path: root/Documentation
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authorJunio C Hamano <>2006-02-05 08:07:44 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <>2006-02-07 07:20:32 (GMT)
commit130fcca63fe8e7e087e7419907e018cbbaf434a3 (patch)
treeff880b26e448c0f13cfe16af6f47092ce5d957dd /Documentation
parent8389b52b2a51d5b110b508cc67f0f41f99c30d3f (diff)
git-commit: revamp the git-commit semantics.
- "git commit" without _any_ parameter keeps the traditional behaviour. It commits the current index. We commit the whole index even when this form is run from a subdirectory. - "git commit --include paths..." (or "git commit -i paths...") is equivalent to: git update-index --remove paths... git commit - "git commit paths..." acquires a new semantics. This is an incompatible change that needs user training, which I am still a bit reluctant to swallow, but enough people seem to have complained that it is confusing to them. It 1. refuses to run if $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD exists, and reminds trained git users that the traditional semantics now needs -i flag. 2. refuses to run if named paths... are different in HEAD and the index (ditto about reminding). Added paths are OK. 3. reads HEAD commit into a temporary index file. 4. updates named paths... from the working tree in this temporary index. 5. does the same updates of the paths... from the working tree to the real index. 6. makes a commit using the temporary index that has the current HEAD as the parent, and updates the HEAD with this new commit. - "git commit --all" can run from a subdirectory, but it updates the index with all the modified files and does a whole tree commit. - In all cases, when the command decides not to create a new commit, the index is left as it was before the command is run. This means that the two "git diff" in the following sequence: $ git diff $ git commit -a $ git diff would show the same diff if you abort the commit process by making the commit log message empty. This commit also introduces much requested --author option. $ git commit --author 'A U Thor <>' Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation')
2 files changed, 60 insertions, 7 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt
index c3eaa38..4211c81 100644
--- a/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/core-tutorial.txt
@@ -852,7 +852,7 @@ that branch, and do some work there.
$ git checkout mybranch
$ echo "Work, work, work" >>hello
-$ git commit -m 'Some work.' hello
+$ git commit -m 'Some work.' -i hello
Here, we just added another line to `hello`, and we used a shorthand for
@@ -877,7 +877,7 @@ hasn't happened in the `master` branch at all. Then do
$ echo "Play, play, play" >>hello
$ echo "Lots of fun" >>example
-$ git commit -m 'Some fun.' hello example
+$ git commit -m 'Some fun.' -i hello example
since the master branch is obviously in a much better mood.
@@ -942,7 +942,7 @@ Work, work, work
and once you're happy with your manual merge, just do a
-$ git commit hello
+$ git commit -i hello
which will very loudly warn you that you're now committing a merge
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 72f96fc..53b64fa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -8,8 +8,8 @@ git-commit - Record your changes
-'git-commit' [-a] [-s] [-v] [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg>]
- [-e] [--] <file>...
+'git-commit' [-a] [-i] [-s] [-v] [(-c | -C) <commit> | -F <file> | -m <msg>]
+ [-e] [--author <author>] [--] <file>...
@@ -40,6 +40,10 @@ OPTIONS
Take the commit message from the given file. Use '-' to
read the message from the standard input.
+--author <author>::
+ Override the author name used in the commit. Use
+ `A U Thor <>` format.
-m <msg>::
Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
@@ -63,17 +67,66 @@ OPTIONS
commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
further edit the message taken from these sources.
+ Instead of committing only the files specified on the
+ command line, update them in the index file and then
+ commit the whole index. This is the traditional
+ behaviour.
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
- Update specified paths in the index file before committing.
+ Commit only the files specified on the command line.
+ This format cannot be used during a merge, nor when the
+ index and the latest commit does not match on the
+ specified paths to avoid confusion.
If you make a commit and then found a mistake immediately after
that, you can recover from it with gitlink:git-reset[1].
+`git commit` without _any_ parameter commits the tree structure
+recorded by the current index file. This is a whole-tree commit
+even the command is invoked from a subdirectory.
+`git commit --include paths...` is equivalent to
+ git update-index --remove paths...
+ git commit
+That is, update the specified paths to the index and then commit
+the whole tree.
+`git commit paths...` largely bypasses the index file and
+commits only the changes made to the specified paths. It has
+however several safety valves to prevent confusion.
+. It refuses to run during a merge (i.e. when
+ `$GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD` exists), and reminds trained git users
+ that the traditional semantics now needs -i flag.
+. It refuses to run if named `paths...` are different in HEAD
+ and the index (ditto about reminding). Added paths are OK.
+ This is because an earlier `git diff` (not `git diff HEAD`)
+ would have shown the differences since the last `git
+ update-index paths...` to the user, and an inexperienced user
+ may mistakenly think that the changes between the index and
+ the HEAD (i.e. earlier changes made before the last `git
+ update-index paths...` was done) are not being committed.
+. It reads HEAD commit into a temporary index file, updates the
+ specified `paths...` and makes a commit. At the same time,
+ the real index file is also updated with the same `paths...`.
+`git commit --all` updates the index file with _all_ changes to
+the working tree, and makes a whole-tree commit, regardless of
+which subdirectory the command is invoked in.
Written by Linus Torvalds <> and