path: root/t/perf/
diff options
authorJeff King <>2019-04-04 01:41:09 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <>2019-04-04 09:21:54 (GMT)
commit8320b1dbe7d160ea08dec931cf17dc39682bfb91 (patch)
tree8163d4701a2d15ae3c3599a4389525f493f807e8 /t/perf/
parentaeb582a98374c094361cba1bd756dc6307432c42 (diff)
revision: use a prio_queue to hold rewritten parents
This patch fixes a quadratic list insertion in rewrite_one() when pathspec limiting is combined with --parents. What happens is something like this: 1. We see that some commit X touches the path, so we try to rewrite its parents. 2. rewrite_one() loops forever, rewriting parents, until it finds a relevant parent (or hits the root and decides there are none). The heavy lifting is done by process_parent(), which uses try_to_simplify_commit() to drop parents. 3. process_parent() puts any intermediate parents into the &revs->commits list, inserting by commit date as usual. So if commit X is recent, and then there's a large chunk of history that doesn't touch the path, we may add a lot of commits to &revs->commits. And insertion by commit date is O(n) in the worst case, making the whole thing quadratic. We tried to deal with this long ago in fce87ae538 (Fix quadratic performance in rewrite_one., 2008-07-12). In that scheme, we cache the oldest commit in the list; if the new commit to be added is older, we can start our linear traversal there. This often works well in practice because parents are older than their descendants, and thus we tend to add older and older commits as we traverse. But this isn't guaranteed, and in fact there's a simple case where it is not: merges. Imagine we look at the first parent of a merge and see a very old commit (let's say 3 years old). And on the second parent, as we go back 3 years in history, we might have many commits. That one first-parent commit has polluted our oldest-commit cache; it will remain the oldest while we traverse a huge chunk of history, during which we have to fall back to the slow, linear method of adding to the list. Naively, one might imagine that instead of caching the oldest commit, we'd start at the last-added one. But that just makes some cases faster while making others slower (and indeed, while it made a real-world test case much faster, it does quite poorly in the perf test include here). Fundamentally, these are just heuristics; our worst case is still quadratic, and some cases will approach that. Instead, let's use a data structure with better worst-case performance. Swapping out revs->commits for something else would have repercussions all over the code base, but we can take advantage of one fact: for the rewrite_one() case, nobody actually needs to see those commits in revs->commits until we've finished generating the whole list. That leaves us with two obvious options: 1. We can generate the list _unordered_, which should be O(n), and then sort it afterwards, which would be O(n log n) total. This is "sort-after" below. 2. We can insert the commits into a separate data structure, like a priority queue. This is "prio-queue" below. I expected that sort-after would be the fastest (since it saves us the extra step of copying the items into the linked list), but surprisingly the prio-queue seems to be a bit faster. Here are timings for the new p0001.6 for all three techniques across a few repositories, as compared to master: master cache-last sort-after prio-queue -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- GIT_PERF_REPO=git.git 0.52(0.50+0.02) 0.53(0.51+0.02) +1.9% 0.37(0.33+0.03) -28.8% 0.37(0.32+0.04) -28.8% GIT_PERF_REPO=linux.git 20.81(20.74+0.07) 20.31(20.24+0.07) -2.4% 0.94(0.86+0.07) -95.5% 0.91(0.82+0.09) -95.6% GIT_PERF_REPO=llvm-project.git 83.67(83.57+0.09) 4.23(4.15+0.08) -94.9% 3.21(3.15+0.06) -96.2% 2.98(2.91+0.07) -96.4% A few items to note: - the cache-list tweak does improve the bad case for llvm-project.git that started my digging into this problem. But it performs terribly on linux.git, barely helping at all. - the sort-after and prio-queue techniques work well. They approach the timing for running without --parents at all, which is what you'd expect (see below for more data). - prio-queue just barely outperforms sort-after. As I said, I'm not really sure why this is the case, but it is. You can see it even more prominently in this real-world case on llvm-project.git: git rev-list --parents 07ef786652e7 -- llvm/test/CodeGen/Generic/bswap.ll where prio-queue routinely outperforms sort-after by about 7%. One guess is that the prio-queue may just be more efficient because it uses a compact array. There are three new perf tests: - "rev-list --parents" gives us a baseline for running with --parents. This isn't sped up meaningfully here, because the bad case is triggered only with simplification. But it's good to make sure we don't screw it up (now, or in the future). - "rev-list -- dummy" gives us a baseline for just traversing with pathspec limiting. This gives a lower bound for the next test (and it's also a good thing for us to be checking in general for regressions, since we don't seem to have any existing tests). - "rev-list --parents -- dummy" shows off the problem (and our fix) Here are the timings for those three on llvm-project.git, before and after the fix: Test master prio-queue ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 0001.3: rev-list --parents 2.24(2.12+0.12) 2.22(2.11+0.11) -0.9% 0001.5: rev-list -- dummy 2.89(2.82+0.07) 2.92(2.89+0.03) +1.0% 0001.6: rev-list --parents -- dummy 83.67(83.57+0.09) 2.98(2.91+0.07) -96.4% Changes in the first two are basically noise, and you can see we approach our lower bound in the final one. Note that we can't fully get rid of the list argument from process_parents(). Other callers do have lists, and it would be hard to convert them. They also don't seem to have this problem (probably because they actually remove items from the list as they loop, meaning it doesn't grow so large in the first place). So this basically just drops the "cache_ptr" parameter (which was used only by the one caller we're fixing here) and replaces it with a prio_queue. Callers are free to use either data structure, depending on what they're prepared to handle. Reported-by: Björn Pettersson A <> Signed-off-by: Jeff King <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
Diffstat (limited to 't/perf/')
1 files changed, 18 insertions, 0 deletions
diff --git a/t/perf/ b/t/perf/
index ebf1724..3042a85 100755
--- a/t/perf/
+++ b/t/perf/
@@ -14,6 +14,24 @@ test_perf 'rev-list --all --objects' '
git rev-list --all --objects >/dev/null
+test_perf 'rev-list --parents' '
+ git rev-list --parents HEAD >/dev/null
+test_expect_success 'create dummy file' '
+ echo unlikely-to-already-be-there >dummy &&
+ git add dummy &&
+ git commit -m dummy
+test_perf 'rev-list -- dummy' '
+ git rev-list HEAD -- dummy
+test_perf 'rev-list --parents -- dummy' '
+ git rev-list --parents HEAD -- dummy
test_expect_success 'create new unreferenced commit' '
commit=$(git commit-tree HEAD^{tree} -p HEAD) &&
test_export commit