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authorPhilip Oakley <philipoakley@iee.org>2014-10-10 21:25:35 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>2014-10-10 22:59:40 (GMT)
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doc: modernise everyday.txt wording and format in man page style
Refresh the contents of everyday.txt contents to a more modern command style. Also update the mark-up so that it can be formatted as a man page with AsciiDoc ready for transfer to the Git guides. The transfer is in subsequent commits. Guidance on modernising the command style provided by Junio at [1], [2] and [3]. [1] Individual Developer, both Standalone and Participant http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/254269 [2] Integrator http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/254502 [3] Administrator http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/254824 Helped-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com> Signed-off-by: Philip Oakley <philipoakley@iee.org> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
Diffstat (limited to 'Documentation/everyday.txt')
-rw-r--r--Documentation/everyday.txt260
1 files changed, 151 insertions, 109 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/everyday.txt b/Documentation/everyday.txt
index b2548ef..2780020 100644
--- a/Documentation/everyday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/everyday.txt
@@ -1,22 +1,37 @@
+giteveryday(7)
+===============
+
+NAME
+----
+giteveryday - A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+
Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
-===================================
-<<Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential for
-anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
-If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
-the <<Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
+Git users can broadly be grouped into four categories for the purposes of
+describing here a small set of useful command for everyday Git.
-People who play the <<Integrator>> role need to learn some more
-commands in addition to the above.
+* <<STANDALONE,Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential
+ for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.
-<<Repository Administration>> commands are for system
-administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
-of Git repositories.
+* If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
+ the <<PARTICIPANT,Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
+* People who play the <<INTEGRATOR,Integrator>> role need to learn some
+ more commands in addition to the above.
-Individual Developer (Standalone)[[Individual Developer (Standalone)]]
-----------------------------------------------------------------------
+* <<ADMINISTRATION,Repository Administration>> commands are for system
+ administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
+ of Git repositories.
+
+
+Individual Developer (Standalone)[[STANDALONE]]
+-----------------------------------------------
A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
other people, and works alone in a single repository, using the
@@ -24,8 +39,6 @@ following commands.
* linkgit:git-init[1] to create a new repository.
- * linkgit:git-show-branch[1] to see where you are.
-
* linkgit:git-log[1] to see what happened.
* linkgit:git-checkout[1] and linkgit:git-branch[1] to switch
@@ -45,7 +58,7 @@ following commands.
* linkgit:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
- * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark known point.
+ * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark a known point.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -75,14 +88,12 @@ $ edit/compile/test
$ git diff HEAD <4>
$ git commit -a -s <5>
$ edit/compile/test
-$ git reset --soft HEAD^ <6>
-$ edit/compile/test
-$ git diff ORIG_HEAD <7>
-$ git commit -a -c ORIG_HEAD <8>
-$ git checkout master <9>
-$ git merge alsa-audio <10>
-$ git log --since='3 days ago' <11>
-$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
+$ git diff HEAD^ <6>
+$ git commit -a --amend <7>
+$ git checkout master <8>
+$ git merge alsa-audio <9>
+$ git log --since='3 days ago' <10>
+$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <11>
------------
+
<1> create a new topic branch.
@@ -90,22 +101,21 @@ $ git log v2.43.. curses/ <12>
<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
<4> to see what changes you are committing.
-<5> commit everything as you have tested, with your sign-off.
-<6> take the last commit back, keeping what is in the working tree.
-<7> look at the changes since the premature commit we took back.
-<8> redo the commit undone in the previous step, using the message
-you originally wrote.
-<9> switch to the master branch.
-<10> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
-<11> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
-combined and include `--max-count=10` (show 10 commits),
+<5> commit everything, as you have tested, with your sign-off.
+<6> look at all your changes including the previous commit.
+<7> amend the previous commit, adding all your new changes,
+using your original message.
+<8> switch to the master branch.
+<9> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
+<10> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
+combined and include `-10` (to show up to 10 commits),
`--until=2005-12-10`, etc.
-<12> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
+<11> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
directory, since `v2.43` tag.
-Individual Developer (Participant)[[Individual Developer (Participant)]]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------
+Individual Developer (Participant)[[PARTICIPANT]]
+-------------------------------------------------
A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
@@ -123,6 +133,13 @@ addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
* linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
+ * linkgit:git-send-email[1] to send your e-mail submission without
+ corruption by your MUA.
+
+ * linkgit:git-request-pull[1] to create a summary of changes
+ for your upstream to pull.
+
+
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -131,28 +148,34 @@ Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.::
------------
$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
$ cd my2.6
-$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <1>
-$ git format-patch origin <2>
-$ git pull <3>
-$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <4>
-$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <5>
-$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <6>
-$ git gc <7>
-$ git fetch --tags <8>
+$ git checkout -b mine master <1>
+$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <2>
+$ git format-patch master <3>
+$ git send-email --to="person <email@example.com>" 00*.patch <4>
+$ git checkout master <5>
+$ git pull <6>
+$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <7>
+$ git ls-remote --heads http://git.kernel.org/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git <8>
+$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <9>
+$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <10>
+$ git gc <11>
------------
+
-<1> repeat as needed.
-<2> extract patches from your branch for e-mail submission.
-<3> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
+<1> checkout a new branch `mine` from master.
+<2> repeat as needed.
+<3> extract patches from your branch, relative to master,
+<4> and email them.
+<5> return to `master`, ready to see what's new
+<6> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
current branch.
-<4> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
+<7> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
since last time we checked, only in the
area we are interested in.
-<5> fetch from a specific branch from a specific repository and merge.
-<6> revert the pull.
-<7> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
-<8> from time to time, obtain official tags from the `origin`
-and store them under `.git/refs/tags/`.
+<8> check the branch names in an external repository (if not known).
+<9> fetch from a specific branch `ALL` from a specific repository
+and merge it.
+<10> revert the pull.
+<11> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
Push into another repository.::
@@ -166,7 +189,7 @@ remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
branch.master.remote origin
branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
- master:refs/remotes/satellite/master <3>
+ +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/satellite/* <3>
satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
satellite$ git push origin <4>
@@ -181,11 +204,12 @@ machine.
<2> clone sets these configuration variables by default.
It arranges `git pull` to fetch and store the branches of mothership
machine to local `remotes/origin/*` remote-tracking branches.
-<3> arrange `git push` to push local `master` branch to
-`remotes/satellite/master` branch of the mothership machine.
-<4> push will stash our work away on `remotes/satellite/master`
-remote-tracking branch on the mothership machine. You could use this
-as a back-up method.
+<3> arrange `git push` to push all local branches to
+their corresponding branch of the mothership machine.
+<4> push will stash all our work away on `remotes/satellite/*`
+remote-tracking branches on the mothership machine. You could use this
+as a back-up method. Likewise, you can pretend that mothership
+"fetched" from you (useful when access is one sided).
<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
machine into the master branch.
@@ -195,17 +219,22 @@ Branch off of a specific tag.::
$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
$ git checkout master
-$ git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
- git am -3 -k <2>
+$ git cherry-pick v2.6.14..private2.6.14 <2>
------------
+
<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
tag.
<2> forward port all changes in `private2.6.14` branch to `master` branch
-without a formal "merging".
+without a formal "merging". Or longhand +
+`git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
+ git am -3 -k`
+An alternate participant submission mechanism is using the
+`git request-pull` or pull-request mechanisms (e.g as used on
+GitHub (www.github.com) to notify your upstream of your
+contribution.
-Integrator[[Integrator]]
+Integrator[[INTEGRATOR]]
------------------------
A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
@@ -213,6 +242,13 @@ project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
+This section can also be used by those who respond to `git
+request-pull` or pull-request on GitHub (www.github.com) to
+integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
+lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and
+as an integrator.
+
+
* linkgit:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
contributors.
@@ -229,19 +265,19 @@ commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
-My typical Git day.::
+A typical integrator's Git day.::
+
------------
$ git status <1>
-$ git show-branch <2>
+$ git branch --no-merged master <2>
$ mailx <3>
& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
& q
$ git checkout -b topic/one master
-$ git am -3 -i -s -u ./+to-apply <4>
+$ git am -3 -i -s ./+to-apply <4>
$ compile/test
-$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s -u ./+hold-linus <5>
+$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s ./+hold-linus <5>
$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next <7>
$ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus <8>
@@ -249,51 +285,51 @@ $ git checkout maint
$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
$ compile/test
$ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x <10>
-$ git fetch ko && git show-branch master maint 'tags/ko-*' <11>
-$ git push ko <12>
-$ git push ko v0.99.9x <13>
+$ git fetch ko && for branch in master maint next pu <11>
+ do
+ git show-branch ko/$branch $branch <12>
+ done
+$ git push --follow-tags ko <13>
------------
+
-<1> see what I was in the middle of doing, if any.
-<2> see what topic branches I have and think about how ready
-they are.
+<1> see what you were in the middle of doing, if anything.
+<2> see which branches haven't been merged into `master` yet.
+Likewise for any other integration branches e.g. `maint`, `next`
+and `pu` (potential updates).
<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
-that are not quite ready.
-<4> apply them, interactively, with my sign-offs.
-<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with my
-sign-offs.
+that are not quite ready (other mail readers are available).
+<4> apply them, interactively, with your sign-offs.
+<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with sign-offs.
<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
master or exposed as a part of a stable branch.
<7> restart `pu` every time from the next.
<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
<9> backport a critical fix.
<10> create a signed tag.
-<11> make sure I did not accidentally rewind master beyond what I
-already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the repository I have
-at kernel.org, and looks like this:
+<11> make sure master was not accidentally rewound beyond that
+already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the Git maintainer's
+repository at kernel.org, and looks like this:
+
------------
-$ cat .git/remotes/ko
-URL: kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
-Pull: master:refs/tags/ko-master
-Pull: next:refs/tags/ko-next
-Pull: maint:refs/tags/ko-maint
-Push: master
-Push: next
-Push: +pu
-Push: maint
+(in .git/config)
+[remote "ko"]
+ url = kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
+ fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/ko/*
+ push = refs/heads/master
+ push = refs/heads/next
+ push = +refs/heads/pu
+ push = refs/heads/maint
------------
+
-In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
-everything `ko-master` has, and `next` should have
-everything `ko-next` has.
-
-<12> push out the bleeding edge.
-<13> push the tag out, too.
+<12> In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
+everything `ko/master` has, and `next` should have
+everything `ko/next` has, etc.
+<13> push out the bleeding edge, together with new tags that point
+into the pushed history.
-Repository Administration[[Repository Administration]]
-------------------------------------------------------
+Repository Administration[[ADMINISTRATION]]
+-------------------------------------------
A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
and maintain access to the repository by developers.
@@ -304,9 +340,19 @@ and maintain access to the repository by developers.
* linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
for shared central repository users.
+ * linkgit:git-http-backend[1] provides a server side implementation
+ of Git-over-HTTP ("Smart http") allowing both fetch and push services.
+
+ * linkgit:gitweb[1] provides a web front-end to Git repositories,
+ which can be set-up using the linkgit:git-instaweb[1] script.
+
link:howto/update-hook-example.html[update hook howto] has a good
example of managing a shared central repository.
+In addition there are a number of other widely deployed hosting, browsing
+and reviewing solutions such as:
+
+ * gitolite, gerrit code review, cgit and others.
Examples
~~~~~~~~
@@ -350,7 +396,10 @@ service git
Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system.
Others might be different.
-Give push/pull only access to developers.::
+Give push/pull only access to developers using git-over-ssh.::
+
+e.g. those using:
+`$ git push/pull ssh://host.xz/pub/scm/project`
+
------------
$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
@@ -363,8 +412,8 @@ $ grep git /etc/shells <2>
------------
+
<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
-allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users should
-get an ssh access to the machine.
+allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users require
+ssh access to the machine.
<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
as the login shell.
@@ -401,13 +450,6 @@ for branch policy control.
david is the release manager and is the only person who can
create and push version tags.
-HTTP server to support dumb protocol transfer.::
-+
-------------
-dev$ git update-server-info <1>
-dev$ ftp user@isp.example.com <2>
-ftp> cp -r .git /home/user/myproject.git
-------------
-+
-<1> make sure your info/refs and objects/info/packs are up-to-date
-<2> upload to public HTTP server hosted by your ISP.
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite