diff options
authorJunio C Hamano <>2005-07-24 22:47:26 (GMT)
committerJunio C Hamano <>2005-07-26 00:03:52 (GMT)
commit30b0535f251a42aa3936e44041a8d25e0e578ab9 (patch)
parentf87f94974869b1ddd579d4c6aaff12a5f86ca26e (diff)
Documentation: describe git-ls-files --exclude patterns.
Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <>
1 files changed, 92 insertions, 4 deletions
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
index be83ab1..7ac6c7d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-files.txt
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@ SYNOPSIS
[-x <pattern>|--exclude=<pattern>]
[-X <file>|--exclude-from=<file>]
+ [--exclude-per-directory=<file>]
@@ -59,10 +60,10 @@ OPTIONS
exclude patterns are read from <file>; 1 per line.
- Allows the use of the famous dontdiff file as follows to find
- out about uncommitted files just as dontdiff is used with
- the diff command:
- git-ls-files --others --exclude-from=dontdiff
+ read additional exclude patterns that apply only to the
+ directory and its subdirectories in <file>.
Identify the file status with the following tags (followed by
@@ -89,6 +90,93 @@ the dircache records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage
the user (or Cogito) to see what should eventually be recorded at the
path. (see read-cache for more information on state)
+Exclude Patterns
+'git-ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
+traversing the directory tree and finding files to show when the
+flags --others or --ignored are specified.
+These exclude patterns come from these places:
+ (1) command line flag --exclude=<pattern> specifies a single
+ pattern.
+ (2) command line flag --exclude-from=<file> specifies a list of
+ patterns stored in a file.
+ (3) command line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies
+ a name of the file in each directory 'git-ls-files'
+ examines, and if exists, its contents are used as an
+ additional list of patterns.
+An exclude pattern file used by (2) and (3) contains one pattern
+per line. A line that starts with a '#' can be used as comment
+for readability.
+The list of patterns that is in effect at a given time is
+built and ordered in the following way:
+ * --exclude=<pattern> and lines read from --exclude-from=<file>
+ come at the beginning of the list of patterns, in the order
+ given on the command line. Patterns that come from the file
+ specified with --exclude-from are ordered in the same order
+ as they appear in the file.
+ * When --exclude-per-directory=<name> is specified, upon
+ entering a directory that has such a file, its contents are
+ appended at the end of the current "list of patterns". They
+ are popped off when leaving the directory.
+Each pattern in the pattern list specifies "a match pattern" and
+optionally the fate --- either a file that matches the pattern
+is considered excluded or included. By default, this being
+"exclude" mechanism, the fate is "excluded". A filename is
+examined against the patterns in the list, and the first match
+determines its fate.
+A pattern specified on the command line with --exclude or read
+from the file specified with --exclude-from is relative to the
+top of the directory tree. A pattern read from a file specified
+by --exclude-per-directory is relative to the directory that the
+pattern file appears in.
+An exclude pattern is of the following format:
+ - an optional prefix '!' which means that the fate this pattern
+ specifies is "include", not the usual "exclude"; the
+ remainder of the pattern string is interpreted according to
+ the following rules.
+ - if it does not contain a slash '/', it is a shell glob
+ pattern and used to match against the filename without
+ leading directories (i.e. the same way as the current
+ implementation).
+ - otherwise, it is a shell glob pattern, suitable for
+ consumption by fnmatch(3) with FNM_PATHNAME flag. I.e. a
+ slash in the pattern must match a slash in the pathname.
+ "Documentation/*.html" matches "Documentation/git.html" but
+ not "ppc/ppc.html". As a natural exception, "/*.c" matches
+ "cat-file.c" but not "mozilla-sha1/sha1.c".
+An example:
+ $ cat .git/ignore
+ # ignore objects and archives, anywhere in the tree.
+ *.[oa]
+ $ cat Documentation/.gitignore
+ # ignore generated html files,
+ # except foo.html which is maintained by hand
+ !foo.html
+ *.html
+ $ git-ls-files --ignored \
+ --exclude='Documentation/*.[0-9]' \
+ --exclude-from=.git/ignore \
+ --exclude-per-directory=.gitignore
See Also