path: root/po
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authorJunio C Hamano <>2007-07-27 23:05:16 (GMT)
committerJohannes Schindelin <>2007-09-02 15:55:18 (GMT)
commit2631a81b901fc7baa274f98530a0d9cc05cecd17 (patch)
tree7a5cf6ca1c0d78b0f9ce15d206e7e7b687efe4b0 /po
parent3845048064352f4e213363239298f4fa3190ddb9 (diff)
git-gui po/README: Guide to translators
This short note is to help a translation contributor to help us localizing git-gui message files by covering the basics. Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
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+Localizing git-gui for your language
+This short note is to help you, who reads and writes English and your
+own language, help us getting git-gui localized for more languages. It
+does not try to be a comprehensive manual of GNU gettext, which is the
+i18n framework we use, but tries to help you get started by covering the
+basics and how it is used in this project.
+1. Getting started.
+You would first need to have a working "git". Your distribution may
+have it as "git-core" package (do not get "GNU Interactive Tools" --
+that is a different "git"). You would also need GNU gettext toolchain
+to test the resulting translation out. Although you can work on message
+translation files with a regular text editor, it is a good idea to have
+specialized so-called "po file editors" (e.g. emacs po-mode, KBabel,
+poedit, GTranslator --- any of them would work well). Please install
+You would then need to clone the git-gui internationalization project
+repository, so that you can work on it:
+ $ git clone
+ $ cd git-gui-i18n
+ $ git checkout --track -b mob origin/mob
+ $ git config remote.origin.push mob
+The "git checkout" command creates a 'mob' branch from upstream's
+corresponding branch and makes it your current branch. You will be
+working on this branch.
+The "git config" command records in your repository configuration file
+that you would push "mob" branch to the upstream when you say "git
+2. Starting a new language.
+In the git-gui-i18n directory is a po/ subdirectory. It has a
+handful files whose names end with ".po". Is there a file that has
+messages in your language?
+If you do not know what your language should be named, you need to find
+it. This currently follows ISO 639-1 two letter codes:
+For example, if you are preparing a translation for Afrikaans, the
+language code is "af". If there already is a translation for your
+language, you do not have to perform any step in this section, but keep
+reading, because we are covering the basics.
+If you did not find your language, you would need to start one yourself.
+Copy po/git-gui.pot file to po/af.po (replace "af" with the code for
+your language). Edit the first several lines to match existing *.po
+files to make it clear this is a translation table for git-gui project,
+and you are the primary translator. The result of your editing would
+look something like this:
+ # Translation of git-gui to Afrikaans
+ # Copyright (C) 2007 Shawn Pearce
+ # This file is distributed under the same license as the git-gui package.
+ #
+ #, fuzzy
+ msgid ""
+ msgstr ""
+ "Project-Id-Version: git-gui\n"
+ "Report-Msgid-Bugs-To: \n"
+ "POT-Creation-Date: 2007-07-24 22:19+0300\n"
+ "PO-Revision-Date: 2007-07-25 18:00+0900\n"
+ "Last-Translator: YOUR NAME <YOUR@E-MAIL.ADDRESS>\n"
+ "Language-Team: Afrikaans\n"
+ "MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+ "Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+ "Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+You will find many pairs of a "msgid" line followed by a "msgstr" line.
+These pairs define how messages in git-gui application are translated to
+your language. Your primarily job is to fill in the empty double quote
+pairs on msgstr lines with the translation of the strings on their
+matching msgid lines. A few tips:
+ - Control characters, such as newlines, are written in backslash
+ sequence similar to string literals in the C programming language.
+ When the string given on a msgid line has such a backslash sequence,
+ you would typically want to have corresponding ones in the string on
+ your msgstr line.
+ - Often the messages being translated are format strings given to
+ "printf()"-like functions. Make sure "%s", "%d", and "%%" in your
+ translated messages match the original.
+ When you have to change the order of words, you can add "<number>\$"
+ between '%' and the conversion ('s', 'd', etc.) to say "<number>-th
+ parameter to the format string is used at this point". For example,
+ if the original message is like this:
+ "Length is %d, Weight is %d"
+ and if for whatever reason your translation needs to say weight first
+ and then length, you can say something like:
+ "WEIGHT IS %2\$d, LENGTH IS %1\$d"
+ The reason you need a backslash before dollar sign is because
+ this is a double quoted string in Tcl language, and without
+ it the letter introduces a variable interpolation, which you
+ do not want here.
+ - A long message can be split across multiple lines by ending the
+ string with a double quote, and starting another string on the next
+ line with another double quote. They will be concatenated in the
+ result. For example:
+ #: lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl:189
+ #, tcl-format
+ msgid ""
+ "One or more of the merge tests failed because you have not fetched the "
+ "necessary commits. Try fetching from %s first."
+ msgstr ""
+You can test your translation by running "make install", which would
+create po/af.msg file and installs the result, and then running the
+resulting git-gui under your locale:
+ $ make install
+ $ LANG=af git-gui
+There is a trick to test your translation without first installing, if
+you prefer. First, create this symbolic link in the source tree:
+ $ ln -s ../po lib/msgs
+After setting up such a symbolic link, you can:
+ $ make
+ $ LANG=af ./
+When you are satisfied with your translation, commit your changes, and
+push it back to the 'mob' branch:
+ $ edit po/af.po
+ ... be sure to update Last-Translator: and
+ ... PO-Revision-Date: lines.
+ $ git add po/af.po
+ $ git commit -m 'Started Afrikaans translation.'
+ $ git push
+3. Updating your translation.
+There may already be a translation for your language, and you may want
+to contribute an update. This may be because you would want to improve
+the translation of existing messages, or because the git-gui software
+itself was updated and there are new messages that need translation.
+In any case, make sure you are up-to-date before starting your work:
+ $ git pull
+In the former case, you will edit po/af.po (again, replace "af" with
+your language code), and after testing and updating the Last-Translator:
+and PO-Revision-Date: lines, "add/commit/push" as in the previous
+By comparing "POT-Creation-Date:" line in po/git-gui.pot file and
+po/af.po file, you can tell if there are new messages that need to be
+translated. You would need the GNU gettext package to perform this
+ $ msgmerge -U po/af.po po/git-gui.pot
+[NEEDSWORK: who is responsible for updating po/git-gui.pot file by
+running xgettext? IIRC, Christian recommended against running it
+nilly-willy because it can become a source of unnecessary merge
+conflicts. Perhaps we should mention something like "
+The po/git-gui.pot file is updated by the internationalization
+coordinator from time to time. You _could_ update it yourself, but
+translators are discouraged from doing so because we would want all
+language teams to be working off of the same version of git-gui.pot.
+" here?]
+This updates po/af.po (again, replace "af" with your language
+code) so that it contains msgid lines (i.e. the original) that
+your translation did not have before. There are a few things to
+watch out for:
+ - The original text in English of an older message you already
+ translated might have been changed. You will notice a comment line
+ that begins with "#, fuzzy" in front of such a message. msgmerge
+ tool made its best effort to match your old translation with the
+ message from the updated software, but you may find cases that it
+ matched your old translated message to a new msgid and the pairing
+ does not make any sense -- you would need to fix them, and then
+ remove the "#, fuzzy" line from the message (your fixed translation
+ of the message will not be used before you remove the marker).
+ - New messages added to the software will have msgstr lines with empty
+ strings. You would need to translate them.