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authorPhilip Oakley <philipoakley@iee.org>2014-10-10 21:25:37 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>2014-10-10 23:02:26 (GMT)
commit673151a9bb56ec97fab66746e3aecef78fddb9b8 (patch)
tree0f933ad11826289b106c89c14d9b38f1e8245ec6 /Documentation/everyday.txt
parent5a568ea05094da4507170ff91fc528a0113dc8be (diff)
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doc: add 'everyday' to 'git help'
The "Everyday GIT With 20 Commands Or So" is not accessible via the Git help system. Move everyday.txt to giteveryday.txt so that "git help everyday" works, and create a new placeholder file everyday.html to refer people who follow existing URLs to the updated location. giteveryday.txt now formats well with AsciiDoc as a man page and refreshed content to a more command modern style. Add 'everyday' to the help --guides list and update git(1) and 5 other links to giteveryday. Signed-off-by: Philip Oakley <philipoakley@iee.org> Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
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-giteveryday(7)
-===============
-
-NAME
-----
-giteveryday - A useful minimum set of commands for Everyday Git
-
-SYNOPSIS
---------
-
-Everyday Git With 20 Commands Or So
-
-DESCRIPTION
------------
-
-Git users can broadly be grouped into four categories for the purposes of
-describing here a small set of useful command for everyday Git.
-
-* <<STANDALONE,Individual Developer (Standalone)>> commands are essential
- for anybody who makes a commit, even for somebody who works alone.
-
-* If you work with other people, you will need commands listed in
- the <<PARTICIPANT,Individual Developer (Participant)>> section as well.
-
-* People who play the <<INTEGRATOR,Integrator>> role need to learn some
- more commands in addition to the above.
-
-* <<ADMINISTRATION,Repository Administration>> commands are for system
- administrators who are responsible for the care and feeding
- of Git repositories.
-
-
-Individual Developer (Standalone)[[STANDALONE]]
------------------------------------------------
-
-A standalone individual developer does not exchange patches with
-other people, and works alone in a single repository, using the
-following commands.
-
- * linkgit:git-init[1] to create a new repository.
-
- * linkgit:git-log[1] to see what happened.
-
- * linkgit:git-checkout[1] and linkgit:git-branch[1] to switch
- branches.
-
- * linkgit:git-add[1] to manage the index file.
-
- * linkgit:git-diff[1] and linkgit:git-status[1] to see what
- you are in the middle of doing.
-
- * linkgit:git-commit[1] to advance the current branch.
-
- * linkgit:git-reset[1] and linkgit:git-checkout[1] (with
- pathname parameters) to undo changes.
-
- * linkgit:git-merge[1] to merge between local branches.
-
- * linkgit:git-rebase[1] to maintain topic branches.
-
- * linkgit:git-tag[1] to mark a known point.
-
-Examples
-~~~~~~~~
-
-Use a tarball as a starting point for a new repository.::
-+
-------------
-$ tar zxf frotz.tar.gz
-$ cd frotz
-$ git init
-$ git add . <1>
-$ git commit -m "import of frotz source tree."
-$ git tag v2.43 <2>
-------------
-+
-<1> add everything under the current directory.
-<2> make a lightweight, unannotated tag.
-
-Create a topic branch and develop.::
-+
-------------
-$ git checkout -b alsa-audio <1>
-$ edit/compile/test
-$ git checkout -- curses/ux_audio_oss.c <2>
-$ git add curses/ux_audio_alsa.c <3>
-$ edit/compile/test
-$ git diff HEAD <4>
-$ git commit -a -s <5>
-$ edit/compile/test
-$ git diff HEAD^ <6>
-$ git commit -a --amend <7>
-$ git checkout master <8>
-$ git merge alsa-audio <9>
-$ git log --since='3 days ago' <10>
-$ git log v2.43.. curses/ <11>
-------------
-+
-<1> create a new topic branch.
-<2> revert your botched changes in `curses/ux_audio_oss.c`.
-<3> you need to tell Git if you added a new file; removal and
-modification will be caught if you do `git commit -a` later.
-<4> to see what changes you are committing.
-<5> commit everything, as you have tested, with your sign-off.
-<6> look at all your changes including the previous commit.
-<7> amend the previous commit, adding all your new changes,
-using your original message.
-<8> switch to the master branch.
-<9> merge a topic branch into your master branch.
-<10> review commit logs; other forms to limit output can be
-combined and include `-10` (to show up to 10 commits),
-`--until=2005-12-10`, etc.
-<11> view only the changes that touch what's in `curses/`
-directory, since `v2.43` tag.
-
-
-Individual Developer (Participant)[[PARTICIPANT]]
--------------------------------------------------
-
-A developer working as a participant in a group project needs to
-learn how to communicate with others, and uses these commands in
-addition to the ones needed by a standalone developer.
-
- * linkgit:git-clone[1] from the upstream to prime your local
- repository.
-
- * linkgit:git-pull[1] and linkgit:git-fetch[1] from "origin"
- to keep up-to-date with the upstream.
-
- * linkgit:git-push[1] to shared repository, if you adopt CVS
- style shared repository workflow.
-
- * linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare e-mail submission, if
- you adopt Linux kernel-style public forum workflow.
-
- * linkgit:git-send-email[1] to send your e-mail submission without
- corruption by your MUA.
-
- * linkgit:git-request-pull[1] to create a summary of changes
- for your upstream to pull.
-
-
-Examples
-~~~~~~~~
-
-Clone the upstream and work on it. Feed changes to upstream.::
-+
-------------
-$ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6 my2.6
-$ cd my2.6
-$ git checkout -b mine master <1>
-$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a -s <2>
-$ git format-patch master <3>
-$ git send-email --to="person <email@example.com>" 00*.patch <4>
-$ git checkout master <5>
-$ git pull <6>
-$ git log -p ORIG_HEAD.. arch/i386 include/asm-i386 <7>
-$ git ls-remote --heads http://git.kernel.org/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git <8>
-$ git pull git://git.kernel.org/pub/.../jgarzik/libata-dev.git ALL <9>
-$ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD <10>
-$ git gc <11>
-------------
-+
-<1> checkout a new branch `mine` from master.
-<2> repeat as needed.
-<3> extract patches from your branch, relative to master,
-<4> and email them.
-<5> return to `master`, ready to see what's new
-<6> `git pull` fetches from `origin` by default and merges into the
-current branch.
-<7> immediately after pulling, look at the changes done upstream
-since last time we checked, only in the
-area we are interested in.
-<8> check the branch names in an external repository (if not known).
-<9> fetch from a specific branch `ALL` from a specific repository
-and merge it.
-<10> revert the pull.
-<11> garbage collect leftover objects from reverted pull.
-
-
-Push into another repository.::
-+
-------------
-satellite$ git clone mothership:frotz frotz <1>
-satellite$ cd frotz
-satellite$ git config --get-regexp '^(remote|branch)\.' <2>
-remote.origin.url mothership:frotz
-remote.origin.fetch refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*
-branch.master.remote origin
-branch.master.merge refs/heads/master
-satellite$ git config remote.origin.push \
- +refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/satellite/* <3>
-satellite$ edit/compile/test/commit
-satellite$ git push origin <4>
-
-mothership$ cd frotz
-mothership$ git checkout master
-mothership$ git merge satellite/master <5>
-------------
-+
-<1> mothership machine has a frotz repository under your home
-directory; clone from it to start a repository on the satellite
-machine.
-<2> clone sets these configuration variables by default.
-It arranges `git pull` to fetch and store the branches of mothership
-machine to local `remotes/origin/*` remote-tracking branches.
-<3> arrange `git push` to push all local branches to
-their corresponding branch of the mothership machine.
-<4> push will stash all our work away on `remotes/satellite/*`
-remote-tracking branches on the mothership machine. You could use this
-as a back-up method. Likewise, you can pretend that mothership
-"fetched" from you (useful when access is one sided).
-<5> on mothership machine, merge the work done on the satellite
-machine into the master branch.
-
-Branch off of a specific tag.::
-+
-------------
-$ git checkout -b private2.6.14 v2.6.14 <1>
-$ edit/compile/test; git commit -a
-$ git checkout master
-$ git cherry-pick v2.6.14..private2.6.14 <2>
-------------
-+
-<1> create a private branch based on a well known (but somewhat behind)
-tag.
-<2> forward port all changes in `private2.6.14` branch to `master` branch
-without a formal "merging". Or longhand +
-`git format-patch -k -m --stdout v2.6.14..private2.6.14 |
- git am -3 -k`
-
-An alternate participant submission mechanism is using the
-`git request-pull` or pull-request mechanisms (e.g as used on
-GitHub (www.github.com) to notify your upstream of your
-contribution.
-
-Integrator[[INTEGRATOR]]
-------------------------
-
-A fairly central person acting as the integrator in a group
-project receives changes made by others, reviews and integrates
-them and publishes the result for others to use, using these
-commands in addition to the ones needed by participants.
-
-This section can also be used by those who respond to `git
-request-pull` or pull-request on GitHub (www.github.com) to
-integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
-lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and
-as an integrator.
-
-
- * linkgit:git-am[1] to apply patches e-mailed in from your
- contributors.
-
- * linkgit:git-pull[1] to merge from your trusted lieutenants.
-
- * linkgit:git-format-patch[1] to prepare and send suggested
- alternative to contributors.
-
- * linkgit:git-revert[1] to undo botched commits.
-
- * linkgit:git-push[1] to publish the bleeding edge.
-
-
-Examples
-~~~~~~~~
-
-A typical integrator's Git day.::
-+
-------------
-$ git status <1>
-$ git branch --no-merged master <2>
-$ mailx <3>
-& s 2 3 4 5 ./+to-apply
-& s 7 8 ./+hold-linus
-& q
-$ git checkout -b topic/one master
-$ git am -3 -i -s ./+to-apply <4>
-$ compile/test
-$ git checkout -b hold/linus && git am -3 -i -s ./+hold-linus <5>
-$ git checkout topic/one && git rebase master <6>
-$ git checkout pu && git reset --hard next <7>
-$ git merge topic/one topic/two && git merge hold/linus <8>
-$ git checkout maint
-$ git cherry-pick master~4 <9>
-$ compile/test
-$ git tag -s -m "GIT 0.99.9x" v0.99.9x <10>
-$ git fetch ko && for branch in master maint next pu <11>
- do
- git show-branch ko/$branch $branch <12>
- done
-$ git push --follow-tags ko <13>
-------------
-+
-<1> see what you were in the middle of doing, if anything.
-<2> see which branches haven't been merged into `master` yet.
-Likewise for any other integration branches e.g. `maint`, `next`
-and `pu` (potential updates).
-<3> read mails, save ones that are applicable, and save others
-that are not quite ready (other mail readers are available).
-<4> apply them, interactively, with your sign-offs.
-<5> create topic branch as needed and apply, again with sign-offs.
-<6> rebase internal topic branch that has not been merged to the
-master or exposed as a part of a stable branch.
-<7> restart `pu` every time from the next.
-<8> and bundle topic branches still cooking.
-<9> backport a critical fix.
-<10> create a signed tag.
-<11> make sure master was not accidentally rewound beyond that
-already pushed out. `ko` shorthand points at the Git maintainer's
-repository at kernel.org, and looks like this:
-+
-------------
-(in .git/config)
-[remote "ko"]
- url = kernel.org:/pub/scm/git/git.git
- fetch = refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/ko/*
- push = refs/heads/master
- push = refs/heads/next
- push = +refs/heads/pu
- push = refs/heads/maint
-------------
-+
-<12> In the output from `git show-branch`, `master` should have
-everything `ko/master` has, and `next` should have
-everything `ko/next` has, etc.
-<13> push out the bleeding edge, together with new tags that point
-into the pushed history.
-
-
-Repository Administration[[ADMINISTRATION]]
--------------------------------------------
-
-A repository administrator uses the following tools to set up
-and maintain access to the repository by developers.
-
- * linkgit:git-daemon[1] to allow anonymous download from
- repository.
-
- * linkgit:git-shell[1] can be used as a 'restricted login shell'
- for shared central repository users.
-
- * linkgit:git-http-backend[1] provides a server side implementation
- of Git-over-HTTP ("Smart http") allowing both fetch and push services.
-
- * linkgit:gitweb[1] provides a web front-end to Git repositories,
- which can be set-up using the linkgit:git-instaweb[1] script.
-
-link:howto/update-hook-example.html[update hook howto] has a good
-example of managing a shared central repository.
-
-In addition there are a number of other widely deployed hosting, browsing
-and reviewing solutions such as:
-
- * gitolite, gerrit code review, cgit and others.
-
-Examples
-~~~~~~~~
-We assume the following in /etc/services::
-+
-------------
-$ grep 9418 /etc/services
-git 9418/tcp # Git Version Control System
-------------
-
-Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from inetd.::
-+
-------------
-$ grep git /etc/inetd.conf
-git stream tcp nowait nobody \
- /usr/bin/git-daemon git-daemon --inetd --export-all /pub/scm
-------------
-+
-The actual configuration line should be on one line.
-
-Run git-daemon to serve /pub/scm from xinetd.::
-+
-------------
-$ cat /etc/xinetd.d/git-daemon
-# default: off
-# description: The Git server offers access to Git repositories
-service git
-{
- disable = no
- type = UNLISTED
- port = 9418
- socket_type = stream
- wait = no
- user = nobody
- server = /usr/bin/git-daemon
- server_args = --inetd --export-all --base-path=/pub/scm
- log_on_failure += USERID
-}
-------------
-+
-Check your xinetd(8) documentation and setup, this is from a Fedora system.
-Others might be different.
-
-Give push/pull only access to developers using git-over-ssh.::
-
-e.g. those using:
-`$ git push/pull ssh://host.xz/pub/scm/project`
-+
-------------
-$ grep git /etc/passwd <1>
-alice:x:1000:1000::/home/alice:/usr/bin/git-shell
-bob:x:1001:1001::/home/bob:/usr/bin/git-shell
-cindy:x:1002:1002::/home/cindy:/usr/bin/git-shell
-david:x:1003:1003::/home/david:/usr/bin/git-shell
-$ grep git /etc/shells <2>
-/usr/bin/git-shell
-------------
-+
-<1> log-in shell is set to /usr/bin/git-shell, which does not
-allow anything but `git push` and `git pull`. The users require
-ssh access to the machine.
-<2> in many distributions /etc/shells needs to list what is used
-as the login shell.
-
-CVS-style shared repository.::
-+
-------------
-$ grep git /etc/group <1>
-git:x:9418:alice,bob,cindy,david
-$ cd /home/devo.git
-$ ls -l <2>
- lrwxrwxrwx 1 david git 17 Dec 4 22:40 HEAD -> refs/heads/master
- drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 branches
- -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 84 Dec 4 22:40 config
- -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 58 Dec 4 22:40 description
- drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 hooks
- -rw-rw-r-- 1 david git 37504 Dec 4 22:40 index
- drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 info
- drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 objects
- drwxrwsr-x 4 david git 4096 Nov 7 14:58 refs
- drwxrwsr-x 2 david git 4096 Dec 4 22:40 remotes
-$ ls -l hooks/update <3>
- -r-xr-xr-x 1 david git 3536 Dec 4 22:40 update
-$ cat info/allowed-users <4>
-refs/heads/master alice\|cindy
-refs/heads/doc-update bob
-refs/tags/v[0-9]* david
-------------
-+
-<1> place the developers into the same git group.
-<2> and make the shared repository writable by the group.
-<3> use update-hook example by Carl from Documentation/howto/
-for branch policy control.
-<4> alice and cindy can push into master, only bob can push into doc-update.
-david is the release manager and is the only person who can
-create and push version tags.
-
-GIT
----
-Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite