path: root/Documentation/user-manual.txt
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authorJ. Bruce Fields <>2007-08-26 14:36:38 (GMT)
committerJ. Bruce Fields <>2007-08-26 14:36:38 (GMT)
commit5071877d2c623ffc41b48bbb49908a61051a6228 (patch)
tree1d7028d6aad3d10075ca7aff7678bd2aeaa0a4c2 /Documentation/user-manual.txt
parent6e30fb0c3241ecdf1ac47c1495bc3b58a0dc6f05 (diff)
parenta115daff12d8d26975ff15a4278a212df2c8c70b (diff)
Merge branch 'maint'
Conflicts: Documentation/user-manual.txt
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/user-manual.txt')
1 files changed, 48 insertions, 84 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index 5f7ecec..06ab79f 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -42,10 +42,9 @@ How to get a git repository
It will be useful to have a git repository to experiment with as you
read this manual.
-The best way to get one is by using the gitlink:git-clone[1] command
-to download a copy of an existing repository for a project that you
-are interested in. If you don't already have a project in mind, here
-are some interesting examples:
+The best way to get one is by using the gitlink:git-clone[1] command to
+download a copy of an existing repository. If you don't already have a
+project in mind, here are some interesting examples:
# git itself (approx. 10MB download):
@@ -63,21 +62,18 @@ directory, you will see that it contains a copy of the project files,
together with a special top-level directory named ".git", which
contains all the information about the history of the project.
-In most of the following, examples will be taken from one of the two
-repositories above.
How to check out a different version of a project
-Git is best thought of as a tool for storing the history of a
-collection of files. It stores the history as a compressed
-collection of interrelated snapshots (versions) of the project's
+Git is best thought of as a tool for storing the history of a collection
+of files. It stores the history as a compressed collection of
+interrelated snapshots of the project's contents. In git each such
+version is called a <<def_commit,commit>>.
A single git repository may contain multiple branches. It keeps track
of them by keeping a list of <<def_head,heads>> which reference the
-latest version on each branch; the gitlink:git-branch[1] command shows
+latest commit on each branch; the gitlink:git-branch[1] command shows
you the list of branch heads:
@@ -149,32 +145,27 @@ current branch:
$ git show
-commit 2b5f6dcce5bf94b9b119e9ed8d537098ec61c3d2
-Author: Jamal Hadi Salim <>
-Date: Sat Dec 2 22:22:25 2006 -0800
- [XFRM]: Fix aevent structuring to be more complete.
- aevents can not uniquely identify an SA. We break the ABI with this
- patch, but consensus is that since it is not yet utilized by any
- (known) application then it is fine (better do it now than later).
- Signed-off-by: Jamal Hadi Salim <>
- Signed-off-by: David S. Miller <>
-diff --git a/Documentation/networking/xfrm_sync.txt b/Documentation/networking/xfrm_sync.txt
-index 8be626f..d7aac9d 100644
---- a/Documentation/networking/xfrm_sync.txt
-+++ b/Documentation/networking/xfrm_sync.txt
-@@ -47,10 +47,13 @@ aevent_id structure looks like:
- struct xfrm_aevent_id {
- struct xfrm_usersa_id sa_id;
-+ xfrm_address_t saddr;
- __u32 flags;
-+ __u32 reqid;
- };
+commit 17cf781661e6d38f737f15f53ab552f1e95960d7
+Author: Linus Torvalds <>
+Date: Tue Apr 19 14:11:06 2005 -0700
+ Remove duplicate getenv(DB_ENVIRONMENT) call
+ Noted by Tony Luck.
+diff --git a/init-db.c b/init-db.c
+index 65898fa..b002dc6 100644
+--- a/init-db.c
++++ b/init-db.c
+@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
+ int main(int argc, char **argv)
+ {
+- char *sha1_dir = getenv(DB_ENVIRONMENT), *path;
++ char *sha1_dir, *path;
+ int len, i;
+ if (mkdir(".git", 0755) < 0) {
As you can see, a commit shows who made the latest change, what they
@@ -923,7 +914,7 @@ they look OK.
Finding commits referencing a file with given content
Somebody hands you a copy of a file, and asks which commits modified a
file such that it contained the given content either before or after the
@@ -1105,20 +1096,14 @@ backup files made by your editor. Of course, 'not' tracking files with git
is just a matter of 'not' calling "`git add`" on them. But it quickly becomes
annoying to have these untracked files lying around; e.g. they make
"`git add .`" and "`git commit -a`" practically useless, and they keep
-showing up in the output of "`git status`", etc.
+showing up in the output of "`git status`".
-Git therefore provides "exclude patterns" for telling git which files to
-actively ignore. Exclude patterns are thoroughly explained in the
-gitlink:gitignore[5] manual page, but the heart of the concept is simply
-a list of files which git should ignore. Entries in the list may contain
-globs to specify multiple files, or may be prefixed by "`!`" to
-explicitly include (un-ignore) a previously excluded (ignored) file
-(i.e. later exclude patterns override earlier ones). The following
-example should illustrate such patterns:
+You can tell git to ignore certain files by creating a file called .gitignore
+in the top level of your working directory, with contents such as:
# Lines starting with '#' are considered comments.
-# Ignore foo.txt.
+# Ignore any file named foo.txt.
# Ignore (generated) html files,
@@ -1128,41 +1113,20 @@ foo.txt
-The next question is where to put these exclude patterns so that git can
-find them. Git looks for exclude patterns in the following files:
-`.gitignore` files in your working tree:::
- You may store multiple `.gitignore` files at various locations in your
- working tree. Each `.gitignore` file is applied to the directory where
- it's located, including its subdirectories. Furthermore, the
- `.gitignore` files can be tracked like any other files in your working
- tree; just do a "`git add .gitignore`" and commit. `.gitignore` is
- therefore the right place to put exclude patterns that are meant to
- be shared between all project participants, such as build output files
- (e.g. `\*.o`), etc.
-`.git/info/exclude` in your repo:::
- Exclude patterns in this file are applied to the working tree as a
- whole. Since the file is not located in your working tree, it does
- not follow push/pull/clone like `.gitignore` can do. This is therefore
- the place to put exclude patterns that are local to your copy of the
- repo (i.e. 'not' shared between project participants), such as
- temporary backup files made by your editor (e.g. `\*~`), etc.
-The file specified by the `core.excludesfile` config directive:::
- By setting the `core.excludesfile` config directive you can tell git
- where to find more exclude patterns (see gitlink:git-config[1] for
- more information on configuration options). This config directive
- can be set in the per-repo `.git/config` file, in which case the
- exclude patterns will apply to that repo only. Alternatively, you
- can set the directive in the global `~/.gitconfig` file to apply
- the exclude pattern to all your git repos. As with the above
- `.git/info/exclude` (and, indeed, with git config directives in
- general), this directive does not follow push/pull/clone, but remain
- local to your repo(s).
-In addition to the above alternatives, there are git commands that can take
-exclude patterns directly on the command line. See gitlink:git-ls-files[1]
-for an example of this.
+See gitlink:gitignore[5] for a detailed explanation of the syntax. You can
+also place .gitignore files in other directories in your working tree, and they
+will apply to those directories and their subdirectories. The `.gitignore`
+files can be added to your repository like any other files (just run `git add
+.gitignore` and `git commit`, as usual), which is convenient when the exclude
+patterns (such as patterns matching build output files) would also make sense
+for other users who clone your repository.
+If you wish the exclude patterns to affect only certain repositories
+(instead of every repository for a given project), you may instead put
+them in a file in your repository named .git/info/exclude, or in any file
+specified by the `core.excludesfile` configuration variable. Some git
+commands can also take exclude patterns directly on the command line.
+See gitlink:gitignore[5] for the details.
How to merge