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authorShawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>2013-08-21 13:45:13 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>2013-08-21 18:37:53 (GMT)
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Document the HTTP transport protocols
Signed-off-by: Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org> Revised-by: Tay Ray Chuan <rctay89@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Nguyễn Thái Ngọc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
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+HTTP transfer protocols
+=======================
+
+Git supports two HTTP based transfer protocols. A "dumb" protocol
+which requires only a standard HTTP server on the server end of the
+connection, and a "smart" protocol which requires a Git aware CGI
+(or server module). This document describes both protocols.
+
+As a design feature smart clients can automatically upgrade "dumb"
+protocol URLs to smart URLs. This permits all users to have the
+same published URL, and the peers automatically select the most
+efficient transport available to them.
+
+
+URL Format
+----------
+
+URLs for Git repositories accessed by HTTP use the standard HTTP
+URL syntax documented by RFC 1738, so they are of the form:
+
+ http://<host>:<port>/<path>?<searchpart>
+
+Within this documentation the placeholder $GIT_URL will stand for
+the http:// repository URL entered by the end-user.
+
+Servers SHOULD handle all requests to locations matching $GIT_URL, as
+both the "smart" and "dumb" HTTP protocols used by Git operate
+by appending additional path components onto the end of the user
+supplied $GIT_URL string.
+
+An example of a dumb client requesting for a loose object:
+
+ $GIT_URL: http://example.com:8080/git/repo.git
+ URL request: http://example.com:8080/git/repo.git/objects/d0/49f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355
+
+An example of a smart request to a catch-all gateway:
+
+ $GIT_URL: http://example.com/daemon.cgi?svc=git&q=
+ URL request: http://example.com/daemon.cgi?svc=git&q=/info/refs&service=git-receive-pack
+
+An example of a request to a submodule:
+
+ $GIT_URL: http://example.com/git/repo.git/path/submodule.git
+ URL request: http://example.com/git/repo.git/path/submodule.git/info/refs
+
+Clients MUST strip a trailing '/', if present, from the user supplied
+$GIT_URL string to prevent empty path tokens ('//') from appearing
+in any URL sent to a server. Compatible clients MUST expand
+'$GIT_URL/info/refs' as 'foo/info/refs' and not 'foo//info/refs'.
+
+
+Authentication
+--------------
+
+Standard HTTP authentication is used if authentication is required
+to access a repository, and MAY be configured and enforced by the
+HTTP server software.
+
+Because Git repositories are accessed by standard path components
+server administrators MAY use directory based permissions within
+their HTTP server to control repository access.
+
+Clients SHOULD support Basic authentication as described by RFC 2616.
+Servers SHOULD support Basic authentication by relying upon the
+HTTP server placed in front of the Git server software.
+
+Servers SHOULD NOT require HTTP cookies for the purposes of
+authentication or access control.
+
+Clients and servers MAY support other common forms of HTTP based
+authentication, such as Digest authentication.
+
+
+SSL
+---
+
+Clients and servers SHOULD support SSL, particularly to protect
+passwords when relying on Basic HTTP authentication.
+
+
+Session State
+-------------
+
+The Git over HTTP protocol (much like HTTP itself) is stateless
+from the perspective of the HTTP server side. All state MUST be
+retained and managed by the client process. This permits simple
+round-robin load-balancing on the server side, without needing to
+worry about state management.
+
+Clients MUST NOT require state management on the server side in
+order to function correctly.
+
+Servers MUST NOT require HTTP cookies in order to function correctly.
+Clients MAY store and forward HTTP cookies during request processing
+as described by RFC 2616 (HTTP/1.1). Servers SHOULD ignore any
+cookies sent by a client.
+
+
+General Request Processing
+--------------------------
+
+Except where noted, all standard HTTP behavior SHOULD be assumed
+by both client and server. This includes (but is not necessarily
+limited to):
+
+If there is no repository at $GIT_URL, or the resource pointed to by a
+location matching $GIT_URL does not exist, the server MUST NOT respond
+with '200 OK' response. A server SHOULD respond with
+'404 Not Found', '410 Gone', or any other suitable HTTP status code
+which does not imply the resource exists as requested.
+
+If there is a repository at $GIT_URL, but access is not currently
+permitted, the server MUST respond with the '403 Forbidden' HTTP
+status code.
+
+Servers SHOULD support both HTTP 1.0 and HTTP 1.1.
+Servers SHOULD support chunked encoding for both request and response
+bodies.
+
+Clients SHOULD support both HTTP 1.0 and HTTP 1.1.
+Clients SHOULD support chunked encoding for both request and response
+bodies.
+
+Servers MAY return ETag and/or Last-Modified headers.
+
+Clients MAY revalidate cached entities by including If-Modified-Since
+and/or If-None-Match request headers.
+
+Servers MAY return '304 Not Modified' if the relevant headers appear
+in the request and the entity has not changed. Clients MUST treat
+'304 Not Modified' identical to '200 OK' by reusing the cached entity.
+
+Clients MAY reuse a cached entity without revalidation if the
+Cache-Control and/or Expires header permits caching. Clients and
+servers MUST follow RFC 2616 for cache controls.
+
+
+Discovering References
+----------------------
+
+All HTTP clients MUST begin either a fetch or a push exchange by
+discovering the references available on the remote repository.
+
+Dumb Clients
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+HTTP clients that only support the "dumb" protocol MUST discover
+references by making a request for the special info/refs file of
+the repository.
+
+Dumb HTTP clients MUST make a GET request to $GIT_URL/info/refs,
+without any search/query parameters.
+
+ C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs HTTP/1.0
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S:
+ S: 95dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint
+ S: d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master
+ S: 2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0
+ S: a3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}
+
+The Content-Type of the returned info/refs entity SHOULD be
+"text/plain; charset=utf-8", but MAY be any content type.
+Clients MUST NOT attempt to validate the returned Content-Type.
+Dumb servers MUST NOT return a return type starting with
+"application/x-git-".
+
+Cache-Control headers MAY be returned to disable caching of the
+returned entity.
+
+When examining the response clients SHOULD only examine the HTTP
+status code. Valid responses are '200 OK', or '304 Not Modified'.
+
+The returned content is a UNIX formatted text file describing
+each ref and its known value. The file SHOULD be sorted by name
+according to the C locale ordering. The file SHOULD NOT include
+the default ref named 'HEAD'.
+
+ info_refs = *( ref_record )
+ ref_record = any_ref / peeled_ref
+
+ any_ref = obj-id HTAB refname LF
+ peeled_ref = obj-id HTAB refname LF
+ obj-id HTAB refname "^{}" LF
+
+Smart Clients
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+HTTP clients that support the "smart" protocol (or both the
+"smart" and "dumb" protocols) MUST discover references by making
+a parameterized request for the info/refs file of the repository.
+
+The request MUST contain exactly one query parameter,
+'service=$servicename', where $servicename MUST be the service
+name the client wishes to contact to complete the operation.
+The request MUST NOT contain additional query parameters.
+
+ C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+
+ dumb server reply:
+ S: 200 OK
+ S:
+ S: 95dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint
+ S: d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master
+ S: 2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0
+ S: a3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}
+
+ smart server reply:
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: Content-Type: application/x-git-upload-pack-advertisement
+ S: Cache-Control: no-cache
+ S:
+ S: 001e# service=git-upload-pack\n
+ S: 004895dcfa3633004da0049d3d0fa03f80589cbcaf31 refs/heads/maint\0multi_ack\n
+ S: 0042d049f6c27a2244e12041955e262a404c7faba355 refs/heads/master\n
+ S: 003c2cb58b79488a98d2721cea644875a8dd0026b115 refs/tags/v1.0\n
+ S: 003fa3c2e2402b99163d1d59756e5f207ae21cccba4c refs/tags/v1.0^{}\n
+
+Dumb Server Response
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Dumb servers MUST respond with the dumb server reply format.
+
+See the prior section under dumb clients for a more detailed
+description of the dumb server response.
+
+Smart Server Response
+^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
+If the server does not recognize the requested service name, or the
+requested service name has been disabled by the server administrator,
+the server MUST respond with the '403 Forbidden' HTTP status code.
+
+Otherwise, smart servers MUST respond with the smart server reply
+format for the requested service name.
+
+Cache-Control headers SHOULD be used to disable caching of the
+returned entity.
+
+The Content-Type MUST be 'application/x-$servicename-advertisement'.
+Clients SHOULD fall back to the dumb protocol if another content
+type is returned. When falling back to the dumb protocol clients
+SHOULD NOT make an additional request to $GIT_URL/info/refs, but
+instead SHOULD use the response already in hand. Clients MUST NOT
+continue if they do not support the dumb protocol.
+
+Clients MUST validate the status code is either '200 OK' or
+'304 Not Modified'.
+
+Clients MUST validate the first five bytes of the response entity
+matches the regex "^[0-9a-f]{4}#". If this test fails, clients
+MUST NOT continue.
+
+Clients MUST parse the entire response as a sequence of pkt-line
+records.
+
+Clients MUST verify the first pkt-line is "# service=$servicename".
+Servers MUST set $servicename to be the request parameter value.
+Servers SHOULD include an LF at the end of this line.
+Clients MUST ignore an LF at the end of the line.
+
+Servers MUST terminate the response with the magic "0000" end
+pkt-line marker.
+
+The returned response is a pkt-line stream describing each ref and
+its known value. The stream SHOULD be sorted by name according to
+the C locale ordering. The stream SHOULD include the default ref
+named 'HEAD' as the first ref. The stream MUST include capability
+declarations behind a NUL on the first ref.
+
+ smart_reply = PKT-LINE("# service=$servicename" LF)
+ ref_list
+ "0000"
+ ref_list = empty_list / non_empty_list
+
+ empty_list = PKT-LINE(zero-id SP "capabilities^{}" NUL cap-list LF)
+
+ non_empty_list = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name NUL cap_list LF)
+ *ref_record
+
+ cap-list = capability *(SP capability)
+ capability = 1*(LC_ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "_")
+ LC_ALPHA = %x61-7A
+
+ ref_record = any_ref / peeled_ref
+ any_ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name LF)
+ peeled_ref = PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name LF)
+ PKT-LINE(obj-id SP name "^{}" LF
+
+Smart Service git-upload-pack
+------------------------------
+This service reads from the repository pointed to by $GIT_URL.
+
+Clients MUST first perform ref discovery with
+'$GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack'.
+
+ C: POST $GIT_URL/git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+ C: Content-Type: application/x-git-upload-pack-request
+ C:
+ C: 0032want 0a53e9ddeaddad63ad106860237bbf53411d11a7\n
+ C: 0032have 441b40d833fdfa93eb2908e52742248faf0ee993\n
+ C: 0000
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: Content-Type: application/x-git-upload-pack-result
+ S: Cache-Control: no-cache
+ S:
+ S: ....ACK %s, continue
+ S: ....NAK
+
+Clients MUST NOT reuse or revalidate a cached reponse.
+Servers MUST include sufficient Cache-Control headers
+to prevent caching of the response.
+
+Servers SHOULD support all capabilities defined here.
+
+Clients MUST send at least one 'want' command in the request body.
+Clients MUST NOT reference an id in a 'want' command which did not
+appear in the response obtained through ref discovery unless the
+server advertises capability "allow-tip-sha1-in-want".
+
+ compute_request = want_list
+ have_list
+ request_end
+ request_end = "0000" / "done"
+
+ want_list = PKT-LINE(want NUL cap_list LF)
+ *(want_pkt)
+ want_pkt = PKT-LINE(want LF)
+ want = "want" SP id
+ cap_list = *(SP capability) SP
+
+ have_list = *PKT-LINE("have" SP id LF)
+
+TODO: Document this further.
+TODO: Don't use uppercase for variable names below.
+
+The Negotiation Algorithm
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The computation to select the minimal pack proceeds as follows
+(c = client, s = server):
+
+ init step:
+ (c) Use ref discovery to obtain the advertised refs.
+ (c) Place any object seen into set ADVERTISED.
+
+ (c) Build an empty set, COMMON, to hold the objects that are later
+ determined to be on both ends.
+ (c) Build a set, WANT, of the objects from ADVERTISED the client
+ wants to fetch, based on what it saw during ref discovery.
+
+ (c) Start a queue, C_PENDING, ordered by commit time (popping newest
+ first). Add all client refs. When a commit is popped from
+ the queue its parents SHOULD be automatically inserted back.
+ Commits MUST only enter the queue once.
+
+ one compute step:
+ (c) Send one $GIT_URL/git-upload-pack request:
+
+ C: 0032want <WANT #1>...............................
+ C: 0032want <WANT #2>...............................
+ ....
+ C: 0032have <COMMON #1>.............................
+ C: 0032have <COMMON #2>.............................
+ ....
+ C: 0032have <HAVE #1>...............................
+ C: 0032have <HAVE #2>...............................
+ ....
+ C: 0000
+
+ The stream is organized into "commands", with each command
+ appearing by itself in a pkt-line. Within a command line
+ the text leading up to the first space is the command name,
+ and the remainder of the line to the first LF is the value.
+ Command lines are terminated with an LF as the last byte of
+ the pkt-line value.
+
+ Commands MUST appear in the following order, if they appear
+ at all in the request stream:
+
+ * want
+ * have
+
+ The stream is terminated by a pkt-line flush ("0000").
+
+ A single "want" or "have" command MUST have one hex formatted
+ SHA-1 as its value. Multiple SHA-1s MUST be sent by sending
+ multiple commands.
+
+ The HAVE list is created by popping the first 32 commits
+ from C_PENDING. Less can be supplied if C_PENDING empties.
+
+ If the client has sent 256 HAVE commits and has not yet
+ received one of those back from S_COMMON, or the client has
+ emptied C_PENDING it SHOULD include a "done" command to let
+ the server know it won't proceed:
+
+ C: 0009done
+
+ (s) Parse the git-upload-pack request:
+
+ Verify all objects in WANT are directly reachable from refs.
+
+ The server MAY walk backwards through history or through
+ the reflog to permit slightly stale requests.
+
+ If no WANT objects are received, send an error:
+
+TODO: Define error if no want lines are requested.
+
+ If any WANT object is not reachable, send an error:
+
+TODO: Define error if an invalid want is requested.
+
+ Create an empty list, S_COMMON.
+
+ If 'have' was sent:
+
+ Loop through the objects in the order supplied by the client.
+ For each object, if the server has the object reachable from
+ a ref, add it to S_COMMON. If a commit is added to S_COMMON,
+ do not add any ancestors, even if they also appear in HAVE.
+
+ (s) Send the git-upload-pack response:
+
+ If the server has found a closed set of objects to pack or the
+ request ends with "done", it replies with the pack.
+
+TODO: Document the pack based response
+ S: PACK...
+
+ The returned stream is the side-band-64k protocol supported
+ by the git-upload-pack service, and the pack is embedded into
+ stream 1. Progress messages from the server side MAY appear
+ in stream 2.
+
+ Here a "closed set of objects" is defined to have at least
+ one path from every WANT to at least one COMMON object.
+
+ If the server needs more information, it replies with a
+ status continue response:
+
+TODO: Document the non-pack response
+
+ (c) Parse the upload-pack response:
+
+TODO: Document parsing response
+
+ Do another compute step.
+
+
+Smart Service git-receive-pack
+------------------------------
+This service reads from the repository pointed to by $GIT_URL.
+
+Clients MUST first perform ref discovery with
+'$GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-receive-pack'.
+
+ C: POST $GIT_URL/git-receive-pack HTTP/1.0
+ C: Content-Type: application/x-git-receive-pack-request
+ C:
+ C: ....0a53e9ddeaddad63ad106860237bbf53411d11a7 441b40d833fdfa93eb2908e52742248faf0ee993 refs/heads/maint\0 report-status
+ C: 0000
+ C: PACK....
+
+ S: 200 OK
+ S: Content-Type: application/x-git-receive-pack-result
+ S: Cache-Control: no-cache
+ S:
+ S: ....
+
+Clients MUST NOT reuse or revalidate a cached reponse.
+Servers MUST include sufficient Cache-Control headers
+to prevent caching of the response.
+
+Servers SHOULD support all capabilities defined here.
+
+Clients MUST send at least one command in the request body.
+Within the command portion of the request body clients SHOULD send
+the id obtained through ref discovery as old_id.
+
+ update_request = command_list
+ "PACK" <binary data>
+
+ command_list = PKT-LINE(command NUL cap_list LF)
+ *(command_pkt)
+ command_pkt = PKT-LINE(command LF)
+ cap_list = *(SP capability) SP
+
+ command = create / delete / update
+ create = zero-id SP new_id SP name
+ delete = old_id SP zero-id SP name
+ update = old_id SP new_id SP name
+
+TODO: Document this further.
+
+
+References
+----------
+
+link:http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt[RFC 1738: Uniform Resource Locators (URL)]
+link:http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2616.txt[RFC 2616: Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1]
+link:technical/pack-protocol.txt
+link:technical/protocol-capabilities.txt