path: root/Documentation
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authorJunio C Hamano <>2015-10-16 18:27:42 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <>2015-10-16 22:27:52 (GMT)
commit33e8fc87407505c3a96792fc47189d57b97b34c3 (patch)
tree19f879dcf9af22e72f1d0c61411d661bb77bf4d6 /Documentation
parent3c3d3f629a6176b401ebec455c5dd59ed1b5f910 (diff)
usage: do not insist that standard input must come from a file
The synopsys text and the usage string of subcommands that read list of things from the standard input are often shown like this: git gostak [--distim] < <list-of-doshes> This is problematic in a number of ways: * The way to use these commands is more often to feed them the output from another command, not feed them from a file. * Manual pages outside Git, commands that operate on the data read from the standard input, e.g "sort", "grep", "sed", etc., are not described with such a "< redirection-from-file" in their synopsys text. Our doing so introduces inconsistency. * We do not insist on where the output should go, by saying git gostak [--distim] < <list-of-doshes> > <output> * As it is our convention to enclose placeholders inside <braket>, the redirection operator followed by a placeholder filename becomes very hard to read, both in the documentation and in the help text. Let's clean them all up, after making sure that the documentation clearly describes the modes that take information from the standard input and what kind of things are expected on the input. [jc: stole example for fmt-merge-msg from Jonathan] Helped-by: Jonathan Nieder <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
13 files changed, 51 insertions, 28 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 3105fc0..eb3d694 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git cat-file' (-t [--allow-unknown-type]| -s [--allow-unknown-type]| -e | -p | <type> | --textconv ) <object>
-'git cat-file' (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks] < <list-of-objects>
+'git cat-file' (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 00e2aa2..aa3b2bf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git check-attr' [-a | --all | attr...] [--] pathname...
-'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | attr...] < <list-of-paths>
+'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | attr...]
@@ -28,7 +28,8 @@ OPTIONS
Consider `.gitattributes` in the index only, ignoring the working tree.
- Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+ Read pathnames from the standard input, one per line,
+ instead of from the command-line.
The output format is modified to be machine-parseable.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
index e35cd04..59531ab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git check-ignore' [options] pathname...
-'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin < <list-of-paths>
+'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin
@@ -35,7 +35,8 @@ OPTIONS
for each given pathname.
- Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+ Read pathnames from the standard input, one per line,
+ instead of from the command-line.
The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index a0b5457..48c33d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object
-'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
+'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
[(-F <file>)...] <tree>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 55a9a4b..6526b17 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-fmt-merge-msg - Produce a merge commit message
-'git fmt-merge-msg' [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log] <$GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD
+'git fmt-merge-msg' [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log]
'git fmt-merge-msg' [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log] -F <file>
@@ -57,6 +57,18 @@ merge.summary::
Synonym to `merge.log`; this is deprecated and will be removed in
the future.
+$ git fetch origin master
+$ git fmt-merge-msg --log <$GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD
+Print a log message describing a merge of the "master" branch from
+the "origin" remote.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
index 1e2a20d..ac44d85 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
@@ -9,17 +9,19 @@ git-get-tar-commit-id - Extract commit ID from an archive created using git-arch
-'git get-tar-commit-id' < <tarfile>
+'git get-tar-commit-id'
-Acts as a filter, extracting the commit ID stored in archives created by
-'git archive'. It reads only the first 1024 bytes of input, thus its
-runtime is not influenced by the size of <tarfile> very much.
+Read a tar archive created by 'git archive' from the standard input
+and extract the commit ID stored in it. It reads only the first
+1024 bytes of input, thus its runtime is not influenced by the size
+of the tar archive very much.
If no commit ID is found, 'git get-tar-commit-id' quietly exists with a
-return code of 1. This can happen if <tarfile> had not been created
+return code of 1. This can happen if the archive had not been created
using 'git archive' or if the first parameter of 'git archive' had been
a tree ID instead of a commit ID or tag.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index 0c75f3b..814e744 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--path=<file>|--no-filters] [--stdin [--literally]] [--] <file>...
-'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths [--no-filters] < <list-of-paths>
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths [--no-filters]
@@ -35,7 +35,8 @@ OPTIONS
Read the object from standard input instead of from a file.
- Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+ Read file names from the standard input, one per line, instead
+ of from the command-line.
Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
index 3ca158b..fa6a756 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-mktag - Creates a tag object
-'git mktag' < signature_file
+'git mktag'
@@ -20,7 +20,8 @@ The output is the new tag's <object> identifier.
Tag Format
-A tag signature file has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
+A tag signature file, to be fed to this command's standard input,
+has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
object <sha1>
type <typename>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 31efc58..cf71fba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -8,10 +8,12 @@ git-patch-id - Compute unique ID for a patch
-'git patch-id' [--stable | --unstable] < <patch>
+'git patch-id' [--stable | --unstable]
+Read a patch from the standard input and compute the patch ID for it.
A "patch ID" is nothing but a sum of SHA-1 of the file diffs associated with a
patch, with whitespace and line numbers ignored. As such, it's "reasonably
stable", but at the same time also reasonably unique, i.e., two patches that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index fbdc8ad..a8a9509 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -9,13 +9,14 @@ git-show-index - Show packed archive index
-'git show-index' < idx-file
+'git show-index'
-Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with
-'git pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
+Read the idx file for a Git packfile created with
+'git pack-objects' command from the standard input, and
+dump its contents.
The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index 2a6f89b..3a32451 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
'git show-ref' [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [--head] [-d|--dereference]
[-s|--hash[=<n>]] [--abbrev[=<n>]] [--tags]
[--heads] [--] [<pattern>...]
-'git show-ref' --exclude-existing[=<pattern>] < ref-list
+'git show-ref' --exclude-existing[=<pattern>]
@@ -23,8 +23,9 @@ particular ref exists.
By default, shows the tags, heads, and remote refs.
-The --exclude-existing form is a filter that does the inverse, it shows the
-refs from stdin that don't exist in the local repository.
+The --exclude-existing form is a filter that does the inverse. It reads
+refs from stdin, one ref per line, and shows those that don't exist in
+the local repository.
Use of this utility is encouraged in favor of directly accessing files under
the `.git` directory.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
index 60328d5..2438f76 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
@@ -9,14 +9,15 @@ git-stripspace - Remove unnecessary whitespace
-'git stripspace' [-s | --strip-comments] < input
-'git stripspace' [-c | --comment-lines] < input
+'git stripspace' [-s | --strip-comments]
+'git stripspace' [-c | --comment-lines]
-Clean the input in the manner used by Git for text such as commit
-messages, notes, tags and branch descriptions.
+Read text, such as commit messages, notes, tags and branch
+descriptions, from the standard input and clean it in the manner
+used by Git.
With no arguments, this will:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
index 07d4329..3e887d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@ git-unpack-objects - Unpack objects from a packed archive
-'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict] < <packfile>
+'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict]