path: root/Documentation/tutorial.txt
diff options
authorJohannes Schindelin <>2005-10-13 18:36:37 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <>2005-10-13 18:36:37 (GMT)
commit2ae6c706749b44f05917fcd04037f545d16fb345 (patch)
tree54eb87ca717665e53be38879ae82c42387671ac0 /Documentation/tutorial.txt
parent257380896fa4d11f6b6d7773f18c153001a95b60 (diff)
Adapt tutorial to cygwin and add test case
Lacking reliable symlinks, the instructions in the tutorial did not work in a cygwin setup. Also, a few outputs were not correct. This patch fixes these, and adds a test case which follows the instructions of the tutorial (except git-clone, -fetch and -push, which I have not done yet). Signed-off-by: Johannes Schindelin <> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/tutorial.txt')
1 files changed, 52 insertions, 19 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/tutorial.txt b/Documentation/tutorial.txt
index 36f42e0..00f4bab 100644
--- a/Documentation/tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/tutorial.txt
@@ -52,7 +52,9 @@ your new project. You will now have a `.git` directory, and you can
inspect that with `ls`. For your new empty project, it should show you
three entries, among other things:
- - a symlink called `HEAD`, pointing to `refs/heads/master`
+ - a symlink called `HEAD`, pointing to `refs/heads/master` (if your
+ platform does not have native symlinks, it is a file containing the
+ line "ref: refs/heads/master")
Don't worry about the fact that the file that the `HEAD` link points to
doesn't even exist yet -- you haven't created the commit that will
@@ -228,6 +230,7 @@ which will spit out
diff --git a/hello b/hello
+index 557db03..263414f 100644
--- a/hello
+++ b/hello
@@ -1 +1,2 @@
@@ -290,13 +293,14 @@ also wants to get a commit message
on its standard input, and it will write out the resulting object name for the
commit to its standard output.
-And this is where we start using the `.git/HEAD` file. The `HEAD` file is
+And this is where we create the `.git/refs/heads/master` file. This file is
supposed to contain the reference to the top-of-tree, and since that's
exactly what `git-commit-tree` spits out, we can do this all with a simple
shell pipeline:
-echo "Initial commit" | git-commit-tree $(git-write-tree) > .git/HEAD
+echo "Initial commit" | \
+ git-commit-tree $(git-write-tree) > .git/refs/heads/master
which will say:
@@ -692,7 +696,9 @@ other point in the history than the current `HEAD`, you can do so by
just telling `git checkout` what the base of the checkout would be.
In other words, if you have an earlier tag or branch, you'd just do
- git checkout -b mybranch earlier-commit
+git checkout -b mybranch earlier-commit
and it would create the new branch `mybranch` at the earlier commit,
and check out the state at that time.
@@ -700,17 +706,29 @@ and check out the state at that time.
You can always just jump back to your original `master` branch by doing
- git checkout master
+git checkout master
(or any other branch-name, for that matter) and if you forget which
branch you happen to be on, a simple
- ls -l .git/HEAD
+ls -l .git/HEAD
-will tell you where it's pointing. To get the list of branches
-you have, you can say
+will tell you where it's pointing (Note that on platforms with bad or no
+symlink support, you have to execute
- git branch
+cat .git/HEAD
+instead). To get the list of branches you have, you can say
+git branch
which is nothing more than a simple script around `ls .git/refs/heads`.
There will be asterisk in front of the branch you are currently on.
@@ -718,7 +736,9 @@ There will be asterisk in front of the branch you are currently on.
Sometimes you may wish to create a new branch _without_ actually
checking it out and switching to it. If so, just use the command
- git branch <branchname> [startingpoint]
+git branch <branchname> [startingpoint]
which will simply _create_ the branch, but will not do anything further.
You can then later -- once you decide that you want to actually develop
@@ -844,7 +864,6 @@ $ git show-branch master mybranch
! [mybranch] Some work.
+ [master] Merged "mybranch" changes.
-+ [master~1] Some fun.
++ [mybranch] Some work.
@@ -871,8 +890,10 @@ Now, let's pretend you are the one who did all the work in
to the `master` branch. Let's go back to `mybranch`, and run
resolve to get the "upstream changes" back to your branch.
- git checkout mybranch
- git resolve HEAD master "Merge upstream changes."
+git checkout mybranch
+git resolve HEAD master "Merge upstream changes."
This outputs something like this (the actual commit object names
would be different)
@@ -1088,13 +1109,17 @@ i.e. `<project>.git`. Let's create such a public repository for
project `my-git`. After logging into the remote machine, create
an empty directory:
- mkdir my-git.git
+mkdir my-git.git
Then, make that directory into a GIT repository by running
`git init-db`, but this time, since its name is not the usual
`.git`, we do things slightly differently:
- GIT_DIR=my-git.git git-init-db
+GIT_DIR=my-git.git git-init-db
Make sure this directory is available for others you want your
changes to be pulled by via the transport of your choice. Also
@@ -1118,7 +1143,9 @@ Your "public repository" is now ready to accept your changes.
Come back to the machine you have your private repository. From
there, run this command:
- git push <public-host>:/path/to/my-git.git master
+git push <public-host>:/path/to/my-git.git master
This synchronizes your public repository to match the named
branch head (i.e. `master` in this case) and objects reachable
@@ -1128,7 +1155,9 @@ As a real example, this is how I update my public git
repository. mirror network takes care of the
propagation to other publicly visible machines:
- git push
+git push
Packing your repository
@@ -1141,7 +1170,9 @@ not so convenient to transport over the network. Since git objects are
immutable once they are created, there is a way to optimize the
storage by "packing them together". The command
- git repack
+git repack
will do it for you. If you followed the tutorial examples, you
would have accumulated about 17 objects in `.git/objects/??/`
@@ -1165,7 +1196,9 @@ Our programs are always perfect ;-).
Once you have packed objects, you do not need to leave the
unpacked objects that are contained in the pack file anymore.
- git prune-packed
+git prune-packed
would remove them for you.