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authorJunio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>2005-05-06 06:49:58 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>2005-05-06 06:49:58 (GMT)
commitac4e0869294cd03b9320de3b2d851f2a3980d927 (patch)
tree61ccce086331eca0826dd4f506ffcda87ee4dd31 /Documentation
parentc64b9b88605f9d6824bf953a84d993c4a70fd759 (diff)
downloadgit-ac4e0869294cd03b9320de3b2d851f2a3980d927.zip
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Adjust core-git documentation to more recent Linus GIT.
Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/core-git.txt581
1 files changed, 294 insertions, 287 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/core-git.txt b/Documentation/core-git.txt
index 9b84a5e..d979a66 100644
--- a/Documentation/core-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/core-git.txt
@@ -1,17 +1,15 @@
This file contains reference information for the core git commands.
-It is actually based on the source from Petr Baudis' tree and may
-therefore contain a few 'extras' that may or may not make it upstream.
-The README contains much useful definition and clarification info -
-read that first. And of the commands, I suggest reading
-'update-cache' and 'read-tree' first - I wish I had!
-
-Thanks to original email authors and proof readers esp Junio C Hamano
-<junkio@cox.net>
+The README contains much useful definition and clarification
+info - read that first. And of the commands, I suggest reading
+'git-update-cache' and 'git-read-tree' first - I wish I had!
David Greaves <david@dgreaves.com>
24/4/05
+Updated by Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net> on 2005-05-05 to
+reflect recent changes.
+
Identifier terminology used:
<object>
@@ -26,52 +24,55 @@ Identifier terminology used:
<commit>
Indicates a commit object sha1 identifier
-<tree/commit>
- Indicates a tree or commit object sha1 identifier (usually
- because the command can read the <tree> a <commit> contains).
- [Eventually may be replaced with <tree> if <tree> means
- <tree/commit> in all commands]
+<tree-ish>
+ Indicates a tree, commit or tag object sha1 identifier.
+ A command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately
+ wants to operate on a <tree> object but automatically
+ dereferences <commit> and <tag> that points at a
+ <tree>.
<type>
Indicates that an object type is required.
- Currently one of: blob/tree/commit
+ Currently one of: blob/tree/commit/tag
<file>
- Indicates a filename - often includes leading path
-
-<path>
- Indicates the path of a file (is this ever useful?)
-
+ Indicates a filename - always relative to the root of
+ the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
################################################################
-cat-file
- cat-file (-t | <type>) <object>
+git-cat-file
+ git-cat-file (-t | <type>) <object>
-Provide contents or type of objects in the repository. The type is
-required if -t is not being used to find the object type.
+Provides contents or type of objects in the repository. The type
+is required if -t is not being used to find the object type.
<object>
The sha1 identifier of the object.
-t
- show the object type identified by <object>
+ Instead of the content, show the object type identified
+ by <object>.
<type>
- One of: blob/tree/commit
+ Typically this matches the real type of <object> but
+ asking for type that can trivially dereferenced from the
+ given <object> is also permitted. An example is to ask
+ "tree" with <object> for a commit object that contains
+ it, or to ask "blob" with <object> for a tag object that
+ points at it.
Output
-If -t is specified, one of:
- blob/tree/commit
+If -t is specified, one of the <type>.
Otherwise the raw (though uncompressed) contents of the <object> will
be returned.
################################################################
-check-files
- check-files <file>...
+git-check-files
+ git-check-files <file>...
Check that a list of files are up-to-date between the filesystem and
the cache. Used to verify a patch target before doing a patch.
@@ -86,21 +87,19 @@ preparing to update existing file <file> not in cache
preparing to update file <file> not uptodate in cache
<file> on disk is not up-to-date with the cache
-exits with a status code indicating success if all files are
+Exits with a status code indicating success if all files are
up-to-date.
-see also: update-cache
+see also: git-update-cache
################################################################
-checkout-cache
- checkout-cache [-q] [-a] [-f] [-n] [--prefix=<string>]
- [--] <file>...
+git-checkout-cache
+ git-checkout-cache [-q] [-a] [-f] [-n] [--prefix=<string>]
+ [--] <file>...
Will copy all files listed from the cache to the working directory
-(not overwriting existing files). Note that the file contents are
-restored - NOT the file permissions.
-??? l 58 checkout-cache.c says restore executable bit.
+(not overwriting existing files).
-q
be quiet if files exist or are not in the cache
@@ -111,6 +110,7 @@ restored - NOT the file permissions.
-a
checks out all files in the cache (will then continue to
process listed files).
+
-n
Don't checkout new files, only refresh files already checked
out.
@@ -124,21 +124,21 @@ restored - NOT the file permissions.
Note that the order of the flags matters:
- checkout-cache -a -f file.c
+ git-checkout-cache -a -f file.c
will first check out all files listed in the cache (but not overwrite
any old ones), and then force-checkout file.c a second time (ie that
one _will_ overwrite any old contents with the same filename).
-Also, just doing "checkout-cache" does nothing. You probably meant
-"checkout-cache -a". And if you want to force it, you want
-"checkout-cache -f -a".
+Also, just doing "git-checkout-cache" does nothing. You probably meant
+"git-checkout-cache -a". And if you want to force it, you want
+"git-checkout-cache -f -a".
Intuitiveness is not the goal here. Repeatability is. The reason for
the "no arguments means no work" thing is that from scripts you are
supposed to be able to do things like
- find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 checkout-cache -f --
+ find . -name '*.h' -print0 | xargs -0 git-checkout-cache -f --
which will force all existing *.h files to be replaced with their
cached copies. If an empty command line implied "all", then this would
@@ -146,34 +146,34 @@ force-refresh everything in the cache, which was not the point.
To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
- checkout-cache -n -f -a && update-cache --ignore-missing --refresh
+ git-checkout-cache -n -f -a && git-update-cache --ignore-missing --refresh
Oh, and the "--" is just a good idea when you know the rest will be
filenames. Just so that you wouldn't have a filename of "-a" causing
problems (not possible in the above example, but get used to it in
scripting!).
-The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use checkout-cache as
-a "export as tree" function. Just read the desired tree into the
+The prefix ability basically makes it trivial to use git-checkout-cache as
+a "git-export as tree" function. Just read the desired tree into the
index, and do a
- checkout-cache --prefix=export-dir/ -a
+ git-checkout-cache --prefix=git-export-dir/ -a
-and checkout-cache will "export" the cache into the specified
+and git-checkout-cache will "git-export" the cache into the specified
directory.
-NOTE! The final "/" is important. The exported name is literally just
+NOTE! The final "/" is important. The git-exported name is literally just
prefixed with the specified string, so you can also do something like
- checkout-cache --prefix=.merged- Makefile
+ git-checkout-cache --prefix=.merged- Makefile
to check out the currently cached copy of "Makefile" into the file
".merged-Makefile".
################################################################
-commit-tree
- commit-tree <tree> [-p <parent commit>]* < changelog
+git-commit-tree
+ git-commit-tree <tree> [-p <parent commit>]* < changelog
Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and
emits the new commit object id on stdout. If no parent is given then
@@ -208,7 +208,7 @@ A commit encapsulates:
author name, email and date
committer name and email and the commit time.
-If not provided, commit-tree uses your name, hostname and domain to
+If not provided, git-commit-tree uses your name, hostname and domain to
provide author and committer info. This can be overridden using the
following environment variables.
AUTHOR_NAME
@@ -219,28 +219,30 @@ following environment variables.
(nb <,> and '\n's are stripped)
A commit comment is read from stdin (max 999 chars). If a changelog
-entry is not provided via '<' redirection, commit-tree will just wait
+entry is not provided via '<' redirection, git-commit-tree will just wait
for one to be entered and terminated with ^D
-see also: write-tree
+see also: git-write-tree
################################################################
-diff-cache
- diff-cache [-p] [-r] [-z] [--cached] <tree/commit>
+git-diff-cache
+ git-diff-cache [-p] [-r] [-z] [--cached] <tree-ish>
Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via a tree object
with the content of the current cache and, optionally ignoring the
stat state of the file on disk.
-<tree/commit>
- The id of a tree or commit object to diff against.
+<tree-ish>
+ The id of a tree object to diff against.
-p
- generate patch (see section on generating patches)
+ Generate patch (see section on generating patches)
-r
- recurse
+ This flag does not mean anything. It is there only to match
+ git-diff-tree. Unlike git-diff-tree, git-diff-cache always looks
+ at all the subdirectories.
-z
\0 line termination on output
@@ -250,7 +252,8 @@ stat state of the file on disk.
Output format:
-See "Output format from diff-cache, diff-tree and show-diff" section.
+See "Output format from git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree and git-diff-files"
+section.
Operating Modes
@@ -262,68 +265,69 @@ of these operations are very useful indeed.
Cached Mode
If --cached is specified, it allows you to ask:
+
show me the differences between HEAD and the current index
- contents (the ones I'd write with a "write-tree")
+ contents (the ones I'd write with a "git-write-tree")
For example, let's say that you have worked on your index file, and are
ready to commit. You want to see eactly _what_ you are going to commit is
without having to write a new tree object and compare it that way, and to
do that, you just do
- diff-cache --cached $(cat .git/HEAD)
+ git-diff-cache --cached $(cat .git/HEAD)
-Example: let's say I had renamed "commit.c" to "git-commit.c", and I had
-done an "upate-cache" to make that effective in the index file.
-"show-diff" wouldn't show anything at all, since the index file matches
-my working directory. But doing a diff-cache does:
- torvalds@ppc970:~/git> diff-cache --cached $(cat .git/HEAD)
- -100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 commit.c
- +100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 git-commit.c
+Example: let's say I had renamed "commit.c" to "git-commit.c", and I had
+done an "git-update-cache" to make that effective in the index file.
