.h` near `cmd_whatchanged()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+----
+
+Include the command in `git.c` in `commands[]` near the entry for `whatchanged`,
+maintaining alphabetical ordering:
+
+----
+{ "walken", cmd_walken, RUN_SETUP },
+----
+
+Add it to the `Makefile` near the line for `builtin/worktree.o`:
+
+----
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/walken.o
+----
+
+Build and test out your command, without forgetting to ensure the `DEVELOPER`
+flag is set, and with `GIT_TRACE` enabled so the debug output can be seen:
+
+----
+$ echo DEVELOPER=1 >>config.mak
+$ make
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers/git walken
+----
+
+NOTE: For a more exhaustive overview of the new command process, take a look at
+`Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt`.
+
+NOTE: A reference implementation can be found at
+https://github.com/nasamuffin/git/tree/revwalk.
+
+=== `struct rev_cmdline_info`
+
+The definition of `struct rev_cmdline_info` can be found in `revision.h`.
+
+This struct is contained within the `rev_info` struct and is used to reflect
+parameters provided by the user over the CLI.
+
+`nr` represents the number of `rev_cmdline_entry` present in the array.
+
+`alloc` is used by the `ALLOC_GROW` macro. Check `cache.h` - this variable is
+used to track the allocated size of the list.
+
+Per entry, we find:
+
+`item` is the object provided upon which to base the object walk. Items in Git
+can be blobs, trees, commits, or tags. (See `Documentation/gittutorial-2.txt`.)
+
+`name` is the object ID (OID) of the object - a hex string you may be familiar
+with from using Git to organize your source in the past. Check the tutorial
+mentioned above towards the top for a discussion of where the OID can come
+from.
+
+`whence` indicates some information about what to do with the parents of the
+specified object. We'll explore this flag more later on; take a look at
+`Documentation/revisions.txt` to get an idea of what could set the `whence`
+value.
+
+`flags` are used to hint the beginning of the revision walk and are the first
+block under the `#include`s in `revision.h`. The most likely ones to be set in
+the `rev_cmdline_info` are `UNINTERESTING` and `BOTTOM`, but these same flags
+can be used during the walk, as well.
+
+=== `struct rev_info`
+
+This one is quite a bit longer, and many fields are only used during the walk
+by `revision.c` - not configuration options. Most of the configurable flags in
+`struct rev_info` have a mirror in `Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`. It's a
+good idea to take some time and read through that document.
+
+== Basic Commit Walk
+
+First, let's see if we can replicate the output of `git log --oneline`. We'll
+refer back to the implementation frequently to discover norms when performing
+an object walk of our own.
+
+To do so, we'll first find all the commits, in order, which preceded the current
+commit. We'll extract the name and subject of the commit from each.
+
+Ideally, we will also be able to find out which ones are currently at the tip of
+various branches.
+
+=== Setting Up
+
+Preparing for your object walk has some distinct stages.
+
+1. Perform default setup for this mode, and others which may be invoked.
+2. Check configuration files for relevant settings.
+3. Set up the `rev_info` struct.
+4. Tweak the initialized `rev_info` to suit the current walk.
+5. Prepare the `rev_info` for the walk.
+6. Iterate over the objects, processing each one.
+
+==== Default Setups
+
+Before examining configuration files which may modify command behavior, set up
+default state for switches or options your command may have. If your command
+utilizes other Git components, ask them to set up their default states as well.
+For instance, `git log` takes advantage of `grep` and `diff` functionality, so
+its `init_log_defaults()` sets its own state (`decoration_style`) and asks
+`grep` and `diff` to initialize themselves by calling each of their
+initialization functions.
+
+For our first example within `git walken`, we don't intend to use any other
+components within Git, and we don't have any configuration to do. However, we
+may want to add some later, so for now, we can add an empty placeholder. Create
+a new function in `builtin/walken.c`:
+
+----
+static void init_walken_defaults(void)
+{
+ /*
+ * We don't actually need the same components `git log` does; leave this
+ * empty for now.
+ */
+}
+----
+
+Make sure to add a line invoking it inside of `cmd_walken()`.
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ init_walken_defaults();
+}
+----
+
+==== Configuring From `.gitconfig`
+
+Next, we should have a look at any relevant configuration settings (i.e.,
+settings readable and settable from `git config`). This is done by providing a
+callback to `git_config()`; within that callback, you can also invoke methods
+from other components you may need that need to intercept these options. Your
+callback will be invoked once per each configuration value which Git knows about
+(global, local, worktree, etc.).
+
+Similarly to the default values, we don't have anything to do here yet
+ourselves; however, we should call `git_default_config()` if we aren't calling
+any other existing config callbacks.
+
+Add a new function to `builtin/walken.c`:
+
+----
+static int git_walken_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+ /*
+ * For now, we don't have any custom configuration, so fall back to
+ * the default config.
+ */
+ return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+----
+
+Make sure to invoke `git_config()` with it in your `cmd_walken()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ ...
+
+ git_config(git_walken_config, NULL);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+==== Setting Up `rev_info`
+
+Now that we've gathered external configuration and options, it's time to
+initialize the `rev_info` object which we will use to perform the walk. This is
+typically done by calling `repo_init_revisions()` with the repository you intend
+to target, as well as the `prefix` argument of `cmd_walken` and your `rev_info`
+struct.
+
+Add the `struct rev_info` and the `repo_init_revisions()` call:
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ /* This can go wherever you like in your declarations.*/
+ struct rev_info rev;
+ ...
+
+ /* This should go after the git_config() call. */
+ repo_init_revisions(the_repository, &rev, prefix);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+==== Tweaking `rev_info` For the Walk
+
+We're getting close, but we're still not quite ready to go. Now that `rev` is
+initialized, we can modify it to fit our needs. This is usually done within a
+helper for clarity, so let's add one:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ /*
+ * We want to mimic the appearance of `git log --oneline`, so let's
+ * force oneline format.
+ */
+ get_commit_format("oneline", rev);
+
+ /* Start our object walk at HEAD. */
+ add_head_to_pending(rev);
+}
+----
+
+[NOTE]
+====
+Instead of using the shorthand `add_head_to_pending()`, you could do
+something like this:
+----
+ struct setup_revision_opt opt;
+
+ memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
+ opt.def = "HEAD";
+ opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
+ setup_revisions(argc, argv, rev, &opt);
+----
+Using a `setup_revision_opt` gives you finer control over your walk's starting
+point.
+====
+
+Then let's invoke `final_rev_info_setup()` after the call to
+`repo_init_revisions()`:
+
+----
+int cmd_walken(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+ ...
+
+ final_rev_info_setup(&rev);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Later, we may wish to add more arguments to `final_rev_info_setup()`. But for
+now, this is all we need.
+
+==== Preparing `rev_info` For the Walk
+
+Now that `rev` is all initialized and configured, we've got one more setup step
+before we get rolling. We can do this in a helper, which will both prepare the
+`rev_info` for the walk, and perform the walk itself. Let's start the helper
+with the call to `prepare_revision_walk()`, which can return an error without
+dying on its own:
+
+----
+static void walken_commit_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ if (prepare_revision_walk(rev))
+ die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `die()` prints to `stderr` and exits the program. Since it will print to
+`stderr` it's likely to be seen by a human, so we will localize it.
+
+==== Performing the Walk!
+
+Finally! We are ready to begin the walk itself. Now we can see that `rev_info`
+can also be used as an iterator; we move to the next item in the walk by using
+`get_revision()` repeatedly. Add the listed variable declarations at the top and
+the walk loop below the `prepare_revision_walk()` call within your
+`walken_commit_walk()`:
+
+----
+static void walken_commit_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ struct commit *commit;
+ struct strbuf prettybuf = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+ ...
+
+ while ((commit = get_revision(rev))) {
+ if (!commit)
+ continue;
+
+ strbuf_reset(&prettybuf);
+ pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &prettybuf);
+ puts(prettybuf.buf);
+ }
+ strbuf_release(&prettybuf);
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: `puts()` prints a `char*` to `stdout`. Since this is the part of the
+command we expect to be machine-parsed, we're sending it directly to stdout.
+
+Give it a shot.
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken
+----
+
+You should see all of the subject lines of all the commits in
+your tree's history, in order, ending with the initial commit, "Initial revision
+of "git", the information manager from hell". Congratulations! You've written
+your first revision walk. You can play with printing some additional fields
+from each commit if you're curious; have a look at the functions available in
+`commit.h`.
+
+=== Adding a Filter
+
+Next, let's try to filter the commits we see based on their author. This is
+equivalent to running `git log --author=<pattern>`. We can add a filter by
+modifying `rev_info.grep_filter`, which is a `struct grep_opt`.
+
+First some setup. Add `init_grep_defaults()` to `init_walken_defaults()` and add
+`grep_config()` to `git_walken_config()`:
+
+----
+static void init_walken_defaults(void)
+{
+ init_grep_defaults(the_repository);
+}
+
+...
+
+static int git_walken_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+ grep_config(var, value, cb);
+ return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+----
+
+Next, we can modify the `grep_filter`. This is done with convenience functions
+found in `grep.h`. For fun, we're filtering to only commits from folks using a
+`gmail.com` email address - a not-very-precise guess at who may be working on
+Git as a hobby. Since we're checking the author, which is a specific line in the
+header, we'll use the `append_header_grep_pattern()` helper. We can use
+the `enum grep_header_field` to indicate which part of the commit header we want
+to search.
+
+In `final_rev_info_setup()`, add your filter line:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ append_header_grep_pattern(&rev->grep_filter, GREP_HEADER_AUTHOR,
+ "gmail");
+ compile_grep_patterns(&rev->grep_filter);
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+`append_header_grep_pattern()` adds your new "gmail" pattern to `rev_info`, but
+it won't work unless we compile it with `compile_grep_patterns()`.
+
+NOTE: If you are using `setup_revisions()` (for example, if you are passing a
+`setup_revision_opt` instead of using `add_head_to_pending()`), you don't need
+to call `compile_grep_patterns()` because `setup_revisions()` calls it for you.
+
+NOTE: We could add the same filter via the `append_grep_pattern()` helper if we
+wanted to, but `append_header_grep_pattern()` adds the `enum grep_context` and
+`enum grep_pat_token` for us.
+
+=== Changing the Order
+
+There are a few ways that we can change the order of the commits during a
+revision walk. Firstly, we can use the `enum rev_sort_order` to choose from some
+typical orderings.
+
+`topo_order` is the same as `git log --topo-order`: we avoid showing a parent
+before all of its children have been shown, and we avoid mixing commits which
+are in different lines of history. (`git help log`'s section on `--topo-order`
+has a very nice diagram to illustrate this.)
+
+Let's see what happens when we run with `REV_SORT_BY_COMMIT_DATE` as opposed to
+`REV_SORT_BY_AUTHOR_DATE`. Add the following:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->topo_order = 1;
+ rev->sort_order = REV_SORT_BY_COMMIT_DATE;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Let's output this into a file so we can easily diff it with the walk sorted by
+author date.
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken > commit-date.txt
+----
+
+Then, let's sort by author date and run it again.
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv,
+ const char *prefix, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->topo_order = 1;
+ rev->sort_order = REV_SORT_BY_AUTHOR_DATE;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+----
+$ make
+$ ./bin-wrappers/git walken > author-date.txt
+----
+
+Finally, compare the two. This is a little less helpful without object names or
+dates, but hopefully we get the idea.
+
+----
+$ diff -u commit-date.txt author-date.txt
+----
+
+This display indicates that commits can be reordered after they're written, for
+example with `git rebase`.
+
+Let's try one more reordering of commits. `rev_info` exposes a `reverse` flag.
+Set that flag somewhere inside of `final_rev_info_setup()`:
+
+----
+static void final_rev_info_setup(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
+ struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ ...
+
+ rev->reverse = 1;
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+Run your walk again and note the difference in order. (If you remove the grep
+pattern, you should see the last commit this call gives you as your current
+HEAD.)
+
+== Basic Object Walk
+
+So far we've been walking only commits. But Git has more types of objects than
+that! Let's see if we can walk _all_ objects, and find out some information
+about each one.
+
+We can base our work on an example. `git pack-objects` prepares all kinds of
+objects for packing into a bitmap or packfile. The work we are interested in
+resides in `builtins/pack-objects.c:get_object_list()`; examination of that
+function shows that the all-object walk is being performed by
+`traverse_commit_list()` or `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`. Those two
+functions reside in `list-objects.c`; examining the source shows that, despite
+the name, these functions traverse all kinds of objects. Let's have a look at
+the arguments to `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`, which are a superset of the
+arguments to the unfiltered version.
+
+- `struct list_objects_filter_options *filter_options`: This is a struct which
+ stores a filter-spec as outlined in `Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`.
+- `struct rev_info *revs`: This is the `rev_info` used for the walk.
+- `show_commit_fn show_commit`: A callback which will be used to handle each
+ individual commit object.
+- `show_object_fn show_object`: A callback which will be used to handle each
+ non-commit object (so each blob, tree, or tag).
+- `void *show_data`: A context buffer which is passed in turn to `show_commit`
+ and `show_object`.
+- `struct oidset *omitted`: A linked-list of object IDs which the provided
+ filter caused to be omitted.
+
+It looks like this `traverse_commit_list_filtered()` uses callbacks we provide
+instead of needing us to call it repeatedly ourselves. Cool! Let's add the
+callbacks first.
+
+For the sake of this tutorial, we'll simply keep track of how many of each kind
+of object we find. At file scope in `builtin/walken.c` add the following
+tracking variables:
+
+----
+static int commit_count;
+static int tag_count;
+static int blob_count;
+static int tree_count;
+----
+
+Commits are handled by a different callback than other objects; let's do that
+one first:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_commit(struct commit *cmt, void *buf)
+{
+ commit_count++;
+}
+----
+
+The `cmt` argument is fairly self-explanatory. But it's worth mentioning that
+the `buf` argument is actually the context buffer that we can provide to the
+traversal calls - `show_data`, which we mentioned a moment ago.
+
+Since we have the `struct commit` object, we can look at all the same parts that
+we looked at in our earlier commit-only walk. For the sake of this tutorial,
+though, we'll just increment the commit counter and move on.
+
+The callback for non-commits is a little different, as we'll need to check
+which kind of object we're dealing with:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_object(struct object *obj, const char *str, void *buf)
+{
+ switch (obj->type) {
+ case OBJ_TREE:
+ tree_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_BLOB:
+ blob_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_TAG:
+ tag_count++;
+ break;
+ case OBJ_COMMIT:
+ BUG("unexpected commit object in walken_show_object\n");
+ default:
+ BUG("unexpected object type %s in walken_show_object\n",
+ type_name(obj->type));
+ }
+}
+----
+
+Again, `obj` is fairly self-explanatory, and we can guess that `buf` is the same
+context pointer that `walken_show_commit()` receives: the `show_data` argument
+to `traverse_commit_list()` and `traverse_commit_list_filtered()`. Finally,
+`str` contains the name of the object, which ends up being something like
+`foo.txt` (blob), `bar/baz` (tree), or `v1.2.3` (tag).
+
+To help assure us that we aren't double-counting commits, we'll include some
+complaining if a commit object is routed through our non-commit callback; we'll
+also complain if we see an invalid object type. Since those two cases should be
+unreachable, and would only change in the event of a semantic change to the Git
+codebase, we complain by using `BUG()` - which is a signal to a developer that
+the change they made caused unintended consequences, and the rest of the
+codebase needs to be updated to understand that change. `BUG()` is not intended
+to be seen by the public, so it is not localized.
+
+Our main object walk implementation is substantially different from our commit
+walk implementation, so let's make a new function to perform the object walk. We
+can perform setup which is applicable to all objects here, too, to keep separate
+from setup which is applicable to commit-only walks.
+
+We'll start by enabling all types of objects in the `struct rev_info`. We'll
+also turn on `tree_blobs_in_commit_order`, which means that we will walk a
+commit's tree and everything it points to immediately after we find each commit,
+as opposed to waiting for the end and walking through all trees after the commit
+history has been discovered. With the appropriate settings configured, we are
+ready to call `prepare_revision_walk()`.
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ rev->tree_objects = 1;
+ rev->blob_objects = 1;
+ rev->tag_objects = 1;
+ rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order = 1;
+
+ if (prepare_revision_walk(rev))
+ die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+
+ commit_count = 0;
+ tag_count = 0;
+ blob_count = 0;
+ tree_count = 0;
+----
+
+Let's start by calling just the unfiltered walk and reporting our counts.
+Complete your implementation of `walken_object_walk()`:
+
+----
+ traverse_commit_list(rev, walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL);
+
+ printf("commits %d\nblobs %d\ntags %d\ntrees %d\n", commit_count,
+ blob_count, tag_count, tree_count);
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: This output is intended to be machine-parsed. Therefore, we are not
+sending it to `trace_printf()`, and we are not localizing it - we need scripts
+to be able to count on the formatting to be exactly the way it is shown here.
+If we were intending this output to be read by humans, we would need to localize
+it with `_()`.
+
+Finally, we'll ask `cmd_walken()` to use the object walk instead. Discussing
+command line options is out of scope for this tutorial, so we'll just hardcode
+a branch we can change at compile time. Where you call `final_rev_info_setup()`
+and `walken_commit_walk()`, instead branch like so:
+
+----
+ if (1) {
+ add_head_to_pending(&rev);
+ walken_object_walk(&rev);
+ } else {
+ final_rev_info_setup(argc, argv, prefix, &rev);
+ walken_commit_walk(&rev);
+ }
+----
+
+NOTE: For simplicity, we've avoided all the filters and sorts we applied in
+`final_rev_info_setup()` and simply added `HEAD` to our pending queue. If you
+want, you can certainly use the filters we added before by moving
+`final_rev_info_setup()` out of the conditional and removing the call to
+`add_head_to_pending()`.
+
+Now we can try to run our command! It should take noticeably longer than the
+commit walk, but an examination of the output will give you an idea why. Your
+output should look similar to this example, but with different counts:
+
+----
+Object walk completed. Found 55733 commits, 100274 blobs, 0 tags, and 104210 trees.
+----
+
+This makes sense. We have more trees than commits because the Git project has
+lots of subdirectories which can change, plus at least one tree per commit. We
+have no tags because we started on a commit (`HEAD`) and while tags can point to
+commits, commits can't point to tags.
+
+NOTE: You will have different counts when you run this yourself! The number of
+objects grows along with the Git project.
+
+=== Adding a Filter
+
+There are a handful of filters that we can apply to the object walk laid out in
+`Documentation/rev-list-options.txt`. These filters are typically useful for
+operations such as creating packfiles or performing a partial clone. They are
+defined in `list-objects-filter-options.h`. For the purposes of this tutorial we
+will use the "tree:1" filter, which causes the walk to omit all trees and blobs
+which are not directly referenced by commits reachable from the commit in
+`pending` when the walk begins. (`pending` is the list of objects which need to
+be traversed during a walk; you can imagine a breadth-first tree traversal to
+help understand. In our case, that means we omit trees and blobs not directly
+referenced by `HEAD` or `HEAD`'s history, because we begin the walk with only
+`HEAD` in the `pending` list.)
+
+First, we'll need to `#include "list-objects-filter-options.h`" and set up the
+`struct list_objects_filter_options` at the top of the function.
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+ struct list_objects_filter_options filter_options = {};
+
+ ...
+----
+
+For now, we are not going to track the omitted objects, so we'll replace those
+parameters with `NULL`. For the sake of simplicity, we'll add a simple
+build-time branch to use our filter or not. Replace the line calling
+`traverse_commit_list()` with the following, which will remind us which kind of
+walk we've just performed:
+
+----
+ if (0) {
+ /* Unfiltered: */
+ trace_printf(_("Unfiltered object walk.\n"));
+ traverse_commit_list(rev, walken_show_commit,
+ walken_show_object, NULL);
+ } else {
+ trace_printf(
+ _("Filtered object walk with filterspec 'tree:1'.\n"));
+ parse_list_objects_filter(&filter_options, "tree:1");
+
+ traverse_commit_list_filtered(&filter_options, rev,
+ walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL, NULL);
+ }
+----
+
+`struct list_objects_filter_options` is usually built directly from a command
+line argument, so the module provides an easy way to build one from a string.
+Even though we aren't taking user input right now, we can still build one with
+a hardcoded string using `parse_list_objects_filter()`.
+
+With the filter spec "tree:1", we are expecting to see _only_ the root tree for
+each commit; therefore, the tree object count should be less than or equal to
+the number of commits. (For an example of why that's true: `git commit --revert`
+points to the same tree object as its grandparent.)
+
+=== Counting Omitted Objects
+
+We also have the capability to enumerate all objects which were omitted by a
+filter, like with `git log --filter=<spec> --filter-print-omitted`. Asking
+`traverse_commit_list_filtered()` to populate the `omitted` list means that our
+object walk does not perform any better than an unfiltered object walk; all
+reachable objects are walked in order to populate the list.
+
+First, add the `struct oidset` and related items we will use to iterate it:
+
+----
+static void walken_object_walk(
+ ...
+
+ struct oidset omitted;
+ struct oidset_iter oit;
+ struct object_id *oid = NULL;
+ int omitted_count = 0;
+ oidset_init(&omitted, 0);
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Modify the call to `traverse_commit_list_filtered()` to include your `omitted`
+object:
+
+----
+ ...
+
+ traverse_commit_list_filtered(&filter_options, rev,
+ walken_show_commit, walken_show_object, NULL, &omitted);
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Then, after your traversal, the `oidset` traversal is pretty straightforward.
+Count all the objects within and modify the print statement:
+
+----
+ /* Count the omitted objects. */
+ oidset_iter_init(&omitted, &oit);
+
+ while ((oid = oidset_iter_next(&oit)))
+ omitted_count++;
+
+ printf("commits %d\nblobs %d\ntags %d\ntrees%d\nomitted %d\n",
+ commit_count, blob_count, tag_count, tree_count, omitted_count);
+----
+
+By running your walk with and without the filter, you should find that the total
+object count in each case is identical. You can also time each invocation of
+the `walken` subcommand, with and without `omitted` being passed in, to confirm
+to yourself the runtime impact of tracking all omitted objects.
+
+=== Changing the Order
+
+Finally, let's demonstrate that you can also reorder walks of all objects, not
+just walks of commits. First, we'll make our handlers chattier - modify
+`walken_show_commit()` and `walken_show_object()` to print the object as they
+go:
+
+----
+static void walken_show_commit(struct commit *cmt, void *buf)
+{
+ trace_printf("commit: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&cmt->object.oid));
+ commit_count++;
+}
+
+static void walken_show_object(struct object *obj, const char *str, void *buf)
+{
+ trace_printf("%s: %s\n", type_name(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
+
+ ...
+}
+----
+
+NOTE: Since we will be examining this output directly as humans, we'll use
+`trace_printf()` here. Additionally, since this change introduces a significant
+number of printed lines, using `trace_printf()` will allow us to easily silence
+those lines without having to recompile.
+
+(Leave the counter increment logic in place.)
+
+With only that change, run again (but save yourself some scrollback):
+
+----
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers/git walken | head -n 10
+----
+
+Take a look at the top commit with `git show` and the object ID you printed; it
+should be the same as the output of `git show HEAD`.
+
+Next, let's change a setting on our `struct rev_info` within
+`walken_object_walk()`. Find where you're changing the other settings on `rev`,
+such as `rev->tree_objects` and `rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order`, and add the
+`reverse` setting at the bottom:
+
+----
+ ...
+
+ rev->tree_objects = 1;
+ rev->blob_objects = 1;
+ rev->tag_objects = 1;
+ rev->tree_blobs_in_commit_order = 1;
+ rev->reverse = 1;
+
+ ...
+----
+
+Now, run again, but this time, let's grab the last handful of objects instead
+of the first handful:
+
+----
+$ make
+$ GIT_TRACE=1 ./bin-wrappers git walken | tail -n 10
+----
+
+The last commit object given should have the same OID as the one we saw at the
+top before, and running `git show <oid>` with that OID should give you again
+the same results as `git show HEAD`. Furthermore, if you run and examine the
+first ten lines again (with `head` instead of `tail` like we did before applying
+the `reverse` setting), you should see that now the first commit printed is the
+initial commit, `e83c5163`.
+
+== Wrapping Up
+
+Let's review. In this tutorial, we:
+
+- Built a commit walk from the ground up
+- Enabled a grep filter for that commit walk
+- Changed the sort order of that filtered commit walk
+- Built an object walk (tags, commits, trees, and blobs) from the ground up
+- Learned how to add a filter-spec to an object walk
+- Changed the display order of the filtered object walk
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
index daf4bdb..d6d42f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.5.0.txt
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@ Updates in v1.5.0 since v1.4.4 series
the repository when that happens.
-* Crufts removal
+* Cruft removal
- We used to say "old commits are retrievable using reflog and
'master@{yesterday}' syntax as long as you haven't run
@@ -379,7 +379,7 @@ Updates in v1.5.0 since v1.4.4 series
- The value of i18n.commitencoding in the originating
repository is recorded in the commit object on the "encoding"
header, if it is not UTF-8. git-log and friends notice this,
- and reencodes the message to the log output encoding when
+ and re-encodes the message to the log output encoding when
displaying, if they are different. The log output encoding
is determined by "git log --encoding=<encoding>",
i18n.logoutputencoding configuration, or i18n.commitencoding
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
index ad060f4..980adfb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.2.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
index 418c685..4bcff94 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.3.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
index 7a90441..a2a34b4 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.4.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
index d3a2a3e..344333d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.4.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ Fixes since v1.6.5.3
* "git prune-packed" gave progress output even when its standard error is
not connected to a terminal; this caused cron jobs that run it to
- produce crufts.
+ produce cruft.
* "git pack-objects --all-progress" is an option to ask progress output
from write-object phase _if_ progress output were to be produced, and
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
index ee141c1..6c7f7da 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ push running this release will issue a big warning when the
configuration variable is missing. Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition plan.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
index c50b59c..3ed1e01 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.txt
@@ -64,7 +64,7 @@ users will fare this time.
Please refer to:
http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
- http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+ https://lore.kernel.org/git/7vbptlsuyv.fsf@gitster.siamese.dyndns.org/
for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
transition process that already took place so far.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
index fcb46ca..73ed2b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.0.2.txt
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.0.1
* "git status" in 1.7.0 lacked the optimization we used to have in 1.6.X series
to speed up scanning of large working tree.
- * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading tis configuration
+ * "gitweb" did not diagnose parsing errors properly while reading its configuration
file.
And other minor fixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
index 326670d..57597f2 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.4.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.10.3
* The message file for Swedish translation has been updated a bit.
* A name taken from mailmap was copied into an internal buffer
- incorrectly and could overun the buffer if it is too long.
+ incorrectly and could overrun the buffer if it is too long.
* A malformed commit object that has a header line chomped in the
middle could kill git with a NULL pointer dereference.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
index ecda427..4b82297 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.12.2
its Accept-Encoding header.
* "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
- progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+ progress output while processing objects it received to the user
when run over the smart-http protocol.
* "git status" honored the ignore=dirty settings in .gitmodules but
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
index 9c03353..1d24edc 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.5.3.txt
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@ Fixes since v1.7.5.2
* "git log --stdin path" with an input that has additional pathspec
used to corrupt memory.
- * "git send-pack" (hence "git push") over smalt-HTTP protocol could
+ * "git send-pack" (hence "git push") over smart-HTTP protocol could
deadlock when the client side pack-object died early.
* Compressed tarball gitweb generates used to be made with the timestamp
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
index 43883c1..63d6e4a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.0.txt
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@ to them for details).
together, misdetected branches.
* "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
- progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+ progress output while processing objects it received to the user
when run over the smart-http protocol.
* When you misspell the command name you give to the "exec" action in
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
index 96090ef..c257beb 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
@@ -15,7 +15,7 @@ Fixes since v1.8.4
in 1.8.4-rc1).
* "git rebase -i" and other scripted commands were feeding a
- random, data dependant error message to 'echo' and expecting it
+ random, data dependent error message to 'echo' and expecting it
to come out literally.
* Setting the "submodule.<name>.path" variable to the empty
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
index 02f681b..255e185 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@ Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
credential helper interface from Git.pm.
* Update build for Cygwin 1.[57]. Torsten Bögershausen reports that
- this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 ($gmane/225824) so let's try moving it
+ this is fine with Cygwin 1.7 (cf. <51A606A0.5060101@web.de>) so let's try moving it
ahead.
* The credential helper to talk to keychain on OS X (in contrib/) has
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
index acc9ebb..0dfb17c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.1.3.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@ Git v2.1.3 Release Notes
they are new enough to support the `--output` option.
* "git pack-objects" forgot to disable the codepath to generate
- object recheability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
+ object reachability bitmap when it needs to split the resulting
pack.
* "gitweb" used deprecated CGI::startfrom, which was removed from
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
index f4da28a..3792b7d 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.0.txt
@@ -478,7 +478,7 @@ notes for details).
* One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
- the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
+ the system where outside stuff is usually called "theirs" in
contrast to "ours".
* "git blame file" allowed the lineage of lines in the uncommitted,
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
index c4d4397..abbd331 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.10.2.txt
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@ Fixes since v2.10.1
by refusing to check out a branch that is already checked out in
another worktree. However, this also prevented checking out a
branch, which is designated as the primary branch of a bare
- reopsitory, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
+ repository, in a worktree that is connected to the bare
repository. The check has been corrected to allow it.
* "git rebase" immediately after "git clone" failed to find the fork
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
index 9cd14c8..7d35cf1 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.11.1.txt
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@ Fixes since v2.11
"git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
has been fixed.
- * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ * "git p4" that tracks multiple p4 paths imported a single changelist
that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
index ef8b97d..d2f6a83 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.12.0.txt
@@ -315,7 +315,7 @@ notes for details).
"git difftool --dir-diff" from a subdirectory never worked. This
has been fixed.
- * "git p4" that tracks multile p4 paths imported a single changelist
+ * "git p4" that tracks multiple p4 paths imported a single changelist
that touches files in these multiple paths as one commit, followed
by many empty commits. This has been fixed.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
index aa99d4b..2a47b4c 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.0.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
been changed to enable "--decorate".
* The output from "git status --short" has been extended to show
- various kinds of dirtyness in submodules differently; instead of to
+ various kinds of dirtiness in submodules differently; instead of to
"M" for modified, 'm' and '?' can be shown to signal changes only
to the working tree of the submodule but not the commit that is
checked out.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
index 5d76ad5..384e4de 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.13.3.txt
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ Fixes since v2.13.2
* The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
- unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ unnecessarily complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
* "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom
@@ -35,7 +35,7 @@ Fixes since v2.13.2
* Fix a recent regression to "git rebase -i" and add tests that would
have caught it and others.
- * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code ahs been corrected.
+ * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code has been corrected.
* Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
index 4246c68..2711a25 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.14.0.txt
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* Some platforms have ulong that is smaller than time_t, and our
historical use of ulong for timestamp would mean they cannot
represent some timestamp that the platform allows. Invent a
- separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distingiuish
+ separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distinguish
timestamps and a vanilla ulongs, which along is already a good
move), and then declare uintmax_t is the type to be used as the
timestamp_t.
@@ -442,7 +442,7 @@ notes for details).
* The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
- unnecessarilyl complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
+ unnecessarily complex. Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
* Fix configuration codepath to pay proper attention to commondir
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
index 0c81c59..b474781 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.0.txt
@@ -407,7 +407,7 @@ Fixes since v2.15
(merge eef3df5a93 bw/pathspec-match-submodule-boundary later to maint).
* Amending commits in git-gui broke the author name that is non-ascii
- due to incorrect enconding conversion.
+ due to incorrect encoding conversion.
* Recent update to the submodule configuration code broke "diff-tree"
by accidentally stopping to read from the index upfront.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
index 64a0bcb..f0121a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.16.3.txt
@@ -24,7 +24,7 @@ Fixes since v2.16.2
* The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
- so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ so that it can be more safely shareable.
* Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
what it did not acquire lock on.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
index c2cf891..8b17c26 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.17.0.txt
@@ -216,7 +216,7 @@ Fixes since v2.16
* The http tracing code, often used to debug connection issues,
learned to redact potentially sensitive information from its output
- so that it can be more safely sharable.
+ so that it can be more safely shareable.
(merge 8ba18e6fa4 jt/http-redact-cookies later to maint).
* Crash fix for a corner case where an error codepath tried to unlock
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
index 3ea280c..6c8a0e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.0.txt
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
(merge 00a3da2a13 nd/remove-ignore-env-field later to maint).
* Code to find the length to uniquely abbreviate object names based
- on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addtion, has been
+ on packfile content, which is a relatively recent addition, has been
optimized to use the same fan-out table.
* The mechanism to use parse-options API to automate the command line
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
index a06ccf6..891c79b 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@ Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
* The conversion to pass "the_repository" and then "a_repository"
throughout the object access API continues.
- * Continuing with the idea to programatically enumerate various
+ * Continuing with the idea to programmatically enumerate various
pieces of data required for command line completion, teach the
codebase to report the list of configuration variables
subcommands care about to help complete them.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
index e71fe3d..3dd7e6e 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.20.0.txt
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@ UI, Workflows & Features
alias expansion.
* The documentation of "git gc" has been updated to mention that it
- is no longer limited to "pruning away crufts" but also updates
+ is no longer limited to "pruning away cruft" but also updates
ancillary files like commit-graph as a part of repository
optimization.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7a49ded
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,451 @@
+Git 2.21 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward Compatibility Notes
+----------------------------
+
+ * Historically, the "-m" (mainline) option can only be used for "git
+ cherry-pick" and "git revert" when working with a merge commit.
+ This version of Git no longer warns or errors out when working with
+ a single-parent commit, as long as the argument to the "-m" option
+ is 1 (i.e. it has only one parent, and the request is to pick or
+ revert relative to that first parent). Scripts that relied on the
+ behaviour may get broken with this change.
+
+
+Updates since v2.20
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * The "http.version" configuration variable can be used with recent
+ enough versions of cURL library to force the version of HTTP used
+ to talk when fetching and pushing.
+
+ * Small fixes and features for fast-export and fast-import, mostly on
+ the fast-export side has been made.
+
+ * "git push $there $src:$dst" rejects when $dst is not a fully
+ qualified refname and it is not clear what the end user meant. The
+ codepath has been taught to give a clearer error message, and also
+ guess where the push should go by taking the type of the pushed
+ object into account (e.g. a tag object would want to go under
+ refs/tags/).
+
+ * "git checkout [<tree-ish>] path..." learned to report the number of
+ paths that have been checked out of the index or the tree-ish,
+ which gives it the same degree of noisy-ness as the case in which
+ the command checks out a branch. "git checkout -m <pathspec>" to
+ undo conflict resolution gives a similar message.
+
+ * "git quiltimport" learned "--keep-non-patch" option.
+
+ * "git worktree remove" and "git worktree move" refused to work when
+ there is a submodule involved. This has been loosened to ignore
+ uninitialized submodules.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick -m1" was forbidden when picking a non-merge
+ commit, even though there _is_ parent number 1 for such a commit.
+ This was done to avoid mistakes back when "cherry-pick" was about
+ picking a single commit, but is no longer useful with "cherry-pick"
+ that can pick a range of commits. Now the "-m$num" option is
+ allowed when picking any commit, as long as $num names an existing
+ parent of the commit.
+
+ * Update "git multimail" from the upstream.
+
+ * "git p4" update.
+
+ * The "--format=<placeholder>" option of for-each-ref, branch and tag
+ learned to show a few more traits of objects that can be learned by
+ the object_info API.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" learned to re-execute a command given with 'exec'
+ to run after it failed the last time.
+
+ * "git diff --color-moved-ws" updates.
+
+ * Custom userformat "log --format" learned %S atom that stands for
+ the tip the traversal reached the commit from, i.e. --source.
+
+ * "git instaweb" learned to drive http.server that comes with
+ "batteries included" Python installation (both Python2 & 3).
+
+ * A new encoding UTF-16LE-BOM has been invented to force encoding to
+ UTF-16 with BOM in little endian byte order, which cannot be directly
+ generated by using iconv.
+
+ * A new date format "--date=human" that morphs its output depending
+ on how far the time is from the current time has been introduced.
+ "--date=auto:human" can be used to use this new format (or any
+ existing format) when the output is going to the pager or to the
+ terminal, and otherwise the default format.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Code clean-up with optimization for the codepath that checks
+ (non-)existence of loose objects.
+
+ * More codepaths have become aware of working with in-core repository
+ instances other than the default "the_repository".
+
+ * The "strncat()" function is now among the banned functions.
+
+ * Portability updates for the HPE NonStop platform.
+
+ * Earlier we added "-Wformat-security" to developer builds, assuming
+ that "-Wall" (which includes "-Wformat" which in turn is required
+ to use "-Wformat-security") is always in effect. This is not true
+ when config.mak.autogen is in use, unfortunately. This has been
+ fixed by unconditionally adding "-Wall" to developer builds.
+
+ * The loose object cache used to optimize existence look-up has been
+ updated.
+
+ * Flaky tests can now be repeatedly run under load with the
+ "--stress" option.
+
+ * Documentation/Makefile is getting prepared for manpage
+ localization.
+
+ * "git fetch-pack" now can talk the version 2 protocol.
+
+ * sha-256 hash has been added and plumbed through the code to allow
+ building Git with the "NewHash".
+
+ * Debugging help for http transport.
+
+ * "git fetch --deepen=<more>" has been corrected to work over v2
+ protocol.
+
+ * The code to walk tree objects has been taught that we may be
+ working with object names that are not computed with SHA-1.
+
+ * The in-core repository instances are passed through more codepaths.
+
+ * Update the protocol message specification to allow only the limited
+ use of scaled quantities. This is to ensure potential compatibility
+ issues will not get out of hand.
+
+ * Micro-optimize the code that prepares commit objects to be walked
+ by "git rev-list" when the commit-graph is available.
+
+ * "git fetch" and "git upload-pack" learned to send all exchanges over
+ the sideband channel while talking the v2 protocol.
+
+ * The codepath to write out commit-graph has been optimized by
+ following the usual pattern of visiting objects in in-pack order.
+
+ * The codepath to show progress meter while writing out commit-graph
+ file has been improved.
+
+ * Cocci rules have been updated to encourage use of strbuf_addbuf().
+
+ * "git rebase --merge" has been reimplemented by reusing the internal
+ machinery used for "git rebase -i".
+
+ * More code in "git bisect" has been rewritten in C.
+
+ * Instead of going through "git-rebase--am" scriptlet to use the "am"
+ backend, the built-in version of "git rebase" learned to drive the
+ "am" backend directly.
+
+ * The assumption to work on the single "in-core index" instance has
+ been reduced from the library-ish part of the codebase.
+
+ * The test lint learned to catch non-portable "sed" options.
+
+ * "git pack-objects" learned another algorithm to compute the set of
+ objects to send, that trades the resulting packfile off to save
+ traversal cost to favor small pushes.
+
+ * The travis CI scripts have been corrected to build Git with the
+ compiler(s) of our choice.
+
+ * "git submodule update" learned to abort early when core.worktree
+ for the submodule is not set correctly to prevent spreading damage.
+
+ * Test suite has been adjusted to run on Azure Pipeline.
+
+ * Running "Documentation/doc-diff x" from anywhere other than the
+ top-level of the working tree did not show the usage string
+ correctly, which has been fixed.
+
+ * Use of the sparse tool got easier to customize from the command
+ line to help developers.
+
+ * A new target "coverage-prove" to run the coverage test under
+ "prove" has been added.
+
+ * A flakey "p4" test has been removed.
+
+ * The code and tests assume that the system supplied iconv() would
+ always use BOM in its output when asked to encode to UTF-16 (or
+ UTF-32), but apparently some implementations output big-endian
+ without BOM. A compile-time knob has been added to help such
+ systems (e.g. NonStop) to add BOM to the output to increase
+ portability.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.20
+-----------------
+
+ * Updates for corner cases in merge-recursive.
+ (merge cc4cb0902c en/merge-path-collision later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout frotz" (without any double-dash) avoids ambiguity by
+ making sure 'frotz' cannot be interpreted as a revision and as a
+ path at the same time. This safety has been updated to check also
+ a unique remote-tracking branch 'frotz' in a remote, when dwimming
+ to create a local branch 'frotz' out of a remote-tracking branch
+ 'frotz' from a remote.
+ (merge be4908f103 nd/checkout-dwim-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Refspecs configured with "git -c var=val clone" did not propagate
+ to the resulting repository, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 7eae4a3ac4 sg/clone-initial-fetch-configuration later to maint).
+
+ * A properly configured username/email is required under
+ user.useConfigOnly in order to create commits; now "git stash"
+ (even though it creates commit objects to represent stash entries)
+ command is exempt from the requirement.
+ (merge 3bc2111fc2 sd/stash-wo-user-name later to maint).
+
+ * The http-backend CGI process did not correctly clean up the child
+ processes it spawns to run upload-pack etc. when it dies itself,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge 02818a98d7 mk/http-backend-kill-children-before-exit later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-list --exclude-promisor-objects" had to take an object
+ that does not exist locally (and is lazily available) from the
+ command line without barfing, but the code dereferenced NULL.
+ (merge 4cf67869b2 md/list-lazy-objects-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The traversal over tree objects has learned to honor
+ ":(attr:label)" pathspec match, which has been implemented only for
+ enumerating paths on the filesystem.
+ (merge 5a0b97b34c nd/attr-pathspec-in-tree-walk later to maint).
+
+ * BSD port updates.
+ (merge 4e3ecbd439 cb/openbsd-allows-reading-directory later to maint).
+ (merge b6bdc2a0f5 cb/t5004-empty-tar-archive-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 82cbc8cde2 cb/test-lint-cp-a later to maint).
+
+ * Lines that begin with a certain keyword that come over the wire, as
+ well as lines that consist only of one of these keywords, ought to
+ be painted in color for easier eyeballing, but the latter was
+ broken ever since the feature was introduced in 2.19, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 1f67290450 hn/highlight-sideband-keywords later to maint).
+
+ * "git log -G<regex>" looked for a hunk in the "git log -p" patch
+ output that contained a string that matches the given pattern.
+ Optimize this code to ignore binary files, which by default will
+ not show any hunk that would match any pattern (unless textconv or
+ the --text option is in effect, that is).
+ (merge e0e7cb8080 tb/log-G-binary later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule update" ought to use a single job unless asked, but
+ by mistake used multiple jobs, which has been fixed.
+ (merge e3a9d1aca9 sb/submodule-fetchjobs-default-to-one later to maint).
+
+ * "git stripspace" should be usable outside a git repository, but
+ under the "-s" or "-c" mode, it didn't.
+ (merge 957da75802 jn/stripspace-wo-repository later to maint).
+
+ * Some of the documentation pages formatted incorrectly with
+ Asciidoctor, which have been fixed.
+ (merge b62eb1d2f4 ma/asciidoctor later to maint).
+
+ * The core.worktree setting in a submodule repository should not be
+ pointing at a directory when the submodule loses its working tree
+ (e.g. getting deinit'ed), but the code did not properly maintain
+ this invariant.
+
+ * With zsh, "git cmd path<TAB>" was completed to "git cmd path name"
+ when the completed path has a special character like SP in it,
+ without any attempt to keep "path name" a single filename. This
+ has been fixed to complete it to "git cmd path\ name" just like
+ Bash completion does.
+
+ * The test suite tried to see if it is run under bash, but the check
+ itself failed under some other implementations of shell (notably
+ under NetBSD). This has been corrected.
+ (merge 54ea72f09c sg/test-bash-version-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git gc" and "git repack" did not close the open packfiles that
+ they found unneeded before removing them, which didn't work on a
+ platform incapable of removing an open file. This has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 5bdece0d70 js/gc-repack-close-before-remove later to maint).
+
+ * The code to drive GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF command relied on the string
+ returned from getenv() to be non-volatile, which is not true, that
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 6776a84dae kg/external-diff-save-env later to maint).
+
+ * There were many places the code relied on the string returned from
+ getenv() to be non-volatile, which is not true, that have been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 0da0e9268b jk/save-getenv-result later to maint).
+
+ * The v2 upload-pack protocol implementation failed to honor
+ hidden-ref configuration, which has been corrected.
+ (merge e20b4192a3 jk/proto-v2-hidden-refs-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --recurse-submodules" may not fetch the necessary commit
+ that is bound to the superproject, which is getting corrected.
+ (merge be76c21282 sb/submodule-recursive-fetch-gets-the-tip later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" internally runs "checkout" to switch between branches,
+ and the command used to call the post-checkout hook, but the
+ reimplementation stopped doing so, which is getting fixed.
+
+ * "git add -e" got confused when the change it wants to let the user
+ edit is smaller than the previous change that was left over in a
+ temporary file.
+ (merge fa6f225e01 js/add-e-clear-patch-before-stating later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" failed to update a shelved change when there were moved
+ files, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 7a10946ab9 ld/git-p4-shelve-update-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The codepath to read from the commit-graph file attempted to read
+ past the end of it when the file's table-of-contents was corrupt.
+
+ * The compat/obstack code had casts that -Wcast-function-type
+ compilation option found questionable.
+ (merge 764473d257 sg/obstack-cast-function-type-fix later to maint).
+
+ * An obvious typo in an assertion error message has been fixed.
+ (merge 3c27e2e059 cc/test-ref-store-typofix later to maint).
+
+ * In Git for Windows, "git clone \\server\share\path" etc. that uses
+ UNC paths from command line had bad interaction with its shell
+ emulation.
+
+ * "git add --ignore-errors" did not work as advertised and instead
+ worked as an unintended synonym for "git add --renormalize", which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge e2c2a37545 jk/add-ignore-errors-bit-assignment-fix later to maint).
