path: root/Documentation/user-manual.txt
diff options
authorJ. Bruce Fields <>2007-09-10 02:07:02 (GMT)
committerJ. Bruce Fields <>2007-09-23 16:57:54 (GMT)
commitfc74ecc12cd339c6d8abd1c363733e67eb50945c (patch)
tree45a19770d153ae44b3e73da8b67ade59c9129159 /Documentation/user-manual.txt
parent806ea701ce3624aa6a89648b6ca5d858703398cb (diff)
user-manual: don't assume refs are stored under .git/refs
The scripts taken from Tony Luck's howto assume all refs can be found under .git/refs, but this is not necessarily true, especially since git-gc runs git-pack-refs. Also add a note warning of this in the chapter that introduces refs, and fix the same incorrect assumption in one other spot. Signed-off-by: J. Bruce Fields <>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/user-manual.txt')
1 files changed, 11 insertions, 7 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index ecb2bf9..cf02e14 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -369,6 +369,11 @@ shorthand:
The full name is occasionally useful if, for example, there ever
exists a tag and a branch with the same name.
+(Newly created refs are actually stored in the .git/refs directory,
+under the path given by their name. However, for efficiency reasons
+they may also be packed together in a single file; see
As another useful shortcut, the "HEAD" of a repository can be referred
to just using the name of that repository. So, for example, "origin"
is usually a shortcut for the HEAD branch in the repository "origin".
@@ -2189,9 +2194,9 @@ test|release)
git checkout $1 && git pull . origin
- before=$(cat .git/refs/remotes/origin/master)
+ before=$(git rev-parse refs/remotes/origin/master)
git fetch origin
- after=$(cat .git/refs/remotes/origin/master)
+ after=$(git rev-parse refs/remotes/origin/master)
if [ $before != $after ]
git log $before..$after | git shortlog
@@ -2216,11 +2221,10 @@ usage()
exit 1
-if [ ! -f .git/refs/heads/"$1" ]
+git show-ref -q --verify -- refs/heads/"$1" || {
echo "Can't see branch <$1>" 1>&2
case "$2" in
@@ -2251,7 +2255,7 @@ then
git log test..release
-for branch in `ls .git/refs/heads`
+for branch in `git show-ref --heads | sed 's|^.*/||'`
if [ $branch = test -o $branch = release ]
@@ -2946,7 +2950,7 @@ nLE/L9aUXdWeTFPron96DLA=
See the gitlink:git-tag[1] command to learn how to create and verify tag
objects. (Note that gitlink:git-tag[1] can also be used to create
"lightweight tags", which are not tag objects at all, but just simple
-references in .git/refs/tags/).
+references whose names begin with "refs/tags/").
How git stores objects efficiently: pack files