+"git-diff-files" wouldn't show anything at all, since the index file
+matches my working directory. But doing a git-diff-cache does:
+
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git-diff-cache --cached $(cat .git/HEAD)
+ -100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 commit.c
+ +100644 blob 4161aecc6700a2eb579e842af0b7f22b98443f74 git-commit.c
-And as you can see, the output matches "diff-tree -r" output (we
-always do equivalent of "-r", since the index is flat).
You can trivially see that the above is a rename.
-In fact, "diff-cache --cached" _should_ always be entirely equivalent to
-actually doing a "write-tree" and comparing that. Except this one is much
+In fact, "git-diff-cache --cached" _should_ always be entirely equivalent to
+actually doing a "git-write-tree" and comparing that. Except this one is much
nicer for the case where you just want to check where you are.
-So doing a "diff-cache --cached" is basically very useful when you are
+So doing a "git-diff-cache --cached" is basically very useful when you are
asking yourself "what have I already marked for being committed, and
what's the difference to a previous tree".
Non-cached Mode
-The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially
-the even more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated
-with a "write-tree + diff-tree". Thus that's the default mode. The
+The "non-cached" mode takes a different approach, and is potentially the
+even more useful of the two in that what it does can't be emulated with a
+"git-write-tree + git-diff-tree". Thus that's the default mode. The
non-cached version asks the question
"show me the differences between HEAD and the currently checked out
tree - index contents _and_ files that aren't up-to-date"
which is obviously a very useful question too, since that tells you what
-you _could_ commit. Again, the output matches the "diff-tree -r" output to
-a tee, but with a twist.
+you _could_ commit. Again, the output matches the "git-diff-tree -r"
+output to a tee, but with a twist.
The twist is that if some file doesn't match the cache, we don't have a
backing store thing for it, and we use the magic "all-zero" sha1 to show
that. So let's say that you have edited "kernel/sched.c", but have not
-actually done an update-cache on it yet - there is no "object" associated
+actually done an git-update-cache on it yet - there is no "object" associated
with the new state, and you get:
- torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> diff-cache $(cat .git/HEAD )
- *100644->100664 blob 7476bbcfe5ef5a1dd87d745f298b831143e4d77e->0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 kernel/sched.c
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/v2.6/linux> git-diff-cache $(cat .git/HEAD )
+ *100644->100664 blob 7476bb......->000000...... kernel/sched.c
ie it shows that the tree has changed, and that "kernel/sched.c" has is
not up-to-date and may contain new stuff. The all-zero sha1 means that to
get the real diff, you need to look at the object in the working directory
directly rather than do an object-to-object diff.
-NOTE! As with other commands of this type, "diff-cache" does not actually
-look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe "kernel/sched.c" hasn't
-actually changed, and it's just that you touched it. In either case, it's
-a note that you need to upate-cache it to make the cache be in sync.
+NOTE! As with other commands of this type, "git-diff-cache" does not
+actually look at the contents of the file at all. So maybe
+"kernel/sched.c" hasn't actually changed, and it's just that you touched
+it. In either case, it's a note that you need to upate-cache it to make
+the cache be in sync.
NOTE 2! You can have a mixture of files show up as "has been updated" and
"is still dirty in the working directory" together. You can always tell
@@ -332,25 +336,26 @@ valid sha1, and the "not in sync with the index" ones will always have the
special all-zero sha1.
################################################################
-diff-tree
- diff-tree [-p] [-r] [-z] <tree/commit> <tree/commit> [<pattern>]*
+git-diff-tree
+ git-diff-tree [-p] [-r] [-z] <tree-ish> <tree-ish> [<pattern>]*
Compares the content and mode of the blobs found via two tree objects.
-Note that diff-tree can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.
+Note that git-diff-tree can use the tree encapsulated in a commit object.
-<tree sha1>
- The id of a tree or commit object.
+<tree-ish>
+ The id of a tree object.
<pattern>
-
If provided, the results are limited to a subset of files
matching one of these prefix strings.
ie file matches /^<pattern1>|<pattern2>|.../
- Note that pattern does not provide any wildcard or regexp features.
+ Note that pattern does not provide any wildcard or regexp
+ features.
-p
- generate patch (see section on generating patches)
+ generate patch (see section on generating patches). For
+ git-diff-tree, this flag implies -r as well.
-r
recurse
@@ -363,88 +368,109 @@ Limiting Output
If you're only interested in differences in a subset of files, for
example some architecture-specific files, you might do:
- diff-tree -r <tree/commit> <tree/commit> arch/ia64 include/asm-ia64
+ git-diff-tree -r <tree-ish> <tree-ish> arch/ia64 include/asm-ia64
and it will only show you what changed in those two directories.
Or if you are searching for what changed in just kernel/sched.c, just do
- diff-tree -r <tree/commit> <tree/commit> kernel/sched.c
+ git-diff-tree -r <tree-ish> <tree-ish> kernel/sched.c
and it will ignore all differences to other files.
-The pattern is always the prefix, and is matched exactly (ie there are no
-wildcards - although matching a directory, which it does support, can
-obviously be seen as a "wildcard" for all the files under that directory).
+The pattern is always the prefix, and is matched exactly. There are no
+wildcards. Even stricter, it has to match complete path comonent.
+I.e. "foo" does not pick up "foobar.h". "foo" does match "foo/bar.h"
+so it can be used to name subdirectories.
Output format:
-See "Output format from diff-cache, diff-tree and show-diff" section.
+See "Output format from git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree and git-diff-files"
+section.
An example of normal usage is:
- torvalds@ppc970:~/git> diff-tree 5319e4d609cdd282069cc4dce33c1db559539b03 b4e628ea30d5ab3606119d2ea5caeab141d38df7
- *100664->100664 blob ac348b7d5278e9d04e3a1cd417389379c32b014f->a01513ed4d4d565911a60981bfb4173311ba3688 fsck-cache.c
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/git> git-diff-tree 5319e4......
+ *100664->100664 blob ac348b.......->a01513....... git-fsck-cache.c
which tells you that the last commit changed just one file (it's from
this one:
- commit 3c6f7ca19ad4043e9e72fa94106f352897e651a8
- tree 5319e4d609cdd282069cc4dce33c1db559539b03
- parent b4e628ea30d5ab3606119d2ea5caeab141d38df7
- author Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
- committer Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
+ commit 3c6f7ca19ad4043e9e72fa94106f352897e651a8
+ tree 5319e4d609cdd282069cc4dce33c1db559539b03
+ parent b4e628ea30d5ab3606119d2ea5caeab141d38df7
+ author Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
+ committer Linus Torvalds <torvalds@ppc970.osdl.org> Sat Apr 9 12:02:30 2005
- Make "fsck-cache" print out all the root commits it finds.
+ Make "git-fsck-cache" print out all the root commits it finds.
- Once I do the reference tracking, I'll also make it print out all the
- HEAD commits it finds, which is even more interesting.
+ Once I do the reference tracking, I'll also make it print out all the
+ HEAD commits it finds, which is even more interesting.
in case you care).
################################################################
-diff-tree-helper
- diff-tree-helper [-z]
+git-diff-tree-helper
+ git-diff-tree-helper [-z] [-R]
-Reads output from diff-cache, diff-tree and show-diff and
+Reads output from git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree and git-diff-files and
generates patch format output.
-z
\0 line termination on input
+-R
+ Output diff in reverse. This is useful for displaying output from
+ git-diff-cache which always compares tree with cache or working
+ file. E.g.
+
+ git-diff-cache <tree> | git-diff-tree-helper -R file.c
+
+ would show a diff to bring the working file back to what is in the
+ <tree>.
+
See also the section on generating patches.
################################################################
-fsck-cache
- fsck-cache [[--unreachable] <commit>*]
+git-fsck-cache
+ git-fsck-cache [--tags] [--root] [[--unreachable] [--cache] <object>*]
Verifies the connectivity and validity of the objects in the database.
-<commit>
- A commit object to treat as the head of an unreachability
- trace
+<object>
+ An object to treat as the head of an unreachability trace.
--unreachable
- print out objects that exist but that aren't readable from any
- of the specified root nodes
+ Print out objects that exist but that aren't readable from any
+ of the specified head nodes.
-It tests SHA1 and general object sanity, but it does full tracking of
+--root
+ Report root nodes.
+
+--tags
+ Report tags.
+
+--cache
+ Consider any object recorded in the cache also as a head node for
+ an unreachability trace.
+
+It tests SHA1 and general object sanity, and it does full tracking of
the resulting reachability and everything else. It prints out any
corruption it finds (missing or bad objects), and if you use the
"--unreachable" flag it will also print out objects that exist but
-that aren't readable from any of the specified root nodes.
+that aren't readable from any of the specified head nodes.
So for example
- fsck-cache --unreachable $(cat .git/HEAD)
+ git-fsck-cache --unreachable $(cat .git/HEAD)
or, for Cogito users:
- fsck-cache --unreachable $(cat .git/heads/*)
+ git-fsck-cache --unreachable $(cat .git/refs/heads/*)
will do quite a _lot_ of verification on the tree. There are a few
extra validity tests to be added (make sure that tree objects are
-sorted properly etc), but on the whole if "fsck-cache" is happy, you
+sorted properly etc), but on the whole if "git-fsck-cache" is happy, you
do have a valid tree.
Any corrupt objects you will have to find in backups or other archives
@@ -481,7 +507,7 @@ dangling <type> <object>
The <type> object <object>, is present in the database but never
_directly_ used. A dangling commit could be a root node.
-warning: fsck-cache: tree <tree> has full pathnames in it
+warning: git-fsck-cache: tree <tree> has full pathnames in it
And it shouldn't...
sha1 mismatch <object>
@@ -496,50 +522,41 @@ Environment Variables
SHA1_FILE_DIRECTORY
used to specify the object database root (usually .git/objects)
+GIT_INDEX_FILE
+ used to specify the cache
+
################################################################
git-export
git-export top [base]
-probably deprecated:
-On Wed, 20 Apr 2005, Petr Baudis wrote:
->> I will probably not buy git-export, though. (That is, it is merged, but
->> I won't make git frontend for it.) My "git export" already does
->> something different, but more importantly, "git patch" of mine already
->> does effectively the same thing as you do, just for a single patch; so I
->> will probably just extend it to do it for an (a,b] range of patches.
-
-
-That's fine. It was a quick hack, just to show that if somebody wants to,
-the data is trivially exportable.
+Exports each commit and diff against each of its parents, between
+top and base. If base is not specified it exports everything.
- Linus
-
-Although in Linus' distribution, git-export is not part of 'core' git.
################################################################
-init-db
- init-db
+git-init-db
+ git-init-db
This simply creates an empty git object database - basically a .git
-directory.
+directory and .git/object/??/ directories.
-If the object storage directory is specified via the
-SHA1_FILE_DIRECTORY environment variable then the sha1 directories are
-created underneath - otherwise the default .git/objects directory is
-used.
+If the object storage directory is specified via the SHA1_FILE_DIRECTORY
+environment variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath -
+otherwise the default .git/objects directory is used.
-init-db won't hurt an existing repository.
+git-init-db won't hurt an existing repository.
################################################################
-ls-tree
- ls-tree [-r] [-z] <tree/commit>
+git-ls-tree
+ git-ls-tree [-r] [-z] <tree-ish>
-convert the tree object to a human readable (and script
-processable) form.
+Converts the tree object to a human readable (and script processable)
+form.
+
+<tree-ish>
+ Id of a tree.
-<tree/commit>
- Id of a tree or commit object.
-r
recurse into sub-trees
@@ -547,37 +564,36 @@ processable) form.
\0 line termination on output
Output Format
-<mode>\t <type>\t <object>\t <path><file>
+<mode>\t <type>\t <object>\t <file>
################################################################
-merge-base
- merge-base <commit> <commit>
+git-merge-base
+ git-merge-base <commit> <commit>
-merge-base finds as good a common ancestor as possible. Given a
+git-merge-base finds as good a common ancestor as possible. Given a
selection of equally good common ancestors it should not be relied on
to decide in any particular way.
-The merge-base algorithm is still in flux - use the source...
+The git-merge-base algorithm is still in flux - use the source...
################################################################
-merge-cache
- merge-cache <merge-program> (-a | -- | <file>*)
+git-merge-cache
+ git-merge-cache <merge-program> (-a | -- | <file>*)
This looks up the <file>(s) in the cache and, if there are any merge
-entries, unpacks all of them (which may be just one file, of course)
-into up to three separate temporary files, and then executes the
-supplied <merge-program> with those three files as arguments 1,2,3
-(empty argument if no file), and <file> as argument 4.
+entries, passes the SHA1 hash for those files as arguments 1, 2, 3 (empty
+argument if no file), and <file> as argument 4. File modes for the three
+files are passed as arguments 5, 6 and 7.
--
- Interpret all future arguments as filenames
+ Interpret all future arguments as filenames.
-a
Run merge against all files in the cache that need merging.
-If merge-cache is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
+If git-merge-cache is called with multiple <file>s (or -a) then it
processes them in turn only stopping if merge returns a non-zero exit
code.
@@ -594,84 +610,83 @@ original is first. But the argument order to the 3-way merge program
Examples:
- torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> merge-cache cat MM
- This is MM from the original tree. # original
- This is modified MM in the branch A. # merge1
- This is modified MM in the branch B. # merge2
- This is modified MM in the branch B. # current contents
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git-merge-cache cat MM
+ This is MM from the original tree. # original
+ This is modified MM in the branch A. # merge1
+ This is modified MM in the branch B. # merge2
+ This is modified MM in the branch B. # current contents
or
- torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> merge-cache cat AA MM
- cat: : No such file or directory
- This is added AA in the branch A.
- This is added AA in the branch B.
- This is added AA in the branch B.
- fatal: merge program failed
+ torvalds@ppc970:~/merge-test> git-merge-cache cat AA MM
+ cat: : No such file or directory
+ This is added AA in the branch A.
+ This is added AA in the branch B.
+ This is added AA in the branch B.
+ fatal: merge program failed
-where the latter example shows how "merge-cache" will stop trying to
+where the latter example shows how "git-merge-cache" will stop trying to
merge once anything has returned an error (ie "cat" returned an error
for the AA file, because it didn't exist in the original, and thus
-"merge-cache" didn't even try to merge the MM thing).
+"git-merge-cache" didn't even try to merge the MM thing).
################################################################
-read-tree
- read-tree (<tree/commit> | -m <tree/commit1> [<tree/commit2> <tree/commit3>])"
+git-read-tree
+ git-read-tree (<tree-ish> | -m <tree-ish1> [<tree-ish2> <tree-ish3>])"
Reads the tree information given by <tree> into the directory cache,
but does not actually _update_ any of the files it "caches". (see:
-checkout-cache)
+git-checkout-cache)
Optionally, it can merge a tree into the cache or perform a 3-way
merge.