+
+ * On a case-insensitive filesystem, we failed to compare the part of
+ the path that is above the worktree directory in an absolute
+ pathname, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Asking "git check-attr" about a macro (e.g. "binary") on a specific
+ path did not work correctly, even though "git check-attr -a" listed
+ such a macro correctly. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 7b95849be4 jk/attr-macro-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-objects" incorrectly used uninitialized mutex, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge edb673cf10 ph/pack-objects-mutex-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout -b <new> [HEAD]" to create a new branch from the
+ current commit and check it out ought to be a no-op in the index
+ and the working tree in normal cases, but there are corner cases
+ that do require updates to the index and the working tree. Running
+ it immediately after "git clone --no-checkout" is one of these
+ cases that an earlier optimization kicked in incorrectly, which has
+ been fixed.
+ (merge 8424bfd45b bp/checkout-new-branch-optim later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --color-moved --cc --stat -p" did not work well due to
+ funny interaction between a bug in color-moved and the rest, which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge dac03b5518 jk/diff-cc-stat-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * When GIT_SEQUENCE_EDITOR is set, the command was incorrectly
+ started when modes of "git rebase" that implicitly uses the
+ machinery for the interactive rebase are run, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 891d4a0313 pw/no-editor-in-rebase-i-implicit later to maint).
+
+ * The commit-graph facility did not work when in-core objects that
+ are promoted from unknown type to commit (e.g. a commit that is
+ accessed via a tag that refers to it) were involved, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 4468d4435c sg/object-as-type-commit-graph-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" output cleanup.
+ (merge dc40b24df4 nd/fetch-compact-update later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch" reported a dangling symbolic link by
+ mistake, when it wanted to report that a given name is ambiguous.
+
+ * Documentation around core.crlf has been updated.
+ (merge c9446f0504 jk/autocrlf-overrides-eol-doc later to maint).
+
+ * The documentation of "git commit-tree" said that the command
+ understands "--gpg-sign" in addition to "-S", but the command line
+ parser did not know about the longhand, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase -x $cmd" did not reject multi-line command, even though
+ the command is incapable of handling such a command. It now is
+ rejected upfront.
+ (merge c762aada1a pw/rebase-x-sanity-check later to maint).
+
+ * Output from "git help" was not correctly aligned, which has been
+ fixed.
+ (merge 6195a76da4 nd/help-align-command-desc later to maint).
+
+ * The "git submodule summary" subcommand showed shortened commit
+ object names by mechanically truncating them at 7-hexdigit, which
+ has been improved to let "rev-parse --short" scale the length of
+ the abbreviation with the size of the repository.
+ (merge 0586a438f6 sh/submodule-summary-abbrev-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The way the OSX build jobs updates its build environment used the
+ "--quiet" option to "brew update" command, but it wasn't all that
+ quiet to be useful. The use of the option has been replaced with
+ an explicit redirection to the /dev/null (which incidentally would
+ have worked around a breakage by recent updates to homebrew, which
+ has fixed itself already).
+ (merge a1ccaedd62 sg/travis-osx-brew-breakage-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * "git --work-tree=$there --git-dir=$here describe --dirty" did not
+ work correctly as it did not pay attention to the location of the
+ worktree specified by the user by mistake, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge c801170b0c ss/describe-dirty-in-the-right-directory later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" over protocol v2 that needs to make a second connection
+ to backfill tags did not clear a variable that holds shallow
+ repository information correctly, leading to an access of freed
+ piece of memory.
+
+ * Some errors from the other side coming over smart HTTP transport
+ were not noticed, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge 89ba9a79ae hb/t0061-dot-in-path-fix later to maint).
+ (merge d173e799ea sb/diff-color-moved-config-option-fixup later to maint).
+ (merge a8f5a59067 en/directory-renames-nothanks-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge ec36c42a63 nd/indentation-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f116ee21cd do/gitweb-strict-export-conf-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 112ea42663 fd/gitweb-snapshot-conf-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 1cadad6f65 tb/use-common-win32-pathfuncs-on-cygwin later to maint).
+ (merge 57e9dcaa65 km/rebase-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge b8b4cb27e6 ds/gc-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 3b3357626e nd/style-opening-brace later to maint).
+ (merge b4583d5595 es/doc-worktree-guessremote-config later to maint).
+ (merge cce99cd8c6 ds/commit-graph-assert-missing-parents later to maint).
+ (merge 0650614982 cy/completion-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 6881925ef5 rs/sha1-file-close-mapped-file-on-error later to maint).
+ (merge bd8d6f0def en/show-ref-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 1747125e2c cc/partial-clone-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge e01378753d cc/fetch-error-message-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 54e8c11215 jk/remote-insteadof-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge d609615f48 js/test-git-installed later to maint).
+ (merge ba170517be ja/doc-style-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 86fb1c4e77 km/init-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 5cfd4a9d10 nd/commit-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 9fce19a431 ab/diff-tree-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 2e285e7803 tz/gpg-test-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5427de960b kl/pretty-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 3815f64b0d js/mingw-host-cpu later to maint).
+ (merge 5fe81438b5 rj/sequencer-sign-off-header-static later to maint).
+ (merge 18a4f6be6b nd/fileno-may-be-macro later to maint).
+ (merge 99e9ab54ab kd/t0028-octal-del-is-377-not-777 later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b759415
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.21.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+Git v2.21.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3 and in v2.20.2, addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and CVE-2019-19604;
+see the release notes for those versions for details.
+
+Additionally, this version also includes a couple of fixes for the
+Windows-specific quoting of command-line arguments when Git executes
+a Unix shell on Windows.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..91e6ae9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,597 @@
+Git 2.22 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.21
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility note
+
+ * The filter specification "--filter=sparse:path=<path>" used to
+ create a lazy/partial clone has been removed. Using a blob that is
+ part of the project as sparse specification is still supported with
+ the "--filter=sparse:oid=<blob>" option.
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git checkout --no-overlay" can be used to trigger a new mode of
+ checking out paths out of the tree-ish, that allows paths that
+ match the pathspec that are in the current index and working tree
+ and are not in the tree-ish.
+
+ * The %(trailers) formatter in "git log --format=..." now allows to
+ optionally pick trailers selectively by keyword, show only values,
+ etc.
+
+ * Four new configuration variables {author,committer}.{name,email}
+ have been introduced to override user.{name,email} in more specific
+ cases.
+
+ * Command-line completion (in contrib/) learned to tab-complete the
+ "git submodule absorbgitdirs" subcommand.
+
+ * "git branch" learned a new subcommand "--show-current".
+
+ * Output from "diff --cc" did not show the original paths when the
+ merge involved renames. A new option adds the paths in the
+ original trees to the output.
+
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) has been taught to
+ complete more subcommand parameters.
+
+ * The final report from "git bisect" used to show the suspected
+ culprit using a raw "diff-tree", with which there is no output for
+ a merge commit. This has been updated to use a more modern and
+ human readable output that still is concise enough.
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" replaces its old "--preserve-merges"
+ option; the latter is now marked as deprecated.
+
+ * Error message given while cloning with --recurse-submodules has
+ been updated.
+
+ * The completion helper code now pays attention to repository-local
+ configuration (when available), which allows --list-cmds to honour
+ a repository specific setting of completion.commands, for example.
+
+ * "git mergetool" learned to offer Sublime Merge (smerge) as one of
+ its backends.
+
+ * A new hook "post-index-change" is called when the on-disk index
+ file changes, which can help e.g. a virtualized working tree
+ implementation.
+
+ * "git difftool" can now run outside a repository.
+
+ * "git checkout -m <other>" was about carrying the differences
+ between HEAD and the working-tree files forward while checking out
+ another branch, and ignored the differences between HEAD and the
+ index. The command has been taught to abort when the index and the
+ HEAD are different.
+
+ * A progress indicator has been added to the "index-pack" step, which
+ often makes users wait for completion during "git clone".
+
+ * "git submodule" learns "set-branch" subcommand that allows the
+ submodule.*.branch settings to be modified.
+
+ * "git merge-recursive" backend recently learned a new heuristics to
+ infer file movement based on how other files in the same directory
+ moved. As this is inherently less robust heuristics than the one
+ based on the content similarity of the file itself (rather than
+ based on what its neighbours are doing), it sometimes gives an
+ outcome unexpected by the end users. This has been toned down to
+ leave the renamed paths in higher/conflicted stages in the index so
+ that the user can examine and confirm the result.
+
+ * "git tag" learned to give an advice suggesting it might be a
+ mistake when creating an annotated or signed tag that points at
+ another tag.
+
+ * The "git pack-objects" command learned to report the number of
+ objects it packed via the trace2 mechanism.
+
+ * The list of conflicted paths shown in the editor while concluding a
+ conflicted merge was shown above the scissors line when the
+ clean-up mode is set to "scissors", even though it was commented
+ out just like the list of updated paths and other information to
+ help the user explain the merge better.
+
+ * The trace2 tracing facility learned to auto-generate a filename
+ when told to log to a directory.
+
+ * "git clone" learned a new --server-option option when talking over
+ the protocol version 2.
+
+ * The connectivity bitmaps are created by default in bare
+ repositories now; also the pathname hash-cache is created by
+ default to avoid making crappy deltas when repacking.
+
+ * "git branch new A...B" and "git checkout -b new A...B" have been
+ taught that in their contexts, the notation A...B means "the merge
+ base between these two commits", just like "git checkout A...B"
+ detaches HEAD at that commit.
+
+ * Update "git difftool" and "git mergetool" so that the combinations
+ of {diff,merge}.{tool,guitool} configuration variables serve as
+ fallback settings of each other in a sensible order.
+
+ * The "--dir-diff" mode of "git difftool" is not useful in "--no-index"
+ mode; they are now explicitly marked as mutually incompatible.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The diff machinery, one of the oldest parts of the system, which
+ long predates the parse-options API, uses fairly long and complex
+ handcrafted option parser. This is being rewritten to use the
+ parse-options API.
+
+ * The implementation of pack-redundant has been updated for
+ performance in a repository with many packfiles.
+
+ * A more structured way to obtain execution trace has been added.
+
+ * "git prune" has been taught to take advantage of reachability
+ bitmap when able.
+
+ * The command line parser of "git commit-tree" has been rewritten to
+ use the parse-options API.
+
+ * Suggest GitGitGadget instead of submitGit as a way to submit
+ patches based on GitHub PR to us.
+
+ * The test framework has been updated to help developers by making it
+ easier to run most of the tests under different versions of
+ over-the-wire protocols.
+
+ * Dev support update to make it easier to compare two formatted
+ results from our documentation.
+
+ * The scripted "git rebase" implementation has been retired.
+
+ * "git multi-pack-index verify" did not scale well with the number of
+ packfiles, which is being improved.
+
+ * "git stash" has been rewritten in C.
+
+ * The "check-docs" Makefile target to support developers has been
+ updated.
+
+ * The tests have been updated not to rely on the abbreviated option
+ names the parse-options API offers, to protect us from an
+ abbreviated form of an option that used to be unique within the
+ command getting non-unique when a new option that share the same
+ prefix is added.
+
+ * The scripted version of "git rebase -i" wrote and rewrote the todo
+ list many times during a single step of its operation, and the
+ recent C-rewrite made a faithful conversion of the logic to C. The
+ implementation has been updated to carry necessary information
+ around in-core to avoid rewriting the same file over and over
+ unnecessarily.
+
+ * Test framework update to more robustly clean up leftover files and
+ processes after tests are done.
+
+ * Conversion from unsigned char[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * While running "git diff" in a lazy clone, we can upfront know which
+ missing blobs we will need, instead of waiting for the on-demand
+ machinery to discover them one by one. The code learned to aim to
+ achieve better performance by batching the request for these
+ promised blobs.
+
+ * During an initial "git clone --depth=..." partial clone, it is
+ pointless to spend cycles for a large portion of the connectivity
+ check that enumerates and skips promisor objects (which by
+ definition is all objects fetched from the other side). This has
+ been optimized out.
+
+ * Mechanically and systematically drop "extern" from function
+ declaration.
+
+ * The script to aggregate perf result unconditionally depended on
+ libjson-perl even though it did not have to, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The internal implementation of "git rebase -i" has been updated to
+ avoid forking a separate "rebase--interactive" process.
+
+ * Allow DEP and ASLR for Windows build to for security hardening.
+
+ * Performance test framework has been broken and measured the version
+ of Git that happens to be on $PATH, not the specified one to
+ measure, for a while, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Optionally "make coccicheck" can feed multiple source files to
+ spatch, gaining performance while spending more memory.
+
+ * Attempt to use an abbreviated option in "git clone --recurs" is
+ responded by a request to disambiguate between --recursive and
+ --recurse-submodules, which is bad because these two are synonyms.
+ The parse-options API has been extended to define such synonyms
+ more easily and not produce an unnecessary failure.
+
+ * A pair of private functions in http.c that had names similar to
+ fread/fwrite did not return the number of elements, which was found
+ to be confusing.
+
+ * Update collision-detecting SHA-1 code to build properly on HP-UX.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.21
+-----------------
+
+ * "git prune-packed" did not notice and complain against excess
+ arguments given from the command line, which now it does.
+ (merge 9b0bd87ed2 rj/prune-packed-excess-args later to maint).
+
+ * Split-index fix.
+ (merge 6e37c8ed3c nd/split-index-null-base-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --no-index" may still want to access Git goodies like
+ --ext-diff and --textconv, but so far these have been ignored,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge 287ab28bfa jk/diff-no-index-initialize later to maint).
+
+ * Unify RPC code for smart http in protocol v0/v1 and v2, which fixes
+ a bug in the latter (lack of authentication retry) and generally
+ improves the code base.
+ (merge a97d00799a jt/http-auth-proto-v2-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The include file compat/bswap.h has been updated so that it is safe
+ to (accidentally) include it more than once.
+ (merge 33aa579a55 jk/guard-bswap-header later to maint).
+
+ * The set of header files used by "make hdr-check" unconditionally
+ included sha256/gcrypt.h, even when it is not used, causing the
+ make target to fail. We now skip it when GCRYPT_SHA256 is not in
+ use.
+ (merge f23aa18e7f rj/hdr-check-gcrypt-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The Makefile uses 'find' utility to enumerate all the *.h header
+ files, which is expensive on platforms with slow filesystems; it
+ now optionally uses "ls-files" if working within a repository,
+ which is a trick similar to how all sources are enumerated to run
+ ETAGS on.
+ (merge 92b88eba9f js/find-lib-h-with-ls-files-when-possible later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" that was reimplemented in C did not set ORIG_HEAD
+ correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge cbd29ead92 js/rebase-orig-head-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Dev support.
+ (merge f545737144 js/stress-test-ui-tweak later to maint).
+
+ * CFLAGS now can be tweaked when invoking Make while using
+ DEVELOPER=YesPlease; this did not work well before.
+ (merge 6d5d4b4e93 ab/makefile-help-devs-more later to maint).
+
+ * "git fsck --connectivity-only" omits computation necessary to sift
+ the objects that are not reachable from any of the refs into
+ unreachable and dangling. This is now enabled when dangling
+ objects are requested (which is done by default, but can be
+ overridden with the "--no-dangling" option).
+ (merge 8d8c2a5aef jk/fsck-doc later to maint).
+
+ * On platforms where "git fetch" is killed with SIGPIPE (e.g. OSX),
+ the upload-pack that runs on the other end that hangs up after
+ detecting an error could cause "git fetch" to die with a signal,
+ which led to a flaky test. "git fetch" now ignores SIGPIPE during
+ the network portion of its operation (this is not a problem as we
+ check the return status from our write(2)s).
+ (merge 143588949c jk/no-sigpipe-during-network-transport later to maint).
+
+ * A recent update broke "is this object available to us?" check for
+ well-known objects like an empty tree (which should yield "yes",
+ even when there is no on-disk object for an empty tree), which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge f06ab027ef jk/virtual-objects-do-exist later to maint).
+
+ * The setup code has been cleaned up to avoid leaks around the
+ repository_format structure.
+ (merge e8805af1c3 ma/clear-repository-format later to maint).
+
+ * "git config --type=color ..." is meant to replace "git config --get-color"
+ but there is a slight difference that wasn't documented, which is
+ now fixed.
+ (merge cd8e7593b9 jk/config-type-color-ends-with-lf later to maint).
+
+ * When the "clean" filter can reduce the size of a huge file in the
+ working tree down to a small "token" (a la Git LFS), there is no
+ point in allocating a huge scratch area upfront, but the buffer is
+ sized based on the original file size. The convert mechanism now
+ allocates very minimum and reallocates as it receives the output
+ from the clean filter process.
+ (merge 02156ab031 jh/resize-convert-scratch-buffer later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" uses the refs/rewritten/ hierarchy to store its
+ intermediate states, which inherently makes the hierarchy per
+ worktree, but it didn't quite work well.
+ (merge b9317d55a3 nd/rewritten-ref-is-per-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git log -L<from>,<to>:<path>" with "-s" did not suppress the patch
+ output as it should. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 05314efaea jk/line-log-with-patch later to maint).
+
+ * "git worktree add" used to do a "find an available name with stat
+ and then mkdir", which is race-prone. This has been fixed by using
+ mkdir and reacting to EEXIST in a loop.
+ (merge 7af01f2367 ms/worktree-add-atomic-mkdir later to maint).
+
+ * Build update for SHA-1 with collision detection.
+ (merge 07a20f569b jk/sha1dc later to maint).
+
+ * Build procedure has been fixed around use of asciidoctor instead of
+ asciidoc.
+ (merge 185f9a0ea0 ma/asciidoctor-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * remote-http transport did not anonymize URLs reported in its error
+ messages at places.
+ (merge c1284b21f2 js/anonymize-remote-curl-diag later to maint).
+
+ * Error messages given from the http transport have been updated so
+ that they can be localized.
+ (merge ed8b4132c8 js/remote-curl-i18n later to maint).
+
+ * "git init" forgot to read platform-specific repository
+ configuration, which made Windows port to ignore settings of
+ core.hidedotfiles, for example.
+
+ * A corner-case object name ambiguity while the sequencer machinery
+ is working (e.g. "rebase -i -x") has been fixed.
+
+ * "git format-patch" did not diagnose an error while opening the
+ output file for the cover-letter, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 2fe95f494c jc/format-patch-error-check later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout -f <branch>" while the index has an unmerged path
+ incorrectly left some paths in an unmerged state, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * A corner case bug in the refs API has been corrected.
+ (merge d3322eb28b jk/refs-double-abort later to maint).
+
+ * Unicode update.
+ (merge 584b62c37b bb/unicode-12 later to maint).
+
+ * dumb-http walker has been updated to share more error recovery
+ strategy with the normal codepath.
+
+ * A buglet in configuration parser has been fixed.
+ (merge 19e7fdaa58 nd/include-if-wildmatch later to maint).
+
+ * The documentation for "git read-tree --reset -u" has been updated.
+ (merge b5a0bd694c nd/read-tree-reset-doc later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up around a much-less-important-than-it-used-to-be
+ update_server_info() function.
+ (merge b3223761c8 jk/server-info-rabbit-hole later to maint).
+
+ * The message given when "git commit -a <paths>" errors out has been
+ updated.
+ (merge 5a1dbd48bc nd/commit-a-with-paths-msg-update later to maint).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick --options A..B", after giving control back to the
+ user to ask help resolving a conflicted step, did not honor the
+ options it originally received, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Various glitches in "git gc" around reflog handling have been fixed.
+
+ * The code to read from commit-graph file has been cleanup with more
+ careful error checking before using data read from it.
+
+ * Performance fix around "git fetch" that grabs many refs.
+ (merge b764300912 jt/fetch-pack-wanted-refs-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Protocol v2 support in "git fetch-pack" of shallow clones has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Performance fix around "git blame", especially in a linear history
+ (which is the norm we should optimize for).
+ (merge f892014943 dk/blame-keep-origin-blob later to maint).
+
+ * Performance fix for "rev-list --parents -- pathspec".
+ (merge 8320b1dbe7 jk/revision-rewritten-parents-in-prio-queue later to maint).
+
+ * Updating the display with progress message has been cleaned up to
+ deal better with overlong messages.
+ (merge 545dc345eb sg/overlong-progress-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git blame -- path" in a non-bare repository starts blaming from
+ the working tree, and the same command in a bare repository errors
+ out because there is no working tree by definition. The command
+ has been taught to instead start blaming from the commit at HEAD,
+ which is more useful.
+ (merge a544fb08f8 sg/blame-in-bare-start-at-head later to maint).
+
+ * An underallocation in the code to read the untracked cache
+ extension has been corrected.
+ (merge 3a7b45a623 js/untracked-cache-allocfix later to maint).
+
+ * The code is updated to check the result of memory allocation before
+ it is used in more places, by using xmalloc and/or xcalloc calls.
+ (merge 999b951b28 jk/xmalloc later to maint).
+
+ * The GETTEXT_POISON test option has been quite broken ever since it
+ was made runtime-tunable, which has been fixed.
+ (merge f88b9cb603 jc/gettext-test-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Test fix on APFS that is incapable of store paths in Latin-1.
+ (merge 3889149619 js/iso8895-test-on-apfs later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule foreach <command> --quiet" did not pass the option
+ down correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a282f5a906 nd/submodule-foreach-quiet later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-email" has been taught to use quoted-printable when the
+ payload contains carriage-return. The use of the mechanism is in
+ line with the design originally added the codepath that chooses QP
+ when the payload has overly long lines.
+ (merge 74d76a1701 bc/send-email-qp-cr later to maint).
+
+ * The recently added feature to add addresses that are on
+ anything-by: trailers in 'git send-email' was found to be way too
+ eager and considered nonsense strings as if they can be legitimate
+ beginning of *-by: trailer. This has been tightened.
+
+ * Builds with gettext broke on recent macOS w/ Homebrew, which
+ seems to have stopped including from /usr/local/include; this
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 92a1377a2a js/macos-gettext-build later to maint).
+
+ * Running "git add" on a repository created inside the current
+ repository is an explicit indication that the user wants to add it
+ as a submodule, but when the HEAD of the inner repository is on an
+ unborn branch, it cannot be added as a submodule. Worse, the files
+ in its working tree can be added as if they are a part of the outer
+ repository, which is not what the user wants. These problems are
+ being addressed.
+ (merge f937bc2f86 km/empty-repo-is-still-a-repo later to maint).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" run with the "-x" or the "--signoff" option used
+ to (and more importantly, ought to) clean up the commit log message
+ with the --cleanup=space option by default, but this has been
+ broken since late 2017. This has been fixed.
+
+ * When given a tag that points at a commit-ish, "git replace --graft"
+ failed to peel the tag before writing a replace ref, which did not
+ make sense because the old graft mechanism the feature wants to
+ mimic only allowed to replace one commit object with another.
+ This has been fixed.
+ (merge ee521ec4cb cc/replace-graft-peel-tags later to maint).
+
+ * Code tightening against a "wrong" object appearing where an object
+ of a different type is expected, instead of blindly assuming that
+ the connection between objects are correctly made.
+ (merge 97dd512af7 tb/unexpected later to maint).
+
+ * An earlier update for MinGW and Cygwin accidentally broke MSVC build,
+ which has been fixed.
+ (merge 22c3634c0f ss/msvc-path-utils-fix later to maint).
+
+ * %(push:track) token used in the --format option to "git
+ for-each-ref" and friends was not showing the right branch, which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge c646d0934e dr/ref-filter-push-track-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "make check-docs", "git help -a", etc. did not account for cases
+ where a particular build may deliberately omit some subcommands,
+ which has been corrected.
+
+ * The logic to tell if a Git repository has a working tree protects
+ "git branch -D" from removing the branch that is currently checked
+ out by mistake. The implementation of this logic was broken for
+ repositories with unusual name, which unfortunately is the norm for
+ submodules these days. This has been fixed.
+ (merge f3534c98e4 jt/submodule-repo-is-with-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * AIX shared the same build issues with other BSDs around fileno(fp),
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge ee662bf5c6 cc/aix-has-fileno-as-a-macro later to maint).
+
+ * The autoconf generated configure script failed to use the right
+ gettext() implementations from -libintl by ignoring useless stub
+ implementations shipped in some C library, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge b71e56a683 vk/autoconf-gettext later to maint).
+
+ * Fix index-pack perf test so that the repeated invocations always
+ run in an empty repository, which emulates the initial clone
+ situation better.
+ (merge 775c71e16d jk/p5302-avoid-collision-check-cost later to maint).
+
+ * A "ls-files" that emulates "find" to enumerate files in the working
+ tree resulted in duplicated Makefile rules that caused the build to
+ issue an unnecessary warning during a trial build after merge
+ conflicts are resolved in working tree *.h files but before the
+ resolved results are added to the index. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick" (and "revert" that shares the same runtime engine)
+ that deals with multiple commits got confused when the final step
+ gets stopped with a conflict and the user concluded the sequence
+ with "git commit". Attempt to fix it by cleaning up the state
+ files used by these commands in such a situation.
+ (merge 4a72486de9 pw/clean-sequencer-state-upon-final-commit later to maint).
+
+ * On a filesystem like HFS+, the names of the refs stored as filesystem
+ entities may become different from what the end-user expects, just
+ like files in the working tree get "renamed". Work around the
+ mismatch by paying attention to the core.precomposeUnicode
+ configuration.
+ (merge 8e712ef6fc en/unicode-in-refnames later to maint).
+
+ * The code to generate the multi-pack idx file was not prepared to
+ see too many packfiles and ran out of open file descriptor, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * To run tests for Git SVN, our scripts for CI used to install the
+ git-svn package (in the hope that it would bring in the right
+ dependencies). This has been updated to install the more direct
+ dependency, namely, libsvn-perl.
+ (merge db864306cf sg/ci-libsvn-perl later to maint).
+
+ * "git cvsexportcommit" running on msys did not expect cvsnt showed
+ "cvs status" output with CRLF line endings.
+
+ * The fsmonitor interface got out of sync after the in-core index
+ file gets discarded, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 398a3b0899 js/fsmonitor-refresh-after-discarding-index later to maint).
+
+ * "git status" did not know that the "label" instruction in the
+ todo-list "rebase -i -r" uses should not be shown as a hex object
+ name.
+
+ * A prerequisite check in the test suite to see if a working jgit is
+ available was made more robust.
+ (merge abd0f28983 tz/test-lib-check-working-jgit later to maint).
+
+ * The codepath to parse :<path> that obtains the object name for an
+ indexed object has been made more robust.
+
+ * Code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge 11f470aee7 jc/test-yes-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 90503a240b js/doc-symref-in-proto-v1 later to maint).
+ (merge 5c326d1252 jk/unused-params later to maint).
+ (merge 68cabbfda3 dl/doc-submodule-wo-subcommand later to maint).
+ (merge 9903623761 ab/receive-pack-use-after-free-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 1ede45e44b en/merge-options-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 3e14dd2c8e rd/doc-hook-used-in-sample later to maint).
+ (merge c271dc28fd nd/no-more-check-racy later to maint).
+ (merge e6e15194a8 yb/utf-16le-bom-spellfix later to maint).
+ (merge bb101aaf0c rd/attr.c-comment-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 716a5af812 rd/gc-prune-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 50b206371d js/untravis-windows later to maint).
+ (merge dbf47215e3 js/rebase-recreate-merge later to maint).
+ (merge 56cb2d30f8 dl/reset-doc-no-wrt-abbrev later to maint).
+ (merge 64eca306a2 ja/dir-rename-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge af91b0230c dl/ignore-docs later to maint).
+ (merge 59a06e947b ra/t3600-test-path-funcs later to maint).
+ (merge e041d0781b ar/t4150-remove-cruft later to maint).
+ (merge 8d75a1d183 ma/asciidoctor-fixes-more later to maint).
+ (merge 74cc547b0f mh/pack-protocol-doc-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ed31851fa6 ab/doc-misc-typofixes later to maint).
+ (merge a7256debd4 nd/checkout-m-doc-update later to maint).
+ (merge 3a9e1ad78d jt/t5551-protocol-v2-does-not-have-half-auth later to maint).
+ (merge 0b918b75af sg/t5318-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 68ed71b53c cb/doco-mono later to maint).
+ (merge a34dca2451 nd/interpret-trailers-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge cf7b857a77 en/fast-import-parsing-fix later to maint).
+ (merge fe61ccbc35 po/rerere-doc-fmt later to maint).
+ (merge ffea0248bf po/describe-not-necessarily-7 later to maint).
+ (merge 7cb7283adb tg/ls-files-debug-format-fix later to maint).
+ (merge f64a21bd82 tz/doc-apostrophe-no-longer-needed later to maint).
+ (merge dbe7b41019 js/t3301-unbreak-notes-test later to maint).
+ (merge d8083e4180 km/t3000-retitle later to maint).
+ (merge 9e4cbccbd7 tz/git-svn-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge da9ca955a7 jk/ls-files-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6804ba3a58 cw/diff-highlight later to maint).
+ (merge 1a8787144d nd/submodule-helper-incomplete-line-fix later to maint).
+ (merge d9ef573837 jk/apache-lsan later to maint).
+ (merge c871fbee2b js/t6500-use-windows-pid-on-mingw later to maint).
+ (merge ce4c7bfc90 bl/t4253-exit-code-from-format-patch later to maint).
+ (merge 397a46db78 js/t5580-unc-alternate-test later to maint).
+ (merge d4907720a2 cm/notes-comment-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 9dde06de13 cb/http-push-null-in-message-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 4c785c0edc js/rebase-config-bitfix later to maint).
+ (merge 8e9fe16c87 es/doc-gitsubmodules-markup later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..432762f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,150 @@
+Git 2.22.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.22
+-----------------
+
+ * A relative pathname given to "git init --template=<path> <repo>"
+ ought to be relative to the directory "git init" gets invoked in,
+ but it instead was made relative to the repository, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * "git worktree add" used to fail when another worktree connected to
+ the same repository was corrupt, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The ownership rule for the file descriptor to fast-import remote
+ backend was mixed up, leading to unrelated file descriptor getting
+ closed, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git update-server-info" used to leave stale packfiles in its
+ output, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The server side support for "git fetch" used to show incorrect
+ value for the HEAD symbolic ref when the namespace feature is in
+ use, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git am -i --resolved" segfaulted after trying to see a commit as
+ if it were a tree, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" needs to see if prerequisite objects exist in
+ the receiving repository, but the command did not check if we are
+ in a repository upfront, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git merge --squash" is designed to update the working tree and the
+ index without creating the commit, and this cannot be countermanded
+ by adding the "--commit" option; the command now refuses to work
+ when both options are given.
+
+ * The data collected by fsmonitor was not properly written back to
+ the on-disk index file, breaking t7519 tests occasionally, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * Update to Unicode 12.1 width table.
+
+ * The command line to invoke a "git cat-file" command from inside
+ "git p4" was not properly quoted to protect a caret and running a
+ broken command on Windows, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git request-pull" learned to warn when the ref we ask them to pull
+ from in the local repository and in the published repository are
+ different.
+
+ * When creating a partial clone, the object filtering criteria is
+ recorded for the origin of the clone, but this incorrectly used a
+ hardcoded name "origin" to name that remote; it has been corrected
+ to honor the "--origin <name>" option.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a lazy clone forgot to fetch base objects that are
+ necessary to complete delta in a thin packfile, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The filter_data used in the list-objects-filter (which manages a
+ lazily sparse clone repository) did not use the dynamic array API
+ correctly---'nr' is supposed to point at one past the last element
+ of the array in use. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The description about slashes in gitignore patterns (used to
+ indicate things like "anchored to this level only" and "only
+ matches directories") has been revamped.
+
+ * The URL decoding code has been updated to avoid going past the end
+ of the string while parsing %-<hex>-<hex> sequence.
+
+ * The list of for-each like macros used by clang-format has been
+ updated.
+
+ * "git push --atomic" that goes over the transport-helper (namely,
+ the smart http transport) failed to prevent refs to be pushed when
+ it can locally tell that one of the ref update will fail without
+ having to consult the other end, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git clean" silently skipped a path when it cannot lstat() it; now
+ it gives a warning.
+
+ * A codepath that reads from GPG for signed object verification read
+ past the end of allocated buffer, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git rm" to resolve a conflicted path leaked an internal message
+ "needs merge" before actually removing the path, which was
+ confusing. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The "git clone" documentation refers to command line options in its
+ description in the short form; they have been replaced with long
+ forms to make them more recognisable.
+
+ * The configuration variable rebase.rescheduleFailedExec should be
+ effective only while running an interactive rebase and should not
+ affect anything when running a non-interactive one, which was not
+ the case. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git submodule foreach" did not protect command line options passed
+ to the command to be run in each submodule correctly, when the
+ "--recursive" option was in use.
+
+ * Use "Erase in Line" CSI sequence that is already used in the editor
+ support to clear cruft in the progress output.
+
+ * The codepath to compute delta islands used to spew progress output
+ without giving the callers any way to squelch it, which has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * The code to parse scaled numbers out of configuration files has
+ been made more robust and also easier to follow.
+
+ * An incorrect list of options was cached after command line
+ completion failed (e.g. trying to complete a command that requires
+ a repository outside one), which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase --abort" used to leave refs/rewritten/ when concluding
+ "git rebase -r", which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git stash show 23" used to work, but no more after getting
+ rewritten in C; this regression has been corrected.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" always treated '#' as the comment
+ character, regardless of core.commentChar setting, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid signed integer overlaps during binary search.
+
+ * "git checkout -p" needs to selectively apply a patch in reverse,
+ which did not work well.
+
+ * The commit-graph file is now part of the "files that the runtime
+ may keep open file descriptors on, all of which would need to be
+ closed when done with the object store", and the file descriptor to
+ an existing commit-graph file now is closed before "gc" finalizes a
+ new instance to replace it.
+
+ * Code restructuring during 2.20 period broke fetching tags via
+ "import" based transports.
+
+ * We have been trying out a few language features outside c89; the
+ coding guidelines document did not talk about them and instead had
+ a blanket ban against them.
+
+ * The internal diff machinery can be made to read out of bounds while
+ looking for --funcion-context line in a corner case, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates, code clean-ups and minor fixups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..940a23f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.22.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.22.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e3c4e78
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,348 @@
+Git 2.23 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.22
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility note
+
+ * The "--base" option of "format-patch" computed the patch-ids for
+ prerequisite patches in an unstable way, which has been updated to
+ compute in a way that is compatible with "git patch-id --stable".
+
+ * The "git log" command by default behaves as if the --mailmap option
+ was given.
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * The "git fast-export/import" pair has been taught to handle commits
+ with log messages in encoding other than UTF-8 better.
+
+ * In recent versions of Git, per-worktree refs are exposed in
+ refs/worktrees/<wtname>/ hierarchy, which means that worktree names
+ must be a valid refname component. The code now sanitizes the names
+ given to worktrees, to make sure these refs are well-formed.
+
+ * "git merge" learned "--quit" option that cleans up the in-progress
+ merge while leaving the working tree and the index still in a mess.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learns a configuration to set the default for
+ its --notes=<ref> option.
+
+ * The code to show args with potential typo that cannot be
+ interpreted as a commit-ish has been improved.
+
+ * "git clone --recurse-submodules" learned to set up the submodules
+ to ignore commit object names recorded in the superproject gitlink
+ and instead use the commits that happen to be at the tip of the
+ remote-tracking branches from the get-go, by passing the new
+ "--remote-submodules" option.
+
+ * The pattern "git diff/grep" use to extract funcname and words
+ boundary for Matlab has been extend to cover Octave, which is more
+ or less equivalent.
+
+ * "git help git" was hard to discover (well, at least for some
+ people).
+
+ * The pattern "git diff/grep" use to extract funcname and words
+ boundary for Rust has been added.
+
+ * "git status" can be told a non-standard default value for the
+ "--[no-]ahead-behind" option with a new configuration variable
+ status.aheadBehind.
+
+ * "git fetch" and "git pull" reports when a fetch results in
+ non-fast-forward updates to let the user notice unusual situation.
+ The commands learned "--no-show-forced-updates" option to disable
+ this safety feature.
+
+ * Two new commands "git switch" and "git restore" are introduced to
+ split "checking out a branch to work on advancing its history" and
+ "checking out paths out of the index and/or a tree-ish to work on
+ advancing the current history" out of the single "git checkout"
+ command.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to always output the detached HEAD as
+ the first item (when the HEAD is detached, of course), regardless
+ of the locale.
+
+ * The conditional inclusion mechanism learned to base the choice on
+ the branch the HEAD currently is on.
+
+ * "git rev-list --objects" learned the "--no-object-names" option to
+ squelch the path to the object that is used as a grouping hint for
+ pack-objects.
+
+ * A new tag.gpgSign configuration variable turns "git tag -a" into
+ "git tag -s".
+
+ * "git multi-pack-index" learned expire and repack subcommands.
+
+ * "git blame" learned to "ignore" commits in the history, whose
+ effects (as well as their presence) get ignored.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick/revert" learned a new "--skip" action.
+
+ * The tips of refs from the alternate object store can be used as
+ starting point for reachability computation now.
+
+ * Extra blank lines in "git status" output have been reduced.
+
+ * The commits in a repository can be described by multiple
+ commit-graph files now, which allows the commit-graph files to be
+ updated incrementally.
+
+ * "git range-diff" output has been tweaked for easier identification
+ of which part of what file the patch shown is about.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Update supporting parts of "git rebase" to remove code that should
+ no longer be used.
+
+ * Developer support to emulate unsatisfied prerequisites in tests to
+ ensure that the remainder of the tests still succeeds when tests
+ with prerequisites are skipped.
+
+ * "git update-server-info" learned not to rewrite the file with the
+ same contents.
+
+ * The way of specifying the path to find dynamic libraries at runtime
+ has been simplified. The old default to pass -R/path/to/dir has been
+ replaced with the new default to pass -Wl,-rpath,/path/to/dir,
+ which is the more recent GCC uses. Those who need to build with an
+ old GCC can still use "CC_LD_DYNPATH=-R"
+
+ * Prepare use of reachability index in topological walker that works
+ on a range (A..B).
+
+ * A new tutorial targeting specifically aspiring git-core
+ developers has been added.
+
+ * Auto-detect how to tell HP-UX aCC where to use dynamically linked
+ libraries from at runtime.
+
+ * "git mergetool" and its tests now spawn fewer subprocesses.
+
+ * Dev support update to help tracing out tests.
+
+ * Support to build with MSVC has been updated.
+
+ * "git fetch" that grabs from a group of remotes learned to run the
+ auto-gc only once at the very end.
+
+ * A handful of Windows build patches have been upstreamed.
+
+ * The code to read state files used by the sequencer machinery for
+ "git status" has been made more robust against a corrupt or stale
+ state files.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" with multiple patterns have been optimized.
+
+ * The tree-walk API learned to pass an in-core repository
+ instance throughout more codepaths.
+
+ * When one step in multi step cherry-pick or revert is reset or
+ committed, the command line prompt script failed to notice the
+ current status, which has been improved.
+
+ * Many GIT_TEST_* environment variables control various aspects of
+ how our tests are run, but a few followed "non-empty is true, empty
+ or unset is false" while others followed the usual "there are a few
+ ways to spell true, like yes, on, etc., and also ways to spell
+ false, like no, off, etc." convention.
+
+ * Adjust the dir-iterator API and apply it to the local clone
+ optimization codepath.
+
+ * We have been trying out a few language features outside c89; the
+ coding guidelines document did not talk about them and instead had
+ a blanket ban against them.
+
+ * A test helper has been introduced to optimize preparation of test
+ repositories with many simple commits, and a handful of test
+ scripts have been updated to use it.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.22
+-----------------
+
+ * A relative pathname given to "git init --template=<path> <repo>"
+ ought to be relative to the directory "git init" gets invoked in,
+ but it instead was made relative to the repository, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * "git worktree add" used to fail when another worktree connected to
+ the same repository was corrupt, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The ownership rule for the file descriptor to fast-import remote
+ backend was mixed up, leading to an unrelated file descriptor getting
+ closed, which has been fixed.
+
+ * A "merge -c" instruction during "git rebase --rebase-merges" should
+ give the user a chance to edit the log message, even when there is
+ otherwise no need to create a new merge and replace the existing
+ one (i.e. fast-forward instead), but did not. Which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Code cleanup and futureproof.
+
+ * More parameter validation.
+
+ * "git update-server-info" used to leave stale packfiles in its
+ output, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The server side support for "git fetch" used to show incorrect
+ value for the HEAD symbolic ref when the namespace feature is in
+ use, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git am -i --resolved" segfaulted after trying to see a commit as
+ if it were a tree, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git bundle verify" needs to see if prerequisite objects exist in
+ the receiving repository, but the command did not check if we are
+ in a repository upfront, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git merge --squash" is designed to update the working tree and the
+ index without creating the commit, and this cannot be countermanded
+ by adding the "--commit" option; the command now refuses to work
+ when both options are given.
+
+ * The data collected by fsmonitor was not properly written back to
+ the on-disk index file, breaking t7519 tests occasionally, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * Update to Unicode 12.1 width table.
+
+ * The command line to invoke a "git cat-file" command from inside
+ "git p4" was not properly quoted to protect a caret and running a
+ broken command on Windows, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git request-pull" learned to warn when the ref we ask them to pull
+ from in the local repository and in the published repository are
+ different.
+
+ * When creating a partial clone, the object filtering criteria is
+ recorded for the origin of the clone, but this incorrectly used a
+ hardcoded name "origin" to name that remote; it has been corrected
+ to honor the "--origin <name>" option.
+
+ * "git fetch" into a lazy clone forgot to fetch base objects that are
+ necessary to complete delta in a thin packfile, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * The filter_data used in the list-objects-filter (which manages a
+ lazily sparse clone repository) did not use the dynamic array API
+ correctly---'nr' is supposed to point at one past the last element
+ of the array in use. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The description about slashes in gitignore patterns (used to
+ indicate things like "anchored to this level only" and "only
+ matches directories") has been revamped.
+
+ * The URL decoding code has been updated to avoid going past the end
+ of the string while parsing %-<hex>-<hex> sequence.
+
+ * The list of for-each like macros used by clang-format has been
+ updated.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to show branches that are checked out
+ in other worktrees connected to the same repository prefixed with
+ '+', similar to the way the currently checked out branch is shown
+ with '*' in front.
+ (merge 6e9381469e nb/branch-show-other-worktrees-head later to maint).
+
+ * Code restructuring during 2.20 period broke fetching tags via
+ "import" based transports.
+
+ * The commit-graph file is now part of the "files that the runtime
+ may keep open file descriptors on, all of which would need to be
+ closed when done with the object store", and the file descriptor to
+ an existing commit-graph file now is closed before "gc" finalizes a
+ new instance to replace it.
+
+ * "git checkout -p" needs to selectively apply a patch in reverse,
+ which did not work well.
+
+ * Code clean-up to avoid signed integer wraparounds during binary search.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" always treated '#' as the comment
+ character, regardless of core.commentChar setting, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * "git stash show 23" used to work, but no more after getting
+ rewritten in C; this regression has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase --abort" used to leave refs/rewritten/ when concluding
+ "git rebase -r", which has been corrected.
+
+ * An incorrect list of options was cached after command line
+ completion failed (e.g. trying to complete a command that requires
+ a repository outside one), which has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to parse scaled numbers out of configuration files has
+ been made more robust and also easier to follow.
+
+ * The codepath to compute delta islands used to spew progress output
+ without giving the callers any way to squelch it, which has been
+ fixed.
+
+ * Protocol capabilities that go over wire should never be translated,
+ but it was incorrectly marked for translation, which has been
+ corrected. The output of protocol capabilities for debugging has
+ been tweaked a bit.
+
+ * Use "Erase in Line" CSI sequence that is already used in the editor
+ support to clear cruft in the progress output.
+
+ * "git submodule foreach" did not protect command line options passed
+ to the command to be run in each submodule correctly, when the
+ "--recursive" option was in use.
+
+ * The configuration variable rebase.rescheduleFailedExec should be
+ effective only while running an interactive rebase and should not
+ affect anything when running a non-interactive one, which was not
+ the case. This has been corrected.
+
+ * The "git clone" documentation refers to command line options in its
+ description in the short form; they have been replaced with long
+ forms to make them more recognisable.
+
+ * Generation of pack bitmaps are now disabled when .keep files exist,
+ as these are mutually exclusive features.
+ (merge 7328482253 ew/repack-with-bitmaps-by-default later to maint).
+
+ * "git rm" to resolve a conflicted path leaked an internal message
+ "needs merge" before actually removing the path, which was
+ confusing. This has been corrected.
+
+ * "git stash --keep-index" did not work correctly on paths that have
+ been removed, which has been fixed.
+ (merge b932f6a5e8 tg/stash-keep-index-with-removed-paths later to maint).
+
+ * Window 7 update ;-)
+
+ * A codepath that reads from GPG for signed object verification read
+ past the end of allocated buffer, which has been fixed.
+
+ * "git clean" silently skipped a path when it cannot lstat() it; now
+ it gives a warning.
+
+ * "git push --atomic" that goes over the transport-helper (namely,
+ the smart http transport) failed to prevent refs to be pushed when
+ it can locally tell that one of the ref update will fail without
+ having to consult the other end, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The internal diff machinery can be made to read out of bounds while
+ looking for --function-context line in a corner case, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge b777f3fd61 jk/xdiff-clamp-funcname-context-index later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge fbec05c210 cc/test-oidmap later to maint).
+ (merge 7a06fb038c jk/no-system-includes-in-dot-c later to maint).
+ (merge 81ed2b405c cb/xdiff-no-system-includes-in-dot-c later to maint).
+ (merge d61e6ce1dd sg/fsck-config-in-doc later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2083b49
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.23.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.23.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bde1541
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,398 @@
+Git 2.24 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.23
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility note
+
+ * "filter-branch" is showing its age and alternatives are available.
+ From this release, we started to discourage its use and hint
+ people about filter-repo.
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * We now have an active interim maintainer for the Git-Gui part of
+ the system. Praise and thank Pratyush Yadav for volunteering.
+
+ * The command line parser learned "--end-of-options" notation; the
+ standard convention for scripters to have hardcoded set of options
+ first on the command line, and force the command to treat end-user
+ input as non-options, has been to use "--" as the delimiter, but
+ that would not work for commands that use "--" as a delimiter
+ between revs and pathspec.
+
+ * A mechanism to affect the default setting for a (related) group of
+ configuration variables is introduced.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned "--set-upstream" option to help those who first
+ clone from their private fork they intend to push to, add the true
+ upstream via "git remote add" and then "git fetch" from it.
+
+ * Device-tree files learned their own userdiff patterns.
+ (merge 3c81760bc6 sb/userdiff-dts later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" learned to drive different merge
+ strategies and pass strategy specific options to them.
+
+ * A new "pre-merge-commit" hook has been introduced.
+
+ * Command line completion updates for "git -c var.name=val" have been
+ added.
+
+ * The lazy clone machinery has been taught that there can be more
+ than one promisor remote and consult them in order when downloading
+ missing objects on demand.
+
+ * The list-objects-filter API (used to create a sparse/lazy clone)
+ learned to take a combined filter specification.
+
+ * The documentation and tests for "git format-patch" have been
+ cleaned up.
+
+ * On Windows, the root level of UNC share is now allowed to be used
+ just like any other directory.
+
+ * The command line completion support (in contrib/) learned about the
+ "--skip" option of "git revert" and "git cherry-pick".
+
+ * "git rebase --keep-base <upstream>" tries to find the original base
+ of the topic being rebased and rebase on top of that same base,
+ which is useful when running the "git rebase -i" (and its limited
+ variant "git rebase -x").
+
+ The command also has learned to fast-forward in more cases where it
+ can instead of replaying to recreate identical commits.
+
+ * A configuration variable tells "git fetch" to write the commit
+ graph after finishing.
+
+ * "git add -i" has been taught to show the total number of hunks and
+ the hunks that has been processed so far when showing prompts.
+
+ * "git fetch --jobs=<n>" allowed <n> parallel jobs when fetching
+ submodules, but this did not apply to "git fetch --multiple" that
+ fetches from multiple remote repositories. It now does.
+
+ * The installation instruction for zsh completion script (in
+ contrib/) has been a bit improved.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The code to write commit-graph over given commit object names has
+ been made a bit more robust.
+
+ * The first line of verbose output from each test piece now carries
+ the test name and number to help scanning with eyeballs.
+
+ * Further clean-up of the initialization code.
+
+ * xmalloc() used to have a mechanism to ditch memory and address
+ space resources as the last resort upon seeing an allocation
+ failure from the underlying malloc(), which made the code complex
+ and thread-unsafe with dubious benefit, as major memory resource
+ users already do limit their uses with various other mechanisms.
+ It has been simplified away.
+
+ * Unnecessary full-tree diff in "git log -L" machinery has been
+ optimized away.
+
+ * The http transport lacked some optimization the native transports
+ learned to avoid unnecessary ref advertisement, which has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Preparation for SHA-256 upgrade continues in the test department.
+ (merge 0c37c41d13 bc/hash-independent-tests-part-5 later to maint).
+
+ * The memory ownership model of the "git fast-import" got
+ straightened out.
+
+ * Output from trace2 subsystem is formatted more prettily now.
+
+ * The internal code originally invented for ".gitignore" processing
+ got reshuffled and renamed to make it less tied to "excluding" and
+ stress more that it is about "matching", as it has been reused for
+ things like sparse checkout specification that want to check if a
+ path is "included".
+
+ * "git stash" learned to write refreshed index back to disk.
+
+ * Coccinelle checks are done on more source files than before now.
+
+ * The cache-tree code has been taught to be less aggressive in
+ attempting to see if a tree object it computed already exists in
+ the repository.
+
+ * The code to parse and use the commit-graph file has been made more
+ robust against corrupted input.
+
+ * The hg-to-git script (in contrib/) has been updated to work with
+ Python 3.
+
+ * Update the way build artifacts in t/helper/ directory are ignored.
+
+ * Preparation for SHA-256 upgrade continues.
+
+ * "git log --graph" for an octopus merge is sometimes colored
+ incorrectly, which is demonstrated and documented but not yet
+ fixed.
+
+ * The trace2 output, when sending them to files in a designated
+ directory, can populate the directory with too many files; a
+ mechanism is introduced to set the maximum number of files and
+ discard further logs when the maximum is reached.
+
+ * We have adopted a Code-of-conduct document.
+ (merge 3f9ef874a7 jk/coc later to maint).
+
+
+Fixes since v2.23
+-----------------
+
+ * "git grep --recurse-submodules" that looks at the working tree
+ files looked at the contents in the index in submodules, instead of
+ files in the working tree.
+ (merge 6a289d45c0 mt/grep-submodules-working-tree later to maint).
+
+ * Codepaths to walk tree objects have been audited for integer
+ overflows and hardened.
+ (merge 5aa02f9868 jk/tree-walk-overflow later to maint).
+
+ * "git pack-refs" can lose refs that are created while running, which
+ is getting corrected.
+ (merge a613d4f817 sc/pack-refs-deletion-racefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout" and "git restore" to re-populate the index from a
+ tree-ish (typically HEAD) did not work correctly for a path that
+ was removed and then added again with the intent-to-add bit, when
+ the corresponding working tree file was empty. This has been
+ corrected.
+
+ * Compilation fix.
+ (merge 70597e8386 rs/nedalloc-fixlets later to maint).
+
+ * "git gui" learned to call the clean-up procedure before exiting.
+ (merge 0d88f3d2c5 py/git-gui-do-quit later to maint).
+
+ * We promoted the "indent heuristics" that decides where to split
+ diff hunks from experimental to the default a few years ago, but
+ some stale documentation still marked it as experimental, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 64e5e1fba1 sg/diff-indent-heuristic-non-experimental later to maint).
+
+ * Fix a mismerge that happened in 2.22 timeframe.
+ (merge acb7da05ac en/checkout-mismerge-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" recorded incorrect length in extended pax header in
+ some corner cases, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 71d41ff651 rs/pax-extended-header-length-fix later to maint).
+
+ * On-demand object fetching in lazy clone incorrectly tried to fetch
+ commits from submodule projects, while still working in the
+ superproject, which has been corrected.
+ (merge a63694f523 jt/diff-lazy-fetch-submodule-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Prepare get_short_oid() codepath to be thread-safe.
+ (merge 7cfcb16b0e rs/sort-oid-array-thread-safe later to maint).
+
+ * "for-each-ref" and friends that show refs did not protect themselves
+ against ancient tags that did not record tagger names when asked to
+ show "%(taggername)", which have been corrected.
+ (merge 8b3f33ef11 mp/for-each-ref-missing-name-or-email later to maint).
+
+ * The "git am" based backend of "git rebase" ignored the result of
+ updating ".gitattributes" done in one step when replaying
+ subsequent steps.
+ (merge 2c65d90f75 bc/reread-attributes-during-rebase later to maint).
+
+ * Tell cURL library to use the same malloc() implementation, with the
+ xmalloc() wrapper, as the rest of the system, for consistency.
+ (merge 93b980e58f cb/curl-use-xmalloc later to maint).
+
+ * Build fix to adjust .gitignore to unignore a path that we started to track.
+ (merge aac6ff7b5b js/visual-studio later to maint).
+
+ * A few implementation fixes in the notes API.
+ (merge 60fe477a0b mh/notes-duplicate-entries later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an earlier regression to "git push --all" which should have
+ been forbidden when the target remote repository is set to be a
+ mirror.
+ (merge 8e4c8af058 tg/push-all-in-mirror-forbidden later to maint).
+
+ * Fix an earlier regression in the test suite, which mistakenly
+ stopped running HTTPD tests.
+ (merge 3960290675 sg/git-test-boolean later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --autostash <upstream> <branch>", when <branch> is
+ different from the current branch, incorrectly moved the tip of the
+ current branch, which has been corrected.
+ (merge bf1e28e0ad bw/rebase-autostash-keep-current-branch later to maint).
+
+ * Update support for Asciidoctor documentation toolchain.
+ (merge 83b0b8953e ma/asciidoctor-refmiscinfo later to maint).
+
+ * Start using DocBook 5 (instead of DocBook 4.5) as Asciidoctor 2.0
+ no longer works with the older one.
+ (merge f6461b82b9 bc/doc-use-docbook-5 later to maint).
+
+ * The markup used in user-manual has been updated to work better with
+ asciidoctor.
+ (merge c4d2f6143a ma/user-manual-markup-update later to maint).
+
+ * Make sure the grep machinery does not abort when seeing a payload
+ that is not UTF-8 even when JIT is not in use with PCRE1.
+ (merge ad7c543e3b cb/skip-utf8-check-with-pcre1 later to maint).
+
+ * The name of the blob object that stores the filter specification
+ for sparse cloning/fetching was interpreted in a wrong place in the
+ code, causing Git to abort.
+
+ * "git log --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>" was incorrectly
+ overruled when the "--simplify-by-decoration" option is used, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge 0cc7380d88 rs/simplify-by-deco-with-deco-refs-exclude later to maint).
+
+ * The "upload-pack" (the counterpart of "git fetch") needs to disable
+ commit-graph when responding to a shallow clone/fetch request, but
+ the way this was done made Git panic, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The object traversal machinery has been optimized not to load tree
+ objects when we are only interested in commit history.
+ (merge 72ed80c784 jk/list-objects-optim-wo-trees later to maint).
+
+ * The object name parser for "Nth parent" syntax has been made more
+ robust against integer overflows.
+ (merge 59fa5f5a25 rs/nth-parent-parse later to maint).
+
+ * The code used in following tags in "git fetch" has been optimized.
+ (merge b7e2d8bca5 ms/fetch-follow-tag-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Regression fix for progress output.
+ (merge 2bb74b53a4 sg/progress-fix later to maint).
+
+ * A bug in merge-recursive code that triggers when a branch with a
+ symbolic link is merged with a branch that replaces it with a
+ directory has been fixed.
+ (merge 83e3ad3b12 jt/merge-recursive-symlink-is-not-a-dir-in-way later to maint).
+
+ * The rename detection logic sorts a list of rename source candidates
+ by similarity to pick the best candidate, which means that a tie
+ between sources with the same similarity is broken by the original
+ location in the original candidate list (which is sorted by path).
+ Force the sorting by similarity done with a stable sort, which is
+ not promised by system supplied qsort(3), to ensure consistent
+ results across platforms.
+ (merge 2049b8dc65 js/diff-rename-force-stable-sort later to maint).
+
+ * The code to skip "UTF" and "UTF-" prefix, when computing an advice
+ message, did not work correctly when the prefix was "UTF", which
+ has been fixed.
+ (merge b181676ce9 rs/convert-fix-utf-without-dash later to maint).
+
+ * The author names taken from SVN repositories may have extra leading
+ or trailing whitespaces, which are now munged away.
+ (merge 4ddd4bddb1 tk/git-svn-trim-author-name later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" showed a wrong HEAD while "reword" open the editor.
+ (merge b0a3186140 pw/rebase-i-show-HEAD-to-reword later to maint).
+
+ * A few simplification and bugfixes to PCRE interface.
+ (merge c581e4a749 ab/pcre-jit-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * PCRE fixes.
+ (merge ff61681b46 cb/pcre1-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * "git range-diff" segfaulted when diff.noprefix configuration was
+ used, as it blindly expected the patch it internally generates to
+ have the standard a/ and b/ prefixes. The command now forces the
+ internal patch to be built without any prefix, not to be affected
+ by any end-user configuration.
+ (merge 937b76ed49 js/range-diff-noprefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash apply" in a subdirectory of a secondary worktree failed
+ to access the worktree correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge dfd557c978 js/stash-apply-in-secondary-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * The merge-recursive machinery is one of the most complex parts of
+ the system that accumulated cruft over time. This large series
+ cleans up the implementation quite a bit.
+ (merge b657047719 en/merge-recursive-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Pretty-printed command line formatter (used in e.g. reporting the
+ command being run by the tracing API) had a bug that lost an
+ argument that is an empty string, which has been corrected.
+ (merge ce2d7ed2fd gs/sq-quote-buf-pretty later to maint).
+
+ * "git range-diff" failed to handle mode-only change, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 2b6a9b13ca tg/range-diff-output-update later to maint).
+
+ * Dev support update.
+ (merge 4f3c1dc5d6 dl/allow-running-cocci-verbosely later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch -o <outdir>" did an equivalent of "mkdir <outdir>"
+ not "mkdir -p <outdir>", which was corrected.
+
+ * "git stash save" lost local changes to submodules, which has been
+ corrected.
+ (merge 556895d0c8 jj/stash-reset-only-toplevel later to maint).
+
+ * The atomic push over smart HTTP transport did not work, which has
+ been corrected.
+ (merge 6f1194246a bc/smart-http-atomic-push later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge d1387d3895 en/fast-import-merge-doc later to maint).
+ (merge 1c24a54ea4 bm/repository-layout-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 415b770b88 ds/midx-expire-repack later to maint).
+ (merge 19800bdc3f nd/diff-parseopt later to maint).
+ (merge 58166c2e9d tg/t0021-racefix later to maint).
+ (merge 7027f508c7 dl/compat-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge e770fbfeff jc/test-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 1fd881d404 rs/trace2-dst-warning later to maint).
+ (merge 7e92756751 mh/http-urlmatch-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 9784f97321 mh/release-commit-memory-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 60d198d022 tb/banned-vsprintf-namefix later to maint).
+ (merge 80e3658647 rs/help-unknown-ref-does-not-return later to maint).
+ (merge 0a8bc7068f dt/remote-helper-doc-re-lock-option later to maint).
+ (merge 27fd1e4ea7 en/merge-options-ff-and-friends later to maint).
+ (merge 502c386ff9 sg/clean-nested-repo-with-ignored later to maint).
+ (merge 26e3d1cbea am/mailmap-andrey-mazo later to maint).
+ (merge 47b27c96fa ss/get-time-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge dd2e50a84e jk/commit-graph-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 4fd39c76e6 cs/pretty-formats-doc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 40e747e89d dl/submodule-set-branch later to maint).
+ (merge 689a146c91 rs/commit-graph-use-list-count later to maint).
+ (merge 0eb7c37a8a js/doc-patch-text later to maint).
+ (merge 4b3aa170d1 rs/nth-switch-code-simplification later to maint).
+ (merge 0d4304c124 ah/doc-submodule-ignore-submodules later to maint).
+ (merge af78249463 cc/svn-fe-py-shebang later to maint).
+ (merge 7bd97d6dff rs/alias-use-copy-array later to maint).
+ (merge c46ebc2496 sg/travis-help-debug later to maint).
+ (merge 24c681794f ps/my-first-contribution-alphasort later to maint).
+ (merge 75b2c15435 cb/do-not-use-test-cmp-with-a later to maint).
+ (merge cda0d497e3 bw/submodule-helper-usage-fix later to maint).
+ (merge fe0ed5d5e9 am/visual-studio-config-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 2e09c01232 sg/name-rev-cutoff-underflow-fix later to maint).
+ (merge ddb3c856f3 as/shallow-slab-use-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 71f4960b91 js/mingw-spawn-with-spaces-in-path later to maint).
+ (merge 53d687bf5f ah/cleanups later to maint).
+ (merge f537485fa5 rs/test-remove-useless-debugging-cat later to maint).
+ (merge 11a3d3aadd dl/rev-list-doc-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge d928a8388a am/t0028-utf16-tests later to maint).
+ (merge b05b40930e dl/t0000-skip-test-test later to maint).
+ (merge 03d3b1297c js/xdiffi-comment-updates later to maint).
+ (merge 57d8f4b4c7 js/doc-stash-save later to maint).
+ (merge 8c1cfd58e3 ta/t1308-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge fa364ad790 bb/utf8-wcwidth-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge 68b69211b2 bb/compat-util-comment-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 5cc6a4be11 rs/http-push-simplify later to maint).
+ (merge a81e42d235 rs/column-use-utf8-strnwidth later to maint).
+ (merge 062a309d36 rs/remote-curl-use-argv-array later to maint).
+ (merge 3b3c79f6c9 nr/diff-highlight-indent-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 3444ec2eb2 wb/fsmonitor-bitmap-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 10da030ab7 cb/pcre2-chartables-leakfix later to maint).
+ (merge 60e6569a12 js/mingw-needs-hiding-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 52bd3e4657 rl/gitweb-blame-prev-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1810485
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.24.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.24.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4,
+v2.17.3, v2.20.2 and in v2.21.1, addressing the security issues
+CVE-2019-1348, CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351,
+CVE-2019-1352, CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, CVE-2019-1387, and
+CVE-2019-19604; see the release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..91ceb34
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.25.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,370 @@
+Git 2.25 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.24
+-------------------
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A tutorial on object enumeration has been added.
+
+ * The branch description ("git branch --edit-description") has been
+ used to fill the body of the cover letters by the format-patch
+ command; this has been enhanced so that the subject can also be
+ filled.
+
+ * "git rebase --preserve-merges" has been marked as deprecated; this
+ release stops advertising it in the "git rebase -h" output.
+
+ * The code to generate multi-pack index learned to show (or not to
+ show) progress indicators.
+
+ * "git apply --3way" learned to honor merge.conflictStyle
+ configuration variable, like merges would.
+
+ * The custom format for "git log --format=<format>" learned the l/L
+ placeholder that is similar to e/E that fills in the e-mail
+ address, but only the local part on the left side of '@'.
+
+ * Documentation pages for "git shortlog" now list commit limiting
+ options explicitly.
+
+ * The patterns to detect function boundary for Elixir language has
+ been added.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) learned that the "--onto"
+ option of "git rebase" can take its argument as the value of the
+ option.
+
+ * The userdiff machinery has been taught that "async def" is another
+ way to begin a "function" in Python.
+
+ * "git range-diff" learned to take the "--notes=<ref>" and the
+ "--no-notes" options to control the commit notes included in the
+ log message that gets compared.
+
+ * "git rev-parse --show-toplevel" run outside of any working tree did
+ not error out, which has been corrected.
+
+ * A few commands learned to take the pathspec from the standard input
+ or a named file, instead of taking it as the command line
+ arguments, with the "--pathspec-from-file" option.
+
+ * "git submodule" learned a subcommand "set-url".
+
+ * "git log" family learned "--pretty=reference" that gives the name
+ of a commit in the format that is often used to refer to it in log
+ messages.
+
+ * The interaction between "git clone --recurse-submodules" and
+ alternate object store was ill-designed. The documentation and
+ code have been taught to make more clear recommendations when the
+ users see failures.
+
+ * Management of sparsely checked-out working tree has gained a
+ dedicated "sparse-checkout" command.
+
+ * Miscellaneous small UX improvements on "git-p4".
+
+ * "git sparse-checkout list" subcommand learned to give its output in
+ a more concise form when the "cone" mode is in effect.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * Debugging support for lazy cloning has been a bit improved.
+
+ * Move the definition of a set of bitmask constants from 0ctal
+ literal to (1U<<count) notation.
+
+ * Test updates to prepare for SHA-2 transition continues.
+
+ * Crufty code and logic accumulated over time around the object
+ parsing and low-level object access used in "git fsck" have been
+ cleaned up.
+
+ * The implementation of "git log --graph" got refactored and then its
+ output got simplified.
+
+ * Follow recent push to move API docs from Documentation/ to header
+ files and update config.h
+
+ * "git bundle" has been taught to use the parse options API. "git
+ bundle verify" learned "--quiet" and "git bundle create" learned
+ options to control the progress output.
+
+ * Handling of commit objects that use non UTF-8 encoding during
+ "rebase -i" has been improved.
+
+ * The beginning of rewriting "git add -i" in C.
+
+ * A label used in the todo list that are generated by "git rebase
+ --rebase-merges" is used as a part of a refname; the logic to come
+ up with the label has been tightened to avoid names that cannot be
+ used as such.
+
+ * The logic to avoid duplicate label names generated by "git rebase
+ --rebase-merges" forgot that the machinery itself uses "onto" as a
+ label name, which must be avoided by auto-generated labels, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * We have had compatibility fallback macro definitions for "PRIuMAX",
+ "PRIu32", etc. but did not for "PRIdMAX", while the code used the
+ last one apparently without any hiccup reported recently. The
+ fallback macro definitions for these <inttypes.h> macros that must
+ appear in C99 systems have been removed.
+
+ * Recently we have declared that GIT_TEST_* variables take the
+ usual boolean values (it used to be that some used "non-empty
+ means true" and taking GIT_TEST_VAR=YesPlease as true); make
+ sure we notice and fail when non-bool strings are given to
+ these variables.
+
+ * Users of oneway_merge() (like "reset --hard") learned to take
+ advantage of fsmonitor to avoid unnecessary lstat(2) calls.
+
+ * Performance tweak on "git push" into a repository with many refs
+ that point at objects we have never heard of.
+
+ * PerfTest fix to avoid stale result mixed up with the latest round
+ of test results.
+
+ * Hide lower-level verify_signed-buffer() API as a pure helper to
+ implement the public check_signature() function, in order to
+ encourage new callers to use the correct and more strict
+ validation.
+
+ * Unnecessary reading of state variables back from the disk during
+ sequencer operation has been reduced.
+
+ * The code has been made to avoid gmtime() and localtime() and prefer
+ their reentrant counterparts.
+
+ * In a repository with many packfiles, the cost of the procedure that
+ avoids registering the same packfile twice was unnecessarily high
+ by using an inefficient search algorithm, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Redo "git name-rev" to avoid recursive calls.
+
+ * FreeBSD CI support via Cirrus-CI has been added.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.24
+-----------------
+
+ * "rebase -i" ceased to run post-commit hook by mistake in an earlier
+ update, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git notes copy $original" ought to copy the notes attached to the
+ original object to HEAD, but a mistaken tightening to command line
+ parameter validation made earlier disabled that feature by mistake.
+
+ * When all files from some subdirectory were renamed to the root
+ directory, the directory rename heuristics would fail to detect that
+ as a rename/merge of the subdirectory to the root directory, which has
+ been corrected.
+
+ * Code clean-up and a bugfix in the logic used to tell worktree local
+ and repository global refs apart.
+ (merge f45f88b2e4 sg/dir-trie-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git stash save" in a working tree that is sparsely checked out
+ mistakenly removed paths that are outside the area of interest.
+ (merge 4a58c3d7f7 js/update-index-ignore-removal-for-skip-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse --git-path HEAD.lock" did not give the right path
+ when run in a secondary worktree.
+ (merge 76a53d640f js/git-path-head-dot-lock-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge --no-commit" needs "--no-ff" if you do not want to move
+ HEAD, which has been corrected in the manual page for "git bisect".
+ (merge 8dd327b246 ma/bisect-doc-sample-update later to maint).
+
+ * "git worktree add" internally calls "reset --hard" that should not
+ descend into submodules, even when submodule.recurse configuration
+ is set, but it was affected. This has been corrected.
+ (merge 4782cf2ab6 pb/no-recursive-reset-hard-in-worktree-add later to maint).
+
+ * Messages from die() etc. can be mixed up from multiple processes
+ without even line buffering on Windows, which has been worked
+ around.
+ (merge 116d1fa6c6 js/vreportf-wo-buffering later to maint).
+
+ * HTTP transport had possible allocator/deallocator mismatch, which
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The watchman integration for fsmonitor was racy, which has been
+ corrected to be more conservative.
+ (merge dd0b61f577 kw/fsmonitor-watchman-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Fetching from multiple remotes into the same repository in parallel
+ had a bad interaction with the recent change to (optionally) update
+ the commit-graph after a fetch job finishes, as these parallel
+ fetches compete with each other. Which has been corrected.
+
+ * Recent update to "git stash pop" made the command empty the index
+ when run with the "--quiet" option, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git fetch" codepath had a big "do not lazily fetch missing objects
+ when I ask if something exists" switch. This has been corrected by
+ marking the "does this thing exist?" calls with "if not please do not
+ lazily fetch it" flag.
+
+ * Test update to avoid wasted cycles.
+ (merge e0316695ec sg/skip-skipped-prereq later to maint).
+
+ * Error handling after "git push" finishes sending the packdata and
+ waits for the response to the remote side has been improved.
+ (merge ad7a403268 jk/send-pack-remote-failure later to maint).
+
+ * Some codepaths in "gitweb" that forgot to escape URLs generated
+ based on end-user input have been corrected.
+ (merge a376e37b2c jk/gitweb-anti-xss later to maint).
+
+ * CI jobs for macOS has been made less chatty when updating perforce
+ package used during testing.
+ (merge 0dbc4a0edf jc/azure-ci-osx-fix-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git unpack-objects" used to show progress based only on the number
+ of received and unpacked objects, which stalled when it has to
+ handle an unusually large object. It now shows the throughput as
+ well.
+ (merge bae60ba7e9 sg/unpack-progress-throughput later to maint).
+
+ * The sequencer machinery compared the HEAD and the state it is
+ attempting to commit to decide if the result would be a no-op
+ commit, even when amending a commit, which was incorrect, and
+ has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to parse GPG output used to assume incorrectly that the
+ finterprint for the primary key would always be present for a valid
+ signature, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 67a6ea6300 hi/gpg-optional-pkfp-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git submodule status" and "git submodule status --cached" show
+ different things, but the documentation did not cover them
+ correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 8d483c8408 mg/doc-submodule-status-cached later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset --patch $object" without any pathspec should allow a
+ tree object to be given, but incorrectly required a committish,
+ which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git submodule status" that is run from a subdirectory of the
+ superproject did not work well, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 1f3aea22c7 mg/submodule-status-from-a-subdirectory later to maint).
+
+ * The revision walking machinery uses resources like per-object flag
+ bits that need to be reset before a new iteration of walking
+ begins, but the resources related to topological walk were not
+ cleared correctly, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 0aa0c2b2ec mh/clear-topo-walk-upon-reset later to maint).
+
+ * TravisCI update.
+ (merge 176441bfb5 sg/osx-force-gcc-9 later to maint).
+
+ * While running "revert" or "cherry-pick --edit" for multiple
+ commits, a recent regression incorrectly detected "nothing to
+ commit, working tree clean", instead of replaying the commits,
+ which has been corrected.
+ (merge befd4f6a81 sg/assume-no-todo-update-in-cherry-pick later to maint).
+
+ * Work around a issue where a FD that is left open when spawning a
+ child process and is kept open in the child can interfere with the
+ operation in the parent process on Windows.
+
+ * One kind of progress messages were always given during commit-graph
+ generation, instead of following the "if it takes more than two
+ seconds, show progress" pattern, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git rebase" did not work well when format.useAutoBase
+ configuration variable is set, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The "diff" machinery learned not to lose added/removed blank lines
+ in the context when --ignore-blank-lines and --function-context are
+ used at the same time.
+ (merge 0bb313a552 rs/xdiff-ignore-ws-w-func-context later to maint).
+
+ * The test on "fast-import" used to get stuck when "fast-import" died
+ in the middle.
+ (merge 0d9b0d7885 sg/t9300-robustify later to maint).
+
+ * "git format-patch" can take a set of configured format.notes values
+ to specify which notes refs to use in the log message part of the
+ output. The behaviour of this was not consistent with multiple
+ --notes command line options, which has been corrected.
+ (merge e0f9095aaa dl/format-patch-notes-config-fixup later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" used to ignore lfs.storage configuration variable, which
+ has been corrected.
+ (merge ea94b16fb8 rb/p4-lfs later to maint).
+
+ * Assorted fixes to the directory traversal API.
+ (merge 6836d2fe06 en/fill-directory-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * Forbid pathnames that the platform's filesystem cannot represent on
+ MinGW.
+ (merge 4dc42c6c18 js/mingw-reserved-filenames later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase --signoff" stopped working when the command was written
+ in C, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 4fe7e43c53 en/rebase-signoff-fix later to maint).
+
+ * An earlier update to Git for Windows declared that a tree object is
+ invalid if it has a path component with backslash in it, which was
+ overly strict, which has been corrected. The only protection the
+ Windows users need is to prevent such path (or any path that their
+ filesystem cannot check out) from entering the index.
+ (merge 224c7d70fa js/mingw-loosen-overstrict-tree-entry-checks later to maint).
+
+ * The code to write split commit-graph file(s) upon fetching computed
+ bogus value for the parameter used in splitting the resulting
+ files, which has been corrected.
+ (merge 63020f175f ds/commit-graph-set-size-mult later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+ (merge 80736d7c5e jc/am-show-current-patch-docfix later to maint).
+ (merge 8b656572ca sg/commit-graph-usage-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 6c02042139 mr/clone-dir-exists-to-path-exists later to maint).
+ (merge 44ae131e38 sg/blame-indent-heuristics-is-now-the-default later to maint).
+ (merge 0115e5d929 dl/doc-diff-no-index-implies-exit-code later to maint).
+ (merge 270de6acbe en/t6024-style later to maint).
+ (merge 14c4776d75 ns/test-desc-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 68d40f30c4 dj/typofix-merge-strat later to maint).
+ (merge f66e0401ab jk/optim-in-pack-idx-conversion later to maint).
+ (merge 169bed7421 rs/parse-options-dup-null-fix later to maint).
+ (merge 51bd6be32d rs/use-copy-array-in-mingw-shell-command-preparation later to maint).
+ (merge b018719927 ma/t7004 later to maint).
+ (merge 932757b0cc ar/install-doc-update-cmds-needing-the-shell later to maint).
+ (merge 46efd28be1 ep/guard-kset-tar-headers later to maint).
+ (merge 9e5afdf997 ec/fetch-mark-common-refs-trace2 later to maint).
+ (merge f0e58b3fe8 pb/submodule-update-fetches later to maint).
+ (merge 2a02262078 dl/t5520-cleanup later to maint).
+ (merge a4fb016ba1 js/pkt-line-h-typofix later to maint).
+ (merge 54a7a64613 rs/simplify-prepare-cmd later to maint).
+ (merge 3eae30e464 jk/lore-is-the-archive later to maint).
+ (merge 14b7664df8 dl/lore-is-the-archive later to maint).