-Trivial merges are done by read-tree itself. Only conflicting paths
-will be in unmerged state when read-tree returns.
+Trivial merges are done by git-read-tree itself. Only conflicting paths
+will be in unmerged state when git-read-tree returns.
-m
Perform a merge, not just a read
-<tree#>
+<tree-ish#>
The id of the tree object(s) to be read/merged.
Merging
-If -m is specified, read-tree performs 2 kinds of merge, a single tree
+If -m is specified, git-read-tree performs 2 kinds of merge, a single tree
merge if only 1 tree is given or a 3-way merge if 3 trees are
provided.
Single Tree Merge
-If only 1 tree is specified, read-tree operates as if the user did not
+If only 1 tree is specified, git-read-tree operates as if the user did not
specify "-m", except that if the original cache has an entry for a
given pathname; and the contents of the path matches with the tree
being read, the stat info from the cache is used. (In other words, the
cache's stat()s take precedence over the merged tree's)
-That means that if you do a "read-tree -m <newtree>" followed by a
-"checkout-cache -f -a", the checkout-cache only checks out the stuff
+That means that if you do a "git-read-tree -m <newtree>" followed by a
+"git-checkout-cache -f -a", the git-checkout-cache only checks out the stuff
that really changed.
-This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when show-diff is
-run after read-tree.
+This is used to avoid unnecessary false hits when git-diff-files is
+run after git-read-tree.
3-Way Merge
Each "index" entry has two bits worth of "stage" state. stage 0 is the
normal one, and is the only one you'd see in any kind of normal use.
-However, when you do "read-tree" with multiple trees, the "stage"
-starts out at 0, but increments for each tree you read. And in
-particular, the "-m" flag means "start at stage 1" instead.
+However, when you do "git-read-tree" with three trees, the "stage"
+starts out at 1.
This means that you can do
- read-tree -m <tree1> <tree2> <tree3>
+ git-read-tree -m <tree1> <tree2> <tree3>
and you will end up with an index with all of the <tree1> entries in
"stage1", all of the <tree2> entries in "stage2" and all of the
<tree3> entries in "stage3".
-Furthermore, "read-tree" has special-case logic that says: if you see
+Furthermore, "git-read-tree" has special-case logic that says: if you see
a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
"collapses" back to "stage0":
@@ -684,9 +699,9 @@ a file that matches in all respects in the following states, it
- stage 1 and stage 3 are the same and stage 2 is different take
stage 2 (some work has been done on stage 2)
-Write-tree refuses to write a nonsensical tree, so write-tree will
-complain about unmerged entries if it sees a single entry that is not
-stage 0".
+The git-write-tree command refuses to write a nonsensical tree, and it
+will complain about unmerged entries if it sees a single entry that is not
+stage 0.
Ok, this all sounds like a collection of totally nonsensical rules,
but it's actually exactly what you want in order to do a fast
@@ -694,17 +709,17 @@ merge. The different stages represent the "result tree" (stage 0, aka
"merged"), the original tree (stage 1, aka "orig"), and the two trees
you are trying to merge (stage 2 and 3 respectively).
-In fact, the way "read-tree" works, it's entirely agnostic about how
+In fact, the way "git-read-tree" works, it's entirely agnostic about how
you assign the stages, and you could really assign them any which way,
and the above is just a suggested way to do it (except since
-"write-tree" refuses to write anything but stage0 entries, it makes
+"git-write-tree" refuses to write anything but stage0 entries, it makes
sense to always consider stage 0 to be the "full merge" state).
So what happens? Try it out. Select the original tree, and two trees
to merge, and look how it works:
- if a file exists in identical format in all three trees, it will
- automatically collapse to "merged" state by the new read-tree.
+ automatically collapse to "merged" state by the new git-read-tree.
- a file that has _any_ difference what-so-ever in the three trees
will stay as separate entries in the index. It's up to "script
@@ -728,18 +743,18 @@ So now the merge algorithm ends up being really simple:
turn the other into a "stage0" entry. Remove any matching "stage1"
entry if it exists too. .. all the normal trivial rules ..
-Incidentally - it also means that you don't even have to have a separate
-subdirectory for this. All the information literally is in the index file,
-which is a temporary thing anyway. There is no need to worry about what is in
-the working directory, since it is never shown and never used.
+Incidentally - it also means that you don't even have to have a separate
+subdirectory for this. All the information literally is in the index file,
+which is a temporary thing anyway. There is no need to worry about what is
+in the working directory, since it is never shown and never used.
see also:
-write-tree
-show-files
+git-write-tree
+git-ls-files
################################################################
-rev-list <commit>
+git-rev-list <commit>
Lists commit objects in reverse chronological order starting at the
given commit, taking ancestry relationship into account. This is
@@ -747,8 +762,8 @@ useful to produce human-readable log output.
################################################################
-rev-tree
- rev-tree [--edges] [--cache <cache-file>] [^]<commit> [[^]<commit>]
+git-rev-tree
+ git-rev-tree [--edges] [--cache <cache-file>] [^]<commit> [[^]<commit>]
Provides the revision tree for one or more commits.
@@ -757,7 +772,10 @@ Provides the revision tree for one or more commits.
and child)
--cache <cache-file>
- Use the specified file as a cache. [Not implemented yet]
+ Use the specified file as a cache from a previous git-rev-list run
+ to speed things up. Note that this "cache" is totally different
+ concept from the directory index. Also this option is not
+ implemented yet.
[^]<commit>
The commit id to trace (a leading caret means to ignore this
@@ -780,7 +798,7 @@ Output:
The flags are read as a bitmask representing each commit
provided on the commandline. eg: given the command:
- $ rev-tree <com1> <com2> <com3>
+ $ git-rev-tree <com1> <com2> <com3>
The output:
@@ -788,14 +806,14 @@ Output:
means that <commit> is reachable from <com1>(1) and <com3>(4)
-A revtree can get quite large. rev-tree will eventually allow you to
+A revtree can get quite large. git-rev-tree will eventually allow you to
cache previous state so that you don't have to follow the whole thing
down.
So the change difference between two commits is literally
- rev-tree [commit-id1] > commit1-revtree
- rev-tree [commit-id2] > commit2-revtree
+ git-rev-tree [commit-id1] > commit1-revtree
+ git-rev-tree [commit-id2] > commit2-revtree
join -t : commit1-revtree commit2-revtree > common-revisions
(this is also how to find the most common parent - you'd look at just
@@ -805,30 +823,35 @@ think.)
################################################################
-show-diff
- show-diff [-p] [-q] [-s] [-z] [paths...]
+git-diff-files
+ git-diff-files [-p] [-q] [-r] [-z] [<pattern>...]
Compares the files in the working tree and the cache. When paths
are specified, compares only those named paths. Otherwise all
entries in the cache are compared. The output format is the
-same as diff-cache and diff-tree.
+same as git-diff-cache and git-diff-tree.
-p
- generate patch (see section on generating patches)
+ generate patch (see section on generating patches).
-q
Remain silent even on nonexisting files
--s
- Does not do anything other than what -q does.
+-r
+ This flag does not mean anything. It is there only to match
+ git-diff-tree. Unlike git-diff-tree, git-diff-files always looks
+ at all the subdirectories.
+
Output format:
-See "Output format from diff-cache, diff-tree and show-diff" section.
+See "Output format from git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree and git-diff-files"
+section.
+
################################################################
-show-files
- show-files [-z] [-t]
+git-ls-files
+ git-ls-files [-z] [-t]
(--[cached|deleted|others|ignored|stage|unmerged])*
(-[c|d|o|i|s|u])*
[-x <pattern>|--exclude=<pattern>]
@@ -860,14 +883,6 @@ shown:
-u|--unmerged
Show unmerged files in the output (forces --stage)
-#-t [not in Linus' tree (yet?)]
-# Identify the file status with the following tags (followed by
-# a space) at the start of each line:
-# H cached
-# M unmerged
-# R removed/deleted
-# ? other
-
-z
\0 line termination on output
@@ -880,7 +895,7 @@ shown:
Allows the use of the famous dontdiff file as follows to find
out about uncommitted files just as dontdiff is used with
the diff command:
- show-files --others --exclude-from=dontdiff
+ git-ls-files --others --exclude-from=dontdiff
Output
show files just outputs the filename unless --stage is specified in
@@ -888,7 +903,7 @@ which case it outputs:
[<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>
-show-files --unmerged" and "show-files --stage " can be used to examine
+git-ls-files --unmerged" and "git-ls-files --stage " can be used to examine
detailed information on unmerged paths.
For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA1 pair,
@@ -902,8 +917,8 @@ read-cache
################################################################
-unpack-file
- unpack-file <blob>
+git-unpack-file
+ git-unpack-file <blob>
Creates a file holding the contents of the blob specified by sha1. It
returns the name of the temporary file in the following format:
@@ -913,16 +928,19 @@ returns the name of the temporary file in the following format:
Must be a blob id
################################################################
-update-cache
- update-cache [--add] [--remove] [--refresh [--ignore-missing]]
- [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>]*
- [--] [<file>]*
+git-update-cache
+ git-update-cache
+ [--add] [--remove] [--refresh]
+ [--ignore-missing]
+ [--force-remove <file>]
+ [--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <file>]*
+ [--] [<file>]*
Modifies the index or directory cache. Each file mentioned is updated
into the cache and any 'unmerged' or 'needs updating' state is
cleared.
-The way update-cache handles files it is told about can be modified
+The way git-update-cache handles files it is told about can be modified
using the various options:
--add
@@ -945,6 +963,10 @@ using the various options:
--cacheinfo <mode> <object> <path>
Directly insert the specified info into the cache.
+--force-remove
+ Remove the file from the index even when the working directory
+ still has such a file.
+
--
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
@@ -955,16 +977,14 @@ using the various options:
cleaner names.
The same applies to directories ending '/' and paths with '//'
-
Using --refresh
-
--refresh does not calculate a new sha1 file or bring the cache
up-to-date for mode/content changes. But what it _does_ do is to
"re-match" the stat information of a file with the cache, so that you
can refresh the cache for a file that hasn't been changed but where
the stat entry is out of date.
-For example, you'd want to do this after doing a "read-tree", to link
+For example, you'd want to do this after doing a "git-read-tree", to link
up the stat cache details with the proper files.
Using --cacheinfo
@@ -973,48 +993,48 @@ working directory. This is useful for minimum-checkout merging.
To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
- $ update-cache --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
+ $ git-update-cache --cacheinfo mode sha1 path
To update and refresh only the files already checked out:
- checkout-cache -n -f -a && update-cache --ignore-missing --refresh
+ git-checkout-cache -n -f -a && git-update-cache --ignore-missing --refresh
################################################################
-write-tree
- write-tree
+git-write-tree
+ git-write-tree
Creates a tree object using the current cache.
The cache must be merged.
-Conceptually, write-tree sync()s the current directory cache contents
+Conceptually, git-write-tree sync()s the current directory cache contents
into a set of tree files.
In order to have that match what is actually in your directory right
-now, you need to have done a "update-cache" phase before you did the
-"write-tree".
+now, you need to have done a "git-update-cache" phase before you did the
+"git-write-tree".
################################################################
-Output format from diff-cache, diff-tree and show-diff.
+Output format from git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree and git-diff-files.
These commands all compare two sets of things; what are
compared are different:
- diff-cache <tree/commit>
+ git-diff-cache <tree-ish>
- compares the <tree/commit> and the files on the filesystem.
+ compares the <tree-ish> and the files on the filesystem.
- diff-cache --cached <tree/commit>
+ git-diff-cache --cached <tree-ish>
- compares the <tree/commit> and the cache.
+ compares the <tree-ish> and the cache.
- diff-tree [-r] <tree/commit-1> <tree/commit-2> [paths...]
+ git-diff-tree [-r] <tree-ish-1> <tree-ish-2> [<pattern>...]
compares the trees named by the two arguments.
- show-diff [paths...]
+ git-diff-files [<pattern>...]
compares the cache and the files on the filesystem.
@@ -1033,42 +1053,33 @@ For files that differ:
<new-sha1> is shown as all 0's if new is a file on the
filesystem and it is out of sync with the cache. Example:
- *100644->100660 blob 5be4a414b32cf4204f889469942986d3d783da84->0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 file.c
+ *100644->100644 blob 5be4a4.......->000000....... file.c
################################################################
Generating patches
-When diff-cache, diff-tree, or show-diff are run with a -p
-option, they do not produce the output described in "Output
-format from diff-cache, diff-tree and show-diff" section. It
-instead produces a patch file.
+When git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree, or git-diff-files are run with a -p
+option, they do not produce the output described in "Output format from
+git-diff-cache, git-diff-tree and git-diff-files" section. It instead
+produces a patch file.
The patch generation can be customized at two levels. This
-customization also applies to diff-tree-helper.
+customization also applies to git-diff-tree-helper.
1. When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is not set,
these commands internally invoke diff like this:
- diff -L k/<path> -L l/<path> -pu <old> <new>
+ diff -L a/<path> -L a/<path> -pu <old> <new>
For added files, /dev/null is used for <old>. For removed
files, /dev/null is used for <new>
- The first part of the above command-line can be customized via
- the environment variable GIT_DIFF_CMD. For example, if you
- do not want to show the extra level of leading path, you can
- say this:
-
- GIT_DIFF_CMD="diff -L'%s' -L'%s'" show-diff -p
-
- Caution: Do not use more than two '%s' in GIT_DIFF_CMD.
-
The diff formatting options can be customized via the
environment variable GIT_DIFF_OPTS. For example, if you
prefer context diff:
- GIT_DIFF_OPTS=-c diff-cache -p $(cat .git/HEAD)
+ GIT_DIFF_OPTS=-c git-diff-cache -p $(cat .git/HEAD)
2. When the environment variable GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is set, the
@@ -1086,12 +1097,11 @@ customization also applies to diff-tree-helper.
<old|new>-hex are the 40-hexdigit SHA1 hashes,
<old|new>-mode are the octal representation of the file modes.
- The file parameters can point at the user's working file
- (e.g. new-file in show-diff), /dev/null (e.g. old-file when a
- new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the
- cache). GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF should not worry about
- unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed when
- GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
+ The file parameters can point at the user's working file (e.g. new-file
+ in git-diff-files), /dev/null (e.g. old-file when a new file is added),
+ or a temporary file (e.g. old-file in the cache). GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
+ should not worry about unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed
+ when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF exits.
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is called with
1 parameter, path.
@@ -1119,10 +1129,7 @@ AUTHOR_EMAIL
AUTHOR_DATE
COMMIT_AUTHOR_NAME
COMMIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL
-GIT_DIFF_CMD
GIT_DIFF_OPTS
GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
GIT_INDEX_FILE
SHA1_FILE_DIRECTORY
-
-